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Sample records for chile variabilidad interanual

  1. Interanual variability os solar radiation in Peninsula Iberica; Variabilidad interanual de la radiacion solar en la Peninsula Iberica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozo-Vazquez, D.; Tovar-Pescador, J.; Gamiz-Fortis, S.; Esteban-Parra, M.; Castro-Diez, Y.

    2004-07-01

    The NAO climatic phenomenon is the main responsible for the interanual cloud cover variability in Europe. We explore the relationship between the NAO and the solar radiation spatio-temporal variability in Europe during winter. Measured monthly sums of sunshine duration and short-wave downward solar flux reanalysis data have been used. Correlation analysis between the NAO index and the measured sunshine duration shows a maximum positive value (+0.75) over the Iberian Peninsula. Accordingly, solar radiation in this area undergoes an interanual variability that can reach up to 30%, with the derived consequences for a reliable solar energy resources evaluation. (Author)

  2. Variabilidad interanual a interdecádica de la precipitación en Patagonia norte

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    Germán F Russián

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la variabilidad interanual e interdecádica de la precipitación de verano y de invierno en la región norte de la Patagonia argentina, denominada Pampa Amarilla (RPA, para el período 1969-2006. El régimen anual muestra un marcado cambio del ciclo anual sobre una transecta noreste-sudoeste que atraviesa RPA. Hacia el noreste el ciclo anual de precipitación presenta los mayores registros, y muestra marcado mínimo invernal junto con máximo estival equinoccial (marzo. Hacia el sudoeste, los registros son menores, con uniforme distribución a lo largo del ciclo anual, presentando mínimos invernales ligeros. La distribución de frecuencia observada de las anomalías de precipitación, para verano e invierno, tienden a mostrar una mayor ocurrencia de frecuencias negativas en el intervalo (-100; 0mm, con una ligera mayor probabilidad de ocurrencia de extremos positivos. Las tendencias de las series del semestre cálido son positivas y significativas hacia el norte, con excepción en la zona centro. Para el semestre frío, las tendencias son positivas y significativas en el norte y sudeste de la RPA. Es posible caracterizar toda la RPA mediante dos índices de precipitación para verano e invierno, respectivamente. Estos índices de precipitación regional no presentan tendencia significativa. El verano puede subdividirse en dos subregiones, norte y sur, con diverso comportamiento interanual. En el norte los ciclos dominantes son de 5 años a 8 años; y en el sur, en las bandas 2-4 años, ca. 11 años y ca. 15 años. El invierno presenta una variabilidad interanual espacialmente homogénea con cuasi-ciclos significativos en torno a 4-5 años y 11 años. En ambas estaciones, los procesos de baja frecuencia de entre 2 y 6 años podrían estar relacionados al Modo Anular del Sur (MAS. El cuasi-ciclo solar podría estar involucrado también. Para veranos, la circulación troposférica de capas bajas, asociada a precipitación, también es

  3. Biología poblacional de huirales submareales de Macrocystis integrifolia y Lessonia trabeculata (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae en un ecosistema de surgencia del norte de Chile: variabilidad interanual y El Niño 1997-1998 Population biology of the subtidal kelps Macrocystis integrifolia and Lessonia trabeculata (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae in an upwelling ecosystem of northern Chile: interannual variability and El Niño 1997-1998

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    J.M. ALONSO VEGA

    2005-03-01

    ábitat submareales favoreciendo la productividad del ensamble de huiros. Sin embargo, un repentino cambio en los patrones espacio-temporales de Tetrapygus niger (erizo negro, el pastoreador bentónico más conspicuo del norte de Chile, produjo la extinción local de M. integrifolia y la compresión del rango de distribución batimétrica de L. trabeculata. Efectos cascada abajo (mortalidad de carnívoros bentónicos durante El Niño 1997-1998 y cascada arriba (intensidad y frecuencia de surgencia en este ecosistema submareal costero parecen regular la interacción huiros-herbívoros en el área de estudio. La principal fuente productora de propágulos para el reestablecimiento del ensamble proviene de esporofitos fértiles que configuran parches aislados de baja densidad de M. integrifolia ubicados dentro de la pradera de L. trabeculata, aunque huiros flotando a la deriva y "bancos de semilla" de estados latentes microscópicos podrían actuar como estrategias complementarias. En el Pacífico Sudamericano temperado, eventos oceanográficos que actúan a distintas escalas espacio-temporales y procesos biológicos estocásticos de baja frecuencia (cambios en la abundancia de pastoreadores que actúan a escala local, generan variabilidad interanual en la dinámica de las poblaciones de huiros a largo plazo. Además, el efecto interactivo entre centros de surgencia permanente y la periodicidad temporal oscilatoria de eventos oceanográficos que generan anomalías térmicas positivas (El Niño y negativas (La Niña modifican el arreglo espacial de las poblaciones submareales de huiros en el gradiente latitudinal

  4. Variabilidade dos ciclos anual e interanual da radiação de ondas longas emergentes sobre a América do Sul e vizinhanças Annual and interannual variability of outgoing longwave radiation over South America and neighboring regions

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    Nelson J. Ferreira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a variabilidade anual e interanual da radiação de ondas longas emergentes (ROL derivadas do sensor "Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer" (AVHRR sobre a América do Sul e vizinhanças. As análises foram feitas utilizando-se médias mensais de ROL para o período de janeiro de 1982 a dezembro de 1993 e a técnica de estatística multivariada de análise por componentes principais (ACP. Os resultados obtidos possibilitaram a caracterização espacial dos padrões dos principais sistemas de tempo que atuam sobre o Brasil. Em relação à ACP, observou-se que a primeira componente representa o padrão médio da atividade convectiva; a segunda e quarta componentes estão associadas, respectivamente, aos modos verão/inverno e primavera/outono do ciclo anual; a terceira componente mostra as variações moduladas por eventos de El Niño, e a quinta componente está associada ao ciclo semi-anual.A principal component analysis was used to characterize the annual and interannual variability of outgoing longwave radiation over South America and neighboring regions. The data sample is comprised of monthly Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR data, covering the period January 1982 - December 1993. The results obtained characterize the behavior of the spatial pattern of the dominant weather systems acting over Brazil. The first component represents the mean convective activity pattern; the second and the fourth ones are respectively associated with the summer/winter and spring/autumn modes of the annual cycle. The third component shows spatial variability modulated by El Niño and the fifth one is associated with the semi-annual cycle.

  5. O fenômeno El Niño Oscilação Sul e a variabilidade interanual da evaporação do tanque Classe A e da umidade relativa do ar em Santa Maria, RS El Niño Southern Oscilation and the interannual variability of Pan evaporation and air relative humidity in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

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    Nereu Augusto Streck

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi associar a variabilidade interanual da evaporação do tanque Classe A e da umidade relativa do ar com o fenômeno El Niño Oscilação Sul (ENOS em Santa Maria, RS. Foram utilizados os dados diários de evaporação do tanque Classe A (ECA, mm dia-1 e umidade relativa média diária do ar (UR, % medidos em Santa Maria, RS. A ECA foi medida de 1973 a 2006 e a UR de 1969 a 2006. Os anos foram classificados em El Niño (EN, La Niña (LN e Neutros (N, considerando o período de 01/07 de um ano até 30/06 do ano seguinte. Os resultados mostraram que a ECA é menor nos anos de EN e maior nos anos de LN. Já a UR foi maior em anos de EN e menor em anos de LN. O efeito do fenômeno ENOS sobre a ECA é maior nos meses de novembro, dezembro, janeiro e maio, enquanto que sobre a UR os meses de maior influência do ENOS são outubro, novembro, dezembro e maio.The objective of this study was to associate the interannual variability of Pan evaporation and air relative humidity with the El Niño Southern Oscilation (ENSO phenomenon in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Daily data records of Pan evaporation (PAN, mm day-1 and mean daily relative humidity (RH, % measured in Santa Maria, RS, were used. PAN was measured from 1973 to 2006 and RH was measured from 1969 to 2006. Years were grouped into El Niño (EN years, La Niña (LN years, and Neutral (N years, from July 1st of the year to June 30th of the following year. Results showed that PAN is lower in EN years and greater in LN years. On the other hand, RH was greater in EN years and lower in LN years. The effect of ENSO on PAN is greater in November, December, January, and May, whereas RH is affected by ENSO in October, November, December and May.

  6. Revisiting chlorophyll data along the coast in north-central Chile, considering multiscale environmental variability Reinterpretando datos de clorofila en la costa centro-norte de Chile, considerando variabilidad ambiental de multiescala

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    VIVIAN MONTECINO

    2006-06-01

    ", nutrient supply, mean light exposure and mixing thresholds, including biological interactions, could be more effective in producing a higher phytoplankton biomass, in spite of a larger dispersionLa abundancia de fitoplancton en la capa de mezcla superficial del océano costero responde a cambios ambientales en diferentes escalas de tiempo. Aquí se han considerado conjuntamente las fases "cálida", "fría" y "neutra" de "tres ciclos ambientales" para estimar la variabilidad de la biomasa de la clorofila (Chl-a para las fases activa y relajada de la surgencia costera inducida por el viento local: (i el ciclo interanual ENOS (ii el ciclo anual (estacional y (iii el ciclo intraestacional asociado con ondas oceánicas atrapadas a lo largo de la costa en el norte de Chile. El objetivo principal de este estudio es estimar cuantitativamente la variabilidad de la Cl-a integrada en la zona eufótica (¾Chl-a en términos de una "condición ambiental" conjunta, para la banda costera de 50 km sensible a la surgencia, reinterpretando datos in situ de Chl-a (Cship = Chl-a + Feo pigmentos publicados y no publicados. Todas las combinaciones posibles de las "condiciones ambientales" se ordenaron en siete "indices ambientales" que van desde 0 ("absolutamente frío" a 6 ("absolutamente cálido". Del total de 332 muestras de ¾Chl-a, 198/134 se obtuvieron en condiciones de surgencia activa/relajada, de las cuales 24/38 y 30/36 muestras estuvieron asociadas con al menos dos fases frías/cálidas, de los tres ciclos ambientales (condiciones ambientales "fría"/"cálida" respectivamente. Los menores valores de ¾Chl-a durante las condiciones ambientales "frías" y "cálidas" respecto de las "neutras" alcanzaron significancia estadística tanto en surgencia activa como relajada (144/60 muestras respectivamente. Una mayor mezcla turbulenta durante condiciones ambientales "frías" y una nutriclina más profunda durante las "cálidas" explicarían los menores valores de ¾Chl-a. Datos de clorofila

  7. EVALUACIÓN In Situ DE LA VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LOS CHILES SILVESTRES (Capsicum spp. EN LA REGIÓN FRAILESCA DEL ESTADO DE CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

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    R. A. Alonso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio con el objetivo de hacer la evaluación in situ de la variabilidad genética de los chiles silvestres en la región Frailesca del estado de Chiapas. La muestra experimental se constituyó con el 10 % de las comunidades y productores de cada municipio. La unidad de muestreo fue el sitio donde se encontraron las plantas. La evaluación in situ se basó en las características cuantitativas y cualitativas contenidas en el descriptor de Capsicum. La variabilidad se midió utilizando los índices de diversidad de Margalef, Simpson y Sorensen. Los caracteres cuantitativos con mayor valor discriminante fueron: número de flores por axila, longitud del filamento, diámetro, longitud y peso de los frutos, longitud de la placenta, número y peso de 1000 semillas. Como resultado del análisis discriminante, se formaron tres grupos: el grupo 1, donde predominan los Capsicum annuum, con seis accesiones que poseen características de C. frutescens; el grupo 2, integrado por las accesiones de Capsicum frutescens, y el grupo 3, con los C. annuum cultivados. Se evidenció la existencia de altos niveles de variabilidad en las muestras de chile evaluadas, las cuales integraron tres grupos con características que identifican las especies: Capsicum frutescens L., Capsicum annuum L. y 12 accesiones cultivadas de Capsicum annuum. La mayor variabilidad se encontró en los municipios La Concordia y Villaflores, existiendo condiciones para la conservación de la variabilidad in situ.

  8. Variabilidad climática de gran escala y sus efectos ecológicos en el Pacífico mexicano.

    OpenAIRE

    Salvadeo, Christian Javier

    2012-01-01

    En el presente estudio se caracterizó la variabilidad ambiental de gran escala (interanual y multidecadal) y sus efectos ecológicos sobre las poblaciones naturales en aguas del Pacífico mexicano y regiones oceánicas adyacentes. A partir de los resultados se identifican tres escalas de variación en el Pacífico mexicano: la escala interanual relacionada con la variabilidad del El Niño/a Oscilación del Sur (ENSO) y la escala cuasidecadal y la multidecadal, asociadas a modos de variación climátic...

  9. Variabilidad genética y morfológica y estructuración poblacional en Alstroemeria hookeri subsp. hookeri (Alstroemeriaceae), endémica de Chile Genetic and morphological variation and population structure in Alstroemeria hookeri subsp. hookeri (Alstroemeriaceae), endemic to Chile

    OpenAIRE

    EDUARDO RUIZ; KAREN BALBOA; MARÍA A NEGRITTO; Carlos M Baeza; GLENDA FUENTES; VERÓNICA BRICEÑO

    2010-01-01

    El género Alstroemeria es exclusivamente sudamericano y consta de 82 taxa distribuyéndose, principalmente en Chile y Brasil. La gran importancia económica que han adquirido las Alstroemerias chilenas como plantas ornamentales ha despertado gran interés en la variabilidad morfológica de las flores y variabilidad genética en especies con potencial valor económico. Una de ellas es Alstroemeria hookeri que posee cuatro subespecies, de las cuales, la subespecie tipo, es endémica de las regiones de...

  10. Variabilidad genética y estructura poblacional del tunicado Pyura chilensis Molina, 1782, en la costa de Chile Genetic variability and population structure in tunicate Pyura chilensis Molina, 1782, in the coast of Chile

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    MARCELA P ASTORGA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El tunicado Pyura chilensis se ha considerado una especie de importancia ecológica, por concentrar una gran diversidad biológica en sus agregaciones y de importancia económica por ser un recurso de extracción por pescadores artesanales. Sin embargo, se han detectado cambios en la distribución y abundancia de sus poblaciones adjudicados a su sobreexplotación. Para llegar a establecer medidas de conservación de un recurso, es necesario entre otras cosas, conocer su variabilidad genética y su estructura poblacional, estimando los patrones y sus causas. Por lo tanto, en el presente trabajo se determinó el grado de variabilidad genética aloenzimática del piure P. chilensis y su estructura poblacional en base a tres localidades (Antofagasta, Talcahuano y Puerto Montt en la costa chilena. Los loci polimórficos obtenidos fueron Mdh-1 y Pgi-1. Los valores de Fst mostraron leve estructuración poblacional entre localidades (Fst 0,019 al igual que la prueba exacta de diferenciación genética (P = 0,031. Se observó diferenciación para la localidad de Puerto Montt en relación a las otras dos localidades en algunos de los dos loci. Los niveles de variabilidad observados en esta especie corresponden a lo esperados para otras ascidias. La estructuración genética poblacional puede ser explicada por una combinación de diferentes factores, entre los que destacan: (i el tiempo del periodo larval de 12 a 24 h, lo cual no facilitaría una amplia dispersión a lo largo de 2.500 km de costa y (ii las condiciones oceanográficas diferenciales entre localidades, junto a patrones de circulación cerrados que podrían llegar a restringir el flujo génico. Por último, proponemos que un conocimiento adecuado del grado de variabilidad, estructura y dinámica genética de las poblaciones son aspectos esenciales para tomar medidas de conservación de recursos explotados, tanto en ambientes abiertos como en áreas de manejoThe ascidian Pyura chilensis is an

  11. Spatio-temporal variability in ontogenetic guild structure of an intertidal fish assemblage in central Chile Variabilidad espacio-temporal en la estructura de gremios ontogenéticos de un ensamble de peces intermareales de Chile central

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    PATRICIA A BERRÍOS

    2011-12-01

    variabilidad en las condiciones ambientales, especialmente en peces intermareales, los que alcanzan varios órdenes de magnitud en tamaño corporal. Sin embargo, la influencia de los cambios ontogenéticos en la membresía gremial sobre la estructura espacio-temporal de los ensambles de peces permanece virtualmente desconocida. En este trabajo estudiamos la variabilidad espacio-temporal en la estructura de los gremios alimenticios ontogenéticos (OFG de los ensambles de peces intermareales que ocurren en el intermareal rocoso de la costa de Chile central. Para esto realizamos an��lisis de componentes principales (PCA y pruebas de aleatorización (pruebas R de la composición relativa de las OFG de estos ensambles, obtenidos de muestreos estacionales en diez pozas intermareales ubicadas en dos alturas de mareas en la zona intermareal en tres localidades entre los 33° y 34° S. En general, los PCA y pruebas R sugieren que la variabilidad espacial domina sobre la variabilidad temporal en la estructura de las OFG, debido principalmente a la alta representatividad de las especies omnívoras en las pozas altas del intermareal en dos de las tres localidades muestreadas. Sin embargo, cambios relacionados a la fenología en la representación de las clases de tamaño de los peces (i.e. reclutamiento de carnívoros en primavera-verano junto con diferencias ontogenéticas en la selección de hábitat (e.g., selección por pozas del intermareal bajo por la OFG de carnívoros de gran tamaño contribuyeron a una diferenciación espacial y temporal de la estructura de la OFG. Finalmente, la representación relativa de cada OFG se correlacionó con la de sus especies dominantes, sin evidencia de una compensación por densidad. Esto sugiere bajos niveles de redundancia funcional entre las especies en cada OFG, lo cual denota la vulnerabilidad del funcionamiento de estos ensambles a perturbaciones sesgadas en tamaño corporal tales como la pesca.

  12. Variabilidad y estructura genética en dos poblaciones de Vicugna vicugna (Camelidae del norte de Chile Genetic variability and structure in two populations of Vicugna vicugna (Camelidae from northern Chile

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    M. CECILIA NORAMBUENA

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se estudiaron dos poblaciones de Vicugna vicugna pertenecientes a la Primera y Segunda regiones del país, en base a la determinación electroforética de 28 loci presumtivos. Las diferencias fenotípicas existentes entre las vicuñas de estas poblaciones hace necesario este trabajo con el fin de re-estudiar su posición taxonómica y obtener antecedentes de variabilidad genética y estructura poblacional que podrían resultar útiles en su manejo de conservación. En la población de vicuñas de la Primera Región se detectó un polimorfismo de 17,8 % y un nivel de heterocigosidad de 0,078. En aquellas de la Segunda Región, el polimorfismo y la heterocigosidad se estimaron en 14,3 % y 0,045, respectivamente. Ambos parámetros revelan un alto grado de variabilidad genética poblacional. Se encontró un nivel de subestructuración démica alto (F ST = 0,344 y un grado de diferenciación génico y genotípico significativo entre las poblaciones. Se infiere que la deriva genética y el sistema social poligámico tendrían un rol importante como promotores de las diferencias genéticas observadas. El valor de distancia génica (D = 0,097 no confirmó el estatus subespecífico atribuido en base a sus diferencias morfológicas.Two populations of Vicugna vicugna from regions First and Second of Chile were studied on the basis of the electrophoretic determination of 28 presumptive loci. Due to the phenotypic differences between the populations mentioned above, this kind of study is required to determine some parameters like taxonomic status, genetic variability and population structure in order to help in conservation management of the specie. The percentage of polymorphism and the level of heterozigosity of vicuñas from the First region were 17.8 % and 0.078, respectively. The corresponding figures of vicuñas from the Second were 14.3 % and 0.045, respectively. These two parameters show that the two populations have a high degree of genetic

  13. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  14. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  15. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    In 1985, Chile's population stood at 12 million, with an annual growth rate of 1.7%. 1984's infant mortality rate was 20/1000 live births and life expectancy was 67 years. The literacy rate was 94%. Of the work force of 3,841,000 in 1985, 15.9% were engaged in agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 31.3% were employed in industry and commerce; 38.6% were in the service sector; 8.7% worked in mining; and 4.4% were employed in construction. Chile's military junta is scheduled to be replaced by an elected legislature in 1990. The GDP was US $19.2 billion in 1984, with an annual real growth rate of 6.3%, and per capita GDP stood at US$1590. Inflation averages 23%. Industry comprises 21% of the GDP. Longterm prospects for the Chilean economy are influenced by a high debt service ratio, very low domestic savings and investment, the prospect of little or no increase in copper prices, and continuing problems in the domestic financial sector. In 1985-88, under the International Monetary Fund macroeconomic program, Chile will strive for moderate economic growth while managing its external debt servicing burden. PMID:12178144

  16. Adaptación al cambio climático y la variabilidad: algunas opciones de respuesta para la producción agrícola en Uruguay Adaptation to climatic change and variability: some response options to agricultural production in Uruguay

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    Agustín Giménez; Bruno Lanfranco

    2012-01-01

    Adaptación al cambio climático y la variabilidad: "algunas opciones de respuesta para la producción agrícola en Uruguay". Como se señala en varios informes del Panel Intergubernamental sobre Cambio Climático (IPCC, 2007a; IPCC, 2007b), la comunidad científica internacional expresa que el aumento en la concentración de gases de efecto invernadero tiene como resultado cambios en la variabilidad climática diaria, estacional, interanual y a lo largo de decenios. La variabilidad climática y la ocu...

  17. Efectos ambientales sobre la variabilidad espacial del ictioplancton de Chile austral durante noviembre de 2005 Environmental effects on the spatial variability of the ichthyoplankton from southern Chile during November 2005

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    CLAUDIA A BUSTOS

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la distribución y abundancia del ictioplancton de Chile austral (41-45° S durante noviembre de 2005 en relación a las características oceanógraficas de la columna de agua (temperatura, salinidad y estratificación. Durante el periodo de estudio, se recolectó un total de 44.606 huevos de peces y 2.016 larvas correspondientes a 28 taxa. Los estados tempranos de peces pelágicos pequeños dominaron en las muestras, con densidades de ~ 14.000 huevos 10 m-2 de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y > 100 larvas 10 m-2 de clupeidos. Análisis multivariados indicaron la formación de dos grupos de estaciones, uno asociado a la zona de fiordos, de mayor profundidad, con fuertes gradientes verticales de temperatura y salinidad y mayor estratificación, y otro grupo asociado al borde oriental de la isla Chiloé, de menor profundidad y mayor mezcla en la columna de agua. En las zonas de mayor estratificación (Le., mayor frecuencia de Brunt-Váisála, N-2, se encontraron mayores densidades de huevos y larvas de peces pelágicos y mesopelágicos (Strangomera bentincki y Maurolicus parvipinnis. Al comparar esta información con un crucero oceanógrafico llevado a cabo 10 años antes en la misma zona (octubre de 1995, se detectaron cambios en la composición específica de ictioplancton, lo que puede indicar diferencias en las especies de peces marinos que utilizan la zona de fiordos y canales como área de desove y crianza larval.The distribution and abundance of ichthyoplankton from southern Chile (41-45°S during November 2005 were analyzed, in relation to the oceanographic features of the water column (temperature, salinity, stratification. During the sampling period, 44.606 fish eggs and 2.016 fish larvae were collected, belonging to 28 taxa. Early life stages of small pelagic fishes dominated the plankton samples, with mean densities of ~ 14,000 eggs 10 m-2 of anchovy (Engraulis ringens and > 100 larvae 10 m-2of clupleids. Multivariate analysis

  18. Variabilidad genética y morfológica y estructuración poblacional en Alstroemeria hookeri subsp. hookeri (Alstroemeriaceae, endémica de Chile Genetic and morphological variation and population structure in Alstroemeria hookeri subsp. hookeri (Alstroemeriaceae, endemic to Chile

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    EDUARDO RUIZ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El género Alstroemeria es exclusivamente sudamericano y consta de 82 taxa distribuyéndose, principalmente en Chile y Brasil. La gran importancia económica que han adquirido las Alstroemerias chilenas como plantas ornamentales ha despertado gran interés en la variabilidad morfológica de las flores y variabilidad genética en especies con potencial valor económico. Una de ellas es Alstroemeria hookeri que posee cuatro subespecies, de las cuales, la subespecie tipo, es endémica de las regiones del Maule y Biobio. Su distribución geográfica consiste de dos rangos, separados por la Cordillera de la Costa. Así, existen poblaciones costeras, creciendo, entre los 5-20 m de altura en las provincias de Arauco, Concepción, Nuble y Cauquenes y poblaciones del interior creciendo entre los 100-150 m de altura, en las provincias de Biobio y Nuble. Evidencias preliminares señalan diferencias fenotípicas entre poblaciones costeras y del interior, relacionadas con el color y forma de los tépalos. Por esta razón, se realizó un estudio morfológico comparativo en el rango completo de distribución de esta subespecie y estudiar su genética poblacional, especialmente los niveles de estructuración poblacional. Se analizaron 33 caracteres florales, mediante métodos de ordenación. El estudio morfológico indica una tendencia a separar las poblaciones en dos grupos, coincidiendo con los extremos de la variación morfológica y con ambos rangos de distribución, existiendo caracteres que aportan a ello. Los índices de variabilidad genética fueron determinados usando 17 loci aloenzimáticos. Además, se estimaron los valores de estructuración poblacional y se realizó un análisis de AMOVA. Se estimaron valores de distancia genética de Nei, entre todos los pares de poblaciones para construir un dendrograma que refleje las relaciones de similitud genética. Los resultados indican altos valores de estructuración entre poblaciones y baja variabilidad

  19. Variabilidad estacional de cadmio en un sistema de surgencia costera del norte de Chile (Bahía Mejillones del Sur, 23° S Seasonal variability of cadmium in a coastal upwelling system off northern Chile (Mejillones bay, 23° S

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    JORGE VALDÉS

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre junio de 2002 y abril de 2003 se midió el contenido de cadmio total y disuelto entre la superficie y los 100 m de profundidad, en dos estaciones localizadas en la bahía Mejillones del Sur. El rango de cadmio total y cadmio disuelto en las aguas de esta bahía fue 0,41-10,7 y 0,08-1,61 nM, respectivamente, durante el período de muestreo. Los resultados fueron correlacionados con la estructura físico-química de la columna de agua al momento del muestreo, de manera de estudiar los patrones de variabilidad estacional de este metal en este sistema de surgencia. Las condiciones oceanográficas imperantes durante este período correspondieron a un año normal (no-El Niño. Las masas de agua presentes en la bahía correspondieron a agua subantártica, subtropical y ecuatorial subsuperficial, con diferentes grados de mezcla y estratificación durante el período de estudio. Los perfiles de cadmio presentaron una distribución vertical clásica de un micronutriente. Sin embargo estos perfiles presentaron leves diferencias que pueden ser atribuidas a la condición de mezcla de las masas de agua al interior de la bahía. Un análisis multivariado de los parámetros registrados indicó que la variación temporal de cadmio en las aguas superficiales está asociada a las fluctuaciones de la clorofila a y la temperatura. Esto sugiere que, a escala estacional, la producción de biomasa fitoplanctónica sería el principal factor que controla la distribución de cadmio en esta bahía. Por otro lado, a pesar de que el cadmio es un metal redox sensitivo no se encontró un efecto significativo de la disponibilidad de oxígeno sobre el comportamiento de este metal, de manera que la condición micróxica de las aguas de fondo de la bahía no sería un factor preponderante en el flujo de cadmio hacia los sedimentos. La razón Cd/PO4 encontrada en Mejillones es similar a la reportada en otras zonas costeras de Chile. Los bajos valores y la tendencia temporal

  20. Coupling between the environment and the pelagic resources exploited off northern Chile: ecosystem indicators and a conceptual model Acoplamiento entre el ambiente y los recursos pelágicos explotados en el norte de Chile: un modelo conceptual

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    Eleuterio Yáñez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The eastern boundary of the Chile-Peru Current System constitutes one of the most biologically productive ecosystems in the world, due largely to coastal upwelling and the horizontal advection of nutrients. In this ecosystem, El Niño events are of great importance in the interannual variability of the environment. A change was observed in the environmental regime at the beginning of the 1970s with the onset of the 1972-1973 El Niño, marking an important decrease in the anchovy fishery (Engraulis ringens. After the mid-1970s, sardine (Sardinops sagax landings increased noticeably. A second regime shift at the end of the 1980s was seen mostly in the noticeable recovery of anchovy and the decline of sardine. Herein, we present an integrated conceptual model of the different local and large-scale phenomena that affect the marine environment off northern Chile and the distribution and abundance of pelagic resources. The model considers an analysis of environmental and bio-fishery data on different scales and describes how the interdecadal (associated with re-gime shifts and interannual (associated with El Niño events fluctuations in the Equatorial Pacific are mani-fested in the eastern South Pacific and, therefore, in the northern zone off Chile, affecting the annual eyele, the dynamic of the coastal trapped waves, and coastal upwelling. In this framework, interdecadal fluctuations play an important role in the anchovy-sardine-anchovy replacement sequence.El borde oriental del Sistema de Corrientes de Chile-Perú constituye uno de los ecosistemas de mayor productividad biológica del mundo, debido principalmente a la surgencia costera y advección horizontal de nutrientes. En este ecosistema, los eventos El Niño son de mayor importancia en la variabilidad interanual del ambiente. No obstante, un cambio de régimen ambiental es observado a inicio de los 70's el que hubiera comenzado con El Niño 1972-73 y que marca la gran disminución de la

  1. Variabilidad de las comunidades de parásitos metazoos del róbalo Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) (Pisces: Eleginopidae) en Chile Variability of metazoan parasite communities in the rock cod Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) (Pisces: Eleginopidae) off Chile

    OpenAIRE

    MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO; ALEX MELLADO; SANDRA SAAVEDRA; JUAN CARVAJAL

    2009-01-01

    La comparación de las variaciones en el tiempo cronológico y en el espacio es uno de los aspectos menos estudiados en la ecología de las comunidades de parásitos. Por eso, en este estudio se compara la abundancia total, riqueza y composición de las infracomunidades de parásitos del róbalo Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) (Pisces: Eleginopidae), entre muestras tomadas en Chile centro-sur en tres localidades geográficas (Talcahuano, Puerto Montt y Punta Arenas), y en dos momen...

  2. Variabilidad topográfica y edáfica en bosques de Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume, en el suroeste de Tierra del Fuego, Chile Edaphic and topographic variability in Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume forests, in southwestern Tierra del Fuego, Chile

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    OSCAR THIERS

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la variabilidad de las relaciones topográficas y edáficas en sitios con presencia de Nothofagus betuloides y especies arbóreas asociadas en el suroeste de Tierra del Fuego. Estas relaciones se analizaron con métodos estadísticos bivariados y multivariados. Las relaciones del suelo con la topografía estarían fuertemente ligadas a características climáticas (temperatura y humedad de los sitios. Los suelos más fértiles por su mayor profundidad y mejor drenaje, se ubicaron en terrenos de menor elevación (We examined the topographic and edaphic variability of sites dominated by Nothofagus betuloides and associated tree species in southwestern Tierra del Fuego. Edaphic and topographic characteristics were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate statistical methods. The relationships between soil and topography were strongly related to climatic characteristics (temperature and humidity of different sites. Soils with the highest degree of fertility, deep and well drained, were located at the lowest elevations (< 150-200 m and had gentle slopes (< 5 %. Pure forests of N. betuloides occurred in a wide topographic range with high soil variation. The different associations of N. betuloides, with the species N. pumilio, N. antárctica and Drimys winteri, occupy more specific site conditions. Nothofagus betuloides - N. pumilio occurred mostly in the most favorable sites with fertile soils. Nothofagus betuloides - N. antárctica occurred at higher elevations, and steeper slopes, characterized by very thin soils. Nothofagus betuloides - D. winteri occurred in coastal lowlands, with greater humidity and heavier rainfall, and deep soils with limited drainage

  3. Variabilidad de las comunidades de parásitos metazoos del róbalo Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830 (Pisces: Eleginopidae en Chile Variability of metazoan parasite communities in the rock cod Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830 (Pisces: Eleginopidae off Chile

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    MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La comparación de las variaciones en el tiempo cronológico y en el espacio es uno de los aspectos menos estudiados en la ecología de las comunidades de parásitos. Por eso, en este estudio se compara la abundancia total, riqueza y composición de las infracomunidades de parásitos del róbalo Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830 (Pisces: Eleginopidae, entre muestras tomadas en Chile centro-sur en tres localidades geográficas (Talcahuano, Puerto Montt y Punta Arenas, y en dos momentos del tiempo en cada una de ellas. En el conjunto de las 126 infracomunidades examinadas se encontraron 18 taxa de parásitos. La abundancia total y la composición de las infracomunidades se modificaban con la ontogenia del hospedador. Sin embargo, se encontró que la variación entre años en una localidad es de similar magnitud a la que hay entre lugares geográficos, luego de corregir por el efecto de la ontogenia del hospedador. Estos resultados resaltan la necesidad de implementar diseños de muestreo más rigurosos al momento de usar a los parásitos como marcadores biológicos de las poblaciones de hospedadores. Se propone que futuros estudios en las fuentes de variación de las comunidades de parásitos mejoren la descripción de estas variaciones con diseños de muestreo con medidas replicadas en el tiempo y el espacio.Comparison of variations in both chronological time and space is one of the least studied subjects in the ecology of parasite communities. Thus, we compared the abundance, richness and composition of parasite infracommunities in the rock cod Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenncienes, 1830 (Pisces: Eleginopidae, between three widely separated localities along south-central Chile (Talcahuano, Puerto Montt and Punta Arenas, which were sampled in two different years each. Eighteen parasite taxa were taxonomically determined in the 126 hosts examined. Total abundance and infracommunity composition changed along host ontogeny

  4. Genetic analysis of greenbug populations of Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae from Argentina and Chile based on enzyme variability Análisis genético de las poblaciones del pulgón verde Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae, colectadas en Argentina y Chile, basado en su variabilidad enzimática

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    Luciana Saldúa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine Schizaphis graminum (Rondani populations and sixty clones collected from very contrasting regions of Argentina and Chile were investigated electrophoretically. A high degree of enzymatic polymorphism was found. The enzymatic structure was described for the esterase system, finding nine different loci. Latitudinal stratification was determined and populations were associated into three groups, according to the latitude they were collected from. The 90% of loci resulted polymorphic in the first group and 100% of loci were polymorphic in the rest. Observed heterozygosity was lower than expected. No group had fixed alleles according to Fsr values; group one had a slight heterozygous excess, while the other groups showed slight positive Fsr values, because there was a homozygous excess. According to Frt, the third group showed the highest value that was in concordance with the highest gene flow value. Three populations could not be included in any group. The α-carboxyl-esterase was always present, also in clones and populations which were located in non agricultural zones, implicating that the insecticide resistance is well spread throughout the Argentinean and Chilean territory. No relationship was found between the enzymatic patterns and the biotype or with the host species where the aphids were collected from.Veintitrés poblaciones de Schizaphis graminum (Rondani y sesenta clones colectados en regiones muy contrastantes de la Argentina y Chile fueron investigadas electroforéticamente. Se encontró un alto grado de polimorfismo enzimático. La estructura enzimática fue descripta para el sistema estearasa y se encontraron nueve loci diferentes. Se determinó que existe estratificación latitudinal, las poblaciones fueron asociadas en tres grupos de acuerdo a la latitud donde fueron colectadas. El 90% de los loci resultaron polimórficos en el primer grupo y el 100% de los loci lo fueron en el resto. La heterocigosidad observada fue

  5. Macrofauna del curso inferior y estuario del río Biobío (Chile: cambios asociados a variabilidad estacional del caudal hídrico Macrofauna of the lower reach and estuary of Biobío river (Chile: changes associated to seasonal changes of the river flow

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    CARLOS BERTRÁN

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los sistemas lóticos chilenos de mayor importancia de acuerdo a su caudal es el río Biobío (ca. 37º S. Su estuario es reducido, especialmente en las épocas de máximo caudal. Con el objetivo de poner a prueba la hipótesis de que en verano la disminución del caudal del río Biobío, determina una mayor depositación del material particulado fino y que el aumento del caudal en invierno resulta en el lavado y transporte del material depositado hacia el mar, y consecuentemente en una disminución de la macrofauna bentónica, se recolectaron muestras para análisis sedimentológicos y faunísticos en el curso inferior y estuario del río Biobío, durante agosto de 1993 y marzo de 1994. Los análisis sedimentológicos indican que el tamaño medio del sedimento correspondió a arenas gruesas. La depositación del material fino suspendido, que ocurre durante el verano se manifiesta en el mayor porcentaje de finos y materia orgánica durante este período. La macrofauna bentónica estuvo compuesta por 16 taxa en el muestreo de invierno y 42 taxa en el de verano. Durante el invierno, la mayoría de ellas estuvo representada por muy pocos individuos. Durante el verano aumentó la riqueza específica y abundancias totales de la macrofauna. Los taxa más abundantes fueron un Archiannelida indeterminado y el poliqueto Perinereis gualpensis. El aumento del caudal en la época invernal, determina el transporte del material depositado hacia el mar y consecuentemente el arrastre de organismos bentónicos. Aún cuando los valores de abundancia y biomasa de macrofauna durante el verano fueron de un orden de magnitud mayor que en la fase invernal, fueron menores que los citados para otros estuarios del centro-sur de Chile (ca. 39º S. Eso contribuye a confirmar el carácter atípico del estuario del río Biobío, el que debido a sus cambios estacionales de caudal genera cambios significativos en la estructura comunitaria de la macrofauna bent

  6. Patrones de variabilidad ambiental en el mar peruano

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    Roberto Flores

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los escenarios ambientales y los patrones de variabilidad observados en el mar peruano a partir del análisis de información obtenida por el Instituto del Mar del Perú entre los años 1960 – 2011. Se examinan datos de cruceros de investigación oceanográfica, de evaluación de recursos pesqueros y bío-oceanográficos, además de información de diversas publicaciones sobre el mar peruano y sus recursos. Los datos de temperatura, salinidad y contenido de oxígeno, fueron interpolados para obtener promedios mensuales y construir series espaciales y temporales. En la superficie, las Aguas Costeras Frías (ACF y Aguas Subtropicales Superficiales (ASS crean condiciones ambientales diferentes a las de la parte subsuperficial donde predomina la intromisión de las aguas ecuatoriales a través de la Corriente Subsuperficial Perú-Chile (CSPC. En el norte, durante el verano y otoño, predominan en la capa superficial aguas cálidas de origen ecuatorial. En el centro, aguas de origen ecuatorial interactúan con las ACF del afloramiento costero. El sur está influenciado por las ASS y el afloramiento costero con mayor intensidad, indicando una mayor actividad en el Sistema de la Corriente del Perú (SCP.

  7. The genus Basilichthys (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae revisited along its Chilean distribution range (21° to 40° S using variation in morphologyand mtDNA El género Basilichthys (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae analizado a lo largo de su distribución en Chile (21° a 40° S, utilizando rasgos morfológicos y variabilidad del ADN mitocondrial

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    DAVID VÉLIZ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There is still doubt as to the number of species of the freshwater Chilean ichthyofauna, 64 % of which have conservation problems. One of the groups is that of the silversides of the genus Basilichthys. Three morphological species of this genus have been described in Chile with disjoint distributions: Basilichthys semotilus, B. microlepidotus and B. australis; the latter two overlap in distribution only in the Aconcagua River and are not easily distinguishable by morphological and meristic characters. In order to evaluate the efficacy of identification of these species by molecular techniques, we analyzed the sequence of 9 % of the mitochondrial DNA (Control Region and COI of individuals from the Loa River (21°41' S to the Valdivia River (39°50' S, adding meristic features for B. microlepidotus and B. australis in order to study population variation to clarify the taxonomy of the native species of the genus. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the individuals of Basilichthys semotilus form an haplogroup separated from the other species of the genus; however, B. australis and B. microlepidotus form a monophyletic group that shares the most common haplotypes. An analysis of meristic information showed no statistically significant differences in the number of lateral line scales or number of rays in the fins between B. microlepidotus and B. australis. These results do not support the current classification for the latter two species; there appears to be one group in the extreme north of the country (Basilichthys semotilus and a second group in central Chile which should be called B. microlepidotus. This information will be useful to review the conservation status of the Chilean fauna.Si bien aún existen dudas sobre el número de especies descritas en el país, se reconoce que el 64 % de la ictiofauna dulceacuícola chilena se encuentra en alguna categoría de peligro de conservación. Uno de los grupos categorizados como vulnerable y en

  8. Variabilidad de la Estación de Crecimiento en la Región Sur de Tamaulipas en condiciones climaticas actuales y futuras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Barrios, M.; Conde-Alvarez, C.; Gay-Garcia, C.

    2007-05-01

    El impacto de la variabilidad y cambio climáticos, afectan el potencial agrícola de la Región Sur de Tamaulipas. Además de los cambios estacionales, bajos rendimientos agrícolas, el manejo de los cultivos y las políticas locales de producción, existe la incertidumbre del mercado regional para los pequeños y grandes productores. La diversificación agrícola ha sido una alternativa para enfrentar las condiciones imperantes en esta región. Pero ésta ha provocado la fragmentación territorial, por lo que sólo algunos productores logran competir en un mercado nacional. Existe una preocupación generalizada por buscar soluciones que permitan que la población que es afectada por la inseguridad de la producción agrícola y económica, pueda adaptarse a las variaciones climáticas que afectan el proceso productivo. La seguridad alimentaría queda sujeta a la fluctuación de las importaciones para los sectores básicos y a las estrategias mercantiles de empresas trasnacionales. La percepción local sugiere un número creciente de eventos climatológicos extremos, constantes y severos en los últimos 20 años, con el aumento creciente de pérdidas económicas. El análisis se centra en la disponibilidad de agua, agregándose un aspecto de capital importancia como es la variabilidad interanual de la lluvia, que condiciona muy fuertemente el riesgo agrícola en el trópico seco, siendo ésta la que determina el momento de inicio de la estación favorable para el crecimiento y su duración. En este trabajo se han obtenido modelos de la distribución espacial de la precipitación y temperaturas, para el escenario base 1961-1990, el escenario actual 1971-2000, para algunos años El Niño y La Niña, así como para los escenarios de Cambio Climático HADLEY, ECHAM y GFDL, con escenarios A2 y B2, para las décadas de los 20s y 50s, para establecer el inicio y duración de la Estación de Crecimiento, utilizando Sistemas de Información Geográfica (ArcView). Estos

  9. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Gentina; Fernando Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first...

  10. Marine Energy in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Levy

    2012-01-01

    This is the first issue of a new series dedicated to deliver concise information on energy innovation published by the Energy Innovation Center at the IDB. This issue offers a primer on the potential for marine energy in Chile. The ocean is increasingly recognized as a viable source of renewable energy, and Chile, with its long coastline, powerful waves and tidal currents, has captured the attention of marine energy proponents. While harvesting this source of energy would increase sustainabil...

  11. Variación interanual de la abundancia de Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes 1900 en el Golfo de Tehuantepec Annual abundance variation of Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes 1900 in the Gulf of Tehuantepec

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    Pedro Cervantes-Hernández

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La variación interanual de la abundancia de reclutas (índice FR y reproductores (índice DA de Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900, se modeló empleando a los grupos de edad relacionados con los procesos naturales de reclutamiento y reproducción en el Golfo de Tehuantepec (GT. El índice FR fue modelado con el grupo de cuatro meses y el índice DA con los grupos de seis a 11 meses. Se cuantificó la relación entre la temperatura superficial del mar (TSM y ambos índices poblacionales de 1989 a 1998, y adicionalmente, entre éstos y la concentración de Clorofila a (Cla de noviembre 1996 a mayo 1998. En ambos intervalos, la TSM tuvo un correlación directamente proporcional con FR e inversamente proporcional con DA. En el segundo intervalo, la Cla fue mayor durante los máximos DA (R = 0.5627 y menor durante el máximo FR (R = -0.6887. La correlación entre la TSM y Cla fue de R = -0.6452. Entre octubre/noviembre y enero, la abundancia de reproductores fue mayor a la de reclutas. Los máximos DA coincidieron con los máximos Cla y los mínimos TSM durante la temporada de nortes o "tehuanos". El reclutamiento masivo al ambiente marino, se observó entre julio y agosto/septiembre, cuando las condiciones oceanográficas en el GT fueron inversas a las descritas para el índice DA. La variación interanual de la abundancia de los índices FR y DA se mantiene aún con la presencia de "El Niño" en el GT, pero su abundancia disminuye.The annual abundance variation of recruits (FR index and spawners (DA index of Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes 1900 was modeled with age groups related with the natural processes of recruitment and reproduction in the Gulf of Tehuantepec (GT. The FR Index was modeled using the age group of four months and the DA index with the age groups from six to 11 months. The relationships between the sea surface temperature (SST and both population indices from 1989 to 1998 were quantified, between these and the

  12. [Domestic violence in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed. PMID:25424674

  13. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Gentina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first commercial operation in the world exclusively via bioleaching copper sulfides. Nowadays, all bioleaching operations run in the country contribute to an estimated 10% of total copper production. This article presents antecedents that have contributed to the development of copper bioleaching in Chile.

  14. Variabilidad genética del crecimiento en progenies selectas de Pinus radiata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Mora

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Heredabilidad en sentido estricto (h2, correlación genética intra-clase (Γ2IC y componentes de varianza para la altura, diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP y volumen del fuste, a los siete años de edad después de la plantación, fueron analizados en dos ensayos de progenie de Pinus radiata establecidos en el sur de Chile, en orden a examinar la variabilidad genética del crecimiento en una generación avanzada de la especie. Estos ensayos incluyeron árboles provenientes de propagación vegetativa y generativa. Las heredabilidades fueron estimadas para los árboles originados de semillas, y mostraron los siguientes valores: altura, 0.08-0.13; diámetro a la altura del pecho, 0-0.13; volumen del fuste, 0-0.09. Los valores de la correlación genética intra-clase, estimados para el grupo de árboles originados de propagación vegetativa, fueron moderados a bajos (Γ2IC: altura, 0.1-0.11; diámetro a la altura del pecho, 0.01-0.05; volumen del fuste, 0.03-0.06. No obstante la presencia de heredabilidades y correlaciones moderadas para algunas características y, la variación relativamente limitada entre grupos de árboles reflejan la fuerte selección realizada a las progenies. En general, los árboles provenientes de estacas presentaron una tendencia a la menor variación intra-genotípica, y evidenciaron magnitudes relativas de las varianzas debida al grupo (σ2G mayores a las varianzas familiares (σ2F, en cuatro de seis caracteres evaluados, indicando una tendencia a la mayor homogeneidad en el crecimiento, característica común de la propagación vegetativa.

  15. Variabilidad genética del crecimiento en progenies selectas de Pinus radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Mora

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Heredabilidad en sentido estricto (h2, correlación genética intra-clase (Γ2 IC y componentes de varianza para la altura, diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP y volumen del fuste, a los siete años de edad después de la plantación, fueron analizados en dos ensayos de progenie de Pinus radiata establecidos en el sur de Chile, en orden a examinar la variabilidad genética del crecimiento en una generación avanzada de la especie. Estos ensayos incluyeron árboles provenientes de propagación vegetativa y generativa. Las heredabilidades fueron estimadas para los árboles originados de semillas, y mostraron los siguientes valores: altura, 0.08-0.13; diámetro a la altura del pecho, 0-0.13; volumen del fuste, 0-0.09. Los valores de la correlación genética intra-clase, estimados para el grupo de árboles originados de propagación vegetativa, fueron moderados a bajos (Γ2 IC: altura, 0.1-0.11; diámetro a la altura del pecho, 0.01-0.05; volumen del fuste, 0.03-0.06. No obstante la presencia de heredabilidades y correlaciones moderadas para algunas características y, la variación relativamente limitada entre grupos de árboles reflejan la fuerte selección realizada a las progenies. En general, los árboles provenientes de estacas presentaron una tendencia a la menor variación intra-genotípica, y evidenciaron magnitudes relativas de las varianzas debida al grupo (σ2 G mayores a las varianzas familiares (σ2 F, en cuatro de seis caracteres evaluados, indicando una tendencia a la mayor homogeneidad en el crecimiento, característica común de la propagación vegetativa.

  16. Chile's Madam President

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    After becoming the first female to win a presidential election in the socially conservative country, Chilean President-elect Michelle Bachelet created history again when unveiling a cabinet that was absolutely gender-balanced on January 30. Following similar breakthroughs of women politicians in Liberia and Germany, what happened in Chile is considered another case of women gaining power worldwide.

  17. The Geology of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Lluís; Calafat, A.; Gimeno, D.; Liesa, M.; Proenza, J.; Sàbat, F.; Sáez, Alberto; Santanach, Pere

    2008-01-01

    6 páginas.-- Book review of "The Geology of Chile", by Teresa Moreno and Wes Gibbons (eds.) (2007). Geological Society. London (United Kingdom). 414 pages, 286 figures including maps, charts and pictures; 27, 5 x 21 cm, ISBN 978-1- 86239-219-9 (hardback) and ISBN 978-1-86239-220-5 (softback).

  18. Variabilidade genética de Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. passiflorae Variabilidade genética de Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. passiflorae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia K. Nakatani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A mancha bacteriana, causada por Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. passiflorae, é uma das mais importantes doenças do maracujazeiro, podendo limitar a produção dessa frutífera em algumas regiões do País. O uso de resistência genética e controle químico, juntamente com o emprego de medidas de exclusão, são as práticas de controle da doença mais recomendadas. Para o desenvolvimento de variedades resistentes é necessário conhecer tanto a variabilidade genética do hospedeiro quanto do patógeno. Nesse trabalho foi estudada a variabilidade de cinqüenta isolados patogênicos de Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. passiflorae, coletados em quatro diferentes locais no estado de São Paulo. No estudo da variabilidade genética foram usados dados de marcadores moleculares RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA, os quais foram usados para o cálculo do coeficiente de similaridade de Dice entre os isolados, análise de variância molecular (AMOVA entre e dentro das populações e agrupamento dos isolados pelo método UPGMA. Para análise da agressividade foram usados cinco isolados, mais divergentes, baseado no dendrograma. O coeficiente de similaridade variou entre 0,6887 e 0,9688. Na análise de agrupamento, os isolados foram separados em sete grupos e não houve relação evidente entre local de coleta com a composição dos grupos. Na análise da variância molecular (AMOVA verificou-se que a maior parte da variabilidade genética está dentro das populações (89,4% e apenas 10,6%, entre populações. Os resultados da análise de agrupamento e da AMOVA indicam que existe grande fluxo gênico entre isolados bacterianos nas regiões analisadas. No teste de patogenicidade verificou-se diferença significativa de agressividade entre os isolados. Os resultados demonstram a importância do conhecimento da variabilidade genética e da agressividade na seleção dos isolados para serem utilizados em testes de resistência genética no desenvolvimento de

  19. MultiTaper Method-Singular Value Decomposition (MTM-SVD: variabilidad espacio-frecuencia de las fluctuaciones del nivel del mar en el Pacífico suroriental MultiTaper Method-Singular Value Decomposition (MTM-SVD: spatial-frequency variability of the sea level in the southeastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Correa-Ramirez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizan dieciocho anos de datos satelitales de nivel del mar y esfuerzo del viento, en la región del Pacifico suroriental, para mostrar las cualidades del Multitaper Method - Singular Value Decomposition (MTM-SVD como método de análisis de múltiples series de tiempo distribuidas en extensas áreas del océano. Se realiza una exhaustiva revisión del MTM-SVD, propuesto inicialmente por Mann & Park (1999, y se implementan los algoritmos computacionales en MATLAB, para aprovechar las capacidades de despliegue gráfico de los resultados y facilitar su interpretación y análisis. El MTM-SVD permitió obtener una visión general de las principales frecuencias de variabilidad del nivel del mar, determinar la fracción de la varianza explicada para cada una de estas frecuencias en las distintas regiones de la zona de estudio y determinar sus patrones de oscilación, tanto estacionarios como de propagación. Dentro de las principales frecuencias de variabilidad se encuentra que la senal anual e interanual domina en forma significativa gran parte del registro del nivel del mar en el Pacifico suroriental. La senal anual está asociada a las fluctuaciones del esfuerzo del viento y a la propagación de ondas de Rossby. La senal interanual se encuentra fuertemente asociada a las fluctuaciones de El Niño y la Oscilación del Sur, que se extiende en la región mediante perturbaciones generadas en la costa, que posteriormente viajan hacia el oeste a una velocidad cercana a la velocidad teórica de propagación del primer modo baroclino de una onda de Rossby.Eighteen years of satellite data on sea level and wind stress in the southeastern Pacific region, were used to show the capabilities of Multitaper Method - Singular Value Decomposition (MTM-SVD as a valuable method to analyze multiple time series distributed over a large area on the ocean. Here we performed a comprehensive review of the MTM-SVD method,that was first proposed by Mann & Park (1999

  20. Chile exploits LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    Simultaneously with its exploitation of offshore hydrocarbon reservoirs Chile is developing the production and selling of LNG. Chile produces a large quantity of associated gas from its reservoirs at Megallanes and processes it at the Manantiales, Cullen and Posesion plants recovering propane, butane and natural gas liguids. The stripped gas is reinjected for pressure maintenance operations. With the completion of the LNG program full use of the gas will be achieved. It will totally meet the needs of combustible liquids for the central and northern parts of the country, a volume of 2200 million cu m/yr. For its treatment natural gas is sent through gas pipelines to the LNG plant at Cabo Negro. By means of a cooling process, the gas is cooled to -160 C where it becomes a liquid and its volume is reduced by a factor of 600. It is then stored in tanks at atmospheric pressure.

  1. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  2. Variabilidade do vento na bacia hidrográfi ca do rio São Francisco durante a ocorrência da ZCAS / Variability of the wind in the hidrographic basin of the São Francisco river during ZCAS occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djane Fonseca da Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O rio São Francisco é um dos rios brasileiros mais extensos e sua importância também está no volume de água transportado por ele através da região semi-árida, na sua contribuição histórica e econômica para fi xação das populações ribeirinhas e na criação das cidades hoje plantadas ao longo do vale. O principal mecanismo produtor de chuvas sobre a bacia do rio São Francisco é a Zona de Convergência do Atlântico Sul (ZCAS. A intensidade e direção do vento são variáveis de grande interesse nos estudos de balanço de água. Portanto, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo estudar a climatologia do vento e sua variabilidade na bacia do rio São Francisco. Foram utilizados dados mensais de ventos, componentes zonal e meridional, oriundos da Reanálise do NCEP/NCAR no período de 1982-1994, em três faixas de longitude (40ºW, 42,5ºW e 45ºW entre as latitudes de 25ºS e 5ºS. Observou-se que nas longitudes de 42,5ºW e 45ºW, a posição média da ZCAS está em torno de 20º S. Também foi observado que a posição da ZCAS apresenta uma grande variabilidade interanual, pois, de dezembro/1982 a fevereiro/1983 a ZCAS posicionou-se ao sul de 25ºS, enquanto no período de dezembro/1988 a fevereiro/1989 estava em torno de 15ºS. O posicionamento médio meridional da ZCAS em torno de 20º é de fundamental importância para produção de chuva sobre a bacia do rio São Francisco.

  3. Variabilidade sazonal da relação entre a radiação fotossinteticamente ativa e a radiação global na bacia do rio Doce, Estado de Minas Gerais = Seasonal variability of the relationship between the photosynthetically active radiation and the global radiation at the river Doce basin, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Steidle Neto

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da Radiação Fotossinteticamente Ativa (RFA é importante para diferentes áreas relacionadas à fisiologia vegetal e ciências agrárias. Modelos de estimativa de RFA a partir da Radiação Global (Rg são extremamente úteis, visto que a Rg é convencionalmente medida nas estações meteorológicas. Assim, analisou-se a variabilidade sazonal da relação RFA/Rg em cinco áreas localizadas na bacia do rio Doce, Estado de Minas Gerais, considerando-se os períodos secos e chuvosos dos anos de 2001 a 2004. As relações RFA/Rg obtidas para os períodos secos e chuvosos, assim como para todos os dados, apresentaram concordância com as relações determinadas por diversos pesquisadores em diferentes áreas do mundo. Analisando-se os resultados, constatou-se que, de maneira geral,as relações RFA/Rg tendem a ser superiores durante os períodos chuvosos comparativamente aos secos. Por este estudo, pôde-se concluir que existe variação interanual desta relação, demonstrando assim a necessidade de se considerar esta variabilidade para estimaradequadamente a RFA a partir da Rg. The knowledge of the Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR is important to different areas of vegetal physiology and agricultural sciences. Estimation models of the PAR based on the Global Radiation (GR are extremely useful, since the GR is conventionally measured atthe meteorological stations. Thus, the seasonal variability of the relationship PAR/GR was analyzed in five areas located at the river Doce basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, considering the dry and wet periods of the years 2001 to 2004. The relationships PAR/GR obtained for the dry and wet periods, and also to all data, presented agreement with those ones determined by several researchers in different areas of the world. Results showed that the relationshipsPAR/GR generally tend to be greater during the wet periods when compared with the dry ones. By this work, it could be concluded that

  4. Variabilidad genética y gestión forestal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alía

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad biológica, su conservación e incremento, es uno de los principios básicos de la gestión forestal sostenible. La alta variabilidad genética de las especies forestales es responsable de los procesos de adaptación ante factores bióticos y abióticos extremos que, a su vez, aseguran la persistencia frente a los riesgos a los que están sometidas las masas forestales. En este trabajo se analizan distintos aspectos relacionados con la variabilidad genética de las especies forestales, y como la gestión forestal influye sobre ella. Se analiza la variabilidad entre poblaciones (que es una de las bases de la comercialización de material forestal de reproducción, la influencia del sistema de reproducción en la variabilidad genética de las masas y los efectos en ellas de los tratamientos selvícolas, así como la variación individual y clonal aprovechada en los programas de selección. Por último, se analiza el papel de la variabilidad genética en los programas de mejora y conservación de recursos genéticos forestales

  5. Chile: segundo tiempo Chile: Half-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERT L FUNK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo examina el año político chileno, ofreciendo un análisis crítico del concepto de 'segundo tiempo' autoimpuesto por la presidenta Michelle Bachelet a comienzos del 2008. Resumiendo algunas de las políticas implementadas, el trabajo cuestiona si se logró marcar una linea y dejar atrás los dos primeros y difíciles años del cuarto gobierno de la Concertación. Analizando las medidas tomadas y las encuestas de opinión pública, se encuentra que el reenfoque de las prioridades del gobierno y una complicada coyuntura externa ayudó a levantar los niveles de apoyo de la presidenta y su gobierno.The article examines the political year in Chile, offering a critical analysis of the concept of 'Second Period' which President Michelle Bachelet defined at the beginning of 2008. Summarising some of the policies implemented, the piece asks whether the government was able to draw a line, leaving behind the first, difficult two years of the Concertación s fourth government. Analyzing the measures taken and public opinion polls, the paper finds that a re-focussing of the government's priorities together with a complicated external environment helped to raise support for the president as well as her government.

  6. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help...

