WorldWideScience

Sample records for chilean benthic nearshore

  1. Nearshore Benthic Habitats of Timor-Leste Derived from WorldView-2 Satellite Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat classes were derived for nearshore waters around Timor-Leste from WorldView-2 satellite imagery. Habitat classes include different combinations of...

  2. Nearshore marine benthic invertebrates moving north along the U.S. Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous species have shifted their ranges north in response to global warming. We examined 21 years (1990-2010) of marine benthic invertebrate data from the National Coastal Assessment’s monitoring of nearshore waters along the US Atlantic coast. Data came from three bioge...

  3. Widespread kelp-derived carbon in pelagic and benthic nearshore fishes suggested by stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Newsome, Seth D.; Bodkin, James L.; Kruse, Gordon H.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2016-11-01

    Kelp forests provide habitat for diverse and abundant fish assemblages, but the extent to which kelp provides a source of energy to fish and other predators is unclear. To examine the use of kelp-derived energy by fishes we estimated the contribution of kelp- and phytoplankton-derived carbon using carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes measured in muscle tissue. Benthic-foraging kelp greenling (Hexagrammos decagrammus) and pelagic-foraging black rockfish (Sebastes melanops) were collected at eight sites spanning ∼35 to 60°N from the California Current (upwelling) to Alaska Coastal Current (downwelling) in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Muscle δ13C values were expected to be higher for fish tissue primarily derived from kelp, a benthic macroalgae, and lower for tissue primarily derived from phytoplankton, pelagic microalgae. Muscle δ13C values were higher in benthic-feeding kelp greenling than in pelagic-feeding black rockfish at seven of eight sites, indicating more kelp-derived carbon in greenling as expected. Estimates of kelp carbon contributions ranged from 36 to 89% in kelp greenling and 32 to 65% in black rockfish using carbon isotope mixing models. Isotopic evidence suggests that these two nearshore fishes routinely derive energy from kelp and phytoplankton, across coastal upwelling and downwelling systems. Thus, the foraging mode of nearshore predators has a small influence on their ultimate energy source as energy produced by benthic macroalgae and pelagic microalgae were incorporated in fish tissue regardless of feeding mode and suggest strong and widespread benthic-pelagic coupling. Widespread kelp contributions to benthic- and pelagic-feeding fishes suggests that kelp energy provides a benefit to nearshore fishes and highlights the potential for kelp and fish production to be linked.

  4. Abiotic proxies for predictive mapping of near-shore benthic assemblages: Implications for marine spatial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Jennifer; Steneck, Robert S; Brady, Damian C

    2016-11-16

    Marine spatial planning (MSP) should assist managers in guiding human activities towards sustainable practices and in minimizing user-conflicts in our oceans. A necessary first step is to quantify spatial patterns of marine assemblages in order to understand the ecosystem's structure, function, and services. However, the large spatial scale, high economic value, and density of human activities in near-shore habitats often makes quantifying this component of marine ecosystems especially daunting. To address this challenge, we developed an assessment method that employs abiotic proxies to rapidly characterize marine assemblages in near-shore benthic environments with relatively high resolution. We evaluated this assessment method along 300 km of the State of Maine's coastal shelf (spatial extrapolations of marine assemblages in congested (heavily used) near-shore habitats. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Benthic foraminifera baseline assemblages from a coastal nearshore reef complex on the central Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jamie; Perry, Chris; Smithers, Scott; Morgan, Kyle

    2016-04-01

    Declining water quality due to river catchment modification since European settlement (c. 1850 A.D.) represents a major threat to the health of coral reefs on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR), particularly for those located in the coastal waters of the GBR's inner-shelf. These nearshore reefs are widely perceived to be most susceptible to declining water quality owing to their close proximity to river point sources. Despite this, nearshore reefs have been relatively poorly studied with the impacts and magnitudes of environmental degradation still remaining unclear. This is largely due to ongoing debates concerning the significance of increased sediment yields against naturally high background sedimentary regimes. Benthic foraminifera are increasingly used as tools for monitoring environmental and ecological change on coral reefs. On the GBR, the majority of studies have focussed on the spatial distributions of contemporary benthic foraminiferal assemblages. While baseline assemblages from other environments (e.g. inshore reefs and mangroves) have been described, very few records exist for nearshore reefs. Here, we present preliminary results from the first palaeoecological study of foraminiferal assemblages of nearshore reefs on the central GBR. Cores were recovered from the nearshore reef complex at Paluma Shoals using percussion techniques. Recovery was 100%, capturing the entire Holocene reef sequence of the selected reef structures. Radiocarbon dating and subsequent age-depth modelling techniques were used to identify reef sequences pre-dating European settlement. Benthic foraminifera assemblages were reconstructed from the identified sequences to establish pre-European ecological baselines with the aim of providing a record of foraminiferal distribution during vertical reef accretion and against which contemporary ecological change may be assessed.

  6. The nearshore benthic community of Kasatochi Island, one year after the 2008 volcanic eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, S.C.; Bodkin, J.L.; Chenelot, H.; Esslinger, G.G.; Hoberg, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    A description is presented of the nearshore benthic community of Kasatochi Island 1012 months after a catastrophic volcanic eruption in 2008. The eruption extended the coastline of the island approximately 400 m offshore, mainly along the south, southeast, and southwest shores, to roughly the 20 m isobath. Existing canopy kelp of Eualaria (Alaria) fistulosa, as well as limited understory algal species and associated fauna (e.g., urchin barrens) on the hard substratum were apparently buried following the eruption. Samples and observations revealed the substrate around the island in 2009 was comprised almost entirely of medium and coarse sands with a depauperate benthic community, dominated by opportunistic pontogeneiid amphipods. Comparisons of habitat and biological communities with other nearby Aleutian Islands, as well as with the Icelandic volcanic island of Surtsey, confirm dramatic reductions in flora and fauna consistent with an early stage of recovery from a large-scale disturbance event. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  7. Diversity, dynamics and biogeography of Chilean benthic nearshore ecosystems: an overview and guidelines for conservation Diversidad, dinámica y biogeografía del ecosistema costero bentónico de Chile: revisión y bases para conservación marina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRIAM FERNANDEZ

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite Chile has been one of the pioneering countries in studies of human impact on marine communities, and despite the enormous economic and social significance that the marine environment has for the country, the development of marine conservation programs and the scientific basis for sustainability has not kept pace, with the exploitation rate of marine fisheries and the increasing use of the coast for other purposes. Although we think that the establishment of any conservation policies along the vast coastline of Chile must be based on a multitude of approaches and considerations, scientific, biological, and ecological principles should guide much of these efforts. In this paper, we attempt to present a general overview of the current knowledge about the ecology and biogeography of nearshore systems in Chile. Based on the most relevant existing information, our goals are to: 1 Identify major biogeographic and ecological features of nearshore ecosystems, and the obvious gaps in information, 2 identify the most harmful human activities impacting the structure and dynamics of these systems, and 3 suggest the possible use of indicators to assess the conservational status of different environments along the coast. This overview shows, on one side, the geographic areas of deficitary knowledge on nearshore environments that are critical for future marine conservation and management plans, and on the other, the availability of high quality information for other geographic areas along the coast. Regarding the taxonomy and large-scale patterns of species distribution, important gaps in information were detected, however no big changes in the total number of species are expected in the future. There are few large-scale patterns of species distribution are reported in the literature, and in this contribution, but more work needs to be done, particularly for some taxa, to identify areas of high species diversity as well as areas which possess unique

  8. Aspects of benthic decapod diversity and distribution from rocky nearshore habitat at geographically widely dispersed sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Pohle

    Full Text Available Relationships of diversity, distribution and abundance of benthic decapods in intertidal and shallow subtidal waters to 10 m depth are explored based on data obtained using a standardized protocol of globally-distributed samples. Results indicate that decapod species richness overall is low within the nearshore, typically ranging from one to six taxa per site (mean = 4.5. Regionally the Gulf of Alaska decapod crustacean community structure was distinguishable by depth, multivariate analysis indicating increasing change with depth, where assemblages of the high and mid tide, low tide and 1 m, and 5 and 10 m strata formed three distinct groups. Univariate analysis showed species richness increasing from the high intertidal zone to 1 m subtidally, with distinct depth preferences among the 23 species. A similar depth trend but with peak richness at 5 m was observed when all global data were combined. Analysis of latitudinal trends, confined by data limitations, was equivocal on a global scale. While significant latitudinal differences existed in community structure among ecoregions, a semi-linear trend in changing community structure from the Arctic to lower latitudes did not hold when including tropical results. Among boreal regions the Canadian Atlantic was relatively species poor compared to the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Caribbean and Sea of Japan appeared to be species hot spots. While species poor, samples from the Canadian Atlantic were the most diverse at the higher infraordinal level. Linking 11 environmental variables available for all sites to the best fit family-based biotic pattern showed a significant relationship, with the single best explanatory variable being the level of organic pollution and the best combination overall being organic pollution and primary productivity. While data limitations restrict conclusions in a global context, results are seen as a first-cut contribution useful in generating discussion and more in

  9. Comparing nearshore benthic and pelagic prey as mercury sources to lake fish: the importance of prey quality and mercury content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Roxanne; Chen, Celia Y; Folt, Carol L

    2016-09-15

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation in fish poses well-known health risks to wildlife and humans through fish consumption. Yet fish Hg concentrations are highly variable, and key factors driving this variability remain unclear. One little studied source of variation is the influence of habitat-specific feeding on Hg accumulation in lake fish. However, this is likely important because most lake fish feed in multiple habitats during their lives, and the Hg and caloric content of prey from different habitats can differ. This study used a three-pronged approach to investigate the extent to which habitat-specific prey determine differences in Hg bioaccumulation in fish. This study first compared Hg concentrations in common nearshore benthic invertebrates and pelagic zooplankton across five lakes and over the summer season in one lake, and found that pelagic zooplankton generally had higher Hg concentrations than most benthic taxa across lakes, and over a season in one lake. Second, using a bioenergetics model, the effects of prey caloric content from habitat-specific diets on fish growth and Hg accumulation were calculated. This model predicted that the consumption of benthic prey results in lower fish Hg concentrations due to higher prey caloric content and growth dilution (high weight gain relative to Hg from food), in addition to lower prey Hg levels. Third, using data from the literature, links between fish Hg content and the degree of benthivory, were examined, and showed that benthivory was associated with reduced Hg concentrations in lake fish. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that higher Hg content and lower caloric content make pelagic zooplankton prey greater sources of Hg for fish than nearshore benthic prey in lakes. Hence, habitat-specific foraging is likely to be a strong driver of variation in Hg levels within and between fish species.

  10. Benthic Exchange of Biogenic Elements in the Estuarine and Nearshore Waters of Western India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pratihary, A

    chosen sites i.e. Mandovi estuary (15.502oN, 73.825oE) and a coastal station (15.509oN, 73.65 oE) ~15 Km off Goa coast during 2004 to 2006. Monthly variation of relevant physico-chemical and biological parameters were also recorded at these sites. Benthic...

  11. Sea-Floor Mapping and Benthic Habitat GIS for the Elwha River Delta Nearshore, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Sagy, Yael; Finlayson, David; Harney, Jodi

    2008-01-01

    From March 1531, 2005, more than 252 km (19.5 km2) of seafloor offshore of the Elwha River Delta in the central Strait of Juan de Fuca was mapped by the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program. The purpose of this nearshore mapping was to (1) obtain high resolution bathymetry and acoustic reflectance properties of the seabed, (2) examine and record geologic characteristics of the seafloor, and (3) construct maps of sea-floor geomorphology and habitat. Substrate distribution was characterized with video-supervised statistical classification of the sonar data. Substrate of the survey was dominated by mixed sand-gravel and sand. Numerous boulder reefs were observed west of the river mouth within Freshwater Bay, whereas the sea-floor immediately adjacent to the river mouth was dominated by sand.

  12. Movements of the thermocline lead to high variability in benthic mixing in the nearshore of a large lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mijanur R.; Wells, Mathew G.; Howell, Todd

    2016-04-01

    The thermocline of Lake Ontario is in constant motion, and as it washes back and forth along the sloping lakebed there is a striking asymmetry in near-bed stratification and benthic turbulence between its rise and fall. Detailed field observations of the stratification and water currents from the summers of 2012 and 2013 showed that the thermocline motions had large amplitudes (as high as 15 m) and a dominant period between 16 and 17.5 h, corresponding to a near-inertial internal Poincaré wave. During the falling phase, the warmer down-slope flow was strongly stratified with near-bed water temperature gradients of 1°C m-1. In contrast during the rising phase of colder up-slope flow, there was an unstable stratification in near-bed water and large temperature overturns due to the differential advection of stratified waters, i.e., the shear-driven convective mechanism. Using a Thorpe-scale analysis of overturns, the inferred turbulent diffusivity during the up-slope flow was Kz =5 × 10-4 m2 s-1. In striking contrast during the down-slope flow, the strong stratification had lower turbulent diffusivities of Kz =10-6 m2 s-1. The near bottom region of Lake Ontario within the thermocline swash-zone has intense biological activity and the highest concentrations of invasive dreissenid mussels. We discuss the potential biological implications of the striking variability in benthic mixing and near-bed stratification for nutrient cycling in the Lake Ontario nearshore.

  13. Nearshore morphology, benthic structure, hydrodynamics, and coastal groundwater discharge near Kahekili Beach Park, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, M. Katherine; Gibbs, Ann E.; Smith, Christopher G.; Dimova, Natasha T.; Dailer, Meghan L.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a brief summary of recent fieldwork conducted off Kahekili Beach Park, Maui, Hawaii, the site of the newly established U.S. Coral Reef Task Force priority study area at Kaanapali and the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources, Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (HFMA). The goals of this fieldwork are to provide new baseline information to help guide future studies and to provide first insights into rates and drivers of coastal groundwater discharge and associated constituent loadings into the priority study area's coastal waters. This study presents the first swath acoustic mapping information, in situ oceanographic instrument measurements, and coastal groundwater discharge estimates at this site based on the submarine groundwater discharge tracer radon-222 (222Rn). Coastal groundwater discharge rates ranged from about 22 to 50 centimeters per day, depending on proximity of the sampling mooring to the primary discharge vent. The water chemistry of the discharging groundwater was at times dramatically different than ambient seawater. For example, at the primary vent site at Kahekili, the concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), dissolved silicate (DSi), and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) in the discharging groundwater were 43.75 micromolar (μM), 583.49 μM, and 12.04 μM, respectively. These data extend our basic understanding of the morphology, benthic structure, and oceanographic setting of this vent site and provide a first estimate of the magnitude and physical forcings of submarine groundwater discharge and associated trace metals and nutrient loads here.

  14. Predicting species diversity of benthic communities within turbid nearshore using full-waveform bathymetric LiDAR and machine learners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Collin

    Full Text Available Epi-macrobenthic species richness, abundance and composition are linked with type, assemblage and structural complexity of seabed habitat within coastal ecosystems. However, the evaluation of these habitats is highly hindered by limitations related to both waterborne surveys (slow acquisition, shallow water and low reactivity and water clarity (turbid for most coastal areas. Substratum type/diversity and bathymetric features were elucidated using a supervised method applied to airborne bathymetric LiDAR waveforms over Saint-Siméon-Bonaventure's nearshore area (Gulf of Saint-Lawrence, Québec, Canada. High-resolution underwater photographs were taken at three hundred stations across an 8-km(2 study area. Seven models based upon state-of-the-art machine learning techniques such as Naïve Bayes, Regression Tree, Classification Tree, C 4.5, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, and CN2 learners were tested for predicting eight epi-macrobenthic species diversity metrics as a function of the class number. The Random Forest outperformed other models with a three-discretized Simpson index applied to epi-macrobenthic communities, explaining 69% (Classification Accuracy of its variability by mean bathymetry, time range and skewness derived from the LiDAR waveform. Corroborating marine ecological theory, areas with low Simpson epi-macrobenthic diversity responded to low water depths, high skewness and time range, whereas higher Simpson diversity relied upon deeper bottoms (correlated with stronger hydrodynamics and low skewness and time range. The degree of species heterogeneity was therefore positively linked with the degree of the structural complexity of the benthic cover. This work underpins that fully exploited bathymetric LiDAR (not only bathymetrically derived by-products, coupled with proficient machine learner, is able to rapidly predict habitat characteristics at a spatial resolution relevant to epi-macrobenthos diversity, ranging from clear to

  15. BSYC1M.TIF - Big Sycamore Reserve sidescan sonar backscatter image in the Nearshore Benthic Habitat Mapping Project S. California map series. (UTM 11N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the Big Sycamore reserve area was mosaicked from data collected in 1998. A Klein...

  16. SANP1M.TIF - South Anacapa Passage sidescan sonar backscatter image in nearshore Benthic Habitat mapping Project S. California map Series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the southern Anacapa Passage area was mosaicked from data collected in 1999 and...

  17. SECRU1M.TIF - Southeast Santa Cruz sidescan sonar backscatter image in nearshore Benthic Habitat mapping Project S. California map Series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the Southeast Santa Cruz area was mosaicked from data collected in 1999. A Klein...

  18. NANA1M.TIF - Anacapa Island Reserve sidescan sonar backscatter image in nearshore Benthic Habitat mapping Project S. California map Series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the Big Sycamore reserve area was mosaicked from data collected in 1998. A Klein...

  19. SANP1M.TIF - South Anacapa Passage sidescan sonar backscatter image in nearshore Benthic Habitat mapping Project S. California map Series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the southern Anacapa Passage area was mosaicked from data collected in 1999 and 2000....

  20. NANP1M.TIF - North Anacapa Passage sidescan sonar backscatter image in nearshore Benthic Habitat mapping Project S. California map Series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the North Anacapa Passage area was mosaicked from data collected in 2000. A Klein...

  1. NANA1M.TIF - Anacapa Island Reserve sidescan sonar backscatter image in nearshore Benthic Habitat mapping Project S. California map Series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the Big Sycamore reserve area was mosaicked from data collected in 1998. A Klein 2000...

  2. BSYC1M.TIF - Big Sycamore Reserve sidescan sonar backscatter image in the Nearshore Benthic Habitat Mapping Project S. California map series. (UTM 11N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the Big Sycamore reserve area was mosaicked from data collected in 1998. A Klein 2000...

  3. SECRU1M.TIF - Southeast Santa Cruz sidescan sonar backscatter image in nearshore Benthic Habitat mapping Project S. California map Series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the Southeast Santa Cruz area was mosaicked from data collected in 1999. A Klein 2000...

  4. SANA1M.TIF - South Anacapa Island sidescan sonar backscatter image in nearshore Benthic Habitat mapping Project S. California map Series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the South Anacapa area was mosaicked from data collected in 1999 and 2000. A Klein...

  5. Nearshoring Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Brazinskas, Sigitas; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The principal objective of this paper is to unravel and assess current nearshoring practices and their outlook in the Baltic region. Design/methodology/approach: We draw on the offshoring and outsourcing literature and use mixed methods of enquiry, including case studies, survey techniques...... affected them. The survey results reveal the perspective of Lithuanian vendors regarding their relationships with Scandinavian partners. These findings are used in assessing the future prospects of nearshoring in the Baltic region. Practical implications: The study relates the key attributes...

  6. Nearshore circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, J.A.; Sobey, R.J.; Stive, M.J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Shelf circulation is driven primarily by wind- and tide-induced forces. It is laterally only weakly constrained so that the geostrophic (Coriolis) acceleration is manifest in the response. Nearshore circulation on the other hand is dominated by wave-induced forces associated with shallow-water. wave

  7. Disjoint geographical distribution of intertidal and nearshore benthic invertebrates in the Southern Hemisphere Distribuciones geográficas disyuntas de invertebrados bentónicos intermareales y del submareal somero en el Hemisferio Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C CASTILLA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogeographical explanations for the extant and paleo disjoint geographical distribution in the southern hemisphere of five species of nearshore marine benthic invertebrates: Gaimardia trapesina, Ostrea chilensis, Pyura stolonifera taxonomic complex, Aulacomya ater and Concholepas concholepas, showing distinctive reproductive strategies and early life history characteristics are reviewed and analyzed. Through the use of published and new information we contrasted the following hypotheses: a vicariance-historical process, b epiplanktonic larval dispersal, c juvenile/adult dispersal through rafting and d planned or accidental anthropogenic dispersal mechanisms. The juvenile/adult transoceanic dispersal hypothesis by rafting was the only one impossible to be rejected for the species analyzed. The implication and future direction for research in this area are discussedSe revisa y analiza las posibles explicaciones para la distribución geográfica disyunta, presente y pasada, en el hemisferio sur de cinco especies de invertebrados bentónicos marinos litorales: Gaimardia trapesina, Ostrea chilensis, el complejo taxonómico Pyura stolonifera, Aulacomya ater y Concholepas concholepas, con estrategias reproductivas y características de historia de vida distintas. Se discute y pone a prueba, usando información original o publicada, las siguientes hipótesis: a procesos históricos de vicarianza, b dispersión de larvas epi-planctónicas, c dispersión de juveniles o adultos por transporte pasivo y d dispersión antropogénica planificada o accidental. La hipótesis de dispersión transoceánica de juveniles o adultos fue la única imposible de rechazar para las especies analizadas. Se discute las direcciones futuras de investigación en esta área

  8. SVAN1M.TIF - Point Agruello (South Vandenberg Reserve) sidescan sonar backscatter image in the Nearshore Benthic Habitat Mapping Project S. California map series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the Big Sycamore reserve area was mosaicked from data collected in 1998. A Klein...

  9. SVAN1M.TIF - Point Agruello (South Vandenberg Reserve) sidescan sonar backscatter image in the Nearshore Benthic Habitat Mapping Project S. California map series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the Big Sycamore reserve area was mosaicked from data collected in 1998. A Klein 2000...

  10. Zoogeografía de macroinvertebrados bentónicos de la costa de Chile: contribución para la conservación marina Zoogeography of benthic macroinvertebrates of the Chilean coast: contribution for marine conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOMINGO A. LANCELLOTTI

    2000-03-01

    attention, although with little emphasis on its biogeographical significance. The present study analyses an updated data base on 1,601 littoral benthic species, belonging to: Demospongiae, Anthozoa, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata y Ascideacea, whose records grouped into 10 zones, have been studied from the zoogeographic perspective. The groups best represented along the Chilean coast include the Mollusca (611 species, Polychaeta (403 and the Crustacea (370, with an important influence on its general pattern of biodiversity. This biodiversity showed a mild but progressive increase along the latitudinal gradient from north to south, interrupted by maxima which appear to reflect differences in study effort rather than normal behavior. The degree of relationship between zones showed three faunistic units recently defined by Lancellotti & Vásquez. This arrangement, which was evident in the most diverse groups, became altered in the lesser speciose groups where differences obeyed a pattern of affinity to particular zones within the Transitional Temperate Region. The presence of a zoogeographic break near 41º S, as broadly suggested in the literature, was only seen in data for the Echinodermata and the Demospongiae; other taxa show the existence of a region of transitional character having gradual replacement of species. Within the Regions, the biodiversity showed great homogeneity, contrary to endemism, which reached 52% in the Cold Temperate Region, as a consequence of an important number of single species records (38.2% species recorded in only one zone. This represents the present lack of knowledge of the Chilean fauna, probably overestimating regional endemism, and thus distorting knowledge of local patterns of biodiversity

  11. Shallow-water Benthic Habitats in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico were mapped and characterized using visual interpretation...

  12. Vieques, Puerto Rico Benthic Habitat Map - Accuracy Assessment Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  13. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  14. Nearshore sticky waters

    CERN Document Server

    Restrepo, Juan M; Dawson, Clint

    2013-01-01

    Wind- and current-driven flotsam, oil spills, pollutants, and nutrients, approaching the nearshore will frequently appear to park just beyond the break zone, where waves break. Moreover, the portion of these tracers that beach will do so only after a long time. Explaining why these tracers park and at what rate they reach the shore has important implications on a variety of different nearshore environmental issues, including the determination of what subscale processes are essential in computer models for the simulation of pollutant transport in the nearshore. Using a simple model we provide an explanation for the underlying mechanism responsible for the parking of tracers, the role played by the bottom topography, and the non-uniform dispersion which leads, in some circumstances, to the eventual landing of all or a portion of the tracers. We refer to the parking phenomenon in this environment as nearshore sticky waters.

  15. Thatcher Bay, Washington, Nearshore Restoration Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breems, Joel; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Grossman, Eric E.; Elliott, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The San Juan Archipelago, located at the confluence of the Puget Sound, the Straits of Juan de Fuca in Washington State, and the Straits of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada, provides essential nearshore habitat for diverse salmonid, forage fish, and bird populations. With 408 miles of coastline, the San Juan Islands provide a significant portion of the available nearshore habitat for the greater Puget Sound and are an essential part of the regional efforts to restore Puget Sound (Puget Sound Shared Strategy 2005). The nearshore areas of the San Juan Islands provide a critical link between the terrestrial and marine environments. For this reason the focus on restoration and conservation of nearshore habitat in the San Juan Islands is of paramount importance. Wood-waste was a common by-product of historical lumber-milling operations. To date, relatively little attention has been given to the impact of historical lumber-milling operations in the San Juan Archipelago. Thatcher Bay, on Blakely Island, located near the east edge of the archipelago, is presented here as a case study on the restoration potential for a wood-waste contaminated nearshore area. Case study components include (1) a brief discussion of the history of milling operations. (2) an estimate of the location and amount of the current distribution of wood-waste at the site, (3) a preliminary examination of the impacts of wood-waste on benthic flora and fauna at the site, and (4) the presentation of several restoration alternatives for the site. The history of milling activity in Thatcher Bay began in 1879 with the construction of a mill in the southeastern part of the bay. Milling activity continued for more than 60 years, until the mill closed in 1942. Currently, the primary evidence of the historical milling operations is the presence of approximately 5,000 yd3 of wood-waste contaminated sediments. The distribution and thickness of residual wood-waste at the site was determined by using sediment

  16. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  17. Nearshore energy subsidies support Lake Michigan fishes and invertebrates following major changes in food web structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turschak, Benjamin A; Bunnell, David B.; Czesny, Sergiusz J.; Höök, Tomas O.; Janssen, John; Warner, David M.; Bootsma, Harvey A

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic food webs that incorporate multiple energy channels (e.g. nearshore benthic or pelagic) with varying productivity and turnover rates convey stability to biological communities by providing multiple independent energy sources. Within the Lake Michigan food web, invasive dreissenid mussels have caused rapid changes to food web structure and potentially altered the channels through which consumers acquire energy. We used stable C and N isotopes to determine how Lake Michigan food web structure has changed in the past decade, coincident with the expansion of dreissenid mussels, decreased pelagic phytoplankton production and increased nearshore benthic algal production. Fish and invertebrate samples collected from sites around Lake Michigan were analyzed to determine taxa-specific 13C:12C (delta 13C) and 15N:14N (delta 15N) ratios. Sampling took place during two distinct periods, 2002-2003 and 2010-2012, that spanned the period of dreissenid expansion, and included nearshore, pelagic and profundal fish and invertebrate taxa. Magnitude and direction of the 13C shift indicated significantly greater reliance upon nearshore benthic energy sources among nearly all fish taxa as well as profundal invertebrates. Although the mechanisms underlying this 13C shift likely varied among species, possible causes include the transport of benthic algal production to offshore waters and an increased reliance on nearshore prey items. Delta 15N shifts were more variable and of smaller magnitude across taxa although declines in delta 15N among some pelagic fishes may indicate a shift to alternative prey resources. Lake Michigan fishes and invertebrates appear to have responded to dreissenid induced changes in nutrient and energy pathways by switching from pelagic to alternative nearshore energy subsidies. Although large shifts in energy allocation (i.e. pelagic to nearshore benthic) resulting from invasive species appear to have affected total production at upper trophic

  18. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests.

  19. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: Ground Validation Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  20. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_0100092_PS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  1. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_502736_PS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  2. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_0900172_PS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  3. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_1700252_PS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  4. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_483895_PS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  5. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: Accuracy Assessment Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  6. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_0072610_PS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  7. Navy Nearshore Ocean Prediction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Visualization Studio. Oceanography | September 2014 81 Predicting the dynamics of the nearshore environment is important to many different aspects...insertions/extractions. Wave and current conditions, along with local geological conditions, can determine the extent of mine burial , which can impact...and models, including the Simulating WAves ABSTR AC T. Knowledge of the nearshore ocean environment is important for naval operations, including

  8. The influence of oceanographic processes on pelagic-benthic coupling in polar regions: A benthic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Barry, James P.

    1991-08-01

    Benthic community abundance and biomass in polar marine systems is directly influenced by food supply from the overlying water column. Variability in hydrographic regimes, ice coverage, light, water column temperature and pelagic food web structure limit the amount of organic carbon reaching the benthos. Data from the high Arctic and Antarctic indicate that a large percentage of surface-produced organic matter is consumed by both macro- and micro-zooplankton as well as recycled in the water column via the microbial loop. This results in food-limited regimes for the underlying benthos. The few exceptions are nearshore continental shelf systems, such as in the Bering and Chukchi Seas in the western Arctic and portions of the Canadian Archipelago and Barents Sea in the eastern Arctic, where high benthic abundance and biomass occurs due to a tight coupling between water column primary production and benthic secondary production. A major difference between the Antarctic and Arctic is that the nearshore deep Antarctic is characterized by relatively high benthic abundance and biomass despite low water column production, suggesting that stability, low disturbance levels and cold temperatures enable benthic organisms to grow larger than in the Arctic. Both physical and biological disturbance levels are high in the marginal seas of the Arctic may directly influence benthic productivity. The relationship between primary production and sedimentation of organic material to the benthos is nonlinear due to its dependence on the role of the pelagic food web. Therefore, in this review we will only discuss the pelagic system with respect to how it impacts the net food supply reachig the benthos. A major objective of this review paper is demonstrate the influence of oceanographic processes on pelagic-benthic coupling in polar regions from a "bottom-up" perspective, using benthic studies from various regions in both the Arctic and Antarctic. Similarities and differences in

  9. 2005 IKONOS Image of St. John Utilized to derive Benthic Habitat Maps (IK_191556_0000000.img)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The...

  10. 2005 IKONOS Image of St. John Utilized to derive Benthic Habitat Maps (IK_191555_0000000.img)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The...

  11. 2000 IKONOS Image of St. John Utilized to derive Benthic Habitat Maps (IK_304713_0000000.img)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The...

  12. 2005 IKONOS Image of St. John Utilized to derive Benthic Habitat Maps (IK_184799_0010000.img)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The...

  13. Derived bathymetry of nearshore benthic habitats near Kaanapali, Maui, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Methods used were adapted from a "cookbook" of instructions developed by Kyle Hogref for using IKONOS imagery data to derive seafloor elevations in optically clear...

  14. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  15. Benthic foraminifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Nigam, R.

    (Nolet and Corliss, 1990). Differences in the abundance of oxygen-sensitive and dissolution-prone benthic foraminiferal species between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Holocene in the abyssal waters of the southwestern Gulf of Mexico were used... (2009) Deep-sea benthic diversity linked to seasonality of pelagic productivity. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 56: 835-841. Culver S (1988) New foraminiferal depth zonation of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Palaios 3: 69...

  16. Predictability of nearshore sandbar behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pape, L.

    2010-01-01

    Nearshore sandbars are ridges of sand that are commonly observed along sandy coasts in water depths less than 10 m. Sandbars are the last natural line of defense against the attack of storm waves on the coast and, accordingly, human measures to combat coastal erosion often involve changes in sandbar

  17. Uranium in the Near-shore Aquatic Food Chain: Studies on Periphyton and Asian Clams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Miley, Terri B.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Brandt, Charles A.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-12-31

    The benthic aquatic organisms in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River are the first biological receptors that can be exposed to groundwater contaminants coming from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The primary contaminant of concern in the former nuclear fuels processing area at the Site, known as the 300 Area, is uranium. Currently, there are no national clean up criteria for uranium and ecological receptors. This report summarizes efforts to characterize biological uptake of uranium in the food chain of the benthic aquatic organisms and provide information to be used in future assessments of uranium and the ecosystem.

  18. Filamentous bacteria inhabiting the sheaths of marine Thioploca spp. on the Chilean continental shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teske, Andreas; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Gallardo, Victor A.

    2009-01-01

    A new component of the benthic Thioploca mat microbial ecosystem on the Chilean continental shelf was detected by epifluorescence microscopy: filamentous, bacterial endobionts of 4-5-μm filament diameter and length sometimes exceeding 1 mm. These filaments were identified as growing within Thiopl...

  19. Constitution of fish assemblages in three nearshore habitats and the effect of benthic macroalgae on fish assemblages in Gouqi Island%拘杞岛近岸3种生境鱼类群落组成及岩礁区底栖海藻对鱼类群落结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕾; 章守宇; 汪振华; 王凯; 林军

    2011-01-01

    Macroalgae covering on the rocky reef around coast of Gouqi Island were surveyed and sampled through diving during 2005 to 2006 and May to June 2010, in order to find out the distribution, constitution and life history of macroalgae. Two composing patterns of macroalgae were shown in the subtidal zone of rocky reef; one was dominated by standing macroalgae Sargassum horneri; another was dominated by smaller macroalgaes, such as Ulva pertusa, which is widely distributed both in intertidal and subtidal zone. The life history of S. Horneri showed the four stages of the larger kelp bed: young seedling development period (August to September) ,slow growth period of seeding (October to February in next year) ,fast growth and reproduction period (March to May) .decomposing and declining period (June to July). The smaller kelp bed exists the whole year, without much difference to outside of the kelp bed. To estimate the composition of fish assemblages in three habitats around Gouqi Island nearshore, I. E. Rocky reef, sandy beach and mussel cultivation rafts,we sampled the fish assemblages in three habitats by combined gill nets every month from February 2009 to January 2010. The indexes of Jaccard similarity, Margalef richness and Shannon-wiener diversity were used to compare the variety of fish community structures among habitats, combined with statistical analysis of variance, UPGMA and nMDS. It showed that the differences of fish community structures among above three habitats were significant. The dominant fish species in rocky reef habitat were Sebastiscus marmoratus, Agrammus agrammus and N. Albiflora. Fish community was mainly based on the demersal omnivorous rocky fishes, which prey mainly on benthic invertebrates living on macroalgaes. The dominant fish species in sandy beach habitat were Paraplagusia japonica and Nibea albiflora. Fish community was mainly based on the mid-lower migration fishes. For fish assemblages in mussel cultivation raft habitat, which were

  20. Denitrification, nitrate turnover, and aerobic respiration by benthic foraminiferans in the oxygen minimum zone off Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgslund, Signe; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Cedhagen, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    Population density, nitrate turnover, and oxygen respiration of benthic foraminiferans were investigated in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off the Chilean coast. Live foraminiferans were found predominantly in the upper 3 mm of the sediment, and the nitrate accumulating species Nonionella cf. stel...

  1. Who should own the nearshore wind turbines?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Krog; Sperling, Karl

    This report examines the possibility for non-profit organisations to participate in tenders for nearshore wind turbines in Denmark under the current frame-work conditions in the area. The point of departure is a case study of the non-profit organisation Wind People’s attempt to participate...... with a popular project in the Danish tender for 350 MW nearshore wind turbines. A series of in-depth interviews have been carried out with Wind People’s staff in order to make an in-depth analysis of their actions and experiences of entering into the market for nearshore wind turbines. The report concludes...... that it is not possible for non-profit organisations to participate with popular projects in connection with tenders for nearshore wind turbines in Denmark under the current framework conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to make a modification of the framework conditions. In itself, this is not sufficient to pave...

  2. Cooperative trap survey for nearshore groundfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This pilot study is designed to evaluate a fishery-independent, cooperative sampling methodology for nearshore groundfish species, with an emphasis on species in the...

  3. Benthic habitat mapping using hyperspectral remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez-Reyes, Miguel; Goodman, James A.; Castrodad-Carrau, Alexey; Jiménez-Rodriguez, Luis O.; Hunt, Shawn D.; Armstrong, Roy

    2006-09-01

    Benthic habitats are the different bottom environments as defined by distinct physical, geochemical, and biological characteristics. Remote sensing is increasingly being used to map and monitor the complex dynamics associated with estuarine and nearshore benthic habitats. Advantages of remote sensing technology include both the qualitative benefits derived from a visual overview, and more importantly, the quantitative abilities for systematic assessment and monitoring. Advancements in instrument capabilities and analysis methods are continuing to expand the accuracy and level of effectiveness of the resulting data products. Hyperspectral sensors in particular are rapidly emerging as a more complete solution, especially for the analysis of subsurface shallow aquatic systems. The spectral detail offered by hyperspectral instruments facilitates significant improvements in the capacity to differentiate and classify benthic habitats. This paper reviews two techniques for mapping shallow coastal ecosystems that both combine the retrieval of water optical properties with a linear unmixing model to obtain classifications of the seafloor. Example output using AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery of Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii is employed to demonstrate the application potential of the two approaches and compare their respective results.

  4. The Future of Nearshore Processes Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elko, N.; Feddersen, F.; Foster, D. L.; Holman, R. A.; McNinch, J.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Plant, N. G.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Hay, A. E.; Holland, K. T.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Lippmann, T. C.; Miller, J. K.; Stockdon, H. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Boehm, A. B.; Clark, D.; Cowen, E.; Dalyander, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hapke, C. J.; MacMahan, J.; McNamara, D.; Mulligan, R. P.; Palmsten, M. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Sherwood, C. R.; Hsu, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Over 70 members of the nearshore coastal processes research community convened in April 2014 to discuss a vision for the future of nearshore science while celebrating the memories and contributions of our recently departed colleague, Abby Sallenger. The participants reviewed community accomplishments over the past four decades. Federal agencies, including FEMA, NOAA, NPS, USGS, USACE, and NRL discussed the most pressing societal needs within the coastal zone. The group engaged in a retrospective of the last four decades of progress, assessed the current status and limitations of nearshore processes research, and developed a vision for the future that focuses on societally relevant problems. The top research topics identified included: Long-term Coastal Impacts: Meaningfully improve our understanding and prediction of the long-term coastal effects of sea level rise and changes in storminess patterns and associated efforts to protect coastal infrastructure. Extreme Events: Coastal flooding, overland flow, and concurrent morphological evolution during extreme events including the subsequent process of coastal recovery. Human and Ecosystem Health: Linkages between physical coastal processes (transport and mixing) and land-based pollution (pathogens, nutrients, toxic contaminants). Critical for addressing these research questions is enabling infrastructure, such as new observational tools and data sets, models, and nearshore-community communication and collaboration. Idea and concepts developed during the meeting (to be published in Shore and Beach) will be presented to foster collaboration and advocacy amongst the wider nearshore community. Meeting materials are available at: https://scripps.ucsd.edu/centers/nearshorefuture/.

  5. VOCALS-CUpEx: the Chilean Upwelling Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garreaud, R. D.; Rutllant, J. A.; Muñoz, R. C.; Rahn, D. A.; Ramos, M.; Figueroa, D.

    2011-03-01

    The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) was a major field experiment conducted in spring of 2008 off southern Peru and northern Chile, aimed at better understanding the coupled climate systems of the southeast Pacific. Because of logistical constrains, the coastal area around 30° S was not sampled during VOCALS-REx. This area not only marks the poleward edge of the subtropical stratocumulus cloud regime (thus acting as a source of transient disturbances) but is also one of the most active upwelling centers and source of surface ocean kinetic energy along the Chilean coast. To fill such an observational gap, a small, brief, but highly focused field experiment was conducted in late spring 2009 in the near-shore region around 30° S. The Chilean Upwelling Experiment (CUpEx) was endorsed by VOCALS as a regional component. CUpEx included long-term monitoring, an intensive two-week field campaign and off-shore research flights. Our goal was to obtain an atmospheric/oceanic dataset with enough temporal and spatial coverage to be able to document (a) the mean diurnal cycles of the lower-troposphere and upper-ocean in a region of complex topography and coastline geometry, and (b) the ocean-atmosphere response to the rapid changes in coastal winds from strong, upwelling-favorable equatorward flow (southerly winds) to downwelling-favorable poleward flow (northerly winds). In this paper we describe the measurement platforms and sampling strategy, and provide an observational overview, highlighting some key mean-state and transient features.

  6. Benthic solute exchange and carbon mineralization in two shallow subtidal sandy sediments: Effect of advective pore-water exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Perran L. M.; Wenzhofer, Frank; Glud, Ronnie N.;

    2007-01-01

    of O-2 distribution across ripples, and also deep subsurface O-2 pools, being observed. Mineralization pathways were predominantly aerobic when benthic mineralization rates were low and advective pore-water flow high as a result of well-developed sediment topography. By contrast, mineralization...... proceeded predominantly through sulfate reduction when benthic mineralization rates were high and advective pore-water flow low as a result of poorly developed topography. Previous studies of benthic mineralization in shallow sandy sediments have generally ignored these dynamics and, hence, have overlooked......We conducted four field campaigns to evaluate benthic O-2 consumption and the effect of advective pore-water flow in nearshore permeable sediments in the North Sea and Baltic Sea. Advective pore-water transport had a marked effect on the benthic exchange of O-2 and TCO2 in benthic chamber...

  7. Can a rapid underwater video approach enhance the benthic assessment capability of the National Coastal Condition Assessmentin the Great Lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the U.S. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) field survey in summer 2010, over 400 sites in the nearshore zone of the U.S. Great Lakes were sampled. As a supplement to core NCCA benthic taxonomy and sediment chemistry, underwater video images of the bottom condition ...

  8. Field observations of nearshore bar formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Kroon, Aart; Greenwood, Brian;

    2008-01-01

      The formation of an inner nearshore bar was observed during a high-energy event at the sandy beach of Vejers, Denmark. The bar accreted in situ during surf zone conditions and the growth of the bar was associated with the development of a trough landward of the bar. Measurements of hydrodynamics...

  9. Near-Shore Floating Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruol, Piero; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Martinelli, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this note is to analyse the possible application of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) as a combined tool to protect the coast and harvest energy. Physical model tests are used to evaluate wave transmission past a near-shore floating WEC of the wave activated body type, named DEXA. Efficiency...

  10. Nearshore marine fish assemblages in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish benthic trawls were completed by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Data from 425 fisheries independent trawls ranging from 2-215...

  11. Modeling of Nearshore-Placed Dredged Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    and nourishes the beach. The focus of the present study is to examine the design for nearshore placement of dredged material through laboratory...Army Engineer Research and Development Center,, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory,3909 Halls Ferry Road,,Vicksburg,,MS, 39180 8. PERFORMING...Material Ernest R. Smith and Rusty L. Permenter Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 3909 Halls

  12. Evaluating Sediment Mobility for Siting Nearshore Berms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Berms by Brian C. McFall, S. Jarrell Smith, Cheryl E. Pollock, James Rosati III, and Katherine E. Brutsché PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics... studies to compare multiple placement sites. Presently, a Matlab script is available to perform the calculations using both methods. Future development...estimate the potential volume of sediment that a placement operation might yield to beneficially nourish a wetland or nearshore region, thereby allowing

  13. Reflections on the Chilean Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia SANTOS PÉREZ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chile has historically excelled in Latin America for its political stability and its institutional strength, which did not prevent it from living under an authoritarian regime (1973-1988. The political transition was a consequence of a fast political pact between the military and a strong political class that led to a limited democracy because of the origin and content of the Constitution, partially overcome by the constitutional reform of 2005. However, the slow development of the Chilean democratic process is due to both the institutional framework and the behavior of the political actors who have favored political stability based on consensus before the plurality of competition and the political debate for the sake of democratic quality.

  14. The Effect of Bathymetric Filtering on Nearshore Process Model Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Filtering on Nearshore Process Model Results 6. AUTHOR(S) Nathaniel Plant, Kacey L. Edwards, James M. Kaihatu, Jayaram Veeramony, Yuan-Huang L. Hsu...filtering on nearshore process model results Nathaniel G. Plant **, Kacey L Edwardsb, James M. Kaihatuc, Jayaram Veeramony b, Larry Hsu’’, K. Todd Holland...assimilation efforts that require this information. Published by Elsevier B.V. 1. Introduction Nearshore process models are capable of predicting

  15. Remote sensing of Qatar nearshore habitats with perspectives for coastal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Christopher; Dupont, Jennifer; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed; Hobeichi, Sanaa; Palandro, David; Purkis, Sam

    2016-04-30

    A framework is proposed for utilizing remote sensing and ground-truthing field data to map benthic habitats in the State of Qatar, with potential application across the Arabian Gulf. Ideally the methodology can be applied to optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of mapping the nearshore environment to identify sensitive habitats, monitor for change, and assist in management decisions. The framework is applied to a case study for northeastern Qatar with a key focus on identifying high sensitivity coral habitat. The study helps confirm the presence of known coral and provides detail on a region in the area of interest where corals have not been previously mapped. Challenges for the remote sensing methodology associated with natural heterogeneity of the physical and biological environment are addressed. Recommendations on the application of this approach to coastal environmental risk assessment and management planning are discussed as well as future opportunities for improvement of the framework.

  16. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Conditions and Variability in Water Quality Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in recent years has increased regarding conditions in the nearshore of the Great Lakes. We conducted a high-resolution survey of the Lake Ontario nearshore along the 20 m contour using towed electronic instrumentation. The 720 km survey was conducted September 6-10, 20...

  17. Habitat coupling in a large lake system: delivery of an energy subsidy by an offshore planktivore to the nearshore zone of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Jason D.; Yule, Daniel L.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Sierszen, Michael E.; Isaac, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    1. We hypothesised that the autumn spawning migration of Lake Superior cisco (Coregonus artedi) provides a resource subsidy, in the form of energy-rich cisco eggs, from the offshore pelagic to the nearshore benthic community over winter, when alternate prey production is likely to be low. 2. We tested this hypothesis using fish and macroinvertebrate surveys, fish population demographics, diet and stable isotope analyses, and bioenergetics modelling. 3. The benthic, congeneric lake whitefish (C. clupeaformis) was a clear beneficiary of cisco spawning. Cisco eggs represented 16% of lake whitefish annual consumption in terms of biomass, but 34% of energy (because of their high energy density: >10 kJ g wet mass−1). Stable isotope analyses were consistent with these results and suggest that other nearshore fish species may also rely on cisco eggs. 4. The lipid content of lake whitefish liver almost doubled from 26 to 49% between November and March, while that of muscle increased from 14 to 26% over the same period, suggesting lake whitefish were building, rather than depleting, lipid reserves during winter. 5. In the other Laurentian Great Lakes, where cisco populations remain very low and rehabilitation efforts are underway, the offshore-to-nearshore ecological link apparent in Lake Superior has been replaced by non-native planktivorous species. These non-native species spawn in spring have smaller eggs and shorter incubation periods. The rehabilitation of cisco in these systems should reinstate the onshore subsidy as it has in Lake Superior.

  18. Latitudinal discontinuity in thermal conditions along the nearshore of central-northern Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian J Tapia

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30-32°S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4-10 years at 15 sites between 28-35°S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30-31°S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30-31°S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25°S, which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain

  19. Latitudinal discontinuity in thermal conditions along the nearshore of central-northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Fabian J; Largier, John L; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30-32°S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4-10 years at 15 sites between 28-35°S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30-31°S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30-31°S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25°S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species

  20. Derived bathymetry from WorldView-2 satellite imagery of nearshore benthic habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Methods used were adapted from a "cookbook" of instructions developed by Kyle Hogref for using IKONOS imagery data to derive seafloor elevations in optically clear...

  1. A note on the laboratory culture of benthic foraminifera collected from nearshore region off Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Khare, N.; Koli, N.Y.

    of food (X 300). h. Tiny offsprings of R. leei along with ruptured parent (X 300). I. Magnified offsprings of R. leei along with ruptured parent (X 750). Journal of The Falaeontological Society of India Vol. 41,1996 Plate I NIGAM, KHARE AND KOLI ...

