WorldWideScience

Sample records for chile lecciones aprendidas

  1. Capital semilla para el financiamiento de las nuevas empresas: Avances y lecciones aprendidas en América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Germán Echecopar; Pablo Angelelli; Gastón Galleguillos; Marina Schorr

    2006-01-01

    El presente informe examina los avances y lecciones aprendidas en Argentina, Chile, Colombia, El Salvador y Perú en cuanto a capital semilla para el financiamiento de nuevas empresas con alto potencial de crecimiento (NEAPC). Luego de realizar un inventario de los instrumentos financieros públicos y privados para apoyar a los negocios de rápido crecimiento, el trabajo se concentra en cuatro casos de Chile y Colombia que, por su antigüedad y variedad, ofrecen una interesante oportunidad de apr...

  2. 75 lecciones aprendidas en programas de alfabetización informacional en universidades iberoamericanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Tirado, Alejandro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide a systemized and organized presentation of the lessons learned from the most representative programs of Information Literacy in Ibero-American universities. A model was applied to capture lessons learned based on the triangulation of different sources of information and research methods (analysis of literature and websites, interviews, surveys, etc.... This resulted in the identification of 75 lessons learned, categorized by four main components, that can serve as a guide to be used by Ibero-American universities that have already initiated the design and implementation of training programs in Information Literacy, as well as those just beginning this process.El objetivo de este artículo es ofrecer una sistematización y organización de las lecciones aprendidas desde los programas más representativos de Alfabetización Informacional –ALFIN– en universidades iberoamericanas. Tras la aplicación de un modelo de captura de lecciones aprendidas basado en la triangulación de diferentes fuentes de información y métodos de investigación (análisis de la literatura y sitios web, entrevistas, encuestas, etc., se ofrece como resultado las 75 lecciones aprendidas identificadas, categorizadas según cuatro grandes componentes, para que a modo de guía puedan ser utilizadas por las universidades iberoamericanas iniciadas y/o principiantes en el diseño de sus programas de formación en Alfabetización Informacional.

  3. Lecciones aprendidas del TLCAN y su relevancia con respecto a Centroamérica

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Studer

    2005-01-01

    Esta es la última versión disponible de "Lecciones aprendidas del TLCAN y su relevancia con respecto a Centroamérica". El objetivo general de este documento es evaluar la experiencia mexicana de la última década en el desarrollo de la capacidad en materia ambiental en el contexto del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN). Aborda tres aspectos: el desarrollo institucional de México, una evaluación de la contribución de la CCA al desarrollo de la capacidad ambiental en México y...

  4. El terremoto de Nicoya, lecciones aprendidas y por aprender : sistematización de las conclusiones de los talleres de lecciones aprendidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Gordo, Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Las emergencias y desastres, junto a su potencial destructivo y la alteración de las condiciones de vida de las poblaciones y territorios en los cuales impactan, traen consigo un aprendizaje que merece ser rescatado y asimilado para reducir las vulnerabilidades. Durante los últimos 20 años, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS/OMS realiza esfuerzos de sistematización de las lecciones aprendidas que han dejado en eventos en diferentes países de la región, a fin de reflexionar sobre aquellos aspectos de la atención de la emergencia y de la respuesta a los desastres que se pueden mejorar y en los cuales se puede aumentar la capacidad de preparación y respuesta de los países para hacer frente a estas situaciones. Tras el terremoto de Nicoya, ocurrido en Costa Rica en septiembre de 2012, la OPS/OMS, en coordinación con la Comisión Nacional de Prevención de Riesgos y Atención de Emergencias (CNE, el Ministerio de Salud y la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, realizó una serie de talleres con funcionarios e instituciones vinculadas a la respuesta al terremoto, a fin de extraer las principales lecciones aprendidas y por aprender. Como parte de ese esfuerzo se publicó el documento Terremoto de Nicoya. Costa Rica. 5 de septiembre de 2012. Informe de sistematización de las conclusiones de los talleres de lecciones aprendidas, de cuyos principales hallazgos se incluyen en este artículo Emergencies and disasters, together with their potential for destruction and the alteration of the living conditions of the populations and territories they impact, are important sources of learning that deserves to be rescued and assimilated to reduce vulnerabilities. During the last 20 years, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO has developed an important effort to systematize the lessons learned from these events in different countries of the region in order to think about those aspects related to the attention of the emergency

  5. Descubrimiento de conocimiento en lecciones aprendidas documentadas en los procesos de cierre de proyectos informáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Bárbara Ril Valentín

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La documentación de lecciones aprendidas permite visualizar los errores del pasado y mejorar el trabajo futuro. Aprender de la experiencia de proyectos anteriores contribuye a disminuir los riesgos, evitar problemas ya identificados y reutilizar las buenas prácticas para reducir el número de proyectos no exitosos. El objetivo de esta investigación es descubrir conocimiento a partir de la aplicación de árboles de decisión y tablas de contingencia en lecciones aprendidas documentadas en los procesos de cierre de proyectos informáticos, para aumentar el conocimiento respecto a la identificación de buenas prácticas y posibles problemas, así como la asociación entre buenas prácticas y problemas en la ejecución de los proyectos. Finalmente, se exponen los resultados derivados de la aplicación de árboles de decisión y tablas de contingencia a las lecciones aprendidas documentadas en 48 proyectos informáticos en proceso de cierre.

  6. Transparencia en los modelos de contratación asociación público-privada (APP): Lecciones aprendidas en México

    OpenAIRE

    Derek Woodhouse

    2009-01-01

    Presentación expuesta durante el seminario "Desarrollo de Infraestructura para un Crecimiento Económico Sostenible. Lecciones Aprendidas de la Experiencia Española", llevado a cabo en Madrid, España, en octubre 2009. La contratación pública se ha identificado como la actividad gubernamental más vulnerable a la corrupción. Para atraer la participación del sector privado en condiciones competitivas es necesario que exista confianza respecto a las reglas del juego y a su aplicación. Esta present...

  7. Lecciones aprendidas en la construcción de un lexicón de patrones de análisis de dominio

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón Castro, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Como resultado preliminar del análisis de patrones del dominio de sistemas de información empresarial, se describen ocho lecciones aprendidas par a la creación de un lenguaje de patrones de análisis de dominio y su representación mediante un lexicón de patrones de análisis de dominio. Estas pautas metodológicas se han obtenido al organizar conocimiento de un dominio para usos didácticos.