  7. Adaptación al cambio climático y la variabilidad: algunas opciones de respuesta para la producción agrícola en Uruguay Adaptation to climatic change and variability: some response options to agricultural production in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Giménez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptación al cambio climático y la variabilidad: "algunas opciones de respuesta para la producción agrícola en Uruguay". Como se señala en varios informes del Panel Intergubernamental sobre Cambio Climático (IPCC, 2007a; IPCC, 2007b, la comunidad científica internacional expresa que el aumento en la concentración de gases de efecto invernadero tiene como resultado cambios en la variabilidad climática diaria, estacional, interanual y a lo largo de decenios. La variabilidad climática y la ocurrencia de eventos extremos (heladas, granizos, sequías resulta en perjuicios muy importantes para el sector agropecuario y frecuentemente el sector requiere de varios años para recuperarse económica y financieramente de los daños ocasionados. La unidad de agroclima y sistemas de información (GRAS del Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA de Uruguay en conjunto con el Banco Mundial (BM y la Universidad de Cornell (UC de los Estados Unidos de América, finalizaron en el año 2009 el proyecto "Vulnerabilidad al cambio climático en los sistemas de producción agrícola en América Latina y el Caribe: "desarrollo de respuestas y estrategias", (Giménez y Lanfranco, 2009. El objetivo de la propuesta fue formular un plan de acción con recomendaciones para el desarrollo de respuestas y estrategias con el fin de contribuir a una mejor adaptación a los impactos de la variabilidad climática y la ocurrencia de eventos climáticos extremos en los sistemas de producción agrícola de Uruguay. Como resultado del trabajo, se identificaron y priorizaron 3 opciones de respuesta: sistema de información y soporte para la toma de decisiones; gestión del agua; y seguros y otros instrumentos financieros para la gestión de riesgos.Adaptation to climatic change and variability: "some response options to agricultural production in Uruguay". Like is mentioned in several reports of Intergovernmental Panel about Climatic Change (IPCC, 2007a; IPCC

  8. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  9. Chile: Transantiago recargado Chile: Transantiago Reloaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO MARDONES Z

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El 2007 fue el segundo año del gobierno de Michelle Bachelet. Se trató de un año sin elecciones; con un buen desempeño económico, a pesar de una inflación creciente en los últimos meses; y marcado por la discusión sobre escándalos de corrupción. Sin embargo, lo que más afectó al Gobierno fue la desastrosa puesta en marcha de la reforma al sistema de transporte público de la capital: Transantiago. Este puso un velo sobre los importantes avances en materias previsionales y educacionales, cuestionando no sólo la capacidad ejecutiva del Gobierno, sino que profundizando un flanco de indisciplina al interior de la coalición oficialista (Concertación; síntoma de su desgaste después de 17 años ocupando la Presidencia de Chile.The year 2007 was the second in Michelle Bachelet’s presidencial term. It was a year free of elections, exhibiting a fairly good economic performance, despite the high rate of inflation shown during the last months. Public discussion on corruption escandals was frequent; however, the most important issue was the disestrous beginning of the reform on the public transportation system of the country’s capital: Transantiago. This has placed a veil over the important achievements on the pension system and education, questioning not only the government’s capacity, but also opening and edge of indiscipline within the ruling coalition (Concertación, which is a symtom of its erosion after 17 years in the presidential office.

  10. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  11. VARIABILIDADE TEMPORAL DA TEMPERATURA DO AR EM JABOTICABAL – SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARCIA, Anice

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to obtain a monthly average temperature equation estimated from the analysis of the variability of temperatures (maximum, average and minimum, to Jaboticabal /SP. The analysis of the parameters was made monthly, seasonal, annual and interannual. Data (1971-2013 were collected in a Agrometeorological Station of the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP at Jaboticabal Campus(Lat; 21o14’05”S; Long: 48o17’09”O;. Alt: 616.01m. On the data were applied statistical methods (mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation. Were also correlated the monthly averages obtained by the standard method (INMET and by the method of extreme temperatures. The results showed that standard deviation of the temperatures had a slow variations with low coefficient of variation. The equations obtained between the mean values of standard INMET and the mean of the extreme, can be used for micro region of Jaboticabal with good accuracy in results. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a variabilidade de temperatura e obter uma equação mensal de estimativa de temperatura média do ar a partir da análise das temperaturas (máxima, média e mínima, para Jaboticabal –SP. A análise dos elementos foi feita mensal, sazonal, anual e interanualmente. Os dados, referentes ao período de 1971 a 2013, foram coletados na Estação Agroclimatológica da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP – Campus de Jaboticabal (Lat; 21o14’05”S; Long: 48o17’09”O;. Alt: 616.01m. Sobre os dados foram aplicados métodos estatísticos (média, desvio padrão e coeficiente de variação. Foram, também, correlacionadas as médias mensais obtidas pelo método padrão (INMET e pelo método das temperaturas extremas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os desvios das temperaturas (máximas, medias e mínimas tiveram variações discretas com consequentes coeficientes de variação baixos para os elementos estudados. As equações obtidas entre as m

  12. Ciclo anual de la clorofila-α satelital en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández (33°S, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Andrade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La variabilidad espacial y temporal del ciclo anual de la clorofila-α en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández se analiza usando ocho anos de datos satelitales de clorofila-α, viento, corrientes y nivel del mar. Este archipiélago está conformado por tres islas: Robinson Crusoe-Santa Clara (RC-SC y Alejandro Selkirk (AS. Las islas RC-SC se encuentran en una región de alta energía cinética y mayores concentraciones de clorofila-α definida como Zona de Transición Costera, en cambio la isla AS se encuentra en una región de baja energía cinética y menores concentraciones de clorofila-α denominada Zona Oceánica. RC-SC posee un incremento de las concentraciones de clorofila-a en el lado suroeste, mientras que AS posee sus mayores concentraciones en el lado oeste, indicando la presencia de procesos forzantes diferentes. En ambas islas el ciclo anual de la clorofila es significativo y comienza a incrementar en abril, alcanzando valores relativamente altos entre junio y noviembre, disminuyendo hacia diciembre, hasta alcanzar un mínimo hacia fines de marzo. Este ciclo anual aparece desacoplado con el viento y acoplado con la energía cinética. Incrementos invernales de clorofila-a aparecen vinculados con remolinos de mesoescala provenientes de la zona continental, mientras que incrementos primaverales se podrían asociar a procesos locales vinculados al "efecto masa de isla". En ambas islas existen incrementos significativos de la clorofila-a en la banda anual y cuasi-bianual, pero sólo en AS se encontró una fluctuación significativa en la banda interanual vinculada con el Nino y la Oscilación del Sur.

  13. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  14. Fires in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  15. Escondida Mine, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Full resolution visible and near-infrared image (1.4 MB) Full resolution shortwave infrared image (1.6 MB) This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image covers 30 by 23 km (full images 30 x 37 km) in the Atacama Desert, Chile, and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida copper, gold, and silver open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and began operations in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold, and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentrate of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9-inch pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. The top image is a conventional 3-2-1 (near infrared, red, green) RGB composite. The bottom image displays shortwave infrared bands 4-6-8 (1.65um, 2.205um, 2.33um) in RGB, and highlights the different rock types present on the surface, as well as the changes caused by mining. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  16. Country watch: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Leiva, M

    1996-01-01

    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented.

  17. complejidad en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Bustamante-Ubilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objetivo caracterizar el clima organizacional al interior de 2 hospitales dealta complejidad de Chile, determinando las dimensiones más y menos influyentes. Para su desarrollose aplicó un cuestionario que consta de 71 variables agrupadas en 14 dimensiones a una muestra de561 funcionarios. La interpretación de los resultados se realizó a través del análisis del valor prome-dio estandarizado y su confiabilidad ratificada mediante el alfa de Cronbach. A partir de lo anterior, sedeterminó que las dimensiones que influyen por encima del promedio fueron: identidad, motivaciónlaboral y responsabilidad; en tanto que las dimensiones que muestran un nivel de impacto por debajodel promedio resultaron ser: equipo y distribución de personas y material, administración del conflictoy comunicación.© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

  18. Modernitet og forbrugskultur i Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2012-01-01

    I de sidste årtier er Chile blevet et egentligt forbrugersamfund. Udbredelsen af forbrugskulturen og forbrugerismen er centrale fænomener i chilenernes dagligliv og har nået et omfang, som har konsekvenser for de borgere, der ikke kan deltage fuldt ud heri, noget som er typisk for et samfund med en...... ujævn økonomisk udvikling og med store sociale forskelle. Denne proces er ikke et produkt af en stille, fredelig og naturlig samfundsudvikling, således som magteliten og de toneangivende intellektuelle i Chile har fremstillet det. Som jeg vil vise, er skabelsen af et egentlig forbrugssamfund knyttet til...... til i dag. Ifølge disse er Chile blevet et moderne samfund netop i kraft af, at Chile er et ægte forbrugersamfund med alt, hvad dette indebærer, såvel materielt som symbolsk. For det tredje er billedet af Chile som en ”supermoderne” nation i den latinamerikanske kontekst en udbredt forestilling hos...

  19. It Pays to Invest in Chile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ Chile is the first country to establish coopera-tive relations with China in South America, and also the first one to support China's ac-cession to the World Trade Organization.In 2005, Chile and China signed a free trade agreement.After that, China has become Chile's largest trad-ing partner, and Chile become China's second largest partner in South America.

  20. Los patelogastrópodos intermareales de Chile y Perú Intertidal limpets of Chile and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ESPOZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se entrega un sistema de clasificación que refleja las relaciones de parentesco, inferidas a partir del análisis de la región 16S de ADN mitocondrial, de los patelogastrópodos que habitan en la zona intermareal a lo largo de la costa rocosa de Chile y Perú. Además, se incluye el análisis comparativo de estos patelogastrópodos en relación con la estructura, la morfología y los patrones de color de la concha, los dientes de la rádula y la anatomía corporal. Adicionalmente, se entrega información respecto de la distribución y ecología para todos los miembros de este grupo. Los resultados muestran que la fauna Lottiidae de Chile y Perú consiste en al menos nueve especies de patelogastrópodos intermareales. Esto es, ocho especies de patelogastrópodos agrupadas dentro del clado monofilético Scurria (S. variabilis, S. zebrina, S. viridula, S. plana, S. scurra, S. araucana, S. ceciliana y una especie no determinada y un "taxón problemático" asignado preliminarmente dentro del género Lottia (Lottia orbignyi. El grupo está presente entre los 5º S y 54º S, registrándose en los niveles intermareales superior, medio e inferior, desde zonas expuestas a protegidas del oleaje. A nivel intraespecífico, los resultados nos permiten proponer la sinonimia de S. parasitica con S. variabilis, y de S. ceciliana con S. boehmita. Según esto, S. variabilis presentaría al menos tres ecofenotipos: (1 en sustratos rocosos a lo largo de todo su rango geográfico, (2 sobre las conchas de Fissurella crassa y F. limbata principalmente en Chile centro-sur y (3 sobre las placas del chitón Enoplochiton niger en el norte de Chile y sur del Perú. Por su parte, S. ceciliana es una especie de patelogastrópodo que presenta un patrón morfológico y de coloración de la concha altamente variable. En general, la alta variabilidad del patrón de color y morfología de la concha sitúa a estos patelogastrópodos entre los más complejos y

  1. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Danyang

    2005-01-01

      Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.……

  2. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Danyang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.

  3. Women and Politics in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Julieta

    1983-01-01

    Political parties in Chile of both the left and right have focused more on drawing women into their ideologies than on considering what political issues mean to women. A look at feminist thought shows how political life for women includes not only the traditional political arena but also domestic life. (IS)

  4. The biomethane potential in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the last decade natural gas gained considerable importance in Chile. The contribution of natural gas within the energy system will increase in the future by predicted 3.6% annually until the year 2015. Due to limited resources within its own country, the energy system of Chile depends on natural gas imports preferential from Argentina. Therefore, the aim of several stakeholders from policy and industry is to reduce the share of imported primary energy within the overall energy system. In order to reach this goal, the use of domestic resources and particularly the utilisation of biomass as one of the most important renewable sources of energy in Chile could play an important role. Against this background, the goal of this paper is the analysis of the technical potentials of biomethane as a substitute for natural gas. For the production of biomethane the anaerobic or bio-chemical (i.e. Biogas) as well as the thermo-chemical conversion pathways (i.e. Bio-SNG) are considered. The results of this analysis show that biomass converted to biomethane is a promising energy provision option for Chile and it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  5. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Chile

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Chile's equity market is fairly large and successful. The market capitalization of the 249 listed firms represented 89 percent of GDP at year-end, 2001. Corporate ownership is concentrated and pyramid structures are common. Business groups/conglomerates are the predominant corporate form. Institutional investors, especially pension funds, are active equity investors. The Securities Market ...

  6. Variabilidade da precipitação em tempo e espaço associada à Zona de Convergência Intertropical Variability of rainfall in time and space associated with Intertropical Convergence Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício do Nascimento Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visa apresentar uma análise atmosférica da variabilidade espacial e temporal da Zona de Convergência Intertropical (ZCIT nas cidades de Belém, Jakarta e Nairóbi, que estão localizadas sobre os continentes da América do Sul, Ásia e África, respectivamente. Para isso, foram utilizados dados diários de precipitação observada e radiação de onda longa para o período de 1999 a 2008, e aplicadas as técnicas matemáticas e estatísticas, como a média aritmética e a transformada em ondeletas Morlet. Em geral, os resultados indicam que do ponto de vista espacial, a precipitação mensal varia consideravelmente, pois as três cidades estudadas localizam-se em diferentes continentes da faixa tropical. Isto ocorre principalmente, durante os meses de Janeiro a Maio, período de maior atuação da ZCIT no hemisfério sul. As variações atmosféricas observadas, a partir dos escalogramas de fase, - de ondeleta indicam que as escalas interdecadal, anual, interanual e intrassazonal são moduladoras da precipitação. Tais escalas podem ser representadas pelos mecanismos oceano-atmosfera dos fenômenos El Niño Oscilação Sul e da oscilação intrassazonal de Madden e Julian. A contribuição destes fenômenos na distribuição da chuva nessas regiões é evidente durante o período estudado, sendo que Nairóbi, apesar de estar localizada em latitude semelhante à de Belém, apresenta pouca evidência do ciclo anual e forte na escala interdecadal. No caso de Belém e de Jakarta as oscilações de múltiescala de precipitação concentram-se nas escalas dos mecanismos moduladores da chuva associados com o ciclo anual e intrassazonal, durante todo o período.This study aims to present an atmospheric analysis of spatial and temporal variability of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ in Belem, Jakarta and Nairobi, which are located on the continents of South America, Asia and Africa, respectively. For this, daily precipitation and

  7. Acuicultura Insostenible en Chile (Unsustainable aquaculture in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer, Marcos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa acuicultura en Chile sólo será alternativa a la pesca si se consigue llevar su producción a parámetros de sostenibilidad, no solamente económica sino, fundamentalmente, ambiental. Con un esfuerzo dirigido hacia medidas legislativas y de control, e investigación aplicada, podríamos acercarnos a una acuicultura ambientalmente sostenible.

  8. VARIABILIDAD DEL GEN NUCLEAR G3PDH EN JATROPHA CURCAS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Castro Guzmán

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Jatrophacurcas L.es una especie nativa de América tropical; en nuestro país se ha venido utilizando principalmente como medicinal y alimenticia desde la época prehispánica. Actualmente el aceite extraído de sus semillas ha adquirido importancia internacional ya que puede ser transformado a biodiesel. El conocimiento que existe sobre la variabilidad genética de la especie es escaso. Un gen utilizado con éxito para el estudio de patrones de variación y origen de la yuca (ManihotesculentaL. y del caco (Theobromacacao L. es el gen nuclearG3pdh(Gliceraldehído3 fosfato deshidrogenasa involucrado en la fotosíntesis. Con base en ello, en este trabajo se exploró la variabilidad del gen G3pdh en individuos deJ. curcasprovenientes de 15 poblaciones de los estados de Veracruz, Campeche, Yucatán y Quintana Roo. Para obtener el gen G3pdh completo de alrededor de 1000 pares de bases, se amplificó utilizando losprimersdiseñados porStrandet al. (1997 y los dosprimersinternos reverse diseñados porOlsenySchaal(1999 para obtener segmentos más cortos, de 600 y 800 pares de bases aproximadamente. Por primera vez se amplificaron aproximadamente 500pby los resultados demuestran que el gen G3pdh es útil para analizar la variabilidad deJ. curcas, y con un importante potencial para evaluar la distribución y evolución de sus poblaciones en México, conocer las relaciones ancestro descendiente a nivel poblacional y explicar las causas de la distribución de los distintoshaplotipos.

  9. Determinantes de la variabilidad de los dientes en homínidos

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    1995-01-01

    [ES] Las actuales investigaciones en biología del desarrollo permiten avanzar en la discusión y contrastacián de las diferentes teorías propuestas para explicar la variabilidad cuantitativa y cualitativa de los dientes en homínidos. Así, se puede proponer un modelo sintético en el que se consideran tres niveles de determinación de la morfología y dimensiones de los dientes, caracterizados por diferenies factores genéticos, epigenéticos y de stress ambiental. Este modelo contemp...

  10. Estudio de la variabilidad del nivel del mar en la Antártida

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada-Ludeña, C.

    2013-01-01

    La Dirección de Hidrografía y Navegación participó en la expedición científica antártica denominada ANTAR XXI (verano austral 2013), con un proyecto de investigación científica de cooperación internacional denominado: " Estudio de la variabilidad del nivel del mar en la ensenada MacKellar ", cuyos resultados contribuirán y se incorporarán a la base de datos mundial, con un impacto positivo en la comunidad científica internacional, ya que permitirá avizorar las implicancias de su incremento de...

  11. Variabilidade horizontal da fertilidade do solo de uma unidade de amostragem em sistema plantio direto

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez V. V. H.; Guarçoni M. A.

    2003-01-01

    A coleta de amostras de solo com trado é mais simples e rápida do que com a pá de corte, sendo esta, freqüentemente, utilizada no sistema plantio direto para amostragem e determinação da fertilidade média do solo. Com o objetivo de comparar dois sistemas de amostragem localizada do solo (pá de corte ou trado de caneca) quanto à variabilidade horizontal de características químicas, determinar o número de unidades de amostra necessário à formação de uma amostra representativa da unidade de amos...

  12. Variabilidad climática: un análisis de vulnerabilidad de la caficultura peninsular

    OpenAIRE

    Marjorie Hartley Ballestero

    2012-01-01

    Resumen Este documento aborda el análisis de los resultados de una encuesta realizada en el 2007 a caficultores de la península de Nicoya con el objetivo de identificar aspectos de vulnerabilidad de la caficultura ante la variabilidad climática y, al mismo tiempo, analizar posibles procesos de adaptación y mitigación de sus efectos. La vulnerabilidad ante cambios del clima de la caficultura peninsular se puede analizar desde varios puntos de vista: el social (dependencia de un solo cultivo), ...

  13. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De...... socialistiske regeringer har accepteret et begrænset demokrati og videreført en nyliberal økonomisk politik, der har bragt dem på konfrontationskurs med massebevægelserne og isoleret Chile fra de andre lande i regionen, der søger integration og gensidig støøte. Udgivelsesdato: Februar...

  14. [The epidemiological transition in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalá, C; Vio, F; Robledo, A; Icaza, G

    1993-12-01

    Aiming to describe the place that Chile has in the epidemiological transition, a descriptive study of the changes in demographic and epidemiological profiles of the country during the last 30 years is presented. The important decrease in general and child mortality rates, that has lead to an increase in life expectancy and ageing of the population, is emphasized. A 82% reduction in the proportion of deaths among less than one year old children and a 62% increase in mortality among people 65 years or older is observed. In agreement with these changes, non transmissible chronic diseases appear as the principal cause of mortality (65% of all deaths). However, regarding morbidity, an increase in digestive infectious and sexually transmitted diseases and a decrease in immuno-preventable diseases, excepting measles, is noted. It is concluded that, according to mortality, Chile is in a post transition stage, but there is persistence of some infectious diseases, typical of a pre-transition stage. PMID:8085073

  15. Matrices de transición y patrones de variabilidad cognitiva / Transition Matrix and Patterns of Cognitive Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Ossa Ossa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aborda la variabilidad a través de la clasificación y las coordinaciones inferenciales. Participaron 34 niños de cuatro años de edad que asisten a seis jardines infantiles de la ciudad de Cali (Colombia. Se utilizó una tarea que implica el uso de hasta cinco criterios de clasificación. Se empleó el método microgenético para obtener datos detallados sobre aspectos cualitativos y cuantitativos de cambio. Para cuantificar las variaciones de los desempeños, se recurrió a las matrices de transición (derivadas de los modelos de Markov. Los resultados arrojan tres tipos de variabilidad (patrones que responden a diferentes usos de la clasificación y diferentes niveles de coordinación inferencial. Se concluye que la variabilidad es la evidencia de los desequilibrios cognitivos.

  16. Miedo y represionpolitica en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Amado M. Padilla; Lillian Comas Díaz

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a human rights fact-finding mission to Chile concerned with the use of psychological techniques employed in offlcia- Uy sactioned torture and repressíon, Meetings and interviews were conducted with representatives of many organízatíons working with víctima of governrnental repression including the Chílean Psychological Assocíation. Fear and repression wene found to be widespread among all socioeconomic segments of the population. Physical and psychologic...

  17. Associação da variabilidade da precipitação pluvial em Santa Maria com a Oscilação Decadal do Pacífico Linking rainfall variability in Santa Maria with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereu Augusto Streck

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a associação da variabilidade interdecadal da chuva em Santa Maria, RS, com a Oscilação Decadal do Pacífico. Parte da variabilidade interanual da precipitação pluvial é explicada pelo fenômeno El Niño Oscilação Sul (ENOS, que acontece no Oceano Pacífico. Na segunda metade da década de 1990, foi relatada outra oscilação na temperatura do Oceano Pacífico, de duração maior que o ENOS, denominada Oscilação Decadal do Pacífico (ODP. Foram usados os dados mensais acumulados de precipitação do período 1912-2008, da Estação Climatológica principal de Santa Maria, e os valores mensais do índice ODP do mesmo período. A análise foi realizada em nível anual, semestral (primeiro e segundo semestre, sazonal (verão, outono, inverno e primavera e mensal. Existe associação entre a chuva e a ODP, de modo que décadas com chuvas acima da normal são associadas à fase quente da ODP, intercaladas com décadas com chuva abaixo da normal associadas à fase fria da ODP, o que indica oscilações periódicas de médio e longo prazo na precipitação pluvial em Santa Maria, RS.The objective of this work was to verify the association of the interdecadal variability of rainfall in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Part of the interannual variation in rainfall is explained by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO in the Pacific Ocean. In the second half of the 1990s, another oscillation in the surface temperature of the Pacific Ocean was reported, with greater duration than ENSO, named the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO. Monthly precipitation data collected at the Meteorological Station of Santa Maria of the 1912-2008 period and monthly PDO indices of the same period were used. The analyses were performed on an annual, semestral (first and second semester, seasonal (Summer, Fall, Winter, and Spring, and monthly basis. There is a link between

  18. Variabilidade isoenzimática em oito raças de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTE SÉRGIO EMÍLIO DOS SANTOS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a variabilidade genética e as relações de afinidade entre dezenove populações de oito raças de milho (Zea mays L. - as comerciais antigas Cateto Sulino, Cateto Sulino Grosso, Cateto Nortista e Canario de Ocho, e as raças indígenas Moroti, Lenha, Entrelaçado e Caingang - analisaram-se os seguintes sistemas enzimáticos: glutamato oxalacetato transaminase (GOT, esterase (EST e malato desidrogenase (MDH. Observou-se maior semelhança entre as raças pertencentes a um mesmo grupo, mas as populações analisadas não se agruparam de acordo com as raças, classificadas anteriormente segundo caracteres morfológicos. Os sistemas enzimáticos utilizados não permitiram a caracterização individual de cada uma das raças analisadas. As indígenas apresentaram maior variabilidade do que as comerciais antigas quanto ao número de alelos por loco e à porcentagem de locos polimórficos.

  19. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...

  20. Chile : Household Risk Management and Social Protection

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2004-01-01

    This report is part of the World Bank's advisory and analytical assistance to the Government of Chile. The report examines whether Chile has a social protection "system" - broadly defined to include policy interventions, public institutions, and the regulation of private institutions that lower the welfare costs of adverse shocks to income from job loss and extended unemployment, health ep...

  1. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

  2. Sistema de salud de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...

  3. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  4. Variabilidade da frequência cardíaca em neonatos prematuros e de termo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Augusto Selig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Várias publicações têm demonstrado a importância do sistema nervoso autônomo por meio dos componentes simpático e parassimpático na gerência da interação entre as diferentes partes do organismo humano. Esses estudos aplicaram técnicas lineares e não lineares (Teoria do Caos de avaliação em diferentes situações, doenças e faixas etárias, tendo como ferramenta a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC. OBJETIVO: Aplicar os conhecimentos das dinâmicas linear e não linear na avaliação de neonatos prematuros (NPT, analisando sua VFC e comparando com neonatos de termo (NT saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e oito neonatos prematuros com diferentes idades gestacionais tiveram seus batimentos cardíacos captados com auxílio do equipamento Polar Advanced S810i e sua VFC obtida pelo registro dos intervalos RR. A VFC foi analisada nos domínios do tempo (SDNN, RMSSD, SD1/SD2, da frequência (VLF, LF, HF e a relação LF/HF e do caos (TAU e sua normalização [TAU(n], Expoente de Lyapunov e Entropia. Os NPT foram comparados com um grupo de 78 NT saudáveis e sem intercorrências perinatais com auxílio do teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis. RESULTADOS: Detectou-se diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos para todas as variáveis estudadas, tanto no domínio do tempo como nos da frequência e do caos. CONCLUSÃO: Neonatos prematuros exibem comportamento menos complexo da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca que neonatos de termo, fato comprovado nos domínios do tempo, da frequência e do caos. O estudo da variabilidade cardíaca nesse grupo pode ser considerado uma ferramenta a mais na avaliação da maturação autonômica e, consequentemente, da progressão para eutrofia.

  5. Variabilidade em população base de pimenteiras ornamentais (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João José da Silva Neto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar progênies de uma população base de pimenteiras (Capsicum annuum L.. Foram utilizadas 54 plantas de uma geração F2 de pimenteiras ornamentais, para se avaliarem os seguintes caracteres morfoagronômicos: altura da planta (AP, diâmetro da copa (DDC, altura da primeira bifurcação (APB, diâmetro do caule (DCL, comprimento da folha (CFL, largura da folha (LFL, comprimento da corola (CDC, comprimento de antera (CANT, comprimento do estilete (CES e largura da pétala (LAP. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância, com posterior agrupamento das médias para o teste de Scott-Knott (p<0,01. Com exceção do CANT, verificaram-se diferenças significativas para os demais descritores, pelo Teste F. O DCL foi o descritor com maior herdabilidade (99,49%, seguido de DDC (96,14% e APB (94,05%. O caractere DCL apresentou maior variabilidade entre as plantas, formando 13 classes, seguido de DDC, com oito e APB, com seis classes. Quando se utilizaram as técnicas multivariadas, foi possível agrupar as 54 plantas em oito grupos, sendo o grupo 1 o que reuniu maior número de plantas (35. A característica que mais contribuiu para a divergência genética foi o diâmetro do caule (68,97%, seguida pelo diâmetro da copa (9,22%, altura da primeira bifurcação (6,76% e altura da planta (4,58%. Já as características de flor foram as que menos contribuíram para a variabilidade (10,47%. Houve variabilidade entre as plantas estudadas, sendo possível praticar seleção dentro dessa família, dando continuidade ao Programa de Melhoramento de Pimenteiras.

  6. Miedo y represionpolitica en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado M. Padilla

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a human rights fact-finding mission to Chile concerned with the use of psychological techniques employed in offlcia- Uy sactioned torture and repressíon, Meetings and interviews were conducted with representatives of many organízatíons working with víctima of governrnental repression including the Chílean Psychological Assocíation. Fear and repression wene found to be widespread among all socioeconomic segments of the population. Physical and psychological abuses directed at individuals are díscussed, Psychological techníques used in the control of social groups such as intimidation, control of information, and community destabilization are also described. It is concluded that violations of human rigths are a reality in Chile. Ways to support the work of Chilean psychologists must be sought sínce the damaging eonsequences of officially sanctioned repressíon are wid.espread, and resources are minimal.

  7. Chile's energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-18

    In recent years, a new emphasis has been placed on increasing solid fuel availability in Chile, to reach the northern mining operations where demand for power is soaring. The south of the country is well served by hydroelectric power plants (2.3 million kW). The coal industry has doubled its capacity to cope with increased copper production - the Tocopilla power plant at the Chuquicamata copper mine has been converted from oil to coal - and there has been a major investment programme in the steel industry. In 1986, 1.4 million tons of coal was mined, mostly from the Provinces of Concepcion and Arauco, the remainder from Valdivia. Since then, 70 million US dollars has been invested by COCAR SA in the Pecket deposit near Punta Arenas. Coal from Pecket should cost around 26 dollars/t compared with 60 dollars/t for underground coal. It should support an expanded coal market in Chile and may also be able to compete in the Brazilian and Argentine markets. Reserves are estimated at over 200 Mt. Petroleum reserves in Tierra del Fuego are nearly exhausted; seismic surveys in the Atacama desert are promising.

  8. EL RACISMO AMBIENTAL EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS MEZA-LOPEHANDÍA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  9. President of Chile at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, in the ATLAS cavern with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesman, Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, and Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General. Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, signing a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT).The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, paid a visit to CERN during her three-day tour of Switzerland. The charismatic Michelle Bachelet and her large delegation were greeted by the CERN Director-General and then taken to see the ATLAS experiment and the LHC. She also took time to meet the Chilean community working at CERN, comprising several physicists in the Theory Group and the ATLAS experiment. The meeting was followed by the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científi...

  10. Variabilidad genética de Hartón del Valle mediante RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Piedrahíta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El Hartón del Valle (HV hace parte de las siete razas criollas de ganado bovino colombiano y de acuerdo con los criterios de la FAO está considerado como vulnerable. Para estudiar su variabilidad genética fueron muestreados 33 individuos HV y tres animales de la raza Holstein, como control externo. Se extrajo ADN utilizando el método de Salting Out y las muestras fueron analizadas mediante la técnica molecular RAM (Randon amplified microsatellites. Se utilizaron los cebadores CGA, CCA, TG, y CT. El valor promedio de heterocigosidad esperada fue de 0.26 y el F ST fue 0.39 ± 0.03. Con el índice de Dice-Nei Li y agrupando con el método UPGMA se distinguieron dos grupos: uno integrado por dos hatos de conservación y el otro por cuatro fincas que han compartido reproductores.

  11. Variabilidad de la presión arterial mediante el uso de amlodipino utilizando monitoreo ambulatorio de la presión arterial

    OpenAIRE

    José Z. Parra Carrillo; Irma Carolina Bonilla Rosales; Gabriela Ileana Ponce Martínez; Salvador Fonseca Reyes; Rodolfo Parra Michel; Elva Wendoline Rojo Contreras

    2001-01-01

    Distintos estudios han demostrado que el dañohipertensivo a órganos blanco correlaciona conla variabilidad de la presión arterial (PA), expresada como variabilidad absoluta o coeficientede variación, en especial, con la variabilidad dePA sistólica (PAS).Se estudiaron 27 pacientes, los cuales recibieron placebo por 4 semanas, después unadosis inicial de amlodipino 5 mg/día, por 4 semanas. En los que no se obtuvo PA diastólica90 mmHg, la dosis se incrementó a 10 mg/día.Después del tratamiento ...

  12. Variabilidad ambiental y recursos pesqueros en el Pacífico suroriental: estado de la investigación y desafíos para el manejo pesquero

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Parada; Beatriz Yannicelli; Samuel Hormazábal; Sebastián Vásquez; Javier Porobić; Billy Ernst; Claudio Gatica; Marcos Arteaga; Aldo Montecinos; Sergio Núñez; Alexandre Gretchina

    2013-01-01

    Las fluctuaciones en abundancia, biomasa, estructura de edad y patrones de distribución de los recursos pesqueros responden, entre otros, a la variabilidad ambiental. Estas respuestas son consecuencia tanto de efectos climáticos directos sobre los recursos como indirectos actuando sobre niveles tróficos relacionados. En este estudio se revisa: i) el estado del conocimiento de los mecanismos físicos asociados a la variabilidad océano-atmósfera y las escalas de variabilidad espaciales y tempora...

  13. Is Mining Still the Wage of Chile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Valenzuela

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available – Historia de la minería del hierro en Chile, by Augusto Millán. Santiago: Editorial Universitaria, 1999. – Capital transnacional y trabajo. El desarrollo minero en Chile, by Rafael Agacino, Cristián González and Jorge Rojas. Santiago: Lom Ediciones, 1998. – Dilemas y debates en torno al cobre, by Patricio Meller. Santiago: Dolmen, 2002. – Royalty. Regalía o renta minera. Lo que solo Chile no cobra, by Jorge Lavandero Illanes. Santiago: Ediciones Lafken, 2003.

  14. Chile: los mapuches y el Bicentenario Chile: Mapuches e do Bicentenario Chile: Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Bicentenario de la República de Chile se conmemoró en el mes de septiembre del año 2010. Además de marcar un importante hito histórico, coincidió con un cambio político en el Gobierno del país, el que pasó de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia a la Alianza de partidos formada por la derecha chilena. Se cumplieron por tanto 20 años desde que en el año 1990 cambiara el Gobierno militar presidido por el general Pinochet. Ese largo tiempo, dos décadas, coincide con un período de políticas que el Estado ha implementado hacia los Pueblos Indígenas. El Proyecto “Conmemoraciones y Memorias Subalternas” ha realizado durante el año 2010 un conjunto de investigaciones de terreno y documentales tendientes a comprender del modo más objetivo y científico lo ocurrido en el período y por tanto la situación actual de las sociedades mapuches en sus complejas relaciones con la chilena.O Bicentenario da República do Chile comemorou-se no mês de Setembro do ano 2010. Junto com transformar-se num marco histórico, coincidiu com uma mudança política no Governo do país, que passou da Concertação de Partidos pela Democracia (centro-esquerda à Aliança de partidos formada pela direita chilena. Cumpriram-se por tanto 20 anos desde que em 1990 mudasse o Governo militar presidido pelo general Pinochet. Esse longo tempo, duas décadas, coincide com um período de políticas que o Estado implementou para com os Povos Indígenas. O Projeto “Comemorações e Memórias Subalternas” realizou durante o ano 2010 um conjunto de pesquisas de campo e documentais tendentes a compreender do modo mais objetivo e científico o ocorrido no período e, por tanto, a situação atual das sociedades mapuches em suas complexas relações com a chilena.The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right

  15. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  16. 2010 Chile Earthquake Aftershock Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barientos, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    The Mw=8.8 earthquake off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance our understanding of megathrust earthquakes and associated phenomena. The 2010 Chile earthquake ruptured the Concepcion-Constitucion segment of the Nazca/South America plate boundary, south of the Central Chile region and triggered a tsunami along the coast. Following the 2010 earthquake, a very energetic aftershock sequence is being observed in an area that is 600 km along strike from Valparaiso to 150 km south of Concepcion. Within the first three weeks there were over 260 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater and 18 with magnitude 6.0 or greater (NEIC, USGS). The Concepcion-Constitucion segment lies immediately north of the rupture zone associated with the great magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake, and south of the 1906 and the 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes. The last great subduction earthquake in the region dates back to the February 1835 event described by Darwin (1871). Since 1835, part of the region was affected in the north by the Talca earthquake in December 1928, interpreted as a shallow dipping thrust event, and by the Chillan earthquake (Mw 7.9, January 1939), a slab-pull intermediate depth earthquake. For the last 30 years, geodetic studies in this area were consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading of the subduction interface at depth; this led to identify the area as a mature seismic gap with potential for an earthquake of magnitude of the order 8.5 or several earthquakes of lesser magnitude. What was less expected was the partial rupturing of the 1985 segment toward north. Today, the 2010 earthquake raises some disturbing questions: Why and how the rupture terminated where it did at the northern end? How did the 2010 earthquake load the adjacent segment to the north and did the 1985 earthquake only partially ruptured the plate interface leaving loaded asperities since

  17. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chile, in general, and Santiago, its capital city, in particular, has serious air pollution problems mainly in winter time when the pollutants could reach dangerous levels which might be detrimental to older people and children. A project was undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities carried out within this CRP. The lichens, collected in clean areas (native forests), were transplanted to selected sites in Santiago and exposed during three and six months. At a second stage, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area. All samples were carefully cleaned, using only clean plastic materials, milled at liquid nitrogen temperature, freeze dried, re-homogenized and stored at low temperature until analysis. The samples were mainly analysed by INAA, RNAA SS-AAS and ASV. As part of the routine QA/QC programme, analytical laboratories involved in the project participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. From the data and its subsequent mapping over the area under study, it was possible to identify places exposed to higher amounts of some elements. Of interest are also the correlations between several elements, perhaps indicating a given source of pollutants. The results indicate the usefulness of biomonitoring air pollution using lichens and Tillandsias, which, jointly with multielemental analytical techniques, such as NAA, open the possibility to study extensive areas without the infrastructure needed for conventional APM sample collection and at reduced costs. (author)

  18. Report on the ESO Chile Science Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Science Days in Santiago are an annual gathering of ESO's geographically dispersed team in Chile to learn more about each other's research, to celebrate scientific achievements of the past year and to encourage new collaborations.

  19. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  20. 1960 Puerto Montt, Valdivia, Chile Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960, a Mw 9.5 earthquake, the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded, occurred in southern Chile. The series of earthquakes that followed...

  1. Enterprise Surveys : Chile Country Profile 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The Country Profile for Chile is based on data from the Enterprise Surveys conducted by the World Bank. The benchmarks include the averages for the group of countries in Latin America & Caribbean and the Chile income group. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an important r...

  2. Diversidad de la familia Carabidae (Coleoptera en Chile Diversity of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO ROIG-JUÑENT

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Carabidae constituye dentro de los coléopteros chilenos, la cuarta familia en importancia por su cantidad de especies. El presente trabajo incluye una breve compilación acerca de la historia de la familia y de las primeras expediciones realizadas en Chile. También se realizan comparaciones de la diversidad de carábidos chilenos con respecto a otros países y el Neotrópico. Para Chile, se conocen 21 tribus, con 95 géneros y 365 especies, que representan el 38,8, 28,8 y 7,9 % de la fauna del Neotrópico, respectivamente. Chile posee un bajo número de tribus comparado con otros países, sin embargo, constituye un área importante por la presencia de seis tribus relictuales, principalmente pangeicas o gondwánicas. Chile posee 18 géneros endémicos (18,5 % de su fauna de Carabidae, 28 cuya distribución está restringida a Chile y Argentina y seis restringidos a Chile, Argentina y Uruguay. La cantidad de especies presentes en Chile es inferior a la que poseen otros países de América del Sur, pero la cantidad de especies endémicas es muy alta (204 y representa el 55,8 % de su fauna de carábidos. El alto grado de endemismo que posee Chile con respecto a otros países de América del Sur puede deberse a su condición de aislamiento, siendo las barreras más importantes la región desértica del norte y la cordillera de Los Andes. Este hecho también se vislumbra por la ausencia de importantes tribus neotropicales como Galeritini, Scaritini y Brachinini. También se incluyen en este trabajo claves para la identificación de todas las tribus y géneros presentes en Chile, como así también una breve descripción acerca de la diversidad y ambientes en los que se encuentra cada géneroThe family Carabidae is the fourth largest Coleoptera family in Chile. The present work includes a brief compilation on the taxonomic history of the family and the first expeditions to Chile. In addition, knowledge of carabid diversity in Chile is compared with

  3. Variabilidade genética de Colletotrichum guaranicola usando marcadores AFLP Variability of Colletotrichum guaranicola using AFLP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jânia Lilia da Silva Bentes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi detectada a variabilidade genética de vinte isolados de Colletotrichum guaranicola (Albuq. provenientes de diferentes localidades produtoras de guaraná no Amazonas, utilizando-se marcadores moleculares AFLP. Foi possível separar os isolados em dois grupos. O coeficiente de variação genética entre os isolados foi de 0,0216 e a similaridade genética foi de 94,95%, confirmando que os isolados pertencem à mesma espécie, no entanto, foi observada variabilidade intra-específica.The genetic variability of twenty Colletotrichum guaranicola (Albuq. isolates from different fields of guarana in Amazonas, was studied using molecular AFLP markers. The isolates were separated into two groups. The genetic variability coefficient was 0.0216 and the genetic similarity was 94.5%, confirming that the isolates belongs to the same species, however, an intra-specific variability was observed.

  4. VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LOTES DE Brycon orbignyanus UTILIZADOS EN PROGRAMAS DE REPOBLAMIENTO: MANEJO Y CONSERVACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARGAS LAURO

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Alteraciones ambientales causadas por el calentamiento global y principalmente causa-das por la acción del hombre, han reducido poblaciones naturales de peces. Como forma de conservación, programas de repoblamiento han sido utilizados; sin embargo, sin una debida orientación científica, estas medidas pueden generar disturbios genéticos sobre la diversidad genética de poblaciones de peces naturales y sobre el ecosistema. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar y analizar la variabilidad genética de dos lotes y una progenie de Brycon orbignyanus utilizados en programas de repoblamiento, utilizando el marcador molecular RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Cincuenta y ocho reproductores de dos lotes (A y C y 30 larvas de la progenie del lote A (B pertenecientes a la Estação de Aqüicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy Internacional (Geração Parana-panema; São Paulo, Brasil fueron analizados. Los resultados de variabilidad genética estimados por el índice de diversidad de Shannon (A: 0,3184; B: 0,3433 y C: 0,3687 y por el porcentaje de fragmentos polimórficos (A: 54,02%; B: 57,47% y C: 58,62% mostraron que la variabilidad genética fue mantenida en la progenie, debido posiblemente al adecuado manejo reproductivo y al efecto fundador. Por el contrario, la variabilidad encontrada entre los dos lotes de reproductores indica una similaridad genética, a pesar de ser originarios de diferentes pisciculturas. Este resultado es comprobado en el valor moderado de diferenciación genética encontrado (0,0968, en el alto Nm (4,67 y en el dendrograma, que sugieren que los lotes poseen un pool genético similar

  5. Where Do Mexico and Chile Stand on Inclusive Education? Short Title: Inclusion in Mexico and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cedillo, Ismael; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Ramos-Abadie, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the background, current situation and challenges of educational integration and inclusive education in Mexico and Chile. These countries obtained similar low results on the academic achievement of their students (Mexico last and Chile second last) among OECD countries; and above average scores, among Latin-American countries.…

  6. Variabilidad climática: un análisis de vulnerabilidad de la caficultura peninsular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Hartley Ballestero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este documento aborda el análisis de los resultados de una encuesta realizada en el 2007 a caficultores de la península de Nicoya con el objetivo de identificar aspectos de vulnerabilidad de la caficultura ante la variabilidad climática y, al mismo tiempo, analizar posibles procesos de adaptación y mitigación de sus efectos. La vulnerabilidad ante cambios del clima de la caficultura peninsular se puede analizar desde varios puntos de vista: el social (dependencia de un solo cultivo, físico (altitud y ubicación de los cafetales y climático propiamente dicho (ciclos de sequías y lluvias torrenciales. Igualmente, la capacidad de adaptación y mitigación de los efectos de esos cambios se pueden observar en estos mismos niveles. Las estrategias de adaptación van desde la diversificación de cultivos hasta alianzas estratégicas entre caficultores e instituciones para incrementar la resiliencia de las familias caficultoras. Las pérdidas de producción debido a largos períodos de sequías, o bien, de lluvias torrenciales han evidenciado la necesidad de entender el clima y también de tomar medidas de diversa índole para reducir sus efectos, con lo cual se ha modificado la percepción, que hasta hace algunos años, tenían los caficultores de estos fenómenos climáticos. Palabras Claves: Variabilidad climática, vulnerabilidad, estrategias de adaptación, café Abstract This paper addresses the analysis of the results from a survey carried out in the year 2007 to the Nicoya Peninsula coffee growers. The objective was to identify vulnerability aspects due to climate variability, and at the same time to analyze alternative mitigation and adaptation processes.  Climate vulnerability in the peninsula may be analyzed from several points of view: social (dependency to a kind of crop, location (coffee plantation altitude and location and climate (drought cycles and heavy rains.  Likewise, mitigation and adaptation capacity can be

  7. Isoenzymatic variability in wild potatoes Variabilidade isoenzimática em batata silvestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Helena Gomes Rocha

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Two species of wild potato Solanum commersonii, subspecies commersonii and malmeanum, and S. chacoense, subspecies muelleri occur in southern Brazil. Their rusticity and easy adaptation to extreme climatic conditions make them valuable for breeding programs. The objective of this work was to analyze the isoenzymatic variability of 113 clones of wild potato subspecies. They were collected and maintained at Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Clima Temperado, at Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Enzymes involved in energetic (group I or in peripherical (group II metabolism constituted the material used. Polyacrylamide horizontal gel electrophoresis was used to analyze peroxidase, aspartate transaminase, phosphoglucomutase and isocitrate dehydrogenase isoenzymes. Solanum spp. has considerable genetic variability for isoenzymatic patterns. Cluster analysis classified the clones into 51 subgroups, based on electrophoretic variants of group I enzymes, and into 89, when group II enzyme variants were added. Genotypic differentiation of S. chacoense muelleri in relation to S. commersonii commersonii and S. commersonii malmeanum is evident when expressed through similarity and cluster analysis.No sul do Brasil ocorrem apenas duas espécies silvestres de batata, Solanum commersonii, com as subespécies commersonii e malmeanum, e S. chacoense, com a subespécie muelleri, de interesse aos programas de melhoramento, pela rusticidade e fácil adaptação a condições climáticas extremas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a variabilidade isoenzimática de 113 clones de batata silvestre. O material foi coletado e mantido na Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Clima Temperado, em Pelotas, RS. Foram usadas enzimas envolvidas nos metabolismos energético (grupo I e periférico (grupo II. Eletroforese horizontal em gel de poliacrilamida foi empregada para análise de isoenzimas de peroxidase, aspartato transaminase, fosfoglucomutase e isocitrato

  8. VARIABILIDADE GENÉTICA EM CARACTERES MORFOLÓGICOS DE POPULAÇÕES DE PLANTAS JOVENS DE ACEROLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAIVA JOÃO RODRIGUES DE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar e interpretar geneticamente a porção de variabilidade genética existente em populações de plantas juvenis de acerola obtidas de sementes, originadas de populações submetidas a processo de seleção, foi instalado um experimento com três tipos de populações, em blocos ao acaso, com 45 progênies, três repetições e número variável de 4 a 6 plantas por parcela. Tendo em vista os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a avaliação da variabilidade genética em populações de plantas jovens de aceroleira não se constitui em material adequado para esse tipo de estudo. Também não foi possível fazer uma interpretação genética da porção de variabilidade existente nas populações, haja vista não seguirem um padrão que possibilitasse estabelecer associações entre as populações nas condições em que o trabalho foi desenvolvido.

  9. The Genus Austroleptis from South Chile and Patagonia (Diptera, Rhagionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    NAGATOMI, Akira; NAGATOMI, Hisako; ナガトミ, アキラ; ナガトミ, ヒサコ; 永冨, 昭; 永冨, 尚子

    1988-01-01

    The genus Austroleptis from South Chile and Patagonia is revised and three new species are added. So, there are eight known species, five of which are from South Chile and Patagonia and three from Australia and Tasmania.

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, G; Acuña, R; Troncoso, M; Portell, D P; Toledo, M S; Valenzuela, J

    1997-11-01

    This article summarizes studies designed to evaluate the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile, described in 21 reports from nine centers in various Chilean regions published between 1985 and 1995. According to their data, H. pylori infection is quite frequent among patients with a variety of gastric conditions, including adults (43%-92%) and children (6%-100%). Levels of specific IgG antibodies to H. pylori are also elevated among patients with duodenal ulcers (100%) and gastritis (86%) as well as asymptomatic adults (75%). Combination therapy with three (but not two) drugs has been proved effective, with clinical improvement, ulcer cure, and H. pylori eradication occurring in well-controlled studies. Available evidence suggests that antibiotic resistance is not a major problem in treatment. The H. pylori reinfection rate is low (4.2% per year), suggesting that combination therapy with three drugs constitutes a cost-effective alternative for treating colonized symptomatic patients. Concurrent preliminary studies revealed that antibodies to VacA but not CagA proteins correlate with disease severity in Chilean patients. It can be concluded that local research assists local administrators of health resources to implement adequate policies to prevent, control, and treat H. pylori-related pathologies.

  11. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  12. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: → We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. → Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. → Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. → Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. → We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  13. Variabilidad gen��tica de los caballos criollos del Uruguay Genetic variability of uruguayan creole horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. KELLY

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El caballo Criollo del Uruguay (CCU corresponde al biotipo de caballo de trabajo americano, adaptado y criado en vastas zonas ganaderas. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar su variabilidad genética y establecer la diferenciación entre las subpoblaciones que componen la muestra con el fin de analizar la variabilidad entre las mismas. El estudio se realiza mediante 16 marcadores genéticos (7 grupos sanguíneos y 9 polimorfismos bioquímicos, analizándose 145 CCU pertenecientes a 4 Departamentos del país. Los sistemas electroforéticos analizados dentro de las 4 subpoblaciones (A, B, C, D se encontraron en equilibrio génico. La variabilidad genética racial se estimó mediante el Índice de Heterocigosidad media esperada (IH para los 16 marcadores genéticos (MG, el número total de variantes y el índice de consanguinidad (f. Los resultados fueron: 0.424, 62 y 0,049 respectivamente. La variabilidad de cada una de las subpoblaciones se evaluó mediante el índice F de fijación de Wright (F y el IH. Todas las subpoblaciones presentaron F negativo, siendo la de menor variabilidad la B (IH= 0.265. Se calculó la distancia genética de Nei entre las 4 subpoblaciones. Esta fue en orden creciente con respecto a la A: C (0.007, D (0.014 y B (0.058. Se realizó un análisis de "cluster" mediante el método de UPGMA, obteniéndose un dendograma en el que se agrupan las subpoblaciones A, C y D. Se puede concluir que el CCU tiene una variabilidad genética de intermedia a alta, conservando el polimorfismos de las razas ancestrales. En cuanto a la variabilidad intrapoblacional se comprueba la presencia de una línea (B dentro de la razaThe Uruguayan Creole Horse corresponds to the biotype of American horse for work, adapted and bred in vast cattle areas. The objective of this work is to study its genetic variability and to establish the differentiation among farms included in the sample with the purpose of analyzing the variability among them. The

  14. [Beginning of the Microbiology education in Chile: formation centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco) may be imported into the United States from Chile,...

  16. Expedition Atacama - project AMOS in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, J.; Kaniansky, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Slovak Video Meteor Network operates since 2009 (Tóth et al., 2011). It currently consists of four semi-automated all-sky video cameras, developed at the Astronomical Observatory in Modra, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia. Two new generations of AMOS (All-sky Meteor Orbit System) cameras operate fully automatically at the Canary Islands, Tenerife and La Palma, since March 2015 (Tóth et al., 2015). As a logical step, we plan to cover the southern hemisphere from Chile. We present observational experiences in meteor astronomy from the Atacama Desert and other astronomical sites in Chile. This summary of the observations lists meteor spectra records (26) between Nov.5-13, 2015 mostly Taurid meteors, single and double station meteors as well as the first light from the permanent AMOS stations in Chile.

  17. Income Inequality in Chile: 1990-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Hourton

    2012-01-01

    The entrance of Chile to the Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development, as the first South American country and second after Mexico in Latin America, sets a landmark in the development path that since the beginning of the 1990s decade has seemed to lead this country to a privileged position in the region. Given the reforms taken by the military regime in the 1980s, Chile is one of the most market-oriented countries in Latin America, with Free Trade Agreements and Economical Pa...

  18. Entrevista : Carlos Honorato Comandari (ProChile)

    OpenAIRE

    Comandari, Carlos Honorato

    2013-01-01

    Ingeniero Comercial de la Universidad Finis Terrae y MBA de Babson College (Estados Unidos). En 2010, asumió como Subdirector Internacional de ProChile, desde donde lideró la creación del programa de apoyo a la internacionalización de la innovación chilena, CONTACTChile. Fue nombrado Director de ProChile en mayo de 2013, con la responsabilidad de conducir las más de 50 oficinas comerciales de la institución en el mundo y las 15 oficinas regionales dentro del país. En este período ha intensifi...

  19. Variabilidade e correlações entre caracteres agronômicos em caupi (Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Ângela Celis de Almeida

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp é um alimento básico das populações do Nordeste brasileiro, devendo merecer atenção com vistas a melhoria da qualidade de grãos, resistência a doenças e pragas e aumento de produtividade. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a variabilidade e o potencial genético de 28 linhagens, escolhidas após uma seleção para cor, tamanho de grãos e resistência a viroses. A produtividade apresentou coeficiente de variação genético de 23,90%, e o valor agronômico, de 3,56%. O número de vagens por pedúnculo apresentou a menor estimativa do coeficiente de determinação genético (4,51%, e o peso de 100 grãos, a maior (81,74%. O coeficiente de determinação genético da produtividade foi de 34,15%. As maiores estimativas de ganho genético foram as do peso de 100 grãos (21,73% e da produtividade (19,77%. As correlações genotípicas foram superiores às fenotípicas e às de ambiente, destacando-se as correlações entre número de ramos secundários e produtividade (68,13%, e valor agronômico e produtividade (100%. Estes resultados mostram amplas possibilidades de seleção entre as linhagens com relação à maioria dos caracteres estudados.

  20. Relación entre variabilidad biogeoquímica y rasgos estructurales de la comunidad microbiana en suelos forestales: Bosques de Abies pinsapo como caso de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Torres-Cañabate

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Relación entre variabilidad biogeoquímica y rasgos estructurales de la comunidad microbiana en suelos forestales: Bosques de Abies pinsapo como caso de estudio. Tradicionalmente, los estudios biogeoquímicos consideraban el suelo como una "caja negra", conectada con el resto del ecosistema mediante flujos de entrada y de salida de nutrientes, en la que éstos experimentan transformaciones mediadas engran parte por microorganismos desconocidos. El desarrollo de nuevas técnicas moleculares ha incrementado el conocimiento sobre lascomunidades microbianas del suelo. Estudios recientes han puesto de manifiesto correspondencias entre la variabilidad de la disponibilidad de nutrientes y la estructura de la comunidad microbiana en suelos forestales. A este respecto, hemos empleado bosques de Abies pinsapo como modelo ya que muestran una gran variabilidad biogeoquímica asociada a diferencias litológicas y sucesionales, mientras que la estacionalidad mediterránea provoca una alta variabilidad intra-anual en la disponibilidad de nutrientes. Además, existen pinsapares sujetos alimitación o a saturación de nitrógeno. Mediante análisis del polimorfismo de longitud de fragmentos de restricción terminal (T-RFLP, hemos puesto de manifiesto que los patrones de variabilidad biogeoquímica descritos en los pinsapares se corresponden con cambios en la composición y estructura de sus comunidades bacterianas.

  1. Variabilidad genética en cepas de Plasmodium falciparum circulantes en regiones colombianas con riesgo diferente para malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Arcos Burgos

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available

    La presencia de malaria en una zona es el resultado de una interacción dinámica entre los hospederos humanos, los plasmodios, el vector y el medio ambiente ecológico, físico, socioeconómico y cultural. Plasmodium falciparum, es la especie que produce la enfermedad más grave. La diversidad genética de las cepas de P. falciparum se expresa en el gran polimorfismo antigénico, en la susceptibilidad de este plasmodio a las diferentes drogas utilizadas para su tratamiento y en la patogenicidad de las cepas. El secuenciamiento de genes de P. falciparum ha demostrado diferencias tanto en tamaño como en la secuencia de regiones repetitivas que codifican para la parte inmunodominante de antígenos altamente polimórficos.

    Algunos estudios asocian el grado de variabilidad genética con la endemicidad de malaria en la zona. Estos hallazgos han permitido formular la hipótesis de que a mayor endemicidad mayor variabilidad genética del P. falciparum (2, 3, sin embargo la mayoría de estudios se han realizado en zonas altamente endémicas y poco se conoce sobre la complejidad genética de P. falciparum en zonas de baja y moderada endemicidad. La variabilidad genética de cepas de P. falciparum circulantes en Colombia según el riesgo por regiones es desconocido, en Colombia, según el Índice Parasitario Anual (IPA, hay zonas de alto riesgo (IPA >10, mediano riesgo (IPA entre 2-10 y de bajo riesgo (IPA entre 0-2 para malaria, pensamos que a mayor endemicidad de la malaria en una zona mayor será la variabilidad genética de las cepas de P. falciparum circulantes en ella, por eso queremos conocer el grado de variabilidad genética de las cepas de P. falciparum circulantes en zonas colombianas con diferente riesgo para malaria y la presencia de infección multiclonal en dichas áreas. Para determinar el

  2. Hallazgo de Ehrlichia canis en Chile, informe preliminar Ehrlichia canis in Chile; preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. LÓPEZ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el primer caso de Ehrlichiosis canina detectado en Chile, causado por la rickettsia Ehrlichia canis y transmitida por el vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus. El diagnóstico clínico fue confirmado en Alemania por Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta (IFATThe first case of canine ehrlichiosis detected in Chile is described. It is caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis and carried by the vektor Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed in Germany using the Immunofluorescent Antibody Test (IFA

  3. Metodología para el pronóstico de la demanda en ambientes multiproducto y de alta variabilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Andrés Méndez Giraldü

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una metodología para la gestión de la demanda en ambientes multiproducto para diferentes eslabones de la cadena de suministro y con alta variabilidad en la demanda. La metodología propuesta consiste en dos fases: la primera busca una clasificación de los productos de acuerdo con dos criterios, uno de movimiento para representar la rotación de inventarios, y el segundo de importancia respecto a las variables costo, volumen y peso; el resultado de esta fase es un conjunto de categorías para clasificar los productos e identificar aquellos más importantes y aquellos que se deben descontinuar. La segunda fase consiste en realizar un pronóstico agregado de acuerdo con la variabilidad que se presenta en cada una de las categorías identificadas, se emplea el coeficiente de variación como medida de variabilidad y suavización exponencial doble y promedios móviles dobles como técnica de pronóstico, aunque la metodología es flexible y se pueden emplear otros métodos de series de tiempo. La metodología se implementó en una empresa líder en Colombia de productos polivinilos logrando una mejora del 10 % en la desviación absoluta promedio, aproximadamente. Por otro lado, se logró una reducción significativa en el inventario promedio de todo el sistema. Finalmente, este trabajo es una fase inicial para una clasificación dinámica de los productos para gestionar de forma integral los inventarios en una cadena de múltiples eslabones.