  2. ICT & Learning in Chilean Schools: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    By the early nineties a Chilean network on computers and education for public schools had emerged. There were both high expectancies that technology could revolutionize education as well as divergent voices that doubted the real impact of technology on learning. This paper presents an evaluation of the Enlaces network, a national Information and…

  3. Fostering Teaching Quality in Chilean Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman Cruzat, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explain the strategies that have been carried out by three Chilean universities in order to advance the quality of their teaching. The studied institutions are the Universidad de los Andes, the Universidad de Talca and the Universidad Catolica de Chile. In each of these three cases the analysis included, both the policies…

  4. Nearshore and offshore environmental effects monitoring at the Sable Offshore Energy project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, G. V. [Sable Offshore Energy Inc, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    A monitoring program to determine whether any temporary or permanent environmental perturbations may be attributable to the Sable offshore gas pipeline project as it approaches landfall at Goldboro through an outer bay is discussed, This nearshore region is an active fishing region for the residents of Goldboro, hence the concern about possible contamination. The monitoring project began with a baseline study, followed by monitoring the construction and the recovery period following construction, to ensure that any persistent changes to the nearshore aquatic environment were documented. The monitoring study included representatives of the fishing community to ensure that concerns are addressed early and on a continuing basis. At various phases of the project water properties,sediment modelling, the effects of construction on sea bottom conditions, benthic biota and cultivated mussels, water quality, phytoplankton, and resuspension of toxic cysts, terns and other seabirds were studied. Monitoring programs were also established for sea urchins and mussels, two important commercial species. Commercial-sized sea urchins showed a decrease of 60 per cent between 1998 and 1999 (i.e. the construction period). Recovery of sea urchin population in the immediate trench region will be the special focus of the post-construction monitoring phase. Mussel spat settlement and mussel tissue condition, lobster trapping, water properties, and bird behaviour showed no measurable changes during construction monitoring. In addition to these studies there is an ongoing offshore monitoring program in effect by Sable Offshore Energy Inc., put in place as a condition of approval of its Development Plan by the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board. This program monitors attributes such as water quality, suspended particulate matter in the benthic boundary layer, sediment quality, the benthic habitat and megafaunal community, shellfish body burden and taint, marine mammals and seabirds

  5. [The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H

    2001-01-01

    On September 29th, 2000, The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors was founded, sponsored by the "Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)" (the Governmental Agency promoting and funding scientific research and technological development in Chile) and the "Sociedad Médica de Santiago" (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine). The Association adopted the goals of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) and therefore it will foster "cooperation and communication among Editors of Chilean biomedical journals; to improve editorial standards, to promote professionalism in medical editing through education, self-criticism and self-regulation; and to encourage research on the principles and practice of medical editing". Twenty nine journals covering a closely similar number of different biomedical sciences, medical specialties, veterinary, dentistry and nursing, became Founding Members of the Association. A Governing Board was elected: President: Humberto Reyes, M.D. (Editor, Revista Médica de Chile); Vice-President: Mariano del Sol, M.D. (Editor, Revista Chilena de Anatomía); Secretary: Anna María Prat (CONICYT); Councilors: Manuel Krauskopff, Ph.D. (Editor, Biological Research) and Maritza Rahal, M.D. (Editor, Revista de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello). The Association will organize a Symposium on Biomedical Journal Editing and will spread information stimulating Chilean biomedical journals to become indexed in international databases and in SciELO-Chile, the main Chilean scientific website (www.scielo.cl).

  6. Biodiversity in Benthic Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Carl, J. D.

    Foreword: This proceeding is based on a set of papers presented at the second Nordic Benthological Meeting held in Silkeborg, November 13-14, 1997. The main theme of the meeting was biodiversity in benthic ecology and the majority of contributions touch on this subject. In addition, the proceeding...

  7. Macrobenthos in the nearshore coastal system of Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mathew, A.; Govindan, K.

    Distribution, abundance and biodiversity of macrobenthic standing stock in the nearshore coastal system of Bombay, Maharashtra, India were estimated (1985-86) in relation to the prevailing environmental stress due to disposal of anthropogenic wastes...

  8. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 11 (NS11): Saipan, CNMI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  9. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 08 (NS08): Koror, Palau

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  10. DEEPWATER AND NEARSHORE FOOD WEB CHARACTERIZATIONS IN LAKE SUPERIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the difficulty associated with sampling deep aquatic systems, food web relationships among deepwater fauna are often poorly known. We are characterizing nearshore versus offshore habitats in the Great Lakes and investigating food web linkages among profundal, pelagic, and ...

  11. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 06 (NS06): Pohnpei, Micronesia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  12. AFSC/ABL: Nearshore Fish Atlas of Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information on the distribution and relative abundance of nearshore fishes from beach seine hauls in Alaska is now available to managers as an online Fish Atlas. The...

  13. Larvae of Nearshore Fishes in Oceanic Waters near Oahu, Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Thomas A.

    1991-01-01

    Larvae of over 50 families of nearshore fishes were taken in oceanic waters about 13 km offshore of the leeward (southwest) coast of Oahu, Hawaii during 1977-78, The five most frequently taken families (Labridae, Parapercidae, Serranidae, Gobiidae, and Carangidae) made up over 50% of the total nearshore larvae. Most other families were taken very infrequently. Comparison of catch data from three types of nets indicated that 1.25-m diameter bongo nets often sampled larvae as well or better tha...

  14. Nearshore Versus Offshore: Comparative Cost and Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hevia Koch, Pablo Alejandro; Wolter, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Currently there exist high expectations for the development of wind energy, particularly in Europe, out of which offshore wind turbine developments will be central as tools to achieve current energy targets. The choice between nearshore and (far)-offshore is particularly relevant, both because...... of increased public resistance due to visual disamenities produced by nearshore projects, and because of the potential cost reduction benefits attained by building wind farms closer to the shore....

  15. Organic carbon in glacial fjords of Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Gutiérrez, Marcelo; Tapia, Fabián; Abarzúa, Leslie; Daneri, Giovanni; Reid, Brian; Díez, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Ice Field in Chilean Patagonia is the largest (13,000 km2) temperate ice mass in the Southern hemisphere, yearly transporting ca. 40 km3 of freshwater to fjords. This volume of fresh and cold water likely affects adjacent marine ecosystems by changing circulation, productivity, food web dynamics, and the abundance and distribution of planktonic and benthic organisms. We hypothesize that freshwater-driven availability of inorganic nutrient and transport of organic and inorganic suspended matter, as well as microbes, become a controlling factor for productivity in the fjord associated with the Baker river and Jorge Montt glacier. Both appear to be sources of silicic acid, but not of nitrate and particulate organic carbon, especially during summer, when surface PAR and glacier thawing are maximal. In contrast to Baker River, the Jorge Montt glacier is also a source of dissolved organic carbon towards a proglacial fjord and the Baker Channel, indicating that a thorough chemical description of sources (tidewater glacier and glacial river) is needed. Nitrate in fiord waters reaches ca. 15 μM at 25 m depth with no evidence of mixing up during summer. Stable isotope composition of particulate organic nitrogen reaches values as low as 3 per mil in low-salinity waters near both glacier and river. Nitrogen fixation could be depleting δ15N in organic matter, as suggested by the detection at surface waters of nif H genes belonging to diazotrophs near the Montt glacier. As diazotrophs have also been detected in other cold marine waters (e.g. Baltic Sea, Arctic Ocean) as well as glaciers and polar terrestrial waters, there is certainly a potential for both marine and freshwater microbes to contribute and have a significant impact on the Patagonian N and C budgets. Assessing the impact of freshwater on C and N fluxes and the microbial community structure in Patagonian waters will allow understanding future scenarios of rapid glacier melting. This research was funded

  16. Extracellular DNA amplicon sequencing reveals high levels of benthic eukaryotic diversity in the central Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, John K; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to characterize the benthic eukaryotic biodiversity patterns at a coarse taxonomic level in three areas of the central Red Sea (a lagoon, an offshore area in Thuwal and a shallow coastal area near Jeddah) based on extracellular DNA. High-throughput amplicon sequencing targeting the V9 region of the 18S rRNA gene was undertaken for 32 sediment samples. High levels of alpha-diversity were detected with 16,089 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being identified. The majority of the OTUs were assigned to Metazoa (29.2%), Alveolata (22.4%) and Stramenopiles (17.8%). Stramenopiles (Diatomea) and Alveolata (Ciliophora) were frequent in a lagoon and in shallower coastal stations, whereas metazoans (Arthropoda: Maxillopoda) were dominant in deeper offshore stations. Only 24.6% of total OTUs were shared among all areas. Beta-diversity was generally lower between the lagoon and Jeddah (nearshore) than between either of those and the offshore area, suggesting a nearshore-offshore biodiversity gradient. The current approach allowed for a broad-range of benthic eukaryotic biodiversity to be analysed with significantly less labour than would be required by other traditional taxonomic approaches. Our findings suggest that next generation sequencing techniques have the potential to provide a fast and standardised screening of benthic biodiversity at large spatial and temporal scales.

  17. [Chilean's nursing knowledge organization and their tendencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Sara Mendoza; Klijin, Tatiana Paravic

    2004-01-01

    A Quantitative, descriptive and retrospective research that explored the Chilean Nursing knowledge organization an their tendencies. The universe was composed by scientists reports published in the Chilean nursing journals between 1965 and 2003 (N=214). Data were collected by an instrument based on the CIPE's and Nogueira's classification and cienciometría indications. Statistics measures of central tendency analysis was managed with SPSS. Some of the results obtained were: the more frequent study subject's was the professional nursing and the tendency is to be focused at the mature people's health necessities and their risk of being ill. It was found: little theoretical nursing sustenance at the reports. The "Ciencia y Enfermería" is the journal that exhibits the best scientific quality of alls.

  18. Constructing Realities: Bullying Usages in Chilean Discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bassaletti-Contreras

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article reports an exploratory research on the uses given in Chile to the Anglicism bullying. In order to do so, its evolution is reviewed from the early studies in the Nordic countries, to the treatment of the topic in the Chilean context. The focus of this work is based on socioconstructionism and in turn promotes the consideration of the characteristics of the socio-cultural and historical context of knowledge production with a postcolonial intention. To review the constructions on the subject, we selected Chilean videos at the YouTube virtual platform, using as methodology discourse analysis and dense description. In results can be observed two meanings of bullying: (i to refer to any kind of aggression and (ii as a homologous of abuse among schoolchildren. In response, it is realized the discrepancy with the proposed definitions from general academia and those used in the local environment in investigations, interventions, public policy and mass media in Chile.

  19. An overview of Chilean Marine Sciences Journals

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The work provides a global vision of Chilean marine sciences journals, besides the problems that have existed in relation to their edition and publication. In spite of being serious publications with rich scientific content related to the study area, mainly along the coast of the eastern South Pacific, these journals have not reached the expected levels to be considered within the ISI system journals. With the purpose of obtaining an objective appreciation in regard to the presentation format...

  20. Uniparental ancestry markers in Chilean populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Dutra Vieira-Machado

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans has led to the development of a multi-ethnic, admixed population in Chile. This study aimed to contribute to the characterization of the uniparental genetic structure of three Chilean regions. Newborns from seven hospitals in Independencia, Providencia, Santiago, Curicó, Cauquenes, Valdívia, and Puerto Montt communes, belonging to the Chilean regions of Santiago, Maule, and Los Lagos, were studied. The presence of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups and two markers present in the non-recombinant region of the Y chromosome, DYS199 and DYS287, indicative of Native American and African ancestry, respectively, was determined. A high Native American matrilineal contribution and a low Native American and African patrilineal contributions were found in all three studied regions. As previously found in Chilean admixed populations, the Native American matrilineal contribution was lower in Santiago than in the other studied regions. However, there was an unexpectedly higher contribution of Native American ancestry in one of the studied communes in Santiago, probably due to the high rate of immigration from other regions of the country. The population genetic sub-structure we detected in Santiago using few uniparental markers requires further confirmation, owing to possible stratification for autosomal and X-chromosome markers.

  1. Coral bleaching: one disturbance too many for near-shore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. A.; Dolman, A. M.

    2010-09-01

    The dynamic nature of coral communities can make it difficult to judge whether a reef system is resilient to the current disturbance regime. To address this question of resilience for near-shore coral communities of the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) a data set consisting of 350 annual observations of benthic community change was compiled from existing monitoring data. These data spanned the period 1985-2007 and were derived from coral reefs within 20 km of the coast. During years without major disturbance events, cover increase of the Acroporidae was much faster than it was for other coral families; a median of 11% per annum compared to medians of less than 4% for other coral families. Conversely, Acroporidae were more severely affected by cyclones and bleaching events than most other families. A simulation model parameterised with these observations indicated that while recovery rates of hard corals were sufficient to compensate for impacts associated with cyclones and crown-of-thorns starfish, the advent of mass bleaching has lead to a significant change in the composition of the community and a rapid decline in hard coral cover. Furthermore, if bleaching events continue to occur with the same frequency and severity as in the recent past, the model predicts that the cover of Acroporidae will continue to decline. Although significant cover of live coral remains on near-shore reefs, and recovery is observed during inter-disturbance periods, it appears that this system will not be resilient to the recent disturbance regime over the long term. Conservation strategies for coral reefs should focus on both mitigating local factors that act synergistically to increase the susceptibility of Acroporidae to climate change while promoting initiatives that maximise the recovery potential from inevitable disturbances.

  2. Benthic Food Webs of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas: Relative Importance of Ultimate Carbon Sources in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, K. H.; Schonberg, S. V.; Mctigue, N.; Bucolo, P. A.; Connelly, T. L.; McClelland, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in sea-ice cover, coastal erosion, and freshwater run-off have the potential to greatly influence carbon assimilation pathways and affect trophic structure in benthic communities across the western Arctic. In the Chukchi Sea, variations in the duration and timing of ice cover affect the delivery of ice algae to a relatively shallow (40-50 m) shelf benthos. Although ice algae are known as an important spring carbon subsidy for marine benthic fauna, ice algal contributions may also help initiate productivity of an active microphytobenthos. Recent studies provide clear evidence that the microphytobenthos are photosynthetically active, and have sufficient light and nutrients for in situ growth. The assimilation of benthic diatoms from both sources may explain the 13C enrichment observed in benthic primary consumers throughout the northern Chukchi. On the eastern Beaufort Sea coast, shallow (2-4 m) estuarine lagoon systems receive massive subsidies of terrestrial carbon that is assimilated by a benthic fauna of significant importance to upper trophic level species, but again, distinct 13C enrichment in benthic primary consumers suggests the existence of an uncharacterized food source. Since ice algae are absent, we believe the 13C enrichment in benthic fauna is caused by the assimilation of benthic microalgae, as reflected in seasonally high benthic chlorophyll in spring under replete light and nutrient conditions. Our observations suggest that changes in ice cover, on both temporal and spatial scales, are likely to have significant effects on the magnitude and timing of organic matter delivery to both shelf and nearshore systems, and that locally produced organic matter may become an increasingly important carbon subsidy that affects trophic assimilation and secondary ecosystem productivity.

  3. The CHilean Automatic Supernova sEarch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamuy, M.; Pignata, G.; Maza, J.

    2012-01-01

    The CHilean Automatic Supernova sEarch (CHASE) project began in 2007 with the goal to discover young, nearby southern supernovae in order to (1) better understand the physics of exploding stars and their progenitors, and (2) refine the methods to derive extragalactic distances. During the first...... four years of operation, CHASE has produced more than 130 supernovae, being the most successful project of its type in the southern hemisphere. Here we describe the project and present illustrative examples of CHASE discoveries of particular relevance....

  4. [Ethics code of the Chilean Biological Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Etica, C; Valenzuela, C; Cruz-Coke, R; Ureta, T; Bull, R

    1997-01-01

    The Chilean Biological Society has approved an ethics code for researchers, elaborated by its Ethic Committee. The text, with 16 articles, undertakes the main ethical problems that researchers must solve, such as institutional, professional or societal ethics, scientific fraud, breaches in collaborative work, relationships between researchers, participation in juries and committees, ethical breaches in scientific publications, scientific responsibility and punishments. This code declares its respect and valorization of all life forms and adheres to international biomedical ethical codes. It declares that all knowledge, created or obtained by researchers is mankind's heritage.

  5. Selection of Environmental Conditions for Nearshore Structure Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Sheng; GAN Buhong; HAO Xiaoli

    2004-01-01

    Different from the traditional one-dimensional extreme value statistical method, practical design criteria for nearshore structure design are presented based on joint probability theory in this paper. The proposed procedure considers the combined effect of tide level, huge waves and wind affecting coastal structures. The Importance Sampling Procedure (ISP) is utilized to solve the joint distribution of non-Gaussian correlated multivariate distributions. The calculation results show that the ISP is a simulating technique with the advantages of efficiency and high convergency. Finally the environmental conditions are given using this technique for near-shore structure design in the Qingdao area.

  6. BOUSSINESQ MODELLING OF NEARSHORE WAVES UNDER BODY FITTED COORDINATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Ke-zhao; ZOU Zhi-li; LIU Zhong-bo; YIN Ji-wei

    2012-01-01

    A set of nonlinear Boussinesq equations with fully nonlinearity property is solved numerically in generalized coordinates,to develop a Boussinesq-type wave model in dealing with irregular computation boundaries in complex nearshore regions and to facilitate the grid refinements in simulations.The governing equations expressed in contravariant components of velocity vectors under curv ilinear coordinates are derived and a high order finite difference scheme on a staggered grid is employed for the numerical implementation.The developed model is used to simulate nearshore wave propagations under curvilinear coordinates,the numerical results are compared against analytical or experimental data with a good agreement.

  7. Synergistic effects of hypoxia and increasing CO2 on benthic invertebrates of the central Chilean coast

    KAUST Repository

    Steckbauer, Alexandra

    2015-07-10

    Ocean acidification (OA) and hypoxic events are an increasing worldwide problem, but the synergetic effects of these factors are seldom explored. However, this synergetic occurrence of stressors is prevalent. The coastline of Chile not only suffers from coastal hypoxia but the cold, oxygen-poor waters in upwelling events are also supersaturated in CO2, a study site to explore the combined effect of OA and hypoxia. We experimentally evaluated the metabolic response of different invertebrate species (2 anthozoans, 9 molluscs, 4 crustaceans, 2 echinoderms) of the coastline of central Chile (33°30′S, 71°37′W) to hypoxia and OA within predicted levels and in a full factorial design. Organisms were exposed to 4 different treatments (ambient, low oxygen, high CO2, and the combination of low oxygen and high CO2) and metabolism was measured after 3 and 6 days. We show that the combination of hypoxia and increased pCO2 reduces the respiration significantly, compared to a single stressor. The evaluation of synergistic pressures, a more realistic scenario than single stressors, is crucial to evaluate the effect of future changes for coastal species and our results provide the first insight on what might happen in the next 100 years.

  8. Lagrangian flow measurements and observations of the 2015 Chilean tsunami in Ventura, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalligeris, Nikos; Skanavis, Vassilios; Tavakkol, Sasan; Ayca, Aykut; Safty, Hoda El; Lynett, Patrick; Synolakis, Costas

    2016-05-01

    Tsunami-induced coastal currents are spectacular examples of nonlinear and chaotic phenomena. Due to their long periods, tsunamis transport substantial energy into coastal waters, and as this energy interacts with the ubiquitous irregularity of bathymetry, shear and turbulent features appear. The oscillatory character of a tsunami wave train leads to flow reversals, which in principle can spawn persistent turbulent coherent structures (e.g., large vortices or "whirlpools") that can dominate damage and transport potential. However, no quantitative measurements exist to provide physical insight into this kind of turbulent variability, and no motion recordings are available to help elucidate how these vortical structures evolve and terminate. We report our measurements of currents in Ventura Harbor, California, generated by the 2015 Chilean M8.3 earthquake. We measured surface velocities using GPS drifters and image sequences of surface tracers deployed at a channel bifurcation, as the event unfolded. From the maps of the flow field, we find that a tsunami with a near-shore amplitude of 30 cm at 6 m depth produced unexpectedly large currents up to 1.5 m/s, which is a fourfold increase over what simple linear scaling would suggest. Coherent turbulent structures appear throughout the event, across a wide range of scales, often generating the greatest local currents.

  9. Mercury content in Chilean fish and estimated intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Sandra; Fortt, Antonia

    2007-09-01

    The intake of fish products is a major public health concern due to possible methyl mercury exposure, which is especially toxic to the human nervous system. This pilot study (n = 46) was designed to determine mercury concentrations in fish products for national consumption (Chilean jack mackerel, hake, Chilean mussel, tuna) and for export (salmon, Patagonian toothfish, swordfish, southern hake), and to estimate the exposure of the general population. The fish products were collected from markets in Talcahuano, Puerto Montt and Santiago. Samples were analyzed at the National Environmental Center by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mercury levels in swordfish and one canned tuna sample exceeded levels prescribed by national and international standards. The remaining two export products (Patagonian toothfish, also known as Chilean sea bass, and salmon) complied with international limits, which are more demanding than Chilean regulations. Theoretical estimates of mercury intake varied from 0.08 to 3.8 microg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for high fish consumers, exceeding the provisional tolerable intake for tuna, Chilean seabass, Chilean jack mackerel and swordfish. This group appears to be at the greatest risk from mercury contamination among the Chilean population.

  10. American Samoa ESI: BENTHIC (Benthic Marine Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for benthic habitats in American Samoa. Vector polygons in this data set represent the distribution of...

  11. Recurrent neural network modeling of nearshore sandbar behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pape, Leo; Ruessink, B.G.; Wiering, Marco A.; Turner, Ian L.

    2007-01-01

    The temporal evolution of nearshore sandbars (alongshore ridges of sand fringing coasts in water depths less than 10 m and of paramount importance for coastal safety) is commonly predicted using process-based models. These models are autoregressive and require offshore wave characteristics as input,

  12. Recurrent Neural Network Modeling of Nearshore Sandbar Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pape, L.; Ruessink, B.G.; Wiering, M.A.; Turner, I.L.

    2007-01-01

    The temporal evolution of nearshore sandbars (alongshore ridges of sand fringing coasts in water depths less than 10 m and of paramount importance for coastal safety) is commonly predicted using process-based models. These models are autoregressive and require offshore wave characteristics as input,

  13. Lake Superior: Nearshore Variability and a Landscape Driver Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    High spatial variation is well known to exist in water quality parameters of the Great Lakes nearshore, however strong patterns for extended reaches are also observed and found to be robust across a seasonal time frame. Less is known about robustness of inter-annual variation wi...

  14. Comprehensive Community Model for Physical Processes in the Nearshore Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    community model that predicts Nearshore hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and seabed morphology changes given offshore wave conditions and initial...and morphological evolution Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is...11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13

  15. Conceptual Model for Assessing Restoration of Puget Sound Nearshore Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    22 A.4. Linked information: Click pins provide access to hyperlinked information such as digital aerial photography that resides in the program...ecological processes involved with vegetation, colonization, growth, succession, and senescence . Structure can be defined at several scales, but we...access to hyperlinked information such as digital aerial photography that resides in the program database and relates to that nearshore feature

  16. Nearshoring Practices of Scandinavian MNCs in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Brazinskas, Sigitas; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2012-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to unravel and assess current nearshoring practices of Scandinavian MNCs. In addressing this issue, we draw on the literature within the areas of offshoring and outsourcing. We use mixed methods of enquiry involving case studies, survey techniques as well...

  17. NEPR Benthic Habitat Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This benthic habitat map was created from a semi-automated habitat mapping process, using a combination of bathymetry, satellite imagery, aerial imagery and...

  18. National Benthic Infaunal Database (NBID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NBID is a quantitative database on abundances of individual benthic species by sample and study region, along with other synoptically measured environmental...

  19. Benthic fauna of mangrove environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    The distribution, abundance and importance of benthic fauna in a mangrove environment has been discussed. This ecosystem is enriched with terrestrial, aquatic, marshy and mudflat species mangrove environment. Qualitative and quantitative...

  20. California coast nearshore processes study. [nearshore currents, sediment transport, estuaries, and river discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Large scale sediment plumes from intermittent streams and rivers form detectable seasonal patterns on ERTS-1 imagery. The ocean current systems, as plotted from three California coast ERTS mosaics, were identified. Offshore patterns of sediment in areas such as the Santa Barbara Channel are traceable. These patterns extend offshore to heretofore unanticipated ranges as shown on the ERTS-1 imagery. Flying spot scanner enhancements of NASA tapes resulted in details of subtle and often invisible (to the eye) nearshore features. The suspended sediments off San Francisco and in Monterey Bay are emphasized in detail. These are areas of extremely changeable offshore sediment transport patterns. Computer generated contouring of radiance levels resulted in maps that can be used in determining surface and nearsurface suspended sediment distribution. Tentative calibrations of ERTS-1 spectral brightness against sediment load have been made using shipboard measurements. Information from the combined enhancement and interpretation techniques is applicable to operational coastal engineering programs.

  1. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Paola; Obregón Ana M; Cataldo Rodrigo; Domínguez-Vásquez Patricia; Smalley Susan V; González Andrea; Ho-Urriola Judith A; Santos José L; Weisstaub Gerardo; Hodgson M Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the ...

  2. Wine tourism : a review of the Chilean case

    OpenAIRE

    Kunc, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Wine tourism has become a thriving niche in global tourism industry with successful cases like Napa Valley in the USA with 19 million visitors per year. However, there are important disparities among wine regions. The paper analyses the case of the Chilean wine tourism, which is one of the regions with less wine tourists although it is very important in global wine industry, and its reasons for its low level of development. Chilean wine industry has been developing its infrastructure in wine ...

  3. Nutrition education in Chilean primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Sonia; Zacarías, Isabel; Andrade, Margarita; Kain, Juliana; Lera, Lydia; Vio, Fernando; Morón, Cecilio

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to incorporate nutrition education in Chilean primary schools. The baseline information included nutritional status, food consumption and physical activity of 1701 children from 3rd to 7th grade in ten urban and rural schools. Main results showed a high prevalence of obesity (15.4%) and overweight (19.6%), low consumption of vegetables, fruits, and dairy products, high intake of snacks and a low level of physical activity, especially in girls. Because the Ministry of Education does not allow the incorporation of new programs into the curriculum, the educational strategy was based on the development of a text book, a teacher's guide, five practical guides for students from third to eighth grade and a CD-Rom. These materials were validated by 36 teachers in six schools through an educational intervention. Teachers and students considered the educational materials useful, motivational and easy to understand. This program is being implemented in 57 schools.

  4. Natural disturbance shapes benthic intertidal macroinvertebrate communities of high latitude river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchwell, Roy T.; Kendall, Steve J.; Blanchard, Amy L.; Dunton, Kenneth H.; Powell, Abby N.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike lower latitude coastlines, the estuarine nearshore zones of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea are icebound and frozen up to 9 months annually. This annual freezing event represents a dramatic physical disturbance to fauna living within intertidal sediments. The main objectives of this study were to describe the benthic communities of Beaufort Sea deltas, including temporal changes and trophic structure. Understanding benthic invertebrate communities provided a baseline for concurrent research on shorebird foraging ecology at these sites. We found that despite continuous year-to-year episodes of annual freezing, these estuarine deltas are populated by a range of invertebrates that represent both marine and freshwater assemblages. Freshwater organisms like Diptera and Oligochaeta not only survive this extreme event, but a marine invasion of infaunal organisms such as Amphipoda and Polychaeta rapidly recolonizes the delta mudflats following ice ablation. These delta sediments of sand, silt, and clay are fine in structure compared to sediments of other Beaufort Sea coastal intertidal habitats. The relatively depauperate invertebrate community that ultimately develops is composed of marine and freshwater benthic invertebrates. The composition of the infauna also reflects two strategies that make life on Beaufort Sea deltas possible: a migration of marine organisms from deeper lagoons to the intertidal and freshwater biota that survive the 9-month ice-covered period in frozen sediments. Stable isotopic analyses reveal that both infaunal assemblages assimilate marine and terrestrial sources of organic carbon. These results provide some of the first quantitative information on the infaunal food resources of shallow arctic estuarine systems and the long-term persistence of these invertebrate assemblages. Our data help explain the presence of large numbers of shorebirds in these habitats during the brief summer open-water period and their trophic importance to migrating

  5. Horizontal Nearshore Surface Dispersion for the Florida Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    NEARSHORE SURFACE DISPERSION FOR THE FLORIDA PANHANDLE by Kate J. Woodall June 2014 Thesis Advisor: James MacMahan Second Reader: Edward...followed regime, with λ results exhibiting enhanced growth over scales < 100 m, with Richardson like growth, λ ~ δ-2/3, for scales > 100 m. It is...OCEANOGRAPHY from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL June 2014 Author: Kate J. Woodall Approved by: James MacMahan, Ph.D. Thesis

  6. A Variational Assimilation System for Nearshore Wave Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    to estimate a variety of nonwave nearshore parameters, including bottom ba- thymetry (Lippmann and Holman 1990; van Dongeren Corresponding author...fluxes in falling films. Optim. Methods Soft- ware, 26, 105–125. Chickadel, C. C., R. A. Holman , and M. H. Freilich, 2003: An optical technique for the...Khattatov, and R. Menard, Eds., 2010: Data Assimi- lation: Making Sense of Observations. Springer, 718 pp. Lippmann, T. C., and R. A. Holman , 1990: The

  7. February 27, 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Pacific and its Arrival to North East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, EfiM.; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Ozer, Ceren; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina; Shevchenko, Georgy

    2010-05-01

    The outskirts of the fault plane broken by the strong earthquake on February 27, 2010 in Chili with a magnitude 8.8 at the 35km depth of 35.909°S, 72.733°W coordinates generated a moderate size tsunami. The initial amplitude of the tsunami source is not so high because of the major area of the plane was at land. The tsunami waves propagated far distances in South and North directions to East Asia and Wet America coasts. The waves are also recorded by several gauges in Pacific during its propagation and arrival to coastal areas. The recorded and observed amplitudes of tsunami waves are important for the potential effects with the threatening amplitudes. The event also showed that a moderate size tsunami can be effective even if it propagates far distances in any ocean or a marginal sea. The far east coasts of Russia at North East Asia (Sakhalin, Kuriles, Kamchatka) are one of the important source (i.e. November 15, 2006, Kuril Island Tsunami) and target (i.e. February, 27, 2010 Chilean tsunami) areas of the Pacific tsunamis. Many efforts have been spent for establishment of the monitoring system and assessment of tsunamis and development of the mitigation strategies against tsunamis and other hazards in the region. Development of the computer technologies provided the advances in data collection, transfer, and processing. Furthermore it also contributed new developments in computational tools and made the computer modeling to be an efficient tool in tsunami warning systems. In this study the tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE Nested version is used. NAMI-DANCE solves Nonlinear form of Long Wave (Shallow water) equations (with or without dispersion) using finite difference model in nested grid domains from the source to target areas in multiprocessor hardware environment. It is applied to 2010 Chilean tsunami and its propagation and coastal behavior at far distances near Sakhalin, Kuril and Kamchatka coasts. The main tide gauge records used in this study are from

  8. First record of massive blooming of benthic diatoms and their association with megabenthic filter feeders on the shallow seafloor of an Antarctic Fjord: Does glacier melting fuel the bloom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, In-Young; Moon, Hye-Won; Jeon, Misa; Kang, Sung-Ho

    2016-03-01

    We report a conspicuous benthic diatom bloom on an Antarctic fjord shallow seafloor, which has not been reported elsewhere in Antarctica. A thick and massive growth of benthic diatoms was covering or being entangled with a variety of common benthic megafauna such as stalked ascidians, sponges, tubedwelling polychaetes, gastropods, bryozoans, and others. This finding is an outcome of recent investigations on benthic communities in Marian Cove, King George Island, where glacier retreat has been proceeding quickly for the past several decades. Dominance of benthic diatoms during the austral summer has been frequently reported in shallow Antarctic nearshore waters, which in turn indicates their potential as a primary food item for secondary producers living in this harsh environment. However, previous blooming records of the benthic diatoms were primarily based on data from water column samples. We are the first to report observational evidence of shallow seafloor substrates, including the massive blooming of benthic diatoms and their associations with common benthic megafauna in an Antarctic fjord.

  9. The impact of Chilean migration on employment in Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariola Sanz, L

    1989-06-01

    This paper discusses the employment situation of Chilean migrant workers, their impact on labor markets in Patagonia, Argentina, and the government's past and projected responses to this phenomenon. In 1980, Chilean inhabitants of patagonia comprised 11% of the area's population. Chilean migration to patagonia was closely linked to economic activities that began to flourish in the 20th century, such as livestock raising, fruit and vegetable cultivation, and mining for coal and petroleum. No Chilean migrants work in a wide range of sectors. In Patagonia's southern provinces availability and ability to withstand rigorous climate conditions are the main factors which account for the prevalence of Chilean manpower. Chilean migrants do not in general displace local manpower. Legislation and the permeability of the border ensure that most workers enter the country as tourists. Clandestine migration is not an issue. Illegal migrants have provoked negative reactions for several reasons: 1) they comprise a marginal population without formal citizenship; 2) being employed as clandestine workers, they pay no social security, nor do their employers; 3) being illegal, they are obliged to accept lower wages and inferior working conditions which creates unfair competition within labor markets; and 4) as a result of these conditions, xenophobic and endophobic attitudes in relations with Argentine nationalists are reinforced. The government has attempted to solve these problems through various measures. Beginning in 1934, most foreigners entered Argentina with a tourist visa, becoming illegal when they stayed beyond authorized limits. Several measures over the years provided amnesty to illegal migrants. Currently, the law promotes immigration, monitors the admission of foreigners to the country and stipulates their rights and obligations. The law lists 115 articles on immigration promotion and on regulation of the movements of foreigners. Because of the present economic crisis in

  10. Minimun Pension Insurance in the Chilean Pension System Minimun Pension Insurance in the Chilean Pension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Zurita

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the "social" features of the Chilean individual capitalization pension system is the minimum pension scheme. which guarantees its members a minimum pension irrespective of the funds they accumulate, with the only requirement of twenty years of social security tax payments. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the implicit fiscal subsidy, using an option-based approach. We capture the risk associated to the returns on the pension fund account of a worker by modeling its value as a diffusion process and show the correspondence between the minimum pension insurance and a financial put option. Our results are the present value of the minimum pension benefit, equivalent to 3 percent of Chilean GDP for current active and non-active affiliated workers. These estimates are notoriously higher than previous results based on deterministic models, and strongly suggest the importance of explicitly considering the risk associated to pension assets when estimating the cost to the government of the insurance implied by the minimum pension benefit. One of the "social" features of the Chilean individual capitalization pension system is the minimum pension scheme. which guarantees its members a minimum pension irrespective of the funds they accumulate, with the only requirement of twenty years of social security tax payments. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the implicit fiscal subsidy, using an option-based approach. We capture the risk associated to the returns on the pension fund account of a worker by modeling its value as a diffusion process and show the correspondence between the minimum pension insurance and a financial put option. Our results are the present value of the minimum pension benefit, equivalent to 3 percent of Chilean GDP for current active and non-active affiliated workers. These estimates are notoriously higher than previous results based on deterministic models, and strongly suggest the importance of explicitly considering

  11. King County Nearshore Habitat Mapping Data Report: Picnic Point to Shilshole Bay Marina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Farley, Paul J.; Borde, Amy B.; Southard, John A.; Thom, Ronald M.

    2000-12-31

    The objective of this study is to provide accurate, georeferenced maps of benthic habitats to assist in the siting of a new wastewater treatment plant outfall and the assessment of habitats of endangered, threatened, and economically important species. The mapping was conducted in the fall of 1999 using two complementary techniques: side-scan sonar and underwater videography. Products derived from these techniques include geographic information system (GIS) compatible polygon data of substrate type and vegetation cover, including eelgrass and kelp. Additional GIS overlays include underwater video track line data of total macroalgae, selected macroalgal species, fish, and macroinvertebrates. The combined tools of geo-referenced side-scan sonar and underwater video is a powerful technique for assessing and mapping of nearshore habitat in Puget Sound. Side-scan sonar offers the ability to map eelgrass with high spatial accuracy and resolution, and provides information on patch size, shape, and coverage. It also provides information on substrate change and location of specific targets (e.g., piers, docks, pilings, large boulders, debris piles). The addition of underwater video is a complementary tool providing both groundtruthing for the sonar and additional information on macro fauna and flora. As a groundtruthing technique, the video was able to confirm differences between substrate types, as well as detect subtle spatial changes in substrate. It also verified information related to eelgrass, including the density classification categories and the type of substrate associated with eelgrass, which could not be determined easily with side- scan sonar. Video is also a powerful tool for mapping the location of macroalgae, (including kelp and Ulva), fish and macroinvertebrates. The ability to geo-locate these resources in their functional habitat provides an added layer of information and analytical potential.

  12. Results of Chilean water markets: Empirical research since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Carl J.

    2004-09-01

    Chile's free-market Water Code turned 20 years old in October 2001. This anniversary was an important milestone for both Chilean and international debates about water policy because Chile has become the world's leading example of the free-market approach to water law and water resources management, the textbook case of treating water rights not merely as private property but also as a fully marketable commodity. The predominant view outside of Chile is that Chilean water markets and the Chilean model of water management have been a success, and this perception has encouraged other countries to follow Chile's lead in water law reform. Much of the debate about Chilean water markets, however, has been based more on theoretical or political beliefs than on empirical study. This paper reverses that emphasis by reviewing the evolution of empirical research about these markets since 1990, when Chile returned to democratic government after 16 years of military rule. During the period since 1990, understanding of how Chilean water markets have worked in practice has gradually improved. There have been two major trends in this research: first, a gradual shift from exaggerated claims of the markets' success toward more balanced assessments of mixed results and, second, a heavy emphasis on the economics of water rights trading with very little attention given to the Water Code's impacts on social equity, river basin management, environmental protection, or resolution of water conflicts. The analysis in this study is qualitative and interdisciplinary, combining law, economics, and institutions.

  13. Anthropometric profile of elite Chilean Paralympic athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Durán-Agüero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sport is one of the most popular social events worldwide. It becomes interesting to characterize its practitioners, even more in some poorly studied groups such as Paralympic athletes. The main objective of this study is to determine the anthropometric profile of Chilean Elite Paralympic Athletes (CEPA through body composition and somatotype. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 41 subjects (93% of the classified to the Para-Panamerican Games Toronto 2015, who practiced table tennis (n=6, football 5 (n=11, swimming (n=8, rugby (n=7, powerlifting (n=6 and wheelchair tennis (n=3. The body composition and somatotype were assessed through the protocol described by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Results: The CEPA reach an average for that classifies somatotype mostly as meso-endomorphic (5.3 - 7.8 - 0.5, a BMI of 27.4 kg/m2, and body composition for fat mass reaches 29.8% in women and 25.7% in men, while muscle mass gain 42.6% (women and 44.5% (men. Conclusions: The CEPA have a somatotype profile that classifies mostly as meso-endomorphic, body composition has a predominance muscle mass and high fat mass, although is similar to other Paralympics athletes.

  14. Unique clusters of Archaea in Salar de Huasco, an athalassohaline evaporitic basin of the Chilean Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorador, Cristina; Vila, Irma; Remonsellez, Francisco; Imhoff, Johannes F; Witzel, Karl-Paul

    2010-08-01

    Analyses of clone libraries from water and sediments of different sites from Salar de Huasco, a high-altitude athalassohaline wetland in the Chilean Altiplano, revealed the presence of five unique clusters of uncultured Archaea that have not been previously reported or specifically assigned. These sequences were distantly related (83-96% sequence identity) to a limited number of other clone sequences and revealed no identity to cultured Archaea. The abundance of Archaea and Bacteria was estimated using qPCR and community composition was examined through the construction of clone libraries of archaeal 16S rRNA gene. Archaea were found to be dominant over Bacteria in sediments from two saline sites (sites H4: 6.31 x 10(4) and site H6: 1.37 x 10(4) microS cm(-1)) and in one of the water samples (freshwater from site H0: 607 muS cm(-1)). Euryarchaeotal sequences were more abundant than crenarchaeotal sequences. Many of the clone sequences (52%) were similar to uncultured archaeal groups found in marine ecosystems having identity values between 99% and 97%. A major fraction of the sequences (40%) were members of Methanobacteria, while others were included in the Marine Benthic Groups B and D, the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group, the Terrestrial Miscellaneous Euryarchaeotal Group, Marine Group I and Halobacteria. The presence of uncultured archaeal groups in Salar de Huasco extends their known distribution in inland waters, providing new clues about their possible function in the environment.

  15. Extracellular DNA amplicon sequencing reveals high levels of benthic eukaryotic diversity in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.

    2015-11-01

    The present study aims to characterize the benthic eukaryotic biodiversity patterns at a coarse taxonomic level in three areas of the central Red Sea (a lagoon, an offshore area in Thuwal and a shallow coastal area near Jeddah) based on extracellular DNA. High-throughput amplicon sequencing targeting the V9 region of the 18S rRNA gene was undertaken for 32 sediment samples. High levels of alpha-diversity were detected with 16,089 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being identified. The majority of the OTUs were assigned to Metazoa (29.2%), Alveolata (22.4%) and Stramenopiles (17.8%). Stramenopiles (Diatomea) and Alveolata (Ciliophora) were frequent in a lagoon and in shallower coastal stations, whereas metazoans (Arthropoda: Maxillopoda) were dominant in deeper offshore stations. Only 24.6% of total OTUs were shared among all areas. Beta-diversity was generally lower between the lagoon and Jeddah (nearshore) than between either of those and the offshore area, suggesting a nearshore–offshore biodiversity gradient. The current approach allowed for a broad-range of benthic eukaryotic biodiversity to be analysed with significantly less labour than would be required by other traditional taxonomic approaches. Our findings suggest that next generation sequencing techniques have the potential to provide a fast and standardised screening of benthic biodiversity at large spatial and temporal scales.

  16. Assessing benthic ecological status in stressed Liaodong Bay (China) with AMBI and M-AMBI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Wenqian; MENG Wei; ZHU Yanzhong; ZHOU Juan; LIU Lusan

    2013-01-01

    Rapid economic development in recent decades has resulted in environmental degradation of Liaodong Bay,North China,where eutrophication is becoming more evident because of excess nutrients inputs.To assess the benthic ecological status in Liaodong Bay,AZTI's Marine Biotic Index (AMBI) and multivariate-AMBI (M-AMBI) were applied using both benthic macroinvertebrate density and biomass data collected from Liaodong Bay in July 2007.This first application of AMBI and M-AMBI in Liaodong Bay showed that the nearshore areas of the bay,especially near river estuaries,were severely disturbed,with a clear gradient of disturbance decreasing seaward.Ecological status assessed from density and biomass data was quite similar.Significant relationships were also found between both indices and environmental variables in Liaodong Bay.Moreover,the spatial distributions of both AMBI and M-AMBI matched those of plotted eutrophication indices (EI) in the surface water layer,and significant linear correlations were found between both benthic indices and EI.In general,both AMBI and M-AMBI worked well on assessing the ecological status of Liaodong Bay under eutrophication stress due to excess nutrients inputs.

  17. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women

    Science.gov (United States)

    CIANELLI, ROSINA; FERRER, LILIAN; MCELMURRY, BEVERLY J.

    2008-01-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV. PMID:18432428

  18. Composition, abundance, distribution and seasonality of larval fishes in the shallow nearshore of the proposed Greater Addo Marine Reserve, Algoa Bay, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattrick, Paula; Strydom, Nadine A.

    2008-08-01

    The larval fish assemblage was investigated in the shallow, nearshore region of a proposed marine protected area in eastern Algoa Bay, temperate South Africa, prior to proclamation. Sampling was conducted at six sites along two different depth contours at ˜5 m and ˜15 m to assess shore association. Larvae were collected by means of stepped oblique bongo net tows deployed off a ski-boat, twice per season for 2 years between 2005 and 2007. In total, 6045 larval fishes were collected representing 32 families and 78 species. The Gobiidae, Cynoglossidae, Clupeidae, Engraulidae and Sparidae were the dominant fish families. Catches varied significantly among seasons peaking in spring with a mean of ˜200 larvae/100 m 3. Mean overall larval density was higher along the deeper contour, at ˜15 m (40 larvae/100 m 3). The preflexion stage of development dominated catches at the ˜5 m (80%) and ˜15 m (73%) depth contours. Body lengths of Argyrosomus thorpei, Caffrogobius gilchristi, Diplodus capensis, Heteromycteris capensis and Solea turbynei, all estuary associated species, were larger at the shallow sites nearer to shore. Larvae of coastal species that produce benthic eggs dominated catches (75%) in the shallow sites (˜5 m) but were less abundant (32%) farther from shore at the deeper (˜15 m) sites. All developmental stages of D. capensis, Engraulis capensis, H. capensis, Sardinops sagax and two Pomadasys species were found in the study area. It appears that some species use the shallow nearshore as a nursery area.

  19. The RUNE Experiment—A Database of Remote-Sensing Observations of Near-Shore Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier Ralph; Peña, Alfredo; Lea, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive database of near-shore wind observations that were carried out during the experimental campaign of the RUNE project. RUNE aims at reducing the uncertainty of the near-shore wind resource estimates from model outputs by using lidar, ocean, and satellite observations. Here...

  20. Wave exposure as a predictor of benthic habitat distribution on high energy temperate reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eRattray

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The new found ability to measure physical attributes of the marine environment at high resolution across broad spatial scales has driven the rapid evolution of benthic habitat mapping as a field in its own right. Improvement of the resolution and ecological validity of seafloor habitat distribution models has, for the most part, paralleled developments in new generations of acoustic survey tools such as multibeam echosounders. While sonar methods have been well demonstrated to provide useful proxies of the relatively static geophysical patterns that reflect distribution of benthic species and assemblages, the spatially and temporally variable influence of hydrodynamic energy on habitat distribution have been less well studied. Here we investigate the role of wave exposure on patterns of distribution of near-shore benthic habitats. A high resolution spectral wave model was developed for a 624 km2 site along Cape Otway, a major coastal feature of western Victoria, Australia. Comparison of habitat classifications implemented using the Random Forests algorithm established that significantly more accurate estimations of habitat distribution were obtained by including a fine-scale numerical wave model, extended to the seabed using linear wave theory, than by using depth and seafloor morphology information alone. Variable importance measures and map interpretation indicated that the spatial variation in wave induced bottom orbital velocity was most influential in discriminating habitat the classes containing canopy forming kelp Ecklonia radiata, a foundation kelp species that affects biodiversity and ecological functioning on shallow reefs across temperate Australasia. We demonstrate that hydrodynamic models reflecting key environmental drivers on wave exposed coastlines are important in accurately defining distributions of benthic habitats.

  1. Supply Management Analysis of the Chilean Navy Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    1. Generic supply chain diagram (from Sanders, 2012) ......................................11 Figure 2. Chilean Navy Logistics Organization...Sanders, 2012). Supply chain management involves the following activities (Monczka et al., 2009, pp. 17–19). • Purchasing or procurement • Inbound ...it will be measured, and how the data obtained will be used (Monczka et al., 2009). Some examples of indicators used inside the military logistics

  2. The 2011 Chilean Student Movement against Neoliberal Educational Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellei, Cristián; Cabalin, Cristian; Orellana, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the 2011 Chilean student movement, the most relevant social mobilisation in Chile since the restoration of democracy in 1990. Based on available material and secondary sources, it describes the main features of this student movement, analyses the key components of the students' discourse and its relationship with the Chilean…

  3. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador Paola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ. Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Results Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P Conclusion Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile.

  4. Quality of Chilean Early Childhood Education from an International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalon, Malva; Suzuki, Emy; Herrera, Maria Olivia; Mathiesen, Maria Elena

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the quality of different types of early childhood care and education programs in Chile according to international standards. Recorded structural and process characteristics observed in the classrooms. Found that Chilean preschool programs showed a minimum level of quality, with a high proportion of centers in the inadequate range.…

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for bruises in Chilean bovine carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strappini, A.C.; Frankena, K.; Metz, J.H.M.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Records of cattle slaughtered at two Chilean slaughterhouses (SLH1 and SLH2) were used to determine prevalence and risk factors for carcasses with bruises. Bruise prevalence amounted to 12.3% but differed between slaughterhouses (20.8% for SLH1 and 8.6% for SLH2 respectively). Bruise severity grade

  6. Chilean Adolescents' and Parents' Views on Autonomy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M. Loreto; Pérez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand Chilean parents' and adolescents' conceptions of autonomy and whether they hold different expectations for autonomous behaviors by generation and socioeconomic level. A qualitative approach to data collection was used through separate focus groups of parents and adolescents from different socioeconomic condition.…

  7. Influence of dreissenid mussels on catchability of benthic fishes in bottom trawls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Stapanian, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    Inferring trends in true abundance of fish populations from catch per unit effort data requires either the knowledge of capture probability or the assumption that it is constant, both of which are unlikely contingencies. We developed and validated an index of catchability (a proxy measure for capture probability) from a long-term data set describing nearshore waters of western Lake Erie, and we used the index to test the hypothesis that catchability of four abundant benthic species captured in bottom trawls changed after the invasion of dreissenid mussels. We estimated daytime and nighttime catchability for 1972–1990 (predreissenid period) and 1991–2009 (dreissenid period); we then tested for differences between nighttime and daytime catchability in the predreissenid and dreissenid periods and the nighttime–daytime differential in catchability during the dreissenid period. We also tested relationships between Secchi depth and the catchability index via linear regression. Catchability indices for white perch Morone americana, yellow perch Perca flavescens, and trout-perch Percopsis omiscomaycus did not differ between daytime and nighttime during the predreissenid period. After establishment of dreissenids, all three of these species had lower daytime catchability than nighttime catchability and had positive nighttime–daytime differentials, indicating a shift toward higher nighttime catchability relative to daytime catchability. Changes in catchability indices for freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens were opposite the changes observed for the other three species, possibly because the freshwater drum is the only species that actively feeds on dreissenids. Catchability indices were negatively related to water clarity (Secchi depth) for three of the species. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that catchability of the four most common benthic fish species captured in bottom trawls within nearshore waters of western Lake Erie changed after the

  8. Nearshore bars and the break-point hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenger, A.H.; Howd, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The set of hypotheses calling for bar formation at the break point was tested with field data. During two different experiments, waves were measured across the surf zone coincident with the development of a nearshore bar. We use a criterion, based on the wave height to depth ratio, to determine the offshore limit of the inner surf zone. During the first experiment, the bar became better developed and migrated offshore while remaining well within the inner surf zone. During the second experiment, the surf zone was narrower and we cannot rule out the possibility of break point processes contributing to bar development. We conclude that bars are not necessarily coupled with the break point and can become better developed and migrate offshore while being in the inner surf zone landward from initial wave breaking in the outer surf zone. ?? 1989.