  8. Fitomejoramiento participativo del arroz de secano en Nicaragua: metodologías,resultados y lecciones aprendidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Trouche

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En varias regiones de Nicaragua, el cultivo de arroz de secano asume un papel importante para la seguridad alimenticia de las familias campesinas, además es fuente de ingresos para éstas. Apartir del 2002, el CIRAD y el CIAT implementan en colaboración en Nicaragua un proyecto de investigación en fitomejoramiento participativo del arroz de secano dirigido a los pequeños y medianos productores.Este proyecto esta manejado en asociación con la Institución Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria, varias ONGs e instituciones de extensión y organizaciones campesinas locales. En este trabajo, se describen la metodología general aplicada en el proyecto, los actores involucrados y los marcos de concertación entre los socios, las estrategias y métodos de evaluación y selección participativa aplicados y los principales resultados obtenidos al final de tres años. Esta experiencia deriva lecciones, con respecto al manejo de un proyecto de investigación asociando estrechamente fitomejoradores y productores, la selección de los socios, los métodos de trabajo, las competencias adquiridas por los actores y la diversidad genética explorada y valorizada, las que podrían ser utilizadas en la implementación de otros proyectos en este tema. Para la continuación del proyecto, los cambios de escala (scalingup, la organización de una producción descentralizada de semilla de calidad, el desarrollo de investigaciones en agronomía y la creación de un sistema permanente de evaluación y selección del arroz, reuniendo todos los actores de la cadena productiva, son los mayores retos

  9. Lecciones aprendidas en el control de Aedes aegypti para afrontar el dengue y la emergencia de chikungunya en Iquitos, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalin Vilcarromero

    Full Text Available El dengue ha afectado a Iquitos desde 1990 causando varios brotes de gran impacto en la salud pública y por el que se desplegaron grandes esfuerzos para su control temporal. Actualmente, ante la expansión del virus chikungunya en las Américas y la amenaza de la emergencia del virus en Iquitos, reflexionamos a modo de lecciones aprendidas las actividades emprendidas en el área del control vectorial; la vigilancia epidemiológica; el diagnóstico y el manejo clínico durante los periodos de brotes de dengue, de modo que nos permita enfrentar mejor la amenaza de un brote del virus chikunguña en la ciudad más grande de la Amazonía peruana.

  10. Hacia la excelencia en la gerencia de proyectos a través del proceso de lecciones aprendidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Díaz Niño

    2016-01-01

    Este artigo descreve e propõe um processo padrão de lições aprendidas no âmbito da moderna gestão de projetos, com base em uma revisão da literatura nacional e internacional e da situação da execução do processo em 8 organizações dentro do setor de hidrocarbonetos na Colômbia. Está sub-sector é um dos mais representativos, não só economicamente, mas como um líder na titularidade das boas práticas de gerenciamento de projeto moderno. Como resultado da análise qualitativa, realizada através de entrevistas e pesquisas, processamento, caracterização, fluxo de processo e interação de entradas, saídas e as técnicas de identificação, documentação, análise e aplicação das lições aprendidas é proposto, que visa contribuir para o crescimento e competitividade do sector e melhorar a eficácia dos processos, utilizando as experiências de aprendizagem baseado.

  11. Sobrevivendo a un tsunami: lecciones de Chile, Hawai y Japon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compilado por Atwater, Brian F.; Cisternas V., Marco; Bourgeois, Joanne; Dudley, Walter C.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    Este folleto contiene historias veridicas que ilustran como sobrevivir, y como no sobrevivir, a un tsunami. Esta publicacion esta dirigida a las personas que viven, trabajan o, simplemente, se divierten a lo largo de las costas que pueden ser afectadas por un tsunami. Tales costas rodean la mayor parte del Oceano Pacifico pero tambien incluyen algunas areas costeras de los Oceanos Atlantico e Indico. Aunque mucha gente llama a los tsunamis 'olas de marea', estos no estan relacionados a las mareas, sino son una serie de olas, o 'tren de olas', generalmente causadas por cambios en el nivel del fondo marino durante los terremotos. Los tsunamis tambien pueden ser generados por la erupcion de volcanes costeros, islas volconicas, deslizamientos submarinos e impactos de grandes meteoritos en el mar. Como sucedio en Sumatra en el 2004, los tsunamis pueden alcanzar alturas de 15 metros, no tan solo en la costa sino tambien kilometros tierra adentro. Los relatos presentados en este folleto fueron seleccionados de entrevistas realizadas a personas que sobrevivieron al tsunami del Oceano Pacifico de 1960. Muchas de estas personas, incluyendo a la enfermera de la foto, se enfrento a las olas generadas a poca distancia, en la costa chilena. En cambio, otros debieron hacer frente al tsunami muchas horas despues, en Hawai y Japon. La mayoria de las entrevistas fueron realizadas a fines de los anos ochenta y en los noventa. Las historias ofrecen una mezcla de lecciones de supervivencia a un tsunami. En algunos casos se presentan las acciones que confiablemente salvaron vidas: poner atencion a los avisos de la naturaleza, abandonar los bienes, dirigirse rapidamente a un sector alto y permanecer alli hasta que el tsunami realmente haya terminado. Otras historias describen como se encontro refugio al subir a construcciones y arboles o flotar sobre desechos, tacticas que tuvieron diferentes resultados y que pueden ser recomendadas solo como actos desesperados de personas atrapadas en

  12. Lecciones aprendidas en la provisión de medicamentos para la atención primaria de la salud Lessons learned from drug supplies for primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Tobar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En las reformas de salud que se llevaron a cabo en América Latina, la provisión de medicamentos no adquirió protagonismo. Cuando fue incluida, se dio prioridad a los medicamentos para internación, así como para enfermedades de baja prevalencia y alto costo. Sin embargo, en los últimos años un conjunto de programas han realizado innovaciones en la gestión de suministros para el primer nivel de atención. Aquí se abordan estas experiencias en América Latina, primero analizándolas a través de cuatro momentos del ciclo de gestión de medicamentos: selección, compra, distribución y utilización. Después, se busca identificar las lecciones aprendidas y las condiciones de un buen sistema de provisión. Las conclusiones destacan experiencias que lograron no sólo disponibilidad a costos bajos, sino también aumentos en la productividad y resolutividad del primer nivel, además de mejoras en la prescripción y el fortalecimiento del funcionamiento en red.Drug supply strategies have not been widely included in Latin American health reform programs. National efforts, when they have included such strategies, have focused on supporting drug availability for inpatient treatment and, in some cases, for ambulatory treatment of low prevalence and high-cost diseases. Nevertheless, some innovative drug supply programs for primary health care have been implemented in many countries. This article reviews and systematizes recent experiences with the supply of drugs in Latin American countries. Firstly, this article analyzes four phases of the cycle for managing drugs: selection, procurement, distribution, and use, and; secondly, it identifies lessons learned and some characteristics of efficient drug supply systems. Conclusions emphasize experiences which have not only achieved supply at low costs, but also have increased the productivity, efficiency, and effectiveness of primary health care, improved prescriptions, and strengthened the network.

  13. Voto preferente en El Salvador: Lecciones aprendidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cristina Araujo Serrano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la implementación del voto preferente en El Salvador por medio de una resolución de la Sala Constitucional salvadoreña. Asimismo, se estudian las consecuencias de esta disposición en el ordenamiento jurídico salvadoreño, la percepción de la opinión pública y en el sistema de partidos de ese país centroamericano. Finalmente, se exponen algunas de las discusiones que en torno a este tema se han generado en el ámbito costarricense.

  14. Siete lecciones de la experiencia de Chile en materia de mercados del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Dourojeanni, Axel; Jouraviev, Andrei

    2001-01-01

    A principios de la década de los ochenta, Chile adoptó un nuevo Código de Aguas cuyo objeto central fue fortalecer la propiedad privada, limitar el rol del Estado en la gestión del agua y generar un mercado del agua bajo el supuesto de que ello promovería la inversión privada y llevaría a la eficiencia en la asignación del agua. Estas reformas, especialmente las tendentes a la creación de un mercado del agua, han despertado gran interés en todo el mundo. En algunos países, los anteproyectos d...