  4. Variabilidad de la presión arterial: modelo matemático de un proceso estocástico

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Labandera Ramos, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Introducción. Necesitamos más conocimientos y evidencias sobre los procesos que generan los valores de PA, su variabilidad, los factores influyentes y su significado clínico. Sujetos y métodos. Se recogieron 1.743.712 observaciones de 178.812 sujetos, de una población en edad laboral, en activo y relativamente sanos, a lo largo de 7 años, entre 2006 y 2012. Se especificaron dos modelos matemáticos longitudinales con efectos mixtos (fijos y aleatorios) para dos variables respuesta, PA sistólic...

  5. Variabilidad de las anomalías de caudales medios mensuales con el área de la cuenca.

    OpenAIRE

    Góez Arango , Catalina; Poveda Jaramillo, Germán

    2004-01-01

    Se estudia la variabilidad de las anomalías estandarizadas de los caudales medios mensuales con respecto al área de drenaje de la cuenca, usando registros históricos de caudales medios mensuales sobre estaciones localizadas a lo largo del cauce principal de las cuencas de los ríos Magdalena-Cauca en Colombia y Tocantins-Purus en Brasil. Las anomalías estandarizadas se definen como las desviaciones de los caudales con respecto a la media del mes, escalados por la desviación típica mensual....

  6. Variabilidad temporal de caudales: aplicación a la gestión de ríos regulados

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Baeza Sanz, D.; García de Jalón Lastra, D.

    2004-01-01

    Los efectos de la regulación de caudales en los ríos modifican severamente la variabilidad del régimen de caudales, así como su estacionalidad. Esto supone una alteración muy grave, puesto que el régimen de caudales es determinante para mantener la estructura de las comunidades (Poff, et al., 1997) y el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas fluviales. El estudio de un régimen de caudales debe contemplar un grupo de parámetros completo, y con significado biológico, que contemple la ...

  7. Variabilidad espacial de los atributos de la capa arable de un inceptisol del piedemonte de la cordillera oriental (casanare, colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, Ricardo; Rubiano, Yolanda; Peña, Andrés; Chaves, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la variabilidad espacial de los atributos del suelo, enfocado a optimizar futuros muestreos en suelos similares. El estudio se realizó en una superficie de 58 ha, ubicada en Tauramena, departamento de Casanare, Orinoquia colombiana. El suelo del estudio corresponde a un Oxic Dystrudept de textura franco arenosa a franco arcillosa, localizado sobre un abanico de terraza del piedemonte de la cordillera Oriental. A través del análisis del semivariograma y...

  8. Variabilidad genética de Colletotrichum spp aislado de frutos tropicales mediante el uso de marcadores moleculares RAPD.

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Hernández, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides presenta alta variabilidad morfológica, patogénica y genética, lo cual ha sido difícil de evaluar usando los métodos tradicionales. En los últimos años, las técnicas moleculares han facilitado la separación y caracterización genética. El presente trabajo se divide en dos fases, en la primera se realizaron los aislados, la identificación morfológica y se realizaron pruebas de efectividad bilógica in vivo e in vitro de imazalil para el control de la antracnosis en...

  9. Nuclear public information activities in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear plans and developing programs in developing and developed countries are facing-in a higher or lower degree- opposition from public opinion. The objectives and contents of the public education program on nuclear energy in Chile are dealt with in this paper

  10. DEZVOLTAREA CONTEMPORANĂ A TURISMULUI DIN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Mihaela Győri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary development of the Chilean Tourism sector is analyzed mainly on thebasis of data supplied by the National Service of Tourism in Chile. Figures on inboundtourism, domestic tourism, lodging, employment, receipts, as well as the existing structurewithin the sector, were taken into consideration for the investigated period of 1999-2006.

  11. Museos de Santiago de Chile. Directorio

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo, Andrea; Funes, Catherine; Heredia, Constanza; Herrera, Daniela; Suárez, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    Directory of the museums in Santiago of Chile categorized by subject, such as Art, Archaeology, Historic house, Science and technology, Natural science and Natural history, Specialized, Ethnography and Anthropology, History, Site museum and Other. It comprehends basic information about name, creation date, collections, services, contact info, social network accounts, website and entrance fee of the museums.

  12. A Decade of Environment Management in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ruthenberg, Ina-Marlene

    2001-01-01

    This publication presents an evaluation of the Environmental Institutions Development Project in Chile, selected by Bank management to be part of an intensive learning process in final project evaluation, given its contributing factor to the Bank's knowledge base on environmental institutional development projects. The first part of the publication focuses on the project as catalyst for cu...

  13. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como los profesionales y técnicos. El sector privado cubre aproximadamente a 17.5% de la población perteneciente a los grupos sociales de mayores ingresos. Un pequeño sector de la población, perteneciente a la clase alta, realiza pagos directos de bolsillo a proveedores privados de servicios de atención a la salud. Alrededor de 10% de la población está cubierta por otras agencias públicas, fundamentalmente los Servicios de Salud de las Fuerzas Armadas. Recientemente el sistema se reformó creando el Régimen General de Garantías en Salud, que establece un Sistema Universal con Garantías Explícitas que se tradujo, en 2005, en el Plan de Acceso Universal con Garantías Explícitas (AUGE, que garantiza el acceso oportuno a servicios de calidad para 56 problemas de salud, incluyendo cáncer en niños, cáncer de mama, trastornos isquémicos del corazón, VIH/SIDA y diabetes.This paper describes the Chilean health system, including its structure, financing, beneficiaries, and its physical, material and human resources. This system has two sectors, public and private. The public sector comprises all the organisms that constitute the National System of Health Services, which covers 70% of the population, including the rural and urban poor, the low middle-class, the retired, and the self-employed professionals and technicians.The private sector covers 17.5% of the population, mostly the upper middle-class and the high-income population. A small

  14. Variabilidad de las anomalías y de la escala de fluctuación de caudales medios mensuales con el área de la cuenca.

    OpenAIRE

    Góez Arango , Catalina; Poveda Jaramillo, Germán

    2005-01-01

    Se estudia la variabilidad de las anomalías de caudales medios mensuales y la variabilidad de la escala de fluctuación con el área de la cuenca de drenaje, usando registros históricos de caudales medios mensuales en las cuencas de los ríos Magdalena-Cauca en Colombia y Tocantins-Purus en Brasil. Las anomalías se definen como las desviaciones de los caudales con respecto a la media del mes, escalados por la desviación típica mensual. Se efectuaron análisis de correlación entre las series de an...

  15. Variabilidade de atributos físicos do solo determinados por métodos diversos Variability of soil physical attributes determined by different methods

    OpenAIRE

    Glécio Machado Siqueira; Sidney Rosa Vieira; Marcos Bacis Ceddia

    2008-01-01

    A variabilidade espacial dos atributos físicos do solo tem sido alvo de diversos estudos nos últimos anos. No entanto, pouco tem sido estudado sobre as diferenças de medidas entre os diversos métodos de amostragem. Desta maneira, este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a variabilidade espacial de atributos físicos do solo determinados por diferentes métodos de amostragem de um Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico, em Campinas (SP), Brasil, amostrado de janeiro a maio de 2005 em 302 pontos com es...

  16. Macroecological patterns of trophic variability in the oceanic plankton = Patrones macroecológicos de variabilidad trófica en el plancton oceánico

    OpenAIRE

    Mompeán de la Rosa, María del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    OBJETIVOS El objetivo principal que se plantea en esta tesis es analizar los patrones de variabilidad en las fuentes de nutrientes y la complejidad de la red trófica planctónica a distintas escalas espaciales. Los objetivos parciales fueron: • Determinar la variabilidad geográfica en la composición isotópica del plancton de distintos tamaños a escalas espaciales de cientos a miles de kilómetros. • Determinar la existencia de patrones macroecológicos en la composición isotópica del...

  17. Patrones macroecológicos de variabilidad trófica en el plancton oceánico = Macroecological patterns of trophic variability in the oceanic plankton

    OpenAIRE

    Mompean de la Rosa, Maria del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    OBJETIVOS El objetivo principal que se plantea en esta tesis es analizar los patrones de variabilidad en las fuentes de nutrientes y la complejidad de la red trófica planctónica a distintas escalas espaciales. Los objetivos parciales fueron: • Determinar la variabilidad geográfica en la composición isotópica del plancton de distintos tamaños a escalas espaciales de cientos a miles de kilómetros. • Determinar la existencia de patrones macroecológicos en la composición isotópica del plancton en...

  18. Variabilidad del patrón respiratorio durante la carga elástica inspiratoria Variability of breathing pattern during inspiratory elastic load

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos E. D´Negri; Fernando A. Pessolano; Eduardo L. De Vito

    2009-01-01

    La ventilación pulmonar en humanos tiene una variabilidad respiración a respiración no lineal, compleja y caótica. El objetivo del trabajo fue: caracterizar la variabilidad del patrón respiratorio en perros (n: 8) anestesiados respirando bajo carga elástica umbral (CEU) inspiratoria (7 a 50 cm H2O). Con el flujo, presión traqueal y esofágica, se analizaron: tiempo inspiratorio (Ti), ritmo [tiempo espiratorio (Te); tiempo total (Ttot), y Ti/Ttot] e impulso central (Vt/Ti), variables relacionad...

  19. Variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca en individuos sanos costarricenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Gutiérrez Sotelo

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El análisis de la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca (VFC, refleja la influencia autonómica sobre el corazón pudiendo ser predictivo de mortalidad. Consiste en el análisis de las variaciones de los intervalos RR. Este estudio analizó la VFC en individuos sanos costarricenses. Materiales y Métodos. Fueron elegidos adultos asintomáticos. En la adquisición de datos se utilizó una derivación electrocardiográfica estándar y se calcularon variables tanto en Dominio de Tiempo como en Dominio de Frecuencia. Se compararon los resultados desde registros de 5 minutos y de 10 minutos y se compararon diferentes grupos etáreos dividiéndose a la población en grupos: 18 a 29 años, 30 a 39 y 40 y también entre Introduction. Heart rate variability analysis evaluate the autonomic influence over the heart and therefore, is a predictive tool of mortality. It consists in the analysis of the variations in RR intervals. This study assessed heart rate variability in healthy costarrican people. Materials and Methods. We included adult healthy volunteers. For data adquisition we used a single electrocardiographic lead and calculate time and frequency domain variables. We compared results between 5 minutes versus 10 minutes samples and between age groups: 18 to 29 years old, versus 30 to 39 versus 40 or < 25 years old versus 25. Results. We studied 48 subjects, 25 women and 23 men (range 18 y 53. We do not obtained differences between time of data adquisition samples but find differences between 18-29 vs 40 and <25 vs 25 age groups in NN50 (231.432 vs 34.500, p = 0.004 in the fisrt group, 237.250 vs 53.250, p<0.001, the second, %NN50 (30.732 vs 5.2, p=0.003 and 31.444 vs 9.742, p=0.001 respectively, LF (457.338 vs 173.393, p=0.045 and 466.816 vs 259.361, p=0.042 respectively and HF (750.667 vs 239.865, p=0.068 and 766.834 vs 248.436, p=0.010 respectively. Conclusions. This study support reference values for comparision or to individual

  20. Variabilidad genética en Lutzomyia ( verrucarum evansi (Núñez-Tovar, 1924, vector de Leishmaniosis visceral americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Porter

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Lutzomyia evansi (Núñez-Tovar, 1924, Lutzomyia longipalpis
    (Lutz y Neiva, 1912 y Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938, son los
    vectores de Leishmania infantum Nicolle, 1908, en el neotrópico. Lu. evansi ha sido incriminada como vector en zonas rurales de la Costa Caribe Colombiana, y algunas zonas de Venezuela y Nicaragua. A pesar de que esta especie reviste gran importancia en Salud Pública, no existen a la fecha estudios sobre su variabilidad genética, desconociéndose si existe o no flujo genético entre las poblaciones rurales y urbanas, endémicas y no endémicas de leishmaniosis visceral (LV. Con base en los genes mitocondriales Citocromo b, RNA de transferencia para Serina, subunidades uno y cuatro de la NADH deshidrogenasa, se estudió la variabilidad genética entre las distintas poblaciones de Lu. evansi en la Costa Caribe, incluyendo la población
    geográficamente aislada de Isla Fuerte, y una población de Venezuela.

     

  1. Dinámica de la Pesquería de camarón Penaeus californiensis en el litoral sonorense y su relación con algunos parámetros océano atmosféricos.

    OpenAIRE

    López Martínez, Juana

    2000-01-01

    En Sonora existe una pesquería de camarón de las más productivas de México, dirigida principalmente a dos especies: camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis y camarón azul Litopenaeus stylirostris; el primero aporta hasta el 70% de la captura de altamar. Esta pesquería tiene como rasgo característico, una alta variabilidad interanual en las capturas, que no ha sido totalmente explicada solo por el esfuerzo pesquero. En este trabajo se evalúan las posibles causas de la variabilidad interanu...

  2. Managing hazardous pollutants in Chile: arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancha, Ana María; O'Ryan, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that faces the environmental challenge posed by extensive arsenic pollution, which exists in the northern part of the country. Chile has worked through various options to appropriately address the environmental challenge of arsenic pollution of water and air. Because of cost and other reasons, copying standards used elsewhere in the world was not an option for Chile. Approximately 1.8 million people, representing about 12% of the total population of the country, live in arsenic-contaminated areas. In these regions, air, water, and soil are contaminated with arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. For long periods, water consumed by the population contained arsenic levels that exceeded values recommended by the World Health Organization. Exposure to airborne arsenic also occurred near several large cities, as a consequence of both natural contamination and the intensive mining activity carried out in those areas. In rural areas, indigenous populations, who lack access to treated water, were also exposed to arsenic by consuming foods grown locally in arsenic-contaminated soils. Health effects in children and adults from arsenic exposure first appeared in the 1950s. Such effects included vascular, respiratory, and skin lesions from intake of high arsenic levels in drinking water. Methods to remove arsenic from water were evaluated, developed, and implemented that allowed significant reductions in exposure at a relatively low cost. Construction and operation of treatment plants to remove arsenic from water first began in the 1970s. Beginning in the 1990s, epidemiological studies showed that the rate of lung and bladder cancer in the arsenic-polluted area was considerably higher than mean cancer rates for the country. Cancer incidence was directly related to arsenic exposure. During the 1990s, international pressure and concern by Chile's Health Ministry prompted action to regulate arsenic emissions from copper smelters. A

  3. Conditioning of radium sources in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process experimented in Chile to conditioning Ra-226 sources arising as waste from medical uses in Chile is described. The IAEA offered to participate in the Project for Conditioning Radium Sources in order to place all the radium sources in the country under an internationally accepted standard. These sources hare those that have been used in medical applications for many years. The CCHEN made its own modifications to the project's execution by using its own infrastructure and scientific and technical skill in this field. For this purpose, the CCHEN uses the human resources and facilities of the Radioactive Waste Management Unit (UGDR) and acquires materials that are commercially available in the country. IAEA assistance focused on quality assurance, so they supply all expensive items which the UGDR, cannot access, plus they certify the quality of the conditioned products. This assistance is achieved through the approval of procedures and methodologies based on those that are recommended

  4. Bibliothekswesen in Südamerika - Chile im Jahr 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Schultheis, Alexander H. T.

    2014-01-01

    Librarianship in South America - Chile in 2014 (translation of the title). The historian and librarian Alexander H.T. Schultheis is living since nine years in Santiago de Chile and he is observing the Chilean librarianship. Although Chile is doing well economically, no improvement can be seen in the field of culture and education. On the contrary, the public libraries are still poorly equipped. Chance can be seen as small bright spots on the horizon, for example, the new opened cultural cente...

  5. Movilidad intrageneracional del ingreso en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio, Sapelli

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the different intra-generational mobility indicators for Chile on the basis of the Casen panel. Conclusions from the literature are evaluated in light of results that are based mainly on a discussion of the transition matrix. It is concluded that there is a mistaken interpretation of the data in part of the literature. A simulation is made that demonstrates that the Chilean transition matrix could be the consequence of random shocks to the effective distribution of income...

  6. Unmarried cohabitation among deprived families in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ramm Santelices, Alejandra Margarita

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that unmarried cohabitation is increasing in Chile. It is less clear what unmarried cohabitation is and why is it rising. In Latin America cohabitation is common among low income groups, and has been described as a surrogate marriage for the disadvantaged. Cohabitation in the region entails conventional gender roles and having children. It has been explained by colonial dominance, poverty, kinship, and machismo. The evidence amassed here indicates that although in practice cohabit...

  7. Registro nuevo de Amphipyrinae en Chile A new record of Amphipyrinae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania S. Olivares

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez en Chile la especie Agrotisia subhyalina Hampson, entre las latitudes 18° 29' S 70° 20' O hasta 29° 54' S 71° 16' O (I-IV regiones en Chile. Se redescriben los genitales del macho y de la hembra y se presentan algunos aspectos taxonómicos de la especie.The species Agrotisia subhyalina Hampson is recorded for the first time from Chile (18° 29' S 70° 20' W to 29° 54' S 71° 16' W, I to IV Chilean regions. Redescriptions of male and female are presented, along with some taxonomic aspects of the species.

  8. Composición corporal y variabilidad del ritmo cardiaco en pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica candidatos a rehabilitación respiratoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Curilem Gatica

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La composición corporal es una metodología no invasiva, que nos entrega información acerca de la distribución de tejidos en la estructura corporal, además es un indicador del riesgo de mortalidad en pacientes con Enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. La variabilidad del ritmo cardiaco es una técnica que nos entrega información de la condición fisiológica autonómica, siendo reconocida como un indicador que se encuentra disminuido en una serie de enfermedades. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la composición corporal y la Variabilidad del ritmo cardiaco. La metodología utilizada es la de Debora Kerr (1988 avalada por Sociedad Internacional para avances en Cineantropometría para composición corporal y para Variabilidad del ritmo cardiaco los lineamientos descritos por la American Heart Association (1996. Se empleó equipamiento Roscraff, caliper Slimguide y reloj Polar RS 800CX. Se evaluaron 14 pacientes candidatos a rehabilitación respiratoria: Edad 76 ± 9,9 años; IMC 26,7 ± 3,9 kg/m²; Masa Muscular 26,1 ± 6,3 kg; Masa Ósea 8,1 ± 1,3 kg; Masa Adiposa 16,4 ± 3,6 kg; VEF1 54 ± 14 %. Un mayor perímetro de cintura e índice Cintura Cadera se asoció a una menor Variabilidad del ritmo cardiaca global. El componente óseo se relacionó positivamente con la Variabilidad del ritmo cardiaco y los pacientes con un mayor Volumen espiratorio forzado en el primer segundo presentaron un menor componente de alta frecuencia en la Variabilidad del ritmo cardiaco. En estos pacientes, la Variabilidad del ritmo cardiaco en forma global se encuentra reducida y se asocia con parámetros de riesgo cardiovascular.

  9. Variabilidade físico-química da farinha de mandioca Physicochemical variability of cassava flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Maria Leite de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a variabilidade físico-química da farinha de mandioca comercializada no município de Cruzeiro do Sul - AC por meio da análise multivariada. Foram analisadas 18 amostras de diferentes farinhas de mandioca, quanto às variáveis: umidade, cinzas, lipídios, proteína bruta, fibra bruta, carboidratos totais, acidez e pH. A aplicação da análise multivariada de agrupamento segundo o método de Tocher permitiu o estabelecimento de cinco grupos de farinhas. Os grupos IV e V foram considerados de alta qualidade, o primeiro por apresentar o menor teor de cinzas e o maior de proteína bruta, e o segundo por apresentar o menor teor de umidade e o maior teor de carboidratos dentre os grupos. As técnicas de análise multivariada foram coerentes para identificar as farinhas mais heterogêneas. A identificação de grupos distintos indica a existência de variabilidade nas farinhas de mandioca comercializadas na região de Cruzeiro do Sul - AC, podendo esta variabilidade estar relacionada, especialmente com o processo de produção.The goal of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical variability of the cassava flour, sold in the city of Cruzeiro do Sul - in the state of AC (Brazil, by multivaried analysis. The following contents of eighteen different cassava flours were analyzed: moisture, ashes, lipids, protein, fiber, carbohydrates, acidity, and pH. Grouping multivaried analysis according to the Tocher method allowed the establishment of five groups of flours. The groups IV and V were considered high quality groups. The first one due to the lower ashes and higher protein contents; and the second due to the lower moisture and higher carbohydrates contents. The multivaried analysis techniques presented good responses to identify most heterogeneous flours. The physicochemical variability seen in the five different groups probably indicates different production processes.

  10. Variabilidad en los controles de la terapia anticoagulante oral entre atención primaria y hospital en Albacete (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Armero Simarro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento, Tras asumir el control de la terapia anticoagulante oral en nuestro centro de salud surgió la necesidad de detectar posibles diferencias con respecto al seguimiento hospitalario. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue conocer la variabilidad en los valores del Cociente Normalizado Internacional (INR de los pacientes en tratamiento anticoagulante oral (TAO, y su posible relación con el control en centro de salud u hospital. Métodos, Se analizaron los 6 últimos controles de 291 pacientes de un centro de salud urbano en control rutinario por TAO. A fin de analizar su variabilidad, se ha calculado la desviación estándar (DE de los logaritmos neperianos (ln de los valores de INR, comparando por medio del test t de Student la media de las mismas entre aquellos pacientes cuyo tratamiento había sido pautado por profesionales del centro de salud y aquellos pautados en unas ocasiones por éstos y en otras en hospital. Se comparó asimismo la proporción de controles dentro de rango en cada grupo (chi2. Resultados, Eran mujeres 153 (52,6% de los pacientes, y la media de edad era 73,8 años (DE, 11,3. Se han analizado un total de 1.710 controles de INR, de los que 1.412 han sido validados por médicos de familia y 298 por hematólogos, sin que existieran diferencias significativas en los valores de INR analizados por unos y otros. Los pacientes cuyo tratamiento había sido pautado siempre por profesionales del centro de salud presentaron unos valores medios de DE de los ln de los INR de los 6 controles analizados significativamente inferior (p<0,0001 al de aquellos que habían llevado un control mixto. Asimismo, presentaban una mayor proporción de controles dentro de rango (un 68,0% vs 38,6%, p<0,0001. Conclusiones, Los pacientes que son seguidos exclusivamente por los profesionales del centro de salud presentan una menor variabilidad y más adecuados controles de INR que aquellos con un control mixto centro de salud/hospital.

  11. Variability and practice load in motor learning. [Variabilidad y carga de práctica en el aprendizaje motor].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Moreno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have pointed out the convenience of taking the characteristics of the skill to be learned and the intrinsic characteristics of the learners into account when designing practice tasks. Nevertheless, few studies have manipulated the amount of variable practice. The ability to adapt, as an inherent feature of biological systems, can be an adequate framework to explain and predict motor learning processes. This paper is based on adaption processes explained under the theory of allostasis and the general adaption syndrome and shares the background of the Dynamic Systems Theory, to propose the concept of practice load as a useful tool to quantify variability of practice in motor learning. From this standpoint, the conditions of variable practice are reviewed to be a stimulus in an adequate magnitude and direction to take the learner to a higher level of performance and hence to optimize motor learning. Resumen Muchos autores han recomendado la conveniencia de ajustar los niveles de práctica variable teniendo en cuenta las características de la tarea y la variabilidad intrínseca que muestra el aprendiz en la ejecución de la habilidad. Sin embargo, no son numerosos los trabajos que han manipulado varios niveles de cantidad de variabilidad al practicar. La capacidad de adaptación, como rasgo de los sistemas biológicos puede resultar un marco adecuado para afrontar esta cuestión. En este trabajo, apoyado en los procesos de adaptación explicados bajo las teorías de alostasis y el síndrome general de adaptación (GAS, y bajo presupuestos compartidos por la Teoría General de Sistemas Dinámicos, propondrá el concepto de carga de práctica como una herramienta para cuantificar la práctica en el aprendizaje motor. Bajo esta perspectiva se revisan las condiciones en las que la práctica en variabilidad debe modularse, para suponer una estimulación que facilite al aprendiz una adaptación a un nivel de rendimiento superior y con

  12. Tratamento de sementes com bioestimulante ao milho submetido a diferentes variabilidades na distribuição espacial das plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernando Kolling

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A utilização de bioestimulantes pode auxiliar a mitigar os prejuízos ao milho, ocasionados pela má qualidade de estande. Este trabalho foi conduzido objetivando avaliar o efeito do tratamento de sementes com bioestimulante sobre o desempenho agronômico do milho, submetido a diferentes níveis de variabilidade na distribuição espacial das plantas na linha de semeadura. O experimento foi implantado em Lages, SC, durante o ano agrícola de 2013/2014. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, dispostos em parcelas subdivididas. Nas parcelas principais, testaram-se três níveis de desuniformidade espacial na linha: 0, 50 e 100% do Coeficiente de Variação (CV. No nível 0 % de CV, todas as sementes foram uniformemente distribuídas no sulco de semeadura, a uma distância de 17cm entre si. Nos demais níveis de CV, as distâncias entre sementes variaram conforme o tratamento. Nas subparcelas, testou-se a presença ou ausência do tratamento de sementes com bioestimulante. O aumento da variabilidade na distribuição espacial das plantas reduziu a área foliar e o teor de clorofila da folha índice no espigamento, bem como o diâmetro do colmo na colheita, independentemente do tratamento de sementes com bioestimulante. Isso contribuiu para reduzir o número de grãos por espiga e o rendimento de grãos dos tratamentos com 50 e 100% de CV na variabilidade espacial, tanto na presença quanto na ausência do bioestimulante. Portanto, o tratamento de sementes com bioestimulante não mitigou os prejuízos ao rendimento de grãos do milho ocasionados pela distribuição espacial irregular das plantas na linha de semeadura.

  13. Perú-Chile: imágenes mutuas (Perú-Chile: mutual images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro González Riesle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A partir de los enfoques sobe Expansionismo-Revanchismo de Elizondo y las Imágenes en Espejo de Scott, se analizaron los contenidos de blogs referentes a imágenes mutuas entre Perú y Chile, comprendidos a partir de la fecha (16-01-2008 de presentación por parte del Perú de la Demanda ante el Tribunal de la Haya para la solución del Diferendo Limítrofe con Chile, hasta el 30-03-2011. Se han registrado intensas y variadas manifestaciones de hostilidad mutua, que respaldan la vigencia de la dinámica Expansionismo-Revanchismo en las imágenes mutuas entre Chile y Perú en los blogs analizados. Paralelamente, se detectaron contenidos correspondientes a actitudes integracionistas entre ambos países. Los resultados fundamentan la utilidad del enfoque de las Imágenes en Espejo como instrumento para el análisis de contenido de blogs portadores de mensajes de hostilidad e integración entre ambos países. Se propone una estrategia psicosocial binacional para desactivar la dinámica Expansionismo- revanchismo que contribuiría a producir catastróficas consecuencias para las generaciones actuales y futuras de ambos países; y, promover la integración fronteriza entre Tacna (Perú y Arica (Chile. ABSTRACT: The contents of blogs relating to mutual images between Peru and Chile were analyzed from the approaches about Expansionism – Revanchism of Elizondo, and The images on the mirror of Scott, included the date of the presentation (January 16th, 2008 by Peru of the demand before the International Court of Justice at the Hague for the solution of the border dispute with Chile until March 30th, 2011. There have been intense and varied manifestations of mutual hostility that support the validity of Expansionism-Revanchism dynamics in the mutual images between Chile and Peru in the analyzed blogs. At the same time, it was detected content corresponding to integrationist attitudes between the two countries. The results underlie the utility

  14. Variabilidade espacial e temporal da produtividade de culturas sob sistema plantio direto Spatial and temporal variability of grain yield under no-tillage cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Jorge Carneiro Amado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a variabilidade espacial e temporal da produtividade de soja, milho e trigo, em uma lavoura comercial de 57 ha, não irrigada, manejada há mais de dez anos sob sistema plantio direto, em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, em Palmeira das Missões, RS. A coleta de dados de produtividade de seis cultivos, entre 2000 e 2005, foi realizada por colhedora equipada com monitor de produtividade. Análises estatísticas e geoestatísticas foram realizadas a fim de avaliar a variabilidade espacial e a presença de dependência espacial ao longo dos anos. A produtividade da soja, do milho e do trigo alcançada apresenta variabilidade com continuidade espacial, correlacionando-se entre si, ao longo dos anos. Em anos de deficit hídrico, verifica-se aumento da variabilidade espacial da produtividade. A cultura do milho é mais eficiente do que a da soja em detectar a variabilidade espacial da produtividade existente na lavoura.The objective of this work was to analyze the spatial and temporal yield variability of soybean, corn and wheat in a 57 ha cropland, without irrigation, under no-till for more than ten years in a Typic Hapludox, located in Palmeira das Missões, RS. Yield data of crops from 2000 to 2005 were collected using a combine equipped with yield monitor. Statistical and geostatistical analysis were performed to monitor the range of the spatial variability and its spatial dependence, as well as its behavior over the years. Soybean, corn and wheat yield present spatial variability, which is maintained over time. In dry years, yield variance coefficient increases compared to wet years. Corn was more efficient than soybean to identify spatial yield variability in the cropland.

  15. Variabilidade da frequência cardíaca em neonatos prematuros e de termo Variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca en neonatos prematuros y de término Heart rate variability in preterm and term neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Augusto Selig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Várias publicações têm demonstrado a importância do sistema nervoso autônomo por meio dos componentes simpático e parassimpático na gerência da interação entre as diferentes partes do organismo humano. Esses estudos aplicaram técnicas lineares e não lineares (Teoria do Caos de avaliação em diferentes situações, doenças e faixas etárias, tendo como ferramenta a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC. OBJETIVO: Aplicar os conhecimentos das dinâmicas linear e não linear na avaliação de neonatos prematuros (NPT, analisando sua VFC e comparando com neonatos de termo (NT saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e oito neonatos prematuros com diferentes idades gestacionais tiveram seus batimentos cardíacos captados com auxílio do equipamento Polar Advanced S810i e sua VFC obtida pelo registro dos intervalos RR. A VFC foi analisada nos domínios do tempo (SDNN, RMSSD, SD1/SD2, da frequência (VLF, LF, HF e a relação LF/HF e do caos (TAU e sua normalização [TAU(n], Expoente de Lyapunov e Entropia. Os NPT foram comparados com um grupo de 78 NT saudáveis e sem intercorrências perinatais com auxílio do teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis. RESULTADOS: Detectou-se diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos para todas as variáveis estudadas, tanto no domínio do tempo como nos da frequência e do caos. CONCLUSÃO: Neonatos prematuros exibem comportamento menos complexo da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca que neonatos de termo, fato comprovado nos domínios do tempo, da frequência e do caos. O estudo da variabilidade cardíaca nesse grupo pode ser considerado uma ferramenta a mais na avaliação da maturação autonômica e, consequentemente, da progressão para eutrofia.FUNDAMENTO: Varias publicaciones han demostrado la importancia del sistema nervioso autónomo por medio de los componentes simpático y parasimpático en el manejo de la interacción entre las diferentes partes del organismo

  16. Variabilidad espacial y temporal de los remolinos oceánicos en la región suroccidental de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Alina Rita; Álvarez Cruz, Amaury

    2012-01-01

    Un estudio de los remolinos oceánicos se realizó en la región SW de Cuba (19o-22oN, 80o40´- 86o30´W). Este comprendió la localización de los vórtices y sus escalas asociadas. La caracterización del campo de remolinos tuvo en cuenta su posición, orientación, diámetro y área. La variabilidad espacial y temporal de la serie de corrientes se determinó por el método de las componentes principales. La data primaria provino de los mapas de alturas dinámicas de 18 cruceros oceanográficos, de imágenes...

  17. DISCONTINUIDAD GEOGRÁFICA Y VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA EN Crassostrea rhizophorae GUILDING DEL SURESTE DE MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    F Rodríguez Romero; J Tello Cetina

    2011-01-01

    Se estudió el impacto de la fragmentación del hábitat sobre la variabilidad genética en dos poblaciones de Crassostrea rhizophorae Guilding 1828 del sistema estuarino de la laguna de Términos, Campeche, México, mediante la expresión de isoenzimas de 10 sistemas enzimáticos y proteína total. Se utilizó el programa TFPGA 1.3 para analizar las frecuencias génicas de las poblaciones en estudio. Muestras de músculo de 50 organismos de cada población se utilizaron para caracterizar la expresión gen...

  18. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  19. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables during…

  20. Chile, Latin America, and the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Wilhelmy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Text of a presentation in the Colloquium Chile and the World, organized by the Princeton University Program in Latin American Studies, May 6, 2005, in honor of Professor Paul E.Sigmund. The views expressed have not been reviewed or endorsed by the Chile Pacific Foundation. Manfred Wilhelmy holds a Ph.D. in Politics (1973 from Princeton University

  1. Chile - Institutional Design for an Effective Education Quality Assurance

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to present the Government of Chile with policy options related to the institutional distribution of roles and responsibilities for effective quality assurance in education. Following the introduction, the report is structured as follows. Chapter II presents background information on the evolution of Chile's education system since 1980. This information,...

  2. Childcare in Chile. The role of ethnicity and socioeconomic inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cárcamo Leiva, Rodrigo Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Chile has embarked on a road that must lead to the reduction of inequality gaps for the population. A public policy called Chile Growths With You has focused on an increase in the breadth of coverage of non-maternal care through childcare centers to provide equal opportunities in early childhood and

  3. Honors in Chile: New Engagements in the Higher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skewes, Juan Carlos; Sampaio, Carlos Alberto Cioce; Conway, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    Honors programs are rare in Latin America, and in Chile they were unknown before 2003. At the Universidad Austral de Chile, an interdisciplinary group of scholars linked to environmental studies put forward a pilot project for implementing a new experience in higher education. Challenged by an educational environment where (i) apathy and…

  4. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  5. Ciclo anual de la clorofila-α satelital en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández (33°S, Chile Annual cycle of the satellite chlorophyll-a in the Juan Fernandez archipelago (33°S, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Andrade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La variabilidad espacial y temporal del ciclo anual de la clorofila-α en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández se analiza usando ocho anos de datos satelitales de clorofila-α, viento, corrientes y nivel del mar. Este archipiélago está conformado por tres islas: Robinson Crusoe-Santa Clara (RC-SC y Alejandro Selkirk (AS. Las islas RC-SC se encuentran en una región de alta energía cinética y mayores concentraciones de clorofila-α definida como Zona de Transición Costera, en cambio la isla AS se encuentra en una región de baja energía cinética y menores concentraciones de clorofila-α denominada Zona Oceánica. RC-SC posee un incremento de las concentraciones de clorofila-a en el lado suroeste, mientras que AS posee sus mayores concentraciones en el lado oeste, indicando la presencia de procesos forzantes diferentes. En ambas islas el ciclo anual de la clorofila es significativo y comienza a incrementar en abril, alcanzando valores relativamente altos entre junio y noviembre, disminuyendo hacia diciembre, hasta alcanzar un mínimo hacia fines de marzo. Este ciclo anual aparece desacoplado con el viento y acoplado con la energía cinética. Incrementos invernales de clorofila-a aparecen vinculados con remolinos de mesoescala provenientes de la zona continental, mientras que incrementos primaverales se podrían asociar a procesos locales vinculados al "efecto masa de isla". En ambas islas existen incrementos significativos de la clorofila-a en la banda anual y cuasi-bianual, pero sólo en AS se encontró una fluctuación significativa en la banda interanual vinculada con el Nino y la Oscilación del Sur.The spatial and temporal variability of the annual cycle of chlorophyll-a in the Juan Fernandez archipelago is analyzed through eight years of satellite data of chlorophyll-a, wind, currents and sea level. This archipelago consists of three islands: Robinson Crusoe-Santa Clara (RC-SC and Alexander Selkirk (AS. The RC-SC islands are in a

  6. China and Chile Are to Be Free-Trade Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In line with the words "We hope that Chile's Next Partner is China", Chile is believed to choose China as the new negotiation party of Free Trade Agreements after signing respectively free trade agreements with Canada, the United States, EU and ROK. On January 24, Chile's trade delegation composed of 20 members led by Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs paid the first visit to China to launch first five-day round of mutual trade negotiation.Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile and Barbirlo Kafuleirla, Chile's Ambassador to China received special visit of reporters about this round.

  7. Chile's pension reform after twenty years

    OpenAIRE

    Acuna R., Rodrigo; Iglesias P., Augusto

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the 1980 Chilean pension reform and to present its main results and economic impact. It is mainly descriptive; however we have tried to emphasize the lessons that may be learned and that may be of interest to other countries in different circumstances. In particular, we focus on potential areas for regulatory improvements. In Section II, a brief description of the AFP system and its place within Chile's social security system is presented. Also, the main c...

  8. Financiamiento de la vivienda en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Morandé, Felipe G.; Garcia, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    El financiamiento a la vivienda en Chile ha alcanzado en los últimos 20 años un grado de desarrollo muy importante. Para esto ha sido fundamental: a) la eliminación del efecto de la inflación sobre el valor de las deudas de largo plazo, primero, mediante el desarrollo de una unidad de cuenta indexada a la inflación creíble y transparente (la UF), y posteriormente, con el abatimiento de la inflación como fenómeno macroeconómico; b) la reforma provisional de comienzos de los años 80, que fue cl...

  9. Chile Successfully Halts Rise in Childhood Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America has become a cause for concern. The IAEA has worked closely with the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) at the University of Chile since 1997 to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. In Santiago, the Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Stable Isotopes was established in 1998 with the help of the IAEA to provide an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and training in the use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, infant feeding practices and total daily energy expenditure

  10. La atencion preescolar en Chile: desafios para la redemocratizacion (Preschool Care in Chile: Challenges for Redemocratization. Discussion Paper No. 13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filp, Johanna; Undurrage, Consuelo

    This paper examines the current status of programs for preschool children in Chile. Section 1 of the paper provides an overview of the situation of preschool children in Chile. The country's population includes more than 1.6 million children between the ages of 0 and 5 years 11 months, and in urban areas, 18.4 percent of children between the ages…

  11. 75 FR 10846 - The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application March 2, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange.... Applicants: The Chile Fund, Inc. (``Chile Fund''), Aberdeen Australia Equity Fund (``Australia Fund,'' together with the Chile Fund, the ``Current Funds''), Aberdeen Asset Management Asia Limited...

  12. [Reflections about the historical development of biomedical sciences in Chile and the role of Revista Médica de Chile: an homage on 130-years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Fernández, Luis

    2002-12-01

    When Revista Médica de Chile turns to be 130 years old, the author reflects about the difficulties that scientific and technological creativity faces in Chile, considering that there was a 70 years gap between its historical origin in Chile compared to developed countries. The scientific progress erases the boundaries between Biomedicine and science and technology. This progress has resulted in an improvement in the quality of scientific publications in Revista Medica de Chile. The editorial work has also contributed to this improvement. Revista Medica de Chile has obtained international recognition and stands in a good position as a medical journal in Latin America and Chile.

  13. Variación de la percepción del recurso paisaje en el sur de Chile Variation of the perception of the landscape resource in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRES MUÑOZ-PEDREROS

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available El paisaje es el escenario de la actividad humana, por lo que cualquier acción artificial repercute inmediatamente en los factores perceptuales. Diversos autores defienden la idea de universalidad de las preferencias estéticas, lo que es refutado por quienes consideran determinantes los aspectos culturales e idiosincráticos a la hora de apreciar paisajes. Pareciera que una posición intermedia es, por ahora, la más atractiva. El objetivo de esta investigación es establecer la variabilidad derivada del evaluador y proponer técnicas que controlen, lo más posible, esta fuente de variación. Hemos seleccionado tres paneles, uno caracterizado como exigentes en la evaluación de paisaje, el segundo como transformadores y un tercero como control. De trabajos sincrónicos se evaluaron 144 paisajes, principalmente con bosque nativo, actividades ganaderas, agrícolas y silvícolas y ambientes lacustres. Se aplicó una encuesta cuya información fue dispuesta en arreglos matriciales de acuerdo a la naturaleza de los análisis que de ella se hicieron. Las técnicas estadísticas consideraron recursos descriptivos, tanto gráficos como numéricos y técnicas de análisis multivariado, particularmente análisis en componentes principales. Se estableció la variabilidad intragrupo de los observadores, detectándose diferencias significativas en algunos subgrupos que lo componen. Respecto a la variabilidad intergrupo de los observadores, se constató una alta coherencia interna en los tres grupos, la que varía según las macrounidades de paisaje. Se recomiendan criterios para la constitución de un panel que disminuya la subjetividad para evaluar paisaje del sur de ChileThe landscape is the stage of human activity, in which any artificial action rebounds immediately on the perception. Various authors defend the idea of the universality of aesthetic preferences, an idea that is refuted by those who consider cultural and idiosyncratic features as

  14. Contributions to the mammalogy of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Ronald H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Schamberger, Mel L.

    1979-01-01

    Collections of mammals were made during more than three years of biological investigations in Chile sponsored by the Corporación Nacional Forestal under the aegis of the Peace Corps (Smithsonian Environmental Program). Genera and species hitherto unreported for that country were taken and many useful data concerning distributional patterns of other (mostly little-known) species were gathered. These collections have also proved valuable in better understanding Chilean mammals from a taxonomic point of view and contribute knowledge of the species' natural history. Specimens are to be deposited in the (United States) National Museum of Natural History (USNM) or are to be retained by the Corporación Nacional Forestal, Avda, Bulnes 285, Depto. 401, Santiago. Numbers provided below are field numbers. A final division of specimens between the two institutions has not yet been made. A number of specimens reported here were not taken by Peace Corps personnel but have been obtained by the National Museum of Natural History from other sources. Specimens in the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH) were used in making comparisons. Some of Fulk's (GWF) specimens are at Texas Tech University. Other are at the Servicio Agricola y Ganadero in Santiago (as are specimens of some introduced species taken by Schamberger). Reise's (DF) are at the Universidad de Chile-Concepción and in his personal collection.

  15. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  16. Reação de cultivares de cevada a Drechslera teres, e variabilidade patogênica de isolados do Sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Wordell Filho João Américo; Prestes Ariano Morais; Silva Márcio Só

    2002-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar a reação de 58 cultivares de cevada a Drechslera teres, agente causal da mancha-em-rede, bem como a variabilidade patogênica e freqüência de sintomas do patógeno. A reação das cultivares foi estimada com auxílio de uma escala de notas de 0 a 4, em que zero (0) representa a ausência de sintomas, e 4 representa os sintomas típicos da mancha-em-rede. O mesmo método foi utilizado para avaliar a variabilidade patogênica de 25 isolados oriundos do Sul do Brasil. Seis isolados d...

  17. Variabilidad espacial de los modelos de infiltración de Philip y Kostiakov en un suelo Ândico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés F. Rodríguez-Vásquez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Conhecer o comportamento da infiltração é de grande utilidade devido a sua aplicação na produção agrícola, pois permite definir a operação de sistemas de irrigação e estudar os efeitos de diferentes práticas de uso do solo. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a variabilidade espacial dos parâmetros do modelo de infiltração de Philip e Kostiakov, assim como a sua relação com a densidade do solo, a densidade das partículas e os teores de areia, de silte e de argila. Os testes de infiltração foram medidos usando dois anéis concêntricos, em uma malha de amostragem retangular de 5 x 8 pontos, em intervalos regulares de 20 m, sob duas condições de umidade do solo. Encontrou-se que a variabilidade do solo e, principalmente, os teores de argila, influem na variabilidade espacial da infiltração, observando-se que os parâmetros do modelo de Philip e Kostiakov nem sempre se ajustaram a modelos teóricos de semivariogramas. O modelo que apresentou ajustes para todos os testes realizados nas duas condições de umidade foi o de Kostiakov. Os testes apresentaram-se limitantes para o modelo de Philip, quando o solo apresenta altos teores de água, indicando que esse modelo não foi adequado no solo ândico em estudo.To know the infiltration behavior is very important due to its application in the agricultural production, since it allows to define the operation of irrigation systems and to study the effects of different practices of soil use. The objective of present study was to determinate the spatial variability of the infiltration model parameters of Philip and Kostiakov, as well as its relation with the bulk density, soil particles density and the sand, lime and clay contents. The infiltration tests were made using double ting infiltrometers, in a rectangular grid of 5 x 8 points of sampling, spaced at separation distance of 20 m, among two moisture soil conditions. It was found that soil spatial variability and mainly

  18. Variación entre años de las infracomunidades de parásitos metazoos de la corvina Cilus gilberti (Pisces: Sciaenidae en Chile Between-years variation in infracommunities of metazoan parasites of the croaker Cilus gilberti (Pisces: Sciaenidae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÉLIX GARCÍAS

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan la composición, riqueza, diversidad, abundancia y dominancia en las infracomunidades de parásitos metazoos de 86 ejemplares de corvina Cilus gilberti (Abbott 1889, recolectados en dos muestras tomadas con 15 años de diferencia en la zona de Talcahuano, VIII región, Chile. Se pretende averiguar si estas características comunitarias se modifican o no sustantivamente entre años. Se recolectaron un total de 26 taxa, a los que se les determinó la prevalencia, aunque sólo a 22 se les determinó la abundancia. El 69 % de los 26 taxa ocurría en ambos años, sin embargo, al comparar la composición infracomunitaria entre años, sólo se consideró a aquellos 13 taxa que estaban en al menos 10 corvinas del total de 86 examinadas, y a hospedadores de similar longitud corporal. Hay variaciones significativas entre años en la composición de las infracomunidades de parásitos pero no en la riqueza, abundancia, diversidad y dominancia. Aunque los antecedentes son escasos, la observada relativamente alta variabilidad composicional y baja variabilidad agregada es similar a lo encontrado en infracomunidades de parásitos, tanto de peces como de mamíferos. Se discute la medida en que estos resultados representan compensación o estasis comunitaria, entre cuyas causas podrían estar las interacciones biológicasThe composition, richness, diversity, abundance and dominance in infracommunities of metazoan parasites found in 86 croaker Cilus gilberti (Abbott 1889 are compared between two samples taken off Talcahuano, Chile, with 15 years of difference. All hosts harboured parasites, and 26 taxa were collected. The prevalence of all taxa, and the abundance of 22 taxa were recorded. Most (69 % taxa were found in both years. However, to compare between years, we just considered those 13 taxa occurring in at least 10 host individuals. Significant variations in composition but not in richness, abundance, diversity and dominance were found when

  19. Relación entre variabilidad biogeoquímica y rasgos estructurales de la comunidad microbiana en suelos forestales: bosques de Abies pinsapo como caso de estudio

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Cañabate, Patricia; Hinojosa, M. Belén; García Ruiz, Roberto; Daniell, Tim; Carreira de la Fuente, José Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Tradicionalmente, los estudios biogeoquímicos consideraban el suelo como una "caja negra", conectada con el resto del ecosistema mediante flujos de entrada y de salida de nutrientes, en la que éstos experimentan transformaciones mediadas en gran parte por microorganismos desconocidos. El desarrollo de nuevas técnicas moleculares ha incrementado el conocimiento sobre las comunidades microbianas del suelo. Estudios recientes han puesto de manifiesto correspondencias entre la variabilidad de la ...

  20. Variabilidad antigénica y patogénica del virus del síndrome reproductor y respiratorio porcino

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Lobo, Francisco Javier

    2010-01-01

    El Síndrome Reproductor y Respiratorio Porcino (SRRP) es una enfermedad causada por un virus, denominado virus del SRRP (VSRRP), que afecta exclusivamente a la especie porcina y se caracteriza por producir alteraciones reproductivas en las hembras gestantes y alteraciones respiratorias en animales de todas las edades, fundamentalmente en lechones. Una de las características más resaltadas de este virus es su gran variabilidad, la cual ha sido puesta de manifiesto desde muchos puntos de vista ...

  1. Variabilidad en número, morfología y bandas C de los cromosomas B de Aegilops speltoides Tausch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebriá, Antonio

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the species Aegilops speltoides were collected in six localities of Israel: Haifa 1, Haifa 2, Ramat. Ara, Benaya and Ashkelon. They were studied for B chromosome polymorphism. Benaya and Ashkelon, located to the South of the Mediterranean coast, lack B chromosomes (Bs, while Haifa 1, Haifa 2, Ramat and Ara, located to the North, have Bs. It seems that Bs are present only in populations living in localities favourable for the species. We found variability for C heterochromatin in the Bs. The standard type ís submetacentric, with a large pericentromeric C-band, and two small C-bands, one on each arm. The pericentromeric C-band is constató while the other C-bands are highly variable. The most frequent B types found in these populations can be explained by recombination between Bs with and without C-bands. We have also found Bs with structural mutations. This highly polymorphic structure of the Bs can be explained by their lack of specific genetic function.Se recolectaron plantas de Aegilops speltoides en seis localidades de Israel: Haifa 1, Haifa 2, Ramat, Ara, Benaya y Ashkelon, para estudiar el polimorfismo para cromosomas B. En las poblaciones Benaya y Ashkelon, en el sur de la costa mediterránea, no se encontraron cromosomas B (Bs, mientras que en Haifa 1 y 2, Ramat y Ara, situadas en el norte, se detectó este tipo de cromosoma. Parece que los Bs solo están presentes en aquellas localidades que son más favorables para la especie. Hemos encontrado variabilidad en la heterocromatina presente en los Bs. El tipo estándar es submetacéntrico, con una banda pericentromérica grande y dos bandas C pequeñas, una en cada brazo. La banda pericentromérica es constante, mientras que las otras bandas son muy variables. Los patrones más frecuentes en estas poblaciones se pueden explicar por la recombinación entre Bs con y sin bandas. También hemos hallado Bs con mutaciones estructurales. La gran variabilidad de los Bs encontrados es

  2. El Parque Portal Bicentenario en Santiago de Chile / Portal Bicentennial Park in Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beach Lobos, Myriam;

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta los principios que orientaron el diseño del Parque Portal Bicentenario, un parque de 50 hás. que será el eje principal de la nueva urbanización “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario”, actualmente en construcción en los terrenos del ex aeropuerto de Los Cerrillos en Santiago de Chile.The following text was submitted to the Architecture Competition together with the project drawings. It presents the principles that leaded the design. The 123 acres park will be the main axis of a new urban development in Santiago “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario” at present under construction on the area occupied by the former Cerrillos Airport, Santiago de Chile.

  3. CASO DE ESTUDIO: LA FUNDACION COCA-COLA CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE HERRERA

    2006-01-01

    This case gives an overview of the Coca-Cola System in Chile and focuses on the Coca-Cola Chile Foundation (CCFCH), a non-profit organization dedicated to education. Created in 1992 with donations from Coca-Cola de Chile S.A. (CCCH) and the bottling companies Embotelladora Andina S.A., Coca-Cola Embonor S.A. and Coca-Cola Polar S.A., the foundation now faces an expansion dilemma in its most important program, the TAVEC Laboratories. Under this program the CCFCH donated interactive scientific ...

  4. [Ecology and health in Chile: present and future development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, M

    1997-09-01

    In response to the progressive environmental deterioration, the Ecological Society of America has made a proposal, called "Sustainable Biosphere Initiative", to do research, teaching and decision making processes on biodiversity, global change and the effects of human activities on environment. The goal of appropriate environmental protection and welfare for mankind includes health and quality of life. Presently, Chile faces a number of environmental problems such as pollution, excessive urban growth, loss of agricultural areas, disposal of solid waste and species extinction. The lack of education and information in Chile, on these problems, is worrisome. The role of universities to overcome this deficit should be crucial in the future sustainable development of Chile.

  5. Variabilidade temporal e espacial do tamanho de amostra da temperatura mínima do ar no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cargnelutti Filho Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a existência de variabilidade temporal e espacial do tamanho de amostra da temperatura mínima do ar média mensal de trinta e sete municípios do Rio Grande do Sul, utilizaram-se os dados de temperatura mínima do ar do período de 1931 a 2000. Determinou-se o tamanho de amostra da temperatura mínima do ar média mensal em cada mês e município. Realizou-se análise de agrupamento dos meses e dos municípios pelo método hierárquico "vizinho mais distante". Há variabilidade do tamanho de amostra (número de anos para a estimativa da temperatura mínima do ar média mensal no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul no tempo e no espaço. Maior tamanho de amostra, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, é necessário nos meses de maio, junho e julho, com diminuição gradativa em direção a janeiro e dezembro. Há variabilidade do tamanho de amostra entre os municípios do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.

  6. Variabilidad ambiental y recursos pesqueros en el Pacífico suroriental: estado de la investigación y desafíos para el manejo pesquero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Parada

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Las fluctuaciones en abundancia, biomasa, estructura de edad y patrones de distribución de los recursos pesqueros responden, entre otros, a la variabilidad ambiental. Estas respuestas son consecuencia tanto de efectos climáticos directos sobre los recursos como indirectos actuando sobre niveles tróficos relacionados. En este estudio se revisa: i el estado del conocimiento de los mecanismos físicos asociados a la variabilidad océano-atmósfera y las escalas de variabilidad espaciales y temporales del ambiente y la relación con recursos marinos, basados en datos observacionales y modelos hidrodinámicos, ii la relación ambiente-recurso para pesquerías pelágicas, demersales y bentónicas, y el uso de modelos biofísicos para entender estas relaciones, iii manejo actual de recursos pelágicos, demersales y bentónicos y los alcances en relación al uso de variables ambientales, y iv se discuten los desafíos hacia la asesoría en relación a las estrategias para mejorar la comprensión de la relación ambiente-recurso, así como, las estrategias para incorporar la modelación biofísica y variables ambientales en modelos operacionales para la asesoría hacia el manejo.

  7. Alleviating extreme poverty in Chile: The short term effects of Chile Solidario

    OpenAIRE

    Galasso, Emanuela

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of an anti-poverty program, Chile Solidario, during its first two years of operation. We find that the program tends to increases significantly their take-up of cash assistance programs and of social programs for housing and employment, and to improve education and health outcomes for participating households. There is no evidence that the participation to employment program translates into improved employment or income outcomes in the short term. Finally, we p...

  8. Las infracomunidades de parásitos de dos especies de Scartichthys (Pisces: Blenniidae en localidades cercanas del norte de Chile Parasite infracommunities of two blennid species, Scartichthys (Pisces: Blenniidae, at nearby localities off northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAREN FLORES

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan las infracomunidades de parásitos de dos especies congenéricas y simpátridas de peces marinos: Scartichthys viridis (Valenciennes 1836 y Scartichthys gigas (Steindachner 1876 (Pisces: Blenniidae, en tres localidades del intermareal rocoso de Iquique (20°32' S, 70°11' O, norte de Chile, separadas por no más de 6 km, con muestras recolectadas entre agosto y septiembre de 2005. El objetivo fue evaluar la variabilidad de la riqueza, abundancia, diversidad, dominancia y composición en una escala espacial y temporal reducida. En total, se recolectaron 2.110 individuos parásitos en los 134 hospedadores examinados, los que pertenecían a 14 taxa. Se encontró una gran similitud en la composición y en las propiedades agregadas de las infracomunidades, tanto entre especies de hospedadores como entre sitios de estudio. Se interpreta que las condiciones ambientales, los factores ecológicos como el uso del habitat y de los recursos alimentarios, y los factores evolutivos como el alto grado de parentesco de estas especies de Scartichthys, son las principales influencias en la alta similitud parasitaria encontrada.The infracommunities of metazoan parasites in two congeneric and sympatric marine fish species, Scartichthys viridis (Valenciennes 1836 and Scartichthys gigas (Steindachner 1876, were studied and compared between three localities of the intertidal rocky shore off the coast of northern Chile, near Iquique (20°32' S, 70°11' W, which were separated by no more than 6 km. Samples were collected between August and September 2005. The goal of this study was to assess the variability in richness, abundance, diversity, dominance and parasite composition between close localities sampled within a short period. In all, 2,110 parasite individuals were collected from the 134 hosts examined, and 14 parasite taxa were identified. There was great similarity in the aggregated and compositional properties of the infracommunities, both between

  9. LA NOVELA DE LA DICTADURA EN CHILE The novel of the dictatorship's period in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lulo C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Para un sector de la crítica y de la academia chilena, la gran novela de la Dictadura es una asignatura pendiente. En este artículo se problematiza este tema mediante la formulación de una hipótesis según la cual una serie de novelas aparecidas en Chile entre 1977 y 2006 cumplen con la función de narrar -desde su fragmentariedad- las causas y consecuencias del 11 de septiembre de 1973. Así, busca plantear las bases epistemológicas e históricas que posibiliten llevar a cabo una investigación de mayor alcance acerca del problema del papel de la novela durante y después de la Dictadura.For many critics and scholars the great novel of the dictatorship's period in Chile still remains a pending matter. This article, on the contrary, hypothesizes on the existence of a significant number of novéis published in Chile between 1977 and 2006, which out of their fragmentary character and peculiarity give a proper account of the causes and consequences of the coup d'état held on September llth 1973. The article seeks to set a preliminary basis for an epistemological discussion and further major research about the role of the Chilean novel, in the historical context of post modernity, during and after the dictatorship's era.

  10. Geographic variation in diversity of wave exposed rocky intertidal communities along central Chile Variación geográfica de la biodiversidad en hábitats intermareales rocosos de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERNARDO R BROITMAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Along the coast of central Chile, geographic trends of diversity have been inferred from literature compilations and museum collections based on species range limits for some taxonomic groups. However, spatially-intensive field-based assessments of macrobenthic species richness are largely missing. Over the course of a multiyear study (1998-2005, we characterized latitudinal patterns of rocky intertidal diversity at 18 sites along the coast of central Chile (29-36° S. At each site, the number of sessile and mobile macrobenthic species was quantified in 0.25 m² quadrats. Two estimators of local (alpha diversity were used: observed local species richness, calculated from the asymptote of a species-rarefaction curve, and the Chao2 index, which takes into account the effect of rare species on estimates of local richness. We identified a total of 71 species belonging to 66 genera for a total of 86 taxa. The most diverse groups were herbivorous mollusks (27 taxa and macroalgae (43 taxa. Diversity showed a complex spatial pattern with areas of high species richness interspersed with areas of low richness. In accordance with previous work, we found no trend in the number of herbivorous mollusks and an inverse and significant latitudinal gradient in the number of algal species. Our results highlight the need for taxonomically diverse assessments of biodiversity of the dominant taxa that conform intertidal communities.A lo largo de la costa de Chile central, los patrones geográficos de diversidad han sido inferidos a partir de revisiones literarias y colecciones de museos para algunos grupos taxonómicos. Sin embargo, aun no contamos con una evaluación integral, y en terreno, de la riqueza de especies macrobentónicas intermareales. En un estudio de largo plazo conducido entre 1998 y 2005 caracterizamos los patrones latitudinales en la biodiversidad del intermareal rocoso en 18 sitios a lo largo de la costa de Chile central (29-36° S. En cada sitio

  11. OBJETOS DEVOCIONALES EN UNA CIUDAD VIRREINAL PERIFÉRICA (SANTIAGO DE CHILE, 1598 – 1610; 1692 – 1710: UNA INVESTIGACIÓN EN CURSO

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    Josefina Schenke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta y discute las temáticas de una investigación doctoral en curso que busca conocer, por una parte, qué imágenes y soportes de devoción existen, circulan o desaparecen en Santiago de Chile durante dos coyunturas finiseculares (1598–1610; 1692–1710 y, por otra, relacionar la variabilidad de la presencia de tales soportes con los contextos devocionales, sociales y urbanos a los que pertenecen. El propósito es identificar la existencia –atestiguada por documentos notariales o inventarios de bienes eclesiásticos– de todo objeto que merezca un culto religioso específico: imágenes de culto, estampas, lienzos, reliquias, medallas, rosarios, cruces, etc. Interesa extraer la proporción de cada uno de ellos para comprender cómo ciertos objetos componen conjuntos orgánicos, con significados o comportamientos comunes. En este trabajo se exponen las múltiples aristas que comporta este sujeto de estudio y se reflexiona en torno a los antecedentes historiográficos que lo preceden y las perspectivas metodológicas que en él se adoptan.