  9. Sediment transport in the nearshore area of Phoenix Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rijun; Ma, Fang; Wu, Jianzheng; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Shenghui; Xu, Yongchen; Zhu, Longhai; Wang, Nan; Liu, Aijiang

    2016-10-01

    Based on the measured data, suspended sediment concentration, surface sediment grain size, current and waves, the sediment transport mechanisms and pathways in the Phoenix Island area were analyzed using methods of flux decomposition and Grain Size Trend Analysis (GSTA). The results show that net suspended sediment is mainly transported by average current, Stokes drift, and gravitational circulation. The transport direction of suspended sediment is varying and basically following the direction of residual tidal currents. Surface sediment transport pathways are primarily parallel to the coastline along with two convergent centers. Waves and longshore currents have a significant influence on sediment transport, but the influence is limited due to a steep and deep underwater bank. Tidal current is the main controlling factor for sediment transport, especially in the deep water area. Neither suspended nor surface sediment is transported towards the southwest. The South Shandong Coastal Current (SSCC) has little effect on sediment transport processes in the nearshore area of Phoenix Island.

  10. State of the benthic ecosystem on western Black Sea shelf in spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, J.; Aleynik, D.; Eulenburg, A.; Kusch, St.; Mee, L. D.; Minicheva, G.; Stevens, T. F.; Teaca, A.; Shapiro, G. I.; Soloviev, D.

    2009-04-01

    : thermal heating and freshwater input created a double front structure on the western shelf, and intrusion of the Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) into shelf waters was observed. Surface distribution of dissolved nutrients reflects clear signals of silica and total dissolved nitrogen input from the Danube River. Phosphate appears to have a different source, e.g. benthic and/or from the CIL. The benthic ecosystem remains fragile; diversity indices reflect small recovery, quantities in biomass of both zoo- and phytobenthos indicate ongoing perturbations in nearshore areas. A full recovery of historical beds of Phyllophora is not evident, coverage both in winter and summer is less than 10%, and its role as habitat could be compromised by overgrowth of filamentous algae. The benthic system with an epibenthic community in balance releases less nutrients than a disturbed system without benthic life. Nutrients release from the sediment is lower in winter than in summer. The oxygen penetration depth in the sediment triggers denitrification. A spectacular population development of opportunistic species both in zoo- and phytobenthos was observed. The question remains whether or not those opportunistic species can ensure ecosystem functionality and stability. Our findings will help to identify locations crucial for the functioning for the benthic shelf ecosystem, to define "Good Environmental Status" and help to provide recommendations for Marine protected areas on the western Black Sea shelf. It is hoped that the data will make an important contribution to the information base underpinning the new European Marine Strategy Directive and the Bucharest Convention for the Protection of the Black Sea.

  11. Free-living benthic marine invertebrates in Chile Invertebrados bentónicos marinos de vida libre en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTHEW R LEE

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive literature review was conducted to determine the species richness of all the possible taxa of free-living benthic marine invertebrates in Chile. In addition, the extent of endemism to the Pacific Islands and deep-sea, the number of non-indigenous species, and the contribution that the Chilean benthic marine invertebrate fauna makes to the world benthic marine invertebrate fauna was examined. A total of 4,553 species were found. The most speciose taxa were the Crustacea, Mollusca and Polychaeta. Species richness data was not available for a number of taxa, despite evidence that these taxa are present in the Chilean benthos. The Chilean marine invertebrate benthic fauna constitutes 2.47 % of the world marine invertebrate benthic fauna. There are 599 species endemic to the Pacific Islands and 205 in the deep-sea. There are 25 invasive or non-indigenous species so far identified in Chile. Though the Chilean fauna is speciose there is still a considerable amount of diversity yet to be described, particularly amongst the small bodied invertebrates and from the less well explored habitats, such as the deep-seaSe realizó una revisión exhaustiva de la literatura para determinar la riqueza de especies de todos los taxa de invertebrados bentónicos de vida libre en Chile. Además, se analizó el endemismo de invertebrados marinos bentónicos para las islas chilenas del Pacífico y el mar profundo y el número de especies no indígenas; del mismo modo que la contribución de estos invertebrados a la riqueza mundial de invertebrados bentónicos marinos. Para Chile se acumuló un total de 4.553 especies de invertebrados bentónicos. Los taxa con más especies fueron Crustacea, Mollusca y Polychaeta. En algunos taxa de invertebrados no se encontró información sobre la diversidad de especies presentes en Chile, a pesar de existir evidencia de que éstos están presentes en el bentos marino chileno. Los invertebrados bentónicos marinos

  12. Mechanisms of temporary adhesion in benthic animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodou, D.; Breedveld, P.; Winter, J.C.F.; Dankelman, J.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Adhesive systems are ubiquitous in benthic animals and play a key role in diverse functions such as locomotion, food capture, mating, burrow building, and defence. For benthic animals that release adhesives, surface and material properties and external morphology have received little attention compa

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for bruises in Chilean bovine carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strappini, A C; Frankena, K; Metz, J H M; Gallo, B; Kemp, B

    2010-11-01

    Records of cattle slaughtered at two Chilean slaughterhouses (SLH1 and SLH2) were used to determine prevalence and risk factors for carcasses with bruises. Bruise prevalence amounted to 12.3% but differed between slaughterhouses (20.8% for SLH1 and 8.6% for SLH2 respectively). Bruise severity grade 1 (mild) was most frequently recorded. The type of the animal, source of animal, the level of fat cover and lairage time were associated with the presence of bruises. Older categories of animals and animals that pass through a market before being moved to the slaughterhouse are more prone to show bruises. The results also indicate that under the reported Chilean circumstances animals that have longer lairage times (over 12 h) have a significantly reduced risk for bruises, except for oxen. Presence of bruises is also significantly associated with increased carcass pH values.

  14. The Chilean Health System: 20 Years of Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Annick

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean health care system has been intensively reformed in the past 20 years. Reforms under the Pinochet government (1973-1990 aimed mainly at the decentralization of the system and the development of a private sector. Decentralization involved both a deconcentration process and the devolution of primary health care to municipalities. The democratic governments after 1990 chose to preserve the core organization but introduced reforms intended to correct the system's failures and to increase both efficiency and equity. The present article briefly explains the current organization of the Chilean health care system. It also reviews the different reforms introduced in the past 20 years, from the Pinochet regime to the democratic governments. Finally, a brief discussion describes the strengths and weaknesses of the system, as well as the challenges it currently faces.

  15. Genetic structure characterization of Chileans reflects historical immigration patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyheramendy, Susana; Martinez, Felipe I; Manevy, Federico; Vial, Cecilia; Repetto, Gabriela M

    2015-03-17

    Identifying the ancestral components of genomes of admixed individuals helps uncovering the genetic basis of diseases and understanding the demographic history of populations. We estimate local ancestry on 313 Chileans and assess the contribution from three continental populations. The distribution of ancestry block-length suggests an average admixing time around 10 generations ago. Sex-chromosome analyses confirm imbalanced contribution of European men and Native-American women. Previously known genes under selection contain SNPs showing large difference in allele frequencies. Furthermore, we show that assessing ancestry is harder at SNPs with higher recombination rates and easier at SNPs with large difference in allele frequencies at the ancestral populations. Two observations, that African ancestry proportions systematically decrease from North to South, and that European ancestry proportions are highest in central regions, show that the genetic structure of Chileans is under the influence of a diffusion process leading to an ancestry gradient related to geography.

  16. Women and changes in the Chilean economy: some questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiaroski, M S

    1996-10-01

    The author argues that a new development model that encourages greater participation of women in the work force in domestic piecework, temporary work, and subcontracting may further lead to the exploitation of women in Chile. The importance of women in economic development in Chile should be based on building skills, providing support child care services, reorienting women's education, and tax incentives. Chile over the past decade has achieved relatively stable economic growth and increased employment of women. During 1990-93 the growth of women in the work force increased at a rate of 16.8%, while men's presence increased by only 9.8%. The Chilean economy is based on a sophisticated modern sector and a labor-intensive informal sector. The Chilean model of development relies on cheap, flexible labor and a government approval of this model. Increased participation of women in the labor force is usually perceived as increased economic empowerment. A 1994 Oxfam study found that women were being forced into the labor market due to declines in family income and low wages. 46% of men and women received wages that did not cover basic necessities. The Chilean labor market is gender-stratified. Men are paid better than women for the same work. Men are in more permanent positions. Labor laws are either inadequate or violated, particularly for hours of work and overtime pay and conditions of employment and benefits. Traditional female jobs are those that rely on women's natural attributes. These unskilled attributes are rewarded with low wages. Little opportunity is provided for upgrading skills or acquiring new skills. Some women turn down advancement because of a lack of role models. Women have little opportunity to develop their self-image as workers. Poor self-images affect women's work attitudes and motivation. Some firms use competition between women to boost production. Chilean women remain in subordinate roles.

  17. Educational Opportunity and Contentious Politics: The 2011 Chilean Student Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas, Daniel; Fraser, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 Chilean student movement was one of the most massive and original processes of social mobilization in Latin America in the last decade. Led by university students, the movement challenged the longstanding free-market orientation of educational policies in Chile, demanding a more active role for the State in the regulation and supply of education. In this article, we study the main educational and social factors that explain the emergence of the movement. We draw upon social movement ...

  18. A New Liquidity Risk Measure for the Chilean Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastián Becerra; Gregory Claeys; Juan Francisco Martínez

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to construct an appropriate measure of liquidity risk for Chilean banks. There are already several measures of liquidity risk in the literature. Most of these metrics are based on specific assumptions and expert opinion. In order to overcome the potential problems associated with discretionary assumptions, and to exploit the information available, similar to the work of Drehman and Nikolaou (2012), we propose a metric based on the behavior of banks in the procure...

  19. [ANTHROPOMETRIC CHILEAN TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS OF COMPETITIVE FEATURES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Barraza, Fernando; Rosales Soto, Giovanni; Báez, Eduardo; Tuesta, Marcelo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the anthropometric profile and somatotype of a sample of 50 players table tennis competitive with an average age 21.6 (± 3.1) years belonging to the Chilean team and institutions of higher education in the region of Valparaiso. The evaluation was conducted under the protocol marking the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) for the measurement procedure 25 restricted profile variables described by Drinkwater, Norton and Olds. Order to determine the body composition, fat, muscle, bone, skin and tissue residual was considered, using the equations proposed by Kerr. The body shape is characterized through somatotype method proposed by Carter. The sample was divided into 4 groups; Chilean Selection, Traditional Private Universities, State Universities and Private Universities Traditional Nontraditional. Regarding body composition; the Chilean team has the highest values of muscle tissue (45.6 ± 1.7%) and the lowest values of adipose tissue (25.2 ± 1.8%), also presenting lesser value in the Σ 6 skinfolds (mm) . The results showed no significant differences between groups in the aforementioned variables. In general somatotype compared by analyzing SANOVA no significant differences between groups (p = 0.409) was observed. The results show a biotype with such a characterization of endo-mesomorph with average values (4,1-4,9-1,8). This study provides updated data biotypological reference for this sport that can be used for decision-making.

  20. AFSC/REFM: Nearshore fish survey in northern Bristol Bay, Alaska, July-August 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project consisted of a nearshore fish, invertebrate, and habitat survey in northern Bristol Bay, Alaska. A 32-ft. gillnet vessel, the F/V Willow was chartered...

  1. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 13 (NS13): Kahului, Maui, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  2. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 10 (NS10): Maunalua Bay, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  3. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 15 (NS15): Pago Bay, Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  4. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 05 (NS05): Pago Pago, American Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  5. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 02 (NS02): Hawaii Yacht Club, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  6. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 07 (NS07): Majuro, Marshall Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  7. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 16 (NS16): Wailupe, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  8. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 01 (NS01): Waikiki Yacht Club, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  9. Measures of Cost Economies in Chilean Banking: 1984-1991 Measures of Cost Economies in Chilean Banking: 1984-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat B. Nauriyal

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents measures of cost economies in Chilean banking following the many regulatory and structural changes implemented by Chilean authorities in the aftermath of the 1981-83 financial system crisis. Utilizing panel, and annual cross section monthly data on 37 individual banking institutions in operation over 1984-91, a translogarithmic cost specification is adopted to estimate economies of scale and scope. My findings suggest the presence of persistent and significant economies of scale. Weaker evidence on the presence of economies of scope is also detected. These findings are of additional importance as the estimation methodology adopted overcomes an inherent flaw in most other similar studies that lump together different sizes of financial institutions for a cross sectional analysis over a one or two year period. This paper presents measures of cost economies in Chilean banking following the many regulatory and structural changes implemented by Chilean authorities in the aftermath of the 1981-83 financial system crisis. Utilizing panel, and annual cross section monthly data on 37 individual banking institutions in operation over 1984-91, a translogarithmic cost specification is adopted to estimate economies of scale and scope. My findings suggest the presence of persistent and significant economies of scale. Weaker evidence on the presence of economies of scope is also detected. These findings are of additional importance as the estimation methodology adopted overcomes an inherent flaw in most other similar studies that lump together different sizes of financial institutions for a cross sectional analysis over a one or two year period.

  10. Thermography of the New River Inlet plume and nearshore currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickadel, C.; Jessup, A.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the DARLA and RIVET experiments, thermal imaging systems mounted on a tower and in an airplane captured water flow in the New River Inlet, NC, USA. Kilometer-scale, airborne thermal imagery of the inlet details the ebb flow of the estuarine plume water mixing with ocean water. Multiple fronts, corresponding to the preferred channels through the ebb tidal delta, are imaged in the aerial data. A series of internal fronts suggest discreet sources of the tidal plume that vary with time. Focused thermal measurements made from a tower on the south side of the inlet viewed an area within a radius of a few hundred meters. Sub-meter resolution video from the tower revealed fine-scale flow features and the interaction of tidal exchange and wave-forced surfzone currents. Using the tower and airborne thermal image data we plan to provide geophysical information to compare with numerical models and in situ measurements made by other investigators. From the overflights, we will map the spatial and temporal extent of the estuarine plume to correlate with tidal phase and local wind conditions. From the tower data, we will investigate the structure of the nearshore flow using a thermal particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique, which is based on tracking motion of the surface temperature patterns. Long term variability of the mean and turbulent two-dimensional PIV currents will be correlated to local wave, tidal, and wind forcing parameters.

  11. On the modeling of wave-enhanced turbulence nearshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Saeed; Thomson, Jim; Özkan-Haller, Tuba; Umlauf, Lars; Zippel, Seth

    2016-07-01

    A high resolution k-ω two-equation turbulence closure model, including surface wave forcing was employed to fully resolve turbulence dissipation rate profiles close to the ocean surface. Model results were compared with observations from Surface Wave Instrument Floats with Tracking (SWIFTs) in the nearshore region at New River Inlet, North Carolina USA, in June 2012. A sensitivity analysis for different physical parameters and wave and turbulence formulations was performed. The flux of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) prescribed by wave dissipation from a numerical wave model was compared with the conventional prescription using the wind friction velocity. A surface roughness length of 0.6 times the significant wave height was proposed, and the flux of TKE was applied at a distance below the mean sea surface that is half of this roughness length. The wave enhanced layer had a total depth that is almost three times the significant wave height. In this layer the non-dimensionalized Terray scaling with power of - 1.8 (instead of - 2) was applicable.

  12. Feasibility of remote sensing benthic microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingmark, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    Results of data analyses from multispectral scanning data are presented. The data was collected in July 1977 for concentration of chlorophyll in benthic microalgae (mainly diatoms) on an estuary mudflat.

  13. Benthic Habitats of the Florida Keys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic habitats of the Florida Keys were mapped from a series of 450 aerial photographs. Ecologists outlined the boundaries of specific habitat types by...

  14. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  15. Coastal Benthic Boundary Layer (CBBL) Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Ecologic Atlas of Benthic Foraminifera of the Gulf of Mexico . Marine Science International, Woods Hole, MA, 174 p. Shiller, Alan, M., Brunner, Charlotte A...implications for the preservation of skeletal carbonates. Sedimentology, 45:39-51. Poag, C. Wylie, 1981. Ecologic Atlas of Benthic Foraminifera of the Gulf of...of the inner continental shelf. The shelf of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico is currently sediment-starved with most material deposited by the

  16. Shorebird avoidance of nearshore feeding and roosting areas at night correlates with presence of a nocturnal avian predator

    OpenAIRE

    Piersma, Theunis; Gill, Robert E.; Goeij, Petra de; Dekinga, Anne; Shepherd, Marnie L.; Ruthrauff, Daniel; Tibbitts, Lee

    2006-01-01

    We here report two anecdotes about avian interactions relevant to the interpretation of differences in shorebird habitat use between day and night. Several studies have reported that shorebirds avoid feeding and roosting along nearshore areas at night yet commonly use these sites during daytime. This suggests that nighttime avoidance of nearshore places is a response to increased danger of predation. When mist-netting during autumn 2005 on nearshore intertidal habitats along South Spit, Egegi...

  17. Predominant Nearshore Sediment Dispersal Patterns in Manila Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Siringan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Net nearshore sediment drift patterns in Manila Bay were determined by combining the coastal geomorphology depicted in 1 : 50,000scale topographic maps and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images, with changes in shoreline position and predominant longshore current directions derived from the interaction of locally generated waves and bay morphology.Manila Bay is fringed by a variety of coastal subenvironments that reflect changing balances of fluvial, wave, and tidal processes. Along the northern coast, a broad tidal-river delta plain stretching from Bataan to Bulacan indicates the importance of tides, where the lateral extent of tidal influences is amplified by the very gentle coastal gradients. In contrast, along the Cavite coast sandy strandplains, spits, and wave-dominated deltas attest to the geomorphic importance of waves that enter the bay from the South China Sea.The estimates of net sediment drift derived from geomorphological, shoreline-change, and meteorological information are generally in good agreement. Sediment drift directions are predominantly to the northeast along Cavite, to the northwest along Manila and Bulacan, and to the north along Bataan. Wave refraction and eddy formation at the tip of the Cavite Spit cause southwestward sediment drift along the coast from Zapote to Kawit. Geomorphology indicates that onshore-offshore sediment transport is probably more important than alongshore transport along the coast fronting the tidal delta plain of northern Manila Bay. Disagreements between the geomorphic-derived and predicted net sediment drift directions may be due to interactions of wave-generated longshore currents with wind- and tide-generated currents.

  18. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of nearshore circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Detong

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional nearshore circulation model was developed by coupling CH3D, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model and REF/DIF, a nearsbore wave transformation model. The model solves the three-dimensional wave-averaged equations of motion. Wave-induced effects on circulation were introduced in the form of radiation stresses, wave-induced mass transport, wave-induced enhancement of bottom friction and wave-induced turbulent mixing. Effects of breaking waves were considered following Svendsen (1984a and 1984b) and Stive and Wind (1986). The model was successfully tested against the analytical solution of longshore currents by Longuet and Higgins (1970). The model successfully simulated the undertow as observed in a laboratory experiment by Stive and Wind (1982). In addition, the model was applied to a physical model by Mory and Hamm (1997) and successfully reproduced the eddy behind a detached breakwater as well as the longshore current on the open beach and the contiguous eddy in the open area of the wave tank. While the qualitative agreement between model results and experimental observations was very good, the quantitative agreement needs to be further improved. Albeit difficult to explain every discrepancy between the model re- suits and observations, in general, sources of errors are attributed to the lack of understanding and comprehensive description of following processes: (1) the horizontal and vertical distribution of radiation stress, especially for breaking waves; (2) the detailed structure of turbulence;(3)Wave-current interaction (not included at this moment) ; and (4)the wave- current boundary layer and the resulting bottom shear stress.

  19. Preliminary measurements of gamma radiation in Chilean Antarctic Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuardo B, E. (Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago. Dept. de Aplicaciones Nucleares)

    1983-11-01

    Natural and artificial gamma radiation, 1 m above the soil, is being investigated in 4 Chilean Antartic Stations. The measurements are performed with different types of TLD detectors. Preliminary results in the Tte. Marsh Station are reported and discussed. An average exposition of 3,5 ..mu..R/h was found during a 108 days period. This exposition corresponds to an annual dose of about 40 mrad, 8% of the annual dose limit for individual of the public. The presence of low energy artificial radioisotopes was not found.

  20. Chilean Euphorbiaceae species as sources of fuels and raw chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnecco, S.; Bartulin, J.; Marticorena, C.; Ramirez, A.

    1988-01-01

    The potential of some species of Chilean Euphorbiaceae as sources of hydrocarbon-like materials was evaluated. Samples of plants excluding roots, were analyzed for CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ extractives, resins and hydrocarbons. The presence of waxes and natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) was confirmed using spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. C/H values for representative fractions were calculated and extracted samples from selected species analyzed for apparent protein contents. Results suggested that at least two species, Euphorbia lactiflua and Euphorbia copiapina might have an industrial potential.

  1. Misconception p value among Chilean and Italian academic psychologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Badenes-Ribera

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The p value misconceptions are based on certain beliefs and attributions about the significance of the results. Thus, they affect the professionals’ decisions and jeopardize the quality of interventions and the accumulation of valid scientific knowledge. We conducted a survey on 164 academic psychologists (134 Italians, 30 Chileans, questioned on this topic. Our findings are consistent with original research and suggest that some participants do not know how to correctly interpret p values. The inverse probability fallacy presents the greatest comprehension problems, followed by the replication fallacy. These results highlight the importance of the statistical re-education of researchers. Recommendations for improving statistical cognition are proposed.

  2. Demographic and labor market in the Chilean countryside Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos René Rodríguez Garcés

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the information provided by the National Socioeconomic Survey of 1990 and 2013, the Chilean countryside reconfigurations are analyzed in terms of their demographic trends and labor market restructuring. A continuous process of depopulation and aging of the rural population is demographically notes. The agricultural activities of the rural labor market charge less important in terms of jobs and income, showing a strong process and favoring deagrarianisation positioning services area. Finally, a growing number of households that hold informal consensual unions and a greater presence of single-parent households, mainly consisting of female-headed households is observed.

  3. APPLICATION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL WAVELET TRANSFORM IN NEAR-SHORE X-BAND RADAR IMAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xiang-bo; YAN Yi-xin; ZHANG Wei

    2011-01-01

    Among existing remote sensing applications, land-based X-band radar is an effective technique to monitor the wave fields,and spatial wave information could be obtained from the radar images.Two-dimensional Fourier Transform (2-D FT) is the common algorithm to derive the spectra of radar images.However, the wave field in the nearshore area is highly non-homogeneous due to wave refraction, shoaling, and other coastal mechanisms.When applied in nearshore radar images, 2-D FT would lead to ambiguity of wave characteristics in wave number domain.In this article, we introduce two-dimensional Wavelet Transform (2-D WT) to capture the non-homogeneity of wave fields from nearshore radar images.The results show that wave number spectra by 2-D WT at six parallel space locations in the given image clearly present the shoaling of nearshore waves.Wave number of the peak wave energy is increasing along the inshore direction, and dominant direction of the spectra changes from South South West (SSW) to West South West (WSW).To verify the results of2-D WT, wave shoaling in radar images is calculated based on dispersion relation.The theoretical calculation results agree with the results of 2-D WT on the whole.The encouraging performance of 2-D WT indicates its strong capability of revealing the non-homogeneity of wave fields in nearshore X-band radar images.

  4. Geographical classification of Chilean wines by an electronic nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás H Beltrán

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Nicolás H Beltrán, Manuel A Duarte-Mermoud, Ricardo E MuñozDepartment of Electrical Engineering, University of Chile, Santiago, ChileAbstract: This paper discusses the classification of Chilean wines by geographical origin based only on aroma information. The varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Carménère analyzed here are produced in four different valleys in the central part of Chile (Colchagua, Maipo, Maule, and Rapel. Aroma information was obtained with a zNoseTM (fast gas chromatograph and the data was analyzed by applying wavelet transform for feature extraction followed by an analysis with support vector machines for classification. Two evaluations of the classification technique were performed; the average percentage of correct classification performed on the validation set was obtained by means of cross-validation against the percentage of correct classification obtained on the test set. This developed technique obtained results on classification rates over 94% in both cases. The geographical origin of a Chilean wine can be resolved rapidly with fast gas chromatography and data processing.Keywords: geographical origin, origin denomination, wine classification, pattern recognition, support vector machines, wavelet analysis, feature extraction

  5. Antimicrobial activity of submerged cultures of Chilean basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueveque, Pedro; Anke, Timm; Saéz, Katia; Silva, Mario; Becerra, José

    2010-10-01

    This study is part of a screening program aimed at searching for bioactive metabolites from Chilean basidiomycetes. Submerged cultivation of fungal mycelia in liquid media was evaluated for antimicrobial activity. A total of 148 strains were obtained in vitro. The extracts produced from submerged cultures were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. In the primary antimicrobial assay, approximately 60% of the extracts presented positive biological activity. The highest frequencies of active strains were from the orders Agaricales (31.0%), Polyporales (20.6%), Sterales (18.3%), Boletales (11.4%), and Cortinariales (9.1%). Antifungal activity was more pronounced than antibacterial activity. Twelve extracts that exhibited strong antimicrobial activity showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 50 µL/mL against Bacillus brevis and 25∼50 µL/mL against Penicillium notatum and Paecilomyces variotii. The biological activity of some strains did not vary considerably, regardless of the substrate or collection site whereas, for others, it showed marked variations. Differences in antimicrobial activities observed in the different fungal genera suggested that the ability to produce bioactive compounds is not homogenously distributed among basidiomycetes. The information obtained from this study reveals that Chilean basidiomycetes are able to generate small and/or large variations in the normal pathway of compounds production. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate this biological and chemical wealth, which could be an unsuspected reservoir of new and potentially useful molecules.

  6. Chilean management education: rhetoric of pragmatism, consumerism, individualism and elitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Mandiola Cotroneo

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to understand the character and the role of higher education in business in relation to the wider institutional and structural contexts within which they function. Being loyal to that widespread background, business schools in Chile have become efficient providers of appropriate goods and services for their respective clients and consumers, behaving more like corporations and businesses rather than educational institutions. From this perspective, business education's alignment with the wider political and socio-economic shifts associated with the developments of market economies and economic globalization is a necessary reflection. In this paper we will provide an account of our problematization of management education practices in Chile. This practice was pictured as one of the main characters at the forefront of the Chilean neo-liberal revolution during the final years of the last century. In particular, we will unravel more closely the chain of signifiers articulating the meaning of Chilean higher business education. This articulation is recuperated mainly around how those involved in the management education practice talk about (ourthemselves. As well as specialised press writings, some academic accounts and fragments from our own 'ethnographic' involvement are used for this purpose. Particular attention is paid to the social, political and fantasmatic logics (GLYNOS; HOWARTH, 2007 as key elements of our own explanation of this practice, which in turn informs our critical standpoint.

  7. Bathymetry and seafloor image surveys for benthic habitat mapping of Dokdo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Hwan; Rho, Hyun Soo; Lee, Myung Hoon

    2014-05-01

    . Gravel was dominated in shallow water whereas sand particles increased in deep water. TOC (Total Organic Carbon) values of the sediments are relatively high due to input of organic matters from islets and seagull excreta. Underwater video images are draped on the bathymetry for integrated analysis. The bathymetry, the integrated map, and the sediment data are fully utilized by benthic habitat mapping of Dokdo and habitat analysis of nearshore ecosystem.

  8. Marine palynology and its use for studying nearshore environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernal, A de [GEOTOP, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, PO Box 8888, succursale ' centre ville' Montreal, Qc, H3C 3P8 (Canada)], E-mail: devernal.anne@uqam.ca

    2009-01-01

    Palynology is the study of microfossils composed of highly resistant organic matter called palynomorphs. In the sediments of neritic environments, palynomorphs may include cysts of dinoflagellates, phycoma of prasinophytes, organic linings of benthic foraminifers and thecamoebians, in addition to inputs from the terrestrial vegetation (pollen grains and spores) or the freshwater biota (chlorococcales). Marine palynology is thus used for characterizing the type of sedimentary environment, identifying the source of organic matter in the sediment, and weighting the relative importance of fluvial and pelagic inputs. Among marine palynomorphs, dinoflagellate cysts or dinocysts usually dominate the assemblages. Dinocysts comprise phototrophic and heterotrophic taxa and occur in almost all aquatic environments. Along the continental margins, assemblages are usually characterized by high species diversity and cyst concentrations reaching up to 10{sup 5} cysts cm{sup -3}. The distribution of dinocyst assemblages in sediments shows latitudinal patterns in addition to onshore to offshore gradients. Multivariate analyses illustrate close relationships between dinocyst assemblages and sea-surface parameters such as sea-ice cover, salinity, temperature, seasonality and productivity. Transfer functions developed from dinocysts permit the reconstruction of sea-surface temperature and salinity and the evaluation of past productivity, with applications dealing with climate changes and eutrophication. Dinocysts are also used for the study of harmful algal blooms since a few taxa relate to toxic species.

  9. Report on the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    In July 2010, in an effort to reduce future catastrophic natural disaster losses for California, the American Red Cross coordinated and sent a delegation of 20 multidisciplinary experts on earthquake response and recovery to Chile. The primary goal was to understand how the Chilean society and relevant organizations responded to the magnitude 8.8 Maule earthquake that struck the region on February 27, 2010, as well as how an application of these lessons could better prepare California communities, response partners and state emergency partners for a comparable situation. Similarities in building codes, socioeconomic conditions, and broad extent of the strong shaking make the Chilean earthquake a very close analog to the impact of future great earthquakes on California. To withstand and recover from natural and human-caused disasters, it is essential for citizens and communities to work together to anticipate threats, limit effects, and rapidly restore functionality after a crisis. The delegation was hosted by the Chilean Red Cross and received extensive briefings from both national and local Red Cross officials. During nine days in Chile, the delegation also met with officials at the national, regional, and local government levels. Technical briefings were received from the President’s Emergency Committee, emergency managers from ONEMI (comparable to FEMA), structural engineers, a seismologist, hospital administrators, firefighters, and the United Nations team in Chile. Cities visited include Santiago, Talca, Constitución, Concepción, Talcahuano, Tumbes, and Cauquenes. The American Red Cross Multidisciplinary Team consisted of subject matter experts, who carried out special investigations in five Teams on the (1) science and engineering findings, (2) medical services, (3) emergency services, (4) volunteer management, and (5) executive and management issues (see appendix A for a full list of participants and their titles and teams). While developing this

  10. Dispersal of fine sediment in nearshore coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    of the nourishment site. However, a mass balance of sediment suggests that the majority of the fine sediment moved far away (over 2 km) from the nourishment site or to water depths greater than 10 m, where fine sediment represents a substantial portion of the bed material. Thus, the fate of fine sediment in nearshore waters was influenced strongly by wave conditions, surf zone and rip current transport, and the vertical density and flow conditions of coastal waters.

  11. Exploring the hidden shallows: extensive reef development and resilience within the turbid nearshore Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kyle; Perry, Chris; Smithers, Scott; Johnson, Jamie; Daniell, James

    2016-04-01

    Mean coral cover on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR) has reportedly declined by over 15% during the last 30 years. Climate change events and outbreaks of coral disease have been major drivers of degradation, often exacerbating the stresses caused by localised human activities (e.g. elevated sediment and nutrient inputs). Here, however, in the first assessment of nearshore reef occurrence and ecology across meaningful spatial scales (15.5 sq km), we show that areas of the GBR shelf have exhibited strong intra-regional variability in coral resilience to declining water quality. Specifically, within the highly-turbid "mesophotic" nearshore (water reefs may have similar potential as refugia from large-scale disturbance as their deep-water (>30 m) "mesophotic" equivalents, and also provide a basis from which to model future trajectories of reef growth within nearshore areas.

  12. A Discussion of Nearshore Processes Research During and After the Tenure of Dr. Tom Kinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, R.

    2001-12-01

    The progress of science often evolves in a way that can depend surprisingly on the contributions of a few individuals. In very occasional cases, one or two scientists make critical breakthroughs that yield quantum leaps in understanding. In other cases, a single individual in a position of responsibility can foster a research environment that is highly productive for the entire community. In this talk, I will discuss the general evolution of nearshore processes research during the 1990's and earlier 2000's, the period of tenure of Tom Kinder as Program Manager at ONR. The focus will be on the inter-linked nature of the nearshore problem and how the advances of component disciplines affected each other. The talk will finish with a future look at nearshore science into the next decade. The influence of Tom, in his role as beneficent dictator, will be an underlying theme.

  13. Population structure, growth and production of a recent brachiopod from the Chilean fjord region

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2013-12-04

    Magellania venosa, the largest recent brachiopod, occurs in clusters and banks in population densities of up to 416 ind m-2 in Comau Fjord, Northern Chilean fjord region. Below 15 m, it co-occurs with the mytilid Aulacomya atra and it dominates the benthic community below 20 m. To determine the question of why M. venosa is a successful competitor, the in situ growth rate of the brachiopod was studied and its overall growth performance compared with that of other brachiopods and mussels. The growth in length was measured between February 2011 and March 2012 after mechanical tagging and calcein staining. Settlement and juvenile growth were determined from recruitment tiles installed in 2009 and from subsequent photocensus. Growth of M. venosa is best described by the general von Bertalanffy growth function, with a maximum shell length (L∞) of 71.53 mm and a Brody growth constant (K) of 0.336 year-1. The overall growth performance (OGP index = 5.1) is the highest recorded for a rynchonelliform brachiopod and in the range of that for Mytilus chilensis (4.8-5.27), but lower than that of A. atra (5.74). The maximal individual production (PInd) is 0.29 g AFDM ind-1 year-1 at 42 mm shell length and annual production ranges from 1.28 to 89.25 g AFDM year-1 m-2 (1-57% of that of A. atra in the respective fjords). The high shell growth rate of M. venosa, together with its high overall growth performance may explain the locally high population density of this brachiopod in Comau Fjord. However, the production per biomass of the population (P/B--ratio) is low (0.535) and M. venosa may play only a minor role in the food chain. Settling dynamics indicates that M. venosa is a pioneer species with low juvenile mortality. The coexistence of the brachiopod and bivalve suggests that brachiopod survival is affected by neither the presence of potential brachiopod predators nor that of space competitors (i.e. mytilids).

  14. Land-use planning for nearshore ecosystem services—the Puget Sound Ecosystem Portfolio Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    The 2,500 miles of shoreline and nearshore areas of Puget Sound, Washington, provide multiple benefits to people—"ecosystem services"—including important fishing, shellfishing, and recreation industries. To help resource managers plan for expected growth in coming decades, the U.S. Geological Survey Western Geographic Science Center has developed the Puget Sound Ecosystem Portfolio Model (PSEPM). Scenarios of urban growth and shoreline modifications serve as model inputs to develop alternative futures of important nearshore features such as water quality and beach habitats. Model results will support regional long-term planning decisions for the Puget Sound region.

  15. Report on data from the Nearshore Sediment Transport Study experiment at Leadbetter Beach, Santa Barbara, California, January-February 1980 (NODC Accession 8200080)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — THIS DATA SET CONSISTS OF THE RESULTS OF THE NEARSHORE SEDIMENT Nearshore Sediment Transport Study at Leadbetter Beach, Santa Barbara, California. These data from 28...

  16. Recent benthic foraminifera and sedimentary facies distribution of the Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.

    2014-05-01

    The distribution of benthic foraminifera and sedimentary facies from Recent coastline environments adjacent to the coastline of Abu Dhabi (UAE) was studied in detail with the aim to: 1) provide reliable analogs for understanding and interpreting the depositional environment of ancient shallow-marine sediments from the UAE; 2) assess any modifications in the distribution of benthic environments and sedimentary facies in an area affected by significant anthropogenic activities - particular construction and land reclamation. A total of 100 sea-floor sediment samples were collected in different shallow-marine sedimentary environments (nearshore shelf, beach-front, channels, ooid shoals, lagoon and mangals) close to the coastline of Abu Dhabi Island. Where possible, we revisited the sampling sites used in several studies conducted in the middle of last century (prior to any significant anthropogenic activities) to assess temporal changes in Recent benthic foraminifera and sedimentary facies distribution during the last 50 years. Five foraminiferal assemblages were recognized in the studied area. Species with a porcellaneous test mainly belonging to the genera Quinqueloculina, Triloculina, Spiroloculina, Sigmoilinita are common in all studied areas. Larger benthic foraminifera Peneroplis and Spirolina are particularly abundant in samples collected on seaweed. Hyaline foraminifera mostly belonging to the genera Elphidium, Ammonia, Bolivina and Rosalina are also common together with Miliolidae in the nearshore shelf and beach front. Agglutinated foraminifera (Clavulina, Textularia, Ammobaculites and Reophax) are present in low percentages. The species belonging to the genera Ammobaculites and Reophax are present only in the finest grain samples particularly in lagoons and mangal environments and have not been reported previously in the studied area. The majority of the ooid shoal sediments, the coarser sediments of the beach-front and samples collected in dredged channels

  17. Abundance and distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in offshore soft sediments in Western Lake Huron, 2001-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J. R. P.; Schaeffer, J.S.; Roseman, E.F.; Kiley, C.S.; Fouilleroux, A.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive species have had major impacts on the Great Lakes. This is especially true of exotic dreissenid mussels which are associated with decreased abundance of native macroinvertebrates and changes in food availability for fish. Beginning in 2001, we added a benthic macroinvertebrate survey to the USGS-Great Lakes Science Center's annual fall prey fish assessment of Lake Huron to monitor abundance of macrobenthos. Mean abundance of Diporeia, the most abundant benthic taxon in Lake Huron reported by previous investigators, declined greatly between 2001 and 2007. Diporeia was virtually absent at 27-m sites by 2001, decreased and was lost completely from 46-m depths by 2006, but remained present at reduced densities at 73-m sites. Dreissenids in our samples were almost entirely quagga mussels Dreissena bugensis. Zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha were virtually absent from our samples, suggesting that they were confined to nearshore areas shallower than we sampled. Loss of Diporeia at individual sites was associated with arrival of quagga mussels, even when mussel densities were low. Quagga mussel density peaked during 2002, then decreased thereafter. During the study quagga mussels became established at most 46-m sites, but remained rare at 73-m sites. Length frequency distributions suggest that initial widespread recruitment may have occurred during 2001-2002. Like other Great Lakes, Lake Huron quagga mussels were associated with decreased abundance of native taxa, but negative effects occurred even though dreissenid densities were much lower. Dreissenid effects may extend well into deep oligotrophic habitats of Lake Huron.

  18. Benthic foraminifera as indicators of habitat in a Mediterranean delta: implications for ecological and palaeoenvironmental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Xavier; Trobajo, Rosa; Cearreta, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Carles

    2016-10-01

    The ecology and modern distribution of benthic foraminiferal assemblages were analysed in the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean Sea). Foraminiferal distributions were from 191 sediment surface samples covering a wide range of deltaic habitats and adjacent open sea areas. According to similarity in species composition, cluster analysis identified four habitat types: (1) offshore habitat, (2) nearshore and outer bays, (3) salt and brackish marshes and (4) coastal lagoons and inner bays. Canonical Correspondence Analysis identified water depth, salinity and sand content as the main environmental factors structuring living foraminiferal assemblages. Partial Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed water depth as the most statistically significant associated with the distribution of modern foraminifera in the Ebro Delta. Thus, a transfer function for water depth using Weighted Average Partial Least Squares regression was successfully developed. Although depth per se is unlikely to affect the foraminifera directly but will exert its effects via various environmental variables that co-vary with depth in the deltaic habitats (e.g. hydrodynamics, oxygen, food availability, etc), the resulting model (r2 = 0.89; RMSEP = 0.32 log10 m) suggested a strong correlation between observed and foraminifera-predicted water depths, and therefore provided a potentially useful tool for water-depth reconstructions in the Ebro Delta. This work indicated the potential role of modern foraminifera as quantitative indicators of water depth and habitat types in the Ebro Delta. This complementary approach (transfer function and indicator species) will allow reconstruction of the palaeoenvironmental changes that have occurred in the Ebro Delta based on the benthic foraminiferal record.

  19. Level of evidence and geographic origin of articles published in Chilean dental journals.

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Moraga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the geographic origin and level of evidence (LE) of articles published in Chilean dental journals during 2012. The target population for the bibliometric study was articles published in exclusively-scientific Chilean dental journals. These variables were analyzed: journal, area, language, country, region, design, scenario, and LE. A total of 120 articles were published in four journals: International Journal of Odontostomatology (IJOS=59), Revista Clínic...

  20. Amino acid biogeo- and stereochemistry in coastal Chilean sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomstein, Bente Aagaard; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Schubert, Carsten J.;

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) and amino acid enantiomers (D- and L-forms) was investigated in sediments underlying two contrasting Chilean upwelling regions,: at ~23°S off Antofagasta and at ~36°S off Concepcion. The contribution of amino acids to total organic...... carbon (%TAAC: 7-14%) and total nitrogen (%TAAN: 23-38%) in surface sediments decreased with increasing water depth (from 126 to 1350 m) indicating that organic matter becomes increasingly decomposed in surface sediments at greater water depth. Changes in the ratio between the protein amino acid...... aspartate and its non-protein degradation product β-alanine confirmed this observation. Furthermore, estimates of THAA mineralization showed that sedimentary amino acid reactivity decreased with both increasing water depth as well as progressive degradation status of the organic matter that was incorporated...

  1. Justified Ilegality?: Controlled clientelism by the Chilean administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Moriconi Bezerra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean civil service is considered one of the most efficient in Latin America. However, different studies describe the informal institutions that operate between the Legislative Power and the bureaucracy to fill positions in the public administration. Although some of these clientelistic practices are against the law, they have been accepted and defended in both the political and scientific spheres. Legality is not considered an important value if certain indexes have a positive development. In this context, it is important to study how corruption and clientelism have been ignored, or hidden, through political discourses and technical reports about the situation of bureaucracy. All of this allows a better understanding of why after 20 years of administrative reforms there are damaging practices which negatively affect democracy that have not been eradicated.

  2. Simple Tool to Evaluate Airtightness in Chilean Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex González Cáceres

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the high impact that air leaks have on buildings’ energy expenses, most developed countries have set out norms which regulate their presence in homes. Chile will soon begin this process; however, the airtightness revision strategy in envelopes has not been resolved as of yet. This article presents a tool to Assess Airtightness in Design, EHeD. The software will allow predicting the performance of homes under the regulations which will be set out, aiding designers, builders or owners to make decisions when making changes to improve airtightness. EHeD has been validated through pressurization tests in diverse homes across the country, with results that are in line with expectations, thus validating its calculation model. The methodology considers three stages: determining the main factors that have an impact on the airtightness in Chilean homes, preparing an airtightness database for each component (wall, windows and doors and preparing a calculation model that is integrated in an IT interface.

  3. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  4. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastrointestinal symptoms on Chilean pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ferrer Poveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection on Chilean pregnant women and its relationship with the appearance and severity of hyperemesis and dyspepsia. Methods: quantitative study of prevalence in a transversal cut with variable analysis. The sample was taken from 274 Chilean pregnant women from the Bío Bío province through vein puncture between June and December, 2005. Pregnant women were informed of this study, interviewed and signed an informed consent. The samples were processed using ImmunoComb II Helicobacter pylori IgG kit. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Program. Results: out of the total number of pregnant women, 68.6% showed infection by Helicobacter pylori. 79.6% of the total sample had symptoms of dyspepsia, and 72.5% of this group presented Helicobacter pylori infection. 12.4% showed pregnancy hyperemesis; among them, 79.4% were infected with Helicobacter pylori. 73.4% of the pregnant women that showed gastric discomfort during the first three months had Helicobacter pylori infection. 53.7% of them continued with gastric discomfort after the first three months; of those, 95.8% were infected. Helicobacter pylori infection was present only in 1.5% of pregnant women without gastric discomfort. Conclusion: both, gastric discomfort of pregnant women and the continuity of severe symptoms of dyspepsia and hyperemesis after the first three months of gestation are significantly correlated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  6. Bayesian spatiotemporal interpolation of rainfall in the Central Chilean Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa-Moreno, Juan; Keir, Greg; McIntyre, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Water availability in the populous and economically significant Central Chilean region is governed by complex interactions between precipitation, temperature, snow and glacier melt, and streamflow. Streamflow prediction at daily time scales depends strongly on accurate estimations of precipitation in this predominantly dry region, particularly during the winter period. This can be difficult as gauged rainfall records are scarce, especially in the higher elevation regions of the Chilean Andes, and topographic influences on rainfall are not well understood. Remotely sensed precipitation and topographic products can be used to construct spatiotemporal multivariate regression models to estimate rainfall at ungauged locations. However, classical estimation methods such as kriging cannot easily accommodate the complicated statistical features of the data, including many 'no rainfall' observations, as well as non-normality, non-stationarity, and temporal autocorrelation. We use a separable space-time model to predict rainfall using the R-INLA package for computationally efficient Bayesian inference, using the gridded CHIRPS satellite-based rainfall dataset and digital elevation models as covariates. We jointly model both the probability of rainfall occurrence on a given day (using a binomial likelihood) as well as amount (using a gamma likelihood or similar). Correlation in space and time is modelled using a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) with a Matérn spatial covariance function which can evolve over time according to an autoregressive model if desired. It is possible to evaluate the GMRF at relatively coarse temporal resolution to speed up computations, but still produce daily rainfall predictions. We describe the process of model selection and inference using an information criterion approach, which we use to objectively select from competing models with various combinations of temporal smoothing, likelihoods, and autoregressive model orders.

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: BENTHIC (Benthic Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains benthic habitats, including coral reef and hardbottom, seagrass, algae, and others in [for] South Florida. Vector polygons in the data set...