  15. Lecciones aprendidas en el conflicto de los Balcanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Cózar López, Angel

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Condensado de documentos no clasificados procedentes del Mando Aéreo de Combate del Ejército del Aire

    El autor ha sabido aquí extraer y condensar, a partir de documentos no clasificados del Mando Aéreo de Combate, una síntesis de las eficiencias encontradas en las operaciones desarrolladas para solucionar el conflicto de los Balcanes, en áreas tan diversas como:
    • Gestión de Crisis
    • Comunicaciones y Sistemas de Información
    • Cooperación Cívico-Militar
    • Generación de Fuerzas
    • Selección de Objetivos
    • Inteligencia...
    En todo el artículo se agradece el esfuerzo del autor por huir de tecnicismos, a fin de lograr que éste sea no sólo de interés para los profesionales, sino también para el gran público.
    Es importante destacar las conclusiones sobre las carencias de la OTAN europea en ciertas capacidades esenciales para llevar a cabo eficazmente una operación militar en el escenario estratégico actual.

  16. Microfinanzas: Las lecciones aprendidas en América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas C. Miller-Sanabria

    2000-01-01

    El éxito relativo de las microfinanzas en programas rurales de crédito en América Latina se debe a un plan de desarrollo descentralizado que propone como requisitos necesarios un sector microempresa grande, instituciones estables y permanentes, marcos regulatorios apropiados y una economía estable.

  17. Lecciones aprendidas durante desastres naturales: 1970-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel E. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Los desastres naturales impactan vidas y propiedades, devastando comunidades por largos periodos. En este articulo se presenta, cómo algunos conocimientos basados en experiencias y el avance de la ciencia biológica, psicosocial y de la conducta, siguen ayudándonos a entender el comportamiento del sobreviviente. La capacidad de poder aplicar lineamientos y operaciones de ayuda, obtener datos y prácticas basadas en evidencias, así como estudios empíricos en el ámbito de desastres, es un proceso evolutivo para los profesionales en este campo.

  18. Las lecciones aprendidas del caso Intel de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Alvarado, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una investigación sobre el Caso Intel de Costa Rica, donde se puede apreciar una estrategia global de Intel y la visión compartida del gobierno de todo un país para generar una ventaja competitiva frente a posibles mercados emergentes para de esta forma poder sentar las bases de una economía más y mejor integrada, sostenida en una capacitación de sus recursos humanos.

  19. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  20. Gestión del conocimiento : implantación de un sistema de lecciones aprendidas

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    La ingeniería conceptual sirve para identificar la viabilidad técnica y económica del proyecto y marcará la pauta para el desarrollo de la ingeniería básica y de detalle. Se basa en un estudio previo (estudio de viabilidad) y en la definición de los requerimientos del proyecto. Se desarrolla el diseño básico de unidades de proceso, sistemas, fijando los requerimientos básicos y la especificación de proceso del equipo, instrumentación y controles, con el grado de detalle necesario en cada caso...

  1. Lecciones aprendidas en la impartición de la asignatura Matemáticas Discretas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Ansola, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se exponen las principales experiencias del colectivo de profesores que ha impartido la asignatura Matemáticas Discretas en la F acultad de Ingeniería Informática del “Instituto Superior Politécnico José Antonio Echeverría” (CUJAE durante el período que comprende los cursos desde 2007-2008 hasta 2014-2015. Los cursos han sido concebidos hacia la búsqueda de un aprendizaje desarrollador por parte del estudiante, su formación como un profesional capaz de aprender por sí mismo, así como hacia su desarrollo integral como futuro profesional de la Ingeniería Informática. Para ello, se han tenido en cuenta las categorías fundamentales de la didáctica desarrolladora. Además, se ha considerado la integración de la asignatura con el resto de las asignaturas del año y su tributo a las asignaturas de años superiores. Al finalizar el trabajo se muestran los resultados docentes alcanzados por los estudiantes en los cursos en cuestión y algunos análisis correspondientes a estos resultados. Estos análisis permiten obtener una retroalimentación de lo acaecido en estos cursos y así, mejorar la asignatura para los siguientes cursos.

  2. Cultura organizacional en fusiones y adquisiciones: conceptos básicos y lecciones aprendidas

    OpenAIRE

    Tenorio Eguizábal, Diana María

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta una revisión de los conceptos básicos de la cultura organizacional en las fusiones y adquisiciones con el objetivo de propiciar un entendimiento adecuado de este constructo, dada su importancia para el éxito o fracaso de esta estrategia de crecimiento empresarial -- Para complementar la ilustración de los conceptos se revisan diez casos de fusiones exitosas y fallidas en diferentes condiciones, sectores económicos y partes del mundo -- En este sentido, este trabaj...

  3. Lecciones aprendidas en la impartición de la asignatura Matemáticas Discretas

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Ansola, Eduardo; Acosta Sánchez, Rolando; Rosete Suárez, Alejandro; Fernández Oliva, Perla

    2016-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se exponen las principales experiencias del colectivo de profesores que ha impartido la asignatura Matemáticas Discretas en la F acultad de Ingeniería Informática del “Instituto Superior Politécnico José Antonio Echeverría” (CUJAE) durante el período que comprende los cursos desde 2007-2008 hasta 2014-2015. Los cursos han sido concebidos hacia la búsqueda de un aprendizaje desarrollador por parte del estudiante, su formación como un profesional capaz de aprender por sí ...

  4. Logros y lecciones aprendidas en el sistema actual de reeducación de menores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Fontalvo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Lafalta de oportunidades y las prácticas excluyentes tanto en el sector educativo como en el laboral yel contexto familiar explican en parte las causas que llevan a los jóvenes a convertirse en infractores. Para su atención, se ha podido establecer que no existe un modelo único y que en todo caso, cualquiera sea la solución que se adopte, es necesario que éste se encuentre fundado en el respeto que se le debe tener a los jóvenes como sujetos de derecho, con el ánimo de rescatar y fortalecer al individuo a través de la atención personalizada, el sometimiento a un proceso integral y la preparación para la vida.

  5. El tiempo y el aprendizaje escolarla experiencia de la extensión de la jornada escolar en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO MARTINIC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ha analizado la importancia del tiempo como objeto de políticas de educación en América Latina y su impacto en el aprendizaje de los alumnos. Se ha presentado: la política de extensión de la jornada escolar (en el caso de Chile y los cambios propuestos en la cantidad y la organización del tiempo en la escuela, en las prácticas de enseñanza, en las actividades estudiantiles y en las relaciones dentro y fuera de la escuela.Se han analizado los datos relacionados con la implementación de dicho programa, su eficacia e impacto en el aprendizaje. Se concluye que las principales lecciones aprendidas fueron la implementación de esta política y la necesidad de comprender la ampliación del tiempo en relación a los cambios en las prácticas de enseñanza de los docentes y en la organización cultural del tiempo en la escuela.

  6. El observatorio metropolitano de Toluca: lecciones, propuestas y desafíos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Álvarez-Lobato

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan las principales lecciones aprendidas durante la construcción del Observatorio Metropolitano de Toluca (METROSUM, se hacen propuestas puntuales orientadas a construir mejores observatorios urbanos y se identifican los desafíos más importantes que enfrentará la Red de Observatorios Urbanos Locales de México (Red OUL, que impulsa UN-Habitat y el gobierno federal mexicano. Las lecciones y las propuestas que aquí se comparten tienen como objetivo acortar la curva de aprendizaje de los interesados en la construcción de observatorios urbanos. Por su parte, los retos que se identifican pueden ser insumos útiles para diseñar las respuestas institucionales que garanticen la sostenibilidad de la Red OUL. Este artículo se inscribe en el campo de la escasa literatura especializada que trata de orientar la construcción de observatorios urbanos en países en desarrollo.