  12. TRANSPARENCIA Y LEYES SECRETAS EN CHILE

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    Pablo Contreras V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor analiza el problema de constitucionalidad de las leyes secretas en Chile, en razón de las modificaciones introducidas a la Constitución en el 2005. Primero, describe brevemente el fundamento sobre la publicidad de la ley en el Estado Democrático. Luego, se analiza el nuevo principio constitucional de publicidad establecido en el artículo 8º de la Constitución. Adicionalmente, se examina la constitucionalidad de las leyes secretas desde dos puntos de vista: confrontando la compatibilidad con el principio general de transparencia -como base de la institucionalidad- y analizando la afectación en el contenido esencial del derecho fundamental de acceso a la información pública.

  13. Epidemiology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus outbreaks, southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, Erika; Matsuda, Luis; Hernández, Cristina; Rioseco, Maria L; Romero, Jaime; González-Escalona, Narjol; Martínez-Urtaza, Jaime; Espejo, Romilio T

    2009-02-01

    Disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Puerto Montt, Chile, began in 2004 and reached a peak in 2005 at 3,600 clinical cases. Until 2006, every analyzed case was caused by the serovar O3:K6 pandemic strain. In the summer of 2007, only 475 cases were reported; 73% corresponded to the pandemic strain. This decrease was associated with a change in serotype of many pandemic isolates to O3:K59 and the emergence of new clinical strains. One of these strains, associated with 11% of the cases, was genotypically different from the pandemic strain but contained genes that were identical to those found on its pathogenicity island. These findings suggest that pathogenicity-related genes were laterally transferred from the pandemic strain to one of the different V. parahaemolyticus groups comprising the diverse and shifting bacterial population in shellfish in this region. PMID:19193258

  14. Privatization And Vouchers In Colombia And Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    The voucher model of financing schooling is becoming increasingly common throughout Latin America, with at least 12 countries using vouchers or voucher-like schemes. The present study focuses on the voucher models of Colombia and Chile, which have the most extensive programs of this type and those of the longest standing in the region. Using empirical evidence, the author compares the two models along four evaluative dimensions: educational quality, segregation, choice and socialization. After weighing the successes and weaknesses of each system, he concludes that, among other characteristics, the most effective and equitable voucher model features: (a) a flexible interpretation of educational quality; (b) financial grants which target solely the poor; (c) vouchers which cover the entire cost of tuition; (d) open enrolment at participating schools; (e) the participation of both secular and religious private schools; (f) accessible and meaningful information to parents; and (g) strong systems of accountability.

  15. Three halls for music performance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Jaime; Heuffemann, Carolina; Ramirez, Daniel; Galvez, Fernando

    2002-11-01

    The primary purpose of this work was to investigate about the present acoustic conditions of used architectonic spaces in Santiago of Chile for orchestras of classic music performance. The studied halls were three: Aula Magna Universidad de Santiago, Teatro Municipal de Nunoa, and Teatro Baquedano. The used methodology was based on studies made by L. Beranek, M. Barron, among others, in concert halls worldwide. As it guides, for the measurement procedure, physical parameters RT, EDT, C50, C80, LF, BR, G, U50 were evaluated according to norm ISO 3382. On the other hand, it has been defined, to proposal way, a questionnaire of subjective valuation directed to musicians, specialized conductors, and listeners.

  16. A DRONE FLIGHT OVER PARANAL, CHILE

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Aerial clip (shot using a drone and a Go pro) describing ESO's astronomical observatory facilities in the Atacama desert, Northern Chile. Locations covered by the drone flight include Cerro Paranal, with the Residencia (external and internal views) and the Very Large Telescope facility on Cerro Paranal, from above and with a peek into Unit Telescope 1 and its 8,2 m diameter mirror; final image on Cerro Armazones, the site chosen for building ESO's next telescope, the E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope). With a 39-metre main mirror, it will be the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world. The Argentinian Codillera with the Llullaillaco volcano are visible in the background.

  17. Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter Leal, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, agriculture remains a key economic factor for rural development. Accordingly, the Chilean government, through the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), provides financial support for fostering entrepreneurship among small farmers to enable them to become more competitive in global ma

  18. Research training in dental undergraduate curriculum in Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena Moreno

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research plays a central role in professional training in dentistry. There is a clear recommendation to include a minimum training in biomedical research at undergraduate level. In Chile, there is no standardized curriculum structure including research training for undergraduate students. Objective: To describe the presence of research courses in the undergraduate dental curriculum in Chile during 2014. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study. The curriculum for all Chilean...

  19. Beyond Income: A Study of Multidimensional Poverty in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Bronfman, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Using the latest nationally representative household survey for Chile, this paper empirically assesses multidimensional poverty both at the national and subnational level. Based on the Alkire-Foster method and focusing on four dimensions of well-being –education, health, income and living standard– this study estimates the level and depth of multidimensional poverty for Chile in 2011. At national level, the results show that fewer individuals are subject to multidimensional poverty compared t...

  20. La fauna de caprélidos (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea de la costa de Coquimbo, centro-norte de Chile, con una clave taxonómica para la identificación de las especies The caprellid fauna (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea from the coast of Coquimbo, Northern-central Chile, with a taxonomic key for species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ M. GUERRA-GARCÍA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Los caprélidos son comunes y abundantes en muchos hábitats litorales del ambiente marino. Sin embargo este grupo de anfípodos no ha sido muy bien estudiado en la costa chilena. El estudio de los caprélidos se ha visto dificultado por su gran variabilidad morfológica y el hecho de que la literatura así como los especímenes de los museos son difíciles de localizar. El objetivo de este estudio fue entregar las herramientas taxonómicas para la identificación de las especies de crustáceos caprélidos comunes en el centro-norte de la costa de Chile. Se muestrearon distintos hábitats (boyas, bolones intermareales, praderas de algas y fanerógamas marinas y se encontraron seis especies distintas de caprélidos: Caprellina longicollis (Nicolet, 1849, Caprella equilibra Say, 1818, C. scaura Templeton, 1836, C. verrucosa Boeck, 1871; Deutella venenosa Mayer, 1890 y Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890. Caprella scaura, C. verrucosa y D. venenosa fueron muy abundantes sobre las algas, hidrozoos y briozoos asociados a boyas. Caprella equilibra, también presente en boyas, fue más abundante bajo piedras en zonas intermareales rocosas expuestas, donde también se encontraron ejemplares de D. venenosa y de P. pusilla. Caprella scaura también se encontró sobre algas rojas de las playas arenosas, especialmente sobre Gracilaria chilensis y sobre la fanerógama marina Heterozostera tasmanica, donde cohabitó junto a Caprellina longicollis. Paracaprella pusilla constituye una nueva cita para las costas pacíficas sudamericanas, siendo nueva para la fauna de Chile. La especie D. venenosa, que se cita por primera vez después de la descripción original de Mayer en el año 1890, es considerada una especie endémica de la costa central de ChileCaprellids are abundant in many littoral habitats of the marine environment. Nevertheless, this group of amphipods has been scarcely studied along the coast of Chile. The study of the Caprellidea is particularly

  1. Variabilidade da frequência cardíaca em pacientes com anemia ferropriva Variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca en pacientes con anemia ferropriva Heart rate variability in patients with iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tuncer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC está associada com aumento do fator de risco cardíaco em várias condições. As concentrações de ferro apresentadas por um indivíduo podem ter um papel importante na saúde cardiovascular. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a VFC em pacientes com anemia ferropriva. MÉTODOS: Vinte e três pacientes com anemia ferropriva (hemoglobina (Hb média = 8,6±2,2 g/dl e 10 indivíduos saudáveis ( Hb média = 13,9±1,2 g/dl foram avaliados através de monitoramento ambulatorial por 24 horas (Sistema Holter durante estadia hospitalar com atividade física limitada. RESULTADOS: Embora a frequência cardíaca (FC média tenha sido significantemente mais alta em pacientes com anemia, não houve diferença significativa em relação aos parâmetros da VFC quando comparados ao grupo saudável. CONCLUSÃO: Não há diferença significativa nos parâmetros da VFC entre pacientes com anemia ferropriva e indivíduos saudáveis.FUNDAMENTO: La variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca (VFC está asociada al aumento del factor de riesgo cardiaco en varias condiciones. Las concentraciones de hierro presentadas por un individuo pueden ejercer un rol importante para la salud cardiovascular. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la VFC en pacientes con anemia ferropriva. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron a 23 pacientes con anemia ferropriva (hemoglobina [Hb] media = 8,6±2,2 g/dL y a 10 individuos sanos (Hb media = 13,9±1,2 g/dL por medio de monitoreo ambulatorio por 24 horas (Sistema Holter durante estadía hospitalaria con actividad física limitada. RESULTADOS: Aunque la frecuencia cardiaca (FC media fue significantemente más alta en pacientes con anemia, no hubo diferencia significante respecto a los parámetros de la VFC en comparación con el grupo de individuos sanos. CONCLUSIONES: No hay diferencia significante en los parámetros de la VFC entre pacientes con anemia ferropriva e individuos sanos.BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV is associated

  2. The fruit fly programme in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: country. In fact, no species of the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Anastrepha, Dacus and Toxotrypana exist in the country. This programme uses the Fruit fly National Detection System, which includes detection of the pest by trapping and fruit sampling in different areas located between the I and XI Regions of the country. This system is approved by the Chilean trade partners on the basis of the fruit fly-free recognition. For the Chilean fresh fruit exports, this is an important advantage, because there is no need to apply quarantine treatments or any other restriction measure. Chile has also a huge fruit industry, whose export revenues last season reached USD 1,900 million. This fact has permitted to undertake continuously a big effort to maintain that phytosanitary condition. Since Chile is the only fruit-fly free Latin American country, it has to face a continuous biological pressure of fruit flies, mainly C. capitata, to invade its territory. But the country has also some important advantages to prevent flies migrating due to its natural isolation. These natural barriers are the Los Andes ranges in the east, thousands of kilometers of desert in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the west and finally an extremely cold, sub polar climate in the south. This isolation has led to the NPPO officials to believe that the passive spread, through smuggling and hidden fruit in passenger's baggage, to be the most likely source of fruit fly entries. Because of that, Chile has a very strict quarantine system with border control stations at every point of entry. The only exception to the mentioned isolation is Arica Province on the border with Peru. There, SAG applies an area-wide preventative approach through the rearing and release of sterile insects, as well as bait spraying in the border area, which is mainly desert, but has some 'green spots' that allow the fly to alight for resting and feeding. Additionally, through bi-national agreements, common activities are

  3. La Medialuna: un edificio para Chile/The Crescent, a building for Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Recchione, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se refiere los antecedentes históricos sobre la escuela ecuestre de la jineta y su introducción en las faenas agrícola-ganaderas chilenas. Se reseña el nacimiento del rodeo como deporte nacional chileno y los requerimientos del complejo espacio de la “fiesta del rodeo”: un problema arquitectónico y también urbanístico./ The equestrian school of "La Jineta" in Chile, and the architecture for the national holiday of "rodeo."

  4. Variabilidade entre isolados de Trichoderma harzianum: I - Aspectos citológicos Variability among Trichoderma harzianum isolates: I - Cytological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Peres

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho estudar a variabilidade de isolados selvagens de Trichoderma harzianum baseado nas características culturais e citológicas. Observaram-se o tamanho dos fialosporos, número de núcleos por fialosporos e crescimento e esporulação em meio de malte-ágar. Pelos resultados aqui encontrados foi possível reconhecer que há variação entre os isolados selvagens da espécie T. harzianum. Com relação ao número de núcleos, verificou-se uma variação de 1 a 3 núcleos por fialosporos. Também observou-se padrões diferenciais de crescimento e morfologia da colônia. Mais de 50% dos isolados atingiram o máximo de crescimento em 48 horas.This study is based largely on morphological and cultural characters of Tríchoderma harzianum isolates. It were observed the size of phialospores, mycelial growth and sporulation on malt extract agar and nuclei number per phialospores, stained with Giemsa. A x 100 oil immersion len was used in examining and in measuring phialospores. Based on the size of phialospores, it was possible recognize that there is variaton among the wild isolates for the specie T. harzianum. Also, with relation to mycelial growth and sporulation can itself distinguish from one another different pattern. Up to 50% of isolates had maximum growth in 48 hours. The nuclei number of 1 to 3 per phialospore was observed.

  5. Nuevos resultados del estudio del sitio Ajej I: un aporte a la variabilidad de estrategias de los canoeros fueguinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Luis Piana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio del sitio Ajej I, ubicado cronológicamente entre 1300 y 1400 años AP, es resultado de una excavación de rescate realizada en la costa norte del Canal Beagle. La región fue ocupada desde el séptimo milenio AP por cazadores-recolectores litorales. Los análisis realizados permiten postular que el sitio se caracteriza por: a una baja recurrencia de ocupación; b la selectividad de caza de pinnípedos frente a otros recursos; c su representación diferencial de partes anatómicas y d una baja variabilidad actividades realizadas con el instrumental lítico. Asimismo, proveyó una fecha temprana para la presencia del arco y la flecha en la región austral. Los resultados permiten discutir sobre la diversidad de estrategias implementadas por los cazadores-recolectores canoeros.The study of the archaeological site Ajej I dated between 1300 and 1400 BP is the result of a rescue excavation carried out in the northern coast of the Beagle Channel, an area peopled by sea littoral hunter-gatherers since the seventh millennium BP. The analyses results pinpoint that the site is characterized by: a a low redundant occupation; b a selectivity of the pinnipeds as preys; c a differential distribution of their anatomical parts; and d a low diversity of activities carried with the lithic instruments. Besides, these studies provided an early date to the presence of bows and arrows in such an austral region. Results enable to discuss on the variability of the strategies carried on by those sea nomads.

  6. ALMA communication backbone in Chile goes optical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Jaque, Sandra; Liello, F.; Navarro, C.

    2014-07-01

    High-bandwidth communication has become a key factor for scientific installations as Observatories. This paper describes the technical, organizational, and operational goals and the level of completion of the ALMA Optical Link Project. The project focus is the creation and operation of an effective and sustainable communication infrastructure to connect the ALMA Observatory, located in the Atacama Desert, in the Northern region of Chile, with the point of presence in ANTOFAGASTA, about 400km away, of the EVALSO infrastructure, and from there to the Central Office in the Chilean capital, Santiago. This new infrastructure that will be operated in behalf of ALMA by REUNA, the Chilean National Research and Education Network, will use state of the art technologies, like dark fiber from newly built cables and DWDM transmission, allowing extending the reach of high capacity communication to the remote region where the Observatory is located. When completed, the end-to-end Gigabit-per-second (Gbps) capable link will provide ALMA with a modern, effective, robust, communication infrastructure capable to cope with present and future demands, like those coming from fast growing data transfer to rapid response mode, from remote monitoring and engineering to virtual presence.

  7. Macroeconomic fluctuations and bank behavior in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Restrepo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze bank behavior in Chile over time, looking at how their balance sheets and performance move both in the short and long run, and how they react to macroeconomic shocks. The evolution of banking aggregates over an 18 year period (1989-2006, using quarterly data is examined. Techniques common in the real business cycle literature are applied to establish empirical patterns. Robustness tests using several filters are performed. The effects of macro shocks on banking variables are analyzed, both by means of an event study, and by estimating impulse responses with VARs. The results show that credit lags the cycle, demand deposits lead it, both being procyclical, while the capital adequacy ratio (CAR is countercyclical. In addition, a shock to interest rates reduces loans (total, commercial, consumption, and increases non performing loans (NPL and the capital adequacy ratio (CAR. A shock to GDP growth has a positive effect on loans, return over equity (ROE, and a negative impact on NPL and CAR.

  8. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level. PMID:3834878

  9. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  10. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level.

  11. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorio Solano Carolina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la 'escoba de bruja' en cacao (Theobroma cacao, presen- ta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cer- canas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos encaminados al manejo de este patógeno y el desarrollo de materiales resistentes de cacao. En este estudio se analizaron 12 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de diferentes materiales de cacao. Cada una de las muestras se evaluó con marcadores moleculares que tienen como blanco una región del ADN ribosomal (ADNr nuclear conocida como ITS (Internal Trans- cribed Spacer, una región intergénica (IGS-1 y cinco secuencias simples repetidas (SSR. El marcador IGS-1 permitió la determinación del biotipo C, no obstante se encontró una variabilidad genética evi- dente dentro de este biotipo, aún no registrada. El análisis de la diversidad genética de M. perniciosa por medio de marcadores microsatélite arrojó un valor total de 0.4260, una heterocigosidad total de

    0.6143 y un Indice de información polimórfica (PIC de 0.3407, valores considerados de rango medio a

    alto para los aislamientos estudiados y que estiman la variabilidad genética presente en M. perniciosa.

  12. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Osorio-Solano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la ‘escoba de bruja’ en cacao (Theobroma cacao, presenta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cercanas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos encaminados al manejo de este patógeno y el desarrollo de materiales resistentes de cacao. En este estudio se analizaron 12 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de diferentes materiales de cacao. Cada una de las muestras se evaluó con marcadores moleculares que tienen como blanco una región del ADN ribosomal (ADNr nuclear conocida como ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer, una región intergénica (IGS-1 y cinco secuencias simples repetidas (SSR. El marcador IGS-1 permitió la determinación del biotipo C, no obstante se encontró una variabilidad genética evidente dentro de este biotipo, aún no registrada. El análisis de la diversidad genética de M. perniciosa por medio de marcadores microsatélite arrojó un valor total de 0.4260, una heterocigosidad total de 0.6143 y un índice de información polimórfica (PIC de 0.3407, valores considerados de rango medio a alto para los aislamientos estudiados y que estiman la variabilidad genética presente en M. perniciosa.

  13. [The evolution theory in the medical sciences in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Coke, R

    1994-02-01

    The evolutionist ideas of Lamarck, Darwin and Haeckel entered the country through the arrival of their books. "On the origin of Species" arrived in Chile in 1869. The most outstanding immigrant european physicians that discussed these ideas were Rodulfo A Phillippi (1808-1904) and Juan José Brunner (1825-1899). Both discussed Darwin's ideas in their books and conferences as academics of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile. The first Chilean physicians that read and discussed the validity of evolution theory were Adolfo Valderrama (1834-1902) and Pedro Candia Salgado. Both wrote articles about this matter in Revista Médica de Chile in 1872 and 1874. The professor of general biology, Juan Noé Crevani, italian physician and zoologist that arrived in Chile in 1912, was the first to teach directly the concepts of the evolution theory until his death in 1947. Professor Noé founded the great biological school of the twentieth century in Chile and his disciples introduced the concepts of Mendelian theory and neodarwinism in the decade of fifties. The theory of evolution was taught as a chapter of general biology in the Faculty of Medicine between 1913 and 1947, but its practical applications to medicine were introduced with the birth of medical genetics in the decade of fifties and the foundation of Chilean Genetics society in 1964, under the direction of professors Danko Brncic and Gustavo Hoecker, both awarded with the National Sciences Prize.

  14. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies. PMID:27661557

  15. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor A. Vargas; Gerardo Lamas

    2011-01-01

    First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae) é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  16. Variabilidad en la implantación de las actividades comunitarias de promoción de la salud en España

    OpenAIRE

    March, S.; Soler, M.; Miller, F; I. Montaner; Pérez Jarauta, M.J.; Ramos, M

    2014-01-01

    Fundamento. Describir la variabilidad en la realización de actividades comunitarias de promoción de la salud, en apoyos recibidos, en formación y en valoración de la participación de profesionales, administración y agentes sociales en las mismas. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo mediante cuestionarios enviados a informadores clave identificados en cada CCAA con la ayuda de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria (SemFYC). El cuestionario incluía una definición de actividad comun...

  17. Variabilidade Espacial e Densidade Amostral da Suscetibilidade Magnética e dos Atributos de Argissolos da Região de Manicoré, AM

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira; José Marques Junior; Milton César Costa Campos; Renato Eleotério de Aquino; Ludmila de Freitas; Diego Silva Siqueira; José Maurício da Cunha

    2015-01-01

    A dificuldade em encontrar informações recentes sobre o comportamento espacial dos atributos dos solos na Região Amazônica tem sido preocupação de muitos pesquisadores. Em razão da grande dificuldade e dos custos para avaliar os atributos dos solos, têm-se utilizados métodos alternativos para predição de atributos do solo como a suscetibilidade magnética. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a variabilidade espacial da suscetibilidade magnética (SM), os atributos físicos e quími...

  18. Evaluación de la variabilidad hidroclimática desde modelos climáticos regionales a escala de cuenca

    OpenAIRE

    Olmos Giménez, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    [ESP] La situación geográfica y las características socioeconómicas de la España Peninsular, la hacen vulnerable al cambio y variabilidad climática. Estudios recientes identifican el Mediterráneo como una región particularmente vulnerable al cambio climático. El aumento de la población y los usos consuntivos intensos, generan presiones sobre los recursos hídricos de muchas cuencas. Tal es el caso de la cuenca del río Segura, una cuenca que se puede considerar deficitaria, donde el 85 % de sus...

  19. Modelación Matemática de la Variabilidad Fenotípica del Sistema de Regulación Lac enEscherichia Coli

    OpenAIRE

    García Puerta, Yuri Elena

    2012-01-01

    Se quiere estudiar la variabilidad en los nniveles de expresión del operón lac ,una colección de 96 aislados naturales de Escherichia Coli. El objetivo es establecer una relación de casualidad entre genotipo y fenotipo, es decir, como cambios en los genotipos producencambios en los fenotipos del operón. Para esto se propone una estrategia que consiste en: 1)Caracterizar los fenotipos através de un conjunto de parámetros, los cuales se obtienendel ajuste de un modelo matemático a datos obtenid...

  20. Variabilidad morfológica y molecular de cultivares criollos y mejorados de frijol común en Tabasco, México

    OpenAIRE

    Ernestina Valadez Moctezuma; Luz del Carmen Lagunes-Espinoza; Abel Vidal-Barahona; Carlos Fredy Ortiz-García

    2006-01-01

    La variabilidad genética entre siete cultivares criollos de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) colectados en la región de la Chontalpa, Tabasco, México, y 14 cultivares mejorados fue evaluada con marcadores morfológicos y moleculares tipo RAPD e ISSR. Un alto nivel de cercanía entre los dos tipos de cultivares para las 19 características morfológicas evaluadas fue establecido por el análisis de componentes principales. Los genotipos criollos se asociaron con los mejorados. Entre los cultiva...

  1. Variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos em latossolo e argissolos Spatial variability of chemical attributes in latosol and argisol

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Montanari; Gener Tadeu Pereira; José Marques Júnior; Zigomar Menezes de Souza; Renato Junqueira Pazeto; Lívia Arantes Camargo

    2008-01-01

    O trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos de Latossolos e Argissolos, sob cultivo de cana-de-açúcar em áreas com variações na forma do relevo. No presente estudo utilizou-se duas áreas, sendo uma em Latossolo em pedoforma convexa (158ha) e a outra em Argissolo na pedoforma linear (172ha). Foi coletada amostra de solo em malha na profundidade de 0,00-0,50m, realizando-se análise química de cada ponto amostrado. Os maiores coeficientes de variação...

  2. Variabilidad de la clorofila a fitoplanctónica y de los nutrientes inorgánicos en aguas de la plataforma insular de las Islas Baleares

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jansá; Aparicio-González, A.; Amengual, B. (Bartolomé)

    2009-01-01

    A lo largo de cuatro campañas llevadas a cabo en abril, julio y octubre de 2008 y marzo de 2009, se han tomado nuevos datos de clorofila a y nutrientes inorgánicos (nitratos, nitritos, fosfatos y silicatos), en diversas estaciones oceanográficas distribuidas en aguas de las plataformas insulares de Mallorca, Menorca e Ibiza, a tres niveles de profundidad (5, 25 y 50m o en las proximidades del fondo en algunos casos). Poniendo especial énfasis en la variabilidad estacional de la clorofila a (b...

  3. Variabilidade Espacial e Densidade Amostral da Suscetibilidade Magnética e dos Atributos de Argissolos da Região de Manicoré, AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A dificuldade em encontrar informações recentes sobre o comportamento espacial dos atributos dos solos na Região Amazônica tem sido preocupação de muitos pesquisadores. Em razão da grande dificuldade e dos custos para avaliar os atributos dos solos, têm-se utilizados métodos alternativos para predição de atributos do solo como a suscetibilidade magnética. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a variabilidade espacial da suscetibilidade magnética (SM, os atributos físicos e químicos e determinar a densidade amostral de coleta em Argissolo Vermelho sob floresta nativa, Terra Preta Arqueológica (TPA sob cultivo, e pastagem na região de Manicoré, Amazonas. Nessas áreas, foram estabelecidas malhas com dimensão de 70 × 70 m e demarcados pontos nessas malhas, espaçados a cada 10 m, totalizando 64 pontos. Esses pontos foram georreferenciados e, em seguida, realizaram-se as coletas de solo em cada ponto da malha nas camadas de 0,00-0,20 e 0,40-0,60 m para determinar atributos químicos (pH em água, matéria orgânica, P, K, Ca, Mg e acidez potencial, físicos (textura, macroporosidade, microporosidade, diâmetro médio ponderado, densidade do solo e densidade de partículas e suscetibilidade magnética. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5 %. Realizou-se a estatística descritiva. Para caracterizar a variabilidade, fez-se a geoestatística com uso de semivariograma escalonado. O alcance dos semivariogramas escalonados foi utilizado para determinar a densidade amostral mínima de coleta para estimar a variabilidade dos atributos estudados. As áreas de TPA e pastagem apresentaram maior variabilidade, apresentando menor alcance e maior densidade amostral (cinco pontos por hectare. A SM apresentou comportamento espacial similar aos atributos físicos e químicos estudados, sendo a densidade amostral da SM próxima à densidade amostral dos atributos nos

  4. Variabilidad de los sistemas intensivos de producción porcina de la región de La Piedad Michoacán

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Padilla, Juan Pablo

    2011-01-01

    El estudio se realizó en siete granjas porcinas, que constan de tres sitios, en región de La Piedad Michoacán, con un total de 20688 vientres. Ello con el objetivo de determinar la variabilidad del sistema intensivo de producción porcina (SIPP), utilizando información reproductiva y producida, cuyas variables fueron: estructura del hato (EH), total de lechones nacidos (TLN), lechones nacidos vivos (LNV), nacidos muertos (NM), momias (MOM), longitud de lactación (LL), lechones destetados (LD),...

  5. Composición corporal y variabilidad del ritmo cardiaco en pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica candidatos a rehabilitación respiratoria

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Curilem Gatica; Atilio Almagià Flores; Tuillang Yuing Farías; Fernando Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    La composición corporal es una metodología no invasiva, que nos entrega información acerca de la distribución de tejidos en la estructura corporal, además es un indicador del riesgo de mortalidad en pacientes con Enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. La variabilidad del ritmo cardiaco es una técnica que nos entrega información de la condición fisiológica autonómica, siendo reconocida como un indicador que se encuentra disminuido en una serie de enfermedades. El propósito de este estudio fu...

  6. Variabilidad Climática Intraestacional y su Efecto sobre la Precipitación en Colombia: Diagnóstico y Pronóstico

    OpenAIRE

    Yepes Palacio, Leidy Johanna

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudian los principales modos de variabilidad a escala intraestacional en Colombia a través de registros satelitales de precipitación diaria provenientes del TRMM, la cual es agregada a escala pentadiaria. Se presentan centros de anomalías de precipitación en el Análisis de Componentes Principales y un comportamiento dipolar sobre el Pacífico colombiano en el Análisis de Componentes Independientes, manifestando una fuerte interacción con la cordillera de los Andes en los P...

  7. Variabilidad morfológica, patogénica y susceptibilidad a fungicidas de Rhizoctonia solani aislado de rizósfera de Vitis vinifera var. perlette seedless

    OpenAIRE

    Amparo Meza-Moller; Martín Esqueda; Alfonso Gardea; Martín Tiznado; Gil Virgen-Calleros

    2007-01-01

    Se estudió la variabilidad morfológica, reacción de anastomosis, patogenicidad y susceptibilidad a fungicidas de Rhizoctonia solani aislado de la rizósfera de Vitis vinifera var. perlette seedless plantada a pie franco en Sonora, México. El hongo se aisló mediante el método de tamizado en húmedo y la siembra en agar-agua 2 %. Se obtuvieron 122 cepas, las cuales presentaron hifas con 3 a 9 núcleos por célula, de 3 a 8 µm de diámetro y de color blanco sucio a moreno oscuro. Los aislamientos cor...

  8. VARIABILIDAD ESPACIAL DE LAS PROPIEDADES QUÍMICAS DEL EPIPEDÓN DE UN ANDISOL HIDROMÓRFICO DEL ORIENTE ANTIOQUEÑO (COLOMBIA SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF THE EPIPEDON CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN AN HYDROMORPHIC ANDISOL FROM THE ANTIOQUIA EAST ( COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Francisco Jaramillo Jaramillo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la variabilidad espacial de algunas propiedades químicas del epipedón de un Andisol de régimen de humedad ácuico. La mayoría de las propiedades estudiadas presentó una dependencia espacial alta, con una variabilidad estructurada de más del 50% de la variabilidad total y con rango relativamente corto de 20 m en promedio, situación que puede estar reflejando una alta intensidad de uso y manejo del suelo en actividades agropecuarias como la aplicación de fertilizantes y enmiendas.The spatial variability of some chemical properties of the epipedon in an Andisol with aquic humidity regime was studied. The most properties presented a high spatial dependence (C/Sill>50% and a relatively short range average ( 20 m, possibly caused by the intensive use of soil that has involved the application of fertilizers and amendments.

  9. 77 FR 22663 - Importation of Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Chile Under a Systems Approach AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final... continental United States of pomegranates from Chile, subject to a systems approach. Under this systems... plant protection organization of Chile and certified as having a low prevalence of Brevipalpus...

  10. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  11. 77 FR 12903 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2012-2014 U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Work Program... suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new work program for implementing the U.S.-Chile...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Vegetables § 319.56-23 Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a... from Chile in accordance with this section and all other applicable provisions of this subpart. 3 3...

  13. CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a…

  14. 77 FR 64106 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile AGENCY... (RE&EE) Trade Policy Mission to Santiago, Chile from April 15-16, 2013. The mission is designed to be... conducive to growth in Chile's RE&EE market; and (2) introducing U.S. RE&EE exporters to key...

  15. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, Simon A.; Pallister, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo

    2009-06-01

    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  16. Desigualdad Geográfica en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Agostini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite success in reducing poverty over the last twenty years, inequality in Chile has remained virtually unchanged, making Chile one of the least equal countries in the world. High levels of inequality have been shown to hamper further reductions in poverty as well as economic growth and local inequality has been shown to affect such outcomes as violence and health. The study of inequality at the local level is thus crucial for understanding the economic well-being of a country. Local measures of inequality have been difficult to obtain, but recent theoretical advances have enabled the combination of survey and census data to obtain estimators of inequality that are robust at disaggregated geographic levels. In this paper, we employ this methodology to produce consistent estimators of inequality for every county in Chile. We find a great deal of variation in inequality, with countylevel Gini coefficients ranging from 0.41 to 0.63.

  17. Biogeografía marina de Chile continental Marine biogeography of continental Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO A. CAMUS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Por casi un siglo, varios autores han analizado los patrones de distribución de la fauna y flora marina del Pacífico de Sudamérica y de la costa de Chile en particular, con el propósito de establecer el número de las unidades biogeográficas presentes. Si bien los patrones generales actuales son relativamente bien conocidos, la mayoría de los estudios se ha enfocado en las discontinuidades distribucionales y en propuestas de clasificación más que en los factores y procesos dinámicos que han formado las unidades espaciales identificadas. Aun en el caso de las clasificaciones, las conclusiones publicadas se basan principalmente en el análisis de uno o pocos grupos seleccionados, y presentan diferencias importantes en los criterios de selección de los grupos, el número de especies involucrado y la metodología usada. Por otra parte, las discrepancias entre estudios específicos tienden a obscurecer un fenómeno relevante y de mayor escala como es la dinámica de las biotas, uno de los aspectos biogeográficos menos conocidos en Chile. En tal contexto, este trabajo presenta una revisión de literatura sobre la biogeografía marina de Chile y sus aspectos asociados, con los siguientes objetivos: (a resumir las características oceanográficas, climáticas y geomorfológicas de la costa continental de Chile; (b discutir 27 clasificaciones biogeográficas publicadas para la costa chilena, analizando los criterios y procedimientos usados por los autores, sus conclusiones principales, y la concordancia entre los estudios; (c evaluar los procesos dispersivos y vicariantes asociados a los desplazamientos y modificaciones de las biotas de la región, en función de los antecedentes disponibles sobre las condiciones existentes y los principales eventos ocurridos durante los períodos Terciario y Cuaternario; y (d proponer un escenario de cambio biogeográfico basado en determinantes históricas y su influencia en la formación, carácter y din

  18. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ∼160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ∼40 to experimental physicists; ∼178 are men and only ∼22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ∼160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y TecnologIa (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is

  19. Caracterizaci??n de la regi??n cromos??mica 15q11-q13 del genoma humano. Variabilidad gen??mica en el autismo e identificaci??n de ncRNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Cerrato Rivera, Celia

    2007-01-01

    La tesis doctoral con t??tulo "Caracterizaci??n de la regi??n cromos??mica 15q11-13 del genoma humano. Variabilidad gen??mica en el autismo e identificaci??n de ncRNAs" se basa en el estudio de la regi??n cromos??mica 15q11-q13, centr??ndonos en los aspectos de la variabilidad gen??mica y su significado funcional. En la primera parte del estudio buscamos reordenamientos de 15q11-q13 en pacientes con autismo, mediante la genotipaci??n de marcadores microsat??lites cubriendo dicha regi??n, y de...

  20. Variabilidad de la práctica clínica en el manipulación del reservorio subcutáneo en los hospitales de día de España

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández de Maya, José

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: Uno de los objetivos de la Práctica Basada en la Evidencia es homogenizar la práctica basándose en las mejores evidencias disponibles. Pero la observación de la práctica clínica muestra variabilidad en muchos procesos asistenciales y a distintos niveles de agrupación. Esta variabilidad ha sido objeto de estudio con el fin de describir su existencia, sus posibles causas y factores asociados y conocer sus implicaciones. Objetivos: El objetivo general de esta tesis doctoral es con...

  1. Variabilidad interspecífica de duraznos (Prunus pérsica L. Batsch. y ciruelos (Prunus domestica usando RAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Intraespecific variability of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch. and plums (Prunus domestica using RAMsResumen: Se seleccionó una muestra de 41 materiales de Prunus de la colección de caducifolios de la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, para evaluar su variabilidad genética usando ocho marcadores Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAMs. Se generaron un total de 121 alelos con pesos moleculares entre 260 y 1000 Kb. Se formaron tres grupos, a un coeficiente de similitud de 0.75, de acuerdo a las características del fruto y a la especie, encontrándose en el grupo II a los materiales de ciruelo. El porcentaje de loci polimórficos varío entre 71 y 99% para los cebadores CGA y CCA, respectivamente. El valor promedio de heterocigosidad fue de 0.22, mucho más bajo que los encontrados en otros estudios de diversidad genética en el género Prunus. La técnica RAMs mostró ser una herramienta útil para evaluar la diversidad genética en frutales caducifolios, al discriminar a los materiales en tres grupos e identificar el alto grado de consanguinidad que existe entre las diferentes especies de Prunus lo cual debe ser aprovechado dentro de las estrategias de hibridación que busquen la obtención de nuevos y mejores materiales. Palabras claves: Prunus, Diversidad genética, Microsatélites RAMs, caducifolios.Abstract: A sample of 41 Prunus materials from the deciduous collection of the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia was selected to evaluate its genetic diversity using eight primers for Random Amplified Microsatellite (RAMs. A total of 121 alleles were generated with molecular weights ranging between 260 and 1000 Kb. Three groups were formed, a similarity coefficient of 0.75, according to fruit characteristics and specie, found plum materials in group II. The percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 71 to 99% for the primers CGA and CCA, respectively. The average value of

  2. Variabilidade espacial de atributos físicos de um latossolo vermelho-amarelo, sob lavoura cafeeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Marie Kamimura

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da variabilidade dos atributos físicos do solo é importante para o monitoramento da qualidade do solo, pois eles estão diretamente relacionados com a sustentabilidade da produção agrícola. Este estudo teve como objetivos avaliar e identificar as estruturas de dependência espacial, por meio da construção de semivariogramas, num Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo (LVA, sob lavoura cafeeira; caracterizar as distribuições espaciais dos atributos físicos pela krigagem ordinária; e identificar a camada com maior impedimento físico. O experimento foi conduzido num LVA textura muito argilosa na Fazenda da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais, em Patrocínio, MG. A amostragem foi realizada em trincheiras confeccionadas nas intersecções de uma malha retangular de 40 x 150 m, perfazendo um total de 28 pontos, de onde foram coletadas amostras indeformadas em anéis metálicos de 2,54 cm de altura e 6,30 cm de diâmetro, com auxílio do amostrador tipo Uhland. Cada trincheira possuía três degraus de 2,0 x 1,5 m de superfície, nas camadas de 0,00; 0,10; e 0,25 m, onde se coletaram sete amostras indeformadas em cada degrau, dispostas em forma matricial, totalizando 588 amostras. Os atributos físicos do solo apresentaram estrutura de dependência espacial em todas as camadas, exceto a porosidade total. A técnica de krigagem ordinária demonstrou ser alternativa viável para a estimativa de dados em pontos não amostrados na área experimental. A camada de 0,00-0,03 m apresentou maior impedimento físico ao crescimento de raízes, por apresentar maior densidade e menor macroporosidade do solo.

  3. Variabilidade espacial de atributos de solo e de Crotalaria juncea L. em área severamente erodida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. C. Salviano

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido numa área de produção comercial de cana-de-açúcar, situada no município de Piracicaba (SP, numa associação de Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo + solo litólico, no período de novembro de 1994 a março de 1995. Essa área vem sendo explorada com cana-de-açúcar há, aproximadamente, 30 anos e apresentava diversos sulcos de erosão. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a variabilidade espacial de atributos de crotalária juncea (Crotalaria juncea L. e de solo em uma área sob condições de erosão severa. A área foi arada e gradeada com incorporação de 4 t ha-1 de calcário, antes da semeadura a lanço de 30 kg ha-1 de semente de crotalária juncea. Uma parcela de 50 x 70 m foi amostrada de acordo com uma malha de 5 por 5 m, totalizando 140 pontos. Foram avaliados atributos químicos do solo superficial (0,00-0,20 m e subsuperficial (0,20-0,40 m, sua granulometria e a espessura de solo remanescente (ES - definida como a camada do solo acima do horizonte C, além da produtividade de matéria seca (MS e altura da crotalária juncea (ALTPL. Os valores de atributos maiores ou menores que quatro desvios-padrões da média foram descartados. A colheita da parte aérea da crotalária foi realizada no início de sua floração, em miniparcelas de 2 x 2,5 m, e calculada a matéria seca. A dependência espacial dos atributos estudados foi avaliada por semivariogramas escalonados. Esses apresentaram dependência espacial, com exceção do P (0,00-0,20 m e K nas duas camadas. Os atributos puderam ser agrupados em três categorias homogêneas quanto ao alcance do semivariograma: atributos químicos do solo (12 a 32 m < componentes de planta (25 a 32 m < frações granulométricas (32 a 42 m. Os atributos que melhor explicaram a produtividade da crotalária juncea foram H + Al, valor T e saturação por bases.

  4. Facial nerve electroneurography: variability in normal subjects Eletroneurografia do nervo facial: variabilidade em indivíduos normais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovany Luis Alves de Medeiros

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty normal individuals were submitted to facial nerve electroneurography using different techniques in order to determine the most accurate to obtain the latencies and amplitudes of the compound muscle action potentials (CMAP of the facial muscles. First of all it was determined in which muscle or muscle group highest amplitude CMAP could be recorded with the lowest variability between sides and in test-retest. Different techniques were studied in order to determine which could give the best results. This was shown to be an arrangement of bipolar surface electrodes fixed to a plastic bar. The records with higher amplitude where obtained from the nasolabial fold muscles. Therefore 65 normal volunteers were examined using this technique and recording the potentials obtained over the nasolabial fold muscles. Normal values were determined (latency lower than 4.5 ms and amplitude larger than 2 mV - 95% confidence limits.Vinte voluntários normais foram submetidos a eletroneurografia do nervo facial utilizando-se diferentes técnicas para a determinação da mais acurada para a obtenção das latências e amplitudes do potencial de ação muscular composto (CMAP dos músculos faciais. Inicialmente determinou-se em qual músculo ou grupo muscular registra-se CMAP com maior amplitude e menor variabilidade entre lados e entre testes, assim como determinou-se qual técnica proporcionou melhores resultados. A que mostrou melhores resultados foi realizada com eletrodos de superfície bipolares de discos fixos em barra de plástico e os melhores registros foram obtidos nos músculos do sulco nasolabial. A seguir 65 voluntários normais foram estudados com esta técnica registrando-se os potenciais nos músculos do sulco nasolabial e foram determinados os valores normais para a latência (menor que 4,5 ms e amplitude (acima de 2 mV.

  5. Competitividad de las exportaciones de chile seco mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Flores Sánchez; Alejandro Mungaray Lagarda

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento de la competitividad que ha mostrado México, en cuanto a sus exportaciones de chile seco, durante el periodo de 1993 a 2009, mediante la obtención del índice de ventaja relativa de exportaciones y aplicando el método de análisis de participación constante de mercado, los resultados que se obtuvieron muestran que las exportaciones de chile seco de México han crecido fuertemente, con una tendencia de crecimiento muy variable, por otro lado los...

  6. The economic and financial gains from water markets in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Hearne, Robert R.; Easter, K. William

    1997-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that has encouraged the use of markets in water resource management. In order to assess the impact of water markets and transactions costs in Chile, four river valleys, the Maipo, Elqui, Limari, and the Azapa were selected as case studies. Transactions from the Elqui and Limari valleys, during the years 1986 to 1993, were analyzed to determine the gains-from-trade from market transfers. In the economic and financial analysis of water markets, crop budgets wer...

  7. Nuevos inmigrantes en Chile: Los determinantes de su actividad emprendedora

    OpenAIRE

    Mancilla, Claudio; de Lima, Philomena

    2014-01-01

    En Chile es poca la literatura que estudia a los inmigrantes desde una perspectiva económica, y menos la que aborda su actitud emprendedora (a pesar de que son proporcionalmente más emprendedores que los habitantes locales). El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los factores que influyen en el emprendimiento de los in - migrantes sudamericanos en Chile. Se utilizó un modelo logit ajustado para even - tos extraños para determinar el impacto sobre la probabilidad de emprendimiento individual....

  8. [Measles: the disease, epidemiology, history and vaccination programs in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpiano, Luis; Astroza, Leonor; Toro, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Measles, one of most important inmuno-preventable diseases, remains as a worldwide concern issue with an important morbidity and mortality. Particularly in the America region declared free of measles in 2010 by WHO, they still appear imported cases that origin outbreaks of variable magnitude in susceptible subjects usually none vaccinated which is the current situation in Santiago, the capital city of Chile. In this review we present characteristics of the etiological agent, the disease, epidemiological aspects with national historical focus, impact of immunization programs and outbreaks in Chile, in order to contribute to knowledge and management of this always present public health problem. PMID:26436786

  9. Rediseño de una red de distribución con variabilidad de demanda usando la metodología de escenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wilmer Escobar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el problema del diseño de una red de distribución de gran escala con variabilidad en la demanda. Se parte de una estructura de red establecida,cuya problemática central radica en la determinación de las decisiones de cierre o apertura de los centros de distribución. El problema se ha solucionado utilizando lametodología de optimización mediante escenarios;dicha metodología usa un esquema de optimización basado en la generación de múltiples escenarios de los parámetros críticos de la red. El modelo está basado en el caso de una compañía multinacional de alimentos que abastece todo el territorio colombiano y varios mercados internacionales. Los resultados obtenidos reflejan la importancia y eficiencia de la metodología propuesta para el tratamiento de la variabilidad en la demanda, en el diseño de redes de distribución.

  10. Rediseño de una red de distribución con variabilidad de demanda usando la metodología de escenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Willmer Escobar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el problema del diseño de una red de distribución de gran escala con variabilidad en la demanda. Se parte de una estructura de red establecida,cuya problemática central radica en la determinación de las decisiones de cierre o apertura de los centros de distribución. El problema se ha solucionado utilizando la metodología de optimización mediante escenarios;dicha metodología usa un esquema de optimización basado en la generación de múltiples escenarios de los parámetros críticos de la red. El modelo está basado en el caso de una compañía multinacional de alimentos que abastecetodo el territorio colombiano y varios mercados internacionales. Los resultados obtenidos reflejan la importancia y eficiencia de la metodología propuesta para el tratamiento de la variabilidad en la demanda,en el diseño de redes de distribución.

  11. Genetic variability in the brazilian criollo horse breed Variabilidade genética de cavalos da raça crioula no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Elizabeth Vinocur

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Allelic frequencies of 7 blood groups and 8 protein systems were determined in 6 herds of Criollo horse breed raised in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Analysis of these frequencies showed a significant isolation component (Fst = 0.0866; pAs freqüências alélicas de sete sistemas de grupos sangüíneos e oito sistemas protéicos foram determinadas em seis rebanhos de cavalos Crioulos criados no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A análise destas freqüências indicou que os rebanhos apresentaram um significativo componente devido ao isolamento (Fst = 0,0866; p<0,01 e esta diferença foi confirmada a partir do dendograma construído, utilizando-se a distância de Nei. Na medição da variabilidade genética, utilizando os 15 sistemas de tipagem sangüínea, os valores mais altos encontrados foram heterozigose média: 0.4631; número total de alelos :87 e probabilidade de exclusão de um parentesco indicado: 98%. Quando todas os rebanhos foram considerada na análise, o nível de endocruzamento (Fis foi zero. Estes resultados indicam que os cavalos Crioulos apresentam ampla variabilidade genética.

  12. Variabilidade espacial da produtividade de milho irrigado e sua correlação com variáveis explicativas de planta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Vian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Em decorrência da instabilidade da produtividade das principais culturas associada ao déficit hídrico, tem se tornado cada vez mais frequente a necessidade do uso de tecnologias como a irrigação e a agricultura de precisão (AP. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a variabilidade espacial da produtividade de grãos de milho e sua correlação com variáveis explicativas de planta em área irrigada. O estudo foi conduzido nas safras agrícolas 2010/2011 e 2011/2012, em área de 35ha, manejada em sistema plantio direto e irrigação por pivô central. Os componentes de produtividade e a produtividade de grãos foram avaliados seguindo uma malha amostral de 100x100m. A produtividade de grãos e a maior parte dos componentes de produtividade apresentaram baixa dispersão dos dados, condicionando a normalidade dos dados. A produtividade de grãos, mesmo com a irrigação, apresentou elevada variabilidade espacial. Na análise de trilha, verificaram-se altos coeficientes de determinação dos componentes de produtividade com a produtividade de grãos.

  13. EVALUACIÓN DE LA VARIABILIDAD MORFOAGRONÓMICA DE UNA COLECCIÓN CUBANA DE MAÍZ (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Martínez Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En nuestro país, el maíz se cultiva desde la épocade los aborígenes y constituye un alimento básico en la nutriciónhumana, del ganado y las aves; es el segundo cereal de impor-tancia y tiene alta preferencia de consumo por la población. EnCuba, existen seis razas de maíz con una alta diversidadmorfoagronómica, la cual ha sido ampliamente estudiada. Elpresente trabajo se realizó en una muestra de 106 accesiones,donde se incluyeron accesiones conservadas in situ en fincasde campesinos y conservadas ex situ. El objetivo del estudiofue evaluar el grado de variabilidad morfoagronómica de lacolección; utilizando para ello 16 caracteres morfoagronómicos. Los resultados permitieron detectar la existencia devariabilidad morfoagronómica en la muestra. Se demostró quela colección de maíz evaluada, presentó variabilidadmorfoagronómica debido a la diferencia entre genotipos, a lapluralidad de orígenes, manejo y condiciones ambientales enque se desarrolla este cultivo en Cuba. Además, en la colecciónestudiada, la variabilidad de los caracteres evaluados esmoderada, debido a la selección que realizan los campesinossobre ellos. Los caracteres más variables fueron la incidenciade Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, altura a la mazorca superiory peso de cien semillas.

  14. Scenarios for wind power in Brazil, Argentina and Chile; Cenarios para a energia eolio eletrica no Brasil, Argentina e Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: jdedecca@fem.unicamp.br, larissa@fem.unicamp.br, januzzi@fem.unicamp.br; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative-Latin America (IEI-LA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], email: rodolfo@iei-la.org

    2010-07-01

    The Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian power matrixes presented in the last two decades a growth of the non-renewable energy sources share, especially fossil sources, mainly in installed capacity and in a lesser degree in energy production. Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council have elaborated a reference energy scenario together with a scenario analyzing the institution of ample measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Feed-in tariffs and auction or bidding mechanisms implemented in Brazil and Argentina and the renewable portfolio standard implemented in Chile allied with the wind industry state in these countries indicate that Chile and Argentina will fulfill the 2020 wind power installed capacity predicted in the reference scenarios, while Brazil will reach the energy revolution scenario prediction. Important energy policy changes are required if the Chile and Argentina energy revolution scenarios wind power installed capacity are to become a reality in 2020. (author)

  15. Monitoring the northern Chile megathrust with the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno

    2010-05-01

    The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one

  16. Production and consumption of energy in Chile 1987. Produccion y consumo de energia en Chile 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Presents information, at a national level, on production and consumption of various types of energy, including statistical data on commercial deals (hydrocarbons, coal) and the activities of the companies (hydromechanical energy, vegetable wastes for power generation and biogas). Electrical energy is described in detail. The first chapter presents an energy overview of the country and its energy sources, evaluating each one in order to obtain the total energy produced in Chile. The second chapter deals with electric power in the country, classifying power installed, generated and consumed by category of producer, consumer and generating type. The third chapter discusses the planned capacity of the Zonas Electricas, and the fourth chapter reviews the characteristics of the installations, production statistics, consumption and operation of the grid.

  17. CHILE'S RUSH TO FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS El frenesí de Chile por los Tratados de Libre Comercio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LESLIE WEHNER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the reasons for Chile's aggressive Free Trade Agreement (FTA policy. Assessing both how the Chilean government has converged with the export sector and how the government has been able to co-opt, soften and divide those on the losing side of any FTA policy, are key to understanding Chile's vast number of FTAs. However, FTAs are also a constitutive part of a country's foreign policy, which converts these accords into a vehicle for the achievement of state goals dealing with economic issues and power configurations and expectations. It is the interplay between domestic groups' interests and the state's foreign policy goals that explain Chile's rush to FTAs.Este artículo analiza las razones que llevan a Chile a implementar una política agresiva de Tratados de Libre Comercio (TLC. Para comprender el porqué del frenesí y del número de acuerdos se evalúa cómo el gobierno de Chile logra converger con el sector exportador, y cómo coopta, divide y disminuye a los grupos perdedores de esta política. Sin embargo, los TLC son además parte de la política exterior de un país; lo que hace de estos acuerdos un vehículo para alcanzar objetivos estratégicos para el Estado. Es la interrelación entre los intereses de grupos domésticos y los objetivos de política exterior del Estado los que explican el porqué del frenesí de Chile por alcanzar un alto número de TLC.

  18. Variabilidade de nutrientes em plantas de milho cultivado em talhão manejado homogeneamente Corn plant nutrient variability in an homogeneously managed crop field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaqueu Fernando Montezano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da variabilidade da nutrição de plantas e da produtividade em áreas cultivadas pode fornecer importantes subsídios na racionalização do uso de insumos e auxiliar no manejo da fertilidade do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a variabilidade da nutrição mineral de plantas de milho por meio do fracionamento de um talhão cultivado comercialmente em células de manejo e verificar as relações com a produtividade. O estudo foi realizado na Fazenda Alto Alegre, em Planaltina (GO, em área de 373 hectares de Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distroférrico, cultivado com milho na safra 2003/04. Traçado um polígono da área, procedeu-se sua divisão em 80 células de manejo de quatro hectares cada uma. A amostragem de folhas em cada célula seguiu uma diagonal com 12 pontos para compor uma amostra composta. Realizou-se a análise dos macro e micronutrientes nas folhas. A produtividade para cada célula foi obtida por meio de colhedora equipada com GPS. Na análise da variabilidade dos resultados foram considerados os parâmetros estatísticos descritivos. O teste ausência de correlação foi realizado com o nível de significância de 5%. A variabilidade da concentração dos nutrientes na folha indicadora do milho foi considerada baixa para N, P, K, S e Mg; e média para Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn. A variabilidade da produtividade de milho revelou diferenças de produção para cada célula analisada. Os coeficientes de correlação entre os nutrientes e a produtividade foram significativamente diferentes de zero (pThe knowledge of variability of plant nutrition and grain productivity in cultivated areas may provide important information for rational use of fertilizers and soil amendments. The objective of this case study was to determine the corn plant mineral nutrition variability through the fractionation of a commercial grown corn field into small management cells. The study was carried out at the farm Alto Alegre in

  19. Detailed Axial Morphology of the Chile Rise as it Approaches the Chile Triple Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, D. K.; Henig, A. S.; Barroso, E.; Grevemeyer, I.; Thurber, A. R.; German, C. R.; Inspire Cruise Participants, T.

    2010-12-01

    New bathymetric mapping along the two southernmost Chile Rise spreading segments shows axial volcanic structure that had not been evident in prior data. On the first segment extending north from the triple junction, where the basement is not obscured by sediment, a narrow line of volcanic structures appears to track the center of the rift valley. However, the next segment north, which is offset almost 50 km along a transform fault, has axial volcanic features that vary in position within the rift valley. In the northern ~half of this segment, lineated small volcanic structures hug the eastern scarp of the rift whereas in the south they are apparent only along the western part of the valley floor. A classic ridge-transform intersection (RTI) nodal deep occurs at this southern end of the segment. The position of the basin is asymmetric relative to the axis, toward the ‘inside corner’ on the eastern side of the rift valley. It is intriguing that the nodal deep, which is often modeled as the result of viscous mantle upwelling and plate stresses at an RTI, is centered on the opposite side of the rift valley from where the most recent volcanic activity occurred. Presumably this reflects interplay between local magma plumbing and tectonic stresses. In addition to the local ridge-transform forces, regional factors associated with subduction along the edge of the Cocos plate may affect mantle flow, melting, and detailed plate kinematics. We will present maps that combine the new Simrad EM122 swath sonar data, obtained during cruise MV1003 aboard R/V Melville, with pre-existing German and Chilean bathymetric grids. We will also discuss some of the tectonic and magmatic implications of the observed detailed morphologic patterns. As one of the few areas on the globe where active subduction and spreading occur in close proximity, the southernmost Chile rise presents a natural laboratory for studying the manifestations of interaction between these processes.

  20. Energy from the Andes. The hydropower plant La Confluencia in Chile; Energie aus den Anden. Die Wasserkraftanlage La Confluencia in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Mathias [Hochschule Regensburg (Germany). Bauingenieurwesen

    2012-11-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the hydropower plant La Confluencia situated nearly 150 km south of Santiago de Chile (Chile). La Confluencia is a project development of a Norwegian-Australian joint venture of SN Power utilities (Oslo, Norway) and Pacific Hydro (Melbourne, Australia). Constructora Hochtief Tecsa (Santiago, Chile) took over the order to construct the plant completely including planning, construction, equipment and operation. The system concept was developed in collaboration with Poeyry Energy (Zurich, Switzerland). The plant design was devised in cooperation with Intertechne (Curitiba, Brazil), EDIC Ingenieros (Santiago, Chile) and Geocontrol (Madrid, Spain).

  1. Subduction zone guided waves in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed in subduction zones as high frequency energy is retained and delayed by low velocity structure in the subducting slab, while lower frequency energy is able to travel at the faster velocities associated with the surrounding mantle material. As subduction zone guided waves spend longer interacting with the low velocity structure of the slab than any other seismic phase, they have a unique capability to resolve these low velocity structures. In Northern Chile, guided wave arrivals are clearly observed on two stations in the Chilean fore-arc on permanent stations of the IPOC network. High frequency (> 5 Hz) P-wave arrivals are delayed by approximately 2 seconds compared to the low frequency (wave arrivals. Full waveform finite difference modelling is used to test the low velocity slab structure that cause this P-wave dispersion. The synthetic waveforms produced by these models are compared to the recorded waveforms. Spectrograms are used to compare the relative arrival times of different frequencies, while the velocity spectra is used to constrain the relative amplitude of the arrivals. Constraining the waveform in these two ways means that the full waveform is also matched, and the low pass filtered observed and synthetic waveforms can be compared. A combined misfit between synthetic and observed waveforms is then calculated following Garth & Rietbrock (2014). Based on this misfit criterion we constrain the velocity model by using a grid search approach. Modelling the guided wave arrivals suggest that the observed dispersion cannot be solely accounted for by a single low velocity layer as suggested by previous guided wave studies. Including dipping low velocity normal fault structures in the synthetic model not only accounts for the observed strong P-wave coda, but also produces a clear first motion dispersion. We therefore propose that the lithospheric mantle of the subducting Nazca plate is highly hydrated at intermediate depths by

  2. Great Chile Earthquake of May 22, 1960 - Anniversary Edition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960 (19:11 UTC), a Mw 9.5 earthquake occurred in southern Chile (39.5 S, 74.5 W). This was the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded. (It was...