  8. High temporal and spatial variability of dissolved oxygen and pH in a nearshore California kelp forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Frieder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Predicting consequences of ocean deoxygenation and ocean acidification for nearshore marine ecosystems requires baseline dissolved oxygen (DO and carbonate chemistry data that are both high-frequency and high-quality. Such data allow accurate assessment of environmental variability and present-day organism exposure regimes. In this study, scales of DO and pH variability were characterized over one year in a nearshore kelp forest ecosystem in the Southern California Bight. DO and pH were strongly, positively correlated, revealing that organisms on this upwelling shelf are not only exposed to low pH but also to low DO. The dominant scale of temporal DO and pH variability occurred on semidiurnal, diurnal and event (days–weeks time scales. Daily ranges in DO and pH at 7 m water depth (13 mab could be as large as 220 μmol kg−1 and 0.36 units, respectively. Sources of pH and DO variation include photosynthesis within the kelp forest ecosystem, which can elevate DO and pH by up to 60 μmol kg−1 and 0.1 units over one week following the intrusion of high-density, nutrient-rich water. Accordingly, highly productive macrophyte-based ecosystems could serve as deoxygenation and acidification refugia by acting to elevate DO and pH relative to surrounding waters. DO and pH exhibited greater spatial variation over a 10 m increase in water depth (from 7 to 17 m than along a 5 km stretch of shelf in a cross-shore or alongshore direction. Over a three-month time period, mean DO and pH at 17 m water depth were 168 μmol kg−1 and 7.87, respectively. These values represent a 35% decrease in mean DO and 37% increase in [H+] relative to near-surface waters. High-frequency variation was also reduced at depth. The mean daily range in DO and pH was 39% and 37% less, respectively, at 17 m water depth relative to 7 m. As a consequence, the exposure history of an organism is largely a function of its depth of occurrence

  9. High temporal and spatial variability of dissolved oxygen and pH in a nearshore California kelp forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Frieder

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Predicting consequences of ocean deoxygenation and ocean acidification for nearshore marine ecosystems requires baseline dissolved oxygen (DO and carbonate chemistry data that are both high-frequency and high-quality. Such data allow accurate assessment of environmental variability and present-day organism exposure regimes. In this study, scales of DO and pH variability were characterized over one year in a nearshore, kelp forest ecosystem in the Southern California Bight. DO and pH were strongly, positively correlated revealing that organisms on this upwelling shelf are not only exposed to low pH but also low DO. The dominant temporal scale of DO and pH variability occurred on semidiurnal, diurnal and event (days–weeks time scales. Daily ranges in DO and pH at 7 m water depth (13 mab could be as large as 220 μmol kg−1 and 0.36 units, respectively. This range is much greater than the expected decreases in pH in the open ocean by the year 2100. Sources of pH and DO variation include photosynthesis within the kelp forest ecosystem, which can elevate DO and pH by up to 60 μmol kg−1 and 0.1 units over one week following the intrusion of high-density, nutrient-rich water. Accordingly, highly productive macrophyte-based ecosystems could serve as deoxygenation and acidification refugia by acting to elevate DO and pH relative to surrounding waters. DO and pH exhibited greater spatial variation over a 10 m increase in water depth (from 7 to 17 m than along a 5-km stretch of shelf in a cross-shore or alongshore direction. Over a three-month time period mean DO and pH at 17-m water depth were 168 μmol kg−1 and 7.87, respectively. These values represent a 35% decrease in mean DO and 37% increase in [H+] relative to surface waters. High-frequency variation was also reduced at depth. The mean daily range in DO and pH was 39% and 37% less, respectively, at 17-m water depth relative to the surface. As a

  10. A simple approximation for wave refraction - Application to the assessment of the nearshore wave directionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruiz, Alejandro; Solari, Sebastián; Ortega-Sánchez, Miguel; Losada, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    This work presents a simple and relatively quick methodology to obtain the nearshore wave angle. The method is especially valuable for curvilinear coasts where Snell's law may provide excessively inaccurate results. We defined a correction factor, K, that depends on the geometry of the coast and on the wave climate. The values of this coefficient were obtained minimizing the differences with a sophisticated numerical model. The limitations and performance of the methodology are further discussed. The procedure was applied to a beach in Southern Spain to analyze the influence of shoreline geometry on nearshore wave directionality. Offshore and nearshore distributions of wave period and directions were analyzed, and the results showed that the geometry of the coast played a crucial role in the directionality of the nearshore waves, which also plays an important role in hydrodynamics. The methodology presented here is able to analyze and quantify the importance of this directionality without a noticeable computational cost, even when a long time series of wave data are considered. Hence, this methodology constitutes a useful and efficient tool for practical applications in Coastal and Ocean Engineering, such as sedimentary, wave energy, and wave climate studies.

  11. Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Dulai, H.; Kroeger, K.D.; Smith, C.G.; Dimova, N.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Prouty, N.G.; Gingerich, S.B.; Glenn, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Study regionThe study region encompasses the nearshore, coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii. Here abundant groundwater—that carries with it a strong land-based fingerprint—discharges into the coastal waters and over a coral reef.Study focusCoastal groundwater discharge is a ubiquitous hydrologic feature that has been shown to impact nearshore ecosystems and material budgets. A unique combined geochemical tracer and oceanographic time-series study addressed rates and oceanic forcings of submarine groundwater discharge at a submarine spring site off west Maui, Hawaii.New hydrological insights for the regionEstimates of submarine groundwater discharge were derived for a primary vent site and surrounding coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii using an excess 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 d) mass balance model. Such estimates were complemented with a novel thoron (220Rn,t1/2 = 56 s) groundwater discharge tracer application, as well as oceanographic time series and thermal infrared imagery analyses. In combination, this suite of techniques provides new insight into the connectivity of the coastal aquifer with the near-shore ocean and examines the physical drivers of submarine groundwater discharge. Lastly, submarine groundwater discharge derived constituent concentrations were tabulated and compared to surrounding seawater concentrations. Such work has implications for the management of coastal aquifers and downstream nearshore ecosystems that respond to sustained constituent loadings via this submarine route.

  12. Near-shore wind power - protected seascapes, environmentalists' attitudes, and the technocratic planning perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    2010-01-01

    In contested wind farm developments, the dominant issue concerns scenic impact and the landscape at the proposed site. The number of large wind power schemes that have failed is growing. The case analysed here is a near-shore wind farm in the Dutch part of the Wadden Sea, in 2001 the largest wind pr

  13. Preferences for Management of Near-Shore Marine Ecosystems: A Choice Experiment in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophal Chhun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in New Zealand in establishing “Customary Management Areas” (taiāpure and mātaitai and Marine Reserves to support Māori cultural practices and restore declining biodiversity and fish stocks. Allocation of near-shore marine areas for these management systems potentially benefits the larger public, but it has often been vigorously opposed by recreational and commercial fishers. This paper reports estimates of the relative values held by the public toward four potentially conflicting uses of near-shore marine areas. These estimates come from a web-based choice survey completed by 1055 respondents recruited from throughout New Zealand. The response rate was especially high at 60%. We present results weighted to the characteristics of the population and test the results against a variety of well-known sources of survey bias. Scenario development suggests that some reallocation of near-shore marine areas to any of the management systems under discussion alternative to the status quo is likely to yield a welfare gain. A combination of marine reserves and taiāpure is most preferred. The exercise supports the use of discrete choice experiments to provide crucial information about difficult-to-quantify public values for aspects of management of near-shore marine areas, such as proposed taiāpure, mātaitai, or marine reserves.

  14. FINDING AND READING ECOLOGICAL SIGNALS IN THE NEARSHORE OF THE GREAT LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjunct UMD faculty make annual presentations on research interest to IBS graduate students and faculty. Talks engage students in research and application to environmental problems. This presentation discusses the ecology of the nearshore areas of the Great Lakes, and ways to fi...

  15. Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Jaime; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Mobegi, Victor A; Jianlin, Han; Alcalde, Jose A; Matus, Jose T; Hanotte, Olivier; Moran, Chris; Austin, Jeremy J; Ulm, Sean; Anderson, Atholl J; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

    2008-07-29

    European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of approximately 1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and the Philippines [corrected] and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia.

  16. Evidence of climatic change during Holocene in the nearshore regions of Konkan (central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Guptha, M.V.S.

    grains, variation in the stability index and significantly poor diversity and scarcity of benthic foraminifera. In contrast, during the mid Holocene humid phase, the number of benthic foraminifera was very high. It is also remarked that Ammonia beccarii...

  17. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  18. Report on the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    In July 2010, in an effort to reduce future catastrophic natural disaster losses for California, the American Red Cross coordinated and sent a delegation of 20 multidisciplinary experts on earthquake response and recovery to Chile. The primary goal was to understand how the Chilean society and relevant organizations responded to the magnitude 8.8 Maule earthquake that struck the region on February 27, 2010, as well as how an application of these lessons could better prepare California communities, response partners and state emergency partners for a comparable situation. Similarities in building codes, socioeconomic conditions, and broad extent of the strong shaking make the Chilean earthquake a very close analog to the impact of future great earthquakes on California. To withstand and recover from natural and human-caused disasters, it is essential for citizens and communities to work together to anticipate threats, limit effects, and rapidly restore functionality after a crisis. The delegation was hosted by the Chilean Red Cross and received extensive briefings from both national and local Red Cross officials. During nine days in Chile, the delegation also met with officials at the national, regional, and local government levels. Technical briefings were received from the President’s Emergency Committee, emergency managers from ONEMI (comparable to FEMA), structural engineers, a seismologist, hospital administrators, firefighters, and the United Nations team in Chile. Cities visited include Santiago, Talca, Constitución, Concepción, Talcahuano, Tumbes, and Cauquenes. The American Red Cross Multidisciplinary Team consisted of subject matter experts, who carried out special investigations in five Teams on the (1) science and engineering findings, (2) medical services, (3) emergency services, (4) volunteer management, and (5) executive and management issues (see appendix A for a full list of participants and their titles and teams). While developing this

  19. The role of benthic foraminifera in the benthic nitrogen cycle of the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Glock

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery that foraminifera are able to use nitrate instead of oxygen as energy source for their metabolism has challenged our understanding of nitrogen cycling in the ocean. It was evident before that only prokaryotes and fungi are able to denitrify. Rate estimates of foraminiferal denitrification were very sparse on a regional scale. Here, we present estimates of benthic foraminiferal denitrification rates from six stations at intermediate water depths in and below the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ. Foraminiferal denitrification rates were calculated from abundance and assemblage composition of the total living fauna in both, surface and subsurface sediments, as well as from individual species specific denitrification rates. A comparison with total benthic denitrification rates as inferred by biogeochemical models revealed that benthic foraminifera account for the total denitrification on the shelf between 80 and 250 m water depth. They are still important denitrifiers in the centre of the OMZ around 320 m (29–56% of the benthic denitrification but play only a minor role at the lower OMZ boundary and below the OMZ between 465 and 700 m (3–7% of total benthic denitrification. Furthermore, foraminiferal denitrification was compared to the total benthic nitrate loss measured during benthic chamber experiments. Foraminiferal denitrification contributes 1 to 50% to the total nitrate loss across a depth transect from 80 to 700 m, respectively. Flux rate estimates ranged from 0.01 to 1.3 mmol m−2 d−1. Furthermore we show that the amount of nitrate stored in living benthic foraminifera (3 to 705 µmol L−1 can be higher by three orders of magnitude as compared to the ambient pore waters in near surface sediments sustaining an important nitrate reservoir in Peruvian OMZ sediments. The substantial contribution of foraminiferal nitrate respiration to total benthic nitrate loss at the Peruvian margin

  20. The role of benthic foraminifera in the benthic nitrogen cycle of the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Glock

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery that foraminifera are able to use nitrate instead of oxygen as an electron acceptor for respiration has challenged our understanding of nitrogen cycling in the ocean. It was thought before that only prokaryotes and some fungi are able to denitrify. Rate estimates of foraminiferal denitrification have been very sparse and limited to specific regions in the oceans, not comparing stations along a transect of a certain region. Here, we present estimates of benthic foraminiferal denitrification rates from six stations at intermediate water depths in and below the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ. Foraminiferal denitrification rates were calculated from abundance and assemblage composition of the total living fauna in both surface and subsurface sediments, as well as from individual species specific denitrification rates. A comparison with total benthic denitrification rates as inferred by biogeochemical models revealed that benthic foraminifera probably account for the total denitrification in shelf sediments between 80 and 250 m water depth. The estimations also imply that foraminifera are still important denitrifiers in the centre of the OMZ around 320 m (29–50% of the benthic denitrification, but play only a minor role at the lower OMZ boundary and below the OMZ between 465 and 700 m (2–6% of total benthic denitrification. Furthermore, foraminiferal denitrification has been compared to the total benthic nitrate loss measured during benthic chamber experiments. The estimated foraminiferal denitrification rates contribute 2 to 46% to the total nitrate loss across a depth transect from 80 to 700 m, respectively. Flux rate estimates range from 0.01 to 1.3 mmol m−2 d−1. Furthermore we show that the amount of nitrate stored in living benthic foraminifera (3 to 3955 μmol L−1 can be higher by three orders of magnitude as compared to the ambient pore waters in near-surface sediments sustaining an important nitrate reservoir in

  1. NANAHAB -- Habitat polygons for the nearshore North Anacapa Island, Channel Islands NMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Benthic habitat polygon coverages have been created for marine reserve locations surrounding the Santa Barbara Basin. Diver, ROV and submersible video transects,...

  2. SMIGHAB -- Habitat polygons for the nearshore San Miguel Island, Channel Islands NMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Benthic habitat polygon coverages have been created for marine reserve locations surrounding the Santa Barbara Basin. Diver, ROV and submersible video transects,...

  3. SVANHAB -- Habitat polygons for the nearshore Point Arguello study area, South Vandenberg Reserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Benthic habitat polygon coverages have been created for marine reserve locations surrounding the Santa Barbara Basin. Diver, ROV and submersible video transects,...

  4. Chilean Teachers Begin Exchange Program Visit in Magdalena

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    . Kelly. The Chilean teachers are visiting Magdalena while they are on their Southern Hemisphere summer vacation, and Magdalena's schools are in session. Two Magdalena teachers, Joleen Welborn and Sandra Montoya, will visit San Pedro in June, while they are on summer vacation and the Chilean schools will be in session. Dr. Eduardo Hardy, the AUI/NRAO representative in Chile, will accompany the Chilean teachers on their visit, which has been coordinated by Harrison. "ALMA is a groundbreaking example of the type of international cooperation that marks the future of astronomy. We are especially pleased to sponsor a program that brings together two communities that both enjoy proximity to world-class astronomical research facilities," said Dr. Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. "While separated by many miles, San Pedro de Atacama and Magdalena have much in common. Both are small communities in high desert environments, and both are next to telescopes where the world's astronomers will be making many exciting discoveries in the coming decades. Bringing these two communities together will advance education and international understanding," Harrison said. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  5. Nearshore waves in southern California: hindcast, and modeled historical and 21st-century projected time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Abstract: This data release presents modeled time series of nearshore waves along the southern California coast, from Point Conception to the Mexican border,...

  6. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  7. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Gómez-Campos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of waist circumference (WC is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders.

  8. Sources and sinks of microplastics in Canadian Lake Ontario nearshore, tributary and beach sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballent, Anika; Corcoran, Patricia L; Madden, Odile; Helm, Paul A; Longstaffe, Fred J

    2016-09-15

    Microplastics contamination of Lake Ontario sediments is investigated with the aim of identifying distribution patterns and hotspots in nearshore, tributary and beach depositional environments. Microplastics are concentrated in nearshore sediments in the vicinity of urban and industrial regions. In Humber Bay and Toronto Harbour microplastic concentrations were consistently >500 particles per kg dry sediment. Maximum concentrations of ~28,000 particles per kg dry sediment were determined in Etobicoke Creek. The microplastic particles were primarily fibres and fragments microplastics in terms of how and where to implement preventative measures to reduce the contaminant influx. Although the impacts of microplastics contamination on ecosystem health and functioning is uncertain, understanding, monitoring and preventing further microplastics contamination in Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes is crucial.

  9. Backwash process of marine macroplastics from a beach by nearshore currents around a submerged breakwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Kato, Shigeru

    2015-12-30

    A key factor for determining the residence time of macroplastics on a beach is the process by which the plastics are backwashed offshore (backwash process). Here, we deduced the backwash process of plastic fishing floats on Wadahama Beach based on the analysis of two-year mark-recapture experiments as well as nearshore current structures revealed by sequential images taken by za webcam installed at the edge of a cliff behind the beach. The analysis results revealed the occurrence of a combination of offshore currents and convergence of alongshore currents in the surf zone in storm events around a submerged breakwater off the northern part of the beach, where 48% of the backwashed floats were last found. We conclude that the majority of the floats on the beach were transported alongshore and tended to concentrate in the convergence zone, from where they were backwashed offshore by the nearshore currents generated in the events.

  10. Paleomagnetism of Permian and Triassic rock, central Chilean Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Randall D.; Kent, Dennis V.; Mpodozis, Constantino; Davidson, John

    The first paleomagnetic data from Permian and Triassic formations west of the Andean divide are presented. Four formations of Permian or Triassic age in the central Chilean Andes have been investigated: two are located in the coastal ranges, and two are in the main cordillera. Of the formations in the main cordillera (Pastos Blancos and Matahuaico formations), only the Pastos Blancos Formation has yielded characteristic directions. While a fold test is absent, magnetizations are most likely secondary and yield pre-tilt corrected concordant inclinations, but yield declinations discordant 30° clockwise in comparison to the South American apparent polar wander path. Both formations from the coastal ranges (Cifuncho and Pichidangui formations) yielded stable directions. Postfolding magnetizations in the Cifuncho Formation also show declinations discordant 30° clockwise and concordant inclinations. The Pichidangui Formation has two stable components: one of postfolding age is concordant to apparent polar wander path data, and one of probable prefolding (Late Triassic) age is concordant in declination, but discordant in inclination. Further work is needed to better define the prefolding magnetizations in the Pichidangui Formation, but at present these preliminary results are the first paleomagnetic signs of displaced terranes along the Pacific margin of Chile. If correct, the results suggest that the Pichidangui Formation was some 15° of latitude farther south during the Late Triassic and had likely moved northward to its present latitudinal position with respect to cratonic South America by Middle to Late Jurassic.

  11. Peer victimization: Intimidation and victmization in Chilean students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica López

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study about peer intimidation and victimization with 1167 school students from 6th, 7th, and 8th grade from the Valparaiso Region of Valparaíso, Chile. The instrument used was the Insebull Battery (Avilés & Elices, 2007. Results show that approximately 9% of students have been victim of peer victimization many times or almost every day during the school year. Psychological victimization was more frequent thanphysical aggression, particularly through virtual communication such as cell-phone messages and e-mails. Participants tend to be groups of male students. Although male students participate more in physical aggression, they also receive more physical and psychological aggression. The most frequent places were inside the classroom and the school yard, when the teacher is not present. Most students inform not knowing, or vaguely knowing, thereasons underlying these aggressions, and do not do anything to deal with them. These results coincide with international studies and allow a better understanding of the characteristics of peer victimization in specific educational contexts within the Chilean school system.

  12. Nonlinear unified equations for water waves propagating over uneven bottoms in the nearshore region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Considering the continuous characteristics for water waves propagating over complex topography in the nearshore region, the unified nonlinear equations, based on the hypothesis for a typical uneven bottom, are presented by employing the Hamiltonian variational principle for water waves. It is verified that the equations include the following special cases: the extension of Airy's nonlinear shallow-water equations, the generalized mild-slope equation, the dispersion relation for the second-order Stokes waves and the higher order Boussinesq-type equations.

  13. Investigating the spatial distribution and effects of nearshore topography on Acropora cervicornis abundance in Southeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, Nicole L; Gilliam, David S; Walker, Brian K

    2016-01-01

    Dense Acropora cervicornis aggregations, or patches, have been documented within nearshore habitats in Southeast Florida (SE FL) despite close proximity to numerous anthropogenic stressors and subjection to frequent natural disturbance events. Limited information has been published concerning the distribution and abundance of A. cervicornis outside of these known dense patches. The first goal of this study was to conduct a spatially extensive and inclusive survey (9.78 km(2)) to determine whether A. cervicornis distribution in the nearshore habitat of SE FL was spatially uniform or clustered. The second goal was to investigate potential relationships between broad-scale seafloor topography and A. cervicornis abundance using high resolution bathymetric data. Acropora cervicornis was distributed throughout the study area, and the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and Anselin Local Moran's I spatial cluster analysis showed significant clustering along topographic features termed ridge crests. Significant clustering was further supported by the inverse distance weighted surface model. Ordinal logistic regression indicated 1) as distance from a ridge increases, odds of reduced A. cervicornis abundance increases; 2) as topographic elevation increases, odds of increased abundance increases; and 3) as mean depth increases, odds of increased abundance increases. This study provides detailed information on A. cervicornis distribution and abundance at a regional scale and supports modeling its distributions in similar habitats elsewhere throughout the western Atlantic and Caribbean. Acropora cervicornis is frequently observed and in areas an abundant species within the nearshore habitat along the SE FL portion of the Florida Reef Tract (FRT). This study provides a better understanding of local habitat associations thus facilitating appropriate management of the nearshore environment and species conservation. The portion of the FRT between Hillsboro and Port Everglades inlets should be

  14. Investigating the spatial distribution and effects of nearshore topography on Acropora cervicornis abundance in Southeast Florida

    OpenAIRE

    D’Antonio, Nicole L.; David S Gilliam; Walker, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    Dense Acropora cervicornis aggregations, or patches, have been documented within nearshore habitats in Southeast Florida (SE FL) despite close proximity to numerous anthropogenic stressors and subjection to frequent natural disturbance events. Limited information has been published concerning the distribution and abundance of A. cervicornis outside of these known dense patches. The first goal of this study was to conduct a spatially extensive and inclusive survey (9.78 km2) to determine wheth...

  15. Investigating the spatial distribution and effects of nearshore topography on Acropora cervicornis abundance in Southeast Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. D’Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dense Acropora cervicornis aggregations, or patches, have been documented within nearshore habitats in Southeast Florida (SE FL despite close proximity to numerous anthropogenic stressors and subjection to frequent natural disturbance events. Limited information has been published concerning the distribution and abundance of A. cervicornis outside of these known dense patches. The first goal of this study was to conduct a spatially extensive and inclusive survey (9.78 km2 to determine whether A. cervicornis distribution in the nearshore habitat of SE FL was spatially uniform or clustered. The second goal was to investigate potential relationships between broad-scale seafloor topography and A. cervicornis abundance using high resolution bathymetric data. Acropora cervicornis was distributed throughout the study area, and the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and Anselin Local Moran’s I spatial cluster analysis showed significant clustering along topographic features termed ridge crests. Significant clustering was further supported by the inverse distance weighted surface model. Ordinal logistic regression indicated 1 as distance from a ridge increases, odds of reduced A. cervicornis abundance increases; 2 as topographic elevation increases, odds of increased abundance increases; and 3 as mean depth increases, odds of increased abundance increases. This study provides detailed information on A. cervicornis distribution and abundance at a regional scale and supports modeling its distributions in similar habitats elsewhere throughout the western Atlantic and Caribbean. Acropora cervicornis is frequently observed and in areas an abundant species within the nearshore habitat along the SE FL portion of the Florida Reef Tract (FRT. This study provides a better understanding of local habitat associations thus facilitating appropriate management of the nearshore environment and species conservation. The portion of the FRT between Hillsboro and Port Everglades

  16. Long-term Archive of the DUCK94 Nearshore Field Experiment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    large-scale, multi-agency investigation of surf zone winds, waves, currents, sediment transport, and morphology Report Documentation Page Form...REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14...measurement of mesoscale nearshore processes Aug,Oct X X 15 Hathaway Rip current mapping Aug,Oct X X 16 Hay, Bowen Sediment suspension, local morphology , and

  17. Terrestrial and marine trophic pathways support young-of-year growth in a nearshore Arctic fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Cohn, Brian R.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    River discharge supplies nearshore communities with a terrestrial carbon source that is often reflected in invertebrate and fish consumers. Recent studies in the Beaufort Sea have documented widespread terrestrial carbon use among invertebrates, but only limited use among nearshore fish consumers. Here, we examine the carbon source and diet of rapidly growing young-of-year Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) using stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) from muscle and diet analysis (stomach contents) during a critical and previously unsampled life stage. Stable isotope values (δ15N and δ13C) may differentiate between terrestrial and marine sources and integrate over longer time frames (weeks). Diet analysis provides species-specific information, but only from recent foraging (days). Average δ13C for all individuals was −25.7 ‰, with the smallest individuals possessing significantly depleted δ13C values indicative of a stronger reliance of terrestrial carbon sources as compared to larger individuals. Average δ15N for all individuals was 10.4 ‰, with little variation among individuals. As fish length increased, the proportion of offshore Calanus prey and neritic Mysis prey increased. Rapid young-of-year growth in Arctic cisco appears to use terrestrial carbon sources obtained by consuming a mixture of neritic and offshore zooplankton. Shifts in the magnitude or phenology of river discharge and the delivery of terrestrial carbon may alter the ecology of nearshore fish consumers.

  18. Variability In Long-Wave Runup as a Function of Nearshore Bathymetric Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkin, Lauren McNeill [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Beaches and barrier islands are vulnerable to extreme storm events, such as hurricanes, that can cause severe erosion and overwash to the system. Having dunes and a wide beach in front of coastal infrastructure can provide protection during a storm, but the influence that nearshore bathymetric features have in protecting the beach and barrier island system is not completely understood. The spatial variation in nearshore features, such as sand bars and beach cusps, can alter nearshore hydrodynamics, including wave setup and runup. The influence of bathymetric features on long-wave runup can be used in evaluating the vulnerability of coastal regions to erosion and dune overtopping, evaluating the changing morphology, and implementing plans to protect infrastructure. In this thesis, long-wave runup variation due to changing bathymetric features as determined with the numerical model XBeach is quantified (eXtreme Beach behavior model). Wave heights are analyzed to determine the energy through the surfzone. XBeach assumes that coastal erosion at the land-sea interface is dominated by bound long-wave processes. Several hydrodynamic conditions are used to force the numerical model. The XBeach simulation results suggest that bathymetric irregularity induces significant changes in the extreme long-wave runup at the beach and the energy indicator through the surfzone.

  19. TRADE POLICY AND MAJOR TRENDS IN CHILEAN EXPORTS UNDER DEMOCRACY, 1990-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Llorca-Jaña

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with trade policy and the principal trends in Chilean exports after the return to democracy in 1990. During this period, both exports and imports expanded significantly in Chile. As far as exports are concerned, this boom is mainly due to an effective trade policy of additive regionalism, booming copper prices, export diversification and the economic dynamism of China, the principal beneficiary of Chilean exports. On the negative side, the country is still too dependant on copper and a few other primary products. In addition, nowadays, in relative terms Chile is exporting more copper minerals and less refined copper than it used to do in the 1990s, while Chilean exports remained highly concentrated in a few companies only, many of which belong to foreign nationals.

  20. Reporting quality of papers published in Chilean dental journals. Evaluation period: 2002-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E Uribe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the reporting quality of papers published between 2002-2012 in Chilean dental journals. Methods: Bibliometric analysis of research papers published in indexed Chilean dental journals between 2002-2012. Three calibrated examinators (interoperator- Kappa=.83 assessed 205 papers: 150 case-reports, 37 observational studies and 18 clinical trials. Reporting quality was evaluated using CARE for case reports, STROBE for observational studies and CONSORT for clinical trials. Descriptive statistics were conducted. Results: Case-reports reported 35% of the required methodological items; epidemiological research reported 16% of required items for Materials and Methods and 10% for Results. Clinical research reported 29% of required Materials and Methods items and 20% of Results items. Conclusion: Case-report, epidemiological and clinician research papers in Chilean dental journals published during the 2002-2012 period are lacking explicit key methodological items, preventing a proper research replication or clinical application of the results.

  1. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women: machismo, marianismo and HIV misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; McElmurry, Beverly J

    2008-04-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV.

  2. Privatizing Water in the Chilean Andes: The Case of Las Vegas de Chiu-Chiu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Prieto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean water model has been described as a textbook example of a free-market water system. This article contributes to the critiques of this model by showing the effect of its implementation in the Atacameño community of Chiu-Chiu, located in the Atacama Desert in the south-central Andes. In this community, the privatization of water rights ignored local water management practices that had produced a high-altitude wetland (known as a vega. This led to the inhabitants’ dispossession of crucial water rights and to wetland degradation. This process belies statements that the Chilean model relies on an unregulated market and instead highlights the state’s role in marginalizing local irrigation practices by reducing the water consumption of the indigenous population while keeping the copper mining industry (the main source of Chilean income and related growing urban populations supplied with water.

  3. Potential heterogeneity in crustacean zooplankton assemblages in southern chilean saline lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P De los Rios-Escalante

    Full Text Available The Chilean saline lakes are distributed mainly in the Atacama desert in northern Chile and the southern Patagonian plains. The scarce studies are restricted mainly to northern Chilean saline lakes, and these revealed that the main component in these ecosystems are the halophylic copepod Boeckella poopoensis Marsh 1906, or the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana (Kellog, 1906, and both species do not coexist. The present study consisted of field observations in zooplankton assemblages in southern Chilean saline lakes (51-53 ºS. These first observations revealed three different patterns, one saline lake only with A. persimilis (Piccinelli and Prosdocimi, 1968, a second lake only with B. poopensis, and a third lake with A. persimilis, B. poopoensis and unidentified harpacticoid copepod. These results are different in comparison with the observations in the literature that described the non-coexistence between B. poopoensis with brine shrimps. Ecological and biogeographical topics were discussed.

  4. A Multitracer Approach to Detecting Wastewater Plumes from Municipal Injection Wells in Nearshore Marine Waters at Kihei and Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.; Rosa, Sarah N.

    2009-01-01

    Municipal wastewater plumes discharging from aquifer to ocean were detected by nearshore wading surveys at Kihei and Lahaina, on the island of Maui in Hawaii. Developed in cooperation with the Hawaii State Department of Health, the survey methodology included instrument trolling to detect submarine groundwater discharge, followed by analysis of water and macroalgae for a suite of chemical and isotopic constituents that constitute a 'multitracer' approach. Surveys were conducted May 6-28, 2008, during fair-weather conditions and included: (1) wading and kayak trolling with a multiparameter water-quality sonde, (2) marine water-column sampling, and (3) collection of benthic algae samples. Instrument trolling helped guide the water sampling strategy by providing dense, continuous transects of water properties on which groundwater discharge zones could be identified. Water and algae samples for costly chemical and isotopic laboratory analyses were last to be collected but were highly diagnostic of wastewater presence and nutrient origin because of low detection levels and confirmation across multiple tracers. Laboratory results confirmed the presence of wastewater constituents in marine water-column samples at both locales and showed evidence of modifying processes such as denitrification and mixing of effluent with surrounding groundwater and seawater. Carbamazepine was the most diagnostic pharmaceutical, detected in several marine water-column samples and effluent at both Kihei and Lahaina. Heavy nitrogen-isotope compositions in water and algae were highly diagnostic of effluent, particularly where enriched to even heavier values than effluent source compositions by denitrification. Algae provided an added advantage of time-integrating their nitrogen source during growth. The measured Kihei plume coincided almost exactly with prior model predictions, but the Lahaina plume was detected well south of the expected direct path from injection wells to shore and may be

  5. Mismatch between classroom furniture and anthropometric measures in Chilean schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, H I; Arezes, P M; Viviani, C A

    2010-07-01

    Children spend about five hours per day sitting down while doing their school work. Considering this as well as the potential inadequate use of school furniture, it is likely that some anatomical-functional changes and problems in the learning process may occur. The aim of this study was to compare furniture sizes within three different schools with the anthropometric characteristics of Chilean students in the Valparaíso region, in order to evaluate the potential mismatch between them. The sample consisted of 195 volunteer students (94 male, 101 female) of the 8th grade, ranging from 12.5 to 14.5 years of age from 3 different schools. Regarding the methodology, 6 anthropometric measures (Stature, Popliteal height, Buttock-popliteal length, Elbow height while sitting, Hip width, Thigh thickness and Subscapular height) were gathered, as well as 8 dimensions from the school furniture. For the evaluation of classroom furniture a match criterion equation was defined. After considering the existing classroom furniture dimensions in each match criterion equation, the anthropometric characteristics of the considered population were compared in order to determine the mismatch between them. Results indicated that seat height, which should be considered as the starting point for the design of classroom furniture, was appropriate for students' popliteal height in only 14% of the 2 out of the 3 schools, and 28% in the third. Seat to desk height was too high and mismatched 99% of the students in one school and 100% in the others. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that the classroom's furniture was inadequate in almost all the analyzed cases and subjects. It is possible that the high mismatch percentage found between furniture and students' anthropometry can be associated to the fact that the acquisition and selection of the furniture was made without any ergonomic concern or criteria.

  6. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  7. Benthic carbon mineralization in hadal trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzhöfer, F.; Oguri, K.; Middelboe, Mathias;

    2016-01-01

    consumption rates and sediment characteristics from the trench axis of two contrasting trench systems in the Pacific Ocean; the Izu-Bonin Trench underlying mesotrophic waters and the Tonga Trench underlying oligotrophic waters. In situ oxygen consumption at the Izu-Bonin Trench axis site (9200 m; 746 +/- 103...... mu mol m(-2) d(-1); n=27) was 3-times higher than at the Tonga Trench axis site (10800 m; 225 +/- 50 pmol m(-2) d(-1); n=7) presumably reflecting the higher surface water productivity in the Northern Pacific. Comparing benthic O-2 consumption rates measured in the central hadal Tonga Trench...

  8. You will never again be a Chilean like the others : From diaspora to diasporic practices among Chilean refugees returning from exile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurid Aga Askeland

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on repatriation of refugees who came to Norway after the coup d'état in Chile in 1973. The Chilean refugees formed part of a diaspora during exile. The authors’ concern is the returnees' relationship with the diaspora upon return. The purpose of the article is to discuss whether the notion of diaspora may contribute to an understanding of the situation of the returnees. Diaspora is widely used in migration studies, although the concept is not particularly related to studies on refugees and their return. The article is based on interviews with Chilean returnees from Norwegian exile. The authors argue that their situation may be best understood as one of continued diasporic identity and diasporic consciousness.

  9. Benthic Habitat Variations Over Tidal Ridges, North Sea, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, T.A.G.P. van; Dalfsen, J.A. van; Lancker, V. van; Overmeeren, R.A. van; Heteren, S. van; Doornenbal, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Marine ecosystems on continental shelves endure an increasing burden of human activity offshore, and the impacts on benthic habitats are not well known. An improved understanding of how benthic habitats vary in relation to substrate types and seabed features is therefore essential to both scientists

  10. Tolerance of benthic foraminifera (Protista : Sarcodina) to hydrogen sulphide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moodley, L.; Schaub, B.; Van der Zwaan, G.J.; Herman, P.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Benthic foraminifera are dominant members of tb meiofauna, commonly occurring below the anoxic-oxic interface in marine sediments. The absence of oxygen in marine coastal sediments is often correlated with the formation of hydrogen sulphide. In this study the tolerance of benthic foraminifera (from

  11. Quantifying tidally driven benthic oxygen exchange across permeable sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGinnis, Daniel F.; Sommer, Stefan; Lorke, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    of permeable sediments and has been identified as increasingly at risk for developing hypoxia. Therefore, we investigate the benthic O-2 exchange across the permeable North Sea sediments using a combination of in situ microprofiles, a benthic chamber, and aquatic eddy correlation. Tidal bottom currents drive...

  12. Bioassessment of Choghakhor Wetland using Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fathi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study, besides investigating benthic communities and their demographics in Choghakhor wetland, the water quality has been evaluated and classified. Then, 10 stations were selected and sampling of benthos was done every 45 days since April 2010 to March 2011, with 3 replications at each station. Samples were obtained by Ekman grab Sampler (surface 400 cm2. The collected samples were separated and fixed by formalin (4%. The Macroinvertebrates samples were identified and counted in laboratory. Generally 25 families of benthic macroinvertebrates belonging to 5 classes and 12 orders were identified. The results were calculated as community measures, including total richness, Shannon - Wiener diversity index and Hilsenhoff Biological index at family level. The results obtained from temporal and spatial changes of data (Statgeraphics software and water qualitative classification using Shannon diversity index conformed to biological Hilsenhoff index. And finally, water quality of wetland was assessed to be polluted in average to high level. According to this study findings, it seems that, these indicators could be used as useful tools for evaluating water supplies quality.

  13. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in Agriculturally Impaired Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginija Pliuraite

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE This work presents research into the taxonomic composition of macroinvertebrate communities in streams that are under the influence of agricultural pollution A total of 67 macroinvertebrate taxa (including 61 identified species belonging to 40 families have been identified in the explored streams. The greatest species richness is recorded for the Trichoptera (18 species/1 taxa and Mollusca (12 species. The molluscs Gyraulus albus, amphipods Gammarus pulex, caddisflies Hydropsyche pellucidula and oligochaetes are detected in all examined streams. There, the number of total benthic macroinvertebrate taxa is highly variable, ranging from 16 to 40. Results show that the examined streams depending on the benthic macroinvertebrate taxonomic composition and predominance of seperate macroinvertebrate groups undergo different pollution. Intolerant to pollution taxa such as Plecoptera, which are the most sensitive to pollution insects, have been found only in 5 of 12 examined streams and in low abundances. The richness and diversity of macrozoobenthos in some streams appear to respond to the water quality deterioration. The present study has found out that in the stream where the total macroinvertebrate taxa, EPT taxa richness are the lowest and a relative abundance of gatherers is the highest, the values of NH4-N, NO3-N, total N, PO4-P and total P in the stream water are the highest, too.

  14. External Technical Support for School Improvement: Critical Issues from the Chilean Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osses, Alejandra; Bellei, Cristián; Valenzuela, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    To what extent school improvement processes can be initiated and sustained from the outside has been a relevant question for policy-makers seeking to increase quality in education. Since 2008, the Chilean Government is strongly promoting the use of external technical support (ETS) services to support school improvement processes, as part of the…

  15. Chilean Adolescents' and Parents' Views on Autonomy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M. Loreto; Pérez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand Chilean parents' and adolescents' conceptions of autonomy and whether they hold different expectations for autonomous behaviors by generation and socioeconomic level. A qualitative approach to data collection was used through separate focus groups of parents and adolescents from different socioeconomic…

  16. HLA-B*5701 frequency in Chilean HIV-infected patients and in general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Poggi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that HLA-B*5701 screening reduces the risk for hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir in HIV-infected patients. Since B*5701 prevalence varies among different populations, it is important to determine the carrier frequency prior to its use for the screening of HIV-infected patients.The aim of this study was to determine HLA-B*5701 carrier frequency in Chilean general population and HIV-infected patients referred for B*5701 typing. For that purpose 300 blood bank donors and 492 abacavir-naïve HIV-infected patients from Chile were screened for B*5701 by a sequence specific primer PCR.We detected 14/300 (4.7% B*57-positive individuals in the Chilean general population, 11 (3.7% were B*5701 positive, and 3 (1% had another subtype.All were heterozygous,thus a B*5701 allele frequency of 2% was determined.Eleven of 492 (2.2 % HIV-patients carried a B*5701 allele. The difference between these frequencies is probably due to slow progression of HIV infection in HLA-B*5701 carriers, thus less patients would require antiretroviral therapy and B*5701 typing. Considering the usefulness of B*5701 screening, its prevalence in the Chilean general population,and the availability of a validated method,we conclude that HLA-B*5701 typing in Chilean HIV-infected patients about to initiate abacavir treatment is strongly recommended

  17. Bruises in Chilean cattle: their characterization, occurrence and relation with pre-slaughter conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strappini, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Bruises on cattle carcass affect the quality of the meat and are indicators of poor welfare conditions. According to the literature the occurrence of bruises is related to pre- slaughter conditions, however their contribution is not clear for Chilean cattle. The aim of this thesis was to provide a b

  18. The Class and Culture-Based Exclusion of the Chilean Neoliberal Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, Eduardo A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I analyze the class- and cultural-based exclusion produced by the Chilean neoliberal educational reform, carried out during the period from 1990 to 2010. This educational reform follows the same neoliberal model applied to the economy of the country. Although some indicators improved in relation to coverage and public spending in…

  19. The Long Journey: Perspectives on the Coordination of Chilean Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, José M.; Leihy, Peodair S.

    2017-01-01

    It is fairly established that Chilean higher education presents a high level of Habermasian "privatism," as long labeled by José Joaquin Brunner, being among the world's most privatized systems in terms of who pays, who is held to benefit directly from its action and who controls it. Less clear, however, is the contribution of public…

  20. Level of evidence and geographic origin of articles published in Chilean dental journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Moraga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the geographic origin and level of evidence (LE of articles published in Chilean dental journals during 2012. The target population for the bibliometric study was articles published in exclusively-scientific Chilean dental journals. These variables were analyzed: journal, area, language, country, region, design, scenario, and LE. A total of 120 articles were published in four journals: International Journal of Odontostomatology (IJOS=59, Revista Clínica de Periodoncia, Implantología y Rehabilitación Oral (PIRO=28, Journal of Oral Research (JOR=18, and Revista Dental de Chile (RDC=15. From the total, 80.83% were published in Spanish and 70% had a Chilean affiliation. Most publications corresponded to areas of pathology (21 others (20 and prosthodontics (20. None of the articles was Level 1 Evidence, 6.49% was 2b, 14.29% was 2c, 63.64% was 4, and 15.58% was 5. Chilean dental journals mainly publish articles of domestic origin and low LE.

  1. Morphology, anatomy and histology of Doto uva Marcus, 1955 (Opisthobranchia: Nudibranchia) from the Chilean coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, M.A.; Velde, van der G.; Roubos, E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Doto uva Marcus, 1955 is a nudibranch species recorded from the Brazilian and Chilean coast. In spite of its wide distribution, D. uva has been described only superficially, mainly as to the pattern of its coloration, external morphology, radular teeth and reproductive system. Here we substantially

  2. Remaking Education from Below: The Chilean Student Movement as Public Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jo

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the Chilean student movement and its ten-year struggle for public education as an example of public pedagogy. Secondary and university students, along with the parents, teachers, workers and community members who have supported them, have engaged in the most sustained political activism seen in Chile since the democratic…

  3. The Impact of Powerful Oral Language Lab on Chilean EFL Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Hsuying Chiou; Andruske, Cynthia Lee

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative case study reports the impact of using a public-speaking structure (Powerful Oral Language Lab [POLL]) in teaching preservice Chilean English pedagogy students. It describes how this task-based method of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teacher training is related to language strategic competence. Twenty students…

  4. Educational Effectiveness in Chilean Secondary Education: Comparing Different "Value Added" Approaches to Evaluate Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Chereau, B.; Thomas, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports an original investigation into school performance measures and the multilevel nature of pupil achievement data in the Chilean school system using a sample of 177,461 students, nested within 7146 classrooms, 2283 secondary schools and 313 municipalities. The data-set comprised Year 10 students' 2006 SIMCE test's results in two…

  5. Eating Disorders among a Community-Based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…

  6. [Recommendations for Chilean travelers to the FIFA World Cup 2014 in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Cecilia; Weitzel, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    This article provides a checklist of precautions and vaccines for Chilean travelers attending the FIFA World Cup 2014 in Brazil. It aims to help physicians to prepare visitors of this mass gathering and summarizes useful hints to avoid infectious diseases considering the circumstances and availabilities in Chile.

  7. The Chilean miracle : patrimonialism in a modern free-market democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peppelenbos, L.P.C.

    2005-01-01

    International policy institutions claim that Chile's remarkable economic performance testifies to the merits of a neo-liberal development model. This book argues, however, that 'the Chilean miracle' did not result from the adoption ofneoliberalismitself, but from the persis

  8. The Dad in the Che Guevara T-Shirt: Narratives of Chilean English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard-Warwick, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Building on previous critical research regarding student resistance to English Language Teaching (ELT), this paper illustrates Chilean high-school English teachers' use of narrative to make sense of ideological challenges from students. While the government of Chile is promoting English in connection with the nation's export-oriented economic…

  9. Bringing the Schools Back in: The Stratification of Educational Achievement in the Chilean Voucher System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizala, Alejandra; Torche, Florencia

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the socioeconomic stratification of achievement in the Chilean voucher system using a census of 4th and 8th graders, a multilevel methodology, and accounting for unobserved selectivity into school sector. Findings indicate that the association between the school's aggregate family socioeconomic status (SES) and test scores is…

  10. Draft Genome of Chilean Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Gut Strain Lactobacillus kunkeei MP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Alejandro; Henríquez-Piskulich, Patricia; Sanchez, Carolina; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Moreno-Pino, Mario; Gómez, Marcela; Rodríguez Da Silva, Rafael; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Aldea, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus kunkeei strain MP2, isolated from a Chilean honeybee gut. The sequenced genome has a total size of 1.58 Mb distributed into 44 contigs and 1,356 protein-coding sequences. PMID:25301653

  11. Trophic ecology of Atlantic seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri: Intertidal benthic microalgae support the subtidal food web off Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Tomas; De Backer, Annelies; Kerkhove, Thomas; Dakriet, Nyasha Nanseerà; De Troch, Marleen; Vincx, Magda; Hostens, Kris

    2016-12-01

    A combination of stomach content analyses and dual stable isotope analyses was used to reveal the trophic ecology of Atlantic seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri off the coast of Suriname. This coastal penaeid shrimp species has a rather omnivorous diet, feeding opportunistically on both animal prey and primary food sources. The species is a predator of hyperbenthic crustaceans, including copepods, amphipods and the luciferid shrimp Lucifer faxoni, which are mainly preyed upon during daytime, when these prey typically reside near the seabed. Benthic microalgae (BM) from intertidal mudflats and offshore sedimentary organic matter (SOM) were important primary food sources. Due to their depleted 13C values, coastal sedimentary and suspended organic matter, and carbon from riverine and mangrove-derived detritus were not incorporated by X. kroyeri. An ontogenetic diet shift was observed from postlavae to juveniles and adults. Adult X. kroyeri were located higher in the food chain, mainly preying on larger benthic organisms. Intertidal BM were an important food source for all life stages of X. kroyeri, contributing up to 64% to the overall diet based on a Bayesian mixing model. Because X. kroyeri is the main epibenthic organism found at high densities in nearshore waters up to 30 m depth, the species plays a crucial role in transferring energy from low trophic level prey and primary food sources up to higher levels in the food chain. Our results indicate that primary production on intertidal mudflats, through BM, forms an important energy source for the subtidal turbid-water food web in muddy tropical coasts. Conservation of intertidal areas and their associated mangrove systems will therefore likely benefit coastal shrimp production and fisheries in tropical ecosystems.

  12. Wave-induced mass transport affects daily Escherichia coli fluctuations in nearshore water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhongfu; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Phanikumar, Mantha S.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of diel variability of fecal indicator bacteria concentration in nearshore waters is of particular importance for development of water sampling standards and protection of public health. Significant nighttime increase in Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration in beach water, previously observed at marine sites, has also been identified in summer 2000 from fixed locations in waist- and knee-deep waters at Chicago 63rd Street Beach, an embayed, tideless, freshwater beach with low currents at night (approximately 0.015 m s–1). A theoretical model using wave-induced mass transport velocity for advection was developed to assess the contribution of surface waves to the observed nighttime E. coli replenishment in the nearshore water. Using average wave conditions for the summer season of year 2000, the model predicted an amount of E. coli transported from water of intermediate depth, where sediment resuspension occurred intermittently, that would be sufficient to have elevated E. coli concentration in the surf and swash zones as observed. The nighttime replenishment of E. coli in the surf and swash zones revealed here is an important phase in the cycle of diel variations of E. coli concentration in nearshore water. According to previous findings in Ge et al. (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010, 44, 6731–6737), enhanced current circulation in the embayment during the day tends to displace and deposit material offshore, which partially sets up the system by the early evening for a new period of nighttime onshore movement. This wave-induced mass transport effect, although facilitating a significant base supply of material shoreward, can be perturbed or significantly influenced by high currents (orders of magnitude larger than a typical wave-induced mass transport velocity), current-induced turbulence, and tidal forcing.

  13. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of echinoderms in nearshore rocky habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Iken

    Full Text Available This study examined echinoderm assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats for large-scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends and large regional hotspots. Echinoderms were sampled from 76 globally-distributed sites within 12 ecoregions, following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org. Sample-based species richness was overall low (2 cm in 1 m(2 quadrats was highest in the Caribbean ecoregions and echinoids dominated these assemblages with an average of 5 ind m(-2. In contrast, intertidal echinoderm assemblages collected from clearings of 0.0625 m(2 quadrats had the highest abundance and richness in the Northeast Pacific ecoregions where asteroids and holothurians dominated with an average of 14 ind 0.0625 m(-2. Distinct latitudinal trends existed for abundance and richness in intertidal assemblages with declines from peaks at high northern latitudes. No latitudinal trends were found for subtidal echinoderm assemblages with either sampling technique. Latitudinal gradients appear to be superseded by regional diversity hotspots. In these hotspots echinoderm assemblages may be driven by local and regional processes, such as overall productivity and evolutionary history. We also tested a set of 14 environmental variables (six natural and eight anthropogenic as potential drivers of echinoderm assemblages by ecoregions. The natural variables of salinity, sea-surface temperature, chlorophyll a, and primary productivity were strongly correlated with echinoderm assemblages; the anthropogenic variables of inorganic pollution and nutrient contamination also contributed to correlations. Our results indicate that nearshore echinoderm assemblages appear to be shaped by a network of environmental and ecological processes, and by the differing responses of various echinoderm taxa, making generalizations about the patterns of nearshore rocky habitat echinoderm

  14. Effects of alongshore morphology on groundwater flow and solute transport in a nearshore aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Ling; Erler, Dirk V.; Santos, Isaac; Lockington, David

    2016-02-01

    Variations of beach morphology in both the cross-shore and alongshore directions, associated with tidal creeks, are common at natural coasts, as observed at a field site on the east coast of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. Field investigations and three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulations were conducted to study the nearshore groundwater flow and solute transport in such a system. The results show that the beach morphology, combined with tides, induced a significant alongshore flow and modified local pore water circulation and salt transport in the intertidal zone substantially. The bathymetry and hydraulic head of the creek enabled further and more rapid landward intrusion of seawater along the creek than in the aquifer, which created alongshore hydraulic gradient and solute concentration gradient to drive pore water flow and salt transport in the alongshore direction within the aquifer. The effects of the creek led to the formation of a saltwater plume in groundwater at an intermediate depth between fresher water zones on a cross-shore transect. The 3-D pore water flow in the nearshore zone was also complicated by the landward hydraulic head condition, resulting in freshwater drainage across the inland section of the creek while seawater infiltrating the seaward section. These results provided new insights into the complexity, intensity, and time scales of mixing among fresh groundwater, recirculating seawater and creek water in three dimensions. The 3-D characteristics of nearshore pore water flow and solute transport have important implications for studies of submarine groundwater discharge and associated chemical input to the coastal sea, and for evaluation of the beach habitat conditions.