  7. Construcción politica de reformas curriculares: El caso de Chile en los noventa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Cox

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor es un experto implicado en el proceso de diseño curricular vivido en Chile desde la promulgación del LOCE en 1990. El artículo, Basándose en esta experiencia, el artículo describe con detalle este proceso. Muestra las claves, circunstancias y momentos del proceso de construcción y desarrollo de una reforma curricular. Da cuenta de los procesos y contextos que intervienen en ello. Señala que tiene un proceso de construcción política. Pero no sólo se deben a este tipo de decisiones (como marco ideológico y social de decisiones y poder. Los procesos reflexivos que acompañan la toma de decisiones y los cursos de acción generados son importantes. Como también lo es la historia. Incluso los lineamientos curriculares y las presiones hacia el cambio que se den globalmente pueden influir bastante. Así muestra como en Chile, a pesar de partir de una política educativa en la que no había entrado la idea de currículum, ésta empieza a emerger conforme se va construyendo su desarrollo práctico y curricular. De todas las lecciones aprendidas en el proceso destaca que son componentes clave del proceso la participación y la innovación. Argumenta que hay razones sustantivas y políticas para ello. La primera es clave para que el profesorado se apropie de la propuesta de reforma y la haga posible. Por último, destaca que se produce un desarrollo de las capacidades institucionales de diseño y desarrollo curricular en la medida que se ponen en marcha y acumulan procesos de este tipo.

  8. Retorno, financiamiento y deserción, factores clave de la educacción superior. Lecciones para la política públlica : el caso de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Améstica Rivas, Luis Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    La Educación Superior constituye un imperativo estratégico para los países, impactando a la sociedad como un todo, siendo la formación de capital humano avanzado uno de los factores que permite un mayor bienestar de las personas y propicia la movilidad social. Es así como, en Chile, el retorno de la educación superior, su financiamiento y la deserción, especialmente en las universidades, pasan a constituir factores claves de este proceso y, por ende, preocupación creciente de la política p...

  9. Desarrollo Infantil Temprano: lecciones de los programas no formales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Eming Young

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo empieza mencionando al aporte de las ciencias al conocimiento del desarrollo humano. Se sintetiza el trabajo de Shonkoff/Phillips sobre el tema, resaltándose la importancia de la experiencia temprana y su interacción con la biología para el desarrollo del cerebro. Posteriormente se incursiona en el Desarrollo Infantil Temprano y su significación en los resultados posteriores del niño, destacando algunos factores que inciden en el desarrollo cerebral. Este tema se enlaza con el trabajo de Shore, que compara las teorías del “viejo” y el “nuevo” pensamiento. Seguidamente se resaltan los efectos de las intervenciones tempranas, vinculando el tema al desarrollo del cerebro, y ampliándolo en el capítulo de la competencia social, en el que presentan cifras estadísticas que reflejan en parte las hipótesis. Luego se propone la vinculación de las investigaciones a los programas, y basándose en un trabajo inédito de Kirpal, se enumeran algunas lecciones aprendidas, con énfasis en la necesidad de la participación de la comunidad para generar pertenencia y sostenibilidad en los programas. Después se entra al tema de la sociedad civil y su participación en el desarrollo de los programas, resaltándose las virtudes de las ONGs y el papel que pueden desempeñar en la búsqueda de soluciones a los problemas sociales. Se continúa con la experiencia de programas no formales de educación inicial en América Latina y El Caribe, en los que se destaca la participación de la sociedad civil; luego se detallan los principios que rigen los programas no formales, mediante una matriz en la que se indican determinadas prácticas que corresponden a ciertas metas. Para concluir, se reafirma que el Desarrollo Infantil Temprano es esencial en la lucha contra la pobreza.

  10. Desarrollo Infantil Temprano: lecciones de los programas no formales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Eming Young

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo empieza mencionando al aporte de las ciencias al conocimiento del desarrollo humano. Se sintetiza el trabajo de Shonkoff/Phillips sobre el tema, resaltándose la importancia de la experiencia temprana y su interacción con la biología para el desarrollo del cerebro. Posteriormente se incursiona en el Desarrollo Infantil Temprano y su significación en los resultados posteriores del niño, destacando algunos factores que inciden en el desarrollo cerebral. Este tema se enlaza con el trabajo de Shore, que compara las teorías del “viejo” y el “nuevo” pensamiento. Seguidamente se resaltan los efectos de las intervenciones tempranas, vinculando el tema al desarrollo del cerebro, y ampliándolo en el capítulo de la competencia social, en el que presentan cifras estadísticas que reflejan en parte las hipótesis. Luego se propone la vinculación de las investigaciones a los programas, y basándose en un trabajo inédito de Kirpal, se enumeran algunas lecciones aprendidas, con énfasis en la necesidad de la participación de la comunidad para generar pertenencia y sostenibilidad en los programas. Después se entra al tema de la sociedad civil y su participación en el desarrollo de los programas, resaltándose las virtudes de las ONGs y el papel que pueden desempeñar en la búsqueda de soluciones a los problemas sociales. Se continúa con la experiencia de programas no formales de educación inicial en América Latina y El Caribe, en los que se destaca la participación de la sociedad civil; luego se detallan los principios que rigen los programas no formales, mediante una matriz en la que se indican determinadas prácticas que corresponden a ciertas metas. Para concluir, se reafirma que el Desarrollo Infantil Temprano es esencial en la lucha contra la pobreza

  11. Depresión, ansiedad y desesperanza aprendida en pacientes con artritis reumatoide

    OpenAIRE

    Yescas Osorio, Esmirna Lizbeth; Hospital Juárez de México; Ascencio Huertas, Leticia; Hospital Juárez de México; Vargas Avilés, Sofía; Hospital Juárez de México; Barbosa Coboss, Rosa Elda; Hospital Juárez de México; Lugo Zamudio, Gustavo Esteban; Hospital Juárez de México

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio descriptivo fue valorar el nivel de depresión, ansiedad y desesperanza aprendida en 60 pacientes con diagnóstico de artritis reumatoide. Para medir la depresión se utilizó el Inventario de Depresión de Beck; para la ansiedad, el Inventario de Ansiedad Rasgo-Estado, y para la desesperanza aprendida, el Índice de Desesperanza Aprendida. Los resultados indican que existe una depresión mínima, una ansiedad rasgo-estado de moderada a severa y una desesperanza aprendida ...

  12. Tipos de socialización y desesperanza aprendida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Macassi

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Las nociones de alienación, falta de poder y desesperanza aprendida son revisadas. Sesenta obreros de una empresa limeña fueron evaluados en términos del tipo de socialización dominante (SD y desesperanza aprendida (DA en sus tres áreas: falta de motivación, falta de control y expectativas de no-control en el futuro. Las escalas SD y DA resultaron consistentes. El análisis de regresión múltiple con las variables grado de división del trabajo, el grado de instrucción y –en migrantes- edad de arribo y permanencia en la capital, evidenció que el único predictor de DA es el grado de instrucción, correlacionándose negativamente. Los resultados se discuten a la luz de la realidad peruana.