  3. How Young Teachers Experience Their Professional Work in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Beatrice; Aylwin, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from a qualitative study of 15 neophyte teachers in Chile who were part of a survey of 242 teachers in two geographical regions of the country. They were studied on the basis of questionnaires, interviews, observations and focus groups, all of which served to examine their teaching contexts and working conditions, how…

  4. Radiation doses in neuroangiography for a clinical hospital in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of radiation to the patient in neuroangiography procedures diagnostic and therapy in a Chile's Hospital, using a biplane angiographic system Siemens model ArtisZee. This research was conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the support of their radiation protection programs for patients

  5. Transit Search from Antarctica and Chile - Comparison and Combination

    CERN Document Server

    Fruth, T; Csizmadia, Sz; Dreyer, C; Eigmüller, P; Erikson, A; Kabath, P; Pasternacki, T; Rauer, H; Titz-Weider, R; Abe, L; Agabi, A; Gonçalves, I; Guillot, T; Mékarnia, D; Rivet, J -P; Crouzet, N; Chini, R; Lemke, R; Murphy, M

    2014-01-01

    Observing sites at the East-Antarctic plateau are considered to provide exceptional conditions for astronomy. The aim of this work is to assess its potential for detecting transiting extrasolar planets through a comparison and combination of photometric data from Antarctica with time series from a midlatitude site. During 2010, the two small aperture telescopes ASTEP 400 (Dome C) and BEST II (Chile) together performed an observing campaign of two target fields and the transiting planet WASP-18b. For the latter, a bright star, Dome C appears to yield an advantageous signal-to-noise ratio. For field surveys, both Dome C and Chile appear to be of comparable photometric quality. However, within two weeks, observations at Dome C yield a transit detection efficiency that typically requires a whole observing season in Chile. For the first time, data from Antarctica and Chile have been combined to extent the observational duty cycle. This approach is both feasible in practice and favorable for transit search, as it i...

  6. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  7. Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…

  8. Reshaping Power Markets-Lessons from Chile and Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Lalor, R. Peter; García, Hernán

    1996-01-01

    Power sector reforms in Chile and Argentina are now roughly fourteen and four years old. In both countries, restructuring and deregulation have increased efficiency, led to active entry by new generators, improved the quality of supply, and reduced prices in real terms. The authors' review of experience in both systems confirms that policymakers must apply effective measures to introduce a...

  9. Neoliberal Education and Student Movements in Chile: Inequalities and Malaise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabalin, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the major consequences of the neoliberal education system implemented in Chile during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet and how two important student movements contested this structure. In 2006 and 2011, thousands of students filled the streets to demand better public education, more social justice and equal opportunities.…

  10. Accreditation in Higher Education in Chile: Results and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Oscar; Gonzalez, Luis Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the results that the accreditation system implemented in Chile has brought to higher education institutions and undergraduate and graduate programs, taking into account both its positive and negative implications. Design/methodology/approach: The examination of the Chilean accreditation…

  11. The New Student Loan System in Chile's Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrain, Christian; Zurita, Salvador

    2008-01-01

    Chile's higher education system stands out as being one of the most privatized and open to the market in the world. Recently, the Chilean Congress passed Law #20.027 of 2005, which provides the legal framework for the creation of a student loan system guaranteed both by the State and by higher education institutions (HEIs), financed by the private…

  12. Gender Effects of Social Security Reform in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cox Edwards, Alejandra

    2002-01-01

    In 1981 Chile replaced a mature government-run social security system that operated on a pay-as-you-go basis with a privately managed system based on individual retirement accounts. The new system is more fiscally sustainable because pension benefits are defined by contributions. The minimum pension guaranteed to beneficiaries with at least 20 years is funded from general taxes, preserving...

  13. How Local Market Pressures Shape Leadership Practices: Evidence from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Fromm, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Chile is well known worldwide for its extensive use of market-driven mechanisms in education. Using a case study strategy in three schools, this paper shows that "universal" voucher system and mixed provision (co-existence of subsidised private and state-funded schools) policies are reshaping school management practices. The paper draws…

  14. Creating Dialogues: Exploring the "Good Early Childhood Educator" in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the different ways in which a number of Chilean stakeholders conceptualise the "good early childhood educator" in Chile. In a context where new foreign narratives are increasingly dominating the field and the recent standardisation of the educators' professional role is being implemented, this…

  15. 75 FR 11583 - The Chile Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application March 8, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Company Act of 1940 (the ``Act'') for an exemption from section 17(a) of the Act. Applicant: The...

  16. The Impact of Chile's School Feeding Program on Education Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Chile operates one of the oldest and largest school feeding programs in Latin America, targeting higher-calorie meals to relatively poorer schools. This paper evaluates the impact of higher-calorie meals on the education outcomes of public, rural schools and their students. It applies a regression-discontinuity design to administrative data,…

  17. [Health research and health technology assessment in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA.

  18. Bases conceptuales para la aplicación de una evaluación de estrategias de manejo (EEM en sardina común (Strangomera bentincki y anchoveta (Engraulis ringens en la zona centro-sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Arteaga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se identifican los factores claves a considerar en el desarrollo de una evaluación de estrategias de manejo (EEM para los recursos pequeños pelágicos en la zona de centro-sur de Chile, sardina común (Strangomera bentincki y anchoveta (Engraulis ringens. En Chile, la EEM no ha sido aplicada al manejo de estas pesquerías y la asesoría científica se ha desarrollado sobre la evaluación de estrategias de explotación utilizando modelos de evaluación mono-específicos. Para ambas especies se analizan los siguientes tópicos: i alternancia en la abundancia poblacional asociada a los pulsos de reclutamientos y capturas, ii variabilidad temporal en la fuerza del reclutamiento, iii estacionalidad del crecimiento cohorte y especie-específico, y iv relación ambiente-recurso. Los resultados evidencian que los tópicos analizados debieran ser considerados en la construcción de un modelo operativo y/o en la regla de cosecha, dado el carácter mixto de ambas pesquerías, su marcada alternancia y la influencia de las condiciones ambientales. Por lo tanto, se propone que el diseño e implementación de una EEM para sardina común y anchoveta, incluya los elementos señalados en un marco de evaluación multi-especifico y de manejo de carácter mixto.

  19. Hydrothermal Exploration at the Chile Triple Junction - ABE's last adventure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C. R.; Shank, T. M.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Blackman, D. K.; Brown, K. M.; Baumberger, T.; Früh-Green, G.; Greene, R.; Saito, M. A.; Sylva, S.; Nakamura, K.; Stanway, J.; Yoerger, D. R.; Levin, L. A.; Thurber, A. R.; Sellanes, J.; Mella, M.; Muñoz, J.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.; Inspire Science Team

    2010-12-01

    In February and March 2010 we conducted preliminary exploration for hydrothermal plume signals along the East Chile Rise where it intersects the continental margin at the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ). This work was conducted as one component of our larger NOAA-OE funded INSPIRE project (Investigation of South Pacific Reducing Environments) aboard RV Melville cruise MV 1003 (PI: Andrew Thurber, Scripps) with all shiptime funded through an award of the State of California to Andrew Thurber and his co-PI's. Additional support came from the Census of Marine Life (ChEss and CoMarge projects). At sea, we conducted a series of CTD-rosette and ABE autonomous underwater vehicle operations to prospect for and determine the nature of any seafloor venting at, or adjacent to, the point where the the East Chile Rise subducts beneath the continental margin. Evidence from in situ sensing (optical backscatter, Eh) and water column analyses of dissolved CH4, δ3He and TDFe/TDMn concentrations document the presence of two discrete sites of venting, one right at the triple junction and the other a further 10km along axis, north of the Triple Junction, but still within the southernmost segment of the East Chile Rise. From an intercomparison of the abundance of different chemical signals we can intercompare likely characteristics of these differet source sites and also differentiate between them and the high methane concentrations released from cold seep sites further north along the Chile Margin, both with the CTJ region and also at the Concepcion Methane Seep Area (CMSA). This multi-disciplinary and international collaboration - involving scientists from Chile, the USA, Europe and Japan - can serve as an excellent and exciting launchpoint for wide-ranging future investigations of the Chile Triple Junction area - the only place on Earth where an oceanic spreading center is being actively subducted beneath a continent and also the only place on Earth where all known forms of deep

  20. Variabilidade espacial e temporal do potencial mátrico da água em terra roxa estruturada Spatial and temporal variability of soil water matric potential in a dark red latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.B.P. Pacheco

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available As variabilidades de medidas de potencial mátrico da água no solo e de gradiente de potencial hidráulico são analisadas utilizando conceitos geoestatísticos e estatística da distribuição normal. São analisados 25 pares de dados, coletados ao longo de uma transecção de terra roxa estruturada, de 125 m de comprimento. Autocorrelogramas e semivariogramas não indicaram dependência espacial nas variáveis estudadas. A variabilidade do potencial mátrico da água no solo, medida através de tensiômetros, é menor do que a variabilidade do gradiente de potencial hidráulico. Este último apresentou alta variabilidade, a ponto de comprometer seu uso em estimativas de fluxos de água no solo.Variabilities of soil water matric potential and of hydraulic gradients are analysed using geostatistical concepts and normal distribution statistics. Twenty five data pairs, collected along a 125 m transect of a dark red latosol (terra roxa estruturada are analysed using autocorrelograms and semivariograms. No spatial dependence was found for both variables. The variability of soil water matric potential, measured by tensiometry, is less than the variability of hydraulic gradients. This last variable presented a high variability, to the point of compromising its use in soil water flux estimatives.

  1. Variabilidade fenotípica em genótipos de acerola Phenotypic variability in West Indian cherry genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ EVERALDO GOMES

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available As medidas de variabilidade fenotípica, correlações, efeitos diretos e indiretos na aceroleira (Malpighia emarginata DC. da região de Itápolis, SP, objetivaram direcionar o processo seletivo de genótipos. Os parâmetros comprimento e largura média de folhas, altura de planta, diâmetro de copa, peso médio de fruto, peso médio de polpa/fruto, peso médio de 20 frutos e peso médio de polpa por 20 frutos mostraram diferenças quanto a genótipos e épocas. Em acidez, tamanho e largura média de fruto, as diferenças são exclusivas em relação a épocas, sugerindo ações de condições climáticas. A altura é um bom parâmetro tipificador na diferenciação e seleção de genótipos. As condições meteorológicas podem influenciar marcadamente em caracteres tecnológicos (acidez e em medidas dos frutos. Destacaram-se as associações positivas entre comprimento de folhas com tamanho e peso de frutos e as correlações negativas destes com vitamina C; seguida de correlações positivas e significativas de tamanho com largura de frutos. Dos efeitos diretos sobre vitamina C, relacionam-se os efeitos de Brix e diâmetro de copa como positivos. Contudo, nas condições estudadas, as medidas das folhas estão associadas positivamente com tamanho e peso dos frutos e negativamente com vitamina C. Além disso, observa-se que as medidas dos frutos associam-se positivamente com os caracteres de peso e rendimento, que estão negativamente associados com vitamina C. A seleção sobreBrix pode direcionar ganhos em polpa e em vitamina C.The measures in the phenotypic variability, correlation, direct and indirect effects in the West Indian cherry (Malpighia emarginata DC., from Itápolis, São Paulo State, Brazil, aimed to subsidize the management of the selective process in the genotypes. The parameters length and width of leaves, height of plant, diameter of canopy, weight medium of fruit, weight of pulp/fruit, weight medium of 20 fruits and weight

  2. New records of biting midges from Argentina and Chile (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Nuevos registros de Ceratopogonidae (Diptera para Argentina y Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R. Spinelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available New records are provided for 22 species of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae from Argentina and Chile, 12 belonging to Forcipomyia Meigen, two to Atrichopogon Kieffer and Culicoides Latreille, and one to Leptoconops Skuse, Dasyhelea Kieffer, Paradasyhelea Macfie, Alluaudomyia Kieffer, Macrurohelea Ingram & Macfie and Palpomyia Meigen. Forcipomyia (F. harpegonata Wirth & Soria, F. (F. pictoni Macfie, F. (F. sexvittata Wirth, F. (Lepidohelea annulatipes Macfie, F. (L. kuanoskeles Macfie, F. (Phytohelea jocosa Saunders and F. (Thyridomyia nana (Macfie are firstly recorded from Argentina, and Leptoconops ricardoi Ronderos & Spinelli, Atrichopogon endemicus Spinelli & Marino, Culicoides chacoensis Spinelli & Wirth, Paradasyhelea brevipalpis (Ingram & Macfie and Alluaudomyia schnacki Spinelli are firstly recorded from Chile. Forcipomyia calchaqui Spinelli & Marino is removed from the subgenus Thyridomyia Saunders and assigned to the subgenus Synthyridomyia Saunders.Se brindan nuevas citas de 22 especies de Ceratopogonidae para Argentina y Chile, de las cuales 12 pertenecen a Forcipomyia Meigen, dos a Atrichopogon Kieffer y Culicoides Latreille, y una a Leptoconops Skuse, Dasyhelea Kieffer, Paradasyhelea Macfie, Alluaudomyia Kieffer, Macrurohelea Ingram & Macfie y Palpomyia Meigen. Forcipomyia (F. harpegonata Wirth & Soria, F. (F. pictoni Macfie, F. (F. sexvittata Wirth, F. (Lepidohelea annulatipes Macfie, F. (L. kuanoskeles Macfie, F. (Phytohelea jocosa Saunders y F. (Thyridomyia nana (Macfie son registradas por primera vez para Argentina, mientras que Leptoconops ricardoi Ronderos & Spinelli, Atrichopogon endemicus Spinelli & Marino, Culicoides chacoensis Spinelli & Wirth, Paradasyhelea brevipalpis (Ingram & Macfie y Alluaudomyia schnacki Spinelli lo son para Chile. Se excluye Forcipomyia calchaqui Spinelli & Marino del subgénero Thyridomyia Saunders y se la asigna a Synthyridomyia Saunders.

  3. Análisis de la variabilidad entre diferentes situaciones en el lanzamiento de tres puntos en baloncesto. (Analysis of the variability of three-points throwing tasks in basketball.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Moreno Hernández

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa gran cantidad de grados de libertad durante la ejecución de un movimiento deportivo permite describir diferentes niveles de variabilidad. En el estudio del lanzamiento de baloncesto ha existido gran interés por conocer las características de la ejecución óptima del lanzamiento, pero son menos los trabajos que se han interesado en investigar la influencia de la variabilidad en el rendimiento. El presente trabajo pretende conocer cómo afecta a la variabilidad de la ejecución la presencia de un oponente y la modificación de la acción previa al lanzamiento. Diez sujetos ejecutaron veinte lanzamientos de tres puntos, diez lanzamientos en situación denominada estándar, y diez en situación de variabilidad. Distintas variables de la técnica de tiro fueron analizadas mediante técnicas de fotogrametría. Las principales diferencias en la variabilidad del lanzamiento entre ambas situaciones se encontraron para el ángulo de salida del balón y la separación de los pies del lanzador. La comparación entre los sujetos de menor y mayor rendimiento determinó que la variabilidad en la altura del salto es mayor en el grupo de menos éxito. La principal conclusión es que las modificaciones del entorno influyen en la variabilidad del movimiento, por lo que dichas modificaciones deben ser consideradas en las tareas de entrenamiento. AbstractThe great amount of degrees of freedom during the execution of a sport movement allows describing different levels of variability in human movement. Several authors have studied biomechanic characteristics of basketball shoot, but few of them have studied influence of variability on shoot task. The present study tries to know the effects of opponent and previous action on shoot variability. Ten subjects executed twenty three points shoot: ten without constraints, and ten in variability situation. Variability of the shoot was measured by photogrammetry. The main differences between situations were

  4. Spatial variability of aggregate stability in latosols under sugarcane Variabilidade espacial da estabilidade de agregados em latossolos sob cultivo de cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigomar Menezes de Souza

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of soils under a same management system is differentiated, as expressed in the properties. The spatial variability of aggregate stability of a eutrophic Red Latosol (ERL and a dystrophic Red Latosol (DRL under sugarcane was characterized. Samples were collected in a regular 10 m grid, in the layers 0.0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m, with 100 points per area, and the following properties were determined: geometric mean diameter (GMD of aggregates, mean weight diameter (MWD of aggregates, percent of aggregates in the > 2.0 mm class and organic matter (OM content. The eutrophic Red Latosol (ERL had a higher aggregate stability thn the dystrophic Red Latosol (DRL, which may be attributed to the higher clay and OM content and the gibbsitic mineralogy of this soil class. The differentiated evolution of the studied Oxisols explains the wider range and lower variation coefficient and variability, for all properties studied in the eutrophic Red Latosol.Solos submetidos ao mesmo sistema de manejo manifestam variabilidade espacial diferenciada de seus atributos. A variabilidade espacial da estabilidade de agregados foi caracterizada em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico e Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico, sob cultivo de cana-de-açúcar. Foram realizadas amostragens de terra nos pontos de interseção de uma malha de 10 x 10 linhas, espaçadas de 10 m, totalizando 100 pontos de amostragem por área, coletadas nas camadas de 0,0-0,2 e 0,2-0,4 m de profundidade, para determinação de diâmetro médio geométrico (DMG, diâmetro médio ponderado (DMP, agregados na classe >2,0 mm e teor de matéria orgânica do solo. O Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico apresenta maior estabilidade de agregados quando comparado com o Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, condizente com o maior teor de argila, matéria orgânica e mineralogia gibbsítica. A evolução diferenciada dos Latossolos estudados explica os maiores alcances, o menor coeficiente de variação (CV e

  5. Variabilidad espacial de propiedades físicas y químicas en suelos de la granja experimental de la Universidad del Magdalena (Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menjivar Flores Juan Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En suelos destinados a la actividad agrícola de la granja experimental de la Universidad del Magdalena, Santa Marta - Colombia (74º 07' Y 74º 12' longitud oeste y 11º 11' y 11º 15' latitud, se estudió la variabilidad espacial de las propiedades físicas: humedad gravimétrica, textura, densidad aparente (Da, resistencia a la penetración (RP y conductividad hidráulica (KH y químicas: Materia orgánica (MO, pH, CIC, N, P, K, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, B, utilizando una grid o malla de 29m*29m con 184 puntos de muestreo. El análisis de los datos se realizó empleando enfoques univariado, geoestadístico y multivariado. El análisis estadístico de los resultados mostró gran variabilidad de las propiedades; la densidad aparente y el pH presentaron baja variación; los componentes texturales, la RP, Ca+2, Mg+2, Cu y B mostraron variación media, mientras que la humedad gravimétrica, KH, MO, K+, Na+, CIC, Zn, P, Mn y Fe, expresaron alta variación. Con el análisis Geoestadístico se visualizó y graficó la variabilidad de cada propiedad evaluada y se evidenció la existencia de moderada dependencia espacial en las propiedades excepto en los contenidos de arena, Ca+2, CIC, P y Cu que revelan fuerte dependencia espacial. El índice de homogeneidad multivariado para los suelos en estudio fue bajo, siendo textura, Na+, B, Fe, K, pH, Ca y MO las propiedades con mayor contribución a la heterogeneidad. El análisis de clasificación permitió agrupar cuatro zonas con condiciones edáficas similares, las que se podrán utilizar para determinar el sistema de muestreo, número de muestras, tamaño y distribución de unidades experimentales y con ello facilitar la implementación de prácticas de manejo agronómico acordes con las características de cada zona.

  6. Variabilidad en la implantación de las actividades comunitarias de promoción de la salud en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. March

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. Describir la variabilidad en la realización de actividades comunitarias de promoción de la salud, en apoyos recibidos, en formación y en valoración de la participación de profesionales, administración y agentes sociales en las mismas. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo mediante cuestionarios enviados a informadores clave identificados en cada CCAA con la ayuda de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria (SemFYC. El cuestionario incluía una definición de actividad comunitaria de promoción de la salud. Estudio realizado en 2008. Resultados. Se observó una importante variabilidad en la realización de actividades comunitarias por CCAA. Los profesionales más implicados son las enfermeras y trabajadoras sociales. La mayoría de las CCAA (15 de 17 ofertan formación en estos temas a sus profesionales, sobre todo en educación para la salud. Es menos frecuente la formación a residentes de medicina de familia y comunitaria (10 de 17 CCAA y en las diferentes especialidades de enfermería (6 de 17. Los principales apoyos institucionales provienen de las gerencias de atención primaria, los servicios autonómicos de salud, los ayuntamientos, y los servicios de salud pública y los no institucionales de sociedades científicas, asociaciones ciudadanas y ONG. En la valoración de la implicación de diferentes entidades e instituciones, solo aprueban las ONG (3 sobre 5 y atención primaria (2,5 sobre 5. Conclusiones. Existe una alta variabilidad en las formas de apoyo e impulso a las actividades comunitarias en cada CCAA y consecuentemente en su difusión y puesta en práctica por los equipos de atención primaria. Enfermeras y trabajadoras sociales son agentes clave en este proceso.

  7. Caracterizacion y analisis de la variabilidad genética de la granadilla (Passiflora ligularis juss. en Colombia empleando marcadores microsatélites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Bernal-Parra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La granadilla es la segunda especie en importancia económica del género Passiflora y Colombia es el principal productor del mundo con 53.000 t/año. Son pocos los estudios sobre la diversidad intraespecifica en la especie que permitan establecer las relaciones genéticas entre individuos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue explorar la variabilidad genética de la granadilla cultivada en Colombia por medio de marcadores microsatélites. Diez marcadores microsatélites fueron evaluados en 41 accesiones (82 individuos provenientes de los principales departamentos productores. Un total de cinco microsatélites fueron amplificados con 66 alelos identificados y un promedio de 12,2, entre ellos 7 únicos y 13 raros. Los índices de diversidad mostraron un contenido de información polimórfica de 0,74 (PIC, y una heterocigocidad promedio observada (Ho y esperada (He de 0,98 y 0,96 bajo condiciones de equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg. La distancia genética promedio dentro y entre poblaciones fue de 0,65 y 0,80, siendo Boyacá, Valle del Cauca y Putumayo los más distantes (>0,87. Los análisis de clasificación arbórea (nj y factorial de correspondencia múltiple (AFCM revelaron poca estructuración geográfica de las accesiones y dispersión de los individuos de un mismo origen. La carencia de estructuración y la alta variabilidad intraespecífica podría explicarse por el fenómeno de alogamia presente en la especie y el intercambio de semillas entre productores. En conclusión, estos resultados sugieren una evaluación agromorfológica complementaria que permita establecer la variabilidad genética total e implementar un programa de mejoramiento genético por medio de la selección asistida de genotipos superiores en búsqueda de cultivares más productivos y resistentes a problemas fitosanitarios que afectan los cultivos.

  8. Variabilidad del patrón respiratorio durante la carga elástica inspiratoria Variability of breathing pattern during inspiratory elastic load

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    Carlos E. D´Negri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La ventilación pulmonar en humanos tiene una variabilidad respiración a respiración no lineal, compleja y caótica. El objetivo del trabajo fue: caracterizar la variabilidad del patrón respiratorio en perros (n: 8 anestesiados respirando bajo carga elástica umbral (CEU inspiratoria (7 a 50 cm H2O. Con el flujo, presión traqueal y esofágica, se analizaron: tiempo inspiratorio (Ti, ritmo [tiempo espiratorio (Te; tiempo total (Ttot, y Ti/Ttot] e impulso central (Vt/Ti, variables relacionadas [volumen corriente (Vt y ventilación pulmonar (Ve]. Se determinaron: variabilidad grosera (varianzas, oscilaciones de baja frecuencia (análisis espectral y memoria a corto plazo (análisis de autocorrelación. La CEU produjo disminución de la varianza de medias en Te, Ttot, Vt y Vt/Ti (p In humans, lung ventilation exhibits breath-to-breath variability and dynamics that are nonlinear, complex and chaotic. Our objective was to characterize the breathing pattern variational activity in anesthetized dogs (n: 8 breathing through threshold inspiratory elastic load (7 to 50 cm H2O. Starting from flow signal and tracheal and esophageal pressures, we analyzed inspiratory time (Ti, timing (expiratory time, Te; total time, Ttot; and Ti/Ttot and central drive (Vt/Ti and variables related to it (tidal volume, Vt and pulmonary ventilation, Ve. We measured gross variability (variances, low frequency oscillations (spectral analysis, and short term memory (autocorrelation analysis. Loading decreased variance of the mean values of Te, Ttot, Vt and Vt/Ti (p < 0.05; the mean of variances for Ti/Ttot increased (p < 0.005 while it decreased for Vt and Vt/Ti (p < 0.05. In general, percent of data recordings with low frequency oscillations (OB% decreased (p < 0.02. During heavy load, timing parameters percent of data recordings with autocorrelations (AU% did not change, but Vt and its related parameters decreased their AU% (p < 0.005. There was a positive correlation (r: 0

  9. O comportamento da precipitação na Bacia do Itajaí

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    Jonas Teixeira Nery

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as flutuações em escala anual e interanual da precipitação no Vale do Itajaí. O objetivo foi caracterizar esta região, sistematicamente atingida por chuvas intensas que provocam danos consideráveis em sua economia. O período utilizado foi de 1944 a 1990 (dados cedidos pelo DNAEE - Brasília. Na escala interanual utilizou-se o maior período possível, para a região. Na escala estacional buscou-se tipificar a precipitação e entender a variabilidade da mesma no período úmido (6 meses e seco (6 meses, utilizando diferentes parâmetros estatísticos. Na escala interanual, estudou-se a relação da precipitação com a Oscilação Sul (OS

  10. Meloidogyne incognita Inoculum Source Affects Host Suitability and Growth of Yellow Nutsedge and Chile Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S H; Schroeder, J; Kenney, M J; Murray, L W

    1997-09-01

    Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) reproduction and host plant responses in chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus = YNS) to three sources of inoculum obtained by rearing a single Mi population on chile, YNS, and tomato were evaluated in two factorial greenhouse experiments. The interactive effects of Mi inoculum source and crop-weed competition were determined. In the absence of YNS competition, chile growth was reduced less by Mi inoculum from chile than by inoculum from YNS or tomato. When YNS was present, chile root weight was not affected and shoot weight increased with Mi initial inoculation, regardless of inoculum source. Chile plants inoculated with Mi from tomato exhibited double the nematode reproduction observed with inoculum from chile or YNS. With chile present, Mi reproduction on YNS was nearly three times greater with inoculum from tomato, but reproduction was similar among inoculum sources when chile was absent. Reductions in YNS root mass due to competition from chile failed to reduce the total number of Mi eggs produced on YNS plants. Differences in total Mi reproduction among inoculum sources were not attributable to differences in root growth or plant competition. This study illustrates the influence of Mi-YNS interactions and previous hosts on severity of Mi infection. PMID:19274174

  11. Jazz en Chile: su historia y función social Jazz in Chile: its history and social function

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    Álvaro Menanteau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una visión general de la historia del jazz en Chile que destaca la función social de esta música y el cambio que tuvo a través del tiempo. Estos cambios se relacionaron con diferentes valoraciones de la práctica jazzística local. En un principio el jazz fue música popular masiva. Posteriormente fue valorado estéticamente por un segmento de élite, quienes eran profesionales en áreas no musicales y en muchos casos eran instrumentistas aficionados. En una tercera etapa, músicos profesionales asumieron la práctica del jazz como una plataforma para fusionar el lenguaje jazzístico con recursos tomados de la música tradicional chilena. Este tránsito del jazz en Chile está cruzado por factores socioeconómicos y estéticos, que se analizan en el trabajo.The article presents an overview of the history of jazz in Chile on the basis of the social function of jazz and the changes it has underwent over the years in terms of the valúes it has represented for Chilean society. Initially jazz was considered as mass popular music. Afterwards it was valued in aesthetic terms by a group belonging to the élite of Chilean society. Many of them belonged to non-music professions and in some cases were amateur musicians. Most recently professional musicians took up jazz as the basis for combining the jazz style with elements belonging to traditional music of Chile. This process in Chile is also influenced by social, economic and aesthetic aspects which are explored in this article.

  12. Genetic variability of Pantaneiro horse using RAPD-PCR markers Variabilidade genética do cavalo Pantaneiro utilizando marcadores RAPD-PCR

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    Andréa Alves do Egito

    2007-08-01

    éticas e comparar a variabilidade genética entre e dentro de cada uma das raças. Dos 146 primers escrutinados, 13 foram escolhidos para amplificação com cada um dos indivíduos das oito populações, gerando um total de 44 bandas polimórficas. Os resultados encontrados na Análise de Variância Molecular (AMOVA indicam que grande parte da variabilidade genética detectada se deve a diferenças entre indivíduos dentro de populações (75,47%. Na análise da estimativa dos percentuais de variabilidade genética entre pares de populações, foram observados maiores valores para os pares formados entre as cinco populações de cavalo Pantaneiro e a raça Árabe, enquanto os menores percentuais ocorreram entre Pantaneiro e Mangalarga Marchador. Maior índice de diversidade gênica foi observado na raça Pantaneiro (0,3396. No dendrograma gerado pelo método UPGMA, a partir da matriz de similaridade obtida pelo coeficiente de Jaccard, houve distinção entre as raças naturalizadas (Pantaneiro e Mangalarga Marchador e as exóticas (Árabe e PSI. Os resultados encontrados sugerem que o Pantaneiro apresenta maior variabilidade genética que os de outras raças e está estreitamente relacionado ao Mangalarga Marchador.

  13. Flexiteste: proposição de cinco índices de variabilidade da mobilidade articular Flexitest: proposal of five variability indices for joint mobility

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    Claudio Gil Soares de Araújo

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available A flexibilidade pode ser definida como a máxima amplitude fisiológica passiva em um dado movimento articular. A flexibilidade é específica para a articulação e para o movimento. O Flexiteste, originalmente descrito em 1980, permite a medida da flexibilidade de 20 movimentos articulares, em uma escala crescente de números inteiros entre 0 e 4, e a obtenção de um resultado global denominado de Flexíndice. Considerando que o mesmo Flexíndice pode ser obtido por diferentes combinações dos escores dos 20 movimentos, fazia-se necessário estudar de forma objetiva a variabilidade dos resultados. Utilizando resultados de 2.426 homens e mulheres entre 5 e 88 anos de idade, propomos cinco novos índices de variabilidade dos escores do Flexiteste: a intermovimentos, b interarticulações, c flexão-extensão, d entre segmentos, e e distal-proximal. Os dois primeiros índices de variabilidade são independentes da idade, do gênero e da magnitude do Flexíndice. Os outros três, por ser resultados de quocientes entre médias de grupos de medidas, tendem a apresentar resultados próximos ao valor unitário, mas diferem entre os gêneros, especialmente quanto à dispersão dos resultados em relação à tendência central. Valores inferiores a 1,15 (homens e 1,04 (mulheres para o índice de variabilidade distal-proximal são pelo menos três vezes mais comuns em indivíduos com menos de 50 anos, sugerindo um padrão de expressão da flexibilidade infanto-juvenil. Métodos de cálculo, faixas de percentis para valores homogêneos, algo heterogêneos e altamente heterogêneos, assim como os aspectos principais da interpretação de cada um dos índices, são apresentados no texto.Flexibility may be expressed as the maximum passive physiological range of motion in a given joint movement. Flexibility is specific to both joint and movement. The Flexitest, originally described in 1980, allows for the flexibility measurement of 20 joint movements, using

  14. Variabilidade espacial e preenchimento de falhas de dados pluviométricos para o estado de Alagoas Spatial variability and missing precipitation data filling in Alagoas state

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    Henderson Silva Wanderley

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A região tropical é marcada por apresentar grande variabilidade quanto à distribuição dos seus regimes pluviométricos, e o conhecimento dessa variabilidade torna-se fundamental para obtenção dos padrões definidores dos regimes hidrológicos e climatológicos desta região. No entanto, a falta de informação quanto à distribuição da precipitação é um sério obstáculo para se compreender e modelar sua variabilidade, surgindo a necessidade de se obter informações para regiões que não apresentam estações de medições ou que apresentem falhas em seu banco de dados através da interpolação. O método consiste em utilizar técnicas geoestatísticas na compreensão da variabilidade espacial e no preenchimento de falhas de dados pluviométricos para o Estado de Alagoas. Para o estudo foram selecionados dados de 63 estações pluviométricas, provenientes da Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA entre os anos de 1965 a 1980. A utilização da geoestatística, com a análise variográfica, mostrou que as características estruturais estudadas da precipitação estão correlacionadas e apresentam forte dependência espacial. A estimativa da precipitação obtida pelo método de Krigagem Ordinária apresentou resultados satisfatórios, para a distribuição espacial da precipitação, bem como para o preenchimento de falhas.Tropical region is characterized by great variability in the distribution of the rainfall regimes, and knowledge of this variability is fundamental to achieve the standards that define the climatologic and hydrological regimes of this region. However, lack of information regarding the distribution of rainfall is a serious obstacle to understanding and modeling its variability, resulting in the need to obtain information for regions that do not have measuring stations or shows flaws in its database, by interpolation. The method uses geostatistic technique to understand the spatial variability and on the filling of

  15. GPS receivers for georeferencing of spatial variability of soil attributes Receptores GPS para georreferenciamento da variabilidade espacial de atributos do solo

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    David L Rosalen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of the spatial variability of soil attributes is essential to support agricultural practices in a sustainable manner. The use of geostatistics to characterize spatial variability of these attributes, such as soil resistance to penetration (RP and gravimetric soil moisture (GM is now usual practice in precision agriculture. The result of geostatistical analysis is dependent on the sample density and other factors according to the georeferencing methodology used. Thus, this study aimed to compare two methods of georeferencing to characterize the spatial variability of RP and GM as well as the spatial correlation of these variables. Sampling grid of 60 points spaced 20 m was used. For RP measurements, an electronic penetrometer was used and to determine the GM, a Dutch auger (0.0-0.1 m depth was used. The samples were georeferenced using a GPS navigation receiver, Simple Point Positioning (SPP with navigation GPS receiver, and Semi-Kinematic Relative Positioning (SKRP with an L1 geodetic GPS receiver. The results indicated that the georeferencing conducted by PPS did not affect the characterization of spatial variability of RP or GM, neither the spatial structure relationship of these attributes.A caracterização da variabilidade espacial dos atributos do solo é indispensável para subsidiar práticas agrícolas de maneira sustentável. A utilização da geoestatística para caracterizar a variabilidade espacial desses atributos, como a resistência mecânica do solo à penetração (RP e a umidade gravimétrica do solo (UG, é, hoje, prática usual na agricultura de precisão. O resultado da análise geoestatística é dependente da densidade amostral e de outros fatores, como o método de georreferencimento utilizado. Desta forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo comparar dois métodos de georreferenciamento para a caracterização da variabilidade espacial da RP e da UG, bem como a correlação espacial dessas vari

  16. La variabilidad climática y las pesquerías en el Pacifico suroriental Climate variability and fisheries in the southeastern Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Espino; Carmen Yamashiro

    2012-01-01

    El Pacífico suroriental es una de las áreas más productivas del planeta debido a su intensa dinámica de circulación oceánica cuya manifestación más importante, desde el punto de vista oceanográfico y biológico, la constituye los afloramientos costeros que generan una elevada producción primaria y secundaria que sustentan importantes poblaciones de peces que son la base de la economía pesquera de la región. Sin embargo, en esta región la normalidad es la variabilidad, que responde a patrones r...

  17. Variabilidade do risco do tempo de permanência ajustado para lactentes de muito baixo peso ao nascer entre centros da Neocosur South American Network

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    Guillermo Marshall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Desenvolver um modelo de predição para o tempo de permanência hospitalar (TPH em lactentes de muito baixo peso ao nascer (MBPN e comparar esse resultado entre 20 centros de uma rede neonatal, visto que o TPH é utilizado como uma medida da qualidade da assistência em lactentes de MBPN. MÉTODOS: Utilizamos dados coletados prospectivamente de 7.599 lactentes com peso ao nascer entre 500 e 1.500 g no período entre os anos de 2001 a 2008. O modelo de regressão de Cox foi empregado para desenvolver dois modelos de predição: um modelo prévio com dados do nascimento e outro posterior, que acrescenta morbidades relevantes dos primeiros 30 dias de vida. RESULTADOS: A mediana do TPH estimado e ajustado a partir do nascimento foi de 59 dias; 28 dias depois do tempo de sobrevida de 30 dias. Houve uma alta correlação entre os modelos (r = 0,92. O TPH esperado e o TPH observado variaram bastante entre os centros, mesmo depois de correção para as morbidades relevantes após 30 dias. O TPH mediano (variação: 45-70 dias e a idade concepcional na alta hospitalar (variação: 36,4-39,9 semanas refletem uma variabilidade alta entre centros. CONCLUSÃO: Um modelo simples, com fatores apresentados no nascimento, pode predizer o TPH de um lactente de MBPN em uma rede neonatal. Observou-se uma variabilidade nos TPHs considerável entre unidades de terapia intensiva neonatal. Especulamos que os resultados sejam provenientes das diferenças entre as práticas dos centros.

  18. INSOLAÇÃO E RADIAÇÃO SOLAR NA REGIÃO DE SANTA MARIA, RS: DISPONIBILIDADE E VARIABILIDADE

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    Galileo Adeli Buriol

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A disponibilidade e a variabilidade da insolação e da densidade de fluxo da radiação solar global incidente foram determinadas para vários locais da região de Santa Maria, RS. Utilizaram-se dados diários destes elementos climáticos, registrados nas estações experimentais de Silvicultura da Boca do Monte (Santa Maria, Fitotécnica de Júlio de Castilhos e de Forragicultura de São Gabriel da Secretaria da Agricultura e Abastecimento e das estações meteorológicas de Santa Maria (cidade e Departamento de Fitotecnia (Santa Maria pertencentes ao Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia. Concluiu-se que a disponibilidade de insolação e de densidade de fluxo da radiação solar global incidente de Júlio de Castilhos é maior que a de São Gabriel e a de Santa Maria, e que a variabilidade destes elementos é elevada em todos os meses do ano mas é maior durante os meses de inverno. Também verificou-se que a probabilidade de ocorrência de mais de um dia com ausência de insolação e de dias com densidade de fluxo de radiação solar global incidente < 100 cal.cm.-2 .dia-1 e de seqüências de mais de um dia consecutivo com estes níveis é maior nos meses de inverno na região de Santa Maria.

  19. Variabilidade óptica de longo período e precessão de jato: o caso de BL Lacertae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caproni, A.; Abraham, Z.

    2003-08-01

    Variabilidade é tipicamente uma característica de AGNs, sendo observada em toda a faixa eletromagnética. Em relação às escalas de tempo, variações desde horas até de algumas décadas foram encontradas por vários autores. Em alguns casos, análises temporais de curvas de luz mostram a existência de periodicidade nas variações observadas. Um exemplo de objeto que preenche as características mencionadas acima é BL Lacertae, o protótipo da classe BL Lac dos AGNs. Neste trabalho, nós interpretamos a variabilidade periódica de longo período detectada na curva de luz na banda B (~7,5 anos) como o resultado da periodicidade na amplificação da radiação oriunda do jato relativístico. Neste cenário, a amplificação periódica seria induzida pela precessão, que muda o ângulo entre o jato e a linha de visada. Com esta abordagem e vínculos adicionais fornecidos por observações em altas energias, nós podemos impor limites para os parâmetros do modelo de precessão, tais como o fator de Lorentz associado ao movimento global do jato, o ângulo de abertura do cone de precessão e o ângulo entre o eixo do cone e a linha de visada.

  20. ESO Delegation to Visit Chile: the Chile-Eso Treaty and Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The ESO Council, in its extraordinary session on 28 April 1994, among other matters discussed the relations with the Republic of Chile and the situation around Paranal mountain [1], the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Council decided to send a high ranking delegation to Santiago de Chile to discuss with Chilean authorities the pending problems, including the finalisation of the new Treaty between the Republic of Chile and ESO and the legal aspects of the Paranal location. The ESO delegation will consist of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. The delegation will arrive in Chile during the second half of May 1994. The ESO delegation will meet with the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and the Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose Miguel Insulza. Other meetings at high level are being planned. The delegation will report about these discussions to the ESO Council during its ordinary session on 7 - 8 June 1994. FOUR PARANAL PHOTOS AVAILABLE A series of four photos which show the current status of the work at Paranal has been prepared. Photographic colour prints for use by the media can be requested from the ESO Information and Photographic Service (please remember to indicate the identification numbers). [1] See ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994. PHOTO CAPTIONS ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-1: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is situated in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. In this view towards the West, the ocean is seen in the background. The altitude is 2650 metres

  1. Supervivencia adulta y dinámica poblacional del lauchón orejudo Phyllotis darwini en Chile central Adult survival and population dynamics in the leaf-eared mouse Phyllotis darwini in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Crespin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A nivel demográfico, los resultados clásicos de los modelos matriciales separan a las especies de tiempo generacional corto de las especies de tiempo generacional largo en cuanto a la importancia de la supervivencia adulta para la dinámica poblacional. Específicamente, la supervivencia adulta no debería contribuir de manera importante en la tasa de cambio poblacional de especies de tiempo generacional corto. Sin embargo, Yoccoz et al. (1998, Research Population Ecology 40: 107-121 propusieron que la supervivencia adulta sería el parámetro demográfico más importante para determinar la tasa de cambio poblacional en pequeños roedores cuando se toma en consideración una escala de tiempo mensual. Con el fin de poner a prueba esta hipótesis en este trabajo, utilizamos cinco años de datos de captura-marcaje-recaptura para estimar la supervivencia y la maduración de las hembras del lauchón orejudo, Phyllotis darwini, en una localidad de Chile central. El análisis mostró que las probabilidades de supervivencia disminuían con el promedio anual de la cantidad de lluvia y que las probabilidades de maduración disminuían con la densidad poblacional. Basados en las probabilidades de supervivencia y maduración, construimos un modelo matricial estacional para medir la importancia relativa de cada parámetro demográfico en el ciclo de vida de la especie a través de un análisis de perturbación. A fin de reflejar la variabilidad estacional del ambiente, dos estaciones fueron incorporadas en el modelo matricial: una estación de lluvia de cinco meses y una estación seca. Se observó que la supervivencia adulta era en efecto el parámetro demográfico con la elasticidad más fuerte. Por lo tanto, estos resultados apoyan la hipótesis de Yoccoz et al. (1998Classic results of matrix models predict that, in species with a long generation time, adult survival should be the demographic parameter driving population dynamics whereas, in species

  2. Parámetros reproductivos y poblacionales de Thais chocolata (Duelos, 1832 (Gastropoda, Thaididae, en la reserva marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile Reproductive and population parameters of Thais chocolata (Duclos, 1832 (Gastropoda, Thaididae in La Rinconada marine reserve, Antofagasta, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cantillánez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Para obtener antecedentes reproductivos y poblacionales de Thais chocolata que contribuyan a validar su actual normativa pesquera, se realizó un estudio en el área protegida de la reserva marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile, entre diciembre 2008 y enero 2010. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron a nivel reproductivo, que el desarrollo gonadal de la población es asincrónico, encontrándose ejemplares en diferentes etapas de maduración durante el año. Los individuos maduros se estratificaron entre 5 y 13 m de profundidad, y gran parte del año formaron agregaciones a 5 m de profundidad. Se determinaron períodos de mayor madurez en julio-agosto, y en noviembre-enero, manifestándose las agregaciones más importantes al final de ellos. Una relación se observó entre meses de mayor madurez y registro de agregaciones, con aquellos de mayor variación intradiaria de temperatura. A nivel poblacional los resultados permitieron estimar una población de 2,3*10(6 ejemplares, donde el 39% se encontró sobre la talla mínima legal (TML = 55 mm. Los parámetros de crecimiento mostraron crecimiento relativamente lento, que podría estar influenciado por la alta variabilidad que presenta la temperatura de fondo en este sector. Mientras que su talla crítica, y la talla de primera madurez sexual poblacional, resultaron ser mayores a la TML. Se determinó la necesidad de revisar la normativa pesquera actual de esta especie, y se demostró la efectividad de las reservas marinas propiciadas por el Estado en la conservación de los recursos marinos.Reproductive and population parameters of Thais chocolata that would contribute to the validation of the current extraction standards were obtained by performing a study in the protected area of La Rinconada Marine Reserve, Antofagasta, Chile, from December 2008 to January 2010. In terms of reproduction, the results revealed asynchronic gonad development in the population, with specimens in different stages of

  3. Administration and Management of Irrigation Water in 24 User Organizations in Chile Administración y Gestión del Agua de Riego en 24 Organizaciones de Usuarios en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jara Jorge

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 85% of the water consumed in Chile is destined to agricultural irrigation and is managed by the users themselves. This study analyzed the price that irrigation water users pay to their Water User Associations (WUAs to which they belong and the relationship of this price to the professional level and performance of the WUAs. The study included 24 WUAs: 10 River Administration Boards (JV and 14 Irrigation Canal Associations (AC. The annual operational budget of each WUA, the price paid by users and the management capacities of the board of directors of each WUA were compared. The study also determined the relative value of user payments to WUAs as a proportion of total production costs of the main crops in each zone. The variability of user fees per irrigated hectare decreases when the irrigation area of the WUA is more than 10 000 ha, though this was not observed in JVs. The presence of technical-professional staff directly affects the development and growth of the WUAs. As well, the WUAs with a greater level of capacity development (NDC have more board members with a higher education level and have lower rates of unpaid user fees. The price that users pay to the WUA by irrigated hectare represents less than 4.0% of the average total production cost of the main crops in the study area. Finally, no correlation was found between the prices that users pay and the average profitability of the main crops, or between price and the geographical location of the WUAs.Aproximadamente, el 85% del agua consumida en Chile es destinada al riego agrícola, siendo administrada por los propios usuarios. En este estudio, se analizó el costo que cancelan los usuarios del agua de riego a sus Organizaciones de Usuarios de Agua (WUAs y el nivel de profesionalización y desempeño de éstas. Se estudiaron 24 WUAs: 10 Juntas de Vigilancia (JV y 14 Asociaciones de Canalistas (AC. Se comparó el presupuesto anual de operaciones de cada WUA, el valor que

  4. El estado de la seguridad ciudadana en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    de Rementería, Ibán

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo desarrolla, desde una perspectiva crítica, un detallado “estado del arte” de la temática de “seguridad ciudadana” en Chile, delineando cómo esta problemática obedece más bien a una percepción de inseguridad instalada en la ciudadanía desde los medios de comunicación, y legitimada por los expertos interesados en asegurar la sostenibilidad de sus servicios en el emergente “mercado de la seguridad.” Se sostiene en el ensayo que en Chile la situación de seguridad ciudadana es la mej...

  5. [Mental health financing in Chile: a pending debt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errázuriz, Paula; Valdés, Camila; Vöhringer, Paul A; Calvo, Esteban

    2015-09-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of mental health disorders in Chile, there is a significant financing deficit in this area when compared to the world's average. The financing for mental health has not increased in accordance with the objectives proposed in the 2000 Chilean National Mental Health and Psychiatry Plan, and only three of the six mental health priorities proposed by this plan have secure financial coverage. The National Health Strategy for the Fulfilment of Health Objectives for the decade 2011-2020 acknowledges that mental disorders worsen the quality of life, increase the risk of physical illness, and have a substantial economic cost for the country. Thus, this article focuses on the importance of investing in mental health, the cost of not doing so, and the need for local mental health research. The article discusses how the United States is trying to eliminate the financial discrimination suffered by patients with mental health disorders, and concludes with public policy recommendations for Chile.

  6. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chile has an area of 740,760 square kilometers. The capital is Santiago. The country is 4,183 km. long and ranges from 22.5 to about 354 km. in width. Its chief topographic features para]lei each other - the Coastal Range, Andes Mountains and Central Valley. The Coastal Range rises to 2,130 meters in the north, but averages from 610 to 700 meters high generally. The range plunges into the Pacific Ocean far south of Valparaiso and reappears in the southern archipelagic islands. The Andes extend along nearly the entire length of Chile and contain 100 volcanoes. Andean peaks range mostly from 3,000 to 6,700 meters in elevation. In southern Chile the Andes are lower, and contain about a dozen major lakes. The mountains disappear in Chilean Patagonia, but reappear at Cape Horn. The Central Valley lies between the Coastal Range and the Andes, being best defined in the midland region as a 64 to 72 km sloping plain. It is the Chilean heartland with three-quarters of the country's population. Salt basins are found over much of northern Chile in the very arid desert, while the region south of the Gulf of Reloncavi consists of unpopulated islands, fjords, channels and heavily forested mountains. The Strait of Magellan, the Tierra del Fuego archipelago and a flat grassland area make up the extreme southern end of the country. Much of Chile is subject to flash floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides and avalanches. In September 1976 the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCEN) was given exclusive rights to negotiate contracts with private companies for the exploration, development and mining of uranium and other radioactive minerals. The new law provides the CCEN with considerable flexibility in the terms of the contracts. Pre-964 owners of uranium deposits may reach agreements with foreign companies to mine the uranium, but since 1964 all uranium has belonged to the state. Uranium produced in the country can only be exported after Chile's needs have been met. The

  7. Reforma educativa y política en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Angell

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines two important educational reforms introduced since the return to democracy in Chile. The first one was targeted at the poorest 10% of schools in Chile. The second was a fundamental reform of the primary educational sector. Both have been successful in meeting their objectives, and mark a fundamental shift from the educational reforms of the Pinochet government. The reasons for the success of the reforms are broken down into political, institutional and operational factors. In essence, a small team of trained educational reformers, with widespread support and strong backing from the Minister of Education and the President were able to overcome the resistance of the bureaucrats of the Ministry of Education and that of the school teachers union.

  8. [Chile: political education and a critical reading of television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattelart, M

    1979-01-01

    A study of television was conducted in Chile in 1971. There is a discontinuous aspect in the requests of the public, especially in times of crisis and rupture with the traditional order. In order to measure the various levels of appreciation and critique raised by the television in various areas of the working class in Chile, the poblaciones (peripheric residential zones) were chosen as the place for the study. 100 interviews were conducted. 60% of the people questioned were sympathizers or militants of the various left wing parties; the other 40% were sympathizers or militants of the opposition (Christian democracy, National party and right wing of the radical party). Television does not make any distinction between the publics, but the public makes distinctions between the effects of television. Melodramas and detective programs have the largest adhesion in the popular public of Latin America. PMID:12261387

  9. Nuevos inmigrantes en Chile: Los determinantes de su actividad emprendedora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio MANCILLA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile es poca la literatura que estudia a los inmigrantes desde una perspectiva económica, y menos la que aborda su actitud emprendedora (a pesar de que son proporcionalmente más emprendedores que los habitantes locales. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los factores que influyen en el emprendimiento de los in - migrantes sudamericanos en Chile. Se utilizó un modelo logit ajustado para even - tos extraños para determinar el impacto sobre la probabilidad de emprendimiento individual. Algunos resultados indican que el tiempo de residencia, forma legal de ingreso al país, nivel educacional y experiencia previa de emprendimiento, influyen en la probabilidad de crear una actividad empresarial.

  10. [Adult mortality from chronic diseases in Chile, 1968-1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taucher, E; Albala, C; Icaza, G

    1994-12-01

    "The paper starts with a brief analysis of the sources and the quality of the data and the mortality indices [for trends in adult mortality from chronic diseases in Chile]....A comparison is made of mortality among the 13 regions of the country and an attempt is made to relate the observed differences to some environmental and life-style factors. Rural-urban and educational differences of mortality by cause of death are also analyzed. The paper ends by comparing mortality by chronic disease in Chile with that of other countries of the Latin American region, noting some difficulties [in] such a comparison and proposing hypotheses for future studies." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12290226

  11. [Public health infrastructure investment difficulties in Chile: concessions and public tenders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyenechea, Matías

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to highlight the problems of gaps in health infrastructure in Chile, and to analyze the mechanisms by which it is provided. In Chile this is done in two ways: the first is through competitive bidding or sector-wide modality. The second way is through hospital concessions. Both mechanisms have had difficulties in recent years, which are reported. Finally, we propose ways to improve the provision of health infrastructure in Chile. PMID:27187810

  12. Disintegration in Peru - consolidation in Chile: the case for militant Capitalism in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Edward J.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Over the past two decades, Peru and Chile have each experienced both military regimes and civilian governments. Peru's experience has been dominated by the political left; Chile's by the right. In contrast to Peru's populist politics and interventionist economics, Chile, in 1973, experienced a militant capitalist revolution. Almost twenty years later, Peru is a nation torn by political violence of both the left and right; on the brink...

  13. Growth, Poverty and Employment in Brazil, Chile and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Zepeda; Diana Alarcón; Fabio Veras Soares; Rafael Guerreiro Osório

    2007-01-01

    Insufficient labour income and limited access to employment are critical problems that policy makers must address when designing development strategies in Latin American countries. The persistence of the high incidence of poverty and inequality can be explained largely by the poor performance of labour markets. This Working Paper uses household survey data for Chile, Brazil and Mexico, from the early 1990s to the early 2000s, to examine the link between the growth of labour income, employment...

  14. Physical dating violence among college students in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Lehrer, Vivian L.; Lehrer, Evelyn Lilian; Zhao, Zhenxiang

    2007-01-01

    Dating violence is a serious public health concern both per se and because victimization in the young adult years can be a precursor to more severe incidents of domestic violence later, in the context of cohabitation or marriage. To date, no quantitative studies have examined dating violence among college students in Chile. To address this gap, a survey on this topic was administered to students at a major public university. The present analyses focused on the female sample (n=441). Generaliz...

  15. ESTATISMO Y NEOLIBERALISMO: UN CONTRAPUNTO MILITAR CHILE 1973-1979

    OpenAIRE

    VERÓNICA VALDIVIA ORTIZ DE ZÁRATE

    2001-01-01

    This article analizes the installation in Chile of a neoliberal model during the military regime headed by General Augusto Pinochet, between 1973 and 1979. Within that context, it offers a reinterpretation of the allegedly foundational character of that government, its also supposedly early adherence to the neoliberal matrix, and its break with the Keynesian capitalism which had prevailed since the 1930’s. The analysis is focused on the evolution of military with regard to the links between t...

  16. Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Carter Leal, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, agriculture remains a key economic factor for rural development. Accordingly, the Chilean government, through the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), provides financial support for fostering entrepreneurship among small farmers to enable them to become more competitive in global markets. Despite this support, a declining number of farmers and an aging population are observed in rural areas. Most rural development programs focus on increasing competitiveness, whereas the stay...

  17. Nota técnica: Seguridad vial: Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

    2011-01-01

    Esta nota sectorial ha servido de apoyo para el dialogo con el Gobierno Chileno en la preparación de la estrategia país del BID con Chile 2011-2014. En este se describe el estado de la situación de la seguridad vial en el país, se realiza un diagnostico del sector, se exponen los desafíos de desarrollo y se realizan recomendaciones de política.

  18. Residential Segregation Effects on Poor’s Opportunities in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Osvaldo Larrañaga Jiménez; Claudia Sanhueza Riveros

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to identify whether or not the spatial concentration of poverty –also called economic residential segregation- affects the opportunities of the poor in Chile. Residential segregation is understood as the concentration particular population groups in determined geographical areas within cities. To identify the effects of segregation we use a panel of cross sections of the Casen household surveys, although the measures of segregation are computed from the Census data. The result...

  19. Social Protection Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Robles Farías

    2015-01-01

    Chile has a long history of implementing social policies. It was one of the first countries in Latin America to expand free health care coverage and education, incorporating cash and in-kind transfers to promote access to social services and offer diverse protection mechanisms for its most vulnerable population groups. That said, its current social protection model is the result of a series of efforts, institutions and policies that have been consolidated over time.(?)

  20. Managing Natural Resources Revenue: The case of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    J. Rodrigo Fuentes

    2010-01-01

    Countries abundant in natural resources face the dilemma of how to manage this source of revenues. The recent boom in commodity prices put this issue at the top of the agenda in natural resource rich economies. Chile, for instance, is the largest copper producer in the world, supplying 43% of world copper exports. In 2007, the state-owned corporation, CODELCO, produced one third of total Chilean copper output and the revenues from its copper exports accounted for 16% of total fiscal revenues....

  1. Talcahuano, Chile, in the wake of the 2010 disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    Because of Chile’s geographical position, earthquakes and tsunamis are recurrent phenomena and reducing vulnerability to these events is imperative. To do this, one needs to understand the geophysical features of the hazards involved and the vulnerability that exposed communities live with. This article presents some unexpected findings of a research regarding the latter and devised to investigate the vulnerability realities that the devastating 2010 earthquake/tsunami event in Chile exposed....

  2. DEVELANDO UN MITO: EMISARIOS DE LA INTERNACIONAL COMUNISTA EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ulianova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Reconociendo al comunismo como un actor nacional e internacional clave en la evolución política de Chile durante el siglo XX, que tempranamente vincula el país con la política mundial, el artículo pretende reconstruir, contrastando la documentación de los archivos kominternianos con las fuentes memorialísticas y periodísticas locales, una de las primeras y más enigmáticas formas de la vinculación del movimiento comunista mundial con su partido chileno: la presencia intermitente en el país, entre las décadas de 1920 y 1930, de "delegados" o "emisarios" del Komintern. El análisis de las formas de la interacción de los emisarios kominternianos no solo con la militancia criolla, sino con importantes sectores de la sociedad nacional, contribuye a la reflexión acerca de la dimensión internacional en la construcción de la cultura política chilena del siglo XX.The article analyzes the interaction between Soviet Komintern emissaries and local communist followers as well as important sectors of Chilean society. It recognizes that communism was a key national and international factor in Chile's political evolution during the twentieth century, when the country was closely linked with world politics. This contributes to the discussion regarding the international dimensión of the construction of Chile's political culture during the twentieth century. The article reconstructs one of the first and enigmatic forms of linking the world communist movement and Chile's Communist Party. Documents from Komintern archives, memories and local press sources, were used to explore this topic.

  3. REASONS FOR CONGLOMERATION: EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF MANAGEMENT RESPONSES IN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE TARZIJÁN M; JOSÉ RIVERA

    2000-01-01

    This paper is intended to contribute to the understanding of the motivations behind the diversification decisions of the Chilean “economic groups”. With this objective we surveyed the largest such groups in Chile. Our results show that the most important reasons for diversification for the top management of the Chilean business groups are managerial synergies (board of directors), financial synergies, information synergies and some specific operational synergies such as economies of scope in ...

  4. Price elasticity of demand for toll roads in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Saens; Germán Lobos

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of a road pricing scheme to optimize the use of transport infrastructure depends on the available information regarding the price elasticity of demand for bridges, tunnels and highways. The aim of this paper is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for toll roads in Chile using the seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) method and a panel of 48 monthly data drawn from 21 toll plazas (48 x 21). Our results show that, even when controlling for gasoline prices and economic act...

  5. Business Incubator Financing and Financial Services in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Chandra; Magda Narczewska

    2009-01-01

    Business incubation in Chile is still in its nascent stages, with approximately 20-25 incubators supported primarily by a coalition of government and universities. Chilean business incubators tend to capitalize on regional resource strengths and have a strategic focus on high growth, high innovation, high impact businesses as a result of a government mandate to focus on developing business with high potential for economic development and job creation. The government’s efforts to organize risk...