  15. Large-Scale Spatial Distribution Patterns of Echinoderms in Nearshore Rocky Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iken, Katrin; Konar, Brenda; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Knowlton, Ann; Pohle, Gerhard; Mead, Angela; Miloslavich, Patricia; Wong, Melisa; Trott, Thomas; Mieszkowska, Nova; Riosmena-Rodriguez, Rafael; Airoldi, Laura; Kimani, Edward; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Ortiz-Touzet, Manuel; Silva, Angelica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined echinoderm assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats for large-scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends and large regional hotspots. Echinoderms were sampled from 76 globally-distributed sites within 12 ecoregions, following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org). Sample-based species richness was overall low (2 cm in 1 m2 quadrats) was highest in the Caribbean ecoregions and echinoids dominated these assemblages with an average of 5 ind m−2. In contrast, intertidal echinoderm assemblages collected from clearings of 0.0625 m2 quadrats had the highest abundance and richness in the Northeast Pacific ecoregions where asteroids and holothurians dominated with an average of 14 ind 0.0625 m−2. Distinct latitudinal trends existed for abundance and richness in intertidal assemblages with declines from peaks at high northern latitudes. No latitudinal trends were found for subtidal echinoderm assemblages with either sampling technique. Latitudinal gradients appear to be superseded by regional diversity hotspots. In these hotspots echinoderm assemblages may be driven by local and regional processes, such as overall productivity and evolutionary history. We also tested a set of 14 environmental variables (six natural and eight anthropogenic) as potential drivers of echinoderm assemblages by ecoregions. The natural variables of salinity, sea-surface temperature, chlorophyll a, and primary productivity were strongly correlated with echinoderm assemblages; the anthropogenic variables of inorganic pollution and nutrient contamination also contributed to correlations. Our results indicate that nearshore echinoderm assemblages appear to be shaped by a network of environmental and ecological processes, and by the differing responses of various echinoderm taxa, making generalizations about the patterns of nearshore rocky habitat echinoderm assemblages

  16. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of echinoderms in nearshore rocky habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iken, Katrin; Konar, Brenda; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Knowlton, Ann; Pohle, Gerhard; Mead, Angela; Miloslavich, Patricia; Wong, Melisa; Trott, Thomas; Mieszkowska, Nova; Riosmena-Rodriguez, Rafael; Airoldi, Laura; Kimani, Edward; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Ortiz-Touzet, Manuel; Silva, Angelica

    2010-11-05

    This study examined echinoderm assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats for large-scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends and large regional hotspots. Echinoderms were sampled from 76 globally-distributed sites within 12 ecoregions, following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org). Sample-based species richness was overall low (2 cm in 1 m(2) quadrats) was highest in the Caribbean ecoregions and echinoids dominated these assemblages with an average of 5 ind m(-2). In contrast, intertidal echinoderm assemblages collected from clearings of 0.0625 m(2) quadrats had the highest abundance and richness in the Northeast Pacific ecoregions where asteroids and holothurians dominated with an average of 14 ind 0.0625 m(-2). Distinct latitudinal trends existed for abundance and richness in intertidal assemblages with declines from peaks at high northern latitudes. No latitudinal trends were found for subtidal echinoderm assemblages with either sampling technique. Latitudinal gradients appear to be superseded by regional diversity hotspots. In these hotspots echinoderm assemblages may be driven by local and regional processes, such as overall productivity and evolutionary history. We also tested a set of 14 environmental variables (six natural and eight anthropogenic) as potential drivers of echinoderm assemblages by ecoregions. The natural variables of salinity, sea-surface temperature, chlorophyll a, and primary productivity were strongly correlated with echinoderm assemblages; the anthropogenic variables of inorganic pollution and nutrient contamination also contributed to correlations. Our results indicate that nearshore echinoderm assemblages appear to be shaped by a network of environmental and ecological processes, and by the differing responses of various echinoderm taxa, making generalizations about the patterns of nearshore rocky habitat echinoderm assemblages

  17. Shrimp trawlers as a local attractor of seabirds in nearshore waters of South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodice, Patrick G.; Wickliffe, Lisa C.; Sachs, Elena B.

    2011-01-01

    Shrimp trawling is common throughout the southeastern and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the USA and is the primary contributor to fisheries discards in these regions. Tens of thousands of nearshore seabirds nest near shrimp trawling grounds in the USA, but to date, there has been no assessment of the relationship between seabirds and shrimp trawlers. We examined the taxonomic composition of bycatch, rate at which seabirds scavenged bycatch, and energy density of discarded bycatch in a nearshore commercial shrimp fishery. Bycatch was primarily comprised of demersal fish that are not typically accessible to the plunge-diving and surface-feeding seabirds that occur in the area. Hence, seabird diets in the region appear to be broadened taxonomically by the availability of discards. Results from discard experiments indicated that 70% of the nearly 5,500 items discarded by hand were scavenged by seabirds and that the fate of a discarded item was most strongly predicted by its taxonomic order. Laughing gulls scavenged the greatest proportion of discards, although brown pelicans were the only species to scavenge more discards than predicted based upon their abundance. Because this is the first such study in the region, it is difficult to ascertain the extent or intensity of the impact that discards have on nearshore seabirds. Nonetheless, our results suggest that it will be difficult for managers to clearly understand fluctuations in local seabird population dynamics without first understanding the extent to which these species rely upon discards. This may be especially problematic in situations where seabird populations are recovering following natural or anthropogenic stressors.

  18. Benthic processes affecting contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.

    2016-09-30

    Executive SummaryMultiple sampling trips during calendar years 2013 through 2015 were coordinated to provide measurements of interdependent benthic processes that potentially affect contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon. The measurements were motivated by recognition that such internal processes (for example, solute benthic flux, bioturbation and solute efflux by benthic invertebrates, and physical groundwater-surface water interactions) were not integrated into existing management models for UKL. Up until 2013, all of the benthic-flux studies generally had been limited spatially to a number of sites in the northern part of UKL and limited temporally to 2–3 samplings per year. All of the benthic invertebrate studies also had been limited to the northern part of the lake; however, intensive temporal (weekly) studies had previously been completed independent of benthic-flux studies. Therefore, knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variability in benthic flux and benthic invertebrate distributions for the entire lake was lacking. To address these limitations, we completed a lakewide spatial study during 2013 and a coordinated temporal study with weekly sampling of benthic flux and benthic invertebrates during 2014. Field design of the spatially focused study in 2013 involved 21 sites sampled three times as the summer cyanobacterial bloom developed (that is, May 23, June 13, and July 3, 2013). Results of the 27-week, temporally focused study of one site in 2014 were summarized and partitioned into three periods (referred to herein as pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom periods), each period involving 9 weeks of profiler deployments, water column and benthic sampling. Partitioning of the pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom periods were based on water-column chlorophyll concentrations and involved the following date intervals, respectively: April 15 through June 10, June 17 through August 13, and August 20 through October 16, 2014. To examine

  19. Near-Shore Floating Wave Energy Converters:applications for coastal protection

    OpenAIRE

    Ruol, Piero; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Martinelli, Luca; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this note is to analyse the possible application of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) as a combined tool to protect the coast and harvest energy. Physical model tests are used to evaluate wave transmission past a near-shore floating WEC of the wave activated body type, named DEXA. Efficiency and transmission characteristics are approximated to functions of wave height, period and obliquity. Their order of magnitude are 20% and 80%, respectively. It is imagined that an array of DEXA is depl...

  20. Nearshore temperature findings for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona: possible implications for native fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert P.; Vernieu, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Since the completion of Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, in 1963, downstream water temperatures in the main channel of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons are much colder in summer. This has negatively affected humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other native fish adapted to seasonally warm water, reducing main-channel spawning activity and impeding the growth and development of larval and juvenile fish. Recently published studies by U.S. Geological Survey scientists found that under certain conditions some isolated nearshore environments in Grand Canyon allow water to become separated from the main-channel current and to warm, providing refuge areas for the development of larval and juvenile fish.

  1. Ecological monitoring for assessing the state of the nearshore and open waters of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Melanie A.; Painter, D. Scott; Warren, Glenn; Hites, Ronald A.; Basu, Ilora; Weseloh, D.V. Chip; Whittle, D. Michael; Christie, Gavin; Barbiero, Richard; Tuchman, Marc; Johannsson, Ora E.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Fleischer, Guy; Bronte, Charles; Smith, Stephen B.; Baumann, Paul C.

    2003-01-01

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement stipulates that the Governments of Canada and the United States are responsible for restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem. Due to varying mandates and areas of expertise, monitoring to assess progress towards this objective is conducted by a multitude of Canadian and U.S. federal and provincial/state agencies, in cooperation with academia and regional authorities. This paper highlights selected long-term monitoring programs and discusses a number of documented ecological changes that indicate the present state of the open and nearshore waters of the Great Lakes.

  2. Interannual and seasonal variations in nearshore wave characteristics off Honnavar, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sanjiv, P.C.; SanilKumar, V.; Johnson, G.; Dora, G.U.; Vinayaraj, P.

    coast of India. Hence a study was carried out to find out the varia- tions in nearshore wave parameters off Honnavar, Karna- taka along the central west coast of India over a period of three years during March 2008–March 2011 based on the measured.... Waterway Port Coast. Ocean Div., Am. Soc. Eng., 1981, 107, 93–109. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. We thank Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Project Directorate (ICMAM PD), Ministry of Earth Sciences, New Delhi for funding the measurement programme...

  3. Last millenium environmental changes in Lake Bertrand sediments, Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacré, V.; Fagel, N.; Schmidt, S.; Alvarez, D.; Araneda, A.; Urrutia, R.

    2012-04-01

    'W). The identification of the diatom assemblages and its temporal variability in both lake sediments will help to identify the origin of those silica-rich layers. In addition, further sedimentological analyses are in progress to better characterize the sediment deposition models. This research was funded by Chilean Fondecyt project number 1070508 and Belgian projects (FNRS proposal 1360 2007-2010, ULg CFRA 1060 2009-2010).

  4. Population genetics of the Chilean frog Batrachyla Leptopus (Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Formas

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic variation of proteins encoded by 14 loci was analyzed in eight (five continental and three insular populations of the Chilean leptodactylid frog Batrachyla leptopus. The overall proportion of polymorphic loci was estimated to be 18.7% and the average number of alleles per locus, 1.2, while observed and expected heterozygosities were 1.7 and 5.1%, respectively. The estimated coefficient of genetic identity was 0.940; the corresponding figure for genetic distance was 0.063. F-statistics analysis showed a total inbreeding coefficient (Fit of 0.855 and high levels of genetic subdivision (Fst = 0.596 as well as of inbreeding within populations (Fis = 0.640. However, there was only a moderate level of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.181 between the insular group of populations and the continental group.A variação eletroforética de proteínas codificadas por 14 loci foi analisada em oito populações (5 continentais e 3 insulares da rã leptodactilídea chilena Batrachyla leptopus. A proporção geral de loci polimórficos foi estimada como sendo de 18,7% e o número médio de alelos por loco, 1,2, enquanto que as heterozigosidades observada e esperada foram 1,7 e 5,1%, respectivamente. O coeficiente esperado de identidade genética foi 0,940; o número correspondente para a distância genética foi 0,063. A análise estatística F mostrou um coeficiente de endogamia total (Fit de 0,855 e altos níveis de subdivisão genética (Fst = 0,596, assim como de endogamia dentro das populações (Fis = 0,640. Contudo, houve apenas um nível moderado de diferenciação genética (Fst = 0,181 entre o grupo insular de populações e o grupo continental.

  5. Prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P Mundt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. METHOD: A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1 for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0 for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8 for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1 for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2 for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3 for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05 and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001. Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05, simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001 and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05 were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05 and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001 were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders.

  6. Linking Intertidal and Subtidal Food Webs: Consumer-Mediated Transport of Intertidal Benthic Microalgal Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Keun; Park, Hyun Je; Choy, Eun Jung; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Hwang, Kangseok; Kim, Jong-Bin

    2015-01-01

    We examined stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios for a large variety of consumers in intertidal and subtidal habitats, and their potential primary food sources [i.e., microphytobenthos (MPB), phytoplankton, and Phragmites australis] in a coastal bay system, Yeoja Bay of Korea, to test the hypothesis that the transfer of intertidal MPB-derived organic carbon to the subtidal food web can be mediated by motile consumers. Compared to a narrow δ13C range (-18 to -16‰) of offshore consumers, a broad δ13C range (-18 to -12‰) of both intertidal and subtidal consumers indicated that 13C-enriched sources of organic matter are an important trophic source to coastal consumers. In the intertidal areas, δ13C of most consumers overlapped with or was 13C-enriched relative to MPB. Despite the scarcity of MPB in the subtidal, highly motile consumers in subtidal habitat had nearly identical δ13C range with many intertidal foragers (including crustaceans and fish), overlapping with the range of MPB. In contrast, δ13C values of many sedentary benthic invertebrates in the subtidal areas were similar to those of offshore consumers and more 13C-depleted than motile foragers, indicating high dependence on phytoplankton-derived carbon. The isotopic mixing model calculation confirms that the majority of motile consumers and also some of subtidal sedentary ones depend on intertidal MPB for more than a half of their tissue carbon. Finally, although further quantitative estimates are needed, these results suggest that direct foraging by motile consumers on intertidal areas, and thereby biological transport of MPB-derived organic carbon to the subtidal areas, may provide important trophic connection between intertidal production and the nearshore shallow subtidal food webs.

  7. Linking Intertidal and Subtidal Food Webs: Consumer-Mediated Transport of Intertidal Benthic Microalgal Carbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Keun Kang

    Full Text Available We examined stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios for a large variety of consumers in intertidal and subtidal habitats, and their potential primary food sources [i.e., microphytobenthos (MPB, phytoplankton, and Phragmites australis] in a coastal bay system, Yeoja Bay of Korea, to test the hypothesis that the transfer of intertidal MPB-derived organic carbon to the subtidal food web can be mediated by motile consumers. Compared to a narrow δ13C range (-18 to -16‰ of offshore consumers, a broad δ13C range (-18 to -12‰ of both intertidal and subtidal consumers indicated that 13C-enriched sources of organic matter are an important trophic source to coastal consumers. In the intertidal areas, δ13C of most consumers overlapped with or was 13C-enriched relative to MPB. Despite the scarcity of MPB in the subtidal, highly motile consumers in subtidal habitat had nearly identical δ13C range with many intertidal foragers (including crustaceans and fish, overlapping with the range of MPB. In contrast, δ13C values of many sedentary benthic invertebrates in the subtidal areas were similar to those of offshore consumers and more 13C-depleted than motile foragers, indicating high dependence on phytoplankton-derived carbon. The isotopic mixing model calculation confirms that the majority of motile consumers and also some of subtidal sedentary ones depend on intertidal MPB for more than a half of their tissue carbon. Finally, although further quantitative estimates are needed, these results suggest that direct foraging by motile consumers on intertidal areas, and thereby biological transport of MPB-derived organic carbon to the subtidal areas, may provide important trophic connection between intertidal production and the nearshore shallow subtidal food webs.

  8. Data summary for the near-shore sediment characterization task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, D.A.; Hargrove, W.W.; Campbell, K.R.; Wood, M.A.; Rash, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents the results of the Near-Shore Sediment Characterization Task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). The goals of the task were to (1) determine the extent to which near-shore surface sediments are contaminated by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and (2) provide data for the Watts Bar Reservoir Interagency Permitting Group (WBRIPG) to evaluate the human health risks from exposure to sediments during and following dredging operations. The data collected for this task are also to be used in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RLTS) for the CR-ERP operable units (Lower Watts Bar and Clinch River) to characterize the human health risk associated with exposure to near-shore sediments throughout the Watts Bar Reservoir.

  9. Spatial distribution maps for benthic communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per S.

    1999-01-01

    amount of missing pixel data is a contribution to statistical image analysis. Furthermore, the estimation method developed for non-stationary Boolean models that combines scale-space kernel smoothing with the so-called method-of-moments applied to stationary Boolean models is a contribution to stochastic...... of the distribution maps and to be combined with biogeochemical models describing spatiotemporal population dynamics. Finally, the use of side-scan sonar data is illustrated in a data fusion exercise combining side-scan sonar data with the results based on echo sounder measurements. The feasible use of side......-scan sonar for mapping of benthic communities remains an open task to be studied in the future. The data processing methodology developed is a contribution to the emerging field of hydroacoustic marine biology. The method of penalised maximum pseudo-likelihood for estimation of the Ising model under a huge...

  10. Numerical Simulation of Wave Height and Wave Set-Up in Nearshore Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永红; 沈永明; 邱大洪

    2001-01-01

    Based on the time dependent mild slope equation including the effect of wave energy dissipation, an expression for the energy dissipation factor is derived in conjunction with the wave energy balance equation, and then a practical method for the simulation of wave height and wave set-up in nearshore regions is presented. The variation of the complex wave amplitude is numerically simulated by use of the parabolic mild slope equation including the effect of wave energy dissipation due to wave breaking. The components of wave radiation stress are calculated subsequently by new expressions for them according to the obtained complex wave amplitude, and then the depth-averaged equation is applied to the calculation of wave set-up due to wave breaking. Numerical results are in good agreement with experimental data,showing that the expression for the energy dissipation factor is reasonable and that the new method is effective for the simulation of wave set-up due to wave breaking in nearshore regions.

  11. Massive marine methane emissions from near-shore shallow coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Champenois, Willy; Gypens, Nathalie; Delille, Bruno; Harlay, Jérôme

    2016-06-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore southern region of the North Sea characterized by the presence of extensive areas with gassy sediments. The average flux intensities (~130 μmol m-2 d-1) are one order of magnitude higher than values characteristic of continental shelves (~30 μmol m-2 d-1) and three orders of magnitude higher than values characteristic of the open ocean (~0.4 μmol m-2 d-1). The high methane concentrations (up to 1,128 nmol L-1) that sustain these fluxes are related to the shallow and well-mixed water column that allows an efficient transfer of methane from the seafloor to surface waters. This differs from deeper and stratified seep areas where there is a large decrease of methane between bottom and surface by microbial oxidation or physical transport. Shallow well-mixed continental shelves represent about 33% of the total continental shelf area, so that marine coastal methane emissions are probably under-estimated. Near-shore and shallow seep areas are hot spots of methane emission, and our data also suggest that emissions could increase in response to warming of surface waters.

  12. Parameter selection and model research on remote sensing evaluation for nearshore water quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Guibin; ZHANG Ying; PAN Delu; WANG Difeng; FU Dongyang

    2016-01-01

    Using remote sensing technology for water quality evaluation is an inevitable trend in marine environmental monitoring. However, fewer categories of water quality parameters can be monitored by remote sensing technology than the 35 specified in GB3097-1997 Marine Water Quality Standard. Therefore, we considered which parameters must be selected by remote sensing and how to model for water quality evaluation using the finite parameters. In this paper, focused on Leizhou Peninsula nearshore waters, we found N, P, COD, PH and DO to be the dominant parameters of water quality by analyzing measured data. Then, mathematical statistics was used to determine that the relationship among the five parameters was COD>DO>P>N>pH. Finally, five-parameter, four-parameter and three-parameter water quality evaluation models were established and compared. The results showed that COD, DO, P and N were the necessary parameters for remote sensing evaluation of the Leizhou Peninsula nearshore water quality, and the optimal comprehensive water quality evaluation model was the four-parameter model. This work may serve as a reference for monitoring the quality of other marine waters by remote sensing.

  13. Nearshore waves and longshore sediment transport along Rameshwaram Island off the east coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowthaman Rajamanickam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wave-induced Longshore Sediment Transport (LST play an important role in the dynamics of the Dhanushkodi sandspit located southeast of Rameshwaram. The LST along the Dhanushkodi coast is studied based on data collected simultaneously in Gulf of Mannar (GoM and Palk Bay (PB using directional waverider buoys. The numerical model REF/DIF1 was used to calculate the nearshore waves and the LST rate was estimated using three different formulae. The model validation was done based on the measured nearshore waves using InterOcean S4DW. Numerical model LITPACK was also used for simulating non-cohesive sediment transport and the LITLINE module was used to study the shoreline evolution over 5 years. Low net annual LST along PB (~ 0.01×106 m3 compared to the GoM region (0.3×106 m3 were due to the weak waves. Accretion in the region led to growth of the Dhanushkodi sandspit by 65 m during the period 2010-2015.

  14. Massive marine methane emissions from near-shore shallow coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V; Champenois, Willy; Gypens, Nathalie; Delille, Bruno; Harlay, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore southern region of the North Sea characterized by the presence of extensive areas with gassy sediments. The average flux intensities (~130 μmol m(-2) d(-1)) are one order of magnitude higher than values characteristic of continental shelves (~30 μmol m(-2) d(-1)) and three orders of magnitude higher than values characteristic of the open ocean (~0.4 μmol m(-2) d(-1)). The high methane concentrations (up to 1,128 nmol L(-1)) that sustain these fluxes are related to the shallow and well-mixed water column that allows an efficient transfer of methane from the seafloor to surface waters. This differs from deeper and stratified seep areas where there is a large decrease of methane between bottom and surface by microbial oxidation or physical transport. Shallow well-mixed continental shelves represent about 33% of the total continental shelf area, so that marine coastal methane emissions are probably under-estimated. Near-shore and shallow seep areas are hot spots of methane emission, and our data also suggest that emissions could increase in response to warming of surface waters.

  15. Is reduced benthic flux related to the Diporeia decline? Analysis of spring blooms and whiting events in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, James M.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Crabtree, Darran L.; Walsh, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Benthic monitoring by USGS off the southern shore of Lake Ontario from October 1993 to October 1995 provides a detailed view of the early stages of the decline of the native amphipod Diporeia. A loss of the 1994 and 1995 year classes of Diporeia preceded the disappearance of the native amphipod at sites near Oswego and Rochester at depths from 55 to 130 m. In succeeding years, Diporeia populations continued to decline in Lake Ontario and were nearly extirpated by 2008. Explanations for Diporeia 's decline in the Great Lakes include several hypotheses often linked to the introduction and expansion of exotic zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena sp.). We compare the timeline of the Diporeia decline in Lake Ontario with trends in two sources of organic matter to the sediments — spring diatom blooms and late summer whiting events. The 1994–95 decline of Diporeia coincided with localized dreissenid effects on phytoplankton in the nearshore and a year (April 1994 to May 1995) of decreased flux of organic carbon recorded by sediment traps moored offshore of Oswego. Later declines of profundal (> 90 m) Diporeia populations in 2003 were poorly associated with trends in spring algal blooms and late summer whiting events. Lake Ontario/Diporeia/Dreissena/remote sensing.

  16. Queen conch (Strombus gigas testis regresses during the reproductive season at nearshore sites in the Florida Keys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Spade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Queen conch (Strombus gigas reproduction is inhibited in nearshore areas of the Florida Keys, relative to the offshore environment where conchs reproduce successfully. Nearshore reproductive failure is possibly a result of exposure to environmental factors, including heavy metals, which are likely to accumulate close to shore. Metals such as Cu and Zn are detrimental to reproduction in many mollusks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Histology shows gonadal atrophy in nearshore conchs as compared to reproductively healthy offshore conchs. In order to determine molecular mechanisms leading to tissue changes and reproductive failure, a microarray was developed. A normalized cDNA library for queen conch was constructed and sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences GS-FLX pyrosequencer, producing 27,723 assembled contigs and 7,740 annotated transcript sequences. The resulting sequences were used to design the microarray. Microarray analysis of conch testis indicated differential regulation of 255 genes (p<0.01 in nearshore conch, relative to offshore. Changes in expression for three of four transcripts of interest were confirmed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated changes in biological processes: respiratory chain (GO:0015992, spermatogenesis (GO:0007283, small GTPase-mediated signal transduction (GO:0007264, and others. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that Zn and possibly Cu were elevated in some nearshore conch tissues. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Congruence between testis histology and microarray data suggests that nearshore conch testes regress during the reproductive season, while offshore conch testes develop normally. Possible mechanisms underlying the testis regression observed in queen conch in the nearshore Florida Keys include a disruption of small GTPase (Ras-mediated signaling in testis development. Additionally, elevated tissue

  17. "One of the Most Uniform Races of the Entire World": Creole Eugenics and the Myth of Chilean Racial Homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This article illuminates why Nicolás Palacios's 1904 monograph, Raza chilena: Libro escrito por un Chileno i para los Chilenos [Chilean Race: A Book Written by a Chilean for Chileans], is central to the creation of a myth of Chilean racial homogeneity at the turn of the twentieth century. Placing Palacios in the context of Latin American eugenic discourse, it demonstrates how he selected a specific racial origin story in order to accommodate his belief in racial hierarchy while also depicting race mixing in a positive light. Specifically, the article highlights how the myth of Chilean racial homogeneity elided the difference between the term "mestizo," which was applied to people of mixed racial heritage, and "white." I contend that Palacios sought to differentiate Chileans from other Latin Americans by emphasizing their racial distinctiveness. The article therefore highlights that Latin American eugenics was concerned with the creation of national narratives that historicized particular racial mixtures in order to reify and affirm national differences. As such, it connects to literature regarding the history of eugenics, race, nation, and the creation of whiteness.

  18. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - Espiritu Santo Bay 2007 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing and new digital multi-spectral imagery and create digital benthic...

  19. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - Espiritu Santo Bay 2007 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing and new digital multi-spectral imagery and create digital benthic...

  20. Organic enrichment and benthic fauna–Some ecological consideration.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    and quantity, could act as a food source or as a stress source for the benthic community. Present study further demonstrated the general trend of modeled hypothesis with some variation in tropical condition....

  1. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - Lower Laguna Madre 2004 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic...

  2. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - Lower Laguna Madre 2004 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic...

  3. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat Mapping Patchy Shapefile Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic...

  4. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - San Antonio Bay 2007 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic...

  5. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - Lower Laguna Madre 2004 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic...

  6. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island - Benthic Habitat Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This benthic habitat map was created from a semi-automated habitat mapping process, using a combination of bathymetry, satellite imagery, aerial imagery and...

  7. Puerto Rico Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's...

  8. St. John Benthic Habitat Mapping - Moderate Depth Ground Validation Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitats of the moderate-depth marine environment in and around the Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument were mapped using a combination of...

  9. Atlantic Deep-Water Canyons (Benthic Landers) 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Each benthic lander contains a programmable sediment trap which can take 12 monthly samples, plus instruments to record temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen,...

  10. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - Lower Laguna Madre 2004 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic...

  11. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat Mapping Aransas Bay 2004 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic...

  12. Benthic grab data from October 1999 in Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve and the NOAA Office for Coastal Management worked together to map benthic habitats within Apalachicola Bay,...

  13. Puerto Rico Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's study,...

  14. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat Mapping Redfish Bay 2004 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic...

  15. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - Espiritu Santo Bay 2007 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing and new digital multi-spectral imagery and create digital benthic...

  16. USVI Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's...

  17. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - San Antonio Bay 2007 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic...

  18. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - San Antonio Bay 2007 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic...

  19. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - San Antonio Bay 2007 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic...

  20. NEFSC Benthic Habitat Survey (AL0304, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey will collect benthic samples using acoustics, nets, and grab samplers. The survey will monitor and map the geological, physical, and biological habitats...

  1. Southwest Washington littoral drift restoration—Beach and nearshore morphological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Ruggiero, Peter; Kaminsky, George M.

    2012-01-01

    A morphological monitoring program has documented the placement and initial dispersal of beach nourishment material (280,000 m3) placed between the Mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) North Jetty and North Head, at the southern end of the Long Beach Peninsula in southwestern Washington State. A total of 21 topographic surveys and 8 nearshore bathymetric surveys were performed between July 11, 2010, and November 4, 2011. During placement, southerly alongshore transport resulted in movement of nourishment material to the south towards the MCR North Jetty. Moderate wave conditions (significant wave height around 4 m) following the completion of the nourishment resulted in cross-shore sediment transport, with most of the nourishment material transported into the nearshore bars. The nourishment acted as a buffer to the more severe erosion, including dune overtopping and retreat, that was observed at the northern end of the study area throughout the winter. One year after placement of the nourishment, onshore transport and beach recovery were most pronounced within the permit area and to the south toward the MCR North Jetty. This suggests that there is some long-term benefit of the nourishment for reducing erosion rates locally, although the enhanced recovery also could be due to natural gradients in alongshore transport causing net movement of the sediment from north to south. Measurements made during the morphological monitoring program documented the seasonal movement and decay of nearshore sand bars. Low-energy conditions in late summer resulted in onshore bar migration early in the monitoring program. Moderate wave conditions in the autumn resulted in offshore movement of the middle bar and continued onshore migration of the outer bar. High-energy wave conditions early in the winter resulted in strong cross-shore transport and creation of a 3-bar system along portions of the coast. More southerly wave events occurred later in the winter and early spring and coincided

  2. Modelling benthic biophysical drivers of ecosystem structure and biogeochemical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicholas; Bruggeman, Jorn; Lessin, Gennadi; Allen, Icarus

    2016-04-01

    The fate of carbon deposited at the sea floor is ultimately decided by biophysical drivers that control the efficiency of remineralisation and timescale of carbon burial in sediments. Specifically, these drivers include bioturbation through ingestion and movement, burrow-flushing and sediment reworking, which enhance vertical particulate transport and solute diffusion. Unfortunately, these processes are rarely satisfactorily resolved in models. To address this, a benthic model that explicitly describes the vertical position of biology (e.g., habitats) and biogeochemical processes is presented that includes biological functionality and biogeochemical response capturing changes in ecosystem structure, benthic-pelagic fluxes and biodiversity on inter-annual timescales. This is demonstrated by the model's ability to reproduce temporal variability in benthic infauna, vertical pore water nutrients and pelagic-benthic solute fluxes compared to in-situ data. A key advance is the replacement of bulk parameterisation of bioturbation by explicit description of the bio-physical processes responsible. This permits direct comparison with observations and determination of key parameters in experiments. Crucially, the model resolves the two-way interaction between sediment biogeochemistry and ecology, allowing exploration of the benthic response to changing environmental conditions, the importance of infaunal functional traits in shaping benthic ecological structure and the feedback the resulting bio-physical processes exert on pore water nutrient profiles. The model is actively being used to understand shelf sea carbon cycling, the response of the benthos to climatic change, food provision and other societal benefits.

  3. Shorebird avoidance of nearshore feeding and roosting areas at night correlates with presence of a nocturnal avian predator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Gill, Robert E.; Goeij, Petra de; Dekinga, Anne; Shepherd, Marnie L.; Ruthrauff, Daniel; Tibbitts, Lee

    2006-01-01

    We here report two anecdotes about avian interactions relevant to the interpretation of differences in shorebird habitat use between day and night. Several studies have reported that shorebirds avoid feeding and roosting along nearshore areas at night yet commonly use these sites during daytime. Thi

  4. Spatial and temporal variations of carbonate content in the beach and nearshore environments off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M.

    -90%) in the foreshore regions of individual beaches whereas low CaCO sub(3) (less than 20%) in the dune and backshore areas of these beaches and adjoining nearshore environs up to 10 m isobath. The observed spatial distribution shows the occurrence of modern carbonate...

  5. Evidence of extensive reef development and high coral cover in nearshore environments: implications for understanding coral adaptation in turbid settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kyle M.; Perry, Chris T.; Smithers, Scott G.; Johnson, Jamie A.; Daniell, James J.

    2016-07-01

    Mean coral cover has reportedly declined by over 15% during the last 30 years across the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Here, we present new data that documents widespread reef development within the more poorly studied turbid nearshore areas (30 m) mesophotic equivalents and may have similar potential as refugia from large-scale disturbances.

  6. Psychometric properties of the "Spanish Burnout Inventory" in Chilean professionals working to physical disabled people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Monte, Pedro R; Olivares Faúndez, Víctor E

    2011-05-01

    While the most commonly employed burnout measure has been the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), researchers have been troubled by some of the psychometric limitations of this instrument. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the "Spanish Burnout Inventory" (SBI). The psychometric properties were analysed with data from a sample of 277 Chilean professionals working to physical disabled people. The psychometric properties of the SBI were examined through the following analyses: confirmatory factor analysis, reliability Cronbach's alpha, and concurrent validity with the MBI. The hypothesized four factor model obtained an adequate data fit for the sample (chi2(164) = 285.32, p burnout in the Chilean cultural context.

  7. Socioeconomic Status and Internalizing Symptoms in Chilean Children: Does Reserve Capacity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Informed by the reserve capacity model, we examined pathways between socioeconomic status (SES) and internalizing symptoms (IS) in 1119 Chilean 10-year-olds. Mediators included parental disciplinary style and reserve capacity resources (RCR), namely home environment, parent-child engagement, and self-esteem, and conduct problems. Using structural equation modeling, the model was stratified by gender. For boys, the SES-IS relationship was mediated by the home environment and parental disciplinary style. For girls, the SES-IS relationship was mediated by the home environment, parent-child engagement, self-esteem, and conduct problems. Findings suggest different RCR may protect against IS in a sample of Chilean children. PMID:27123471

  8. Responses to electricity liberalization: the regional strategy of a Chilean generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sol, P. del [Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Dpto. Ingenieria Industrial y de Sistemas

    2002-04-01

    Chilean reformers joined the new trend toward liberalization of the electricity markets around 1980, 12 years before any other Latin American country. This paper summarizes the main characteristics of the electricity reforms in Chile and other Latin American countries. It then analyzes the strategic response by the electricity generating company Endesa de Chile to these reforms. Endesa completely reformulated its competitive strategy. Its most significant commitments were its investments across Latin America in privatized power plants in Argentina, Peru, Colombia and Brazil. Endesa based its internationalization on its Chilean experience in transferring an inefficient state-owned firm and operating it in the new electrical regulatory framework favorable to market competition. The company's competitive advantage originated to a great extent in that Chile was the first country in Latin America to reform its electrical sector. (author)

  9. Beliefs about children's adjustment in same-sex families: Spanish and Chilean university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Monterde-i-Bort, Hector; Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Cardenas-Castro, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of our study is to compare the beliefs of Spanish and Chilean university students about the effects that same-sex parents might have on their children. A total of 491 participants completed the study (208 Spaniards and 283 Chileans). The results indicate a kind of modern and subtle rejection based on hetero-normativity. Furthermore, the results indicated the effects of sex (men have a greater degree of rejection), traditional and sexist opinions linked to a greater rejection of same-sex parents, and the contact variable which inversely correlates with this rejection. The results show that the etiology of homosexual orientation also correlates with rejection of same-sex parents when it is believed that homosexuality is learned or can be changed.

  10. Spanish and Chilean Standardizations of the Personality Assessment Inventory: the Influence of Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; Ferragut, Marta; Santamaría, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the adaptation of psychological questionnaires in different countries, due to the need for cross-cultural research using the same tests adapted to diverse populations. This paper presents the standardization of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007) in Spain and Chile (both Spanish-speaking countries). The Spanish sample was made up of 940 people (461 men and 479 women), and the Chilean sample of 569 people (231 men and 338 women). Results revealed that the Chilean means were higher than those of the Spanish sample at confidence level 99.9%, although the associated effect sizes were generally small to moderate (partial eta-square between 0.008 and 0.187). Sex differences in the variables evaluated were commented on, and the importance of cross-cultural research and the influence of sex on personality and psychopathology variables were discussed.

  11. mkk_benthic_habitats - Benthic habitat of the coral reef ecosystem on the south shore of Molokai Hawaii.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A benthic habitat polygon coverage has been created of the coral reef ecosystem on the south shore of Moloka'i. Polygons were hand-digitized from visual...

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: BENTHIC (Benthic habitat polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains known locations of patchy and continuous seagrass and oyster reef habitat for the Upper Coast of Texas benthic habitat data. This data set...

  13. Intercultural journalism: Peruvian and Bolivian representation in the Chilean daily press news

    OpenAIRE

    Browne-Sartori, Rodrigo-Francisco; Baessolo-Stiven, Ricardo-Alberto; Silva-Echeto, Víctor-Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the processes through which the massive press generates and represents the cultural discourses of two of the most polemic migrant groups coexisting nowadays in Chile: Peruvians and Bolivians. The representation that the communication media carries out regarding the studied cultures strongly influences the imaginaries of the Chilean audiences. That calls for special concern so as to propose the necessary spaces for intercultural exchange as much in the media as in the soc...

  14. U.S. and Chilean College Students' Reading Practices: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Suhua; Orellana, Pelusa; Capps, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between the amounts of time that U.S. and Chilean students spend on conventional academic reading, extracurricular reading, and Facebook and also to report the types of materials they prefer to read. The study surveyed students in the United States (n = 1,265) and Chile (n = 2,076)…

  15. Democracy and Student Discontent: Chilean Student Protest in the Post-Pinochet Era

    OpenAIRE

    Peter M. M. Cummings

    2015-01-01

    "Objective indicators suggest that economic and political conditions improved in Chile between the country's democratization in 1990 and 2011. Average incomes increased, poverty rates decreased, and the number of positive reviews of Chilean democratic institutions rose. Despite this progress, massive student-led protest waves in 2006 and 2011 demonstrated high levels of subjective discontent in Chile. This paper proposes a three-part explanation for the paradoxical emergence and escalation of...

  16. Democracy and Student Discontent: Chilean Student Protest in the Post-Pinochet Era

    OpenAIRE

    Peter M. M. Cummings; University of Notre Dame, Indiana

    2015-01-01

    Objective indicators suggest that economic and political conditions improved in Chile between the country’s democratization in 1990 and 2011. Average incomes increased, poverty rates decreased, and the number of positive reviews of Chilean democratic institutions rose. Despite this progress, massive student-led protest waves in 2006 and 2011 demonstrated high levels of subjective discontent in Chile. This paper proposes a three-part explanation for the paradoxical emergence and escalation of ...

  17. Poetic of memory at Chilean theather: Scenic practice from 1973 to 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Álvarez, Javiera

    2013-01-01

    The present article tries to point out the search and creation of Memory Theater in Chile through a scenic journey between 1973 and 1990. The reading of such a process is assumed in the light of theatrical discourse of resistance, the political and poetic conception of memory as praxis historicity of the present. key to puttings in scene the construction of contemporary Chilean theater in the context of the Pinochet regime.

  18. Original footage of the Chilean miners with manganism published in Neurology in 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marcelo; Bustamante, M Leonor; Mena, Francisco; Lees, Andrew

    2015-12-15

    Manganism has captured the imagination of neurologists for more than a century because of its similarities to Parkinson disease and its indirect but seminal role in the "l-dopa miracle." We present unpublished footage of the original case series reported in Neurology® in 1967 by Mena and Cotzias depicting the typical neurologic signs of manganism in 4 Chilean miners and their response to high doses of l-dopa.

  19. Michelle Bachelet’s Government: The Paradoxes of a Chilean President

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain the contradictions in Michelle Bachelet’s presidency by focusing on the paradoxical nature of presidential power, the limits on the executive in the Chilean constitution, and how those limits affected President Bachelet’s government. At the outset of her presidency, she faced the problem of wanting to promote inclusive policies while simultaneously experiencing political pressure to maintain elite consensus...

  20. Uncommon social trajectories: Chilean low-income adolescents with reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Ortiz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that students from low-income families are less successful at school, as indicated by theories of social reproduction. This article focuses on Chilean students that, in spite of their social background, have performed well in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2009. Using logistic regression analysis we identify factors associated with academic achievement in reading. Results show that student variables have a greater explanatory value than family and school variables.

  1. The dance of those left behind. Chilean high school students and the possibility of disagreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Depetris Chauvin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the high school students’ protest against the neoliberal conception of education during the first period of President Michelle Bachelet government. Specifically, I analyze how the new generation of young Chileans critically uses and produces pop culture — photoblogs, posters, and stencils — in order to express disagreement with the mercantilist approach to education and the very concept of neoliberal freedom and equality.

  2. Aspects of Benthic Biology in Support of HEBBLE (High Energy Benthic Boundary Layer Experiment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-08

    Banis in the Gulf of Mexico (Yingst and Rhoads, in press), and at the Deep station in 40 m of water in Long Island Sound (Aller and Yingst, 1980...community structure in the vicinity of the Texas Flower Gardens, Gulf of Mexico . Estuarine, Coastal, and Shelf 9cience. Young, R.N. and J.B. Southard...tubes of benthic agglutinated foraminifera . Physical properties The vane shear strength is very uniform at 0.4 kPa through the soft brown mud but

  3. Experimental study of wave impact on the nearshore structures during extreme coastal floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Venkatachalam; Didenkulova, Ira; Pelinovsky, Efim; Rodin, Artem; Didenkulov, Oleg; Sergeeva, Anna; Nair Vishnu, Reghunathan; Sundar, Vallam; Annamalaisamy Sannasiraj, Sannasi

    2016-04-01

    We study the dynamics of strongly nonlinear waves in the coastal zone and their impact on coasts during flash floods and tsunami. For this we use analytical theory of strongly nonlinear wave propagation along the slope and compare it with the data of experiments carried out in shallow water flume of IIT Madras (72 m long, 2 m wide and up to 2 m deep). Different kinds of waves like elongated solitons, N-waves are simulated and its run-up and impact force on the idealized structure on the slope are evaluated. Different numerical models (CLAWPACK, pseudospectral code for solving nonlinear evolutional equations and FNPT model) areused to describe strongly nonlinear waves along the slope. Results of numerical simulations are compared with predictions of analytical theory and with the data of experiments. The results presented here are the preliminary results obtained within DST - RFBR joint project "Impact of waterborne debris on the nearshore structures during extreme coastal floods".

  4. A new type numerical model foraction balance equation in simulating nearshore waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Several current used wave numerical models are briefly described, the computing techniques of the source terms, numerical wave generation and boundary conditions in the action balance equation model are discussed. Not only the quadruplet wave-wave interactions, but also the triad wave-wave interactions are included in the model, so that nearshore waves could be simulated reasonably. The model is compared with the Boussinesq equation and the mild slope equation. The model is applied to calculating the distribu-tions of wave height and wave period field in the Haian Bay area and to simulating the influences of the unsteady current and water level variation on the wave field. Finally, the de-veloping tendency of the model is discussed.

  5. The Performance of Nearshore Dredge Disposal at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, 2005-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Ocean Beach, California, contains an erosion hot spot in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location a new plan for the management of sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of San Francisco Bay was implemented in May 2005 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District (USACE). The USACE designated a temporary nearshore dredge disposal site for the annual disposal of about 230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of sand about 750 m offshore and slightly south of the erosion hot spot, in depths between approximately 9 and 14 m. The site has now been used three times for a total sediment disposal of about 690,000 m3 (about 900,000 yds3). The disposal site was chosen because it is in a location where strong tidal currents and open-ocean waves can potentially feed sediment toward the littoral zone in the reach of the beach that is experiencing critical erosion, as well as prevent further scour on an exposed outfall pipe. The onshore migration of sediment from the target disposal location might feed the primary longshore bar or the nearshore zone, and provide a buffer to erosion that peaks during winter months when large waves impact the region. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has been monitoring and modeling the bathymetric evolution of the test dredge disposal site and the adjacent coastal region since inception in May 2005. This paper reports on the first 2.5 years of this monitoring program effort (May 2005 to December 2007) and assesses the short-term coastal response. Here are the key findings of this report: *Approximately half of the sediment that has been placed in the nearshore dredge-disposal site during the 2.5 years of this study remains within the dredge focus area. *In the winter of 2006-7, large waves transported the dredge-mound material onshore. *High

  6. Using Data to Tune Nearshore Dynamics Models: A Bayesian Approach with Parametric Likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Balci, Nusret; Venkataramani, Shankar C

    2013-01-01

    We propose a modification of a maximum likelihood procedure for tuning parameter values in models, based upon the comparison of their output to field data. Our methodology, which uses polynomial approximations of the sample space to increase the computational efficiency, differs from similar Bayesian estimation frameworks in the use of an alternative likelihood distribution, is shown to better address problems in which covariance information is lacking, than its more conventional counterpart. Lack of covariance information is a frequent challenge in large-scale geophysical estimation. This is the case in the geophysical problem considered here. We use a nearshore model for long shore currents and observational data of the same to show the contrast between both maximum likelihood methodologies. Beyond a methodological comparison, this study gives estimates of parameter values for the bottom drag and surface forcing that make the particular model most consistent with data; furthermore, we also derive sensitivit...

  7. 18S rDNA dataset profiling microeukaryotic populations within Chicago area nearshore waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Searle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite their critical role in the aquatic food web and nutrient cycling, microeukaryotes within freshwater environments are under-studied. Herein we present the first high-throughput molecular survey of microeukaryotes within Lake Michigan. Every two weeks from May 13 to August 5, 2014, we collected surface water samples from the nearshore waters of four Chicago area beaches: Gillson Park, Montrose Beach, 57th Street Beach, and Calumet Beach. Four biological replicates were collected for each sampling date and location, resulting in 112 samples. Eighty-nine of these samples were surveyed through targeted sequencing of the V7 and V8 regions of the 18S rDNA gene. Both technical and biological replicates were sequenced and are included in this dataset. Raw sequence data is available via NCBI’s SRA database (BioProject PRJNA294919.

  8. Chilean model for long-term follow-up of phenylketonuria (PKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Cornejo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chilean newborn screening program began in 1984 through of a covenant between the National Ministry of Health and the Chilean University through its Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA with the aim of implementing a pilot study for neonatal detection of phenylketonuria (PKU in Santiago’s central area. In 1989 a program for neonatal diagnosis of PKU and congenital hypothyroidism (HC was initiated by INTA along with Santiago´s occidental health ministry rural area, which covered 20% of newborn population. PKU and HC had an incidence of 1:14,640 and 1:2000 living newborns respectively. These findings allowed the establishment of a favorable cost/benefit ratio which validated the implementation of a program with National character. In 1992 the Chilean Ministry of Health ruled the initiation of PKU and HC newborn screening program and by 1998 the coverage across the country was achieved. INTA is the National Reference Center for confirmation and long term treatment for PKU and HC patients. A follow-up program consists of medical, nutritional, neurological and psychological outcome evaluations as well as periodic biochemical testing in order to guarantee normal patient growth and development. To date 184 children have been diagnosed with classic or moderate PKU, all of them follow a strict monitoring program.

  9. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla A. Bascuñán

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA, with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.

  10. Democracy and Student Discontent: Chilean Student Protest in the Post-Pinochet Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. M. Cummings

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective indicators suggest that economic and political conditions improved in Chile between the country’s democratization in 1990 and 2011. Average incomes increased, poverty rates decreased, and the number of positive reviews of Chilean democratic institutions rose. Despite this progress, massive student-led protest waves in 2006 and 2011 demonstrated high levels of subjective discontent in Chile. This paper proposes a three-part explanation for the paradoxical emergence and escalation of the post-Pinochet-era Chilean student protests, and, in so doing, contributes to the broader understanding of social movements and political action. The first two parts of the argument relate to generational change. Firstly, a gap between expectations and capabilities provoked discontent amongst a new generation of Chilean students. Secondly, the new generation’s collective identity as “la generación sin miedo” (the fearless generation motivated the students to turn discontent into political action. Thirdly, government and student actor agency influenced the variance in protest strength between 2005 and 2011.

  11. Rhizobacterial Community Structures Associated with Native Plants Grown in Chilean Extreme Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorquera, Milko A; Maruyama, Fumito; Ogram, Andrew V; Navarrete, Oscar U; Lagos, Lorena M; Inostroza, Nitza G; Acuña, Jacquelinne J; Rilling, Joaquín I; de La Luz Mora, María

    2016-10-01

    Chile is topographically and climatically diverse, with a wide array of diverse undisturbed ecosystems that include native plants that are highly adapted to local conditions. However, our understanding of the diversity, activity, and role of rhizobacteria associated with natural vegetation in undisturbed Chilean extreme ecosystems is very poor. In the present study, the combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 454-pyrosequencing approaches was used to describe the rhizobacterial community structures of native plants grown in three representative Chilean extreme environments: Atacama Desert (ATA), Andes Mountains (AND), and Antarctic (ANT). Both molecular approaches revealed the presence of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria as the dominant phyla in the rhizospheres of native plants. Lower numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed in rhizosphere soils from ATA compared with AND and ANT. Both approaches also showed differences in rhizobacterial community structures between extreme environments and between plant species. The differences among plant species grown in the same environment were attributed to the higher relative abundance of classes Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. However, further studies are needed to determine which environmental factors regulate the structures of rhizobacterial communities, and how (or if) specific bacterial groups may contribute to the growth and survival of native plants in each Chilean extreme environments.