  13. Lecciones aprendidas en el control del tabaquismo en España Lessons learned from tobacco control in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Fernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En España ha sido visible la creciente implicación de la sociedad civil en la demanda de políticas de control del tabaquismo. Las bases para la creación del Comité Nacional para la Prevención del Tabaquismo (CNPT fueron asentadas en 2004. A finales de ese año la intensa actuación para concretar las acciones reguladoras del incipiente Plan Nacional para la Prevención del Tabaquismo culminó en una ley que permitió un salto cualitativo, aprovechando la trasposición legal de la directiva europea de publicidad: la Ley 28/2005, que, en un clima de amplio consenso político y mediático, dispone medidas sanitarias frente al tabaquismo y regula la venta, el suministro, el consumo y la publicidad de los productos del tabaco. El objetivo declarado por esta ley es evitar el inicio del consumo de tabaco particularmente entre los jóvenes, garantizar el derecho de los no fumadores a respirar aire sin humo del tabaco y hacer más fácil el abandono de este hábito a las personas que lo deseen. Sus temas principales son la prohibición de la publicidad del tabaco y la limitación de su consumo en centros de trabajo y espacios públicos cerrados. La nueva ley ha substituido a la normativa previa en España, que era una de las más permisivas de la Unión Europea en temas como la venta de tabaco, limitación de la publicidad y restricciones de lugares de consumo. No obstante, está claro que aún queda mucho por hacer. En este momento hace falta generar apoyo social a la nueva regulación y hacer un esfuerzo importante de sensibilización y educación del público.The growing involvement in Spain by civil society in the demand for tobacco control policies has been notable. The basis for the creation of the National Committee for Tobacco Prevention was established in 2004. At the end of that year, an intensive intervention was aimed at specifying, in law, the regulartory actions in the National Plan for Tobacco Prevention. This would facilitate a qualitative leap, taking advantage of the legal transposition of the European directive on advertising. With broad political consensus, the Law 28/2005 was established regarding sanitary measures for tobacco and the regulation of the sale, supply and consumption of tobacco products. The objective stated in this law is to prevent the initiation of tobacco consumption, especially among youth, guarantee the right of non-smokers to breathe air free from tobacco smoke and make quitting this habit easier for people who wish to do so. The main issues included are the prohibition of tobacco advertisiing and the limitation of tobacco consumption in common work areas and enclosed public spaces. The new law has replaced the previous rules in Spain, which were some of the most permissive in the European Union in terms of tobacco sales, advertising limitations and restrictions on smoking locations. It is clear that there is still much to be done. At this time, more social support needs to be generated in favor of the new regulations, and an important effort needs to be made to educate the public.

  14. ¿Es viable a largo plazo el turismo comunitario? Lecciones aprendidas del caso de Prainha do Canto Verde (Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    García-Andreu, Hugo; Aledo, Antonio; Ullán de la Rosa, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    Prainha do Canto Verde es un ejemplo paradigmático de Turismo Comunitario (TC). Esta villa costera se ha convertido en un referente nacional para los medios de comunicación de masas y para académicos y miembros de ONG que consideran Prainha un ejemplo exitoso de un turismo comunitario, justo, redistributivo, respetuoso con el medio ambiente y con la cultura local. Sin embargo, se dan en Prainha una serie de conflictos internos que cuestionan la viabilidad futura del proyecto turístico. Como c...

  15. Lessons learned in the accident of contamination with Pu-239; Lecciones aprendidas en el accidente de contaminacion con Pu-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, G.; Ruiz C, M.; Angeles C, A.; Benitez S, J.A. [ININ, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: gm@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    This work describes the lessons learned during the accident by transuranic contamination in the National Institute of Nuclear Research happened between 1998 and 2003. The origin of the same one is the not authorized transfer of 0.51 g of plutonium metallic used as pattern source in the Department of Metrology to a laboratory which lacked of physical infrastructure, training and team to manipulate this source. (Author)

  16. Lecciones aprendidas en PROVIAS Rural (Perú) y pautas para diseñar operaciones de infraestructura rural

    OpenAIRE

    Escobal, J.A.; Inurritegui, M.; Benavides, J.

    2005-01-01

    El Ministerio de Transportes y Comunicaciones del Perú (MTC) ha venido desarrollando un programa de rehabilitación y mantenimiento de caminos rurales a través del Proyecto Especial de Infraestructura de Transporte Rural (PROVIAS Rural). PROVIAS Rural es considerado un caso ejemplar a escala internacional. Los objetivos de este estudio son: (i) proponer guías para diseñar intervenciones de infraestructura rural en la región, después de ensayarlas como hipótesis en el caso de PROVIAS Rural; (ii...

  17. 75 LIÇÕES APRENDIDAS DE PROGRAMAS DE COMPETÊNCIA EM INFORMAÇÃO EM UNIVERSIDADES DA IBERO-AMERICA: 2009-20131

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Uribe Tirado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As 75 lições referem-se ao principal resultado obtido a partir da pesquisa de doutorado: “Lecciones aprendidas en programas de alfabetización informacional en universidades de Iberoamérica", realizada por Uribe-Tirado (2013, a partir de um processo de análise que combinou diferentes métodos e técnicas de triangulação de dados, visando obter a mais ampla e integradora percepção sobre a realidade e a prática da alfabetização informacional ou competência em informação, no contexto das universidades Ibero-Americanas. O número total de casos sobre os que efetivamente aplicaram as lições aprendidas, a partir da análise realizada por meio da triangulação de métodos foram 289, sendo: 113 casos por meio de entrevista, 139 por meio de questionário e 37 por meio da análise da literatura. A partir da análise qualitativa exaustiva dos conteúdos obtidos, foi possível sistematizar 75 lições aprendidas, organizadas em quatro categorias que retomam os três contextos propostos por Gratch-Lindauer (2004, bem como incorpora a avaliação como um processo continuo de um ciclo. As lições aprendidas são apresentadas em uma sequência numérica para facilitar a leitura, mas não implicam em nenhum tipo de prioridade, assim como a redação dessas no infinitivo deve ser entendida como ações que se recomenda para obter melhores resultados nos programas de alfabetização informacional/competência em informação no contexto social e organizacional e nos processos de ensino-pesquisa, aprendizagem e avaliação da melhoria contínua da qualidade. Este resultado foi possível por meio da participação ativa dos coordenadores e/ou formadores em alfabetização informacional/competência em informação pesquisados e, assim, se espera que com essas 75 lições, os programas avançados em alfabetização informacional/competência em informação possam utilizá-las para revisá-las e auto avaliá-las, verificando quais se mantêm e

  18. Preserving Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Brennand, Charlotte P.

    2010-01-01

    The best way to preserve chile depends on how you plan to use it and your available storage space. Frozen or canned chile is best for chile rellenos and salsas. Stews can use frozen, canned or dried chile. Dried chile has minimal storage requirements and is light-weight for taking on camping trips. Pickled chiles can be used on a relish plate or as an ingredient in other dishes.

  19. Design and project management robotics education: lessons learned Diseño y administración de proyectos de robótica educativa: lecciones aprendidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lourdes Acuña Zuñiga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The educative projects that include the robotics as resource of education and learning require being plan based on the skills and performances that would consolidate in the population. These skills are the start point to delineate the content emphases, the wished performances, the needed technologies, the processes of training and searching that will be necessary to design. Particularly the educative robotics is propitious to develop or to support productive, creative, digital, communicative abilities.  An indicator, that shows that robotics has become an innovation engine, is observed on the change in the people’s attitude and ideas, ways of present and thinking of the students specially, when they become to socialize with others. If those changes are visible now, therefore we are getting close to an innovation because the robotics will have extended its intuitions and it is reflected in its actions and products.El inicio de proyectos educativos que incluyen la robótica como recurso de enseñanza y aprendizaje requieren plantearse en función de las capacidades y desempeños que se esperan consolidar en la población meta.  Estas capacidades son el  punto de partida para delinear los énfasis de contenido, los desempeños deseados, las tecnologías que se necesitan, los procesos de capacitación y seguimiento que hay que diseñar.  La robótica educativa es propicia para apoyar habilidades productivas, creativas, digitales y  comunicativas; y  se convierte en un  motor para la innovación cuando produce  cambios en las personas, en las ideas y actitudes, en las relaciones, modos de actual y  pensar de los estudiantes y los educadores.  Si esos cambios son  visibles en la práctica cotidiana, entonces estamos ante una innovación  porque la robótica habrá transcendido sus intuiciones y se reflejara en sus acciones y productos. 