  6. Variables perceptuales y emprendimiento naciente en Chile: oportunidad versus necesidad

    OpenAIRE

    Lennon Sabatini, Joaquin; Franetovic Parker, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    In this work we seek to assess how perception variables affect on the timely decision to undertake in Chile, measured by the nascent entrepreneurship, ie, those entrepreneurs who are starting a new business, including any form of self-employment or commersialisation of all types of goods or services. This, controlling for other relevant variables of demographic and economic nature . It seems particularly interesting to quantify how affect self-confidence, perception of opportunity, fear of fa...

  7. Employment Generation, Firm Size, and Innovation in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Alvarez; José Miguel Benavente; Rolando Campusano; Conrado Cuevas

    2011-01-01

    This paper compiles and analyzes several sources of information to shed light on the relationship between innovation and employment growth in the manufacturing industry in Chile in the last 15 years. Our overall conclusions are that process innovation is generally not found to be a relevant determinant of employment growth, and that product innovation is usually positively associated with an expansion in employment. These results seem to be similar regardless of firm size and hold for both lo...

  8. Cultural experiences of immigrant nurses at two hospitals in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Rodríguez; Luz Angélica-Muñoz; Luiza Akiko Komura Hoga

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to explore the cultural experiences of nurses who immigrated to Chile. The study´s theoretical framework was the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence.METHOD: Leininger's Observation-Participation-Reflection method was developed at two hospitals in the city of Santiago, and ethnographic interviews were held with 15 immigrant nurses.RESULTS: among Purnell's 12 domains, the following were identified: Overview/heritage, Communication, Workforce issues, Family roles and organization, B...

  9. Reviews of National Policies for Education : Tertiary Education in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Mogollón, Maria Paulina; Crawford, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tertiary education in Chile has been transformed radically over the past 20 years. As recently as 1990, tertiary education was an elite system centered on a handful of traditional universities which served a small number of well-prepared students. Today the system is diverse and dynamic, with over 6,000 programs of study offered by more than 200 institutions. More than 800,000 students are...

  10. Variabilidad textural, mineralógica y geoquímica de la bentonita de Yuncos (Cuenca de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno, A.

    1993-12-01

    processes (Al/Mg > 0.3 and the other to neoformation (Al/Mg En este trabajo se estudia la variabilidad composicional (mineralógica y geoquímica y textural de la capa principal de bentonita (saponita del depósito de Yuncos (Toledo, en el sector suroccidental de la cuenca de Madrid. Desde un punto de vista sedimentológico se han diferenciado en la capa bentonítica dos episodios: uno inferior (1 caracterizado por litofacies de lutitas masivas, que muestran lateralmente microfacies brechoides-bioturbadas (columna A a intraclásticas con «glébulas» y materia orgánica (columnas B y C, y otro episodio superior (11 constituido por lutitas laminadas-Iajeadas con ooides calcíticos, que muestra un escaso desarrollo en las columnas estudiadas. El primer episodio se interpreta como depósitos de encharcamiento palustre somero sobre facies de «mud-flat» lacustre, y el segundo como correspondiente a depósitos en pequeños encharcamientos rellenando depresiones sobre la bentonita del episodio inferior que es parcialmente removilizada. De los datos texturales se infiere que la columna A corresponde a la zona con mayor grado de somerización, mientras que la C es la que presenta rasgos de un mayor período de encharcamiento, siendo la B transicional entre ambas. Mineralógicamente se observa una disminución progresiva en el contenido de minerales heredados (cuarzo, feldespatos, illita-mica en la dirección A-C, que coincide con un incremento en la proporción de fracción arcilla en las granulometrías. La arcilla está constituida fundamentalmente por saponita, con illita abundante en la columna A y sepiolita mejor desarrollada en la zona transicional (columna B. Estas características se reflejan en el comportamiento geoquímico, con A12O3, K2O, Fe2O3, Na2O y TiO2 decreciendo en la dirección A-C (correlación positiva, mientras que MgO es su antagonista (correlación negativa. Los elementos traza, especialmente Ba, Nb, Pb

  11. Revisiting the Source Process of the 2007 Tocopilla, Chile Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, M.; Minson, S. E.; Jolivet, R.; Jiang, J.; Beck, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    We revisit the 2007 Mw 7.7 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake to create a finite fault kinematic source model based on the current best practices in data analysis and inversion methods. The data used to constrain the source model include both static GPS offsets and 1 Hz kinematic GPS time series, as well as interferograms which have been reanalyzed to remove tropospheric effects which can be quite significant in this region. Our inversion methodology is a Bayesian approach that uses only physics-based constraints on the rupture evolution, and which utilizes models of both the observational noise and the errors in our forward model to obtain the ensemble of all plausible rupture models which satisfy both the data and our a priori assumptions. This approach allows us to better understand which parts of the rupture process are well-constrained and which are not, and thus to better understand how the 2007 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake rupture fits into the sequence of large earthquakes which have been mosaicking the northern Chile subduction zone.

  12. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities.

  13. Development of management system for fruit export from Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of agencies in the control of fruit quality and of phytosanitary aspects have considerably increased in the last four years, resulting in an improvement in the quality of fresh fruits exported from Chile to the USA and Europe. Most of the produce, requiring shipping times of 2 to 3 weeks, is being shipped in refrigerated vessels. The Fundacion Chile has helped this export industry not only by training field inspectors, capable of checking quality of fruit before it has been packed, but also by certifying this quality when required by the exporter or his overseas customer. Strict quarantine requirements in importing countries have imposed a number of restrictions and produce is fumigated either in Chile or in the port of import. It is suggested that before irradiation is applied to Chilean fruits for export one should: (a) evaluate its effect on quality, with special reference on maturity at harvest, (b) demonstrate quarantine efficacy to a standard accepted by importing countries, (c) solve logistical aspects, (d) evaluate application technique in dependence of different packagings, (e) make cost assessments and (f) work towards bilateral agreement regarding acceptance of treatment and of facilities. (author)

  14. Seroepidemiology of human toxoplasmosis in Chile Seroepidemiología de la toxoplasmosis en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del C. Contreras

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of already published and unpublished seroepidemiological surveys for toxoplasmosis, carried out in Chile in 1982-1994, is reviewed, expanded and analyzed. The surveys included 76,317 apparently healthy individuals of different ages (0.57% of the country's total population, from 309 urban and rural-periurban localities. Urban groups were integrated by blood donors, delivering mothers and middle grade schoolchildren, while rural-periurban individuals corresponded to unselected family groups. Blood samples were collected in filter paper. The presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined by the indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT, titers > 16 were considered positive. The test resulted positive in 28,124 (36.9% of the surveyed people. Two hundred and six (0.3% individuals presented IHAT titers > 1000, probably corresponding to acute or reactivated infections. A progressive increase of positive IHAT from northern to southern regions of the country was noted, phenomenom probably related to geographical conditions and to a higher production and consumption of different types of meat in the latter regions. It is postulated that ingestion of T. gondii cysts by humans is epidemiologically as important as ingestion of oocysts. The results presented stress the epidemiological importance of toxoplasmosis in humans, and warn about eventual implications in immunocompromised patients and in transplacental transmission, organ transplants and transfusions.En este trabajo se revisa, se amplía y se analiza en conjunto una serie de encuestas seroepidemiológicas sobre toxoplasmosis efectuadas en Chile entre 1982 y 1994, utilizando la reacción de hemaglutinación indirecta (RHAI. El estudio incluyó 76.317 personas aparentemente sanas de diferentes edades (0,57% de la problación total del país, procedentes de 309 localidades urbanas y rural-periurbanas. Los grupos urbanos estuvieron constituídos por donantes de sangre, parturientas y

  15. Environmental management in Chile: The power plants case; Gestion ambiental en Chile: Caso de las centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadrijevic, Maritza [Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente, (Chile)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the general aspects of the historic evolution o the legal norms on environmental matters in Chile; general aspects of the electric generation system and the instruments of environmental management currently applied in the fossil fueled power plants, such as: the assessment system of the environmental impact; compliance of the air quality and emissions Standards and plans for decontamination [Espanol] En este trabajo se dan a conocer aspectos generales de la evolucion historica de las normas juridicas en materia ambiental en Chile; aspectos generales del sistema de generacion electrica y los instrumentos de gestion ambiental que actualmente se aplican a las plantas de generacion termoelectricas, tales como: el sistema de evaluacion de impacto ambiental; cumplimiento de normas de la calidad de aire y de emision y, planes de descontaminacion

  16. [Mortality in Chile 1955-1975: trends and causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taucher, E

    1978-12-01

    Sources for data on mortality in Chile are available from the Instituto National de Estadistica, and from the Servicio National de Salud. For the purpose of this study every possible effort was made to get valid data, relying on the national death register, and on medical certificates of death. Between 1953 and 1963 the mortality rate was 12-13/1000; it abruptly descended in 1973, and rose again, to reach the level of 7.2/1000 in 1975. Male mortality is higher than female mortality. In the years 1974-1975 the mortality rate descended considerably for infants and for children 1-4. If one compares mortality rates in Chile and Sweden for 1975, it is obvious that modern medical technology and different sanitary conditions are responsible for the low mortality rate in Sweden. As to the causes of mortality, 9 diseases are responsible for more than 90% of deaths. During the past 15 years death from cancer was about 110/1000, while violent deaths and deaths by accidents augmented. The death rate for respiratory diseases decreased significantly in 1974-1975. In comparing causes of death in Chile and in the U.S. one notices that respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, and circulatory diseases account for a great number of deaths in Chile, while in the U.S. accidents account for 73.4% of deaths in the 15-24 year old group. Tuberculosis, which has almost disappeared in the U.S., accounts for 5% of deaths in Chile in the 15-44 year old group. Such differences are due to cultural, social and economic diversity in the structure of the 2 countries. Pneumonia still accounts for 50% of infant mortality, and malnutrition for about 39% of mortality of children under 5. Still, most causes of death, like diarrhea in children, could be avoided with proper diagnosis and treatment. Nutrition, sanitary conditions, medical attention, and socioeconomic conditions are finally responsible if Chilean mortality rates still are much higher than those of developed countries.

  17. Field survey of the 16 September 2015 Chile tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2016-04-01

    On the evening of 16 September, 2015 a magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile's Coquimbo region. The ensuing tsunami caused significant inundation and damage in the Coquimbo or 4th region and mostly minor effects in neighbouring 3rd and 5th regions. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1922 and 1943 tsunamis in the region along with the catastrophic 2010 Maule and recent 2014 tsunamis, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were a few tsunami victims; while a handful of fatalities were associated to earthquake induced building collapses and the physical stress of tsunami evacuation. The international scientist joined the local effort from September 20 to 26, 2015. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 500 km stretch of coastline from Caleta Chañaral de Aceituno (28.8° S) south of Huasco down to Llolleo near San Antonio (33.6° S). We surveyed more than 40 locations and recorded more than 100 tsunami and runup heights with differential GPS and integrated laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Totoral near Punta Aldea with both tsunami and runup heights exceeding 10 m as surveyed on September 22 and broadcasted nationwide that evening. Runup exceeded 10 m at a second uninhabited location some 15 km south of Caleta Totoral. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of central Chile at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2015 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1922, 1943, 2010 and 2014 Chile tsunamis. The

  18. Importance of water quality on plant abundance and diversity in high-alpine meadows of the Yerba Loca Natural Sanctuary at the Andes of north-central Chile Importancia de la calidad del agua sobre la abundancia y diversidad vegetal en vegas altoandinas del Santuario Natural Yerba Loca en los Andes de Chile centro-norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSANNA GINOCCHIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Porphyry Cu-Mo deposits have influenced surface water quality in high-Andes of north-central Chile since the Miocene. Water anomalies may reduce species abundance and diversity in alpine meadows as acidic and metal-rich waters are highly toxic to plants The study assessed the importance of surface water quality on plant abundance and diversity in high-alpine meadows at the Yerba Loca Natural Santuary (YLNS, central Chile (33°15' S, 70°18' W. Hydrochemical and plant prospecting were carried out on Piedra Carvajal, Chorrillos del Plomo and La Lata meadows the growing seasons of 2006 and 2007. Direct gradient analysis was performed through canonical correspondence analysis (CCA to look for relationships among water chemistry and plant factors. High variability in water chemistry was found inside and among meadows, particularly for pH, sulphate, electric conductivity, hardness, and total dissolved Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Fe. Data on species abundance and water chemical factors suggests that pH and total dissolved Cu are very important factor determining changes in plant abundance and diversity in study meadows. For instance, Festuca purpurascens, Colobanthus quitensis, and Arenaria rivularis are abundant in habitals with Cu-rich waters while Festuca magellanica, Patosia clandestina, Plantago barbata, Werneria pygmea, and Erigeron andícola are abundant in habitals with dilute waters.Los megadepósitos de pórfidos de Cu-Mo han influido sobre la calidad de las aguas superficiales en las zonas altoandinas del centro-norte de Chile desde el Mioceno. Estas alteraciones en la calidad de las aguas podrían afectar negativamente a la vegetación presente en las vegas altoandinas, ya que las aguas acidas y ricas en metales son altamente tóxicas para las plantas. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la calidad de las aguas en la abundancia y diversidad florística de las vegas altoandinas del Santuario de la Naturaleza Yerba Loca (SNYL, en Chile central (33

  19. Estabilidad temporal de las infracomunidades de parásitos en la borrachilla Scartichthys viridis (Valenciennes, 1836 (Pisces : Blenniidae en la costa central de Chile Temporal stability in parasite infracommunities of the blenny Scartichthys viridis(Valenciennes, 1836 (Pisces: Blenniidae on the central coast of Chile

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    FREDDY DÍAZ

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan las infracomunidades de parásitos de la borrachilla Scartichthys viridis (Pisces: Blenniidae de tres muestras tomadas en un lapso de 17 meses, entre 1999 y 2001, desde pozas intermareales vecinas a Las Cruces (33°27' S, 71°37' O, Chile central. El objetivo es averiguar si la riqueza, diversidad, abundancia y composición de las infracomunidades de parásitos son persistentes o no en el tiempo ontogenético y cronológico. Se recolectaron 10 taxa parasitarios en cerca del 89 % de los 63 huéspedes examinados, de los cuales ocho eran metazoarios. La búsqueda de protozoos se realizó sólo en los últimos 2 años. El 75 % de los ocho taxa de metazoos ocurrieron en los tres años, uno no estuvo presente en un año, y otro fue encontrado solamente en un año. La mayoría de los huéspedes examinados albergaba protozoos parásitos. La prevalencia de los protozoos Cryptobia sp. fue alta para ambos años, y menor en Trichodina sp. La longitud total de los huéspedes era un predictor relevante de las variaciones en la riqueza, abundancia, diversidad y composición infracomunitaria en el conjunto de los tres años. En cambio, el año de muestreo no lo fue, en particular al comparar entre huéspedes de similar longitud total. Estos resultados son similares a los encontrados en infracomunidades de parásitos de otras especies de peces en Chile, en que hay baja variabilidad en las propiedades agregadas de las infracomunidades en el tiempo cronológico. Se discute acerca de la extensión relativa del tiempo ontogenético en contraste al tiempo cronológico al ser probablemente ambos de importancia en las características de las infracomunidades, y se propone que se explore la medida en la cual estos resultados constituyen un patrón.Parasite infracommunities of the blenny Scartichthys viridis (Pisces: Blenniidae are compared among three samples taken within a 17-month period during three consecutive years (1999-2001, from intertidal pools at

  20. La variabilidad climática y las pesquerías en el Pacifico suroriental Climate variability and fisheries in the southeastern Pacific

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    Marco Espino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El Pacífico suroriental es una de las áreas más productivas del planeta debido a su intensa dinámica de circulación oceánica cuya manifestación más importante, desde el punto de vista oceanográfico y biológico, la constituye los afloramientos costeros que generan una elevada producción primaria y secundaria que sustentan importantes poblaciones de peces que son la base de la economía pesquera de la región. Sin embargo, en esta región la normalidad es la variabilidad, que responde a patrones reguladores de macroescala como los estacionales, interanuales, periódicos y seculares, como procesos de corto, mediano, largo y muy largo plazo. En estos escenarios ambientales aparecen como factores o manifestaciones de variabilidad el ENOS (El Nino Oscilación del Sur, la ODP (Oscilación Decadal del Pacífico y la VSP (Variabilidad Secular del Pacífico como los más conspicuos. Tanto la temporalidad como los factores de variabilidad afectan el ecosistema y, dentro de éste a los recursos y sus pesquerías. Estos cambios están referidos al tiempo, espacio, poblaciones y pesquerías. Es decir, los procesos de dinámica poblacional de los recursos, como reclutamiento, crecimiento y mortalidad natural y por pesca, están siendo afectados permanentemente, a intensidades y frecuencias escalares diferentes. Esta situación estaría induciendo respuestas dinámicas de las poblaciones que a su vez generan estados poblacionales frente a cada uno de los momentos o escenarios ambientales imperantes. El trabajo presenta un análisis de los patrones normativos y factores de variabilidad usando variables ambientales, biológicas y pesqueras y se identifican escenarios que explicarían los cambios de las poblaciones y sus pesquerías facilitando la adopción de medidas de gestión aplicables a cada estado ambiental. Esto permitirá la planificación de las pesquerías para prevenir colapsos socioeconómicos y financieros, así como obtener los m

  1. Variabilidade espacial da fertilidade do solo em área cultivada e manejada homogeneamente Spatial soil fertility variability in a homogeneously managed corn field

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    Zaqueu Fernando Montezano

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da variabilidade da fertilidade do solo em áreas cultivadas pode trazer importantes subsídios para a racionalização de uso dos corretivos e fertilizantes do solo. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a variabilidade da fertilidade do solo por meio do fracionamento de um talhão comercial em pequenas células de manejo. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Alto Alegre em Planaltina - GO, numa área de 373 ha de um Latossolo cultivada com milho na safra 2003/04. Traçado um polígono da área, procedeu-se à divisão em 80 células de manejo de quatro hectares cada. A amostragem do solo seguiu uma diagonal com doze pontos para formar a amostra composta representativa dentro de cada célula. As coordenadas desses pontos foram obtidas e arquivadas. Realizou-se a análise da textura do solo e da fertilidade do solo. A produtividade de cada célula foi obtida por meio da colhedora equipada com Sistema de Posicionamento Geográfico (GPS e monitor de rendimento de grãos. Na análise da variabilidade espacial dos dados, foram considerados parâmetros estatísticos descritivos. A medida de correlação linear de Pearson a 5 e 1 % dos atributos de fertilidade com a produtividade do milho e altitude foi realizada. A variabilidade foi considerada alta para o P disponível, Cu e Zn; média, para matéria orgânica, S, Ca, Mg, acidez potencial, soma de bases, capacidade de troca de cátions a pH 7,0, saturação por bases, B, Fe e Mn, e baixa, para pH e K. Os coeficientes de correlação linear foram significativos e positivos para a matéria orgânica e boro versus produtividade do milho. Contudo, para Cu, manganês e Zn foram significativos e negativos. Em estudos de escala de campo, normalmente não é possível isolar ou medir todos os fatores bióticos e abióticos que influenciam a produção da cultura. Entretanto, verificou-se que o conhecimento da variabilidade da fertilidade e produtividade pode fornecer importantes subs

  2. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

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    D González-Acuña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866 por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909 parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región, Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866, are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909 parasiting alpacas in the General Lagos area (I Region is also confirmed. The importance of this situation is discussed in the present report.

  3. Caracterización de la región cromosómica 15q11-q13 del genoma humano. Variabilidad genómica en el autismo e identificación de ncRNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Cerrato Rivera, Celia

    2007-01-01

    La tesis doctoral con título "Caracterización de la región cromosómica 15q11-13 del genoma humano. Variabilidad genómica en el autismo e identificación de ncRNAs" se basa en el estudio de la región cromosómica 15q11-q13, centrándonos en los aspectos de la variabilidad genómica y su significado funcional. En la primera parte del estudio buscamos reordenamientos de 15q11-q13 en pacientes con autismo, mediante la genotipación de marcadores microsatélites cubriendo dicha región, y definimos una d...

  4. Variabilidade espacial e temporal do potencial mátrico da água em terra roxa estruturada Spatial and temporal variability of soil water matric potential in a dark red latosol

    OpenAIRE

    F.B.P. Pacheco; REICHARDT K.; R.L. Tuon; O.O.S. Bacchi; M.M. Villagra

    1994-01-01

    As variabilidades de medidas de potencial mátrico da água no solo e de gradiente de potencial hidráulico são analisadas utilizando conceitos geoestatísticos e estatística da distribuição normal. São analisados 25 pares de dados, coletados ao longo de uma transecção de terra roxa estruturada, de 125 m de comprimento. Autocorrelogramas e semivariogramas não indicaram dependência espacial nas variáveis estudadas. A variabilidade do potencial mátrico da água no solo, medida através de tensiômetro...

  5. El componente sistemático de la variabilidad de algunos parámetros de producción en palma africana adulta (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq en Casanare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acevedo A. Néstor

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Mediante análisis de tendencia y geoestadísticos fue evaluado el componente determinístico de la variabilidad del peso de racimos de fruta fresca (PR, de la tasa de extracción de aceite (TEA y de la cantidad de ácidos grasos libres (AGL, en palmas con diferente grado de recuperación de PC en un cultivo ubicado en la región del Bajo Upía, Casanare. Los análisis no detectaron ninguna variabilidad estructural en las propiedades evaluadas por lo que se concluye que las diferencias significativas encontradas por Acevedo (2000 entre ellas, mediante análisis de varianza, si están controladas por el grado de recuperación que muestran las palmas, después de haber sido atacadas por PC.

  6. Variabilidad genética del Aedes aegypti determinada mediante el análisis del gen mitocondrial Nd4 en once áreas endémicas para dengue en el Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Yáñez; Enrique Mamani; Jorge Valle; María Paquita García; Walter León; Pablo Villaseca; Dina Torres; César Cabezas

    2013-01-01

    Con el objetivo de establecer la variabilidad genética de Aedes aegypti determinada por el análisis del gen mitocondrial ND4, se analizaron 51 especímenes de Ae. aegypti en once regiones endémicas para dengue en el Perú. La variabilidad genética se determinó mediante la amplificación y secuenciación de un fragmento de 336 pares de bases del gen mitocondrial ND4. El análisis de filogenia intraespecífica se realizó con el programa Network Ver. 4.6.10; y el análisis filogenético, con el método d...

  7. Spatial variability of physical attributes of an alfisol under different hillslope curvatures Variabilidade espacial de atributos físicos de um argissolo sob diferentes curvaturas do relevo

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    Livia Arantes Camargo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of relief forms has been studied by several authors and explains the variability in the soil attributes of a landscape. Soil physical attributes depend on relief forms, and their assessment is important in mechanized agricultural systems, such as of sugarcane. This study aimed to characterize the spatial variability in the physical soil attributes and their relationship to the hillslope curvatures in an Alfisol developed from sandstone and growing sugarcane. Grids of 100 x 100 m were delimited in a convex and a concave area. The grids had a regular spacing of 10 x 10 m, and the crossing points of this spacing determined a total of 121 georeferenced sampling points. Samples were collected to determine the physical attributes related to soil aggregates, porosity, bulk density, resistance to penetration and moisture within the 0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m depth. Statistical analyses, geostatistics and Student's t-tests were performed with the means of the areas. All attributes, except aggregates > 2 mm in the 0-0.2 m depth and macroporosity at both depths, showed significant differences between the hillslope curvatures. The convex area showed the highest values of the mean weighted diameter, mean geometric diameter, aggregates > 2 mm, 1-2 mm aggregates, total porosity and moisture and lower values of bulk density and resistance to penetration in both depth compared to the concave area. The number of soil attributes with greater spatial variability was higher in the concave area.A influência das formas do relevo tem sido estudada por diversos autores e explica a variabilidade dos atributos do solo na paisagem. Os atributos físicos do solo são dependentes das formas do relevo, e a avaliação desses atributos é importante em sistemas mecanizados como o da cultura de cana-de-açúcar. O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a variabilidade espacial dos atributos físicos de Argissolos desenvolvidos de arenito e cultivados com cana

  8. Estudio de la variabilidad genética en habichuela Phaseolus vulgaris L., mediante descriptores morfológicos y bioquímicos

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    Gutierrez J. A.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se cuantificó la variabilidad genética de una muestra de 116 accesiones de habichuela P. vulgaris, cultivadas en centros primarios y secundarios de domesticación. Se evaluaron 18 descriptores morfo-agronómicos asociados con características de la planta, vaina y semilla. Mediante el análisis de las faseolinas utilizando SDS-PAGE se encontraron patrones de bandas de origen andino (T, C y H1 y mesoamericano [S, Sb, CH y H(S+I]. También se evaluaron ocho sistemas isoenzimáticos polimórficos. En el germoplasma de habichuela hay importante contribución del acervo mesoamericano y las accesiones en algunos centros secundarios de domesticación tuvieron origen y procesos de dispersión diferentes de los del fríjol común en tales zonas. La mayor variabilidad morfológica y el mayor número de accesiones con características deseables para el mercado fresco se encontró en el grupo mesoamericano. Se detectó mayor número de genotipos híbridos entre acervos cuando se utilizaron simultáneamente los tres descriptores, lo cual indica una estructura genética compleja que podría deberse al efecto de los factores ambientales propios de la zona templada sobre sus patrones reproductivos. La diversidad total medida con los tres descriptores fue similar a la registrada en fríjol común. Sin embargo, la estructura poblacional encontrada por otros autores en el fríjol común es diferente de la observada en este estudio. Palabras claves: Variabilidad, descriptores morfológicos, isoenzimas, proteínas de semilla, acervos genéticos. ABSTRACT Genetic variability of 116 accesions of Phaseolus vulgaris showing snap beans characteristics coming from primary and secondary centers of domestication, were studied using eighteen morphological descriptors to characterize pods and seeds, SDS-PAGE analysis of seed phaseolins and eight isozyme systems. Higher morphological diversity and best pod marketing characteristics were found at Andean accessions

  9. Analyzing spatial and temporal variability of soil water content Análise da variabilidade espacial e temporal do teor de água do solo

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    Sidney Rose Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades geoestatistical methods have been intensively used for in-depth descriptions of spatial variability. The objective of this study was to assess the spatial and temporal variability of soil water content. The measurements were taken with a TDR equipment to a 20 cm depth, in a nearly flat 1.2 ha field at the Central Experimental Farm of the Agriculture Canada, Ottawa. The soil classified as a Rideau soil series, is a clay loam soil. A square grid with 10 m spacing was laid out, resulting in 164 sampling points at which two TDR rods were installed to measure the water content down to 20 cm depth. Measurements were taken on 33 dates during the frost free months in 1987, 1988 and 1989. The spatial variability was analyzed examining the scaled semivariograms, the statistical parameters and the parameters of the models fit to individual semivariograms as a function of time. It was concluded that spatial dependence decreases as the soil gets drier and that results from one year connect almost continuously to other years. The topography and structure of topsoil horizon was the primary cause for the repeating spatial pattern of soil water content in successive samplings. The places where the mean value occurred in the field were more stable in time when there was spatial dependence. As the soil gets dryer the temporal stability of the spatial distribution tends to disappear due to the hydraulic conductivity controlling the water evaporation over the fieldDurante as ultimas duas décadas métodos geoestatísticos têm sido intensamente adotados para descrever a variabilidade espacial em profundidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a variabilidade espacial e temporal do teor de água do solo. As medições foram feitas com TDR a 20 cm de profundidade, em uma área plana de 1,2 ha no Centro Experimental do Ministério da Agricultura do Canadá, Ottawa, no solo de textura franco-argilosa. Fez-se um quadriculado com pontos

  10. Variabilidad del intervalo de ciclo de las taquicardias ventriculares con igual morfología inducidas en estudio electrofisiológico

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    Abdel J. Fuenmayor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La determinación de la variabilidad espontánea del intervalo de ciclo de las taquicardias ventriculares es fundamental para interpretar los efectos de tratamientos y para programar dispositivos anti-taquicardia. Objetivo: Estudiar la variabilidad espontánea del intervalo de ciclo de las taquicardias ventriculares producidas por re-entrada. Métodos: Incluimos 22 pacientes (12 varones de 52 + 18 años de edad, en quienes se indujeron 121 taquicardias ventriculares monomórficas sostenidas. Las taquicardias inducidas en un mismo paciente tenían la misma morfología y eran producidas por re-entrada. Resultados: En promedio, las taquicardias ventriculares tenían un intervalo de ciclo de 318 + 39 milisegundos (mseg. La desviación típica del promedio de los intervalos de ciclo de las taquicardias ventriculares de igual morfología inducidas en cada paciente (variación inter-taquicardia fue 10,91 + 9,63 mseg. La diferencia promedio entre el R-R máximo y el R-R mínimo (variación inter-taquicardia fue de 26,15 mseg. La variación intra-taquicardia (desviación típica de los 10 ciclos que fueron promediados fue de 5,78 + 2,40 mseg (2,58 - 15,05. El sexo, la etiología y la edad no determinaron diferencias en la frecuencia cardíaca durante e la taquicardia. Conclusión: En este grupo de pacientes, las taquicardias ventriculares de re-entrada originadas en un mismo circuito y en un mismo paciente muestran poca variación del intervalo de ciclo. Esta estabilidad relativa debe tenerse presente al considerar efectos terapéuticos, programar dispositivos anti-taquicardia y estudiar los factores relacionados con la variabilidad misma.Introduction: Th e spontaneous variability in ventricular tachycardia cycle length should be known for the proper assessment of pharmacological treatment and anti-tachycardia devices programming. Objective: To assess the ventricular tachycardia (VT rate variability of patients with re-entrant VTs induced

  11. VARIABILIDADE ESPACIAL DE CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICO-HÍDRICAS E DE ÁGUA DISPONÍVEL EM UM SOLO ALUVIAL NO SEMI-ÁRIDO PARAIBANO

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    João Rodrigues de Sousa

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a variabilidade espacial de características físico-hídricas e de água disponível de um solo aluvial para fins de manejo adequado da irrigação. Amostras de solo com estrutura deformada foram coletadas (profundidades de 0 - 0,20 e 0,20 - 0,40 m numa área do Projeto Capoeira, Município de São José do Bonfim, Estado da Paraíba, através de uma amostragem sistemática (malha regular de 10 x 15 m, totalizando 90 pontos; foi realizada uma análise descritiva geral e identificada a estrutura espacial de variância das seguintes variáveis: porcentagens de areia, silte e argila, capacidade de campo (CC, ponto de murcha permanente (PMP e porcentagem de água disponível (AD. Constatou-se variabilidade média para as variáveis estudadas, com CV entre 17,43% (% argila de 0,20 - 0,40 m e 46,48% (% areia de 0,20 - 0,40 m. Com base na amplitude interquartílica (Ai observou-se a seguinte ordem decrescente de variabilidade: % areia > % silte > % argila > CC > AD > PMP; observou-se dependência espacial, com alcances variando de 25 m (% silte de 0 - 0,20 m a 60 m (% silte de 0,20 - 0,40 m. O mapa de isolinhas para AD, construído com valores estimados mediante o processo de krigagem, permitiu uma visualização do seu padrão de variabilidade, constituindo uma importante ferramenta para orientação do manejo da irrigação.

  12. 77 FR 70874 - Notification of the Next Meetings of the U.S.-Chile FTA Environmental Affairs Council and ECA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... Notification of the Next Meetings of the U.S.-Chile FTA Environmental Affairs Council and ECA Joint Commission... State. ACTION: Notice of the next meeting of the U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement Environmental Affairs... States Trade Representative (``USTR'') are providing notice that the United States and Chile intend...

  13. 75 FR 5034 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile... are advising the public that we have received a request from the government of the Republic of Chile... the Republic of Chile. After reviewing the documentation submitted in support of this request,...

  14. Credit constraints in rural financial markets in Chile: determinants and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, A.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from two surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008 on 177 farmers in Chile, this study measures access to credit and empirically determine the effects of credit constraints on investment and production for market-oriented farmers in central Chile. More specifically, four issues are dealt with:

  15. A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera, Geometridae from the Azapa Valley, northern Chile

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera, Geometridae from the Azapa Valley, northern Chile. Male and female adults of a new species of Eupithecia Curtis from the Arica Province, Chile are described and illustrated. The species is compared with E. yubitzae Vargas & Parra, 2004, from the same locality, and E. galapagosata Landry & Rindge 1995, from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador.

  16. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United... Singapore. DATES: July 15, 2010: Deadline for filing written submissions. December 13, 2010: Transmittal of...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...

  17. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ...: Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, 63 FR 66529 (December 2, 1998); Notice of Amendment of Final... India, 64 FR 8311 (February 19, 1999); Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Preserved Mushrooms... foreseeable time. See Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations, 75 FR...

  18. Apprenticeship in Latin America: The INACAP Program in Chile. A Case Study. Occasional Paper #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.

    The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…

  19. 75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 50818) and determined on January 4, 2010 that it would conduct expedited reviews (75 FR... COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and...

  20. Ontological disorders: nightmares, psychotropic drugs and evil spirits in southern Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Bonelli

    2013-01-01

    This article explores several equivocations in the relationship between state healthcare workers and the Pehuenche population in southern Chile. In particular, it focuses on radical differences in understanding the body, personhood, sleeping and dreaming. In Alto Bío Bío, Chile, while healthcare wor

  1. Barriers to Equitable Access: Higher Education Policy and Practice in Chile Since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matear, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines higher education policy in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990 from an equity perspective. Chile faces the challenge of implementing equity-oriented policies within the legal confines of an education system constructed under the neoliberal model and introduced by the military government (1973-1990). This has resulted in…

  2. Equity in Education in Chile: The Tensions between Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matear, Ann

    2007-01-01

    The article examines education policy in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990 from an equity perspective. Since then, policies have aimed for continuity, coherence and complementarity with the aim of furthering national development, promoting social mobility, and equitable access to quality education at all levels. However, Chile faces the…

  3. Socio-economic Segregation with (without) Competitive Education Policies: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narodowski, Mariano; Nores, Milagros

    2002-01-01

    The view that competition initiatives in education, such as Chile's introduction of vouchers, promote socioeconomic segregation in schools is questioned. Chile and Argentina have faced very different decentralization reforms, carried out within different regulatory frameworks, but have arrived at similar situations in terms of schools'…

  4. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, 1892 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae is recorded for the first time from Chile. Male and female adults were reared from leaf-tying larvae collected on Myrica pavonis (Myricaceae, which is a new host plant record for S. smithiana.

  5. 75 FR 32901 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... February 1, 2010 (75 FR 5034-5035, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0082), in which we announced the availability, for... Chile AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we are recognizing an additional area of the Republic of Chile as a pest-free area...

  6. Variabilidade espacial da produtividade do feijoeiro correlacionada com atributos químicos de um Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico sob sistema de semeadura direta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Carlos Dalchiavon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O feijão, importante fonte proteica, é um alimento muito comum na dieta da população dos países latino-americanos, sendo o Brasil maior produtor mundial deste legume. Nacionalmente, seu cultivo no sistema de semeadura direta tem crescido ano após ano. Em 2002, foi avaliada a variabilidade espacial do feijoeiro, em função dos atributos químicos de um Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico no sistema de semeadura direta, em Selvíria (MS no Cerrado Brasileiro. O objetivo do presente estudo foi selecionar, entre os atributos do solo pesquisado, aquele com a melhor correlação, linear e espacial, para explicar a variabilidade da produtividade do feijoeiro. Foi instalada uma rede amostral, para a coleta de dados do solo e das plantas, com 135 pontos amostrais, em uma área de 7500 m². A produtividade de grãos de feijão (PG representou o atributo da planta, enquanto os do solo foram: P, MO, pH, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al, S, T e o V%. Estabeleceram-se correlações lineares, simples e múltiplas, entre a PG e os atributos do solo. Foram modelados semivariogramas para todos os atributos, obtendo-se as respectivas krigagens e validações cruzadas. Também foram estabelecidas as co-krigagens entre a PG e os atributos do solo. Em relação à produtividade de grãos de feijão, 22% da sua variação foram atribuídos à variação nos atributos químicos do solo. Tanto linear quanto espacialmente, o pH do solo foi bom indicador da produtividade de grãos de feijão quando cultivado sob sistema de semeadura direta.

  7. Variabilidad del gen de la envoltura del VIH-1 en tres grupos humanos con diferentes conductas sexuales de riesgo para adquirir ITS-VIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Yábar V

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la variabilidad genética del gen de la envoltura porción C2-V3-C3 (env del VIH-1 infectando grupos humanos con diferente conducta sexual de riesgo para adquirir ITS-VIH. Materiales y métodos: Se seleccionaron 50 sujetos infectados con VIH-1 de los cuales 19 fueron hombres trabajadores sexuales (HTS, 8 mujeres trabajadoras sexuales (MTS y 23 sujetos heterosexuales (SH. Se realizó la extracción de ADN genómico y la amplificación del gen env por PCR. Se identificó el subtipo genético por ensayo de movilidad de heterodúplex (HMA y se confirmaron los resultados por análisis filogenético. Asimismo, se realizó el análisis de recombinación intragenética, diversidad y distancia genética en las tres poblaciones. Resultados: Se amplificó el gen env en 49 muestras (98% y se logró secuenciar el fragmento en 40 de ellas. Se observó que el 97,5% de las muestras de VIH fueron subtipo B mientras que una muestra no pudo ser clasificada filogenéticamente. Asimismo, se encontraron pequeños tramos de recombinación en el gen env de VIH en MTS (33%, HTS (43% y SH (45%. El mayor índice de diversidad de nucleótidos (Pi de env se encontró entre las muestras de VIH provenientes de SH y HTS (0,12 y 0,13 respectivamente. Conclusiones: Se encontró una mayor variabilidad genética del gen env de VIH-1 en las poblaciones de HTS y SH, sin embargo, el subtipo genético y la frecuencia de recombinación de este fragmento genético fue similar en los tres grupos estudiados.

  8. Variabilidad fenotípica de un endemismo localizado en islas ecológicas: Pinguicula longifolia subsp. longifolia (Lentibulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, M. B.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Variation in some floral traits of Pinguicula longifolia subsp. longifolia, a chasmophilous endemism of central Pyrenees, is examined. The especies shows a considerable intra and interpoblational phenotypic variability for all traits studied (peduncle, spur and lower lip corolla length, and floral differences between populations are not associated with their geographical distances. Ecological and historical factors seems to be more important to understand their restricted distribution than genetic or reproductive ones.

    [es] En el presente trabajo se examina la variabilidad de algunos caracteres florales en un endemismo casmófito del Pirineo central: Pinguicula longifolia subsp. longifolia. La especie presenta una notable variabilidad fenotípica intra e interpoblacional para los tres caracteres examinados (longitud del pedúnculo, del espolón y del labio Inferior de la corola, y las diferencias entre poblaciones no están relacionadas con las distancias geográficas que las separan. Los factores ecológicos e históricos deben ser más responsables de su restringida distribución actual que los de tipo genético o reproductivo.
    [fr] Dans ce travail, nous étudions la variabilité de quelques caractères floraux d'une plante endémique rupicole des Pyrénées centrales: Pinguicula longifolia subsp. longifolia. Pour les trois caractères examinés (longueur du pédoncule floral, du éperon et du lèvre Inférieur de la corolle, cette espèce montre une variabilité phénotypique entre populations et dans chaque population; d'ailleurs, les différences entre les populations ne sont pas en rapport avec les distances géographiques qui les séparent. Les facteurs écologiques et historiques semblent mieux expliquer sa repart très restreinte que d'autres facteurs génétiques ou reproductifs.

  9. Variabilidade espacial da textura de um latossolo sob cultivo de citros Spatial variability of texture in an Oxisol cultivated with citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissol G. A. Leão

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O relevo influencia a variabilidade da textura, uma vez que condiciona o tempo de exposição dos materiais à ação do intemperismo. Neste trabalho, desenvolvido no município de Gavião Peixoto (SP, objetivou-se caracterizar a variabilidade espacial da textura de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico sob cultivo de citros. A encosta foi dividida em três segmentos: topo, meia encosta e encosta inferior. O solo foi amostrado em malha, com intervalos regulares de 50 m, perfazendo o total de 332 pontos em uma área de 83,5 ha, nas profundidades de 0,0-0,2 m e 0,6-0,8 m. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística descritiva e geoestatística (modelagem de semivariogramas e mapas de krigagem. O comportamento espacial da textura de latossolos está diretamente relacionado com as formas do relevo neste estudo, que controla o sentido dos fluxos de água superficial e subsuperficial. O conceito de homogeneidade da distribuição de argila no perfil dos latossolos é uma informação que pode ser ajustada pelo conhecimento do padrão espacial dessa distribuição em diferentes formas do relevo.Relief influences soil texture variability, since it contributes to the time of exposition of the materials to weathering factors. Our work was carried out in the city of Gavião Peixoto (SP, with the objective of characterizing the spatial variability of texture of a dystrophic Red Latosol cultivated with citrus. The hillside was divided into three segments: top, stocking lean and inferior lean. Soil samples were collected in a grid with regular intervals of 50 m, at the depths of 0.0-0.2 m and 0.6-0.8 m, comprising a total of 332 points in an area of 83.5 ha. The data were submitted to descriptive and geostatistics analyses (semivariogram modeling and kriging maps. The spatial behavior of the texture of oxisols is directly related to the relief forms in this study, which controls the direction of surface and subsurface water flows. The concept of

  10. Spatial variability of soil properties and cotton yield in the Brazilian Cerrado Variabilidade espacial de propriedades do solo e produtividade do algodoeiro no cerrado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamari V. A Motomiya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at assessing the spatial variability and relationships between factors that affect cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. yield. Plant and soil data were collected by a 90 ha area divided in a regular grid of 100 m. In order to detect the variation at small scale, more intense samplings were made with spacing of 33 m, resulting in 5 "clusters" and totalizing 170 samples. Data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, geostatistic and interpolation through ordinary kriging. Variability expressed by the coefficient of variation was from low to moderate for all the variables except for retained bolls and soil P content. Geostatistical analysis indicated that most cotton yield factors presented spatial dependence and this should be considered when defining sampling schemes for soil and crop management practices.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a magnitude da variabilidade espacial e as relações de causa e efeito entre os fatores de produção da cultura do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L.. Dados de planta e de solo foram coletados em uma área de 90 ha dividida em malha com espaçamento regular de 100 m entre pontos. Para detectar a variação na pequena escala, amostragens mais intensas foram feitas com espaçamento de 33 m, formando 5 "ilhas", constituindo o total de 170 amostras. Os dados foram submetidos às análises estatísticas descritivas, geoestatística e interpolação, através de krigagem ordinária. A variabilidade, expressa pelo coeficiente de variação, foi baixa a moderada, para todas as variáveis analisadas, com exceção de maçãs retidas e P no solo. Os resultados da análise geoestatística indicaram que os fatores de produção da cultura do algodoeiro apresentam, em sua maioria, dependência espacial a qual deve ser considerada quando da definição de esquemas de amostragem e práticas de manejo do solo e da cultura.

  11. A influência dos modos de variabilidade climática na temperatura em superfície na Antártica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas da Silva Lindemann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a variação sazonal da temperatura do ar à superfície (Tar na Antártica, e sua relação com os modos de variabilidade climática El Niño-Oscilação Sul (ENOS e Oscilação Antártica (OA. Os resultados indicam que para os 4 períodos sazonais as Tar nas estações localizadas no setor oriental da Antártica apresentaram significativas correlações negativas (nível de significância de 1% na maioria das estações com a OA. Todavia o único período sazonal, em que o setor continental (Amundsen-Scott, Dome C apresentou forte correlação negativa com a OA, foi durante o inverno (significativa a 1%. Correlações positivas foram encontradas (significâncias entre 1% e 5% entre as Tar da Península Antártica e Shetland do Sul com a OA para os períodos de outono, inverno e primavera. Os resultados demonstram a influência que a OA exerce sobre a climatologia da Tar na Antártica. É importante notar um dipolo entre as regiões oriental da Antártica e da Península Antártica, no que concerne as influências da OA. O modo de variabilidade ENOS apresentou correlação negativa significativa com as três estações da Península Antártica somente durante a primavera, enquanto que para a estação Rothera, à oeste da Península, a correlação foi significativa também para o outono e inverno. A correlação entre ENOS e Tar foi positiva e significativa no setor do Mar de Ross durante a primavera, e com o setor oriental da Antártica durante o verão, com nível de significância chegando a 5%.

  12. Predicción de la variabilidad del rendimiento de papa a partir de la cobertura del follaje Predicting potato yield variability from foliage cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de la Casa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La cobertura del follaje (f es un parámetro biofísico importante para determinar tanto la fracción de radiación fotosintéticamente activa interceptada (fRFAI, como la tasa de agua que transpira un cultivo. En cultivos de papa (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Spunta de ciclo otoñal se analizó en 2009 y 2010 la relevancia de f y fRFAI, para estimar el rendimiento y evaluar la variabilidad productiva espacial en un lote del cinturón verde de la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina. Si bien fRFAI presentó mayor capacidad para explicar la variabilidad del rendimiento de tubérculo a cosecha, el empleo de la duración de la cobertura, f acumulada hasta los 60 días de la plantación, en 2009 alcanzó un R² de 0,77 (P The ground cover (f is an important biophysical parameter to determine both the fraction of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (fRFAI, and the rate of water that is transpired by a crop. During the autumn/late growing seasons of 2009 and 2010, the potential of f and fRFAI to estimate potato yield (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Spunta, and to evaluate the spacial variability of production in a plot of the green belt of Cordoba, Argentina, was discussed. While fRFAI showed greater ability to explain the variability of tuber yield at harvest, using ground cover duration, the f accumulated until 60 days after planting reached an R² of 0.77 (P < 0.01 in 2009, which increased to 0.95 in 2010 70 days after planting from a more intensive sampling (f was obtained from an average of nine photographs taken at 2.5 m height. The use of a single value of f obtained near maximum coverage reduces the predictive power of cumulative values. Based on a 5x5 grid sampling in 2009 it was found that there is a significant component of the variability associated with furrow planting.

  13. Variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos em um Argissolo sob pastagem = Spatial variability of chemical attributes in an Ultisol under pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Soares de Souza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudos mostram a importância de se conhecer a variabilidade dos atributos do solo para o manejo mais eficiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a variabilidade espacial dos atributos químicos de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, cultivado com pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens, em Alegre – Espírito Santo. Amostras de solo foram coletadas na profundidade de 0-0,2 m, nos pontos de cruzamento de uma malha com intervalos regulares de 10 m, perfazendo o total de 64 pontos. Os dados foram submetidos à analise estatística descritiva, geoestatística e interpolação por krigagem ordinária. Os valores dos coeficientes de variação apresentaram-se baixos para pH, altos para Al e m% e médios para os demais atributos. Os atributos pH, P, H+Al e m% apresentaram forte dependência espacial e os demais, moderada dependência. Todos os atributos estudados apresentaramestrutura de dependência espacial, o que permitiu o seu mapeamento com técnicas de geoestatísticas.Studies show the importance of knowing the variability of soil attributes for a more efficient management. This work was carried out to evaluate the spatial variability of the chemical attributes of an Ultisol, cultivated with Brachiaria decumbens pasture in Alegre - ES. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 00-0.2 m, at the crossing points of a regular grid with 10 m-intervals, comprising a total of 64 points. Data were submitted to descriptive statistics, geostatistics and kriging interpolation analysis. The coefficient of variation was low for pH, high for Al and m%, and medium the other attributes. The attributes pH, P, H+Al and m% presented strong dependence, and the other moderate dependence. The attributes presented a spatial dependence structure, allowing their mapping by geostatistics techniques.

  14. Variabilidade genética em acessos de caupi analisada por meio de marcadores RAPD Cowpea genetic variability analyzed by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ribeiro Xavier

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da variabilidade genética e da relação entre diferentes acessos de caupi é importante para maximizar o uso dos recursos genéticos disponíveis. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a variabilidade genética em 45 acessos de caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. oriundos do Brasil, EUA e Nigéria, por meio de marcadores RAPD. Foram encontrados 8 iniciadores polimórficos e um total de 48 bandas informativas. De acordo com os perfis polimórficos obtidos, foi observada a formação de quatro grupos genotípicos. Houve uma tendência de agrupamento em razão da origem dos acessos. A maioria dos acessos de variedades locais brasileiras pertence apenas a um grupo, o que sugere uma limitação da base genética. Vale ressaltar que nesse grupo não estavam presentes acessos da Nigéria considerados portadores de características agronômicas superiores, como, por exemplo, alta produtividade. RAPD é uma ferramenta eficiente, capaz de auxiliar a seleção de genótipos de caupi adaptados às diferentes condições edafo-climáticas brasileiras, com vistas ao aumento da produtividade e melhoria de outras características que atendam aos interesses regionais específicos.The knowledge on genetic variability and the relationship among different cowpea accesses is important to maximize resource use represented by available cowpea genotypes. The objective of this work was to determine the genetic variability among 45 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. accesses from Brazil, USA and Niger, characterized by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers. Eight polymorphic primers were identified, comprehending a total of 48 informative bands. Based on the obtained polymorphic profiles, four major clusters were formed. Clustering was mainly influenced by the genotype origin. Most accesses from Brazilian landraces belong to just one cluster, suggesting a limited genetic basis. It is worth noting that none of the genotypes from Niger

  15. Variabilidad genética del Aedes aegypti determinada mediante el análisis del gen mitocondrial Nd4 en once áreas endémicas para dengue en el Perú

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    Pamela Yáñez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de establecer la variabilidad genética de Aedes aegypti determinada por el análisis del gen mitocondrial ND4, se analizaron 51 especímenes de Ae. aegypti en once regiones endémicas para dengue en el Perú. La variabilidad genética se determinó mediante la amplificación y secuenciación de un fragmento de 336 pares de bases del gen mitocondrial ND4. El análisis de filogenia intraespecífica se realizó con el programa Network Ver. 4.6.10; y el análisis filogenético, con el método de distancia Neighbor Joining. Se identificó la presencia de cinco haplotipos de Ae. aegypti agrupados en dos linajes: el primero agrupa a los haplotipos 1, 3 y 5 y el segundo agrupa los haplotipos 2 y 4, se muestra además la distribución geográfica de cada uno de los haplotipos encontrados. Se concluye que esta variabilidad se debe tanto a la migración activa de este vector como a la migración pasiva mediada por la actividad humana.

  16. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera en cánidos y caprinos en Chile New records of Phthiraptera in domestic mammals in Chile

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    D González-Acuña

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita para las especies domésticas Canis familiaris los Phthiraptera Linognathus setosus (von Olfers 1816 y Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein 1909, y para Capra hircus a Linognathus africanus Kellogg & Paine (Kellog and Paine 1911 provenientes de la provincia de Ñuble, VIII Región. Se discute la descripción de Heterodoxus longitarsus (Piaget 1880 hecha anteriormente en Chile y también la presencia de L. africanus en Chile.The presence of the Phthiraptera species Linognathus setosus (von Olfers 1816 and‘Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein 1909 on the domestic dog Canis familiaris, and Linognathus africanus (Kellog and Paine 1911 on Capra hircus are described in the province of Ñuble, 8th Region of Chile. The description of Heterodoxus longitarsus (Paiget 1880, and the presence of L. africanus in Chile is discussed.

  17. Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos M Baeza; Otto Schrader; Eduardo Ruiz; M Negritto

    2008-01-01

    Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae) is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W) to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W). The central zone of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W) to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W) in Chile and Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ W), Argentina. A ...

  18. Regiones-commodities: Crisis y contagio en Chile

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    Antonio Daher

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available La hipótesis de un nuevo dualismo entre una capital subglobal y sus "regiones-commodities" subyace en el estudio del impacto diferencial de las tres últimas crisis internacionales en las regiones de Chile, cuantificado a través de cuatro indicadores: el producto, el empleo, la inversión externa y las exportaciones, cuya variación permite verificar la disímil vulnerabilidad de cada región y su desigual exposición al riesgo de contagio de crisis. Fundamentado en un marco conceptual que sostiene que las crisis siguen siendo más regionales que globales, y que existe una verdadera geografía del contagio, el estudio muestra evidencia empírica que permite constatar: 1 la reproducción de un desbalance norte-sur al interior de Chile; 2 la doble paradoja de Santiago, cuya economía es la más diversificada y la más vulnerable, la más recesiva y la de mayor crecimiento; 3 la emergencia de Antofagasta como segunda economía regional de Chile, desplazando a Valparaíso y Concepción; 4 el paralelismo de Santiago y Antofagasta como regiones con el mayor producto, la mayor inversión extranjera y mayores exportaciones; y 5 la "mercosurización" de Santiago, capital subglobal, y la globalización de sus "regiones-commodities".The hypothesis of a new dualism between a sub-global capital city and its "commodities regions" underlies the study of the differential impact of the three last international crises on the regions of Chile. This impact is quantified through four indicators: product, employment, foreign investment and exports, and their variability allow the verification of the dissimilar vulnerability of each region and its dissimilar exposure to the risk of crisis contamination. The study is based on a conceptual frame that states that crisis continue to be more regional-like than global, and that there is a real geography of contamination. On the other hand, this study shows empirical evidence which makes it possible to verify: 1 the

  19. On the generation of coastal lows in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies of the coastal-low occurrences in central Chile have been aimed at the formulation of a conceptual model to explain observed features in connection with applied studies. The most prominent weather pattern associated with CL occurrences, (type A), coincides with the onset of a warm, middle-troposphere ridge over central Chile, and a surface high over northern Argentina. The synoptic forcing of the low is related to weak frontal disturbances that travel equatorwards. They result in a thickening of the marine layer that becomes blocked by the coastal escarpment, at the time of the onset of the ridge aloft. The blocking of the stable air above the subsidence inversion by the Andes is also hypothesized. The analysis of the subsidence inversion, the geometry of the coastal and Andes mountain ranges, and a scale analysis of the non-dimensional governing equations for the generation of the coastal lows, following the approach of Reason and Steyn (1990); leads to the conclusion that both blocking actions are strong and persistent in central Chile. An interactive mechanism between the upper and lower blocking effects is postulated to explain the cyclonic vorticity and the initial steering of the coastal lows. The scale analysis of the governing equations for the propagation stage of the low suggests that, departing for the South African case, non-linearity is important here, and that solitary Kelvin waves could be expected. Theoretical phase propagation speeds and Rossby radii are found to range between 8 and 15 m s-1 and 100-250 km, respectively. The importance of strong southerly winds ahead of the low and weak winds at its trailing edge is also stressed, as another major departure from the coastal-low behaviour elsewhere. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  20. Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae, Magnoliopsida) una especie silvestre promisoria de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    San Martín Acebedo, José; Doll, Ursula

    1998-01-01

    Se organiza y sintetiza la información relacionada con la botánica, ecología y el contenido químico de extraíbles de hojas, corteza y madera de Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae, Magnoliopsida), árbol siempreverde, autóctono, endémico y termófilo de los bosques y matorrales esclerófilos naturales del área mediterránea de Chile. La popularidad y conocimiento de la especie tiene arraigo en la medicina popular empírica, dado el efecto farmacológico atribuible fundamentalmente, al alcaloide boldina, pre...

  1. Geopolitics representation: Chile and Argentina in southern ice fields

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    Karen Isabel Manzano Itura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Geopolitics, from concept named in 1917 by Rudolf Kjellén has been in continuous evolution until today. Since the incorporation of the representations, the first concept has been of vital importance in different territorial conflicts’ analysis. By means of a geopolitical analysis, the present article intends to understand the geopolitical representations in the area of southern ice fields, the last boundaries issue that still remains in abeyance between Chile and Argentina and how is that both countries have discussed the problem on a basis of representations, in which maps have been the image of each one facing the other, favoring in this way competition between states.

  2. Medication Overdoses at a Public Emergency Department in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Aguilera, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While a nationwide poison control registry exists in Chile, reporting to the center is sporadic and happens at the discretion of the treating physician or by patients’ self-report. Moreover, individual hospitals do not monitor accidental or intentional poisoning in a systematic manner. The goal of this study was to identify all cases of intentional medication overdose (MO that occurred over two years at a large public hospital in Santiago, Chile, and examine its epidemiologic profile. Methods: This study is a retrospective, explicit chart review conducted at Hospital Sótero del Rio from July 2008 until June 2010. We included all cases of identified intentional MO. Alcohol and recreational drugs were included only when they were ingested with other medications. Results: We identified 1,557 cases of intentional MO and analyzed a total of 1,197 cases, corresponding to 0.51% of all emergency department (ED presentations between July 2008 and June 2010. The median patient age was 25 years. The majority was female (67.6%. Two peaks were identified, corresponding to the spring of each year sampled. The rate of hospital admission was 22.2%. Benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA were the causative agents most commonly found, comprising 1,044 (87.2% of all analyzed cases. Acetaminophen was involved in 81 (6.8% cases. More than one active substance was involved in 35% of cases. In 7.3% there was ethanol co-ingestion and in 1.0% co-ingestion of some other recreational drug (primarily cocaine. Of 1,557 cases, six (0.39% patients died. TCA were involved in two of these deaths. Conclusion: Similar to other developed and developing nations, intentional MO accounts for a significant number of ED presentations in Chile. Chile is unique in the region, however, in that its spectrum of intentional overdoses includes an excess burden of tricyclic antidepressant and benzodiazepine overdoses, a

  3. ESTATISMO Y NEOLIBERALISMO: UN CONTRAPUNTO MILITAR CHILE 1973-1979

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    VERÓNICA VALDIVIA ORTIZ DE ZÁRATE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analizes the installation in Chile of a neoliberal model during the military regime headed by General Augusto Pinochet, between 1973 and 1979. Within that context, it offers a reinterpretation of the allegedly foundational character of that government, its also supposedly early adherence to the neoliberal matrix, and its break with the Keynesian capitalism which had prevailed since the 1930’s. The analysis is focused on the evolution of military with regard to the links between the State and development, and on the debate between neoliberalism and statism that was carried out within the armed forces

  4. Las fábricas de la charla en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, Areli Escobar

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo expone los resultados preliminares de la investigación doctoral en Antropología, orientada a conocer la materialidad y la subjetividad del trabajo de los call centers en Chile. Un salario definido por metas inalcanzables, el maltrato, el cansancio de nuevo tipo, la doble extracción del valor productivo y reproductivo de las mujeres trabajadoras y su entorno familiar, la explotación de las capacidades subjetivas, entre otros aspectos, dan cuenta de las nuevas formas que asume la ...

  5. Lejos de NYC: El hip-hop en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Quitzow

    2005-01-01

    En este artículo se abordan las manifestaciones concretas de una forma cultural urbana exportada desde Occidente a los países en desarrollo. A través de una reconstrucción de la historia de la cultura hip hop en Chile, se han intendado esbozar algunas conclusiones sobre su influencia en la formación de una identidad cultural urbana, tratando además de relacionar el desarrollo histórico del movimiento y de las prácticas actuales de la juventud en Santiago con tendencias más amplias en la socie...