  12. Use of Electronic Versus Print Textbooks by Chilean Dental Students: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, Pedro Christian; Schulz, Karen; Parra, Annemarie; Perez-Rojas, Francisco; Rosas, Cristian; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo

    2017-03-01

    Electronic textbooks have become available in recent decades as replacements or alternatives for print versions. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to evaluate the use of electronic versus print textbooks by Chilean dental students. The target population was students from 14 Chilean dental schools. The questionnaire was adapted and translated to Spanish from a previous survey used in a similar study. It consisted of the following variables: preferred type, type used, frequency of use, source, electronic devices used to read, and disposal after use. The use of textbooks was analyzed and compared by gender and course (p≤0.05). The final sample consisted of 3,256 students (21.38±2.5 years of age, 50.8% women). Most of the participants reported using both types of texts, with most (63.9%) preferring print over electronic texts, including significantly more women (pelectronic books on a daily basis (47.3%) or at least twice a week (30.7%). The main source of electronic textbooks was the Internet (43.8%). A personal computer was the most widely used device for reading electronic texts (95.0%), followed by a cell phone (46.4%) and a tablet (24.5%). Overall, these Chilean dental students preferred print over electronic textbooks, despite having available electronic devices.

  13. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cano-Cappellacci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence and content validity of the test, using the content validity index in 2013. In addition, a pilot implementation was achieved to determine test reliability in Spanish, by using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method. We evaluated whether the results presented significant differences by replacing the bat with a racket, using T-test. RESULTS We obtained a content validity index higher than 0.80 for language clarity and relevance of the TGMD-2 for children. There were significant differences in the object control subtest when comparing the results with bat and racket. The intraclass correlation coefficient for reliability inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability was greater than 0.80 in all cases. CONCLUSIONS The TGMD-2 has appropriate content validity to be applied in the Chilean population. The reliability of this test is within the appropriate parameters and its use could be recommended in this population after the establishment of normative data, setting a further precedent for the validation in other Latin American countries.

  14. ICT in Chilean Schools: Students' and Teachers' Access and Use of ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Enrique Hinostroza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the analysis of the data from a national survey of the Chilean educational ICT infrastructure and its use in schools implemented by the Centre for Technology and Education of the Chilean Ministry of Education in 2004. Results show that the context of ICT use in Chilean schools can be characterized as relatively good, insofar as there are no first-order barriers for implementing ICT pedagogy. In this context, students’ ICT use can be categorized based on four factors: communication, productivity, recreation, and communication with teachers. On the other hand, teachers’ ICT use can be categorized using three factors: communication, teaching, and technical. Based on these factors and considering the availability and use of ICT in schools, the question remains how to make this time most effective for improving students’ learning. Additionally, results show that students, on their own, spend a considerable amount of time developing activities described as communication. The question that arises from this finding is how to take advantage of these activities in order to meet teaching and learning aims. Regarding teachers, results open possibilities for redesigning professional development courses by taking advantage of what they already do with ICT.

  15. The management of care: a social and legal function of chilean nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ceballos-Vásquez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this article is to reflect on the implication of the concept of management of nursing, making Latin-American countries that have incorporated the management of care aware of its norms and the chilean experience and the legal aspects that regulate the management of care are specifically presented.Development: To achieve this objective, a bibliographic revision of diverse mainstream magazines, texts and laws related to administration and Management of Care was carried out.Initially, the concept of management is analyzed with the purpose of comprehending why the nursing integrate it in its field of performance. To visualize later how some of the countries of Latin-America have incorporated it in their legal frameworks of management of Care care of nursing, and subsequently the experience of the Chilean chilean nursing with regard to the Management management of Care care is analyzed extensively.Conclusions: As final considerations it is indicated that the Management management of Care care is part of the social function of the nurses, for the daily work they are to perform incorporating the management, it would provide managing competencies and would permit the autonomous caretaking to these professionals. 

  16. [Position paper from the Department of Ethics of the Chilean College of Physicians about conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Sofía P; Besio, Mauricio; Bórquez Estefó, Gladys; Salinas, Rodrigo A; Valenzuela, Carlos Y; Micolich, Constanza; Novoa Sotta, Fernando; Bernier Villarroel, Lioniel; Montt M, Julio; Misseroni Raddatz, Adelio

    2016-03-01

    The Chilean bill that regulates abortion for three cases (Bulletin Nº 9895-11) includes the possibility that health professionals may manifest their conscientious objection (CO) to perform this procedure. Due to the broad impact that the issue of C O had, the Ethics Department of the Chilean College of Physicians considered important to review this concept and its ethical and legal basis, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health. In the present document, we define the practical limit s of CO, both for the proper fulfillment of the medical profession obligations, and for the due respect and non-discrimination that the professional objector deserves. We analyze the denial of some health institutions to perform abortions if it is legalize d, and we end with recommendations adjusted to the Chilean reality. Specifically, we recognize the right to conscientious objection that all physicians who directly participate in a professional act have. But we a lso recognize that physicians have ineludib le obligations towards their patients, including the obligation to inform about the existence of this service, how to access to it and -as set out in our code of ethics- to ensure that another colleague will continue attending the patient.

  17. Evaluation of quality of life in Chilean patients with orthognathic surgery. A cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Cea-Herrera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To compare the presurgical and immediate postsurgical quality of life in Chilean patients with orthognathic surgery. Material and Methods: Cohort study. The study included 30 patients (mean age 20.73, 53.33% male who underwent orthognathic surgery primarily for severe skeletal abnormalities, (17 surgeries, 56.7% and moderate skeletal abnormalities (12 surgeries, 40%, from three Chilean hospitals between February and June 2016. Patients were asked to answer the World Health Organization quality of life Bref version questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF validated in Spanish to measure quality of life (QoL two weeks before and three months after the surgery. Scores for general QoL and for every domain of QoL were described. Variations in the scores of general QoL were analyzed according to sex and severity of orofacial malformation (mild, moderate or severe (t-test p<0.05; STATA 10.0. Results: The average score for QoL according to the WHOQOL-BREF scale was 76.43±13.83 before surgery and 90.5±7.18 three months after surgery (p<0.001. Statistically significant differences according to sex and type of orofacial malformation were found (p<0.01. An increase in the score in all the domains of the WHOQOOL-BREF scale was observed. Conclusion: Orthognathic surgery significantly improved QoL scores in Chilean patients according to the WHOQOL-BREF scale.

  18. Strongly-sheared wind-forced currents in the nearshore regions of the central Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt; Robertson, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to many previous reports, winds do drive currents along the shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Winds off Huntington Beach CA are the dominant forcing for currents over the nearshore region of the shelf (water depths less than 20 m). Winds control about 50–70% of the energy in nearshore alongshelf surface currents. The wind-driven current amplitudes are also anomalously high. For a relatively weak 1 dyne/cm2 wind stress, the alongshelf surface current amplitudes in this region can reach 80 cm/s or more. Mid-depth current amplitudes for the same wind stress are around 30–40 cm/s. These wind-driven surface current amplitudes are much larger than previously measured over other nearshore shelf regions, perhaps because this program is one of the few that measured currents within a meter of the surface. The near-bed cross-shelf currents over the nearshore region of the Huntington Beach shelf have an Ekman response to winds in that they upwell (downwell) for down (up) coast winds. This response disappears further offshore. Hence, there is upwelling in the SCB, but it does not occur across the entire shelf. Subthermocline water in the nearshore region that may contain nutrients and plankton move onshore when winds are southeastward, but subthermocline water over the shelf break is not transported to the beach. The currents over the outer shelf are not predominately controlled by winds, consistent with previous reports. Instead, they are mainly driven by cross-shelf pressure gradients that are independent of local wind stress.

  19. Benthic fauna of Kakinada bay and backwaters, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rathod, V.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    and crustaceans constituted the bulk of macrofauna in the backwaters while polychaetes and molluscs in the near-shore bottom deposits. Meiofaunal density (no. 10 cm/2) ranged from 346 to 603 and 674 to 1099 in the backwaters and near-shore region respectively...

  20. Wind-driven nearshore sediment resuspension in a deep lake during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Kristin E.; Bombardelli, Fabián. A.; Moreno-Casas, Patricio A.; Rueda, Francisco J.; Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    2014-11-01

    Ongoing public concern over declining water quality at Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada (USA) led to an investigation of wind-driven nearshore sediment resuspension that combined field measurements and modeling. Field data included: wind speed and direction, vertical profiles of water temperature and currents, nearbed velocity, lakebed sediment characteristics, and suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution. Bottom shear stress was computed from ADV-measured nearbed velocity data, adapting a turbulent kinetic energy method to lakes, and partitioned according to its contributions attributed to wind-waves, mean currents, and random motions. When the total shear stress exceeded the critical shear stress, the contribution to overall shear stress was about 80% from wind-waves and 10% each from mean currents and random motions. Therefore, wind-waves were the dominant mechanism resulting in sediment resuspension as corroborated by simultaneous increases in shear stress and total measured sediment concentration. The wind-wave model STWAVE was successfully modified to simulate wind-wave-induced sediment resuspension for viscous-dominated flow typical in lakes. Previous lake applications of STWAVE have been limited to special instances of fully turbulent flow. To address the validity of expressions for sediment resuspension in lakes, sediment entrainment rates were found to be well represented by a modified 1991 García and Parker formula. Last, in situ measurements of suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution revealed that the predominance of fine particles (by particle count) that most negatively impact clarity was unchanged by wind-related sediment resuspension. Therefore, we cannot assume that wind-driven sediment resuspension contributes to Lake Tahoe's declining nearshore clarity.

  1. Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and ROMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, K.A.; Warner, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical modeling of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation models, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated models. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation model that is quasi-3D to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH model. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully 3D ocean circulation model which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the models with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the models are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-3D model is faster, however the applicability of the fully 3D model allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Neutrophilic iron-oxidizing "zetaproteobacteria" and mild steel corrosion in nearshore marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeth, Joyce M; Little, Brenda J; Ray, Richard I; Farrar, Katherine M; Emerson, David

    2011-02-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of mild steel in seawater is an expensive and enduring problem. Little attention has been paid to the role of neutrophilic, lithotrophic, iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) in MIC. The goal of this study was to determine if marine FeOB related to Mariprofundus are involved in this process. To examine this, field incubations and laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted. Mild steel samples incubated in nearshore environments were colonized by marine FeOB, as evidenced by the presence of helical iron-encrusted stalks diagnostic of the FeOB Mariprofundus ferrooxydans, a member of the candidate class "Zetaproteobacteria." Furthermore, Mariprofundus-like cells were enriched from MIC biofilms. The presence of Zetaproteobacteria was confirmed using a Zetaproteobacteria-specific small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene primer set to amplify sequences related to M. ferrooxydans from both enrichments and in situ samples of MIC biofilms. Temporal in situ incubation studies showed a qualitative increase in stalk distribution on mild steel, suggesting progressive colonization by stalk-forming FeOB. We also isolated a novel FeOB, designated Mariprofundus sp. strain GSB2, from an iron oxide mat in a salt marsh. Strain GSB2 enhanced uniform corrosion from mild steel in laboratory microcosm experiments conducted over 4 days. Iron concentrations (including precipitates) in the medium were used as a measure of corrosion. The corrosion in biotic samples (7.4 ± 0.1 mM) was significantly higher than that in abiotic controls (5.0 ± 0.1 mM). These results have important implications for the role of FeOB in corrosion of steel in nearshore and estuarine environments. In addition, this work shows that the global distribution of Zetaproteobacteria is far greater than previously thought.

  3. Impacts of a North Pacific Predator on Nearshore Seawater Mercury Cycling via Top-Down Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossaboon, J. M.; Ganguli, P. M.; Flegal, A. R., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Marine mammals are common sentinel species for studying marine pollution, however their potential role as vectors of contaminants to local ecosystems has rarely been addressed. Organic methylmercury, or MeHg, is a potent neurotoxin that biomagnifies approximately one to ten million-fold in aquatic carnivores such as the Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), whose excreta and molted pelage, in turn, constitute a source of environmental MeHg contamination at the base of marine food chains. This recycling of MeHg was evidenced by comparing total mercury (HgT) and MeHg concentrations in seawater at the Año Nuevo State Reserve pinniped rookery to those of neighboring coastal sites in Central California. The observed 17-fold enrichment of MeHg in seawater at Año Nuevo during the M. angustirostris molting season (0.28—9.5 pM) was remarkable, and exceeded the range of surface water MeHg concentrations observed in the highly urbanized San Francisco Bay estuary (80% MeHg. This equates to an annual per-capita emission factor of 0.05 g MeHg per adult elephant seal. Based on this estimate, we calculate that approximately 0.2 kg of organic Hg entered the nearshore environment of Año Nuevo during that molting season. This elevated methylmercury (MeHg) in seawater adjacent to the rookery may become bioavailable to lower trophic levels, demonstrating that marine mammal colonization can substantially influence nearshore mercury cycling and potentially threaten ecosystem health.

  4. Seasonal blood chemistry response of sub-tropical nearshore fishes to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Aaron D; Zuckerman, Zachary C; Stewart, Heather A; Suski, Cory D

    2014-01-01

    Climate change due to anthropogenic activity will continue to alter the chemistry of the oceans. Future climate scenarios indicate that sub-tropical oceans will become more acidic, and the temperature and salinity will increase relative to current conditions. A large portion of previous work has focused on how future climate scenarios may impact shell-forming organisms and coral reef fish, with little attention given to fish that inhabit nearshore habitats; few studies have examined multiple challenges concurrently. The purpose of this study was to quantify the blood-based physiological response of nearshore fishes to a suite of seawater conditions associated with future climate change. Fish were exposed to an acute (30 min) increase in salinity (50 ppt), acidity (decrease in pH by 0.5 units) or temperature (7-10°C), or temperature and acidity combined, and held in these conditions for 6 h. Their physiological responses were compared across seasons (i.e. summer vs. winter). Bonefish (Albula vulpes) exposed to environmental challenges in the summer experienced a suite of blood-based osmotic and ionic disturbances relative to fish held in ambient conditions, with thermal challenges (particularly in the summer) being the most challenging. Conversely, no significant treatment effects were observed for yellowfin mojarra (Gerres cinereus) or checkered puffer (Sphoeroides testudineus) in either season. Together, results from this study demonstrate that acute climate-induced changes to thermal habitat will be the most challenging for sub-tropical fishes (particularly in the summer) relative to salinity and pH stressors, but significant variation across species exists.

  5. Benthic algal vegetation in Isfjorden, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Fredriksen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Benthic algal vegetation was investigated at 10 sites in Isfjorden, Svalbard. Five sites were visited during summer 2010 and five during summer 2012. Both the littoral and sublittoral vegetation were sampled, the littoral by hand-picking and use of a throwable rake and the sublittoral using a triangular dredge. A total of 88 different taxa were registered, comprising 17 Chlorophyta, 40 Ochrophyta, 30 Rhodophyta and the Xantophyceae Vaucheria sp. The green algae Ulvaria splendens (Ruprecht Vinogradova was recorded in Svalbard for the first time. Most of the sites consisted of hard bottom substrate, but one site, Kapp Wijk, consisted of loose-lying calcareous red algae (rhodoliths and had species not recorded elsewhere. The sublittoral at the other sites was dominated by kelp. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of the red alga Ceramium virgatum and a dwarf form of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. This study provides a baseline for future studies investigating changes in the vegetation due to environmental changes.

  6. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Effects of Upwelling on the Fatty Acid Composition of Benthic Filter Feeders in the Southern Benguela Ecosystem: Not All Upwelling Is Equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Christopher David; Noyon, Margaux

    2016-01-01

    Variability in mesoscale nearshore oceanographic conditions plays an important role in the distribution of primary production and food availability for intertidal consumers. Advection of nutrient rich waters by upwelling usually allows the proliferation of diatoms, later replaced by dinoflagellates. We examined upwelling effects on the fatty acid (FA) signature of a benthic intertidal filter feeder to identify its response to pulsed variability in food availability. The study took place in two contrasting seasons and at two upwelling and two non-upwelling sites interspersed within the southern Benguela upwelling system of South Africa. We investigated the FA composition of the adductor muscles and gonads of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to assess how FA are apportioned to the different tissues and whether this changes between upwelling and non-upwelling conditions. In situ temperature loggers used to identify upwelling conditions at the four sites indicated that such events occurred only at the upwelling centres and only in summer. Tissues differed strongly, with gonads presenting a higher proportion of essential FAs. This could reflect the faster turnover rate of gonad tissue or preferential retention of specific FA for reproductive purposes. FA composition did not vary as a direct function of upwelling, but there were strong dissimilarities among sites. Upwelling influenced mussel diets at one upwelling site while at the other, the expected signature of upwelling was displaced downstream of the core of upwelling. Condition Index (CI) and Gonad Index (GI) differed among sites and were not influenced by upwelling, with GI being comparable among sites. In addition, FA proportions were consistent among sites, indicating similar food quality and quantity over time and under upwelling and non-upwelling conditions. This suggests that the influence of upwelling on the west coast of South Africa is pervasive and diffuse, rather than discrete; while nearshore

  7. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    The author briefly presents a general review on the evolution trends of benthic ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea coast, referring to some recent data from the literature. The Black Sea represents a "unicum hydrobiologicum" by some of its basic characteristics, such as: 1. a large semi-enclosed basin with an intense exchange of waters; 2. a sea receiving a large amount of fresh water, especially in its northwestern sector, brought by the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester Rivers; 3. a large meromictic sea - euxinic-azoic below depths of 150 - 200 m; 4. around the sea there is a large filter-holding belt consisting of bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Modiolula phaseolina); 5. a sea having in its northwestern sector a large area covered by red algae of the genus Phyllophora; 6. a sea undergoing, in the last 50 years, intense environmental pressures (pollution by large rivers and direct discharges of wastewater from urban areas, the development of maritime traffic, overfishing by bottom trawling, coastal facilities and especially by many defense works of the new port); 7. a sea registering in the last decades of the past century many events of eutrophication; 8. a sea enriching its biodiversity by alien species. After the political and socio-economic changes triggered by the events of 1989 and especially after Romania's accession to EU, the state of the northwestern Black Sea coastal ecosystems, has recorded positive changes: • Decrease in environmental pressures; • Decreasing pollutant / fertilizing discharges into the Danube; • Reduction of domestic sewage quantities from coastal settlements; • Improvement in the quality of the wastewater discharged into the sea; • Reduction of active fishing by bottom trawling; • Adopting and implementing a national / international set of guidelines concerning marine environment; • Adopting regulations on the protection of the marine environment against pollution in marine economy: transport / shipping, tourism

  8. Foraminiferal studies in nearshore regions of western coast of India and Laccadives Islands: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhalla, S.N.; Khare, N.; Shanmukha, D.H.; Henriques, P.J.

    . On the other hand, 26 species of benthic foraminifera have been reported by Talib & Farooqui 28 from Mahi valley (Gujarat); Raj & Chamyal 32 identified 25 foraminiferal genera from the mud unit of mid-late Holocene age. The initial credit to undertake..., Gujarat Identified 25 genera of foraminifera from the mud unit of Mid to Late Holocene age. Contd ….. INDIAN J. MAR. SCI., VOL. 36, No. 4, DECEMBER 2007 276 Table 2 � Major work carried out on west coast beaches, estuaries and mudflats regions...

  9. Naturally Ocurring Polyphosphate-accumulating Bacteria in Benthic Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, N. A.; Saia, S. M.; Walter, M. T.; Carrick, H. J.; Buda, A. R.; Regan, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), known to store excess phosphorus (P) as polyphosphate (poly-P), influence P transport in the environment. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater has long served as a basis to study bacterial PAOs, yet little research has genetically identified similar organisms in natural settings. Aerobic/anaerobic cycles, used to select for PAOs in EBPR, can result from changing environmental conditions such as night/day cycles for benthic biofilms. Benthic biofilms from eight Pennsylvanian streams were studied for naturally-occurring bacterial PAOs similar to those typically found in EBPR systems. PAOs were confirmed in the benthic biofilms by a characteristic yellow fluorescent emission from DAPI staining. Cells containing yellow fluorescence were separated from the rest of the sample using a flow cytometer, resulting in a physically enriched culture of PAOs from the benthic biofilms. Amplicon-based metagenomic sequencing will reveal the phylogeny of bacteria responsible for poly-P accumulation in these benthic biofilms. Sequencing data will be used to develop fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) probes, and hybridizations will be performed on DAPI-stained cells to confirm poly-P accumulation by targeted phylotypes. Identifying PAOs in natural settings is a critical step towards studying environments that support high concentrations of PAOs, serving as significant factors in the P cycle. PAOs can then be connected to P transport models to help understand and mitigate P pollution in agricultural watersheds.

  10. The Image of E-Learning: Perceptions about a Chilean University and the E-Learning System in the Context of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcas, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the image of a Chilean university, as perceived by those inside and outside of the institution, in contrast with the general image of the e-learning system in Chile. The internal perceptions are those of current students and graduates of this Chilean university, while the external perceptions are those…

  11. Immediate response of meio and macrobenthos to disturbance caused by a benthic disturber

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Ansari, Z.A.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Rodrigues, N.

    The probable impact of nodule mining on benthic biota was studied by creating a benthic disturbance. During the predisturbance study in the Central Indian Basin, box core samples were analyzed for the distribution, composition and abundance...

  12. Linkages between reef fish demographics and benthic habitat characteristics in Tutuila, American Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitats play vital roles in the distribution and abundances of marine resources. Understanding how fish populations respond to variability of benthic...

  13. Digital shaded-relief image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters of southcentral Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release contains a shaded-relief image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters along southcentral Moloka'i. This image mosaic was generated...

  14. Gulf Watch Alaska Nearshore Component: Monitoring Site Locations from Prince William Sound, Katmai National Park and Preserve, and Kenai Fjords National Park

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are part of the Gulf Watch Alaska (GWA) long term monitoring program, nearshore monitoring component. Specifically, these data describe site locations for...

  15. Evaluation of trophic state and plankton abundance from the environmental parameters of Visakhapatnam Harbour and near-shore waters, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripathy, S.C.; KusumaKumari, B.A.V.L.; Sarma, V.V.; Murty, T.V.R.

    of water quality on spatial basis towards the near-shore environment from the polluted harbour zone. Multiple regression equations have been utilized to evaluate the plankton abundance and the influencing parameters controlling plankton distribution...

  16. Gulf Watch Alaska Nearshore Component: Intertidal Mussel Site Data from Prince William Sound, Katmai National Park and Preserve, and Kenai Fjords National Park, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data is part of the Gulf Watch Alaska (GWA) long term monitoring program, nearshore monitoring component. Specifically, these data describe mussel sampling and...

  17. Gulf Watch Alaska Nearshore Component: Intertidal Mussel Site Data from Prince William Sound, Katmai National Park and Preserve, and Kenai Fjords National Park, 2008-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data is part of the Gulf Watch Alaska (GWA) long term monitoring program, nearshore monitoring component. Specifically, these data describe mussel sampling and...

  18. Digital shaded-relief image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters southwest Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release contains a shaded-relief image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters along southwest Moloka'i. This image mosaic was generated...

  19. Feeding ecology of marine birds in the nearshore waters of Kodiak Island: Final report to the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The feeding habits of marine birds in the nearshore waters of Kodiak Island were studied during winter 1976-1977 and February 1978 and during summer 1977 and 1978....

  20. Fish stomach contents in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TH. Tupinambás

    Full Text Available The choice of sampling gears to assess benthic macroinvertebrate communities depends on environmental characteristics, study objectives, and cost effectiveness. Because of the high foraging capacity and diverse habitats and behaviors of benthophagous fishes, their stomach contents may offer a useful sampling tool in studies of benthic macroinvertebrates, especially in large, deep, fast rivers that are difficult to sample with traditional sediment sampling gear. Our objective was to compare the benthic macroinvertebrate communities sampled from sediments with those sampled from fish stomachs. We collected benthic macroinvertebrates and fish from three different habitat types (backwater, beach, riffle in the wet season, drying season, and dry season along a single reach of the Grande River (Paraná River Basin, southeast Brazil. We sampled sediments through use of a Petersen dredge (total of 216 grabs and used gill nets to sample fish (total of 36 samples. We analyzed the stomach contents of three commonly occurring benthophagous fish species (Eigenmannia virescens, Iheringichthys labrosus, Leporinus amblyrhynchus. Chironomids dominated in both sampling methods. Macroinvertebrate taxonomic composition and abundances from fish stomachs differed from those from sediment samples, but less so from riffles than from backwater and beach habitats. Macroinvertebrate taxa from E. virescens stomachs were more strongly correlated with sediment samples from all three habitats than were those from the other two species. The species accumulation curves and higher mean dispersion values, compared with with sediment samples suggest that E. virescens is more efficient than sediment samples and the other fish studied at collecting benthic taxa. We conclude that by analyzing the stomach contents of benthophagous fishes it is possible to assess important characteristics of benthic communities (dispersion, taxonomic composition and diversity. This is especially true

  1. Benthic Flux of Dissolved Nickel into the Water Column of South San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Phosphorous (N:P) Benthic Flux Ratio Fig. 9 – Incubation Core Design Fig. 10 – Macroinvertebrate Taxonomy Fig. 11 – Benthic Chlorophyll Analyses Fig...l a r F l u x R a t i o Redfield Ratio Incubation Core Design Fig. 9 Benthic Macroinvertebrate Taxonomy Fig. 10 Benthic Chlorophyll...98 25-May-99 08-Apr-98 15-Sep-98 25-May-99 Phylum Mollusca Class Bivalvia Potamocorbula amurensis 520 303 195 Musculista senhousia 43 130 Mya

  2. Preliminary results from a shallow water benthic grazing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, N.L.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Thompson, Janet K.

    2005-01-01

    The nutrient-rich, shallow waters of San Francisco Bay support high rates of primary production, limited not by nutrients but by light availability and benthic grazing (Alpine and others 1992; Cloern 1982). Phytoplankton blooms are an important food source for upper trophic levels. Consequently animal populations, such as fish, may suffer under conditions of high benthic bivalve grazing. It has been hypothesized that several species of fish are suffering as a result of severe decreases in available phytoplankton since the introduction of Potamocorbula amurensis into San Francisco Bay (Feyrer 2003).

  3. Controlling benthic release of phosphorus in different Baltic Sea scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Heikki; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.;

    to counteract anoxia and benthic release of nutrients in coastal marine conditions in the Baltic Sea. The project undertook monitoring of the pilot tests, modelling of effects at different scales, risk management, cost effectiveness and cost benefit analysis.......The general aim of the PROPPEN project was to study whether it is possible to counteract near-bottom anoxia and excess benthic nutrient release ("internal loading") in the Baltic Sea by artificial oxygenation in cost-efficient and socio-economically beneficial ways. Two pilot sites were selected...

  4. Production by intertidal benthic animals and limits to their predation by shorebirds : a heuristic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis

    1987-01-01

    This review examines the question whether the cumulative amount of benthic biomass removed by feeding shorebirds on a certain intertidal area is limited by the renewal rate of benthic food stocks. Limitations of current methods to estimate both predatory impact by shorebirds and harvestable benthic

  5. Shorebird avoidance of nearshore feeding and roosting areas at night correlates with presence of a nocturnal avian predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Theunis; Gill, Robert E.; de Goeij, Petra; Dekinga, Anne; Shepherd, Marnie; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee

    2006-01-01

    We here report two anecdotes about avianinteractions relevant to the interpretation of differences in shorebirdhabitat use between day and night. Several studies have reported that shorebirds avoid feeding and roosting along nearshore areasat night yet commonly use these sites during daytime. This suggests that nighttime avoidance of nearshore places is a response to increased danger of predation. When mist-netting during autumn 2005 on nearshore intertidal habitats along South Spit, Egegik Bay (Alaska Peninsula), Alaska, we discovered that shorebirds that occurred there in large numbers during daytime low tides and roosted there during daytime high tides (especially Dunlin Calidris alpina, Rock Sandpipers Calidris ptilocnemis, Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola, and Surfbirds Aphriza virgata), were absent at night. Their avoidance of the area correlated with Short-eared Owls Asio flammeus concurrently hunting over the beach and adjacent intertidal habitats. Spotlighting over nearby expansive intertidal mudflats confirmed that the same suite of species continued to forage or roost nearby at night. To bring the story full circle, the morning following one mist-netting effort we found a Short-eared Owl on the beach that had been killed earlier by a Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus. In the owl’s stomach were remains of a freshly devoured Dunlin.

  6. A description of the nearshore fish communities in the Huron-Erie Corridor using multiple gear types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, James T.; Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Thomas, Mike V.; Manny, Bruce A.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide a critical habitat for many fish species throughout their life cycles. Once home to one of the largest wetland complexes in the Great Lakes, coastal wetlands in the Huron–Erie Corridor (HEC) have decreased dramatically since the early 1900s. We characterized the nearshore fish communities at three different wetland complexes in the HEC using electrofishing, seines, and fyke nets. Species richness was highest in the Detroit River (63), followed by the St. Clair Delta (56), and Western Lake Erie (47). The nearshore fish communities in the Detroit River and St. Clair Delta consisted primarily of shiners, bluntnose minnow, centrarchids, and brook silverside, while the Western Lake Erie sites consisted of high proportions of non-native taxa including common carp, gizzard shad, goldfish, and white perch. Species richness estimates using individual-based rarefaction curves were higher when using electrofishing data compared to fyke nets or seine hauls at each wetland. Twelve fish species were captured exclusively during electrofishing assessments, while one species was captured exclusively in fyke nets, and none exclusively during seine hauls. Western Lake Erie wetlands were more indicative of degraded systems with lower species richness, lower proportion of turbidity intolerant species, and increased abundance of non-native taxa. This work highlights the importance of coastal wetlands in the HEC by capturing 69 different fish species utilizing these wetlands to fulfill life history requirements and provides insight when selecting gears to sample nearshore littoral areas.

  7. SPOC Experiment: First Results From Seismological Studies Along the Central Chilean Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierer, P. O.; Tilmann, F.; Flueh, E. R.; Kopp, H.; Gossler, J.

    2002-12-01

    The investigations of the RV SONNE cruise SO161 during the SPOC experiment (Subduction Processes Off Chile) concentrated on the area of the central Chilean margin west off Valparaiso. The main goal of this experiment is to investigate the effects of subducting oceanic seafloor relief on the seismicity of this domain. A marine array of 23 ocean bottom hydrophones and seismometers (OBH/S) was deployed for a period of ten weeks to monitor local earthquakes from this part of the Chilean margin where volcanic structures like the aseismic Juan Fernandez Ridge enter the trench. A strong decrease in dip angle of the subducting plate (flat slab) is observed here, resulting in a segmentation of the margin. The flat slab segment correlates with the absence of Quaternary volcanism and a central valley on the South American plate. It is assumed that a connection between the buoyancy of thickened oceanic crust and the occurrence of shallow subduction earthquakes exists. We present preliminary results of hypocenter determinations, founded on about 300 localisable events based on the OBH/S recordings. The distribution of hypocenters shows a considerable seismic activity within the 15 km - 50 km depth range. The special focus on the transitional domain of the slope allowed us to map in detail the seaward termination of the seismogenic zone. In addition, we used seismological land data, recorded from the Central Chilean Network (CCN) and a number of temporary landstations to supplement the marine data set. Comparative and joint hypocenter analysis from both marine and land data, increases the precision of locations and allows an assessment of systematic errors. We can show the need of both, on- and offshore data sets, to determine offshore earthquake locations with high precision. The seismological investigations are in close collaboration with the active seismic studies carried out during the scope of the SPOC experiment.

  8. Insulin resistance in Chileans of European and indigenous descent: evidence for an ethnicity x environment interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Celis-Morales

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effects of urbanisation on diabetes risk appear to be greater in indigenous populations worldwide than in populations of European origin, but the reasons are unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether the effects of environment (Rural vs. Urban, adiposity, fitness and lifestyle variables on insulin resistance differed between individuals of indigenous Mapuche origin compared to those of European origin in Chile. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 123 Rural Mapuche, 124 Urban Mapuche, 91 Rural European and 134 Urban European Chilean adults had blood taken for determination of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA(IR and underwent assessment of physical activity/sedentary behaviour (using accelerometry, cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary intake and body composition. General linear models were used to determine interactions with ethnicity for key variables. There was a significant "ethnicity x environment" interaction for HOMA(IR (Mean±SD; Rural Mapuche: 1.65±2.03, Urban Mapuche: 4.90±3.05, Rural European: 0.82±0.61, Urban European: 1.55±1.34, p((interaction = 0.0003, such that the effect of urbanisation on HOMA(IR was greater in Mapuches than Europeans. In addition, there were significant interactions (all p<0.004 with ethnicity for effects of adiposity, sedentary time and physical activity on HOMA(IR, with greater effects seen in Mapuches compared to Europeans, an observation that persisted after adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Urbanisation, adiposity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour influence insulin resistance to a greater extent in Chilean Mapuches than Chileans of European descent. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of lifestyle strategies to reduce metabolic risk in different ethnic groups, and for understanding of the mechanisms underpinning human insulin resistance.

  9. Breaking patient confidentiality: comparing Chilean and French viewpoints regarding the conditions of its acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Olivari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the conditions under which lay people and health professionals living in Chile find it acceptable for a physician to break confidentiality to protect the wife of a patient with a sexually transmitted disease (STD. One hundred sixty-nine lay persons, 10 physicians, 17 psychologists, and 11 paramedical professionals indicated the acceptability of breaking confidentiality in 48 scenarios. The scenarios were all possible combinations of five factors: disease severity (severe, lethal; time taken to discuss this with the patient (little time, much time; patient’s intent to inform his spouse about the disease (none, one of these days, immediately; patient’s intent to adopt protective behaviors (no intent, intent; and physician’s decision to consult an STD expert (yes, no, 2 x 2 x 3 x 2 x 2. The study also compared Chilean and French views, using data gathered previously in France. A cluster analysis conducted on the overall set of raw data revealed groups of participants that found breaking confidentiality “always acceptable” (9%, requiring “consultation with an expert” (5%, “depending on the many circumstances” (70%, and “never acceptable” (11%”. Despite clear differences in legislation and official codes of ethics between their two countries, Chilean and French lay people did not differ much in their personal convictions regarding the circumstances in which patient confidentiality can be broken or must not be broken. By contrast, Chilean physicians, in agreement with their code of ethics, were much less supportive than French physicians of complete respect of patient confidentiality in all cases

  10. Oral disorders in Chilean rodeo horses submitted for dental evaluation between 2010 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Guerra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental disorders are common in horses. The objetive of the study was determined the frequency of dental problems in Chilean Rodeo Horses and described the most common dental treatments used in Chile. Oral examinations were performed on 456 Chilean rodeo horses and the disorders were observed as follows: Oral soft tissues, 259 horses (56% presented lacerations and/or ulcers. Regarding the first premolar, it was present in 32% of the horses, all maxillary positioned. In canines, 245 (54% were present and overlong tooth. Disorders found in incisors show supererupted (Tooth overlong in 147 (32%; ventral curvature in 116 (25%, nevertheless 102 (22% horses showed no abnormalities. About the diseases found in cheek teeth (premolars and molars, the more prevalent ones was enamel points in 426 (93%, rostral or caudal hooks in 354 (78%, and ramps in 231 (51%. Confidence intervals between all dental diseases found in the study showed no statistical significance when was analyzed for age or gender. When age groups were made, statistical significance appear X² Pearson (p=0,01, were mostly malocclusion type I was the more common in young, mature and geriatric horses. Other disorders such as problems at the time of eruption, development and periodontal disease are statiscally similar X² (p=0,07. About the treatments it is important to mention that in 453 (99% horses received odontoplasty and 147 (32% first premolar extraction. This study shows that Chilean rodeo horses have dental disorders similar to other horse breeds, except by small increase in soft tissue damage and incisors problems.

  11. Memory, Citizenship and the Public Sphere in the Development of the Recent Past in the Chilean Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Rubio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The research gets into to the studies of historical memory by performing a hermeneutic analysis of the discourse of memory and history narratives that the Chilean public discussion has used to develop its dictatorial recent past in the period 1991-2004. Press sources, editorial inserts, interviews with the social and political actors and specially Truth and Reconciliation Reports were reviewed. We reflect on the current oligarchic long and short term frames made for the representation of the public sphere and the citizenship, emphasizing the impossibility of forgiveness as a restorative category of the political community.It consolidates the symbolic weakness of the recovered democracyin recent Chilean history.

  12. Spatial Patterns in the Distribution, Diversity and Abundance of Benthic Foraminifera around Moorea (Society Archipelago, French Polynesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga T Fajemila

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are now subject to global threats and influences from numerous anthropogenic sources. Foraminifera, a group of unicellular shelled organisms, are excellent indicators of water quality and reef health. Thus we studied a set of samples taken in 1992 to provide a foraminiferal baseline for future studies of environmental change. Our study provides the first island-wide analysis of shallow benthic foraminifera from around Moorea (Society Archipelago. We analyzed the composition, species richness, patterns of distribution and abundance of unstained foraminiferal assemblages from bays, fringing reefs, nearshore and back- and fore-reef environments. A total of 380 taxa of foraminifera were recorded, a number that almost doubles previous species counts. Spatial patterns of foraminiferal assemblages are characterized by numerical abundances of individual taxa, cluster groups and gradients of species richness, as documented by cluster, Fisher α, ternary plot and Principal Component Analyses (PCA. The inner bay inlets are dominated by stress-tolerant, mostly thin-shelled taxa of Bolivina, Bolivinella, Nonionoides, Elongobula, and Ammonia preferring low-oxygen and/or nutrient-rich habitats influenced by coastal factors such as fresh-water runoff and overhanging mangroves. The larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera (Borelis, Amphistegina, Heterostegina, Peneroplis generally live in the oligotrophic, well-lit back- and fore-reef environments. Amphisteginids and peneroplids were among the few taxa found in the bay environments, probably due to their preferences for phytal substrates and tolerance to moderate levels of eutrophication. The fringing reef environments along the outer bay are characterized by Borelis schlumbergeri, Heterostegina depressa, Textularia spp. and various miliolids which represent a hotspot of diversity within the complex reef-lagoon system of Moorea. The high foraminiferal Fisher α and species richness diversity in outer bay

  13. Free Trade Agreements and Firm-Product Markups in Chilean Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamorgese, A.R.; Linarello, A.; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    In this paper, we use detailed information about firms' product portfolio to study how trade liberalization affects prices, markups and productivity. We document these effects using firm product level data in Chilean manufacturing following two major trade agreements with the EU and the US...... at the firm-product level. On average, adjustment on the profit margin does not appear to play a role. However, for more differentiated products, we find some evidence of an increase in markups, suggesting that firms do not fully pass-through increases in productivity on prices whenever they have enough...

  14. A chromosomal analysis of four species of Chilean Chrysomelinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Petitpierre

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Four species of Chilean leaf beetles in the subfamily Chrysomelinae have been cytogenetically analyzed, Blaptea elguetai Petitpierre, 2011, Henicotherus porteri Bréthes, 1929 and Jolivetia obscura (Philippi, 1864 show 2n = 28 chromosomes and a 13 + Xyp male meioformula, and Pataya nitida (Philippi, 1864 has the highest number of 2n = 38 chromosomes. The karyotype of H. porteri is made of mostly small meta/submetacentric chromosomes, and that of Jolivetia obscura displays striking procentric blocks of heterochromatin at pachytene autosomic bivalents using conventional staining. These findings are discussed in relation to previous cytogenetic data and current taxonomy of the subfamily.

  15. Genotypic characterization of Chilean llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) pestivirus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, I M; Fuentes, R; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities worldwide where they have been introduced. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus, in particular Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVDV), but there is little data available on Pestivirus infections in SACs. In this study we aimed to detect and identify Pestivirus genotypes and subgroups infecting SACs in both wild and confined environments. Samples were collected from 136 llamas and 30 alpacas from different areas in the Chilean Altiplano (wild animals), and from 22 llamas and 26 alpacas diagnosed as Pestivirus positive from the Metropolitana region in Chile (confined animals). Seroneutralization tests showed titers lower than 2 in all 166 samples from Chilean Altiplano. These samples were also negative to BVDV isolation, indicating that these animals have not been exposed to Pestivirus. After reactivation of positive samples from the Metropolitana region, the 5' non-codifying region (5'NCR) and E2 glycoprotein were amplified by RT-PCR from the Pestivirus genome. Viral sequences were pairwise compared and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The 5'NCR analysis showed that all 12 sequenced isolates belonged to BVDV-1. Of particular interest, isolates from eight llama and two alpaca were BVDV-1j and two alpacas were BVDV-1b. In agreement with these results, E2 phylogenetic analysis rendered a similar grouping indicating that all 16 isolates belong to BVDV-1. However, the lower availability of E2 sequences determines the creation of a smaller number of sub-groups than the 5'NCR sequences. Based on the E2 sequences, the 5'NCR BVDV 1j group consisting of all the llamas and 3 alpacas are completely included in the E2 BVDV 1e group. Due to the universal availability of the 5'NCR segment, we propose the classification of these Chilean llamas and

  16. Misconceptions of the p-value among Chilean and Italian Academic Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Iotti, Bryan; Bonilla-Campos, Amparo; Longobardi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Common misconceptions of p-values are based on certain beliefs and attributions about the significance of the results. Thus, they affect the professionals' decisions and jeopardize the quality of interventions and the accumulation of valid scientific knowledge. We conducted a survey on 164 academic psychologists (134 Italian, 30 Chilean) questioned on this topic. Our findings are consistent with previous research and suggest that some participants do not know how to correctly interpret p-values. The inverse probability fallacy presents the greatest comprehension problems, followed by the replication fallacy. These results highlight the importance of the statistical re-education of researchers. Recommendations for improving statistical cognition are proposed. PMID:27602007

  17. Mano a Mano-Mujer: an effective HIV prevention intervention for Chilean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F; Miner, Sarah; Irarrazabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Peragallo, Nilda; Levy, Judith; Norr, James L; McElmurry, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    The impact of a professionally facilitated peer group intervention for HIV prevention among 400 low-income Chilean women was examined using a quasiexperimental design. At 3 months postintervention, the intervention group had higher HIV-related knowledge, more positive attitudes toward people living with HIV, fewer perceived condom use barriers, greater self- efficacy, higher HIV reduction behavioral intentions, more communication with partners about safer sex, and decreased depression symptoms. They did not, however, have increased condom use or self-esteem. More attention to gender barriers is needed. This intervention offers a model for reducing HIV for women in Chile and other Latin American countries.

  18. Border dimension of Chilean foreign policies: Immobility and urgency of new dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ovando Santana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article draws the priorities of border public policy that define the Chilean foreign policy. Through a theoretical framework from the rational–reflective approach of International Relations, we argue that despite of the increasing openness, internationalization of the country, and the emergence of new actors and subnational initiatives; the views and options between the actors of this new area and the definitions of foreign policy not always match. We propose the need to establish mechanisms that settle the positions among regional social–political actors, intermediate agencies and the central level.

  19. Chilean Student Movement of 2011 and their impact on citizen claims from the regionalist margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ramos Galleguillos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant social conflicts in Chile in 2011, was the student movement, which together with various social actors, promoted the slogan of democracy and quality in public education. Under this argument, this paper aims to analyze and describe how the Chilean Student Movement started in 2011, triggers citizen empowerment against political and economic system in favor of a welfare state transverse to the different social sectors. We explore also the repercussions in this movement for the formulation of new demands from regionalist margins in order to interpret the growing discontent and need oriented organizational break with the inequality gap in Chile.

  20. [Attitudes regarding the delivery of formal and informal care: comparison of French and Chilean adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, J; Deschamps, J P; Romero, M I; Zubarew, T; Billot, L; Crema, D; Mouchtouris, A

    2002-12-01

    The representations that youth have of health professionals and young people's demands in terms of the operation and administration of services create an original and complex problematic. Clearly, this originality implies the important differences from one culture to another. For this very reason, it seemed that a comparative study relating the representations and attitudes confronted when care is sought by young people from countries with different cultural contexts would assist in comprehending why adolescents have such particular ways of using--or not using--formal and self-administered health services. An original open-ended response questionnaire was jointly designed and validated by a French and Chilean team. A mutually agreed upon sample of 957 school children, adolescents aged from 14 to 19, participated in the study in France and in Chili. The following correlations were found. In the event of a sleeping problem (or other general worry that is physically manifested), the mother is the privileged confidant, and in the specific case of a relationship or emotional problem, it is usually one of the adolescents' friends. The general practitioner is the favoured professional person in the event of a purely physical problem. When confronted with an emotional problem, one-third of adolescents say that they would not consider going to a consultation. The expectations of the French toward health professionals are more often within the "emotional" arena than those of the Chileans which generally concern the "medical/technical" field. The practice of self-administered care is qualitatively similar but the French prefer taking medication whereas the Chileans prefer the "little home remedies". The use of natural medicine is more widespread among young Chileans, but the types of medicine used are similar, namely herbal teas and other plant-based remedies and homeopathy. These results have a variety of implications, especially in terms of the need for training health

  1. The presence and near-shore transport of human fecal pollution in Lake Michigan beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, S.L.; Liu, L.B.; Phanikumar, M.S.; Jenkins, T.M.; Wong, M.V.; Rose, J.B.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Nevers, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a source of water for municipal, agricultural and industrial use, and support significant recreation, commercial and sport fishing industries. Every year millions of people visit the 500 plus recreational beaches in the Great Lakes. An increasing public health risk has been suggested with increased evidence of fecal contamination at the shoreline. To investigate the transport and fate of fecal pollution at Great Lakes beaches and the health risk associated with swimming at these beaches, the near-shore waters of Mt Baldy Beach, Lake Michigan and Trail Creek, a tributary discharging into the lake were examined for fecal pollution indicators. A model of surf zone hydrodynamics coupled with a transport model with first-order inactivation of pollutant was used to understand the relative importance of different processes operating in the surf zone (e.g. physical versus biological processes). The Enterococcus human fecal pollution marker, which targets a putative virulence factor, the enterococcal surface protein (esp) in Enterococcus faecium, was detected in 2/28 samples (7%) from the tributaries draining into Lake Michigan and in 6/30 samples (20%) from Lake Michigan beaches. Preliminary analysis suggests that the majority of fecal indicator bactateria variation and water quality changes at the beaches can be explained by inputs from the influential stream and hydrometeorological conditions. Using modeling methods to predict impaired water quality may help reduce potential health threats to recreational visitors.

  2. Water resources research program nearshore currents at Point Beach, Wisconsin (1974--1975)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, K.D.; Van Loon, L.; Tome, C.; Harrison, W.

    1976-03-01

    Coastal currents of Lake Michigan were monitored at stations 0.4, 1.1, and 3.8 km from shore along a coast-perpendicular transect located 1 km south of the Wisconsin Electric Power Company's nuclear generating station. Complete specifications are given for current meter calibrations, electronics used, winter and summer mooring configurations, and for the performance of each meter and mooring assembly. Local winds were monitored at the power plant intake using a mechanical, MRI wind system. The following types of graphs are presented for current and wind observations: (1) U, V flow components versus time, (2) specific kinetic energy versus time, (3) flow speeds and directions versus time, (4) composite velocity histograms and associated U, V-component histograms, and (5) progressive vector diagrams. A linear, optimal-filter design technique (Wiener filter) is used to estimate the efficiency of wind-driven, linear, nearshore current-prediction models. The poor predictions of the models probably relate to such factors as lack of input for superimposed lake currents, time-base errors, and wind-stress formulas.

  3. Evaluation of Various Technologies for Wave Energy Conversion in the Portuguese Nearshore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Guedes Soares

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to perform an evaluation of the performance provided by various technologies for wave energy conversion in the Portuguese continental coastal environment. The wave climate in the target area is first analyzed using the results from three years of simulations with a wave prediction system based on numerical models. Based on the above data, diagrams for the bivariate distributions of the sea states occurrences, defined by the significant wave height and the energy period, are designed for both winters and whole years. On this basis, the output of five different technologies for the conversion of wave energy is assessed in some relevant locations from the Portuguese nearshore. According to the results obtained, the Portuguese continental coastal environment appears to be appropriate for the wave energy extraction. At the same time, the present work shows that the output of the wave energy conversion devices does not depend only on the average wave energy but is also dependent on the distribution of the wave energy among the sea states of different periods. For this reason, a good agreement between the characteristics of the power matrices of the wave energy converters operating in a certain place and the diagrams for the bivariate distributions of the sea states occurrences corresponding to the considered location represents a key issue in selecting the most appropriate technology for wave energy conversion.

  4. Nearshore fish distributions in an Alaskan estuary in relation to stratification, temperature, and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abookire, Alisa A.; Piatt, J.F.; Robards, Martin D.