  20. Tecnologías móviles para la salud pública en el Perú: lecciones aprendidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy F. Ruiz

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, las tecnologías de la comunicación móvil se han expandido de manera rápida tanto en los países desarrollados como en vías de desarrollo. Estos países, incluyendo a Perú, son escenarios ideales donde las herramientas de la salud móvil (mSalud se convierten en excelentes oportunidades para brindar y hacer más inclusivo los servicios de salud. La literatura revisada muestra que las intervenciones de mSalud en nuestro país, presentan un enorme potencial para mejorar el acceso y calidad de la los servicios de salud, aumentando la efectividad de los programas de salud pública y reduciendo los costos de la asistencia sanitaria. No obstante, se requiere de mayor investigación en estas áreas para com- prender en su totalidad el potencial de la mSalud para que puedan ser base y sustento de políticas de estado innovadoras, integradas al sistema de salud y costo-efectivas para la mejora en la atención e inclusión en salud en Perú

  1. Prueba de inclinación (“Head-up Tilt Test”, lecciones aprendidas en 564 casos consecutivos: Lessons Learned from 564 Consecutive Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Gutiérrez-Sotelo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El síncope es un motivo frecuente de consulta; el mecanismo causal más común es el reflejo, que incluye el síncope neurocardiogénico (SN, la hipotensión ortostática, la hipersensibilidad del seno carotídeo, entre otros. Estas variantes se valoran mediante la prueba de inclinación, con o sin estímulo farmacológico con nitroglicerina. El presente estudio recoge la experiencia con este examen auxiliar realizado en nuestro centro en los últimos 8 años. Material y métodos. Es un estudio retrospectivo, en el que se analizaron los resultados de las pruebas de inclinación realizadas a los pacientes que fueron referidos consecutivamente a nuestro centro en el período julio 2003 - agosto 2010. La información se obtuvo de la base de datos electrónica, así como del interrogatorio de los síntomas que motivaron la solicitud de la prueba. Resultados. Se incluyeron los datos de 564 pruebas de inclinación; la edad promedio fue 36,33±18,4 años (6-89, a predominio el sexo femenino (373, hombres 191. El motivo de realización de la prueba fue: historia de síncope (67%, lipotimia (26% y otros. El examen fue anormal en 470 pacientes (92 negativos, sensibilidad global 83,6 y los diagnósticos fueron: 118 SN tipo vasodilatador (25%, 112 SN tipo cardioinhibitorio (24% y 157 SN de tipo mixto (33%; 60 pacientes presentaron taquicardia postural ortostática (12% y 24 hipotensión ortostática (5%, 9 de los cuales tenía tratamiento farmacológico antihipertensivo; edad promedio 64 años. En 11 pacientes (2,3% se documentó hipersensibilidad del seno carotídeo, 9 de los cuales presentó también alguna forma de SN (edad promedio 60,63 años. Conclusión. La prueba de inclinación es adecuadamente sensible para la valoración del paciente que se presenta con síncope, en especial, en pacientes jóvenes sin evidencia de cardiopatía estructural. El SN es la disautonomía más frecuente y es más prevalente en mujeres pero más pronunciado en hombres, mientras que la hipotensión ortostática y la hipersensibilidad del seno carotídeo predomina en personas mayores.

  2. Prueba de inclinación (“Head-up Tilt Test”), lecciones aprendidas en 564 casos consecutivos: Lessons Learned from 564 Consecutive Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Oswaldo Gutiérrez-Sotelo; Yorleny Alfaro-Badilla

    2012-01-01

    Introducción. El síncope es un motivo frecuente de consulta; el mecanismo causal más común es el reflejo, que incluye el síncope neurocardiogénico (SN), la hipotensión ortostática, la hipersensibilidad del seno carotídeo, entre otros. Estas variantes se valoran mediante la prueba de inclinación, con o sin estímulo farmacológico con nitroglicerina. El presente estudio recoge la experiencia con este examen auxiliar realizado en nuestro centro en los últimos 8 años. Material y métodos. Es un est...

  3. Política cultural y regeneración urbana en las ciudades de Europa Occidental: lecciones aprendidas de la experiencia y perspectivas para el futuro

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    El presente artículo aborda los usos de la política cultural y de la planificación como herramientas de regeneración urbana en ciudades de Europa Occidental. Tras una breve evaluación de la evolución de la política cultural europea de las últimas décadas, el artículo se centra en los orígenes y el desarrollo del programa Ciudad/Capital Europea de la Cultura y explora la experiencia de ciudades que han logrado un cambio de imagen y una regeneración mediante actividades culturale...

  4. Incidencia y evitabilidad de eventos adversos en pacientes hospitalizados en algunas instituciones hospitalarias en Colombia, 2006. Lecciones aprendidas. Investigación cuantitativa y cualitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Gaitán Duarte

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Componente cuantitativo
    Objetivo: Determinar la incidencia, clasificación, evitabilidad de factores de riesgo e impacto
    de los Eventos Adversos (EA para establecer su importancia como problema en algunos hospitales
    de Colombia.
    Metodologia: Cohorte prospectiva de pacientes hospitalizados en 4 instituciones generales en
    Colombia. Se incluyeron pacientes hospitalizados al menos durante 12 horas. Se excluyeron: pacientes
    psiquiátricos, presencia del EA antes del ingreso a la hospitalización índice. Con una diferencia estimada
    del 1% (complejidad alta y media, significancia: 0.05%, poder: 80% relación 2:1 se requerían mínimo
    6.600 pacientes Fuente de información: historia clínica.
    Procedimientos Fase 1: traducción y adaptación de formularios. Fase 11: vigilancia activa de eventos
    tecnologias y políticas de tamización. Fase 111: evaluación, por un comité de especialistas de la asociación del EA con la atención suministrada.

    Variables: edad, género y tipo de afiliación al sistema de seguridad social, incidencia acumulada de EA, temporalidad, evitabilidad y discapacidad resultante naturaleza del EA.
    Resultados: Para el análisis de incidencia fueron evaluados 6.688 sujetos durante el periodo de vigilancia. Se detectaron 505 pacientes con eventos de tamización positivos (7.9% IC95%:
    7.3-8.6. Un total de 310 sujetos presentaron al menos un evento adverso; Incidencia acumulada:
    4.6% (IC95%: 4.1 - 5.1 durante la hospitalización.
    De estos se consíderó evitable el evento adverso en 189 sujetos (61%, IC95%: 55- 66%. Ocurrió
    discapacidad permanente en 1.3%. La mortalidad asociada al evento adverso fue de 6.4% (20/310.
    Se incrementó la hospitalización como consecuencia del EA un total de 1 072 días. Los factores de
    riesgo asociados fueron: La edad, el género masculino, estar hospitalizado en servicios quirúrgicos e ingresar como urgencia.