  6. Economic Residential Segregation and Educational Achievements: Evidence from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Román, Miguel Vargas

    2012-01-01

    Using a database from Chile, we have tested empirically the effects of economic residential segregation on educational achievements. Our hypothesis is based on literature’s findings about segregation’s negative impact on individuals’ well being. We found that segregation has negative impacts. This result would have interesting policy implications and goes in the opposite directions of those investigations’ findings, which indicate that segregation has just negligible effects. Keywords...

  7. Health system reform in chile and colombia: results and balance

    OpenAIRE

    Granados Toraño, Ramón; Gómez Montoya, María C.

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the health system reforms, factors inherent to the health sector as well as external factors that gave origin to them must be considered. The policy of the World Bank acted as a determining factor and was taken into practice in the middle of processes that increased the inequalities in Latin America. The models of Chile and Colombia are examined from this background and some of the lessons that can be drawn from these experiences for other countries are pointed out.

  8. FÍSICA: SU TRAYECTORIA EN CHILE (1800-1960

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    CLAUDIO GUTIÉRREZ GALLARDO

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta el desarrollo de la Física en Chile desde los comienzos de la República hasta 1960, poniendo énfasis en el desarrollo interno de la disciplina, la evolución de su concepción y la transmisión de su saber. El trabajo enfrenta el mito de la inexistente tradición científica en Chile, mostrando que en el caso de la Física ha habido un largo y sostenido desarrollo. En este desarrollo de la Física se distinguen cuatro etapas: (1 como capítulo de la Filosofía Escolástica; (2 como ciencia útil o indistinguible de la ingeniería; (3 como ciencia cultural y centro de una concepción científica del mundo; y (4 como disciplina con problemas propios, donde la investigación deviene parte central de su desarrollo. Para el historiador de la ciencia la novedad es que su desarrollo sigue una lógica donde los parámetros locales tienen una influencia muy significativa en comparación con aquellos determinados por el desarrollo mundial de la disciplinaThis paper presents the development of Physics in Chile from the beginnings of the Republic until the year 1960, emphasizing the internal development of the discipline, the evolution of its conception and the transmission of its body of knowledge. This work faces the myth of the non-existent scientific tradition in Chile by showing in the case of Physics a long and sustained development. In this development we distinguish four stages of Physics: (1 As a chapter of Scholastic Philosophy; (2 As a discipline closely related to engineering and real-life problems; (3 As cultural science and base of a scientific view of the world; (4 As a discipline with its own problems, where research becomes a central part of its development. For the science historian the novelty is that this development follows a logic where the local parameters have strong influence as compared to those determined by the universal development of the discipline

  9. The Intertemporal Approach to the Current Account: Evidence for Chile

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    Sergio A. Salas Landeau

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the existence of "excess" current-account imbalances in Chile in the 1960-1999 period. This phenomenon is modelled using present value tests that allow for variable interest rates and exchange rate fluctuations. Despite its simplicity, most of the observed imbalances in the current account are accounted for by the model. Results suggest that using models where agents behave as forward-looking rational agents, is a valid framework. Moreover, the analysis highlights the rel-evance of variable interest rates and exchange rates. Results also imply that capital controls, that were widely used in the period under study, were not effective.

  10. Status of Implementation of the Code of Conduct in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to present the status of implementation in Chile of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources (hereinafter referred to as the Code) and its supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources (hereinafter referred to as the Guidance). It is presented as a contribution to the International Conference on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources: Maintaining the Continuous Global Con-trol of Sources throughout their Life Cycle, to be held in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, from 27 to 31 October 2013. (author)

  11. Fruit production in Chile: bright past, uncertain future

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    Jorge B. Retamales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 (the last agricultural census, Chile had 308, 445 ha of fruit orchards: an increase of almost 32% from the previous census (1997. The most important species were table grapes (20%, avocados (13% and apples (12%. Some 22% of the fruit crops growing area corresponded to juvenile orchards; within the species with higher proportion of juvenile orchards were prunes (42% and blueberries (56%. Most orchards are located between latitude 27º18` S (Copiapó and 40º36´S (Puerto Varas. The industry is driven by the export component which accounts for more than 50% of the fruits produced. In the crop season 2009-2010, approximately 254 million boxes (around 2.5 million tons were exported, representing over US$ 3.5 million. Processed and fresh fruits represented 8.2 and 26.7% of the total forest and agricultural Chilean exports in 2008, respectively. The main markets for this fruits were USA/Canada (42% and Europe (32%. The fruit grower receives, on average, 12-16% of the total price of the fruit in its final destination. Each year the fruit industry employs 450.000 people directly, of which 1/3 are permanent. Even though the fruit industry employs the highest proportion of the agricultural labor and the growing area has increased in the last 20 years, the proportion of agricultural employment has decreased from 19.5% in 1989 to 10.8% in 2008. It might also be noted that Chile invests only 0.7% of the GDP in research. In the last 40 years, the fruit industry has been a motor for the Chilean economic development, but the lower rates of currency exchange, the rising costs of energy (oil, electricity, and the increasing scarcity of hand labor have drastically reduced the profitability and are putting at risk the viability of a large proportion of the fruit orchards in Chile. It is estimated that this season around 65% of the orchards will have a negative economic balance in their operations. Higher investment in research, improvements in fruit quality

  12. Parasites of the Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes in Chile Parásitos del picaflor chico (Sephanoides sephaniodes en Chile

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    Daniel González-Acuña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal and external parasites from 12 Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes were collected between January 2004 and December 2008 from the Biobío Region south-central Chile and Santiago (central Chile. Helminths collected included 1 trematode species (Mosesia sp. and 1 cestode species (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. The mite Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii was the only ectoparasite species found. All these parasites represent new records for Chile and the first parasites reported for this host species.Se recolectaron parásitos internos (gastrointestinales y externos de 12 picaflores (Sephanoides sephaniodes entre enero del 2004 y diciembre del 2008, de la región del Biobío en el centro-sur de Chile y en Santiago, en la región central de Chile. Los helmintos recolectados incluyeron 1 especie de trematodo (Mosesia sp. y 1 de cestodo (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. Únicamente se encontró 1 especie de ectoparásito, el ácaro Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii. Todos los parásitos mencionados representan nuevos registros para Chile y se registran por primera vez para este hospedero.

  13. Análisis de la variabilidad espacio-temporal de la precipitación en una microcuenca urbana, Bogotá, Colombia

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    Erasmo Alfredo Rodríguez Sandoval

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Los diseños de alcantarillados pluviales y combinados normalmente se realizan bajo el supuesto de que la precipitación es constante en tiempo y espacio para áreas inferiores a 1 km2. Con el fin de aportar al conocimiento de la variabilidad espacio-temporal de la precipitación en cuencas urbanas de este tipo, y de determinar su impacto en el diseño de alcantarillados y, más aún, en los caudales de escorrentía obtenidos a partir de la aplicación de modelos matemáticos rigurosamente calibrados y validados, se ha instrumentado densamente la microcuenca urbana del campus de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Bogotá. En este artículo se describen los análisis detallados del evento más importante en términos de intensidad y precipitación total.

  14. Estudio de la variabilidad en el veneno de 2 poblaciones de Bothriechis schlegelii del suroeste y norte de Antioquia y correlación morfométrica

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    Fabiola Toro

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Las serpientes pertenecen a la clase reptiles, orden escamados y suborden ofidios. Surgieron durante el periodo cretáceo hace aproximadamente 120 millones de años. La evolución de las formas venenosas es un poco más reciente, posiblemente hace unos 30 millones de años. Actualmente se conocen unas 3200 especies de serpientes de las cuales unas 1300 son venenosas, agrupadas en cuatro familias: Colubridae (cazadoras opistoglifas, Elapidae (corales, Hydrophiidae (serpientes marinas y Viperidae (víboras subfamilia Crotalinae (de fosa. La víbora Bothriechis schlegelii, es una serpiente arborícola que se distribuye desde Centroamérica hasta Suramérica (Venezuela, Ecuador y Colombia. En Colombia la especie se encuentra en las 3 cordilleras, en los valles interandinos y en las llanuras del Caribe y del Pacífico hasta los 2.640 metros sobre el nivel del mar. Su talla máxima es de 83 cm y el accidente por ella ocupa el primer lugar en las zonas cafeteras y en el norte de Antioquia. Además a esta especie se le ha demostrado variación en el patrón de coloración en las regiones del Suroeste y norte de Antioquia.

    Variabilidad del Veneno: Los estudios de variabilidad en los venenos de las serpientes han comprendido el análisis con respecto a la zona geográfica, a la ontogenia, al régimen alimenticio y a la época del año, tanto de manera intraespecie como interespecie. Se ha observado que algunas especies aisladas reproductivamente por barreras naturales, presentan variaciones en la composición del veneno. En la especie Daboia russelli se reportó variabilidad geográfica en el veneno, hallazgo importante para el tratamiento, ya que el antiveneno producido con especimenes continentales, no es efectivo para

  15. Perfil psicofisiológico de rendimiento en nadadores basado en la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca y en estados de ansiedad precompetitiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C\\u00E9sar Cervantes Bl\\u00E1squez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro objetivo fue analizar la influencia del estrés competitivo sobre el estado psico fisiológico en un grupo de nadadores. Se utilizó el cuestionario CSAI-2 (Competitive State Anxiety Inventory 2 y se aplicó un análisis espectral para relacionar el estado de ansiedad precompetitiva con la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca (VFC. Los resultados han mostrado que con un mayor nivel de ansiedad precompetitiva, los parámetros HFms2 y HF nu. relacionados a la actividad parasimpática, decrecieron significativamente (p < 0,05, mientras que el parámetro LF/HF %, relacionado con la actividad simpática, mostró un incremento significativo (p < 0,01. Bajo estas condiciones el rendimiento mejoró de manera significativa (p < 0,05. El análisis de la VFC puede ser utilizado como una técnica rápida y no invasiva para evaluar objetivamente el estrés competitivo y su relación con el rendimiento. En base al modelo IZOF (Hanin, 2003 se propone determinar el perfil psicofisiológico precompetitivo de cada nadador.

  16. Análisis de la variabilidad espacio-temporal de la precipitación en una microcuenca urbana, Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Sandoval Erasmo Alfredo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los diseños de alcantarillados pluviales y combinados normalmente se realizan bajo el supuesto de que la precipitación es constante en tiempo y espacio para áreas inferiores a 1 km2. Con el fin de aportar al conocimiento de la variabilidad espacio-temporal de la precipitación en cuencas urbanas de este tipo, y de determinar su impacto en el diseño de alcantarillados y, más aún, en los caudales de escorrentía obtenidos a partir de la aplicación de modelos matemáticos rigurosamente calibrados y validados, se ha instrumentado densamente la microcuenca urbana del campus de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Bogotá. En este artículo se describen los análisis detallados del evento más importante en términos de intensidad y precipitación total.

  17. INCONSISTENCIA DEL COEFICIENTE DE VARIACIÓN PARA EXPRESAR LA VARIABILIDAD DE UN EXPERIMENTO EN UN MODELO DE ANÁLISIS DE VARIANZA

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    Edison Ramiro Vásquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una variable normalmente distribuidacon media cero y varianza uno, se generó una sucesión de ptratamientos con varianza constante igual a uno y cuyasmedias se incrementaban en k unidades, válidas para conformarsendos experimentos; uno con los t primeros tratamientos dela sucesión y otro con los p-trestantes; se comprobó que apesar que ambos experimentos mantenían iguales susestimaciones de varianza de error experimental, suscoeficientes de variación son diferentes. Como ilustraciónpráctica se analizaron tres experimentos mediante un Análisisde Varianza, que tenían la misma varianza y diferente estructurade medias de sus cuatro tratamientos. Los tres experimentospresentaron diferentes coeficientes de variación a pesar quesus estimaciones de varianza del error experimental eran lasmismas, lo cual pone en evidencia que este estadígrafo norefleja exactamente la variabilidad existente en un experimentocuando es analizado a través de un Análisis de Varianza.Tampoco el coeficiente de variación se asoció con el nivel designificación o capacidad de la prueba de F para detectardiferencias significativas entre medias de tratamientos, ni conel rango entre los valores de las medias de tratamientos.

  18. Variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca y perfiles psicofisiológicos en deportes de equipo de alto rendimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Moreno S\\u00E1nchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se plantean dos objetivos, llevados a cabo en dos estudios diferentes. En primer lugar, se pretende analizar la utilidad del análisis de la Variabilidad de la Frecuencia Cardíaca (VFC dentro del contexto de los deportes de equipo de alto rendimiento. Por otra parte, se pretende analizar la VFC en base a los perfiles de estado de ánimo evaluados con el POMS. Para el primer estudio se seleccionaron 53 deportistas de 3 deportes de equipo de élite diferentes: baloncesto, hockey hierba y fútbol. Para el segundo estudio la muestra la formaron 18 futbolistas de élite, divididos en dos grupos: perfil iceberg y estado de ánimo alterado. Los resultados muestran que los futbolistas presentan un perfil de VFC diferente a los jugadores de baloncesto o hockey hierba, que muestran un perfil de VFC bastante parecido. En los futbolistas con perfil iceberg, el factor de Vigor correlaciona negativamente con los parámetros LF/HF y %LF, y positivamente con el parámetro HF%. En los futbolistas con estado de ánimo alterado, el factor de Fatiga correlaciona negativamente con los parámetros pNN50 y HF. Los resultados permiten profundizar en el estudio de la VFC en deportes de equipo para adaptar mejor los seguimientos, así como obtener indicadores de estado de ánimo relacionados con la VFC.

  19. Free-living benthic marine invertebrates in Chile Invertebrados bentónicos marinos de vida libre en Chile

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    MATTHEW R LEE

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive literature review was conducted to determine the species richness of all the possible taxa of free-living benthic marine invertebrates in Chile. In addition, the extent of endemism to the Pacific Islands and deep-sea, the number of non-indigenous species, and the contribution that the Chilean benthic marine invertebrate fauna makes to the world benthic marine invertebrate fauna was examined. A total of 4,553 species were found. The most speciose taxa were the Crustacea, Mollusca and Polychaeta. Species richness data was not available for a number of taxa, despite evidence that these taxa are present in the Chilean benthos. The Chilean marine invertebrate benthic fauna constitutes 2.47 % of the world marine invertebrate benthic fauna. There are 599 species endemic to the Pacific Islands and 205 in the deep-sea. There are 25 invasive or non-indigenous species so far identified in Chile. Though the Chilean fauna is speciose there is still a considerable amount of diversity yet to be described, particularly amongst the small bodied invertebrates and from the less well explored habitats, such as the deep-seaSe realizó una revisión exhaustiva de la literatura para determinar la riqueza de especies de todos los taxa de invertebrados bentónicos de vida libre en Chile. Además, se analizó el endemismo de invertebrados marinos bentónicos para las islas chilenas del Pacífico y el mar profundo y el número de especies no indígenas; del mismo modo que la contribución de estos invertebrados a la riqueza mundial de invertebrados bentónicos marinos. Para Chile se acumuló un total de 4.553 especies de invertebrados bentónicos. Los taxa con más especies fueron Crustacea, Mollusca y Polychaeta. En algunos taxa de invertebrados no se encontró información sobre la diversidad de especies presentes en Chile, a pesar de existir evidencia de que éstos están presentes en el bentos marino chileno. Los invertebrados bentónicos marinos

  20. Variabilidade de fósforo, potássio e matéria orgânica no solo em relação a sistemas de manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. da S. Souza

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A variabilidade espacial de fósforo, potássio e matéria orgânica foi avaliada em diferentes solos e sistemas de manejo. Em Eldorado do Sul (RS, o trabalho foi realizado, em agosto de 1990, em um Podzólico Vermelho-Escuro, Kandiudult, amostrando-se os sistemas de preparo convencional, plantio direto, escarificação e pastagem, na malha de amostragem de 1 x 1 m e nas profundidades de 0-0,05 e 0,05-0,20 m. Em Passo Fundo (RS, em novembro de 1991, foram amostrados dois tipos de solos: Latossolo Roxo, Hapludox (preparo convencional e plantio direto e Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro, Hapludox (pastagem, na malha de amostragem de 10 x 10 m e nas profundidades de 0-0,10, 0,10-0,20 e 0,20-0,30 m. Em Passo Fundo, nos sistemas cultivados, foi avaliada também a variabilidade da produção de trigo, colhendo-se áreas de 1 m². As maiores variabilidades foram encontradas para fósforo e potássio, com seus valores no solo tendendo para uma distribuição lognormal. Na maioria dos casos, houve correlação espacial para as propriedades do solo nos sistemas de manejo avaliados, assim como para a produção de trigo. O plantio direto apresentou maiores coeficientes de variação e menores alcances de dependência espacial, assumindo-se ter ele determinado maior variabilidade das variáveis analisadas que os demais sistemas; na pastagem, ocorreu a menor variabilidade do solo. No plantio direto, observou-se, ainda, correlação espacial cruzada positiva da produção de trigo com fósforo, com potássio e com matéria orgânica.

  1. Atracción del picudo del chile a compuestos volátiles de sus hospederos.

    OpenAIRE

    Múñiz Merino, Manolo

    2014-01-01

    El picudo del chile (Anthonomus eugenii Cano), principal plaga del chile (Capsicum spp.) en América, responde a los aromas de sus plantas hospederas, por lo que estos podrían ser de utilidad como fuentes de atrayentes. En la presente investigación se analizaron los compuestos volátiles de las yemas florales y frutos de cinco hospederos de A. eugenii: chile jalapeño (Capsicum annuum L.), pimiento morrón (C. annuum), chile manzano (C. pubescens Ruiz y Pav), chile chiltepe (C. frutescens L) y hi...

  2. Moluscos dulceacuícolas exóticos en Chile Exotic freshwater mollusks in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Letelier V.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de moluscos exóticas dulceacuícolas registradas en esta contribución, corresponden a ejemplares recolectados en humedales en acuarios comerciales o interceptados en barreras aduaneras, así como de referencias bibliográficas. Un total de 7 especies pertenecientes a 6 géneros fueron identificadas: Pomacea bridgesii; Helobia sp.; Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata; Melanoides maculata; Physa sp.; Physella venustula y Biomphalaria sp. Melanoides maculata fue recolectada en el río Lluta y clasificada como especie criptogénica. Los moluscos exóticos recolectados podrían tener éxito en su establecimiento si se considera la vulnerabilidad de los hábitats nativos debido al cambio en las condiciones climáticas globales o a las elevaciones térmicas producidas en el sector costero por los fenómenos de El Niño. En este sentido, las especies subtropicales observadas se podrían considerar como no endémicas y vectores potenciales de zoonosis parasitarias. Las principales vías de introducción de moluscos dulceacuícolas exóticos se derivaron del intercambio comercial, por lo cual, y frente a su incremento interregional, se hace necesario recopilar datos ecológicos y taxonómicos adecuados que permitan evaluar el riesgo de su establecimiento, así como servir de base para la aplicación de futuros tratamientos en bioseguridad.The exotic freshwater mollusk species we report here were collected in wetlands, commercial aquariums, or were given to us by government officials who intercepted some exotic species at customs offices. Other records came from the specialized literature. These species are Pomacea bridgesii; Helobia sp.; Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata; Melanoides maculata; Physa sp., Physella venustula and Biomphalaria sp. It is not clear how Melanoides maculata, found in the Río Lluta, reached Chile. The exotic species collected could expand their ranges in Chilean territory given global environmental and climate change or the

  3. TENDÊNCIA DE TEMPERATURA NA SUPERFÍCIE DO MAR NOS OCEANOS ATLÂNTICO E PACÍFICO E VARIABILIDADE DE PRECIPITAÇÃO EM PERNAMBUCO

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    Ranyére Silva Nóbrega

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La dinámica entre el océano y la atmósfera afecta a gran parte del clima del planeta. La configuración del campo cerca de la superficie de la presión atmosférica normalmente está fuertemente relacionada con la temperatura de la superficie de contacto en sí, principalmente en los océanos. Dos eventos de gran magnitud de esta relación que interfieren con las lluvias del nordeste de Brasil (NEB es el fenómeno de El Niño y el Atlántico dipolo. El fenómeno El Niño-Oscilación Sur (ENOS sobre el Pacífico ecuatorial, y el gradiente meridional de anomalías de TSM en el Atlántico tropical en conjunto modular una gran parte de la variación interanual del clima en ORC. Este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar las posibles tendencias en las temperaturas superficiales del mar (TSM en el Pacífico y el Océano Atlántico y para identificar las posibles influencias sobre la precipitación del estado de Pernambuco. Para identificar estos datos influye en las anomalías en el Océano Pacífico y el Atlántico se compara con el índice de anomalía de lluvia y las medias anuales de cada municipio en el estudio. Los resultados mostraron que ambos océanos muestran una tendencia positiva de ser una evidencia del calentamiento del cambio climático y la precipitación pluvial en el estado están muy influenciados con la ocurrencia de El Niño y el Dipolo del Atlántico.

  4. Chile2015: Lévy Flight and Long-Range Correlation Analysis of Earthquake Magnitudes in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccar-Varela, Maria P.; Gonzalez-Huizar, Hector; Mariani, Maria C.; Serpa, Laura F.; Tweneboah, Osei K.

    2016-06-01

    The stochastic Truncated Lévy Flight model and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) are used to investigate the temporal distribution of earthquake magnitudes in Chile. We show that Lévy Flight is appropriated for modeling the time series of the magnitudes of the earthquakes. Furthermore, DFA shows that these events present memory effects, suggesting that the magnitude of impeding earthquakes depends on the magnitude of previous earthquakes. Based on this dependency, we use a non-linear regression to estimate the magnitude of the 2015, M8.3 Illapel earthquake based on the magnitudes of the previous events.

  5. Chile y la globalización: una dependencia potencialmente peligrosa Chile and globalization: a potentially dangerous dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Duque

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo tiene varios propósitos. Primero, discutir el concepto de globalización en sus diferentes acepciones, particularmente, la económica, la política y la cultural. En segundo lugar, intenta tratar de describir y demostrar el enorme grado de dependencia que Chile tiene del actual proceso globalizador. En tercer término, se trata de señalar que la actual globalización, es un proceso similar al que ha ocurrido en otras épocas de la historia. Especialmente se comenta en detalle el análisis del profesor Ferguson quien compara la actual globalización con la que ocurrió a fines del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX. Se concluye que el actual proceso de globalización es tan volátil, inestable y peligroso como fue la globalización decimonónica. Se concluye también indicando que es altamente probable que el actual proceso globalizador, termine en forma similar a como terminó la globalización 1870-1914. Finalmente se argumenta que debido a que Chile está geográficamente ubicado en la parte más austral del hemisferio sur, es probable que el país salga relativamente intacto de la conflagración que se avecina.This article begins by discussing the different meanings of globalization, especially the economic, political and social ones. It then describes how Chile is greatly dependent on the current globalization process, as well as points out that this process is similar to others that have taken place in other times in history. It discusses in detail professor Ferguson's analysis comparing the current globalization with the one that occurred at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. The article concludes that the current process is as volatile, unstable and dangerous as that of the 19th century, and that it is highly probable that it will end as that of 1870-1914. It also argues that since Chile is on the southernmost part of the southern hemisphere, it will be relatively preserved from the oncoming conflagration.

  6. Síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus Andes en Chile CARDIOPULMONARY SYNDROME DUE TO ANDES VIRUS IN CHILE

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    CONSTANZA CASTILLO H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1993 han ocurrido 204 casos de Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH en Chile. Los brotes epidémicos comenzaron en el sur y avanzan hacia el norte del país. Los más afectados son varones jóvenes, obreros agrícolas o forestales. En Chile, el SCPH es causado por el virus Andes, cuyo reservorio es el Oligorizomys longicaudatus (ratón de cola larga, que se distribuye desde la III Región al sur. El cuadro clínico es similar al descrito en EE.UU., caracterizado por una fase prodrómica que simula un estado gripal o cuadro gastrointestinal febril y que agrava por la aparición de edema pulmonar agudo e inestabilidad hemodinámica (fase cardiopulmonar. Sin embargo, cursa con mayores alteraciones hemorragí-paras y compromiso renal. La mortalidad inicial fue sobre 50% y actualmente es de alrededor del 33,3%. La presente revisión incluye: historia de la enfermedad, reservorio, modos de transmisión, patogenia, cuadro clínico, diagnóstico, tratamiento y medidas de prevenciónSince 1993, 204 cases of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS occurred in Chile. Epidemic began in the south and moved thereafter to the northern regions. The disease affected predominantly young males, who worked in agricultural labours or as timber workers. The HCPS in Chile is caused by the Andes virus. The reservoir is the wild rat Oligoryzomis longicaudatus distributed from the III to the XII Region. The clinical features are similar to those described for Sin Nombre Virus. The disease has a prodromal stage characterised by fever, muscular pain, with or without gastrointestinal manifestations, followed by the rapid onset of respiratory insufficiency and haemodynamic unstability. Andes virus courses more often with haemorrhagic disorders and overt renal failure, than Sin Nombre Virus. The initial mortality was over 50% and declined to 33,3% in the last year. History of hantavirus-diseases, reservoir, and mode of contagion, pathogenesis, clinical

  7. Small relief shape variations influence spatial variability of soil chemical attributes Pequenas variações das formas de relevo influenciam a variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos do solo

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    Zigomar Menezes de Souza

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Soils with small variations in relief and under the same management system present differentiated spatial variabilities of their attributes. This variability is a function of soil position in the landscape, even if the relief has little expression. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of relief shape and depth on spatial variability of soil chemical attributes in a Typic Hapludox cultivated with sugar cane at two landscape compartments. Soil samples were collected in the intercrossing points of a grid, in the traffic line, at 0-0.2 m and 0.6-0.8 m depths, comprising a set of 100 georeferenced points. The spatial variabilities of pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, cation exchange capacity and base saturation were quantified. Small relief shape variations lead to differentiated variability in soil chemical attributes as indicated by the dependence on pedoform found for chemical attributes at both 0-0.2 m and 0.6-0.8 m depths. Because of the higher variability, it is advisable to collect large number of samples in areas with concave and convex shapes. Combining relief shapes and geostatistics allows the determination of areas with different spatial variability for soil chemical attributes.Solos submetidos ao mesmo sistema de manejo em locais com pequena variação de relevo, manifestam variabilidade espacial diferenciada de seus atributos. Esta variabilidade é condicionada pela posição dos solos na paisagem ou no declive, mesmo que o relevo seja de pequena expressão. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da forma do relevo na variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos em um latossolo cultivado com cana-de-açúcar em dois compartimentos da paisagem. Os solos foram amostrados nos pontos de cruzamento de uma malha, com intervalos regulares de 10 m, perfazendo um total de 100 pontos, nas profundidades de 0-0,2 m e 0,6-0,8 m. Foi avaliado a variabilidade espacial do pH, fósforo (P, potássio (K, cálcio (Ca, magnésio (Mg, acidez

  8. EL ACTO DE NOMBRARSE MISTRAL EN POEMA DE CHILE

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    Magda Sepúlveda Eriz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La viajera espectral de Poema de Chile reflexiona sobre la adopción del nombre Mistral. Los fundamentos de esta elección van desde retornar a una intimidad anterior, la escena primigenia del campo, hasta el rechazo a la sociedad urbana. Este acto moderno de autonominarse constituye una atribución consciente frente al menoscabo y a los insultos recibidos en una posición representativa anterior. En vista de lo cual, la fantasma reclama los lugares, las palabras, los bienes y exige la recomposición de los cuerpos despedazados por el discurso blanco y etnocéntrico.The travelling spectrum of Poema de Chile reflects on the adoption of the name Mistral. The causes of this choice gofrom coming back to a previous intimacy -the original scene of the country- to the rejection of the urban society. The name she gives herself is a conscious act and therefore, a modern one, which is used as a response to the damage she received when she was in a previous situation. As a result, the ghost calls for the places, the language and the goods that were stolen, and she demands to recover the bodies that were torn by the white and ethnocentric discourse.

  9. Tendencias generales en la toponimia del Norte Grande de Chile

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    Guillermo Latorre

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo el autor se propone examinar las facetas más salientes de la preponderancia del sustrato indígena en la toponimia mayor del Norte Grande, asunto poco o nada tratado en descripciones del español de Chile. Pasa revista a voces como "Arica", "Chañaral", "Iquique", "Taltal", "Tocopilla", "Chuquicamata", "Andes", "Antofagasta", "Calama", "Pica", "Loa" y otras. Finalmente, da algunas explicaciones de esa marcada presencia de topónimos autóctonos a pesar de cinco siglos de dominio español. (In this paper, the author examines the most salient features of the prevalence of indigenous backgrounds in the toponymy of Northernmost Chile, an aspect barely tackled, or simply neglected, in the descriptions of Chilean Spanish. The author reviews terms such as "Arica", "Chañaral", "Iquique", "Taltal", "Tocopilla", "Chuquicamata", "Andes", "Antofagasta", "Calama", "Pica", "Loa", and others. Also, some explanations are offered that may justify the notorious presence of native placenames, in spite of five centuries of Spanish domination.

  10. Desarrollo metropolitano integrado: El caso de Santiago de Chile

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    Paulina Schiappacasse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El Área Metropolitana de Santiago (AMS ocupa un rol significativo en términos demográficos y de desarrollo económico en Chile. Sin embargo existen debilidades importantes en el establecimiento de mecanismos adecuados que permitan definir su orientación estratégica en un marco global competitivo; esta situación se intensifica en la medida que las áreas metropolitanas en Chile, no poseen una institucionalidad definida y un marco legal que las sustente. El AMS esta siendo afectada por cambios estructurales típicos en la evolución de las grandes metrópolis, con las consecuentes externalidades negativas que incrementan las dificultades para enfrentar y orientar su crecimiento y para establecer instancias de colaboración entre los diferentes actores involucrados. En este artículo se analiza la situación del AMS, en el marco de la discusión internacional, en relación a las metas estratégicas necesarias para el logro de un desarrollo metropolitano sustentable. La intención es contribuir al debate nacional actual en torno a la revisión y cambio de las políticas de planificación, en particular, aquellas orientadas a enfrentar los procesos dinámicos que están experimentando las ciudades.

  11. Isotopic composition and origin of the precipitation in Northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravena, R. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada); Suzuki, O. [Exploracion y Desarrollo de Recursos Hidricos, Santiago (Chile); Pena, H. [Direccion General de Aguas, Ministerio de Obras Publicas, Santiago (Chile); Pollastri, A. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Fuenzalida, H. [Departamento de Geofisica, Universidad of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Grilli, A. [Empresa Metropolitana de Obras Sanitarias, Santiago (Chile)

    1999-06-01

    A 3 a data set of isotopes in precipitation from northern Chile show a very distinct pattern, with {delta}{sup 18}O values ranging between -18 and -15per thousand at high altitude stations, compared to {delta}{sup 18}O values between -10 and -6per thousand at the lower altitude areas. The {sup 18}O-depleted values observed in the high altitude area, the Altiplano, are related to processes that affect the air masses that originated over the Atlantic, cross the Amazon Basin (continental effect), ascend the Andes (altitude effect) and precipitated (convective effect) in the Altiplano. It is postulated that a second source of moisture, associated with air masses from the Pacific, may contribute to the {sup 18}O-enriched values observed in the lower altitude areas. Similar isotopic patterns are documented in springs and groundwater indicating that the data presented in this paper are an accurate representation of the long term behavior isotopic composition of rain in northern Chile. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Chile. Actores Populares en la Protesta Nacional, 1983-1984

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    Marisa REVILLA BLANCO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Los acontecimientos y los actores implicados en las movilizaciones producidas en Santiago de Chile en 1983-84, son el objeto de andlisis de este artículo. Tras una breve exposición del contexto económico y político, se describen los rasgos fundamentales y la evolución de las protestas. Del análisis de los hechos se deducen tres objetivos implícitos en las movilizaciones: recuperación de la identidad política y social, integración polltica de los excluidos y democracia. Los resultados son dispares; mientras en el plano político se produce una derrota, en lo referente a la expresividad de las acciones y al problema de la integración, las movilizaciones fueron exitosas.ABSTRACT: ThLs article focuses on the events and actors involved in the mobilizations tha took place in Santiago de Chile between 1983-1984. After a short exposition of the political and economic context, it describes the main characteristics and the protest's evolution. Three implicit objetives can be identified from the demostrations: the recovering of social and political identity, the political integration of the excluded people and democracy. The results are inequal; while on the political level a defeat ocurs, with regard to the expressiveness of the actions and the integration's problem, the mobilizations were successful.

  13. An overview of the dinosaur fossil record from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubilar-Rogers, David; Otero, Rodrigo A.; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.; Vargas, Alexander O.; Gutstein, Carolina S.

    2012-08-01

    In Chile, the record of dinosaurs in Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments is often restricted to footprints, with few skeletal remains. Tetanuran theropods are known in the Upper Jurassic, and bones of titanosaur sauropods in the Late Cretaceous, including partial skeletons (e.g. Atacamatitan chilensis Kellner et al.). Also from the late Cretaceous, an ornithopod vertebra, a pair of theropod teeth and one tarsometatarsus of a gaviiform bird (Neogaeornis wetzeli Lambrecht) have been reported. The Cenozoic fossil record comprises abundant and well-preserved marine birds from Eocene and Miocene units, with a specially abundant record of Sphenisciformes and less frequently, Procellariiformes. There is an excellent Miocene-Pliocene record of other birds such as Odontopterygiformes, including the most complete skeleton ever found of a pelagornithid, Pelagornis chilensis Mayr and Rubilar-Rogers. Fossil birds are also known from Pliocene and Pleistocene strata. A remarkable collection of birds was discovered in lacustrine sediments of late Pleistocene age associated to human activity. The perspectives in the study of dinosaurs in Chile are promising because plenty of material stored in institutional collections is not described yet. The record of Chilean dinosaurs is relevant for understanding the dynamics and evolution of this group of terrestrial animals in the western edge of Gondwana, while Cenozoic birds from the Region may contribute to the understanding of current biogeography for instance, the effect of the emergence and establishment of the Humboldt Current.

  14. Peru-Chile upwelling dynamics under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerder, Véra; Colas, Francois; Echevin, Vincent; Codron, Francis; Tam, Jorge; Belmadani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System (PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution, eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological productivity.

  15. Oxygenation variability off Northern Chile during the last two centuries

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    J. A. Díaz-Ochoa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Peru Chile Current ecosystem is characterized by high biological productivity and important fisheries. Although this system is likely to be severely affected by climate change, its response to current global warming is still uncertain. In this paper we analyze 10–166 year old sediments in two cores collected in Mejillones Bay, an anoxic sedimentary setting favorable for preservation of proxies. Based on a 166 year chronology we used indicators of bottom water oxygenation proxies (Mo, V, S, and the (lycopane+n-C35/n-C31 ratio and surface water productivity (biogenic opal, counts of diatom valves, biogenic Ba, organic carbon and chlorins to reconstruct environmental variations in Mejillones Bay. We find that at decadal scales, and during the last two centuries, a shift in the coastal marine ecosystem off Northern Chile took place which was characterized by intense ENSO-like activity and large fluctuations in biological export productivity, in bottom water oxygenation, and increased eolic activity (inferred from Ti/Al and Zr/Al. On top of this short-term variability, a gradual increase of sulfidic conditions has occurred being even more intensified since the early 1960s.

  16. FERROCARRILES EN LA ZONA AUSTRAL DE CHILE, 1869-1973

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    Mateo Martinic B.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se entrega una visión completa acerca de los ferrocarriles construidos y explotados en la región austral de Chile y se ofrece asimismo una explicación sobre su modesta expresión hist��rica, cosa notable en un territorio como la Patagonia chilena en cuya colonización y desarrollo ulterior fue importante la utilización de la tecnología industrial moderna. Se dan a conocer también algunas interesantes iniciativas ferrocarrileras que no llegaron a materializarseIn spite of the important development in Chilean Patagonia between circa 1870 an 1973, particulary in the old Magellan Territory, an almost surprising fact was that in between many incorporated industrial technology the railroad, a paradigm of modernity, had a scarce representation. In this paper, a complete review about railroads settled and exploted in southernmost Chile is done and a explanation of its modest expression and some interesting projects that necer became materialized which explains the emptiness in the historical information on the subject

  17. Astronomy Outreach Activities in Chile: IYA 2009 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, N.; Evans, M.; Aranda, J.; Gotta, V.; Monsalves, A.; Puebla, E.

    2012-08-01

    In Chile, one of the developing countries in Latin-America, there are large social differences that persist between the richest and the poorest citizens. On the other hand, Chile has the advantage of a special and unique resource, the incomparably clear and dry skies in the desert of Atacama in the north of the country. This advantage is being exploited by the installation of large and powerful international observatories. However, the Chilean people's perception of this resource and the corresponding advantages for their country are still underdeveloped and rather poor. Therefore, we have been conducting successful outreach activities at all levels during the past few years, with special highlights during the International Year of Astronomy 2009, including participation of our undergraduate physics and astronomy students, the local media like newspapers, radio, and TV stations, talks and workshops in schools, popular talks for the general public, exhibitions, contests, and other multi-media efforts. We briefly describe these activities and outline the difference between our situation and that existing in developed countries like the USA.

  18. [Mental health financing in Chile: a pending debt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errázuriz, Paula; Valdés, Camila; Vöhringer, Paul A; Calvo, Esteban

    2015-09-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of mental health disorders in Chile, there is a significant financing deficit in this area when compared to the world's average. The financing for mental health has not increased in accordance with the objectives proposed in the 2000 Chilean National Mental Health and Psychiatry Plan, and only three of the six mental health priorities proposed by this plan have secure financial coverage. The National Health Strategy for the Fulfilment of Health Objectives for the decade 2011-2020 acknowledges that mental disorders worsen the quality of life, increase the risk of physical illness, and have a substantial economic cost for the country. Thus, this article focuses on the importance of investing in mental health, the cost of not doing so, and the need for local mental health research. The article discusses how the United States is trying to eliminate the financial discrimination suffered by patients with mental health disorders, and concludes with public policy recommendations for Chile. PMID:26530201

  19. Differences in infant temperament between Chile and the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Chamarrita; Vallotton, Claire

    2016-08-01

    Temperament refers to individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation and is influenced by genetic and experiential variation and maturation. Temperament reflects biologically based individual differences that emerge in early life and remain relatively stable thereafter. Given the growing interest in cultural variation in infant temperament, this study examined the temperament of 12-month-old children in Chile and the US. The aims were to validate a version of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire - Revised - Very Short Form in Spanish for Chile and to compare Chilean and US infants' temperament. For the first aim, 150 Chilean infants aged 10-15 months were assessed, and 73 US infants aged 10-15 months were examined for the second aim. The children's parents completed a demographic questionnaire and the IBQ-R-VSF, which measures three dimensions of temperament: Surgency, Negative Affectivity, and Effortful Control. The reliability of each dimension for the Chilean sample was between 0.70 and 0.75, and significant differences between Chilean and US infants emerged. Parents of Chilean infants reported higher levels of Effortful Control, whereas US parents reported that their infants exhibited higher levels of Negative Affectivity. A relationship between parents' higher educational level and infants' higher levels of Surgency was found for both countries. No gender or age differences were observed for any of the three temperament dimensions. These results and their implications for cultural studies are discussed. PMID:27450101

  20. Abortion in Chile: the practice under a restrictive regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta

    2014-11-01

    This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome. PMID:25555764

  1. Assessing computer waste generation in Chile using material flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steubing, Bernhard; Böni, Heinz; Schluep, Mathias; Silva, Uca; Ludwig, Christian

    2010-03-01

    The quantities of e-waste are expected to increase sharply in Chile. The purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative data basis on generated e-waste quantities. A material flow analysis was carried out assessing the generation of e-waste from computer equipment (desktop and laptop PCs as well as CRT and LCD-monitors). Import and sales data were collected from the Chilean Customs database as well as from publications by the International Data Corporation. A survey was conducted to determine consumers' choices with respect to storage, re-use and disposal of computer equipment. The generation of e-waste was assessed in a baseline as well as upper and lower scenarios until 2020. The results for the baseline scenario show that about 10,000 and 20,000 tons of computer waste may be generated in the years 2010 and 2020, respectively. The cumulative e-waste generation will be four to five times higher in the upcoming decade (2010-2019) than during the current decade (2000-2009). By 2020, the shares of LCD-monitors and laptops will increase more rapidly replacing other e-waste including the CRT-monitors. The model also shows the principal flows of computer equipment from production and sale to recycling and disposal. The re-use of computer equipment plays an important role in Chile. An appropriate recycling scheme will have to be introduced to provide adequate solutions for the growing rate of e-waste generation.

  2. Abortion in Chile: the practice under a restrictive regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta

    2014-11-01

    This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome.

  3. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Chile and ESO for Establishing a New Center for Observation in Chile - ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    On October 21, 2002, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Chile, Mrs. María Soledad Alvear and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , signed an Agreement that authorizes ESO to establish a new center for astronomical observation in Chile . This new center for astronomical observation will be for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , the largest ground based astronomical project for the next decades. On this occasion, Minister Alvear stated that "we want to have ALMA working as soon as possible, which will constitute a pride not only to Chilean scientists but for the whole country and in particular, for the community of the Antofagasta Region" . ESO Director General Cesarsky said that "signing this agreement between the Government of Chile and ESO is a historical step in the astronomical collaboration between Chile and ESO and it will allow Chile to host, once again, a project of worldwide interest and impact" . ALMA is a joint project on equal basis between ESO and AUI (Associated Universities, Inc.). These organizations represent the scientific interests of Europe on one side and the United States with Canada on the other side. Chilean astronomers are closely involved with the project and 10% of the observing time will be reserved for Chilean science. ALMA will be built in the Andes, on the Plateau of Chajnantor (see the Chajnantor Photo Gallery ), 5000 metres above sea level and 60 km East of the town of San Pedro de Atacama. The array will be comprised of 64 antennas with unprecedent sensitivity and angular resolution that will allow studying the origin of galaxies, stars and planets, opening new horizons for astronomy, and being able to observe galaxies across the universe where stars are being formed. The agreement now signed between ESO and the Government of the Republic of Chile recognizes the interest that the ALMA Project has for Chile, as it will deepen and strengthen the cooperation in scientific and technological matters

  4. Hydrogeologische Untersuchungen der Geothermalfelder von Puyehue und Cordón Caulle, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsch, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    -Resumen extendido- Investigaciones realizadas en conjunto con la Universidad de Chile, en las áreas geotermales activas entre Lago Ranco y Lago Rupanco en el Sur de Chile (40.5ºS) han sido enfocadas a establecer balances hídricos e hidroquímicos. Esta tesis muestra los resultados de dos estudios de terreno realizados en las temporadas enero-marzo 2001 y enero-febrero 2002, y una investigación bibliográfica y recopilación de datos llevada a cabo en Chile. Los cálculos del caudal total se bas...

  5. Countering the resource curse: a comparative analysis of political economy for Chile and Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis attempts to explain how advanced economies with large mining sectors, like those of Australia and Chile, have managed to avoid the resource curse. Minerals (iron ore and coal) account for over two-thirds of Australia’s exports, and minerals (copper) amount to over two-thirds of Chilean exports as well. Hence, Australia and Chile have been labeled as commodity-based economies in the past. There is some validity to this claim, as Chile has gained significant fiscal revenues from cop...

  6. The Expansion of Cash Transfers in Chile and its Challenges: Ethical Family Income

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Cecchini; Claudia Robles; Luis Hernán Vargas

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade Chile has attracted renewed interest for its innovative social protection policies and programmes, such as the Chile Solidario system to overcome extreme poverty (launched in 2002), the special plan for Universal Access with Explicit Guarantees (Plan de Acceso Universal con Garantías Explícitas, AUGE) to ensure access to healthcare (2004), the Basic Solidarity Pension (Pensión Básica Solidaria, PBS)?the cornerstone of the 2008 pension reform?and the system of Chile Grows Wi...

  7. Microevolution of human archaic groups of Arica, northern Chile, and its genetic contribution to populations from the Formative Period Microevolución de grupos humanos arcaicos de Arica, norte de Chile, y su contribución genética a las poblaciones del Período Formativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÉCTOR HUGO VARELA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The microevolution of the archaic populations from Chile's northern coast and its morphological contribution to Formative period groups was studied. The sample comprised 181 individuals belonging to two Archaic (Morro-Uhle and Morro 1-1/6 and one Formative (Playa Miller-7 [Plm-7] series of the coast and one sample from the Formative (Alto Ramírez exhumed at the Azapa Valley. A total of 29 metric variables of the cranium were analyzed. Biological variability was assessed using discriminant analysis and Mahalanobis' D² distance stadistic (MDS. Population structure was inferred using a method based on quantitative genetic theory that predicts a lineal relationship between average within-group phenotypic variance and group distance to the population centroid. The four samples studied proved to be different from a morphologic point of view. The greatest distance was observed between Plm-7 (coast Formative and Alto Ramirez (valley Formative, the least between Morro-Uhle and Morro 1-1/6, the remaining distances presenting intermediate values. Regarding the total population, the most divergent group was Alto Ramírez and the least divergent was Morro1-1/6. A gradual biologic change was observed between Archaic (Morro Uhle and Morro 1-1/6 and coastal Formative populations (Plm-7 pointing to a morphological (genetic contribution of Archaic fishermen to Formative population of Chile's northern coast, without excluding gene flow from other groups of the South Central Andean AreaEstudiamos la microevolución de las poblaciones arcaicas de la costa norte y sus contribuciones morfológicas al Período Formativo. La muestra comprendió 181 individuos pertenecientes a dos colecciones arcaicas de la costa (Morro-Uhle y Morro 1-1/6 y una al formativo (Alto Ramírez exhumada en el Valle de Azapa. Un total de 29 variables métricas del cráneo fueron analizadas. La variabilidad biológica fue determinada utilizando análisis discriminante y distancias de

  8. Adding the human dimension to drought: an example from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangecroft, Sally; Van Loon, Anne; Maureira, Héctor; Rojas, Pablo; Alejandro Gutiérrez Valdés, Sergio; Verbist, Koen

    2016-04-01

    Drought and water scarcity are important hazards and can lead to severe socio-economic impacts in many regions of the world. Given the interlinked interactions and feedbacks of hydrological droughts and their impacts and management, we need tools to evaluate these complexities and effects on the availability of water resources. Here we use a real-world case study of the Huasco basin (Northern Chile) in which we quantify the influence of human activities on hydrological drought signals. In this arid region, Andean snowmelt provides water essential for users, with agriculture acting as the main water consumer (85% of total). An increasing water demand from different water sectors (agriculture, mining, and domestic water usage) has increased pressure on available water and its management. Consequently, the Santa Juana dam was built by 1995 to increase irrigation security for downstream users, and recent management and restrictions have been established with the objective to limit impacts of hydrological droughts across the basin. The feedbacks between water availability and water management are explored for this water stressed region in Chile. Hydro-meteorological (e.g. precipitation, temperature, streamflow, reservoir levels) variables have been analysed to assess trends and drought patterns. Data over the past three decades has indicated a decrease in surface water supply, with the basin entering a situation of water scarcity during the recent multiyear drought (2007 - to-date), partly caused by meteorological drought and partly by abstraction. During this period, water supply failed to meet the demands of water users, resulting in the implementation of water restrictions. As well as the necessary continuous hydro-meteorological data, here we used information on human water users and scenario modeling, allowing for the analysis and quantification of feedbacks. This work highlights the importance of local knowledge, especially in understanding water laws, rights

  9. Variabilidade genética do rendimento intrínseco de grãos em germoplasma de Coffea Genetic variability for bean outturn in Coffea germplasm

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    Cristiana de Gaspari-Pezzopane

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O rendimento intrínseco do café, relação percentual entre a massa de dois grãos normais tipo chato e do respectivo fruto que os contém, foi estudado em seis grupos de germoplasma de Coffea, com o objetivo de se conhecer a variabilidade genética para essa característica. Investigou-se o rendimento intrínseco de Coffea arabica em um grupo de cinco cultivares de porte baixo, em outro contendo 22 cultivares e seleções e, ainda, em outro grupo com 79 cultivares, variedades e formas botânicas, mutantes e acessos da Etiópia. Em C. canephora, foram analisados três acessos da variedade kouilou e 10 acessos da variedade robusta. Investigaram-se ainda, outras oito espécies do gênero Coffea. Observou-se considerável variabilidade genética tanto entre representantes de C. arabica quanto de C. canephora, assim como entre as diferentes espécies do gênero Coffea. A amplitude de variação nos valores de rendimento intrínseco referente ao último grupo foi bem maior que a de qualquer outro grupo estudado. A magnitude das variações observadas e as implicações econômicas do rendimento intrínseco indicam que essa característica pode ser utilizada como um critério adicional de seleção no melhoramento de C. arabica e C. canephora.The intrinsic coffee bean outturn, percent weight ratio of two normal flat beans and the respective whole fruit, was studied in six Coffea germplasm groups in order to investigate the genetic variability for this characteristic. It was evaluated in C. arabica a group of five short stature cultivars, another group composed of 22 cultivars and selections yet a third group of 79 items comprising cultivars, botanical varieties and types, mutations and accessions from Ethiopia. In C. canephora it were studied three acessions of var. kouilou and ten of var. robusta. It were investigated also eight other species of the genus Coffea. Considerable genetic variability was detected within C. arabica and C. canephora and

  10. Variabilidade de atributos físicos do solo determinados por métodos diversos Variability of soil physical attributes determined by different methods

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    Glécio Machado Siqueira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A variabilidade espacial dos atributos físicos do solo tem sido alvo de diversos estudos nos últimos anos. No entanto, pouco tem sido estudado sobre as diferenças de medidas entre os diversos métodos de amostragem. Desta maneira, este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a variabilidade espacial de atributos físicos do solo determinados por diferentes métodos de amostragem de um Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico, em Campinas (SP, Brasil, amostrado de janeiro a maio de 2005 em 302 pontos com espaçamento de 10 x 10 metros. A densidade do solo foi determinada por meio do método do anel volumétrico e do método do torrão impermeabilizado. A porosidade total do solo foi medida utilizando-se anéis volumétricos e calculada por meio da densidade de partículas de 2,65 kg dm-3 comumente descrita na literatura científica para solos minerais e de 2,84 kg dm-3 encontrada na área de estudo. A umidade do solo foi obtida por meio do método volumétrico, do método gravimétrico e pela técnica de reflectometria de domínio do tempo (TDR. A densidade obtida com anéis volumétricos apresentou o menor valor de coeficiente de variação (CV e de efeito pepita (C0, respectivamente, de 7,13% e 0,005. A porosidade total medida foi o método mais prático para avaliação deste atributo do solo. A umidade amostrada com anéis volumétricos revelou os valores mais próximos da média quando comparada aos demais métodos de amostragem do conteúdo de água no solo.The spatial variability of soil physical attributes has been the focus of many studies in the last few years. However, little has been discussed of differences of these attributes due to sampling methods. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial variability of soil physical attributes sampled by different methods in Rhodic Eutrudox, in Campinas (SP, Brazil. Sampling was performed between January and May of 2005, at 302 points of a 10 x 10 m grid. Soil bulk density was measured by

  11. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  12. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori

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    Luis Eduardo Bravo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos: Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI, displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos: En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento.Resultados: La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9% y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0

  13. Variabilidade espacial da fertirrigação em Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo cultivado com melão Spatial variability of fertirrigation in a Oxissol cultivated with melon

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    Neyton de O. Miranda

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, realizado em Mossoró, RN, investigou a variabilidade de parâmetros da fertirrigação por gotejamento, sua dependência espacial e correlação com a produtividade e qualidade de frutos de melão. Em uma malha de 20 por 20 m foram tomadas 75 amostras, para se determinar: produção de frutos tipo exportação (PEXP, mercado nacional (PNAC e comerciável (PCOM, peso médio de frutos comerciáveis (PMCOM, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, firmeza de polpa, espessura da polpa (ESPOLP, elevação, distância até a entrada de água, além da quantidade de adubo aplicada e vazão dos gotejadores com os respectivos coeficientes de uniformidade de emissão (CUE. A variabilidade foi determinada através da estatística descritiva e da geoestatística. A vazão e a quantidade de adubo aplicada no primeiro teste, foram menores que o esperado. O CUE foi bom e excelente para vazão, e regular e bom para a quantidade de adubo aplicada. A dependência espacial foi observada para vazão e quantidade de adubo aplicada, cujas isolinhas permitiram localizar-se áreas onde ocorreu déficit ou excesso. As correlações sugerem influência da vazão sobre PNAC, PCOM e PMCOM, e da quantidade de adubo sobre PEXP e ESPOLP.This study investigated the variability of drip fertirrigation parameters, its spatial dependence and relationship to yield and quality of melon fruits in a field in Mossoró, RN, Brazil. A total of 75 plots were sampled in a 20 by 20 m grid to determine the following parameters: yield of export type melon (PEXP and national market type (PNAC, marketable yield (PCOM, mean weight of marketable fruits (PMCOM, total soluble solids content (SST, pulp firmness, pulp thickness (ESPOLP, emitter discharge rate, elevation, distance to water inlet, amount of fertilizer applied, and emission uniformity (CUE of discharge rate and fertilizer amount. The variability was assessed by conventional statistics methods and by geostatistics

  14. Variabilidade genética e sensibilidade de acessos de Pistia stratiotes ao herbicida glyphosate Genetic variability and sensitivity of Pistia stratiotes accesses to glyphosate

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    E.A.S. Cícero

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A alface-d'água (Pistia stratiotes é uma das principais entre as macrófitas aquáticas que causam problemas em corpos hídricos no Brasil e são consideradas como plantas daninhas. O presente trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de conhecer melhor a variabilidade genética dessa macrófita e relacionar essa variabilidade com a resposta à aplicação do herbicida glyphosate. Para isso, foram coletados indivíduos em 12 corpos hídricos em diferentes cidades do território nacional (Americana, Cambaratiba, Curitiba, Itapura, Jaboticabal, Lagoa Santa, Piraí, Rio Grande, Rubinéia, Salto Grande, Santa Gertrudes e Três Lagoas. Os acessos foram caracterizados pelo uso de marcadores RAPD (DNA Polimórfico Amplificado ao Acaso, que permitiram, com o auxílio de iniciadores aleatórios, a caracterização dos locos polimórficos identificados por uma matriz de ausência e presença de bandas. Utilizando essa matriz, a análise de agrupamento permitiu nítida classificação dos acessos em três grupos com diferenças genéticas entre eles. Um ensaio de controle químico, com plantas mantidas em vasos plásticos (5 L e pulverizadas com o herbicida glyphosate nas concentrações de 0,0, 0,6, 1,2, 1,8 e 2,4 kg ha-1, identificou, utilizando avaliações aos 7, 14 e 21 dias após aplicação, que as duas maiores doses promoveram melhor efeito herbicida. Foi verificado também que os acessos de Curitiba e Cambaratiba apresentaram menor suscetibilidade ao herbicida glyphosate. Não houve correspondência entre a estrutura de grupos dos acessos pela análise multivariada de agrupamento com a técnica RAPD e a suscetibilidade da alface-d'água ao glyphosate.Water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes is one the most important macrophytes, classified as weed and causing serious problems in watercourses in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the genetic variability of water lettuce and its relationship with this plant's susceptibility to glyphosate

  15. Variabilidade genética de acessos de maracujá-suspiro com base em marcadores moleculares Genetic variability of wild passion fruit determined by molecular markers

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    Keize Pereira Junqueira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora nitida é uma espécie silvestre amplamente distribuída pelo território brasileiro, constituindo-se em fonte de resistência a doenças foliares e de raízes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a variabilidade genética entre acessos de P. nitida procedentes de diferentes tipos fitofisionômicos de Cerrado e estados brasileiros (Goiás, Distrito Federal, Tocantins, Mato Grosso e Amazonas, usando marcadores moleculares RAPD. O DNA genômico de cada acesso foi extraído, e doze iniciadores decâmeros foram utilizados para a obtenção de marcadores moleculares RAPD, que foram convertidos em matriz de dados binários, a partir da qual foram estimadas as distâncias genéticas entre os acessos e realizadas análises de agrupamento e de dispersão gráfica. Foram obtidos 196 marcadores para P. nitida, dos quais 63,81% foram polimórficos. As distâncias genéticas entre os acessos de maracujá variaram de 0,031 a 0,614 e, considerando apenas P. nitida, de 0,031 a 0,417. Os marcadores moleculares demonstraram alta variabilidade genética dos acessos de P. nitida. Menores distâncias genéticas foram verificadas entre os acessos originados do mesmo estado. Considerando-se os acessos de um mesmo estado, menores distâncias genéticas foram verificadas entre os acessos provenientes de tipos fitofisionômicos próximos. O acesso "Manaus 2" apresentou o maior distanciamento genético em relação aos demais acessos.Passiflora nitida is a wild species widely distributed in Brazilian territory. It is a source of resistance to foliar and soil borne diseases. The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability among accessions of P. nitida proceeding from different types of Cerrado (Brazilian savannah vegetation and brazilian states (Goiás, Distrito Federal, Tocantins, Mato Grosso and Amazonas using RAPD molecular markers. The genomic DNA of each origin was extracted and amplified using 12 decamer primers to obtain RAPD

  16. Implicaciones del funcionamiento de un acuífero carbonatado fisurado complejo (Sierra de Lujar, Granada en la variabilidad hidroquímica de su descarga natural

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    Sanroma, A.

    1994-08-01

    predominantemente difuso. Las formas kársticas están, por lo general, poco desarrolladas tanto en superficie como a nivel de redes espeleológicas. Estas características influyen en la química del agua subterránea, por lo que la variabilidad de los diferentes parámetros físicoquímicos del agua es reducida, con gráficos de distribución de frecuencias de dichos parámetros de formas, generalmente, unimodales. Sin embargo, se ha encontrado una mayor variabilidad en aquellos puntos en los que existe mezcla con aguas superficiales procedentes del río Guadalfeo.