    2000-01-01

    Fish were sampled with beach seines and small-meshed beam trawls in nearshore ( water from the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Inner Bay is more estuarine. Thermohaline properties of bottom water in the Outer and Inner Bay were essentially the same, whereas the Inner Bay water-column was stratified with warmer, less saline waters near the surface. Distribution and abundance of pelagic schooling fish corresponded with area differences in stratification, temperature and salinity. The Inner Bay supported more species and higher densities of schooling and demersal fish than the Outer Bay. Schooling fish communities sampled by beach seine differed between the Outer and Inner Bays. Juvenile and adult Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi), osmerids (Osmeridae) and sculpins (Cottidae) were all more abundant in the Inner Bay. Gadids (Gadidae) were the only schooling fish taxa more abundant in the Outer Bay. Thermohaline characteristics of bottom water were similar throughout Kachemak Bay. Correspondingly, bottom fish communities were similar in all areas. Relative abundances (CPUE) were not significantly different between areas for any of the five demersal fish groups: flatfishes (Pleuronectidae), ronquils (Bathymasteridae), sculpins (Cottidae), gadids (Gadidae) and pricklebacks (Stichaeidae).

  5. Parameterization of Time-Averaged Suspended Sediment Concentration in the Nearshore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Doug Yoon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the effect of wave breaking turbulence on sediment transport in the nearshore, the vertical distribution of time-averaged suspended sediment concentration (SSC in the surf zone was parameterized in terms of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE at different cross-shore locations, including the bar crest, bar trough, and inner surf zone. Using data from a large-scale laboratory experiment, a simple relationship was developed between the time-averaged SSC and the time-averaged TKE. The vertical variation of the time-averaged SSC was fitted to an equation analogous to the turbulent dissipation rate term. At the bar crest, the proposed equation was slightly modified to incorporate the effect of near-bed sediment processes and yielded reasonable agreement. This parameterization yielded the best agreement at the bar trough, with a coefficient of determination R2 ≥ 0.72 above the bottom boundary layer. The time-averaged SSC in the inner surf zone showed good agreement near the bed but poor agreement near the water surface, suggesting that there is a different sedimentation mechanism that controls the SSC in the inner surf zone.

  6. An Improved Nearshore Wave Breaking Model Based on the Fully Nonlinear Boussinesq Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shao-wu; LI Chun-ying; SHI Zhong; GU Han-bin

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to propose an improved numerical model for wave breaking in the nearshore region based on the fully nonlinear form of Boussinesq equations. The model uses the κ equation turbulence scheme to determine the eddy viscosity in the Boussinesq equations. To calculate the turbulence production term in the equation, a new formula is derived based on the concept of surface roller. By use of this formula, the turbulence production in the one-equation turbulence scheme is directly related to the difference between the water particle velocity and the wave celerity. The model is verified by Hansen and Svendsen's experimental data (1979) in terms of wave height and setup and setdown. The comparison between the model and experimental results of wave height and setup and setdown shows satisfactory agreement. The modeled turbulence energy decreases as waves attenuate in the surf zone. The modeled production term peaks at the breaking point and decreases as waves propagate shoreward. It is also suggested that both convection and diffusion play their important roles in the transport of turbulence energy immediately after wave breaking. When waves approach to the shoreline, the production and dissipation of turbulence energy are almost balanced. By use of the slot technique for the simulation of the movable shoreline boundary, wave runup in the swash zone is well simulated by the present model.

  7. Correlation of coral fluorescence with nearshore rainfall and runoff in Hainan Island, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Under UV-laser excitation, the Porites coral from Longwan bay waters, Hainan Island, could emit yellow-green fluorescence. After fitting the data of the fluorescent intensity (FI) of the coral with the rainfall (RF) in nearshore area of Qionghai, a good relationship between FI and RF was found with a linear formula of RF =889-4.54 FI and a correlation coefficient of 0.78. Based on this formula, the rainfall sequence from 1982 to 1997 has been reconstructed. The peak annual rainfall is usually related to global El'nino events. By fitting the data of the fluorescent intensity and the runoff (RO), a quadric formula was obtained as RO=-0.0279FI2-18.59 FI-950.9 with a correlation coefficient of 0.74.The reconstructed runoff sequence from 1982 to 1997 coincided with the rainfall occurrence. The results indicate that flood and drought incidents in coastal areas of the south China are affected by global change to a great extent.

  8. Delayed upwelling alters nearshore coastal ocean ecosystems in the northern California current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, John A; Menge, Bruce A; Lubchenco, Jane; Chan, Francis; Bane, John M; Kirincich, Anthony R; McManus, Margaret A; Nielsen, Karina J; Pierce, Stephen D; Washburn, Libe

    2007-03-06

    Wind-driven coastal ocean upwelling supplies nutrients to the euphotic zone near the coast. Nutrients fuel the growth of phytoplankton, the base of a very productive coastal marine ecosystem [Pauly D, Christensen V (1995) Nature 374:255-257]. Because nutrient supply and phytoplankton biomass in shelf waters are highly sensitive to variation in upwelling-driven circulation, shifts in the timing and strength of upwelling may alter basic nutrient and carbon fluxes through marine food webs. We show how a 1-month delay in the 2005 spring transition to upwelling-favorable wind stress in the northern California Current Large Marine Ecosystem resulted in numerous anomalies: warm water, low nutrient levels, low primary productivity, and an unprecedented low recruitment of rocky intertidal organisms. The delay was associated with 20- to 40-day wind oscillations accompanying a southward shift of the jet stream. Early in the upwelling season (May-July) off Oregon, the cumulative upwelling-favorable wind stress was the lowest in 20 years, nearshore surface waters averaged 2 degrees C warmer than normal, surf-zone chlorophyll-a and nutrients were 50% and 30% less than normal, respectively, and densities of recruits of mussels and barnacles were reduced by 83% and 66%, respectively. Delayed early-season upwelling and stronger late-season upwelling are consistent with predictions of the influence of global warming on coastal upwelling regions.

  9. Evidence for benthic-pelagic food web coupling and carbon export from California margin bamboo coral archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Hill

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea bamboo corals (order Gorgonacea, family Isididae are known to record changes in water mass chemistry over decades to centuries. These corals are composed of a two-part skeleton of calcite internodes segmented by gorgonin organic nodes. We examine the spatial variability of bamboo coral organic node 13C/12C and 15N/14N from thirteen bamboo coral specimens sampled along the California margin (37–32° N; 792 to 2136 m depth. Radiocarbon analyses of the organic nodes show the presence of the anthropogenic bomb spike, indicating the corals utilize a surface-derived food source (pre-bomb D14C values of ∼ −100‰, post-bomb values to 82‰. Carbon and nitrogen isotope data from the organic nodes (13C = −15.9‰ to −19.2‰ 15N = 13.8‰ to 19.4‰ suggest selective feeding on surface-derived organic matter or zooplankton. A strong relationship between coral 15N and habitat depth indicate a potential archive of changing carbon export, with decreased 15N values reflecting reduced microbial degradation (increased carbon flux at shallower depths. Using four multi-centennial length coral records, we interpret long-term 15N stability in the California Current. Organic node 13C values record differences in carbon isotope fractionation dictated by nearshore vs. offshore primary production. These findings imply strong coupling between primary production, pelagic food webs, and deep-sea benthic communities.

  10. Benthic processes affecting contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.

    2016-09-30

    Executive SummaryMultiple sampling trips during calendar years 2013 through 2015 were coordinated to provide measurements of interdependent benthic processes that potentially affect contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon. The measurements were motivated by recognition that such internal processes (for example, solute benthic flux, bioturbation and solute efflux by benthic invertebrates, and physical groundwater-surface water interactions) were not integrated into existing management models for UKL. Up until 2013, all of the benthic-flux studies generally had been limited spatially to a number of sites in the northern part of UKL and limited temporally to 2–3 samplings per year. All of the benthic invertebrate studies also had been limited to the northern part of the lake; however, intensive temporal (weekly) studies had previously been completed independent of benthic-flux studies. Therefore, knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variability in benthic flux and benthic invertebrate distributions for the entire lake was lacking. To address these limitations, we completed a lakewide spatial study during 2013 and a coordinated temporal study with weekly sampling of benthic flux and benthic invertebrates during 2014. Field design of the spatially focused study in 2013 involved 21 sites sampled three times as the summer cyanobacterial bloom developed (that is, May 23, June 13, and July 3, 2013). Results of the 27-week, temporally focused study of one site in 2014 were summarized and partitioned into three periods (referred to herein as pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom periods), each period involving 9 weeks of profiler deployments, water column and benthic sampling. Partitioning of the pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom periods were based on water-column chlorophyll concentrations and involved the following date intervals, respectively: April 15 through June 10, June 17 through August 13, and August 20 through October 16, 2014. To examine

  11. Sources of fecal indicator bacteria to groundwater, Malibu Lagoon and the near-shore ocean, Malibu, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, John A.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Burton, Carmen A.; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie; Holden, Patricia A.; Dubinsky, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) used to treat residential and commercial sewage near Malibu, California have been implicated as a possible source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to Malibu Lagoon and the near-shore ocean. For this to occur, treated wastewater must first move through groundwater before discharging to the Lagoon or ocean. In July 2009 and April 2010, δ18O and δD data showed that some samples from water-table wells contained as much as 70% wastewater; at that time FIB concentrations in those samples were generally less than the detection limit of 1 Most Probable Number (MPN) per 100 milliliters (mL). In contrast, Malibu Lagoon had total coliform, Escherichia coli, and enterococci concentrations as high as 650,000, 130,000, and 5,500 MPN per 100 mL, respectively, and as many as 12% of samples from nearby ocean beaches exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency single sample enterococci standard for marine recreational water of 104 MPN per 100 mL. Human-associated Bacteroidales, an indicator of human-fecal contamination, were not detected in water from wells, Malibu Lagoon, or the near-shore ocean. Similarly, microarray (PhyloChip) data show Bacteroidales and Fimicutes Operational Taxanomic Units (OTUs) present in OWTS were largely absent in groundwater; in contrast, 50% of Bacteroidales and Fimicutes OTUs present in the near-shore ocean were also present in gull feces. Terminal-Restriction Length Fragment Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) data showed that microbial communities in groundwater were different and less abundant than communities in OWTS, Malibu Lagoon, or the near-shore ocean. However, organic compounds indicative of wastewater (such as fecal sterols, bisphenol-A and cosmetics) were present in groundwater having a high percentage of wastewater and were present in groundwater discharging to the ocean. FIB in the near-shore ocean varied with tides, ocean swells, and waves. Movement of water from

  12. Using remotely-sensed nearshore suspended sediment as an indicator of environmental change on the Alaskan North Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Anne Carrie Hickey

    The effects of climate change are increasing the vulnerability the delicate Arctic system on the North Slope of Alaska. Concurrently, oil and gas development is projected to expand across the region, the wide-scale effects of which are largely unknown in a less-resilient system. This research provides the framework for using satellite data to assess and monitor suspended sediment conditions in the nearshore Alaskan Beaufort Sea, which provide a key indicator of environmental change. Satellite monitoring of suspended sediment levels provides a cost-effective means to obtain nearly real-time, synoptic information about environmental change on the North Slope. This information can be incorporated into cumulative effects analyses and enhance their capability to assess and predict the environmental effects of oil and gas development in a changing climate. Surface reflectance data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors were calibrated to total suspended sediment (TSS) concentrations in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea and used to construct time series of proxy TSS data for 2000--2005 and 1981--2004, respectively. These time series produced a baseline quantifying the interannual variability and 24-year trends in median annual TSS concentrations at locations in the nearshore Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Increasing trends over the analysis period were identified in the outflow areas of the Ikpikpuk, Colville, Kuparuk and Sagavanirktok Rivers, as well as in Admiralty Bay. Additionally, TSS levels in 1994 and 2000 exceeded the normal range of variability at several of the nearshore locations investigated. Different areas along the nearshore had varying TSS magnitudes and modes of variability, a function of the terrestrial and nearshore processes controlling TSS conditions at each location. An empirical model explained 65 percent of the variability in annual median TSS values using precipitation factors that

  13. Benthic Species Richness of U.S. Pacific Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the spatial distribution of biodiversity is of paramount importance due to the potential consequences of its loss on human welfare. We demonstrate that biodiversity of soft-bottomed estuarine benthic organisms can be predicted with relatively high accuracy at multi...

  14. Benthic primary production and mineralization in a High Arctic Fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attard, Karl M.; Hancke, Kasper; Sejr, Mikael K.;

    2016-01-01

    Coastal and shelf systems likely exert major influence on Arctic Ocean functioning, yet key ecosystem processes remain poorly quantified. We employed the aquatic eddy covariance (AEC) oxygen (O2) flux method to estimate benthic primary production and mineralization in a High Arctic Greenland fjord...

  15. BENTHIC MACROFAUNA-HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS IN TWO PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitat-based ecological risk assessments rely, in part, on estimates of the ecological value of the habitats at risk. As part of a larger programmatic effort to estimate estuarine habitat values, we determined benthic macrofauna-habitat relationships for 8 intertidal habitats i...

  16. Benthic fauna around Mauritius island, southwest Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Ansari, Z.A; Parulekar, A

    was concentrated in the top 4 cm depth of the sediment. Benthic biomass showed a general decline with an increase of water depth, and correlated positively with the chl-a of the surface water. The macro:meiofaunal biomass ratio indicated dominance of meiofauna...

  17. Synthesis of benthic flux components in the Patos Lagooncoastal zone, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey N.

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this work is to synthesize components of benthic flux in the Patos Lagoon coastal zone, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Specifically, the component of benthic discharge flux forced by the terrestrial hydraulic gradient is 0.8 m3 d-1; components of benthic discharge and recharge flux associated with the groundwater tidal prism are both 2.1 m3 d-1; components of benthic discharge and recharge flux forced by surface-gravity wave setup are both 6.3 m3 d-1; the component of benthic discharge flux that transports radium-228 is 350 m3 d-1; and components of benthic discharge and recharge flux forced by surface-gravity waves propagating over a porous medium are both 1400 m3 d-1. (All models are normalized per meter shoreline.) Benthic flux is a function of components forced by individual mechanisms and nonlinear interactions that exist between components. Constructive and destructive interference may enhance or diminish the contribution of benthic flux components. It may not be possible to model benthic flux by summing component magnitudes. Geochemical tracer techniques may not accurately model benthic discharge flux or submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). A conceptual model provides a framework on which to quantitatively characterize benthic discharge flux and SGD with a multifaceted approach.

  18. Orbital forcing of deep-sea benthic species diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T. M.; Raymo, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    Explanations for the temporal and spatial patterns of species biodiversity focus on stability-time, disturbance-mosaic (biogenic microhabitat heterogeneity) and competition-predation (biotic interactions) hypotheses. The stability-time hypothesis holds that high species diversity in the deep sea and in the tropics reflects long-term climatic stability. But the influence of climate change on deep-sea diversity has not been studied and recent evidence suggests that deep-sea environments undergo changes in climatically driven temperature and flux of nutrients and organic-carbon during glacial-interglacial cycles. Here we show that Pliocene (2.85-2.40 Myr) deep-sea North Atlantic benthic ostracod (Crustacea) species diversity is related to solar insolation changes caused by 41,000-yr cycles of Earth's obliquity (tilt). Temporal changes in diversity, as measured by the Shannon- Weiner index, H(S), correlate with independent climate indicators of benthic foraminiferal oxygen-isotope ratios (mainly ice volume) and ostracod Mg:Ca ratios (bottomwater temperature). During glacial periods, H(S) = 0.2-0.6, whereas during interglacials, H(S) = 1.2-1.6, which is three to four times as high. The control of deep-sea benthic diversity by cyclic climate change at timescales of 103-104 yr does not support the stability-time hypothesis because it shows that the deep sea is a temporally dynamic environment. Diversity oscillations reflect large-scale response of the benthic community to climatically driven changes in either thermohaline circulation, bottom temperature (or temperature-related factors) and food, and a coupling of benthic diversity to surface productivity.

  19. Dietary habits and normal body mass index association in Chilean soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Durán-Agüero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eating habits of various age and professional groups has been evaluated. However, there is little information on the dietary habits of soldiers. The aim of this study is to associate eating habits with the normal body mass index (BMI in Chilean soldiers from Buin Regiment. Material and Methods: 412 soldiers were evaluated. Food survey and anthropometric evaluation was applied to each soldier. It was considered a normal BMI when the subject was between 18.5-24.9kg/m2, overweight between 25.0-29.9kg/m2 and obesity ≥30.0kg/m2, according to the WHO recommendations. Results: 41.2% of the soldiers show a normal BMI, 43.1% present overweight and 15.7% exhibit obesity. Only 5% meet the dairy and fruit Chilean recommendations, however almost 40% of them consume 1time/day (OR:0.41; IC95%:0.19-0.88 and legume consumption (>1time/week (OR:0.29; IC95%:0.14-0.60. Conclusions: A low consumption of dairy products, fruits, vegetables and legumes is noted, and a high consumption of sweetened beverages. In addition, intake of dairy products and legumes is related with a normal BMI.

  20. Synaptic effects of low molecular weight components from Chilean Black Widow spider venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Jorge; Romero, Fernando

    2008-11-01

    alpha-Latrotoxin is the principal component of the venom from the euroasiatic Black Widow spider and has been studied for its pharmacological use as a synaptic modulator. Interestingly, smaller molecular weight fractions have been found to be associated with this toxin, but their cellular actions have not been studied in detail. The venom from the Chilean Black Widow spider (Latrodectus mactans) does not produce alpha-latrotoxin, however it does contain several small polypeptides. We have recently demonstrated cellular effects of these peptides at the synaptic level using whole-cell patch clamp techniques. Purified venom from the glands of L. mactans was studied in 12 DIV rat hippocampal neuronal cultures. Venom at a concentration of 10nM was able to decrease neuronal conductance thereby increasing membrane resistance. This effect on the passive properties of the neurons induced a change in action potential kinetics simulating the action of classic potassium channel blockers. These changes produced an increase in spontaneous synaptic activity in rat hippocampal cultures in the presence of the venom in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. These results indicate that venom from Chilean spider L. mactans is capable of increasing cell membrane resistance, prolonging the action potential and generating an increase in synaptic activity demonstrating an interesting pharmacological effect of these low molecular weight fragments.

  1. Associations between different components of fitness and fatness with academic performance in Chilean youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the associations between different components of fitness and fatness with academic performance, adjusting the analysis by sex, age, socio-economic status, region and school type in a Chilean sample. Methods Data of fitness, fatness and academic performance was obtained from the Chilean System for the Assessment of Educational Quality test for eighth grade in 2011 and includes a sample of 18,746 subjects (49% females). Partial correlations adjusted by confounders were done to explore association between fitness and fatness components, and between the academic scores. Three unadjusted and adjusted linear regression models were done in order to analyze the associations of variables. Results Fatness has a negative association with academic performance when Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist to Height Ratio (WHR) are assessed independently. When BMI and WHR are assessed jointly and adjusted by cofounders, WHR is more associated with academic performance than BMI, and only the association of WHR is positive. For fitness components, strength was the variable most associated with the academic performance. Cardiorespiratory capacity was not associated with academic performance if fatness and other fitness components are included in the model. Conclusions Fitness and fatness are associated with academic performance. WHR and strength are more related with academic performance than BMI and cardiorespiratory capacity. PMID:27761345

  2. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality and Consumption of Stimulant Beverages among Patagonian Chilean College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Vélez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To assess sleep patterns and parameters of sleep quality among Chilean college students and (2 to evaluate the extent to which stimulant beverage use and other lifestyle characteristics are associated with poor sleep quality. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among college students in Patagonia, Chile. Students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire to provide information about lifestyle and demographic characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was used to evaluate sleep quality. In addition, students underwent a physical examination to collect anthropometric measurements. Results. More than half of students (51.8% exhibited poor sleep quality. Approximately 45% of study participants reported sleeping six hours or less per night and 9.8% used medications for sleep. In multivariate analysis, current smokers had significantly greater daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness and were more likely to use sleep medicines. Students who reported consumption of any stimulant beverage were 1.81 times as likely to have poor sleep quality compared with those who did not consume stimulant beverages (OR:1.81, 95% CI:1.21–2.00. Conclusions. Poor sleep quality is prevalent among Chilean college students, and stimulant beverage consumption was associated with the increased odds of poor sleep quality in this sample.

  3. METABOLIC SYNDROME AND PHYSICA L ACTIVITY IN CHILEAN IMMIGRANTS LIVING IN RIO GALLEGOS, SANTA CRUZ, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Sally Padilla

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the frequencyof metabolic syndrome, its components and its relationshipwithphysical activityin Chilean immigrants living inRío Gallegos, SantaCruz, Argentina.314 Chilean immigrants (165womenand 149men were interviewed in RioGallegos in2010,with healthy status in medical records(2000.Anthropometry,blood pressurecontrol,blood testto measureglucose,triglycerides andHDL cholesterol weredetermined.Metabolic syndromewasestablished bycriteria of theNCEPATPIII.Themetabolic syndromehad anoverall prevalenceof 28.9% (95%CI: 23.9 to 34.Metabolicsyndromeprevalence was larger in women(32.1%than in men(25.5%.The prevalence ofits componentswere:abdominalobesity56%,low levels ofHDL cholesterol 48.3%, highlevels of triglycerides68.1%,hypertension46.1%and high levels of glucose 72.5%.Inadequate physical activitywas 66.2% (95%CI:60.1 to 71.5.Immigrantshadmorelikelihoodof metabolic syndromeliving in Río Gallegos for 15 yearsormore(β:5.74,95%CI:2,81-11,73,p=0.000and withinadequate physical activity(β:3.36,95%CI:1.57to7.21,p=0.002.The prevalenceof metabolic syndrome inChileanimmigrantsliving in RíoGallegosis higherthan that reportedin Argentina andChile.

  4. Depressed mood and speech in Chilean mothers of 5½-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Katy M; Su, Jing; Kaciroti, Niko; Castillo, Marcela; Millan, Rebeca; Rule, Heather; Lozoff, Besty

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on maternal speech and depression has focused almost exclusively on how depressed mothers talk to their infants and toddlers in the U.S. and U.K., two English-speaking countries. This study considered how depressed Spanish-speaking mothers from a Latin American country talk about their preschool-age children. Five-minute speech samples were provided by 178 Chilean mothers who were asked to talk about their 5½-year-old children to a project psychologist. Maternal depressive symptomatology was measured by the Spanish-language version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), higher maternal depressed mood showed statistically significant associations with the following maternal speech characteristics: more criticisms, less laughter, fewer medium pauses, less positive satisfaction with the child's behavior or characteristics, a rating of a negative overall relationship with the child, and more crying (suggestive trend). A structural equation model confirmed these findings and found an indirect effect between laughter and criticisms: mothers with higher depressed mood who laughed less criticized their children less. The findings illustrate that depressed mood adversely affects how a group of Chilean mothers speak about their children.

  5. Profiling Space Heating Behavior in Chilean Social Housing: Towards Personalization of Energy Efficiency Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bunster

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Global increases in the demand for energy are imposing strong pressures over the environment while compromising the capacity of emerging economies to achieve sustainable development. In this context, implementation of effective strategies to reduce consumption in residential buildings has become a priority concern for policy makers as minor changes at the household scale can result in major energy savings. This study aims to contribute to ongoing research on energy consumer profiling by exploring the forecasting capabilities of discrete socio-economic factors that are accessible through social housing allocation systems. Accordingly, survey data gathered by the Chilean Ministry of Social Development was used identify key characteristics that may predict firewood usage for space heating purposes among potential beneficiaries of the Chilean social housing program. The analyzed data evidences strong correlations between general household characteristics and space heating behavior in certain climatic zones, suggesting that personalized delivery of energy efficiency measures can potentially increase the effectiveness of initiatives aimed towards the reduction of current patterns of consumption.

  6. IL28B polymorphisms associated with therapy response? ein inin Chilean chronic hepatitis C patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mauricio Venegas; Rodrigo A Villanueva; Katherine González; Javier Brahm

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the association of three IL28B single nucleotide polymorphisms with response to therapy in Chilean patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV).((HHCV))).. METHODS: We studied two groups of patients with chronic HHCV infection ((genotype 1)), under standard combined treatment with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. One group consisted of 50 patients with sustained virological response, whereas the second group consisted of 49 null responders. In order to analyze the IL28B single nucleotide polymorphisms rs12979860, rs12980275 and rs8099917, samples were used for polymerase chain reaction amplification, and the genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: The IL28B rs12979860 CC, rs12980275 AA and rs8099917 TT genotypes were much more frequently found in patients with sustained virological response compared to null responders ((38%, 44% and 50% vs 2%, 8.2% and 8.2%, respectively)). These differences were highly significant in all three cases (P < 0.0001)). CONCLUSION: The three IL28B polymorphisms studied are strongly associated with sustained virological response to therapy in Chilean patients with chronic HHCV ((genotype 1)).

  7. Utilization of therapies for stress management in Chilean clinical dental students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental students suffer greater stress than the rest of the university population. In general, most health students seek little assistance to help them cope with stress. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of therapies to manage stress in Chilean clinical dental students. A cross-sectional study was conducted nationwide; this report is a secondary data analysis. The study population was dental students in clinical years (4th and 5th of 5 Chilean dental schools: Antofagasta, Valparaíso, Viña del Mar, Concepción, and La Frontera. This paper reports the use of therapies for stress management during the past six months considering four options: medical/psychiatric, psychological, self-medication and alternative. Tabulation and analysis were done in STATA 10/SE. Three hundred thirty-seven students were surveyed, 54.01% were men and 64.99% were in fourth year, with an average age of 22.94±2.04. The 48.07% of students have used any of the four types of therapies; women and fourth-year students use more any form of therapy with 53.30% (p=.037 and 48.86% (p=.694, respectively, than men and fifth year students. About half of the students have used some form of therapy to manage stress in the last six months; of the students that received therapy, the percentage of women was significantly higher.

  8. Association of burnout with stress, coping strategies and vocational satisfaction in Chilean clinical dental students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pérez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental students are particularly affected by stress, which can lead to ‘burnout syndrome’ by association with other psychological factors. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of perceived stress, coping strategies, and vocational satisfaction on the severity of burnout in Chilean dental students in the clinical years. Method: The study population was comprised of clinical dental students of five Chilean dental schools. The following variables were considered: age, gender, year of study, burnout, coping strategies, perceived stress, and vocational satisfaction. Statistical analysis included descriptive measures, correlation tests, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Results: The final sample included 244 students. Three (1.23% students did not have burnout in any of its factors and 38 (15.57% had severe levels in all three factors. There was a statistically significant greater ‘emotional exhaustion’ in 4th year students. There was a statistically significant correlation of the three factors of burnout with ‘social withdrawal’ coping strategy, high levels of perceived stress, and low levels of present and future vocational satisfaction. Conclusion: Most students presented moderate and high levels of burnout. This situation is associated with dysfunctional coping strategies, high levels of perceived stress, and low levels of present and future vocational satisfaction.

  9. Phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to a freshwater benthic amphipod: are benthic systems at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) to a freshwater benthic amphipod (Hyalella azteca) using 48-h and 96-h bioassays. Thorough monitoring of particle interactions with exposure media (Lake Superior water, LSW) and the surface of organisms was p...

  10. THE MAKING OF AN UNLIKELY CHILEAN FASCIST: REFLECTIONS ON THE INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT AND POLITICAL WORK OF CARLOS KELLER RUEFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Klein

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the intellectual evolution and political activities of Carlos Keller Rueff between the early 1920s and the late 1930s. It discusses his development from a German nationalist to a Chilean fascist during the course of this eventful period. In the 1920s Keller, who started his career in the Deutsch-Chilenischer Bund, the umbrella organisation of the German-Chilean community, expressed German National positions. Only at the end of the decade he began to distance himself from his narrow, sectarian German sub-culture and took a broader, national view, a development that coincided with his move from Concepción to Santiago and the failure of his plan to revive the immigration of Germans to Chile. With the book La eterna crisis chilena, published in 1931, he finally emerged as a Chilean nationalist and gained the reputation of an intellectual. One year later, in April 1932, he was, together with Jorge González von Marées, one of the founding members of the Chilean Movimiento Nacional Socialista (MNS. Keller became the movement’s ideologue and its second most prominent leader. This career abruptly ended with the failed nacista coup of 5 September 1938 and the subsequent transformation of the MNS into the Vanguardia Popular Socialista

  11. Variation in implementation of corporate social responsibility practices in emerging economies' firms: A survey of Chilean fruit exporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerkx, L.W.A.; Villalobos, P.; Engler, A.

    2012-01-01

    As in many sectors in emerging economies, the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become important for exporting agri-food firms in view of their integration in global supply chains. The purpose of this research was to assess the implementation by Chilean fruit exporters of CSR prac

  12. Modeling the Impacts of National and Institutional Financial Aid Opportunities on Persistence at an Elite Chilean University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Catherine; Santelices, María Verónica; Avendaño, Ximena Catalán

    2014-01-01

    Much of the recent Chilean educational debate and reform has centered around issues of higher education cost, debt burden, and availability of grants versus loans. This quantitative case study of Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile sought to understand the longitudinal contributions of combinations of types of financial aid to persistence of…

  13. Inter-subjectivity and Domestication in the Making of a Global Region: Territorialization of Salmon in the Chilean Patagonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, Gustavo; Arce, A.M.G.; Fisher, E.F.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines transformations in the Chilean Patagonia, a region that has become a world leader in Salmon production for global markets. Employing ethnographic methods, this study examines the possibilities of considering inter-subjectivities in the processes of conforming important regions

  14. Population structure of Cladophora-borne Escherichia coli in nearshore water of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, M.N.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Ferguson, J.; Ishii, S.; Sadowsky, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that the macrophytic green alga Cladophora harbors high densities (up to 106 colony-forming units/g dry weight) of the fecal indicator bacteria,Escherichia coli and enterococci, in shoreline waters of Lake Michigan. However, the population structure and genetic relatedness of Cladophora-borne indicator bacteria remain poorly understood. In this study, 835 E. coli isolates were collected fromCladophora tufts (mats) growing on rocks from a breakwater located within the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in northwest Indiana. The horizontal fluorophore enhanced rep-PCR (HFERP) DNA fingerprinting technique was used to determine the genetic relatedness of the isolates to each other and to those in a library of E. coli DNA fingerprints. While the E. coli isolates from Cladophora showed a high degree of genetic relatedness (⩾92% similarity), in most cases, however, the isolates were genetically distinct. The Shannon diversity index for the population was very high (5.39). Both spatial and temporal influences contributed to the genetic diversity. There was a strong association of isolate genotypes by location (79% and 80% for lake- and ditch-side samplings, respectively), and isolates collected from 2002 were distinctly different from those obtained in 2003. Cladophora-borne E. coli isolates represented a unique group, which was distinct from other E. coli isolates in the DNA fingerprint library tested. Taken together, these results indicate that E. coli strains associated with Cladophora may be a recurring source of indicator bacteria to the nearshore beach.

  15. Nearshore bedform instability in the eastern entrance to the Qiongzhou Strait,South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heqin CHENG; Jiufa LI; Daowei YIN; Maotian LI; Baocan WANG

    2008-01-01

    Six bathymetric transect profiles were drawn from the nautical charts of 1942,1962 and 1992 to show that the nearshore seabed remained unstable during the recent 50 Vears in the middie channel of the eastern entrance to the Oiongzhou Strait,South China Sea.Our results dem onstrate that the multi-year averaged seabed aggradational rate was 25 cm/a and erosion rate was 12.5 cm/a.Lateral migration rate of the sea bedform identified from the his torical contours was about 100 m/a in the SE direction. Bedform measurements were made using GPY Shallow Seismic Profiler in 1994 in the study area.The records revealed four types of distinctive bedforins that were com.Posed of fine and medium sands.The average spacing of large and small-scale sand dunes is 416 m and 144 m and the average height remains 8.8 m and 4.9 m.The spatial and temporal equilibrium-range spectra of numerical bedform records were applied to estimate short term celerity of bed form movement.Results indicate that large and small dunes migrated at an average celerity of 0.02 cm/hr eastward and 0.09 cm/hr westward in the calm sea weather,while their celerity can reach 53 cm/hr eastward during typhoon season and iS only 0.008 cm/hr westward when NNE winds prevail.The results also show that the larger the temporal and spa tial scale is.the smaller the bedform movement celerity appears.On the other hand,the smaller-scale bedform celerity of the present study is much greater than that of flume,empirical and theoretical data,but close to the wind tunnel and field-measured data of similar grain size.

  16. Nearshore bedform instability in the eastern entrance to the Qiongzhou Strait,South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barendra PURKAIT; Amitava MUKHERJEE

    2008-01-01

    Six bathymetric transect profiles were drawn from the nautical charts of 1942,1962 and 1992 to show that the nearshore seabed remained unstable during the recent 50 Vears in the middie channel of the eastern entrance to the Oiongzhou Strait,South China Sea.Our results dem onstrate that the multi-year averaged seabed aggradational rate was 25 cm/a and erosion rate was 12.5 cm/a.Lateral migration rate of the sea bedform identified from the his torical contours was about 100 m/a in the SE direction. Bedform measurements were made using GPY Shallow Seismic Profiler in 1994 in the study area.The records revealed four types of distinctive bedforins that were com. Posed of fine and medium sands.The average spacing of large and small-scale sand dunes is 416 m and 144 m and the average height remains 8.8 m and 4.9 m.The spatial and temporal equilibrium-range spectra of numerical bedform records were applied to estimate short term celerity of bed form movement.Results indicate that large and small dunes migrated at an average celerity of 0.02 cm/hr eastward and 0.09 cm/hr westward in the calm sea weather,while their celerity can reach 53 cm/hr eastward during typhoon season and iS only 0.008 cm/hr westward when NNE winds prevail. The results also show that the larger the temporal and spa tial scale is.the smaller the bedform movement celerity appears.On the other hand,the smaller-scale bedform celer ity of the present study is much greater than that of flume, empirical and theoretical data,but close to the wind tunnel and field-measured data of similar grain size.

  17. Coral colonisation of an artificial reef in a turbid nearshore environment, Dampier Harbour, western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeway, David; Byers, Michael; Stoddart, James; Rossendell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A 0.6 hectare artificial reef of local rock and recycled concrete sleepers was constructed in December 2006 at Parker Point in the industrial port of Dampier, western Australia, with the aim of providing an environmental offset for a nearshore coral community lost to land reclamation. Corals successfully colonised the artificial reef, despite the relatively harsh environmental conditions at the site (annual water temperature range 18-32°C, intermittent high turbidity, frequent cyclones, frequent nearby ship movements). Coral settlement to the artificial reef was examined by terracotta tile deployments, and later stages of coral community development were examined by in-situ visual surveys within fixed 25 x 25 cm quadrats on the rock and concrete substrates. Mean coral density on the tiles varied from 113 ± 17 SE to 909 ± 85 SE per m(2) over five deployments, whereas mean coral density in the quadrats was only 6.0 ± 1.0 SE per m(2) at eight months post construction, increasing to 24.0 ± 2.1 SE per m(2) at 62 months post construction. Coral taxa colonising the artificial reef were a subset of those on the surrounding natural reef, but occurred in different proportions--Pseudosiderastrea tayami, Mycedium elephantotus and Leptastrea purpurea being disproportionately abundant on the artificial reef. Coral cover increased rapidly in the later stages of the study, reaching 2.3 ± 0.7 SE % at 62 months post construction. This study indicates that simple materials of opportunity can provide a suitable substrate for coral recruitment in Dampier Harbour, and that natural colonisation at the study site remains sufficient to initiate a coral community on artificial substrate despite ongoing natural and anthropogenic perturbations.

  18. Nearshore Thermal Habitat and General Circulation Mapping in Arctic Alaskan Coasts Using Archived AVHRR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, A.; Engle, K.; Panda, S.; Margraf, J. F.; Underwood, T.

    2008-12-01

    At the University of Alaska Fairbanks a continuous archive of images from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard the series of NOAA satellites is now available starting from 1993 through 2008 for large parts of the circum Arctic north. The largest temporal coverage available is for the Alaskan Arctic coasts and includes over 40000 images for the summer months. The broader objective of our study is to use this wealth of available data for mapping general sea surface temperatures and monitoring trends in changes in the sea surface temperatures in the last 15 years in the Alaskan Arctic Coastal regions. A second objective of our study is to look at near shore circulation patterns, and investigate how changes in the landcover of the adjacent lands affect the nearshore circulation patterns. This information is fundamentally important to understand and predict the dynamics of the shallow coastal habitats that in turn influence the distribution and condition of the fish populations. From the AVHRR archive we extracted all images from the months of July, August and September that covered at least 60 percent of the Arctic Alaskan coastal areas. The images that were in sensor projection were converted to map projection using the coastal boundary vector layer as a guideline for manually selecting tie points to correct for the geometry. Starting from the oldest images in our archive from 1993 we processed over 2000 AVHRR scenes which were then used to generate sea surface temperature images and NDVI images and a time series animation of changing patterns of NDVI. The prototype animation generated to demonstrate the landcover and coastal region dynamics will be further extended to cover the entire time span from 1993 through 2008.

  19. Nearshore Coastal Dynamics on a Sea-Breeze Dominated Micro-Tidal Beach (NCSAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Ruiz de Alegría-Arzaburu, A.; Figlus, J.; Mendoza, T.; Pintado-Patino, J. C.; Pieterse, A.; Chardon-Maldonado, P.; DiCosmo, N. R.; Wellman, N.; Garcia-Nava, H.; Palemón-Arcos, L.; Roberts, T.; López-González, J.; Bravo, M.; Ojeda, E.; Medellín, G.; Appendini, C. M.; Figueroa, B.; González-Leija, M.; Enriquez, C.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.; Salles, P.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive field experiment devoted to the study of coastal processes on a micro-tidal beach was conducted from March 30th to April 12th 2014 in Sisal, Yucatán México. Wave conditions in the study area are controlled by local (i.e., sea-breezes) and meso-scale (i.e., Nortes) meteorological events. Simultaneous measurements of waves, tides, winds, currents, sediment transport, runup, and beach morphology were obtained in this experiment. Very dense nearshore instrumentation arrays allow us the study of the cross-/along- shore variability of surf/swash zone dynamics during different forcing conditions. Strong sea-breeze wind events produced a diurnal cycle with a maximum wind speed of 14 m/s. The persistent sea-breeze system forces small-amplitude (Hs1 m) Norte event, lasting 48 hours, reached the coast on April 8th generating a long-period swell (Tp>10 s) arriving from the NNW. This event induced an eastward net sediment transport across a wide surf zone. However, long-term observations of sand impoundment at a groin located near the study area suggests that the net sediment transport in the northern Yucatan peninsula is controlled by sea-breeze events and hence swash zone dynamics play an important role in the net sediment budget of this region. A comparative study of surf and swash zone dynamics during both sea-breeze and Norte events will be presented. The Institute of Engineering of UNAM, throughout an International Collaborative Project with the University of Delaware, and CONACYT (CB-167692) provided financial support. The first author acknowledges ONR Global for providing financial support throughout the Visiting Scientist Program.

  20. Coral colonisation of an artificial reef in a turbid nearshore environment, Dampier Harbour, western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Blakeway

    Full Text Available A 0.6 hectare artificial reef of local rock and recycled concrete sleepers was constructed in December 2006 at Parker Point in the industrial port of Dampier, western Australia, with the aim of providing an environmental offset for a nearshore coral community lost to land reclamation. Corals successfully colonised the artificial reef, despite the relatively harsh environmental conditions at the site (annual water temperature range 18-32°C, intermittent high turbidity, frequent cyclones, frequent nearby ship movements. Coral settlement to the artificial reef was examined by terracotta tile deployments, and later stages of coral community development were examined by in-situ visual surveys within fixed 25 x 25 cm quadrats on the rock and concrete substrates. Mean coral density on the tiles varied from 113 ± 17 SE to 909 ± 85 SE per m(2 over five deployments, whereas mean coral density in the quadrats was only 6.0 ± 1.0 SE per m(2 at eight months post construction, increasing to 24.0 ± 2.1 SE per m(2 at 62 months post construction. Coral taxa colonising the artificial reef were a subset of those on the surrounding natural reef, but occurred in different proportions--Pseudosiderastrea tayami, Mycedium elephantotus and Leptastrea purpurea being disproportionately abundant on the artificial reef. Coral cover increased rapidly in the later stages of the study, reaching 2.3 ± 0.7 SE % at 62 months post construction. This study indicates that simple materials of opportunity can provide a suitable substrate for coral recruitment in Dampier Harbour, and that natural colonisation at the study site remains sufficient to initiate a coral community on artificial substrate despite ongoing natural and anthropogenic perturbations.

  1. Estimation of wave phase speed and nearshore bathymetry from video imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdon, H.F.; Holman, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    A new remote sensing technique based on video image processing has been developed for the estimation of nearshore bathymetry. The shoreward propagation of waves is measured using pixel intensity time series collected at a cross-shore array of locations using remotely operated video cameras. The incident band is identified, and the cross-spectral matrix is calculated for this band. The cross-shore component of wavenumber is found as the gradient in phase of the first complex empirical orthogonal function of this matrix. Water depth is then inferred from linear wave theory's dispersion relationship. Full bathymetry maps may be measured by collecting data in a large array composed of both cross-shore and longshore lines. Data are collected hourly throughout the day, and a stable, daily estimate of bathymetry is calculated from the median of the hourly estimates. The technique was tested using 30 days of hourly data collected at the SandyDuck experiment in Duck, North Carolina, in October 1997. Errors calculated as the difference between estimated depth and ground truth data show a mean bias of -35 cm (rms error = 91 cm). Expressed as a fraction of the true water depth, the mean percent error was 13% (rms error = 34%). Excluding the region of known wave nonlinearities over the bar crest, the accuracy of the technique improved, and the mean (rms) error was -20 cm (75 cm). Additionally, under low-amplitude swells (wave height H ???1 m), the performance of the technique across the entire profile improved to 6% (29%) of the true water depth with a mean (rms) error of -12 cm (71 cm). Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Comparing Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Disability Between Immigrants and the Chilean-Born: Are There Different Stories to Tell?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltica Cabieses

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored a range of sociodemographic factors associated with disability among international immigrants in Chile, and compared them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the Chilean population-based survey CASEN-2006 was conducted (268,873 participants. Main health outcomes: any disability and six different types of disability: visual, hearing, learning, physical, psychiatric and speaking (binary outcomes. Sociodemographic variables: Demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES: income, education, employment status, and an integrated indicator combining the SES measures through cluster analysis for the immigrant population, material factors (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality and migration related (country of origin and length of stay. Immigrants reported a significantly lower prevalence of any disability (3.55%, visual (1.00% and physical disability (0.38%. Factors associated with any disability among immigrants were age, low SES or over 20 years duration of residence in Chile; while a range of sociodemographic factors were associated with disability in the Chilean-born. Conditional regression models by age group varied between populations, but SES remained significantly associated with disability across immigrants and the Chilean-born. However, there are no similar patterns of factors associated to different types of disability between the populations under study. Factors associated with disability varied between populations under study, but SES showed a consistent association with any disability in immigrants and the Chilean-born. Types of disability showed different patterns of factors associated to them between populations, which suggest the great complexity of underlying mechanisms related to disability in Chile.

  3. Terrestrial and oceanic influence on spatial hydrochemistry and trophic status in subtropical marine near-shore waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ojeda, Sara M; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Montero, Jorge

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial and oceanic influences like groundwater discharges and/or oceanic upwelling define the hydrochemical and biological characteristics of near-shore regions. In karst environments, such as the Yucatan Peninsula (SE Mexico), the balance between these two influences on spatial and temporal scales is poorly understood. This study focused on near-shore waters within 200 m offshore along the Yucatan coast. The trophic status and hydrochemical zones of the study area were determined as a function of physical and nutrient data collected from 2005 to 2006. The main terrestrial influence was groundwater discharge, while the most important marine influence was related to seasonal changes in water turbulence. Spatial differences (p Dzilam exhibited the maximum influence of groundwater discharge estimated by salinity dissolution (δ). During the rainy and "nortes" seasons, there is a balance between oceanic and terrestrial influences. The trophic status measured using the TRIX index, indicated that near-shore waters were mainly oligo-mesotrophic; with a meso-eutrophic status in areas with documented anthropogenic impacts. Four hydrological zones were identified by a Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) using salinity, NO(2)(-), k and NH(4)(+) as the main discriminating variables. Zones I and II showed almost pristine conditions, with well-balanced terrestrial-oceanic influences. In Zone III, terrestrial influences such as groundwater discharges and inland pollution suggesting human impacts were dominant respect to the effects of oceanic influences like upwelling and sediment resuspension caused by winds and oceanic currents. Zone IV received enhanced groundwater and associated nutrients. Anthropogenic activities have led to ecosystem degradation but the speed at which this occurs depends on local and regional characteristics. Therefore, this study has defined those characteristics so as to enact better management policies.

  4. Impact of environmental factors on recruitment and hatching patterns of Horse Mackerel (L. collected in a nearshore rocky reef system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Klein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, Linnaeus, 1758 is a highly exploited fish species, common throughout the North-East Atlantic. As a pelagic-neritic fish it typically occurs over the shelf at 100-200 m depth on sandy bottom and most research has focused on adults or early life stages (eggs and larvae, caught or examined in deeper waters. Nevertheless, larvae and early stages of Trachurus species have been observed in the nearshore environment of a rocky reef system in Portugal. More research is needed in order to understand the importance of nearshore environments for horse mackerel. In addition little is known on how environmental processes might affect early life parameters of this species. In this study we monitored the arrival of early juvenile horse mackerel to the reef environment at a fine time scale, and analyzed the relationship of environmental factors with patterns of recruitment and hatching, revealed by otolith microstructure analysis. In total around 2500 fish were collected with Standard Monitoring Units for the Recruitment of Fish (SMURF and a distinct depth preference was recorded as 99% of fish were sampled with surface SMURFs. A GAM and GAMM analysis of the recruitment and hatching pattern, respectively, revealed a strong relationship with the lunar cycle and local up-welling. Both recruitment and hatching had a periodic pattern with peaks near the new moon; upwelling had a negative impact. Further, the study indicated that the nearshore environment might be an important nursery area for the post-larval growth of horse mackerel.

  5. Benthic faunal assemblages from the Holocene middle shelf of the South Evoikos Gulf, central Greece, and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimina Louvari, Markella; Tsourou, Theodora; Drinia, Hara; Anastasakis, George

    2013-04-01

    South Evoikos Gulf is an elongate, WNW - ESE trending basin, 60 km long and 15 km wide. Its floor slopes towards the south-east where the basin connects with the Aegean Sea across a 55 m deep sill. The hydrographic network of the area is characterized by Asopos river the small Lilas River and some other ephemeral streams. A sedimentary record spanning the last 13000 calyr BP was recovered at N 38°12'23.1228" E 24°8'14.2404", water depth 70 m, in this gulf. A total of 52 samples from the lower half of the core were quantitatively analyzed for micropalaeontological (benthic foraminifera and ostracods) study in order to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental conditions. This work contributes to the evaluation of the modern environmental problems in South Evoikos Gulf (hypoxia, ecosystem changes, subaquatic vegetation die-off, metal pollution) within the context of the palaeoenvironmental record. In the investigated core, the benthic microfaunal assemblages indicate a marine coastal environment with a gradual transition from a circalittoral to an infralittoral restricted environment. The basal part of the record is characterized by Haynesina depressula Assemblage, which is composed of Haynesina depressula, Textularia agglutinans and Bulimina aculeata.The abundance of Haynesina depressula could be associated with normal marine conditions, but always with periodic brackish water influence. The species composed this assemblage, which are almost all typically infaunal, characterize sediments with a high or medium-high muddy fraction, rich in organic matter available for the organisms that live within the sediment, and low salinity bottom water. Samples from the upper unit of the core indicate a nearshore, inner-shelf facies less than 50 m deep. Common inner-shelf species in these samples include Ammonia beccarii together with Bulimina marginata (Sgarrella & Moncharmont Zei, 1993). The highest abundance of A. beccarii is found between 15 and 20 m water-depth in samples with

  6. Underwater microscopy for in situ studies of benthic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Andrew D.; Treibitz, Tali; Roberts, Paul L. D.; Kelly, Emily L. A.; Horwitz, Rael; Smith, Jennifer E.; Jaffe, Jules S.

    2016-07-01

    Microscopic-scale processes significantly influence benthic marine ecosystems such as coral reefs and kelp forests. Due to the ocean's complex and dynamic nature, it is most informative to study these processes in the natural environment yet it is inherently difficult. Here we present a system capable of non-invasively imaging seafloor environments and organisms in situ at nearly micrometre resolution. We overcome the challenges of underwater microscopy through the use of a long working distance microscopic objective, an electrically tunable lens and focused reflectance illumination. The diver-deployed instrument permits studies of both spatial and temporal processes such as the algal colonization and overgrowth of bleaching corals, as well as coral polyp behaviour and interspecific competition. By enabling in situ observations at previously unattainable scales, this instrument can provide important new insights into micro-scale processes in benthic ecosystems that shape observed patterns at much larger scales.