    Conclusiones: la información analizada da cuenta de una importante incidencia de los eventos adversos evitables en cuatro hospitales de Colombia.
    Palabras clave: Administración de la seguridad, Errores médicos, Servicios de salud, hospitalización.

    Componente cualitativo
    Objetivos: Explorar la actitud del personal de las instituciones en cuanto a la detección y evaluación de
    Eventos Adversos (EA y cómo se solucionaron los problemas enfrentados, examinar el funcionamiento
    de los Comités de Evaluación y describir el impacto Institucional.
    Metodologia: Investigación cualitativa. Se realizó un grupo focal con el personal que recolectó y
    monitorizó la información. Se construyó un marco conceptual basado en las publicaciones relativas a
    los EA en las instituciones de salud y la realización de resúmenes por temática del contenido del trabajo en el grupo focal mediante la sistematización, categorización y reducción de datos. Se utilizó el método de triangulación para garantizar la credibilidad, transferibilidad, dependencia y confirmabilidad.
    Resultados: La calidad de la información obtenida está asociada al perfil de quien recoge la información y a la metodología utilizada. Existe la creencia de que la vigilancia de EA consiste en una auditoría con potenciales consecuencias laborales negativas, que influye la cultura organizacional previa. Las estrategias para sensibilizar al personal para incrementar el eporte fueron: el trabajo persona a persona, el hacer conciencia que nadie está exento de estar involucrado en un evento adverso y el apoyo administrativo para solucionar las deficiencias. Se observó una tendencia a subvalorar la asociación del evento por parte de los omités de especialistas.
    Conclusiones: La cultura organizacional previa tiene una fuerte influencia en la actitud de los
    trabajadores con respecto al reporte de los EA. Los empleados deben estar convencidos de que sus
    recomendaciones deben ser tenidas en cuenta por los administradores para su prevención.
    Palabras clave: Administración de la seguridad, Errores médicos, Servicios de salud, efectos adversos,
    hospitalización. Investigación cualitativa.

    Agradecimientos 
    Al Instituto Colombiano de Ciencia y Tecnología COLCIENCIAS que financió este proyecto mediante
    el Grant identificado con el código: 1101-04-18198 Y la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, División
    de Investigación de la Sede Bogotá DIB Código: 20201007427.

     

  5. La calidad del empleo: lecciones y tareas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Infante

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una presentación sintética del enfoque y de los resultados de una investigación liderada por Víctor Tokman sobre la calidad del empleo en América Latina, en comparación con los Estados Unidos. En una primera parte se examina el concepto, relativamente nuevo, y las dimensiones de la calidad del empleo, así como los factores condicionantes de su evolución a los niveles micro y rnacroeconómicos. En una segunda parte se resumen los resultados de la investigación empírica en los Estados Unidos y en cuatro paises latinoamericanos (Brasil, Colombia, Chile y Perú. En la sección final de conclusiones se muestra la importancia de ir más allá de la simple vinculación entre la estructura ocupacional y el desempleo, y de considerar la evolución de la calidad del empleo, su eventual deterioro y la calidad de los empleos que se crean o se proyecta crear.---This paper contains a synthetic presentation of the approach and the results of an investigation on employment quality in Latin America vis-a-vis the United States, directed by Víctor Tokman. The first part examines the concept, relatively new, of employment quality, its dimensions, as well as the factors that affect its evolution at the micro and macroeconomic levels. The second part summarizes the results of the empirical investigation in the United States and in four Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Chile and Peru. The conclusions show the importance of going further than simply establishing a relationship between employment structure and unemployment, and of considering the evolution of employment quality, its possible deterioration, and the quality of the jobs that are being created or are to be created.

  6. Sociología Ambiental: 5 lecciones virtuales

    OpenAIRE

    Aledo Tur, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    5 LECCIONES EN SOCIOLOGÍA AMBIENTAL: TEMA 1. La crisis socioambiental y su interpretación sociológica; TEMA 2. Ecoutopías: movimentos y pensamientos ecologistas; TEMA 3.- Desastres socioambientales; TEMA 4.- Megaproyectos: análisis impactos socioambientales; TEMA 5.- Globalización y Medio Ambiente. Cada lección desarrolla un tema principal del corpus teórico de la sociologia ambiental contemporánea. Contienen los materiales y links necesários para su seguimiento por parte del lector. Los tema...

  7. Lecciones de historia de la codificación

    OpenAIRE

    Caroni, Pio

    2013-01-01

    Edición de Adela Mora Cañada y Manuel Martínez Neira El libro vuelve a proponer, después de algunos años que han transcurrido desde la primera edición, una nueva versión del texto de las lecciones desarrolladas por el autor en la primavera de 1993 en la Universidad de Barcelona. Destinadas a un público interesado, e incluso especialista, se articulan en dos núcleos. Por un lado era necesario razonar sobre el concepto de codificación, verificar la novedad que propone y cómo se distingue de ...

  8. Lecciones de introducción al Derecho Civil

    OpenAIRE

    Díez Soto, Carlos Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Contiene 16 lecciones: 1.-Introducción al Derecho 2.-Las fuentes del Derecho 3.-Aplicación y eficacia de las normas jurídicas 4.-El Derecho subjetivo 5.-La persona como sujeto del Derecho 6.-Las cosas y los bienes como objeto del Derecho 7.-El derecho de crédito u obligación (I) 8.-El derecho de crédito u obligación (II) 9.-El contrato: teoría general 10.-Los contratos en particular (I) 11.-Los contratos en particular (II) 12.-La responsabilidad civil 13...

  9. LA CRISIS FINANCIERA INTERNACIONAL. Ocho lecciones de y para América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rojas-Suarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La crisis financiera internacional del 2008-2009 puso de manifiesto las fortalezas y debilidades del paradigma prevaleciente en materia de desarrollo en América La-tina. Éste se basa en una cuenta de capitales liberada que a su vez ha mejorado de manera importante las condiciones macroeconómicas. Este artículo proporciona lecciones provenientes de la crisis, no solamente para la región, sino para otros paí-ses en desarrollo que buscan conseguir crecimiento económico en un contexto de mayor integración a los mercados internacionales de capital. Algunas de las lec-ciones no son nuevas pero han sido reforzadas con la crisis, como la necesidadde que América Latina diversifique sus exportaciones (no sólo de productos sino de socios comerciales. Otras lecciones desmitifican otros elementos, como por ejem-plo la imposibilidad de aplicar políticas contracíclicas, al menos del lado moneta-rio. Otras lecciones incluyen i el papel relativo de la banca nacional y extranjera como amortiguadores de los choques financieros externos, y ii el costo potencial de adoptar regulaciones financieras internacionales que no tomen en consideración el desarrollo de cada país. Tomadas en conjunto, las lecciones arrojan un nuevo sentido de optimismo para el crecimiento de América Latina.

  10. Lecciones de psicología - Colombia siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Leonardo Oviedo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Manuel Ancízar publicó en 1851 sus Lecciones depsicología. El texto ha sido una muestra representativadel interés de los intelectuales colombianosde la época por esta disciplina. Los tratadistas dela historia de la psicología en Colombia han consideradoel siglo XIX como un periodo de pobrezaconceptual, caracterizado por el intento incipientede importar algunas prácticas profesionales de tipopsiquiátrico y educativo. Sin embargo, la obrade Ancízar mostró una amplia exposición sobre elobjeto de estudio de la psicología: la concienciahumana y las teorías que sirvieron de soporte a laformación de la nueva ciencia. El núcleo central dela obra gravitó en torno al drama secular, frente alcual Ancízar defendió el origen y la naturaleza sobrenaturaldel alma humana. El autor introdujo unapsicología ecléctica en la que las ideas modernas deorientación laica se integran con la concepción delalma como donación divina. La relectura de la obraha sido una labor pendiente e indispensable para lacomprensión de las formas ancestrales y autóctonasde acceder a los asuntos psicológicos.