  17. Spectral analysis of cardiac rate variability Análisis espectral de la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca

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    Diego Luis Alvarez Montoya

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last years relationship between autonomic nervous system (ANS function and cardiovascular mortality has been recognized. This has motivated research to find quantitative markers of autonomic balance. Heart rate variability (HRV is one of the most promising methods. HRV is defined as the variations occurred in the time interval between consecutive heartbeats and it is thought to depend on the ANS modulation. Tacogram (recording of cardiac frequency in time is used to evaluate HRV. The study of HRV started 30 years ago and has gained importance in the last 10 years. There are several methods to evaluate HRV. The most accepted today are frequency domain methods (spectral analysis. Spectral analysis consists in the decomposition in order to obtain the spectral components. There are high frequency components (HF, related to vagal tone, low frequency (LF components, related to the modulation of both sympathetic and vagal modulation, and very low frequency components which have not been related to any physiological variable. Time domain methods, are basically statistic and evaluate variability using means and standard deviations. These methods seem to have less advantages than spectral methods. HRV is correlated with physiological adaptations to changes in internal and external environment and to the presence of diseases. This article presents the main techniques in the time and frequency domains and their relationship with physiological changes and specific diseases. En los últimos años, se ha reconocido la relación existente entre el funcionamiento del sistema nervioso autónomo (SNA y la mortalidad cardiovascular. Esto ha motivado la búsqueda de marcadores cuantitativos del balance autonómico. La Variabilidad de la Frecuencia Cardíaca (VFC representa uno de los más promisorios. La VFC se define como la variación que ocurre en el intervalo de tiempo entre latidos consecutivos y se ha propuesto que su comportamiento depende de la

  18. Anatomía quirúrgica de la platismoplastia medial submentoniana: variabilidad anatómica en cadáveres

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    X.A. García-Buitrago

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizamos un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en 30 disecciones de cadáveres con el objetivo de identificar las variaciones anatómicas de la región anterior superficial del cuello en relación a la platismoplastia medial submentoniana. Las principales variables estudiadas fueron: el músculo platisma, las venas yugulares anteriores, las glándulas submandibulares, así como las venas faciales en su segmento superficial a nivel glandular y las arterias faciales en su punto de cruce por el reborde mandibular. Aplicamos el test de correlación de Pearson (r en correspondencia a estas variables. Los resultados más importantes fueron: la variabilidad anatómica del músculo platisma con predominio de la variante bordes separados a nivel hioideo; inconstante presentación de las venas yugulares anteriores, prevaleciendo su forma bilateral asimétrica. Observamos constancia y simetría desde la línea media hioidea a los bordes anteriores de las glándulas submandibulares y venas faciales en el segmento más superficial de su trayecto por estas glándulas, así como equidistancia de las arterias faciales en su punto de cruce a nivel mandibular con relación a la sínfisis del mentón. No constatamos relación entre la longitud y diámetro del cuello con el resto de las variables estudiadas.

  19. Variabilidad genética de Hartón del Valle mediante RAM Genetic variability of Harton del Valle by RAM

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    Ana M Piedrahíta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El Hartón del Valle (HV hace parte de las siete razas criollas de ganado bovino colombiano y de acuerdo con los criterios de la FAO está considerado como vulnerable. Para estudiar su variabilidad genética fueron muestreados 33 individuos HV y tres animales de la raza Holstein, como control externo. Se extrajo ADN utilizando el método de Salting Out y las muestras fueron analizadas mediante la técnica molecular RAM (Randon amplified microsatellites. Se utilizaron los cebadores CGA, CCA, TG, y CT. El valor promedio de heterocigosidad esperada fue de 0.26 y el F ST fue 0.39 ± 0.03. Con el índice de Dice-Nei Li y agrupando con el método UPGMA se distinguieron dos grupos: uno integrado por dos hatos de conservación y el otro por cuatro fincas que han compartido reproductores.Harton del Valle (HV breed belong to the seven Creole breeds of the Colombian bovine livestock, according to FAO criteria it is considered as vulnerable. To study its genetical variability, 33 HV animals and three and 3 animals of Holstein breed as a external control were sampled. Simples of DNA were isolated using the Salting Out method and RAM (Random amplified microsatellites technique was used. CGA, CCA, TG and CT primers were used. The mean value of expected heterocigozity was 0.26 and F ST fue 0.39 ± 0.03. Using Dice-Nei Li index and UPGMA clustering method, two groups were distinguished: the first one integrated for two conservation herds and other one by tour faros that have been sharing breeding bulls.

  20. Joubert syndrome: large clinical variability and a unique neuroimaging aspect Síndrome de Joubert: grande variabilidade clínica e uma neuroimagem característica

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    Emília Katiane Embiruçu Leão

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Joubert syndrome (JS is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by hypotonia, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, ocular abnormalities (e.g, pigmentary retinopathy, oculomotor apraxia and nystagmus, renal cysts and hepatic fibrosis. Respiratory abnormalities, as apnea and hyperpnea, may be present, as well as mental retardation. At least seven JS loci have been determined and five genes identified. Herein, we report five children, belonging to independent families, with JS: they shared the same typical MRI abnormality, known as molar tooth sign, but had an otherwise quite variable phenotype, regarding mostly their cognitive performance, visual abilities and extra-neurological compromise.A síndrome de Joubert (SJ é uma doença hereditária, autossômica recessiva, caracterizada por hipotonia, hipoplasia do vermis cerebelar, anormalidades oculares (p.ex., retinite pigmentar, apraxia oculomotora e nistagmo, cistos renais e fibrose hepática. Anormalidades respiratórias tais como apnéia e hiperpnéia podem estar presentes, assim como deficiência mental. Pelo menos sete loci e cinco genes diferentes associados à SJ já foram identificados. Este artigo relata cinco crianças com SJ, pertencentes a diferentes famílias. Todos os pacientes compartilham a mesma anormalidade típica da RM, conhecida como sinal do dente molar, e apresentam ampla variabilidade clínica em relação ao desempenho cognitivo, comprometimento visual e alterações extra-neurológicas.

  1. Variabilidade genética e herança da tolerância à toxicidade do alumínio em aveia

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    SÁNCHEZ-CHACÓN CARLOS DANILO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e um genótipos de aveia (Avena sativa L. do programa de melhoramento da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul foram avaliados quanto à reação ao alumínio (Al tóxico em solução nutritiva. Os níveis de Al testados foram 5, 10, 15, 20 e 30 g kJ-1, e o recrescimento da raiz foi medido depois de 48 horas sob a ação do metal. A variabilidade fenotípica foi observada a partir de 10 g kJ-1; em 20 g kJ-1 foram discriminados genótipos tolerantes e sensíveis. As bases genéticas da tolerância ao Al foram estudadas nas gerações P1, P2, F1 e F2, em nove cruzamentos entre genótipos tolerantes x sensíveis. Foi observado nas populações segregantes que a tolerância foi condicionada por um gene, de efeito dominante. A herdabilidade no sentido amplo foi moderada a elevada, permitindo que a seleção de indivíduos homozigotos tolerantes possa ser realizada em gerações precoces, acompanhada de teste de progênie. Por ser um método de relativa facilidade e rapidez, a seleção de germoplasma tolerante ao Al pode ser parte integrante da rotina dos programas de melhoramento de aveia.

  2. Uso de la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca como marcador de los efectos cardiovasculares asociados con la contaminación del aire

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    Riojas-Rodríguez Horacio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudios epidemiológicos han demostrado la relación entre los contaminantes atmosféricos y el incremento en la mortalidad por causas cardiovasculares, en especial en personas con enfermedad cardiopulmonar previa. Sin embargo, los mecanismos fisiopatológicos mediante los cuales estos padecimientos ocurren no son bien conocidos. Se ha sugerido que una de las vías mediante las cuales las partículas suspendidas respirables y otros contaminantes producen su efecto es alterar la regulación del corazón por el sistema nervioso autónomo. El análisis de los cambios en la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca (VFC es un indicador de efecto sobre este mecanismo. En este trabajo se realiza una revisión de las bases fisiológicas de este método, de sus ventajas y limitaciones y de los resultados que se obtienen al relacionarlo con la exposición a contaminantes atmosféricos. A partir del análisis de la literatura disponible, se sugieren alternativas relacionadas con el diseño de los estudios, la selección de poblaciones en riesgo, los métodos para evaluar la exposición y los métodos de análisis estadístico que pueden servir para utilizar mejor el análisis del registro electrocardiográfico ambulatorio en relación con los riesgos cardiacos por exposición a contaminantes atmosféricos.

  3. Uso de marcadores moleculares na análise da variabilidade genética em acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALLA MARIA FERNANDA SPEGIORIN

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A acerola (Malpighia emarginata é uma frutífera tropical encontrada nativa na América Central e no Norte da América do Sul, sendo de grande importância econômica e social devido ao seu alto conteúdo de vitamina C (ácido ascórbico. Pomares de acerola têm sido preferencialmente estabelecidos por métodos de propagação vegetiva. No entanto, a propagação sexuada por sementes é igualmente utilizada e permite revelar um alto grau de polimorfismo na cultura, possibilitando a identificação de genótipos portadores de características de interesse agronômico. Vinte e quatro acessos de acerola, pertencentes ao Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, foram analisados, usando marcadores RAPD (Random amplified Polymorphic DNA e obtidos com iniciadores (primers de seqüência simples repetidas (SSRs. Um total de 164 e 73 marcadores foram obtidos com primers de RAPD e SSR, respectivamente. Os marcadores obtidos foram analisados, usando o método de agrupamentos UPGMA. A análise comparativa dos dendrogramas gerados com os primers de RAPD e com os primers SSR mostrou que, enquanto alguns acessos se associaram em grupos diferentes, outros apresentaram a mesma associação. Entretanto, maior polimorfismo entre acessos foi detectado com os primers de RAPD. A análise dos resultados revelou a alta variabilidade contida na coleção, permitindo associar o grau de similaridade genética, obtido por marcadores de DNA, com caracteres morfológicos compartilhados entre os acessos.

  4. Los variados objetos de la antropología: una relación de sentidos desde La Araucanía, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Durán

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo gira en torno a la posibilidad de la antropología de estudiar lascondiciones de su propia existencia (Hubinger, 1997. Según entendemos, esta posibilidad significa no solo hacerse las preguntas claves relativas a sus características en tanto ciencia social sino a su vez poder otorgarse respuestas operacionales que guíen el proceso de autoanálisis desde su praxis. Creemos que el contexto de La Araucanía de Chile ha proporcionado un clima psicosocial desafiante para explorar esta posibilidad, así como para configurar respuestas provisionales, que son las que en esta oportunidad deseamos explicitar, orientadas no solo hacia la sociedad nacional, sino también a la regional y la local. La Araucanía es una denominación metafórica que representa un espacio territorial, social y cultural diverso que incuba nichos de desigualdad socioeconómica, así como variabilidades socioculturales que refieren, por un lado, a una cultura “originaria” con unatradición ancestral y, por otro, a una sociedad nacional que se auto-comprende como moderna. Espacio en que existiría una memoria que puede reconstruir historias que otorgan vida a dicho territorio y, al mismo tiempo, desconoce la historia o la pierde de vista debido a la imposición compulsiva de tendencias contemporáneas postmodernas y/o reificantes del colonialismo. Para la antropología local, este ha sido el escenario propicio para el planteamiento reiterativo de preguntas tales como ¿qué estudiar?, ¿cómo estudiar?, ¿para qué estudiar? Asimismo, ha sido un campo en el cual hemos estado ensayando un diálogo a través de nuestras prácticas profesionales, incorporando la historia donde ella está ausente (Durán, 2002; Durán y Berho, 2003; Carrasco y Eyzaguirre, 2005; Durán, 2005. El artículo especifica cada una de estas preguntas fundamentales desde el marco de la propuesta global que anida en el locus local y que aspira a ser contrarrestada y comentada por

  5. Variabilidade genética e correlações entre caracteres de feijão-caupi = Genetic variability and correlations between characters in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agenor Martinho Correa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar a variabilidade genética em uma população de feijão-caupi com base em caracteres de interesse agronômico e definir caracteres a serem utilizados na seleção de genótipos superiores. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, em Aquidauana, no período da “seca” do ano de 2009. Os tratamentos consistiram de 20 genótipos de feijão-caupi, sendo 11 cultivares (Canapuzinho, Canapuzinho-2, Inhuma, Pingo-de-ouro-1-2, Pingo-de-ouro-2, Paulistinha, Patativa, BRS-Paraguassu, BRS-Milênio, BR17-Gurguéia e BRS-Marataoã e 9 linhagens (MNC99- 510F-16-1, MNC99-510F-16-3, MNC99-537F-14-2, MNC01-611F-11, MNC01-614F-15, MNC01-631F-11, MNC01-631F-15, MNC01-631F-20-5, MNC01-649E-2. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com 4 repetições. Foram avaliados os caracteres: início de florescimento, início de maturação, massa de 100 grãos, comprimento de vagem verde, massa de vagem verde, número de grãos por vagem e produtividade de grãos secos. Para verificar a existência de variabilidade entre os genótipos, os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo teste F. Posteriormente, foram determinados os seguintes parâmetros genéticos: variância ambiental, fenotípica e genotípica; coeficiente de variação experimental e genotípico; coeficiente de determinação genotípico; quociente b; correlações ambientais, fenotípicas e genotípicas. A população apresenta variabilidade genética e potencial para o melhoramento genético. Com base nos parâmetros avaliados, os programas de melhoramento genético em feijão-caupi podem realizar a seleção de genótipos baseados nos caracteres: dias para maturação, massa verde de vagens, número de grãos por vagem e produtividade de grãos. = Abstract: The study aimed to estimate the genetic variability in a population of cowpea based on agronomically important traits and see

  6. The debate in Chile on organ donation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide scarcity of cadaveric organs for transplants is on the rise, due in part to extended medical indications and longevity of chronic patients with organic insufficiencies. Chile has an extremely low donor rate of 6.7 per million. Although consent is presumed by law, and recently amended to include a “reciprocity principle”, nearly four million persons have expressed in writing their unwillingness to donate and, of those remaining, 53% of families have rejected donating the organs of their deceased. New proposals are urgently needed, even if some of them have previously been rejected: nonmaterial incentives, partial donations and unveiling anonymity to enhance personal ties between donors and recipients. Transparency, information and assistance are to be reinforced in order to regain trust in transplant procedures. PMID:27570970

  7. Studies on osteoporosis in Chile using isotope-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies on bone densitometry measurements in healthy individuals have been performed in Chile. However due to the fact that different techniques and no uniform protocols have been used to select patients, the results obtained are not suitable as reference values for a normal chilean population. Therefore, foreign reference values are used. This study will select healthy normal individuals, typical urban chilean residents, and measure bone density using the DEXA technique. The selection will be made according to a well defined protocol. Serum osteocalcin, a marker of bone remodeling, will be measured in all subjects as a means-a assessing bone metabolism. Bone trace element composition will be measured in selected subjects. Samples will be obtained by biopsy or through normal surgical procedures and will be analyzed by neutron activation analysis. (author)

  8. [Scarlet fever epidemic during year 1929 in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval R, Enrique

    2009-04-01

    Scarlet fever is endemic in Chile, with relatively low morbidity and periodic exacerbations every 4 or 5 years, which can become epidemics. From 1921 to 1927, the number of patients hospitalized in the country fluctuated from 15 to 65 per year, until an epidemic involving nearly 3.000 patients started at the end of 1928 and continued during all 1929. 978 patients died, 537 (52.5%) were from Santiago. Public Health authorities confronted this emergency with prevention, prophylaxis, isolation and treatment measures and 558 beds were disposed for patient hospitalization. Vaccination trials were undertaken and specific treatment with antitoxins was used in patients with toxic clinical cases, having satisfactory results. Convalescent patients were controlled in order to stop the spread of the infection. After approximately 3 years, this disease returned to its regular endemicity.

  9. DEMETER Satellite Observations of Particle Burst Prior to Chile Earthquake

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhenxia; Shen, Xuhui; Ma, Yuqian; Chen, Huaran; You, Xinzhao; Yuan, Yahong

    2010-01-01

    The lithosphere activity during seismogenic or occurrence of one earthquake may emit electromagnetic wave which propagate to ionosphere and radiation belt, then induce disturbance of electric and magnetic field and the precipitation of high energy charged particles. This paper, based on the data detected by DEMETER satellite, present the high energy charged particle burst(PB) with 4 to 6 times enhancement over the average value observed about ten days days before Chile earthquake. The obvious particle burst was also observed in the northern hemisphere mirror points conjugate of epicenter and no PB events in different years over the same epicenter region was found. The energy spectra of the PBs are different from the one averaged within the first three months in 2010. At the same time, the disturbance of the VLF electric spectrum in ionosphere over the epicenter detected by the DEMETER satellite are also observed in the same two orbits. Those observations from energetic PB and VLF electric spectrum disturbance...

  10. Distribución espacial de la pobreza en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, Claudio A.; Philip H Brown; Góngora, Diana Paola

    2008-01-01

    Chile ha sido particularmente exitoso en la reducción de la pobreza durante los últimos 20 años, disminuyendo el porcentaje de la población bajo la línea de pobreza de un 38,6% en 1990 a un 13,7% en 2006. Con tasas de pobreza más bajas, el esfuerzo de focalización necesario para el diseño de políticas públicas que permitan reducir aún más o erradicar la pobreza, es mucho mayor y se requiere información más desagregada a nivel geográfico. Los mapas de pobreza pueden cumplir este rol, ya que en...

  11. Soil erosion and its control in Chile - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerate erosion in Chile is a consequence from land use that degrade soil such as compaction, loss of organic matter and soil structure. The erosion is favored by the very hilly landscape of the country that increases erosivity index and the high erodibility given by an elevated annual rate of rainfall with irregular distribution. Several experiences have demonstrated that adequate crop management and crop rotations can minimize erosion. The most effective control is achieved conserving and improving soil structure with management systems that include regular use of soil-improving crops, return of crop residues and tillage practices, thus avoiding unnecessary breakdown soil or compacted soil structure. Conservation tillage increased organic matter levels improving stabile soil structure, aeration and infiltration. (author)

  12. Identidad y fronteras urbanas en Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Márquez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo analiza a través de un ejercicio etnográfico los procesos de construcción identitaria de los habitantes de barrios pobres y medios de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile. Se plantea que las identidades que alli se construyen son expresión de los procesos de segregación urbana de la ciudad de Santiago y ellas dan cuenta del debilitamiento de un modelo urbano asentado en la heterogeneidad social, la noción de espacio público y valores como la ciudadanía política y la integración social. Paradojalmente, esta misma segregación urbana abre también paso a un imaginario y una práctica de vida comunitaria y tribal que refuerza y protege al nosotros de la peligrosidad de los otros.

  13. Participación electoral en Chile, 1988-2001

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    Patricio Navia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra que la participación electoral en Chile hoy no es menor a la observada hasta antes de 1973. La alta tasa de participación en 1988 representa una comprensible anomalía. Después de 15 años sin votar, los chilenos participaron entusiastamente en el plebiscito. Pero a partir de entonces, la tasa de participación tendió a la baja hasta llegar a fines de los 90 a niveles similares a los observados antes del quiebre democrático de 1973. Usando un marco teórico que aborda la participación como una función basada en costos y beneficios, discute la participación electoral en Chile en un contexto internacional, subrayando las diferencias y similitudes de los patrones existentes antes de 1973 y después de 1988, enfatizando tanto lógicas de inscripción como de participación electoral. Al hacerlo, aborda la tensión que existe entre un electorado estable y un número creciente de personas no inscritas para votar. Por último, identifica algunas propuestas que permitirían eliminar las trabas institucionales que han llevado a la formación de dos clases de adultos, aquellos que estando inscritos están obligados a votar y los que al no estar inscritos no pueden sufragar. Puntualmente, argumenta que al automatizar la inscripción se puede incorporar a todos sin tener siquiera que entrar a discutir la obligatoriedad del votoContrary to a widespread belief, post-1990 electoral participation in Chile is not lower than before 1973. The high turnout rates observed in 1988 constitute an understandable anomaly. After 15 years without elections, Chileans enthusiastically participated in the plebiscite. Yet, after that event, turnout rates fell during the 1990s to levels similar to those observed before 1973. Using a theoretical framework that defines turnout as a function based on cost and benefits, I discuss electoral participation in Chile in an international context, highlighting the differences and similarities between the

  14. A failed platform: The Citizen Consensus Conference travels to Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureta, Sebastián

    2016-05-01

    This article starts by reviewing the setbacks that the recent Science and Technology Studies literature has identified in the functioning of technologies of democracy, the different arrangements that look to enact deliberation on technoscientific issues. Putting a focus on the Citizen Consensus Conference, it then proposes that several of these setbacks are related to the kind of "work" that these technologies are expected to do, identifying two kinds of it: performing a laboratory-based experiment and constituting a platform for the dissemination of facts. It then applies this framework to study a Citizen Consensus Conference carried out in Chile in 2003. After a detailed genealogy of the planning, implementation and afterlife of this exercise, the article concludes that several of the limitations experienced are derived from a "successful outcome" conceived as solely running a neat lab-based experiment, arguing for the need to incorporate its functioning as a platform with all the associated transformations and messiness.

  15. Chile: la persistencia de las memorias antagónicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Waldman Mitnick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los años transcurridos en democracia, en Chile siguen persistiendo las sombras del pasado dictatorial. El país todavía no ha logrado realizar el duelo por un pasado tan doloroso, y las memorias antagónicas y contrapuestas siguen vigentes. Ello se manifiesta, por ejemplo, en los conflictos generados en torno a la conmemoración del 11 de septiembre, en los polémicos debates por los memoriales erigidos en honor de personajes políticos de izquierda y de derecha, así como en las contradictorias miradas respecto a uno de los personajes más emblemáticos de la represión dictatorial, Miguel Krassnoff, tal como aparece en dos libros de reciente publicación.

  16. [Vaccines against hepatitis A and B in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, M Teresa

    2009-06-01

    The mode of transmission and epidemiological approach for hepatitis A and B are different. However, both are preventable with vaccines whose efficacy and long lasting protection has been demonstrated. This review describes the secular tendency of both infections in Chile, their risk factors that have contributed to their persistence in the country and the interventions that have been carried out to reduce the disease burden. Although the vaccine for hepatitis B was incorporated to the immunization program in 2005, the vaccine for hepatitis A persists in the list of interventions that must be assumed with priority by the Ministry of Health. If Chilean health authorities pretend to reach the enteric disease indicators of developed countries, they must accelerate the epidemiological transition towards the elimination of hepatitis A.

  17. MOVILIDAD SUSTENTABLE EN CHILE: OPORTUNIDADES, EXPERIENCIAS LOCALES Y REFERENCIAS GLOBALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Díaz Tejeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone Premisas Conceptuales, Premisas Metodológicas y el desarrollo de Aspectos Estratégicos para la implementación de soluciones a la Movilidad Urbana. Se inspira en las ideas, experiencias e investigaciones de diversas personas quienes abordan desde lógicas puntuales aspectos temáticos específicos en el marco de la Planificación Urbana en general y de las aplicaciones en Transporte en particular. Chile atraviesa por una oportunidad histórica, quizás paradójicamente, a partir de un evento de catástrofe ocurrido en Febrero del 2010; esta oportunidad es la de re-plantear el proceso de Planificación Urbana bajo los alcances del Desarrollo Sustentable.

  18. FACTORS RELATED TO TOTAL ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN OLDER ADULTS (CHILE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakozdi, Tamara; Leiva, Laura; Bunout, Daniel; Barrera, Gladys; de la Maza, María Pía; Henriquez, Sandra; Hirsch, Sandra

    2015-10-01

    Objetivo: evaluar el Gasto Energético Total (GET) en ancianos sanos que viven institucionalizados o independientes en Chile. Método: se evaluaron veintisiete jovenes (27-30 años), 27 adultos mayores institucionalizados (> 65 años ) y 27 ancianos independientes (> 65 años). Se midió la composición corporal utilizando absorciometría bifotónica de rayos X. Se calculó el gasto energético por actividad física (GEAF) y el gasto energético total (GET) utilizando acelerómetros Actiheart; se aplicó Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) y se midió el Timed Up and Go (TUG). Resultados: el GEAF fue 171, 320 y 497 kcal/día en ancianos institucionalizados, independientes y jóvenes, respectivamente (p.

  19. Lung cancer and arsenic concentrations in drinking water in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreccio, C; González, C; Milosavjlevic, V; Marshall, G; Sancha, A M; Smith, A H

    2000-11-01

    Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 microg/liter in drinking water in the period 1958-1970. Concentrations have since been reduced to 40 microg/liter. We investigated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital controls. The study identified 152 lung cancer cases and 419 controls. Participants were interviewed regarding drinking water sources, cigarette smoking, and other variables. Logistic regression analysis revealed a clear trend in lung cancer odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with increasing concentration of arsenic in drinking water, as follows: 1, 1.6 (95% CI = 0.5-5.3), 3.9 (95% CI = 1.2-12.3), 5.2 (95% CI = 2.3-11.7), and 8.9 (95% CI = 4.0-19.6), for arsenic concentrations ranging from less than 10 microg/liter to a 65-year average concentration of 200-400 microg/liter. There was evidence of synergy between cigarette smoking and ingestion of arsenic in drinking water; the odds ratio for lung cancer was 32.0 (95% CI = 7.2-198.0) among smokers exposed to more than 200 microg/liter of arsenic in drinking water (lifetime average) compared with nonsmokers exposed to less than 50 microg/liter. This study provides strong evidence that ingestion of inorganic arsenic is associated with human lung cancer.

  20. Anisakid parasites in commercial hake ceviche in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Frenzel, Pablo; Torres, Patricio

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the occurrence of anisakid nematode larvae in hake ceviche sold in restaurants in Valdivia (39°48'S, 73°14'W) and Niebla (39°49'S, 73°22'W), Chile. Between August and November 2012, 78 portions of ceviche were collected (6 from each of the 13 restaurants that sell this product). Each portion was weighed and divided into approximately 30-g samples, which were placed in petri dishes with 0.15 M NaCl. All samples were manually shredded and then examined with a stereomicroscope. Muscles of 41 southern hake (Merluccius australis), a fish sold fresh in Valdivia, also were examined by candling to determine the presence of anisakid larvae. The presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in ceviche sold in Chile was identified for the first time. The pH of ceviche ranges from 4.1 to 4.8, which favors the presence of viable anisakid larvae that tolerate the acid pH similar to that found in the stomach of their mammalian host. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in the prevalence, mean abundance, and mean density of anisakid larvae in ceviche were found between localities. Larvae were detected in ceviche from 3 of 6 restaurants in Valdivia and 4 of 7 restaurants in Niebla. Of the 78 examined portions of ceviche, 21.8% had larvae. The prevalence of viable larvae was 16.7 and 7.1% in the examined portions from Valdivia and Niebla, respectively. In the 41 hake muscle samples from Valdivia, the prevalence (4.9%), mean abundance (0.1), and mean density (0.03) was the same for Pseudoterranova and Anisakis larvae. No inspection processes or pretreatments are currently in place for raw fish to achieve safe conditions for ceviche in restaurants from Valdivia and Niebla.

  1. La isla de calor estival en Temuco, Chile

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    Alicia Capelli de Steffens

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Temuco es una ciudad localizada en el centro sur de Chile (38º 45’ S y 72º 40’ W. Morfológicamente, el sitio de la ciudad corresponde a las terrazas fluviales del río Cautín que se desarrollan en forma encajonada entre los cerros Ñielol (350 m y Conunhueno (360 m. Esta ciudad se ha desarrollado rápidamente en las últimas décadas, por lo tanto es necesario conocer el efecto antrópico en la misma. Para evaluar parte de ese efecto se analiza la isla de calor urbana estival en la ciudad de Temuco, Chile. Se efectuaron mediciones de temperatura del aire y humedad a través de la ciudad para determinar la forma y la intensidad de la isla de calor urbano. Se utilizaron estaciones móviles e información de una estación meteorológica fija. La ciudad presenta un comportamiento térmico diferente a lo largo del día. Durante el día genera una isla de calor que responde en líneas generales al modelo ideal de calentamiento urbano. La intensidad de la isla calórica (∆Tu-r fue 6.3ºC y 1.2ºC durante el día y la noche, respectivamente. La influencia de los cerros que limitan la ciudad es importante. El estudio confirma la idea que el clima urbano de una ciudad es un mosaico de microclimas que interactuan continuamente.

  2. Chile: todas íbamos a ser reinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mardones Z

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe los acontecimientos políticos del año 2006 marcados por la elección y asunción de Michelle Bachelet a la presidencia de Chile en marzo, y la muerte del ex dictador Augusto Pinochet en diciembre. Aunque el nuevo Gobierno prometía una altísima sintonía con la gente, y aunque el desempeño económico ha sido bueno, las instituciones políticas exhiben una creciente desafección ciudadana iniciada tempranamente con la movilización estudiantil secundaria, y una seguidilla de escándalos de corrupción. Una parte de estos problemas puede adjudicarse al propio Gobierno, incluida la débil conformación del gabinete de ministros; sin embargo, es el momento de la Concertación -coalición que lleva 17 años en el poder- lo que explica el mayor desgasteThe paper describes the political events of 2006, featuring the election and assumption of Michelle Bachelet as Chile's President in March, and the death of the former dictator Augusto Pinochet in December. Even though the new Government augured in tune with the citizenship, and despite good economic performance, the political institutions exhibit a growing distrust from citizens, which started early with demonstrations of high school students, and a rollover of corruption scandals. In part, these problems can be seen as the Government's own fault, including a weak cabinet of ministers. However, the main reason for most of the wear away is the current moment of the Concertación, the ruling coalition with 17 years in power

  3. XII congreso internacional de la vivienda/Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escorihuela, M. José

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development of the Xllth International Congress on Housing, held in Viña del Mar (Chile on March 1985, is summarized. Its central topic was: "New Construction and Financing Methods". The presented papers intended to bring technical, social and financial solutions to housing problems, specially in developing countries. Spanish participation include two works, one about the particular problem of the inner condensation in walls and another where it is showed a graphic method which allows to simplify of solar radiation in the diverse elements of a building, with the purpose to obtain a better use of this kind of energy, so as to reach a higher comfort in human habitat.En este artículo se resume el desarrollo del XII Congreso Internacional de la Vivienda, celebrado en Viña del Mar (Chile, en marzo de 1985, y que ha tenido como tema central: "Nuevos Métodos de Construcción y Financiamiento". Los trabajos presentados han tratado de dar soluciones técnicas, sociales y financieras al problema de la vivienda, especialmente en los países en desarrollo. La participación española ha consistido en dos trabajos, uno sobre la problemática concreta de las condensaciones en interiores de muros, y otro que expone un método gráfico que permite simplificar los procesos para adquirir mayor conocimiento de la radiación solar recibida sobre los distintos elementos de un edificio, con el fin de conseguir un mejor aprovechamiento de este tipo de energía y así obtener un mayor confort en el habitat humano.

  4. [Revista Médica de Chile in the year 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes B, Humberto; Bustos-González, Atilio; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaquín

    2013-08-01

    During the year 2012, 539 manuscripts were submitted to this journal, following an increasing trend in the recent decade. Rejection rate was 33%. This higher number of submissions demanded a larger number and wider scope of external reviews, retarding the editorial process. The mean time lapse from reception to acceptance (or rejection) was 6.3 months (range 2-14) and from acceptance to publication 5.3 months (range 3-7). Research articles were 43.9% of published manuscripts and the remaining articles were Reviews, Special Articles, Case Reports, articles on Medical Ethics, Medical Education, Evidence Based Medicine, Public Health, History of Medicine, Letters to the Editor and others. Thirty seven published manuscripts (14.6%) came from foreign countries and 9 of them were published with full text in English. The 2012 Impact Factor was 0.360, showing little variation from previous years, locating the journal in the upper part of quartil 4 in the ISI-JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal", while the SCImago Journal & Country Rank locates the Revista in quartil 2 of its category "Medicine (miscellaneous)". In contrast with the low citation rate, the number of visits to the open access electronic version in www.scielo.cl averages over 3 million visits per year, illustrating that the interest among readers outnumbers the country's expectable readership. Only 22% of articles declared to have received financial help from entities external to the institution where the work was performed, coming mainly from Chilean Governmental competitive funds. The aim of Revista Médica de Chile is to provide readers and authors a valuable source of information about current relevant topics in general and internal medicine, progress in related specialties and updates in basic sciences, rendering them available to Health professionals in Chile and worldwide, following international standards of ethical and scientific quality in medical publications.

  5. [Revista Médica de Chile in the year 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes B, Humberto; Bustos-González, Atilio; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaquín

    2013-08-01

    During the year 2012, 539 manuscripts were submitted to this journal, following an increasing trend in the recent decade. Rejection rate was 33%. This higher number of submissions demanded a larger number and wider scope of external reviews, retarding the editorial process. The mean time lapse from reception to acceptance (or rejection) was 6.3 months (range 2-14) and from acceptance to publication 5.3 months (range 3-7). Research articles were 43.9% of published manuscripts and the remaining articles were Reviews, Special Articles, Case Reports, articles on Medical Ethics, Medical Education, Evidence Based Medicine, Public Health, History of Medicine, Letters to the Editor and others. Thirty seven published manuscripts (14.6%) came from foreign countries and 9 of them were published with full text in English. The 2012 Impact Factor was 0.360, showing little variation from previous years, locating the journal in the upper part of quartil 4 in the ISI-JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal", while the SCImago Journal & Country Rank locates the Revista in quartil 2 of its category "Medicine (miscellaneous)". In contrast with the low citation rate, the number of visits to the open access electronic version in www.scielo.cl averages over 3 million visits per year, illustrating that the interest among readers outnumbers the country's expectable readership. Only 22% of articles declared to have received financial help from entities external to the institution where the work was performed, coming mainly from Chilean Governmental competitive funds. The aim of Revista Médica de Chile is to provide readers and authors a valuable source of information about current relevant topics in general and internal medicine, progress in related specialties and updates in basic sciences, rendering them available to Health professionals in Chile and worldwide, following international standards of ethical and scientific quality in medical publications. PMID:24448862

  6. When memory becomes heritage: Experiences from Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bianchini, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationships between memory politics and urban heritage in the construction of a twenty-first century democratic society. It focuses on the case of Chile and concentrates on three examples of public buildings in the capital city, Santiago. Given what can be considered a difficult heritage –linked to the recent experience of dictatorship and state sponsored violence– these buildings have been in recent years objects of heritage politics, directed to address a public memory related to those events. Based on these case studies, the article critically discusses the materialization of the dominant human rights discourse in the current memory politics affecting Santiago’s urban heritage.Este artículo aborda las relaciones entre políticas de memoria y patrimonio urbano en el proceso de construcción de una sociedad democrática del siglo XXI. El análisis se centra en el caso de Chile y presenta tres ejemplos de edificios públicos de la capital, Santiago. Los tres sitios representan lo que puede considerarse un patrimonio difícil –vinculado a una reciente experiencia de dictadura y violencia de Estado– y, por esta razón, han sido objeto, en años recientes, de políticas patrimoniales dirigidas a gestionar la memoria pública de esos eventos. A través de estos casos, el artículo analiza críticamente la materialización del discurso dominante de los derechos humanos en las actuales políticas de memoria que afectan al patrimonio urbano de Santiago.

  7. Variability in the clinical practice of maintaining the patency of peripheral intravenous catheters Variabilidad en la práctica clínica del mantenimiento de la permeabilidad de catéteres venosos periféricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cabrero

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish variations in clinical practice associated with maintaining the patency of peripheral intravenous catheters (PIC and to determine to what extent such clinical practice falls within the limits of the available scientific evidence, based on a random sample of Spanish public hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out in non-psychiatric public hospitals and their associated medical and surgical units. Cluster (hospitals, stratified (hospital size, and single-stage (all units sampling was applied. A questionnaire was mailed to all of the units involved. Results: A sample of 341 valid questionnaires was analysed (response rate 54.5%. Only one praxis-modality was carried out in the majority of units. Intermittent flushing and heparin saline versus normal saline was the most frequent modality employed, over those of continuous flushing and non-heparinised saline. There was a high degree of variation in the quantity of heparin administered: 81.7% when flushing was carried out with heparinised saline and 48.2% when it was conducted with concentrated heparin. About 40% of this variation was associated with the hospital in question, rather than with the unit. The clinical practice fell within the limits of available scientific evidence in fewer than half of the units studied. Conclusions: There was a high degree of variability in the practice of maintaining PIC patency. A significant part of this variation was attributable to the hospital in which the practice was carried out. Moreover, most of this practice was carried out beyond the limits of available scientific evidence.Objetivo: Determinar la variabilidad de la práctica clínica en el mantenimiento de la permeabilidad de los catéteres venosos periféricos en una muestra aleatoria de hospitales españoles y determinar en qué medida esta práctica se realiza dentro del rango de la evidencia disponible. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo y transversal.

  8. Regulating self-selection into private health insurance in Chile and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Méndez, Claudio A

    2016-07-01

    In the 1980s, Chile adopted a mixed (public and private) model for health insurance coverage similar to the one recently outlined by the Affordable Care Act in the United States (US). In such a system, a mix of public and private health plans offer nearly universal coverage using a combined approach of managed competition and subsidies for low-income individuals. This paper uses a "most different" case study design to compare policies implemented in Chile and the US to address self-selection into private insurance. We argue that the implementation of a mixed health insurance system in Chile without the appropriate regulations was complex, and it generated a series of inequities and perverse incentives. The comparison of Chile and the US healthcare reforms examines the different approaches that both countries have used to manage economic competition, address health insurance self-selection and promote solidarity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27523039

  9. Panorama de las bibliotecas de museo de la Región Metropolitana de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Funes Neira, Catherine; Carrillo Reyes, Andrea; Herrera Soriano, Daniela; Heredia Farías, Constanza

    2013-01-01

    Exploratory study on the situation of the 16 museum libraries of the Metropolitan Region of Chile which comprehends aspects as management, staff, users, technology infrastructure, collections, products and services, networking,promotion, website and future projects.

  10. CCPIT Successfully Signed Preferential Certificate of under the China-Chile Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On March 1, 2010,China and Chile signed China-Peru Free Trade Agreement. in Beijing.After the two countries completing the domestic legal procedures, this agreement has been fully implemented since March 1, 2010.

  11. The Press Conference for the 7th China Auto International (Chile & Peru) Exhibition Tour Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On September 9,2009,the press conference and the flag presentation cercmony of the 7th China Auto International (Chile & Peru) Exhibition Tour (CAIET) was held at the auditorium of China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT).

  12. Dasybasis elquiensis, a new species of horse fly from Northern Chile (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Christian R

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The female of Dasybasis elquiensis, new species, is described and illustrated from specimens collected in Paso La Ternera, Elqui Province, north Chile. Its relationships to other Dasybasis species are discussed.

  13. Dengue-1 Virus Isolation during First Dengue Fever Outbreak on Easter Island, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Perret, Cecilia; Abarca, Katia; Ovalle, Jimena; Ferrer, Pablo; Godoy, Paula; Olea, Andrea; Aguilera, Ximena; Ferrés, Marcela

    2003-01-01

    Dengue virus was detected for the first time in Chile, in an outbreak of dengue fever on Easter Island. The virus was isolated in tissue culture and characterized by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction as being dengue type 1.

  14. Assessment of unconventional tight-gas resources of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2016-01-20

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed a technically recoverable mean resource of 8.3 trillion cubic feet of unconventional tight gas in the Zona Glauconitica of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile.

  15. Reporte del primer hallazgo de puma (Puma concolor puma infectado con Trichinella sp. en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hidalgo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, Trichinella spiralis es la única especie que ha sido identificada en Chile como agente de la trichinellosis, tanto en hospedadores domésticos como silvestres. Estudios preliminares no han identificado aún la infección por Trichinella en animales nativos de Chile. La presente comunicación, informa del primer hallazgo de Trichinella sp. aislado en musculatura diafragmática e intercostales de un ejemplar de Puma (Puma concolor puma encontrado muerto mediante seguimiento por telemetría en el sector cordillerano de la Región de La Araucanía, Chile. El diagnóstico se realizó mediante triquinoscopía y digestión artificial. Este hallazgo confirma la existencia de Trichinella sp. en carnívoros nativos de Chile.

  16. Vervoortihelcon, a new genus of the subfamily Helconinae Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1998-01-01

    A new genus of the tribe Helconini Foerster (Braconidae: Helconinae), Vervoortihelcon (type species: Vervoortihelcon scaramozzinoi spec, nov.) from Chile is described and illustrated. The new subtribe Vervoortihelconina is named to include the new genus.

  17. Using indicators and models for an ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture management: the anchovy fishery and Pacific oyster culture in Chile: case studies Aplicación de indicadores y modelos para un enfoque ecosistémico de la pesca y la acuicultura: pesquería de anchoveta y cultivo de ostra del Pacífico en Chile: casos de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study illustrate the use of indicators and models to support the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries and Aquaculture management using two case studies in Chile: prediction of environmental variability effects upon anchovy (Engraulis ringens fishery of northern Chile and prediction of suitable sites and carrying capacity of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas culture using FARM and geographic information system (GIS models in the Valdivia estuary. A three stage approach was applied: Stage 1 considers spatiotemporal ecosystem indicators (fisheries, aquaculture, environmental, and regulatory, Stage 2 uses statistical relationships between indicators, GIS, and other simulation models (e.g., artificial neural networks and FARM of environment-resources interaction, and Stage 3 is the analysis and validation of models outputs. The methodology illustrates how indicators and models may be used to assist decision-makers in developing an ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture. The application of these approaches provides an integrative methodology for abundance prediction of anchovy and site selection for shellfish aquaculture, despite limitations in the available data.Este trabajo muestra el uso de indicadores y modelos para apoyar la aplicación del enfoque ecosistémico en la gestión de la pesca y la acuicultura, mediante dos casos de estudios en Chile: predicción de los efectos de la variabilidad ambiental en la pesquería de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens en la zona norte de Chile y la predicción de sitios aptos y capacidad de carga para el cultivo de la ostra del Pacífico (Crassostrea gigas en el estuario de Valdivia. Se aplicó un enfoque metodológico de tres etapas: etapa 1 considera indicadores espacio-temporales del ecosistema (pesca, acuicultura, medio ambiente y legislación; etapa 2 utiliza relaciones estadísticas entre los indicadores, funciones de SIG (Sistemas de Información Geográfica, y otros modelos de simulación (Redes

  18. Credit constraints in rural financial markets in Chile: determinants and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, A.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from two surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008 on 177 farmers in Chile, this study measures access to credit and empirically determine the effects of credit constraints on investment and production for market-oriented farmers in central Chile. More specifically, four issues are dealt with: (1) to identify the main factors that influence access to credit for market-oriented farmers, (2) to determine whether informal financial institutions act as complements to or substitutes for farm...

  19. Avance para una Arqueología del Capitalismo en Chile (1880-1930)

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes M., Miguel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a brief story about the initial development of the capitalism in Chile emphasizing on the structural conditions that would have given as a result new social and political actors (industrial bourgeoisie and proletariat). This process should have been the basis if a deep reconfiguration of the economy, social relationship, politics and culture in Chile during the beginning or the XX century. Following in that direction we express the necessity of the elaboration of an interp...

  20. Movilidad ocupacional en Chile 2001-2009. ¿Desigualdad de ingresos con igualdad de oportunidades?

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Vicente; Núñez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The paper compares the regimes of intergenerational occupational mobility in Chile between 2001 and 2009. Data for the study considers published mobility tables for 2001 as well as original data for 2009 from the National Survey of Social Stratification (ENES). The analysis of mobility patterns replicates the constant fluidity model proposed by Erikson and Goldthorpe (1992), considering also special parameters for Chile as proposed by Torche (2005). His depiction of Chilean society as “unequa...

  1. Draft Genome Sequences of 33 Salmonella enterica Clinical and Wildlife Isolates from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Toro, Magaly; Retamal, Patricio; Allard, Marc; Brown, Eric W.; Evans, Peter; Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica causes health problem worldwide. The relationships among strains that are from the same serotype but different hosts, countries, and continents remain elusive. Few genome sequences are available from S. enterica isolates from South America. Therefore, we sequenced the genomes of 33 strains from diverse sources isolated in Chile and determined that they were of different serotypes. These genomes will improve phylogenetic analysis of Salmonella strains from Chile and the res...

  2. Comunitarización competitiva: auge de la iglesia metodista pentecostal de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Donoso

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the mechanisms of statistical growth of the Pentecostal Methodist Church of Chile, through an institutional analysis approach. This is the largest and the oldest evangelical church in this country.Through emphasis on the combination of inter-ecclesiastical and contextual factors, the article explains the success of this church, which has enabled it to play a leading role in the articulation the main body of Protestantism in Chile and in the establishment of relationships...

  3. Protection of Existing and Potential Astronomical Sites in Chile - an Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. G.; Sanhueza, P.; Norman, D.; Schwarz, H.; Orellana, D.

    2002-12-01

    The IAU's Working Group on Controlling Light Pollution (iauwg) has declared Mauna Kea and a wide strip of Northern Chile between Antofagasta and Chajnanator as top priorities for its efforts to protect existing and potential sites in the Northern and Southern hemispheres respectively. This report provides an update on the iauwg's co-ordinated efforts to protect areas around the major international optical observatories in Chile, as well as the "Chilean Special Zone" (CSZ) mentioned above. This zone is of current and potential interest for the installation of extremely large optical telescopes and includes the ALMA radio-astronomy site. The CSZ is potentially vulnerable to adverse effects of mining in the region. Progess has been made in demonstrating to local mining interests within the CSZ the economic advantages of quality lighting. Educational and outreach activities to a variety of target audiences are building on legislation covering dark skies - itself part of work by the Chilean government to protect the natural heritage of Chile. Substantial good will was generated by an international, bilingual conference held last March in Chile. Just in the region around AURA's Observatory in Chile (Gemini South, CTIO and SOAR), a portable planetarium has been used to reach out to over 600 teachers and 65,000 pupils in the RedLaSer schools network within the last three years. This has attracted the direct interest of Chile's Ministry of Education. Videoconferencing over Internet2 is being used for educational purposes between Chile and various sites in the US. The NSF- initiated Mamalluca municipal observatory now receives more visitors than all the international observatories in Chile combined and is the focus of an expanding local industry of astronomical eco-tourism. Most of this work was supported by funding from, or via, the US NSF through CTIO and Gemini, and from ESO, OCIW, CONAMA and the IDA.

  4. Testing for Changes in Crustal Velocity at the Tocopilla Earthquake, Northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Eulenfeld [Richter; Günter Asch; Rainer Kind

    2011-01-01

    We use two different techniques to investigate the region between Antofagasta and Arica in northern Chile for crustal velocity changes. Data are taken from the 19 broadband stations of the IPOC project (Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile) operating partly since 2006 by GFZ and Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP). In the neighborhood of the seismic stations an M7.0 earthquake occurred near Tocopilla on 14 November 2007. Other studies have shown that in the course of such ear...

  5. "Women's Obligation to Motherhood" : A discourse analysis of the anti-abortion debate in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Köhlmark, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The objective with this study is to locate discourses within the anti-abortion debate in Chile and analyze these. The discourses will be contextualized with a historical perspective and the pro- abortion arguments. Based upon what was encountered during research, two themes selected were The Right to Motherhood and The Right to Life. The two themes were analyzed from a power, gender, class, body and normative lifeline perspective. The conclusion was that the anti- abortion debate in Chile is ...

  6. Is Chile Complying with its Light Pollution Regulations? A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. G.; Sanhueza, P.; Schwarz, H. E.; Walker, A. R.

    2005-12-01

    Monte Patria is the first Municipality in Chile to comply fully with Supreme Decree 686, the Chilean, environmentally-based legislation governing exterior lighting in Northern Chile - the "norma luminica". "Before" and "after" photographs of Monte Patria were published in last June's issue of "Physics Today", in the context of the global effort to control light pollution. Some photographs of other Chilean towns have been obtained for this poster and for display at the International Dark Sky Association's stand at this meeting. Highlights include detailed midnight and dawn panoramas taken by us during October, 2005 - the month in which the six-year "grace period" for all external lighting in northern Chile's astronomically-sensitive 2nd, 3rd and 4th Regions was supposed to come into full compliance. It is clear that significant progress is being made. The chief obstacle has been financial. Large-scale changeout of street lighting requires an outlay of many millions of dollars from cash-strapped municipalities. Chile's central government has moved in to provide financing at the 80-100/% level in many cases. Once Chile's congressional elections are over, we will be able to judge the political will to complete the changeover. Various large mining operations are currently engaged in major lighting changeovers; such changes are especially important in the various mines that are directly visible from existing major observatories in Northern Chile. The importance to astronomy is that full compliance with DS686 will, on average, extend the potential useful life of all the major optical observatories in Northern Chile by several decades. Funding for the Office for the Protection of the Quality of the Skies of Chile (OPCC) is provided by the Chilean National Environment Committee (CONAMA), NOAO, Gemini, ESO and the Las Campanas Observatory of the Carnegie Institute of Washington.

  7. Santiago de Chile, ¿ejemplo de una reestructuración capitalista global?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Términos como "ciudad global", "ciudad difusa", "ciudad dual", entre otros, merecen ser rediscutidos y contrastados con el proceso de transformaciones experimentado por Santiago de Chile producto de la reestructuración capitalista. En este sentido, este trabajo pretende discutir acerca de la conveniencia de otorgar a la capital de Chile éstos y otros adjetivos frecuentemente utilizados en la literatura urbanística internacional.

  8. Material flow accounting in Chile, Ecuador, Mexico and Peru (1980-2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Russi, Daniela; González Martínez, Ana Citlalic; Silva-Macher, José Carlos; Giljum, Stefan; MARTÍNEZ ALIER, Joan; Vallejo, María Cristina

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we compare the resource flows of Chile, Ecuador, Mexico and Peru between 1980 and 2000. In this time span, the domestic extraction of materials increased in the four countries, mainly due to the mining sector in Chile and Peru, biomass and oil in Ecuador and construction minerals in Mexico. Imports and exports increased too, due to the increasing integration in the international markets, prompted by the liberalization policies undertaken by the four countries between the late 19...

  9. On the Quality of Private and Public Education: the Case of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Juan-Pedro Garces

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, we intend to measure the contribution of different factors within the educational system that affect the quality of education. The purpose is to compare, in a completely dispassionate way, the academic achievements of public and private schools (mainly at the secondary level) in one country: Chile. We take Chile because it has the most extensive (voucher-type) program for subsidizing private education and because it has a fairly wide and accessible amount of data. Amongst other...

  10. Indicator based sustainability analysis of future energy situation of Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Stelzer, Volker; Quintero, Adriana; Vargas, Luis; Paredes, Gonzalo; Simon, Sonja; Nienhaus, Kristina; Kopfmüller, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Up to now, the Chilean Energy system has fulfilled the energy needs of Santiago de Chile considerably well. However, development trends of the current system impose significant future risks on the energy system. A detailed sustainability analysis of the energy sector of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago de Chile was conducted, using selected energy indicators and a distance-to-target approach. Risks for the sustainable development of the energy sector are detected, such...

  11. Exploración de la variabilidad genética del maracuyá (passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa degener) como base para un programa de fitomejoramiento en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    John Ocampo; Ramiro Urrea; Kris Wyckhuys; Mauricio Salazar

    2014-01-01

    El maracuyá es uno de los principales frutales del Neotrópico y en Colombia existen cerca de 6000 ha cultivadas con esta fruta, con una producción de 90,000 t/año. No obstante este potencial, los cultivos presentan graves problemas fitosanitarios y degeneración genética, lo que se manifiesta por una reducción de la vida útil de la plantación. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el grado de variabilidad genética del maracuyá cultivado en Colombia como base para un programa de fitomej...

  12. Variabilidad genética según RAPD de árboles de guayabo 'Media China' procedentes de cuatro plantaciones y su respuesta morfológica a baja disponibilidad de nutrimentos

    OpenAIRE

    J. L. Domínguez Álvarez; R. Nieto-Ángel; A. F. Barrientos- Priego; J. P. Legaria-Solano; J. Pineda-Pineda

    2005-01-01

    En la presente investigación se evaluó la variabilidad molecular y morfológica mediante marcadores tipo RAPD’s (Polimorfismos en el ADN Amplificados al Azar), de plantas de guayabo (Psidium guajava L.) ‘Media China’ derivadas de semilla y sometidas a baja disponibilidad de Fe y Zn. Se establecieron asociaciones entre diecisiete caracteres morfológicos y 49 loci RAPD’s y la respuesta de las plantas al estrés nutrimental, mediante análisis de agrupamiento empleando el NTSYS, DARwin y #967;2. E...

  13. Modelación del efecto de la variabilidad de las precipitaciones en los términos del balance hídrico de un suelo Ferralítico Rojo

    OpenAIRE

    Hanoi Medina González; Jorge García Coronado; María E. Ruiz Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Se ilustra una metodología para evaluar el efecto de posibles cambios del régimen de precipitaciones en el balance hídrico de un suelo Ferralítico Rojo sembrado con papa bajo riego en la provincia Mayabeque. Para ello se crean escenarios de variabilidad en la frecuencia e intensidad de las precipitaciones y se evalúa el efecto de éstos en la respuesta de un modelo de simulación en términos del número de riegos para mantener el suelo por encima de un nivel umbral de humedad y el agua percolada...

  14. Variabilidad morfológica y crecimiento corporal de cuatro poblaciones de Crocodylus moreletii en cautiverio Morphological variability and body growth on four populations of Crocodylus moreletii in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Serna-Lagunes; J. Jaime Zúñiga-Vega; Pablo Díaz-Rivera; Fernando Clemente-Sánchez; Arturo Pérez-Vázquez; Juan L. Reta-Mendiola

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la variabilidad morfológica y el crecimiento corporal de 4 poblaciones del cocodrilo de pantano (Crocodylus moreletii) que se encuentran en la Unidad de Manejo para la Conservación de la Vida Silvestre Cacahuatal ubicada en el estado de Veracruz, México. Se compararon 4 poblaciones: 2 poblaciones cuyos individuos nacieron en vida silvestre y 2 que nacieron en cautiverio. Los rasgos morfológicos estudiados fueron similares entre poblaciones y entre sexos. La...

  15. RED DE ÁREAS PRIORITARIAS PARA LA CONSERVACIÓN DE LA BIODIVERSIDAD DEL EJE VOLCÁNICO TRANSMEXICANO ANALIZANDO SU RIQUEZA FLORÍSTICA Y VARIABILIDAD CLIMÁTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Marío Ernesto Suárez-Mota; Oswaldo Téllez-Valdés

    2014-01-01

    El Eje Volcánico Transversal de México (EVT) es la zona donde se sobreponen las regiones Neártica y Neotropical, lo que ha contribuido para que ésta sea una de las zonas donde se concentra la mayor riqueza biológica del país. Con base en la riqueza florística (4 055 especies de plantas con semillas) de esta zona, los tipos de vegetación y variabilidad climática que la componen, se definen escenarios para definir redes de áreas prioritarias de conservación. Haciendo análisis de complementaried...

  16. Análisis de la variabilidad de la temperatura del aire en regiones de Colombia bajo la influencia de la oscilación Madden - Julian durante los años 1978 - 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadros Rubio, Nicolás

    2011-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se analizó la relación entre la variabilidad de la Oscilación de Madden-Julian (MJO) y las variaciones de las temperaturas extremas durante los años 1978-2008 en las regiones de Colombia. Inicialmente se estudió el comportamiento de las temperaturas superficiales máximas y mínimas pentadales relativas en 59 estaciones meteorológicas distribuidas a lo largo de la superficie colombiana, seleccionadas a partir de las 23 regiones climaticas establecidas. Así mismo se analiz...

  17. Variabilidade horizontal da fertilidade do solo de uma unidade de amostragem em sistema plantio direto Horizontal variability of soil fertility in a sampling unit under no-till system

    OpenAIRE

    V. H. Alvarez V.; A. Guarçoni M.

    2003-01-01

    A coleta de amostras de solo com trado é mais simples e rápida do que com a pá de corte, sendo esta, freqüentemente, utilizada no sistema plantio direto para amostragem e determinação da fertilidade média do solo. Com o objetivo de comparar dois sistemas de amostragem localizada do solo (pá de corte ou trado de caneca) quanto à variabilidade horizontal de características químicas, determinar o número de unidades de amostra necessário à formação de uma amostra representativa da unidade de amos...

  18. Cuantificación de la recurrencia en el estudio de la variabilidad del ritmo cardiaco y la duración del ciclo respiratorio en pacientes en proceso de extubación

    OpenAIRE

    Arcentales, Andrés; Giraldo Giraldo, Beatriz; Caminal Magrans, Pere; Benito Vales, Salvador; Voss, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    El sistema nervioso autónomo regula el comportamiento de los sistemas cardiaco y respiratorio. Su evaluación durante la retirada de la ventilación mecánica puede proporcionar información sobre el comportamiento cardiorespiratorio de los pacientes. Este trabajo propone el análisis de la variabilidad del ritmo cardiaco (HRV) y la duración del ciclo respiratorio (TTot) aplicando la técnica ‘Recurrence Plot (RP)’ y su interacción ‘Joint Recurrence Plot (JRP)’. Se han analizado 131 pac...

  19. Variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos do solo sob cafeeiro Conilon: relação com textura, matéria orgânica e relevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Lang Burak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atributos químicos do solo têm relação com outros atributos, inclusive os geomorfológicos, constituindo fatores que controlam sua variabilidade espacial. Dentro desta premissa, delineou-se o objetivo deste trabalho: avaliar a variabilidade dos atributos químicos do solo e sua inter-relação com as frações granulométricas e componentes da matéria orgânica do solo, contextualizando a influência do relevo, utilizando-se a geoestatística e a análise de componentes principais (ACP. A variabilidade espacial dos atributos químicos em menor profundidade foi mais influenciada pelo relevo. Pela ACP, atributos relacionados com a reação do solo (pH, Ca, Mg, Al, m e V contribuíram com o primeiro componente principal (CP1 nas duas profundidades. Contudo, somente o CP1 na profundidade de 0,0 - 0,1 m foi correlacionado com o relevo: maiores altitudes e menores declividades favoreceram o maior teor da fração argila e menor teor de areia grossa, aumentando a retenção de cátions básicos no solo. Substâncias húmicas da matéria orgânica tiveram fraca influência na variabilidade dos atributos químicos, ressalvando a maior relação entre Ca e Mg com ácidos húmicos em locais de textura mais arenosa. Zonas homogêneas e correlatas com atributos geomorfológicos nas duas profundidades foram melhores obtidas para os teores de K, em comparação aos demais atributos. Dessa forma, o uso da análise espacial para segmentação da paisagem em regiões homogêneas visando otimizar o manejo da adubação depende não somente da topografia, mas também dos atributos químicos e da profundidade de amostragem.

  20. Market Brief : The electric power equipment and services market in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents some quick facts about the electric power equipment and services market in Chile and presents opportunities for trade. Chile, a net importer of energy, is seeking foreign participation in its electric power industry, with no restrictions on equipment imports. Chile currently imports most of its oil and gas from Argentina, but more than half of its electricity production is from hydro sources. Operators in the fully privatised electric power sector are separated into 31 power generation companies, 5 transmission companies and 36 power distributors. Chile has 5 gas pipelines, 1 oil pipeline and a power line. The key players and customers in the oil and gas sector were described along with an export check list. Power demand is expected to grow by about 5 per cent annually over the medium term. This will create a demand for more than 500 megawatts of new capacity each year. The greatest opportunity lies in the development of turbines, transformers, generators and switching gear. Competition is stiff as several top international manufacturers of electric power equipment are represented in Chile. Local manufacturers are mostly interested in power distribution equipment. Currently the major end-users are industrial users, particularly the mining industry. Imports from Canada are duty free and will be phased out under the Canada-Chile Free Trade Agreement. A list of key contacts and support services is included with this report. refs., tabs., figs