  7. Towards an integrated approach to marine benthic monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio Froján, Christopher R S; Cooper, Keith M; Bolam, Stefan G

    2016-03-15

    In the UK, most marine benthic monitoring is carried out in a piecemeal fashion, funded by different sectors of industry that utilise the marine environment under licence. Monitoring requirements are imposed by licence conditions, which can vary considerably between licences. The UK Government also conducts marine environmental surveys in support of its legislative commitments. The present investigation reviews these different monitoring approaches to highlight whether synergies between them could be developed into an integrated approach to marine benthic monitoring. An integrated approach would have ecological benefits, as greater consistency in sampling and analytical protocols would reduce uncertainty in the predictions of impact, and facilitate the assessment of Good Environmental Status under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. The same approach would also be of financial benefit, as spatio-temporal duplication in sampling would be reduced, and the value of acquired data would be maximised, resulting in a more efficient and cost-effective approach.

  8. Sequence similarities of the capsid gene of Chilean and European isolates of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus point towards a common origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein

    2011-07-01

    The Chilean salmonid industry was developed by importing breeding materials, a practice still in effect due to deficits in the national supply of roe. Importation of breeding materials is often associated with the transmission of pathogens. The objectives of this study were to compare the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) isolates from Chile to those of European origin and to determine the diversity of the Chilean IPNV. The VP2 genes of IPNV from Chilean fish (whose eggs originated from Scotland, Iceland and Norway) were compared to isolates from fish in Norway and Ireland. The results show that the isolates are identical (97-99%) and cluster into one genogroup. Our findings support previous reports of association between the trade-in breeding materials and transmission of pathogens. Furthermore, our results demonstrate the genotypic diversity of Chilean IPNV isolates. These findings have important implications for IPNV disease diagnosis and control in Chile.

  9. Proceedings of the Coastal Benthic Boundary Layer Key West Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-24

    plates of aragonitic green algae (Halimeda, Penicillus, and Udeota), molluscan shells, benthic and planktonic foraminifera , echinoid spines, sponge...Florida Shelf ( Gulf of Mexico waters) to the north, and the Florida Straits to the south. Seismic data from the shelf surrounding the Dry Tortugas...the west Florida carbonate platform. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Mexico and to the south by the Straits of Florida. The site is well

  10. Interactive Effects of Metals and PAHs on Benthic Food Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    In particular, we are interested in how contaminants influence foodweb interactions among these groups of organisms. OBJECTIVES Our research examines...merely by monitoring the abundance of various groups of organisms, but by determining their physiological responses and trophic interactions (i.e... Interactive Effects of Metals and PAHs on Benthic Food Webs Kevin R. Carman (PI) Dept. of Biological Sciences Louisiana State University Baton Rouge

  11. Benthic processes in fresh water fluffy sediments undergoing resuspension

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Longhi; Marco Bartoli; Daniele Nizzoli; Pierluigi Viaroli

    2013-01-01

    In the Po river plain relict freshwater wetlands are characterised by a low free water to emergent macrophyte surface ratio, rapid infilling and fluffy sediments, undergoing frequent resuspension. Particle mixing should alter the steep gradients of dissolved gas, nutrient and organic matter quality that generally characterise sediments, with implications for benthic processes. Sediment features and solute fluxes were studied from December 2003 to February 2005 within the Busatello swamp compl...

  12. Abyssal hills: Influence of topography on benthic foraminiferal assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanoudis, Paris V.; Bett, Brian J.; Gooday, Andrew J.

    2016-11-01

    Abyssal plains, often thought of as vast flat areas, encompass a variety of terrains including abyssal hills, features that constitute the single largest landscape type on Earth. The potential influence on deep-sea benthic faunas of mesoscale habitat complexity arising from the presence of abyssal hills is still poorly understood. To address this issue we focus on benthic foraminifera (testate protists) in the >150-μm fraction of Megacorer samples (0-1 cm layer) collected at five different sites in the area of the Porcupine Abyssal Plain Sustained Observatory (NE Atlantic, 4850 m water depth). Three sites are located on the tops of small abyssal hills (200-500 m elevation) and two on the adjacent abyssal plain. We examined benthic foraminiferal assemblage characteristics (standing stock, diversity, composition) in relation to seafloor topography (hills vs. plain). Density and rarefied diversity were not significantly different between the hills and the plain. Nevertheless, hills do support a higher species density (i.e. species per unit area), a distinct fauna, and act to increase the regional species pool. Topographically enhanced bottom-water flows that influence food availability and sediment type are suggested as the most likely mechanisms responsible for these differences. Our findings highlight the potential importance of mesoscale heterogeneity introduced by relatively modest topography in regulating abyssal foraminiferal diversity. Given the predominance of abyssal hill terrain in the global ocean, we suggest the need to include faunal data from abyssal hills in assessments of abyssal ecology.

  13. Modern benthic foraminifer distribution in the Amerasian Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, S.E.; Foley, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 38 box cores were collected from the Amerasian Basin, Arctic Ocean during the U.S. Geological Survey 1992 (PI92-AR) and 1993 (PI93-AR) Arctic Cruises aboard the U.S. Coast Guard Icebreaker Polar Star. In addition, the cruises collected geophysical data, piston cores and hydrographic data to address the geologic and oceanographic history of the western Arctic Ocean. This paper reports the results of the quantitative analyses of benthic foraminifer distribution data of the total (live + dead) assemblages derived from 22 box core-top samples. The results show that a distinct depth distribution of three dominant benthic foraminifer assemblages, the Textularia spp. - Spiroplectammina biformis, Cassidulina teretis and Oridorsalis tener - Eponides tumidulus Biofacies are strongly controlled by the dominant water masses within the Canada Basin: the Arctic Surface Water, Arctic Intermediate Water and Canada Basin Deep Water. The faunal distributions and their oceanographic associations in the Canada Basin are consistent with observations of benthic foraminifer distributions from other regions within the Arctic Ocean.

  14. Coupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Dueker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. However, the sources and environmental factors controlling the concentration, diversity, transport, and viability of microbial aerosols are poorly understood. This study examined culturable microbial aerosols from a coastal environment in Maine (USA and determined the effect of onshore wind speed and fog presence on deposition rate, source, and community composition. During fog events with low onshore winds (<2 m s−1 the near-shore deposition of microbial aerosols (microbial fallout decreased with increasing wind speeds, whereas microbial fallout rates under clear conditions and comparable low wind speeds showed no wind speed dependence. Mean aerosol particle size also increased with onshore wind speed when fog was present, indicating increased shoreward transport of larger aerosol particles. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and microbial aerosols deposited onshore resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium making up 66 % of all sequences. The sequence library from microbial aerosol isolates, as with libraries found in other coastal/marine aerosol studies, was dominated at the phylum level by Proteobacteria, with additional representation from Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Seventy-five percent of the culturable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. Using a 97 % similarity cut-off, sequence libraries from ocean surface and fog isolates shared eight operational taxonomic units (OTU's in total, three of which were the most dominant OTU's in the library, representing large fractions of the ocean (28

  15. Coupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Dueker

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. However, the sources and environmental factors controlling the concentration, diversity, transport, and viability of microbial aerosols are poorly understood. This study examined culturable microbial aerosols from a coastal environment in Maine (USA and determined the effect of onshore wind speed and fog presence on deposition rate, source, and community composition. During fog events with low onshore winds (< 2 m s−1 the near-shore deposition of microbial aerosols (microbial fallout decreased with increasing wind speeds, whereas microbial fallout rates under clear conditions and comparable low wind speeds showed no wind speed dependence. Mean aerosol particle size also increased with onshore wind speed when fog was present, indicating increased shoreward transport of larger aerosol particles. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and microbial aerosols deposited onshore resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium making up 66% of all sequences. The microbial aerosol sequence library, as with libraries found in other coastal/marine aerosol studies, was dominated at the phylum level by Proteobacteria, with additional representation from Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Seventy-five percent of the viable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. Using a 97% similarity cut-off, ocean surface and fog sequence libraries shared eight operational taxonomic units (OTU's in total, three of which were the most dominant OTU's in the library, representing large fractions of the ocean (28% and fog (21% libraries. The fog and

  16. Dispossess to accumulate: reflections on the contradictions of the process of neoliberal modernization of Chilean agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando De Matheus e Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to present a renewed and critical reading about the contradictions engendered by the neoliberal modernization of the Chilean agriculture. This task is carried out through the lens of the "historical-geographical materialism" developed mainly by the British geographer David Harvey, and also through agrarian studies linked to the critical thinking, especially Marxists. As the main empirical substrate, information and data supplied by documents and studies that have sought to understand the specific case of contemporary capitalist development in Chile as well as its consequences for the countryside and national peasants are used. It is sustained here that the mechanisms of “accumulation by dispossession” were (and still are of critical importance to make Chile a world-wide agricultural and food.

  17. The HLA-A*68:23 allele in the Chilean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, E V; Dilioglou, S; Arnold, P Y; Palma, J; Rivera, G

    2014-12-01

    HLA-A*68:23, first described in 2002, has not been widely reported. The studies reported here were performed for support of a collaborative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation program at Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital for which St. Jude Children's Research Hospital provided human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing. Family studies performed between 2000 and 2011 included 197 patients and their immediate family members. In a total of 559 individuals, A*68:23 was confirmed by DNA sequencing in eight individuals with no known relationship to each other. A*68:23 positive individuals included six patients, along with one of their parents, and two parents whose children did not inherit A*68:23. The frequency of A*68:23 in this Chilean population is >0.0125. This HLA-A allele appears to fit the description of a well-documented allele in this population studied in Santiago, Chile.

  18. Policy Positions in the Chilean Senate: An Analysis of Coauthorship and Roll Call Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alemán

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the policy positions of Chilean senators. The empirical analysis focuses on two different legislative activities: voting and coauthoring bills. The roll call analysis evaluates the degree to which coalitions act as cohesive policy teams on the floor of Congress, whether parties’ positions match conventional ideological rankings, and the dimensionality of voting decisions. The coauthorship analysis provides alternative ideal points to examine similar questions. The findings of the voting analysis reveal a rather unidimensional world with two distinct clusters matching coalitional affiliation, while the analysis of coauthorship illuminates a more complex pattern of associations. Neither roll call votes nor coauthorship patterns, however, reveal substantive fissures within the governing coalition. In comparison, the opposition coalition appears more divided along partisan lines.

  19. BUILDING A MORE EFFICACIOUS CHILEAN BUREAUCRACY: LESSONS FROM THE SINGAPORE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Hira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chile has a remarkable record of historically low levels of corruption. The Chilean state, nonetheless, faces issues of modernization as reflected in current reform efforts. This article offers a sketch of certain features of the Singapore civil service, known by wide reputation as one of the most effective in the world, for consideration as part of this process. The article briefly examines Singapore’s recruitment, evaluation and promotion, and training systems. In comparison with Chile, we find important contrasts including permanent employment, high levels of competition reflecting an embrace of objectively measurable meritocracy, vigorous training, and a strong sense of public mission backed by the ability to develop long-term vision.

  20. Genetic diversity of Chilean and Brazilian alstroemeria species assessed by AFLP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, T H; de Jeu, M; van Eck, H; Jacobsen, E

    2000-05-01

    One to three accessions of 22 Alstroemeria species, an interspecific hybrid (A. aurea x A. inodora), and single accessions of Bomarea salsilla and Leontochir ovallei were evaluated using the AFLP-marker technique to estimate the genetic diversity within the genus Alstroemeria. Three primer combinations generated 716 markers and discriminated all Alstroemeria species. The dendrogram inferred from the AFLP fingerprints supported the conjecture of the generic separation of the Chilean and Brazilian Alstroemeria species. The principal co-ordinate plot showed the separate allocation of the A. ligtu group and the allocation of A. aurea, which has a wide range of geographical distribution and genetic variation, in the middle of other Alstroemeria species. The genetic distances, based on AFLP markers, determined the genomic contribution of the parents to the interspecific hybrid.

  1. [Quality control in Medicine. Position of the Chilean Academy of Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, A; Segovia, S

    2001-07-01

    In the last two decades, important changes in medical training and care have occurred in Chile. The number of medical schools has been doubled, exceeding the national availability of professors and qualified training fields. The quality assessment and accreditation of medical training and care is insufficient in Chile. A National Autonomous Corporation of Certification of Medical Specialties, has certified more than 4,000 physicians in 44 specialties. The Chilean Association of Faculties of Medicine has accredited training centers during the last four decades. The National Commission of Undergraduate Training Accreditation, has developed a voluntary system for medical school accreditation. The Academy supports these strategies and considers that accreditation does not threaten institutions or individuals. It is rather a mechanism that identifies strengths and weaknesses of institutions and programs. This will finally result in better quality in medical training and patient care.

  2. The french abysm the chilean conservative and the revolutionary france 1964-1890

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alejandro García Naranjo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This text aims at building a sight that the Chilean Conservative of the second half of XIX century had upon revolutionary tradition in France. Since the study of the parliamentary speeches and the politics works of conjuncture elaborated by the conservative between 1864 and 1890 as well as the inquest of the magazine “The independent”, members of the conservative party argued courageously with the radical and liberal press house of Chile. It is shown that a conservative mentality in Chile explained the breaking of the current time, secularization of the public life and the spoil of the temporary powers of the Catholic Church since the “pernicious” inluence of the “fatal doctrines” coming from the “Evil France” that had in the reddish the “Liberalism of the bad law” and the “Jacobean Liberalism to its main proponents.

  3. My child and his siblings: women’s experience of first maternity in Chilean stepfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carola Pérez Ewert

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study shows the perception of a group of Chilean women aged between 29 and 39 years regarding their experience of having their first child when they are members of a simple stepfamily. Sixteen women, whose partners maintain active contact with their child(ren born in previous relationships were interviewed. Results confirm the existence of a process of “becoming a mother” and its course depends on stepchildren’s presence. In addition our more relevant findings show that the specific topics of fears and motivations of having a child depend on the particular stepfamilycontext, and women’s experiences is that this process vary according to the perceived quality of stepmother/stepchildren relationships.

  4. Percieved resources as a predictor of satisfaction with food-related life among chilean elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobos, German; Schnettler, B.; Grunert, Klaus G

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study is to show why perceived resources are a strong predictor of satisfaction with food-related life in Chilean older adults. Design, sampling and participants: A survey was conducted in rural and urban areas in 30 communes of the Maule Region with 785...... participants over 60 years of age who live in their own homes. The Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) scale was used. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used for the regression analysis. Results: The results led to different considerations: First, older adults’ perceived levels of resources...... are a good reflection of their actual levels of resources. Second, the individuals rated the sum of the perceived resources as ‘highly important’ to explain older adults’ satisfaction with food-related life. Third, SWFL was predicted by satisfaction with economic situation, family importance, quantity...

  5. Preliminary Psychometric examination of the Davidson Trauma Scale: A study on chileans adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Guerra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS measures the frequency and severity of the posttraumatic Stress Disorder pTSD. Since chile has limited data about validity and reliability of instruments to measure pTSD, this study evaluated psychometric properties of the scale in a sample of 130 adolescents between 13 and 18 years (M= 15,78; DT= 1,40. Some of them were traumatized patients and others were from general population. They answered the DTS, a depression and an anxiety scale. The scale obtained adequate internal consistency scores, showed convergent validity (DTS score was associated moderately, directly and significantly with depression and anxiety scores, and discriminated between clinical sample and general population. DTS seems to be a valid and reliable instrument in chilean adolescents.

  6. [The absence of stewardship in the Chilean health authority after the 2004 health reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Tania; Sánchez, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Stewardship is the most important political function of a health system. It is a government responsibility carried out by the health authority. Among other dimensions, it is also a meta-function that includes conduction and regulation. The Health Authority and Management Act, which came about from the health reform of 2004, separated the functions of service provision and stewardship with the aim of strengthening the role of the health authority. However, the current structure of the health system contains overlapping functions between the different entities that leads to lack of coordination and inconsistencies, and a greater weight on individual health actions at the expense of collective ones. Consequently, a properly funded national health strategy to improve the health of the population is missing. Additionally, the components of citizen participation and governance are weak. It is necessary, therefore, to revisit the Chilean health structure in order to develop one that truly enables the exercise of the health authority’s stewardship role.

  7. [Profile of social problem solving and coping profile in anxious and depressed Chileans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, Uwe

    2012-11-01

    According to the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization, in 2020, depression will become the second cause of disability worldwide. In Chile, anxiety and depressive disorders account for almost 28% of the total years of healthy life lost due to illness. This research seeks to explore a profile of social problem solving and coping present in people who suffer from anxious and depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 1179 analogous Chilean participants (55.9% women), with a mean of 22.23 years (range between 18-48 years). The results suggest statistically significant differences for all social problem solving and coping strategies evaluated. Thus, if anxious or depressive symptoms increase, social problem solving or coping strategies become less adaptive.

  8. Crustacean zooplankton species richness in Chilean lakes and ponds (23°-51°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio De los Ríos-Escalante

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chilean inland-water ecosystems are characterized by their low species-level biodiversity. This study analyses available data on surface area, maximum depth, conductivity, chlorophyll-α concentration, and zooplankton crustacean species number in lakes and ponds between 23° and 51°S. The study uses multiple regression analysis to identify the potential factors affecting the species number. The partial correlation analysis indicated a direct significant correlation between chlorophyll-α concentration and species number, whereas the multiple regression analysis indicated a direct significant response of species number to latitude and chlorophyll-α concentration. These results agree with findings from comparable ecosystems in Argentina and New Zealand.

  9. Trematodes indicate animal biodiversity in the chilean intertidal and Lake Tanganyika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechinger, R.F.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Trematode communities in populations of estuarine snails can reflect surrounding animal diversity, abundance, and trophic interactions. We know less about the potential for trematodes to serve as bioindicators in other habitats. Here, we reanalyze data from 2 published studies concerning trematodes, 1 in the Chilean rocky intertidal zone and the other from the East African rift lake, Lake Tanganyika. Our analyses indicate that trematodes are more common in protected areas and that in both habitats they are directly and positively related to surrounding host abundance. This further supports the notion that trematodes in first intermediate hosts can serve as bioindicators of the condition of free-living animal communities in diverse ecosystems. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2008.

  10. A new species of Heleobia (Caenogastropoda: Cochliopidae) from the Chilean Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Gonzalo A; Valladares, Moisés A; Méndez, Marco A

    2016-07-11

    Cochliopidae Tryon, 1866 is a diverse family of caenogastropods that lives in a wide variety of aquatic habitats primarily in the New World (Hershler &Thompson 1992). In Chile, the species of the group have been traditionally assigned to the genus Littoridina Souleyet, 1852 using conchological characters (Biese 1944, 1947; Stuardo, 1961; Valdovinos 2006) but according to anatomical studies and phylogenetic analysis the majority of them have been reassigned to the genus Heleobia Stimpson, 1865 (Hershler & Thompson 1992; Collado et al. 2011a; Kroll et al. 2012; Collado et al. 2013; Collado et al. 2016). Here we formally describe a new species of the genus Heleobia from Spring 1 in the Carcote saltpan, Chilean Altiplano, based on molecular and morphological characters. Snails from this locality were previously shown to be distinct based on DNA sequences (Collado et al. 2013; Collado et al. 2016).

  11. Chilean jagged lobster, Projasus bahamondei, in the southeastern Pacific Ocean: current state of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio M Arana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean jagged lobster (Projasus bahamondei is a deep-water crustacean (175-550 m occurring in certain areas of the southeastern Pacific Ocean, including the Nazca Ridge, Desventuradas Islands, the Juan Fernandez archipelago and ridge, and the continental slope off the central coast of Chile. This review describes the taxonomic status, geographical and bathymetric distribution, some biological aspects and habitat characteristics of this species. Additionally, both artisanal and industrial exploitation attempts made within the region are detailed, as well as fishing operation results, chemical composition, different elaboration procedures and the destination of the catch. The main objectives of this review are to contribute to the knowledge of P. bahamondei as a component of the deep-sea ecosystem and to highlight its importance as a potential fishery resource.

  12. Psychometric properties of the personal wellbeing index in Brazilian and Chilean adolescents including spirituality and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Castellá Sarriera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the 7-item Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI with two other versions which include the domains "Spirituality" and "Religion", separately, in a sample of Brazilian (n = 1.047 and Chilean (n = 1.053 adolescents. A comparison of psychometric properties between the PWI versions was carried out through multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showing adequate adjustments (CFI > .95, RMSEA < .08, whereas the item spirituality presented better performance. For the analysis of the differential contribution of each domain to the notion of global satisfaction, a regression on the item Overall Life Satisfaction (OLS was applied using structural equations. It is recommended the inclusion of the item spirituality in the original scale, considering the importance of such domain in both cultures.

  13. Autoimmune pulmonary proteinosis in a Chilean teenager, a rare aetiology of interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Alexis; Boza, Maria Lina; Koppmann, Andres; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2014-05-23

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is rare and encompasses a heterogeneous group of diseases, and is even rarer in children than in adults. ILDs compromise more than 100 different entities, including pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). There are many causes of PAP in children, including surfactant protein gene mutations (SFTPB, SFTPC, ABCA3, TTF-1), GMCSF receptor mutations and antigranulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor autoantibodies. We report a case of a 13-year-old Chilean girl who presented with an 8-month history of progressive exercise intolerance, fatigability and diminished school performance. Physical examination revealed resting tachypnoea, a few basal bilateral inspiratory crackles, and hypoxaemia on minimal exertion. Clinical suspicion and evaluation, including international collaboration, led to the diagnosis of autoimmune PAP and specific therapy for the condition.

  14. Characterization of Baker Fjord region through its heavy metal content on sediments (Central Chilean Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Ahumada

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of heavy metals content (Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sr and Zn in sediments of the Baker Fjord and surrounding channels in the central region of the Chilean fjords (47°45'S, 48°15'S is analyzed. The aim of the study was characterized the patterns of abundance and distribution of these metals in surface sediments. The area corresponds to a poorly studied zone with low human activity. Distribution patterns would be influenced by rainfall conditions (local erosion, fluvial (continental sediments carried by rivers, glacier (glacier flour and estuarine circulation. Cluster analysis allows differentiation among the sampled sites and group with similar characteristics. Finally, the concentrations found were contrasted with average values of metamorphic rocks and show with some certainty that the values found for calendar for this area and the greatest concentrations are the result of natural enrichment.

  15. Effects of an oil spill on benthic community production and respiration on subtropical intertidal sandflats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Hua; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2013-08-15

    This study determined effects of an oil spill on subtropical benthic community production and respiration by monitoring CO2 fluxes in benthic chambers on intertidal sandflats during emersion before and after an accidental spill. The oil spill decreased sediment chlorophyll a concentrations, altered benthic macrofaunal community, and affected ecological functioning by suppressing or even stopping microalgal production, increasing bacterial respiration, and causing a shift from an autotrophic system to a heterotrophic system. Effects of the oil spill on the macrofauna were more severe than on benthic microalgae, and affected sedentary infauna more than motile epifauna. Despite the oil spill's impact on the benthic community and carbon metabolism, the affected area appeared to return to normal in about 23 days. Our results suggest that the prompt response of benthic metabolism to exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons can serve as a useful indicator of the impact of an oil spill.

  16. Alcohol, binge drinking and associated mental health problems in young urban Chileans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Mason-Jones

    Full Text Available To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans.Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010.Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54] or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]. Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78], feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]. Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05].Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed.

  17. Locking, mass flux and topographic response at convergent plate boundaries - the Chilean case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncken, Onno

    2016-04-01

    On the long term, convergent plate boundaries have been shown to be controlled by either accretion/underplating or by subduction erosion. Vertical surface motion is coupled to convergence rate - typically with an uplift rate of the coastal area ranging from 0 to +50% of convergence rate in accretive systems, and -20 to +30% in erosive systems. Vertical kinematics, however, are not necessarily linked to horizontal strain mode, i.e. upper plate shortening or extension, in a simple way. This range of kinematic behaviors - as well as their acceleration where forearcs collide with oceanic ridges/plateau - is well expressed along the Chilean plate margin. Towards the short end of the time scale, deformation appears to exhibit a close correlation with the frictional properties and geodetic locking at the plate interface. Corroborating analogue experiments of strain accumulation during multiple earthquake cycles, forearc deformation and uplift focus above the downdip and updip end of seismic coupling and slip and are each related to a particular stage of the seismic cycle, but with opposite trends for both domains. Similarly, barriers separating locked domains along strike appear to accumulate most upper plate faulting interseismically. Hence, locking patters are reflected in topography. From the long-term memory contained in the forearc topography the relief of the Chilean forearc seems to reflect long term stability of the observed heterogeneity of locking at the plate interface. This has fundamental implications for spatial and temporal distribution of seismic hazard. Finally, the nature of locking at the plate interface controlling the above kinematic behavior appears to be strongly controlled by the degree of fluid overpressuring at the plate interface suggesting that the hydraulic system at the interface takes a key role for the forearc response.

  18. PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ALPACAS (LAMA PACOS) INHABITING THE CHILEAN ALTIPLANO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Miguel; Sevilla, Iker; Rios, Carolina; Crossley, Jorge; Tejeda, Carlos; Manning, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises.

  19. [Evaluation of antimicrobial consumption en 15 Chilean hospitals: Results of a collaborative work, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Isabel; Rosales, Ruth; Cabello, Ángela; Bavestrello, Luis; Labarca, Jaime

    2016-06-01

    Surveillance of antimicrobial consumption is a central part in programs of antibiotic stewardship. However, in Chile there are no national data on antibiotic consumption representing a significant number of hospitals by clinical services. In 2013 a survey was sent to multiple Chilean hospitals to evaluate antimicrobial consumption in medical services (MS), surgery services (SS) and critical care units (ICU). We used the standardized methodology recommended by the WHO, using the number of DDD/100 days beds. In the MS and SS beta-lactam and no beta-lactam antibiotics commonly used were evaluated. In the ICU consumption vancomycin, linezolid, imipenem, merope-nem, colistin and tigecycline was evaluated. Fifteen hospitals reported the density of antimicrobial consumption. Ceftriaxone and cloxacillin were the most commonly used antibiotics in general services (average cloxacillin 4,9 DDD/100 bed days in MS and 8,0 DDD/100 in SS; ceftriaxone 13,5 DDD/100 in MS and 16,7 DDD/100 in SS). In the SS there was also a significant consumption of metronidazole (average 14,5 DDD/100 bed days). In the ICU there was an important variability of consumption of selected antibiotics. This study reports the average and range of antibiotic consumption in MS, SS, and ICU from a significant number of hospitals in the country, during 2013. This information allows hospitals to compare their consumption of antibiotics with a significant sample of Chilean hospitals. Analysis of this information should consider a careful interpretation according to the sample shown here and the reality of each hospital.

  20. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus species from gut microbiota of Chilean Altiplano camelids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katheryne Guerrero-Olmos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococcus is one of the major human pathogens able to acquire multiple antibiotic-resistant markers as well as virulence factors which also colonize remote ecosystems, including wild animals. In this work, we characterized the Enterococcus population colonizing the gut of Chilean Altiplano camelids without foreign human contact. Material and methods: Rectal swabs from 40 llamas and 10 alpacas were seeded in M-Enterococcus agar, and we selected a total of 57 isolates. Species identification was performed by biochemical classical tests, semi-automated WIDER system, mass spectrometry analysis by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and, finally, nucleotide sequence of internal fragments of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, pheS, and aac(6-I genes. Genetic diversity was measured by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE-SmaI, whereas the antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the WIDER system. Carriage of virulence factors was explored by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: Our results demonstrated that the most prevalent specie was Enterococcus hirae (82%, followed by other non–Enterococcus faecalis and non–Enterococcus faecium species. Some discrepancies were detected among the identification methods used, and the most reliable were the rpoB, pheS, and aac(6-I nucleotide sequencing. Selected isolates exhibited susceptibility to almost all studied antibiotics, and virulence factors were not detected by PCR. Finally, some predominant clones were characterized by PFGE into a diverse genetic background. Conclusion: Enterococcus species from the Chilean camelids’ gut microbiota were different from those adapted to humans, and they remained free of antibiotic resistance mechanisms as well as virulence factors.

  1. Family and parenting characteristics associated with marijuana use by Chilean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Grogan-Kaylor

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cristina B Bares1, Jorge Delva2, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor2, Fernando Andrade31Curtis Research and Training Center, School of Social Work, 2School of Social Work, 3School of Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USAObjective: Family involvement and several characteristics of parenting have been suggested to be protective factors for adolescent substance use. Some parenting behaviors may have stronger relationships with adolescent behavior while others may have associations with undesirable behavior among youth. Although it is generally acknowledged that families play an important role in the lives of Chilean adolescents, scant research exists on how different family and parenting factors may be associated with marijuana use and related problems in this population which has one of the highest rates of drug use in Latin America.Methods: Using logistic regression and negative binomial regression, we examined whether a large number of family and parenting variables were associated with the possibility of Chilean adolescents ever using marijuana, and with marijuana-related problems. Analyses controlled for a number of demographic and peer-related variables.Results: Controlling for other parenting and family variables, adolescent reports of parental marijuana use showed a significant and positive association with adolescent marijuana use. The multivariate models also revealed that harsh parenting by fathers was the only family variable associated with the number of marijuana-related problems youth experienced. Conclusion: Of all the family and parenting variables studied, perceptions of parental use of marijuana and harsh parenting by fathers were predictors for marijuana use, and the experience of marijuana-related problems. Prevention interventions need to continue emphasizing the critical socializing role that parental behavior plays in their children's development and potential use of marijuana.Keywords: parenting, families, adolescent

  2. Do benthic biofilters contribute to sustainability and restoration of the benthic environment impacted by offshore cage finfish aquaculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado-Giménez, F; Piedecausa, M A; Carrasco, C; Gutiérrez, J M; Aliaga, V; García-García, B

    2011-08-01

    Benthic biofilters were deployed under a cage fish farm and in two reference locations to assess the influence of the farm on the biofilters and the surroundings, as well as to verify the usefulness of this technology as a mitigation tool. The biofilters underneath the farm recruited a fouling community practically identical to that of the control biofilters, which included a variety of trophic strategies. The former showed a higher 15N enrichment, indicating that fouling beneath the farm was benefiting from the farm waste. The waste retention efficiency was low (0.02 g N m(-2) month(-1)) beneath the farm. Benthic biofilters aggregated demersal wild fish around and within them. Pelagic wild fish also frequently used the biofilters beneath the farm, forming compact shoals around them. The increased complexity of the habitat below the fish farm enhanced biodiversity, but this improvement did not lead to the recovery of the sediments around the biofilters.

  3. Benthic Ecology from Space: Optics and Net Primary Production in Seagrass and Benthic Algae Across the Great Bahama Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    representing the differ- ent habitats: turtle grass leaves of all ages present within a shoot were analyzed with epiphytes from Stns WS12, WS13, WS16, and WS20...the larger autotrophic community consisting of phyto- plankton, epiphytic algae, and benthic macro- and microalgae. In these clear waters, mean...Falkowski 1997), an insignificant contribution. Seagrass system- wide productivity may also be altered by epiphytic growth on the seagrass leaves

  4. USGS-NPS Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program (SBMP) workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Christopher S.; Nayagandhi, Amar; Brock, John; Beavers, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program recently allocated funds to initiate a benthic mapping program in ocean and Great Lakes parks in alignment with the NPS Ocean Park Stewardship 2007-2008 Action Plan. Seventy-four (ocean and Great Lakes) parks, spanning more than 5,000 miles of coastline, many affected by increasing coastal storms and other natural and anthropogenic processes, make the development of a Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program (SBMP) timely. The resulting maps and associated reports will be provided to NPS managers in a consistent servicewide format to help park managers protect and manage the 3 million acres of submerged National Park System natural and cultural resources. Of the 74 ocean and Great Lakes park units, the 40 parks with submerged acreage will be the focus in the early years of the SBMP. The NPS and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) convened a workshop (June 3-5, 2008) in Lakewood, CO. The assembly of experts from the NPS and other Federal and non-Federal agencies clarified the needs and goals of the NPS SBMP and was one of the key first steps in designing the benthic mapping program. The central needs for individual parks, park networks, and regions identified by workshop participants were maps including bathymetry, bottom type, geology, and biology. This workshop, although not an exhaustive survey of data-acquisition technologies, highlighted the more promising technologies being used, existing sources of data, and the need for partnerships to leverage resources. Workshop products include recommended classification schemes and management approaches for consistent application and products similar to other long-term NPS benthic mapping efforts. As part of the SBMP, recommendations from this workshop, including application of an improved version of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS), will be tested in several pilot parks. In 2008, in conjunction with the findings of this workshop

  5. More rapid shift to a benthic niche in larger Gadus morhua juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsdóttir, G Á; Gunnarsson, G S; Karlsson, H

    2015-08-01

    Trophic use by Atlantic cod Gadus morhua juveniles was examined early and late in the shift from pelagic to benthic habitats. Changes in the proportion of pelagic copepods, estimates of benthic prey indicated by isotope mixing models and stable-isotope values between sample periods suggested a gradual shift towards a benthic niche. Values of the trophic proxies, however, changed most markedly in the largest juvenile group, suggesting a more rapid trophic niche shift, and in turn competitive advantage, of larger juveniles.

  6. Nearshore thermal gradients of the Colorado River near the Little Colorado River confluence, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Rob; Grams, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Construction and operation of Glen Canyon Dam has dramatically impacted the flow of the Colorado River through Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons. Extremes in both streamflow and water temperature have been suppressed by controlled releases from the dam. Trapping of sediment in Lake Powell, the reservoir formed by Glen Canyon Dam, has also dramatically reduced the supply of suspended sediment entering the system. These changes have altered the riverine ecosystem and the habitat of native species, including fish such as the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). Most native fish are adapted to seasonally warm water, and the continuous relatively cold water released by the dam is one of the factors that is believed to limit humpback chub growth and survival. While average mainstem temperatures in the Colorado River are well documented, there is limited understanding of temperatures in the nearshore environments that fish typically occupy. Four nearshore geomorphic unit types were studied between the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers and Lava Canyon in the summer and fall of 2010, for study periods of 10 to 27 days. Five to seven sites were studied during each interval. Persistent thermal gradients greater than the 0.2 °C accuracy of the instruments were not observed in any of the sampled shoreline environments. Temperature gradients between the shoreline and mainstem on the order of 4 °C, believed to be important to the habitat-seeking behavior of native or nonnative fishes, were not detected.

  7. WindSat satellite comparisons with nearshore buoy wind data near the U.S. west and east coasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; SHI Hanqing; YU Hong; YI Xin

    2016-01-01

    Nearshore wind speeds retrieved by WindSat are validated by a comparison with the moored buoy observations near the U.S. west and east coasts. A 30 min and 25 km collection window is used for the WindSat wind data and buoy measurements from January 2004 to December 2014. Comparisons show that the overall root-mean-square error is better than 1.44 m/s near the U.S. coasts, and the result for the east coast is better than that for the west coast. The retrieval accuracy of the descending portions is slightly better than that of the ascending portions. Most buoy-to-buoy variations are not significantly correlated with the coastal topography, the longitude and the distance from the shore or satellite-buoy separation distance. In addition, comparisons between a polarimetric microwave radiometer and a microwave scatterometer are accomplished with the nearshore buoy observations from 2007 to 2008. The WindSat-derived winds tend to be lower than the buoy observations near the U.S. coasts. In contrast, the QuikSCAT-derived winds tend to be higher than the buoy observations. Overall, the retrieval accuracy of WindSat is slightly better than that of QuikSCAT, and these satellite-derived winds are sufficiently accurate for scientific studies.

  8. Molecular typing of Escherichia coli strains associated with threatened sea ducks and near-shore marine habitats of southwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamber, Jason L.

    2011-01-01

    In Alaska, sea ducks winter in coastal habitats at remote, non-industrialized areas, as well as in proximity to human communities and industrial activity. We evaluated prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli strains in faecal samples of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri; n = 122) and harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus; n = 21) at an industrialized site and Steller's eiders (n = 48) at a reference site, and compared these strains with those isolated from water samples from near-shore habitats of ducks. The overall prevalence of E. coli was 16% and 67% in Steller's eiders and harlequin ducks, respectively, at the industrialized study site, and 2% in Steller's eiders at the reference site. Based on O and H antigen subtyping and genetic characterization by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found evidence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains associated with both species and detected E. coli strains carrying virulence genes associated with mammals in harlequin ducks. Steller's eiders that carried APEC had lower serum total protein and albumin concentrations, providing further evidence of pathogenicity. The genetic profile of two E. coli strains from water matched an isolate from a Steller's eider providing evidence of transmission between near-shore habitats and birds.

  9. High frequency (hourly) variation in vertical distribution and abundance of meroplanktonic larvae in nearshore waters during strong internal tidal forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévana MacTavish, A.; Ladah, L. B.; Lavín, M. F.; Filonov, A.; Tapia, Fabian J.; Leichter, J.

    2016-04-01

    We related the vertical distribution and abundance of nearshore meroplankton at hourly time scales with internal tidal wave events. We proposed that significant changes in plankter abundance would occur across internal tidal fronts, and that surface and bottom strata would respond in opposite fashions. First-mode internal tidal bores propagating in the alongshore direction were detected in water-column currents and baroclinic temperature changes. Surface and bottom currents always flowed in opposite directions, and abrupt flow reversals coincided with large temperature changes during arrival of bores. Crab zoeae and barnacle cyprids were more abundant in the bottom strata, whereas barnacle nauplii showed the opposite pattern. Significant changes in vertical distribution and abundance of target meroplankters occurred across internal tidal fronts, especially for crabs at depth, with surface and bottom organisms responding in opposite fashions. Changes in plankter abundance were significantly correlated with current flows in the strata where they were most abundant. The manner in which plankters were affected (increasing or decreasing abundance) appeared to be modulated by their vertical position within the water column. The significant differences found at the high frequencies of this study, maintained across sampling days, suggest that nearshore meroplankton populations may have greater and more consistent temporal and vertical variability than previously considered.

  10. Benthic habitat characterisation of soft-bottom continental shelves: Integration of acoustic surveys, benthic samples and trawling disturbance intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Juan, S.; Lo Iacono, C.; Demestre, M.

    2013-01-01

    Eleven sites were located on Mediterranean continental shelves to explore the link between the physical characteristics and epibenthic fauna from soft-sediment habitats. These sites, at 32-82 m in depth, were associated with fishing grounds and the trawling intensity was estimated at the site scale to assess the effects of trawling on benthic communities. Each site was surveyed with Multi-Beam (bathymetry and backscatter), side-scan sonar, benthic grabs and a surface dredge. The sites were clustered in three habitat types. Habitat 1, with moderate trawling disturbance, was characterised by homogeneous mud and associated epifauna that was also highly homogeneous across sites. Habitat 2, with sandy mud and scattered gravel and rocks, had a high abundance of sessile suspension feeders that probably attach to the coarser substratum and benefit from the low fishing disturbance in these sites. Habitat 3 included sites with heterogeneous sediments with maërl as the prevailing biocenosis and having the highest species richness, despite being subjected to variable trawling intensity. Statistical models were used to relate environmental parameters and the species abundance. More than 3 physical variables were necessary to explain the epifaunal patterns across sites, including the percentage of mud, sediment heterogeneity and fishing effort. These analyses are an essential step for extrapolating information from benthic samples to the larger scale of habitats, mapped through acoustic surveys. Despite this, a good integration is required between the mapping of physical habitat distribution and the ecological knowledge of communities.

  11. Morpholithodynamical changes of the beach and the nearshore zone under the impact of submerged breakwaters – a case study (Orłowo Cliff, the Southern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kubowicz-Grajewska

    2015-04-01

    Based on the conducted research and analysis, it has been found that the construction has a minor impact on the modification of the shore and nearshore zone morpholithodynamics, which is evidenced by a sinuate shape of the shoreline and a relatively stable cape in the central part of the area, present both before (1966–2005 and after SBWs were built. Furthermore, the progressive abrasion, the lack of significant changes in the morphology and particle size distribution of the beach and the nearshore zone, as well as the fact that those changes are limited only to the immediate surroundings of the submerged breakwaters prove their neutral impact.

  12. What is the impact on fish recruitment of anthropogenic physical and structural habitat change in shallow nearshore areas in temperate systems? A systematic review protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacUra, B.; Lönnstedt, O.M.; Byström, P.

    2016-01-01

    and spawning habitats of many fish and other aquatic species. Several coastal fish populations have seen marked declines in abundance and diversity during the past two decades. A systematic review on the topic would clarify if anthropogenic physical and structural changes of near-shore areas have effects...... on fish recruitment and which these effects are. Methods: The review will examine how various physical and structural anthropogenic changes of nearshore fish habitats affect fish recruitment. Relevant studies include small- and large-scale field studies in marine and brackish systems or large lakes...

  13. A Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program for National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Christopher S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Beavers, Rebecca; Brock, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring Program directed the initiation of a benthic habitat mapping program in ocean and coastal parks in alignment with the NPS Ocean Park Stewardship 2007-2008 Action Plan. With 74 ocean and Great Lakes parks stretching over more than 5,000 miles of coastline across 26 States and territories, this Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program (SBMP) is essential. This program will deliver benthic habitat maps and their associated inventory reports to NPS managers in a consistent, servicewide format to support informed management and protection of 3 million acres of submerged National Park System natural and cultural resources. The NPS and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) convened a workshop June 3-5, 2008, in Lakewood, Colo., to discuss the goals and develop the design of the NPS SBMP with an assembly of experts (Moses and others, 2010) who identified park needs and suggested best practices for inventory and mapping of bathymetry, benthic cover, geology, geomorphology, and some water-column properties. The recommended SBMP protocols include servicewide standards (such as gap analysis, minimum accuracy, final products) as well as standards that can be adapted to fit network and park unit needs (for example, minimum mapping unit, mapping priorities). SBMP Mapping Process. The SBMP calls for a multi-step mapping process for each park, beginning with a gap assessment and data mining to determine data resources and needs. An interagency announcement of intent to acquire new data will provide opportunities to leverage partnerships. Prior to new data acquisition, all involved parties should be included in a scoping meeting held at network scale. Data collection will be followed by processing and interpretation, and finally expert review and publication. After publication, all digital materials will be archived in a common format. SBMP Classification Scheme. The SBMP will map using the Coastal and Marine Ecological

  14. Lycaenid caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae eating flowers of Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae in the northern Chilean Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lycaenid caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae eating flowers of Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae in the northern Chilean Andes. The shrub Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae is reported for the first time as a host plant for three Neotropical Polyommatini (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae: Hemiargus ramon (Dognin, 1887, Leptotes trigemmatus (Butler, 1881 and Nabokovia faga (Dognin, 1895, based on two collections performed in the western slopes of the northern Chilean Andes in two consecutive summers. The relative abundance was always above 90% for N. faga while it was always less than 5% for H. ramon and L. trigemmatus. Furthermore, N. faga was not found on inflorescences of other native Fabaceae examined in the study site. This pattern suggests a close relationship between N. faga and D. pennellii var. chilensis, at least at a local scale.

  15. Landing Marine-derived Renewable Energy: Optimising Power Cable Routing in the Nearshore Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rosalind, ,, Dr.; Keane, Tom; Mullins, Brian; Phipps, Peter

    2010-05-01

    estuary. Such difficulties include limited availability of superficial sediments for cable trenching and protection; where sediments were present there were indications that the sediments were either mobile sands, or difficult to trench glacial tills. Areas of the estuary feature steep side slopes and rocky outcrops, which also provide a challenge for cable installation and long-term protection. Difficult ground conditions were set against an aggressive meteo-oceanographic environment, tidal currents reached 5-7 knots on the ebb tide with reverse eddies around the landfalls coupled with an active wave climate. These conditions pose implications on the working time, installation vessels and methodology. The estuary is also a designated Special Area of Conservation for the protection of bottlenose dolphins, therefore, the cable installation methodology needed to consider ecological sensitivities. Additionally, an area near to the southern landfall has historically been an area of strategic significance and has a number of fortifications adding archaeological constraints for the cable route. The increasing need and importance of investigation and planning for submarine cable routes will be discussed alongside potential methods for installation in the aggressive nearshore environment, this paper will summarise findings and observations of working in a high energy environment, will consider options for installation and protection of cables, will discuss the key lessons learned and look at potential implications for offshore electricity generation.

  16. Maternal Stress and Family Constitution: Comparative Study on Chilean, Single-Mother and Nuclear, Low-Income Families

    OpenAIRE

    Olhaberry, Marcia; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile; Farkas,Chamarrita

    2012-01-01

    Studies on maternal stress during child raising have taken into consideration contextual variables to explain it. The socioeconomic level, as well as the family constitution have been relevant variables, associating singleparenting in low-income families with greater levels of maternal stress. Maternal stress levels in Chilean, nuclear and single-mother low income families are studied, considering stress in various dimensions, associated to the maternal role, to the mother-child interactio...

  17. Solar PV-CSP Hybridisation for Baseload Generation : A Techno-economic Analysis for the Chilean Market

    OpenAIRE

    Larchet, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The development of high capacity factor solar power plants is an interesting topic, especially when considering the climate and economic conditions of a location such as the Chilean Atacama Desert. The hybridisation of solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies for such an application is a promising collaboration. The low cost of PV and dispatchability of CSP, integrated with thermal energy storage (TES), has the promise of delivering baseload electricity at a lo...

  18. A statistical approach to disentangle environmental forcings in a lacustrine record: the Lago Chungará case (Chilean Altiplano)

    OpenAIRE

    Giralt, Santiago; Moreno Caballud, Ana; Bao, Roberto; Sáez, Alberto; Prego, R.; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Pueyo Mur, Juan José; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Taberner, Conxita

    2008-01-01

    A high resolution multiproxy study (magnetic susceptibility, x-ray diffraction, XRF scanner, gray-colour values, Total Organic Carbon, Total Inorganic Carbon, Total Carbon and Total Biogenic Silica) of the sedimentary infill of Lago Chungará (northern Chilean Altiplano) was undertaken to unravel the environmental forcings controlling its evolution using a number of different multivariate statistical techniques. Redundancy Analyses enabled us to identify the main provenance of the studied prox...

  19. [Rotavirus Vaccine. Statement of the Consultive Committee of Immunizations on behalf of The Chilean Infectious Diseases Society. March 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz M, Alma; Abarca V, Katia; Luchsinger F, Vivian; Valenzuela B, M Teresa; Jiménez de la J, Jorge

    2006-06-01

    The article briefly reviews the epidemiology of rotavirus infection and the scientific information of the rotavirus vaccines: Rotashield, withdrawn from the market due to its association with intussusception, Rotateq currently in an advanced phase of development, and Rotarix, recently licensed in Chile. Considering the available information, the Consultive Committee of Immunizations of the Chilean Society of Infectious Diseases, summarizes its conclusions and makes recommendations for infants vaccination against rotavirus in our country.

  20. A Decline in Benthic Foraminifera following the Deepwater Horizon Event in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Patrick T.; Romero, Isabel C.; Brooks, Gregg R.; Hastings, David W.; Larson, Rebekka A.; Hollander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from three sites (1000–1200 m water depth) in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico from December 2010 to June 2011 to assess changes in benthic foraminiferal density related to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) event (April-July 2010, 1500 m water depth). Short-lived radioisotope geochronologies (210Pb, 234Th), organic geochemical assessments, and redox metal concentrations were determined to relate changes in sediment accumulation rate, contamination, and redox conditions with benthic foraminiferal density. Cores collected in December 2010 indicated a decline in density (80–93%). This decline was characterized by a decrease in benthic foraminiferal density and benthic foraminiferal accumulation rate (BFAR) in the surface 10 mm relative to the down-core mean in all benthic foraminifera, including the dominant genera (Bulimina spp., Uvigerina spp., and Cibicidoides spp.). Cores collected in February 2011 documented a site-specific response. There was evidence of a recovery in the benthic foraminiferal density and BFAR at the site closest to the wellhead (45 NM, NE). However, the site farther afield (60 NM, NE) recorded a continued decline in benthic foraminiferal density and BFAR down to near-zero values. This decline in benthic foraminiferal density occurred simultaneously with abrupt increases in sedimentary accumulation rates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations, and changes in redox conditions. Persistent reducing conditions (as many as 10 months after the event) in the surface of these core records were a possible cause of the decline. Another possible cause was the increase (2–3 times background) in PAH’s, which are known to cause benthic foraminifera mortality and inhibit reproduction. Records of benthic foraminiferal density coupled with short-lived radionuclide geochronology and organic geochemistry were effective in quantifying the benthic response and will continue to be a valuable tool in determining the long