  11. Indicadores regionales de desarrollo sustentable en Chile: ¿Hasta qué punto son útiles y necesarios?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Blanco

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Cada vez más necesitamos maneras de asegurar patrones de desarrollo que sean sustentables, es decir, que sean ambiental, social y económicamente apropiados para nosotros y para las generaciones venideras. Los indicadores de desarrollo sustentable son una herramienta promisoria que permitiría "aterrizar" el concepto de sustentabilidad, apoyando la manera en que se toman las decisiones. En Chile existen pocas experiencias sobre el tema. Este artículo presenta el trabajo realizado para desarrollar indicadores de desarrollo sustentable en cuatro regiones del país. El artículo se centra en las lecciones que han surgido de la experiencia

  12. Autoeficacia, desesperanza aprendida e incapacidad funcional en pacientes con diagnóstico de artritis reumatoide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Vinaccia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio descriptivo fue estudiar la relación entre autoeficacia, desesperanza aprendida e incapacidad funcional en pacientes con diagnóstico de artritis reumatoide y así determinar el papel de los factores psicológicos en la adaptación del paciente a la enfermedad. Se aplicó el Cuestionarios de Actividades de la Vida Diaria, el Indice de Actitudes Reumatoides y la Escala de Autoeficacia para la Artritis a 79 pacientes en tratamiento en la unidad de reumatología de la Clínica Bolivariana de Medellín (Colombia. Se encontró que la autoeficacia percibida se asocia negativamente con la desesperanza, el dolor y la incapacidad funcional. A su vez, estas tres variables se relacionaron entre sí de forma positiva. De lo anterior se puede concluir que una adecuada autoeficacia permitiría asumir de manera más favorable la enfermedad y adaptarse a los cambios que ella conlleva. La desesperanza se asoció de manera significativa con el dolor, y éste con la incapacidad, por lo que se puede inferir, una relación indirecta con la desesperanza. Los resultados confirman el peso significativo que tienen las variables psicológicas estudiadas sobre la artritis reumatoide y que tenerlas en cuenta podría modificar potencialmente la experiencia de la enfermedad.

  13. La Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Utilización de las Comunicaciones Electrónicas en los Contratos Internacionales: relevancia práctica y lecciones aprendidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca G. Castellani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Utilización de las Comunicaciones Electrónicas en los Contratos Internacionales es el primer tratado suscrito con el objetivo de facilitar el uso transfronterizo de las comunicaciones electrónicas en las relaciones comerciales. Este artículo describe los objetivos de la política detrás de la preparación de dicho instrumento, su ámbito de aplicación y sus principales disposiciones sustantivas. Se hace referencia específica a la interacción de esa Convención con otros tratados ya adoptados por Colombia y otros Estados, como la Convención sobre el Reconocimiento y Ejecución de las Sentencias Arbitrales Extranjeras (la “Convención de Nueva York” y la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre Contratos de Compraventa Internacional de Mercaderías (cisg. Por último, el artículo analiza los patrones en la adopción de la Convención en la última década y concluye que Colombia debería considerar la posibilidad de ratificar la Convención, que ha firmado en 2007, para fortalecer su economía digital mediante la modernización de la legislación vigente sobre el comercio electrónico.

  14. Lessons learned from the first evaluation of the Medical Insurance for a New Generation: bridging research and policy Lecciones aprendidas de la primera evaluación del Seguro Médico para una Nueva Generación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pérez-Cuevas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The first evaluation of the Medical Insurance for a New Generation program (SMNG was conducted in 2009. A mixed-method approach was used to obtain a comprehensive picture of SMNG members and the program itself. The evaluation comprised: 1 Program design; 2 Social and health conditions of its members; 3; Evaluation of SMNG's performance by measuring coverage, productivity and efficiency; 4 Families health expenditures. The lessons learned for the program are that SMNG is focused on a vulnerable segment of the population with pervasive unmet health needs; prevalence of malnutrition, anemia and other conditions remains high. Further efforts are necessary to deploy the program where it is most needed, particularly in rural areas; most of its members are urban dwellers. However, more needs to be done to educate members about the importance of preventive care and to build the capability of health providers to provide high quality care. Families are still experiencing hardship to provide medical care to their children, so additional efforts are needed to decrease out-of-pocket and catastrophic expenditures. The lessons learned for the evaluation allow concluding that this first evaluation set the groundwork for better-targeted subsequent interventions and evaluations aimed at showing the impact of SMNG to bridge existing gaps in equity, access, coverage, and health status of Mexican children.La primera evaluación del Seguro Médico para una Nueva Generación (SMNG se llevó a cabo en 2009. La evaluación utilizó métodos mixtos para obtener una imagen completa de los miembros del SMNG y del programa. La evaluación comprendió: 1 el diseño del programa, 2 las condiciones sociales y de salud de los miembros, 3 acceso y uso de los servicios de salud, 4 la calidad de los servicios de atención ambulatoria y hospitalaria y 5 el efecto en los gastos de salud de las familias. El SMNG está enfocado a la población vulnerable con necesidades de salud no satisfechas, donde persiste la prevalencia de la desnutrición, anemia y otras enfermedades. Son necesarios esfuerzos adicionales para aumentar la cobertura del programa en zonas rurales donde la necesidad es mayor; pues la mayoría de sus miembros habitan en áreas urbanas, también es indispensable fortalecer la atención preventiva y fortalecer la capacidad de los proveedores de salud para proporcionar atención de alta calidad. Las familias todavía están experimentando dificultades para prestar atención a sus hijos, son necesarios esfuerzos adicionales para disminuir los gastos de bolsillo y catastrófico. Esta primera evaluación establece las bases para intervenciones y evaluaciones posteriores sustentadas en objetivos mejor definidos y enfocados a demostrar que SMNG está disminuyendo las brechas existentes en equidad, acceso, cobertura y estado de salud de la niñez mexicana.

  15. Mejorando la preparación ante desastres en el Perú : ¿en qué medida se identifican y se aplican las lecciones aprendidas de los simulacros?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La presente investigación evalúa el aporte de ejercicios de preparación para desastres al nivel distrital en el Perú (simulacros) al mejoramiento de planes y políticas distritales, provinciales, regionales y nacionales para la preparación, reacción y respuesta ante los desastres. A través de un estudio de caso de un simulacro para la respuesta ante tsunamis en Cerro Azul, Cañete, de 2011 a 2012, este trabajo analiza hasta qué punto el marco para los ejercicios de respuesta f...

  16. Coyuntura electoral 2005-2006: Lecciones aprendidas desde la perspectiva de la organización de los procesos electorales y la resolución de conflictos en Centroamérica y Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Sobrado González

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Analiza los eventos electorales del 2005 y el 2006 en Centroamérica y Panamá. Interesa cómo fueron atendidos por los organismos electorales, aún en escenarios de fuerte conflictividad postelectoral producto de resultados ajustados u otras circunstancias especiales, lo que constituyó un factor de afianzamiento institucional.

  17. La Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Utilización de las Comunicaciones Electrónicas en los Contratos Internacionales: relevancia práctica y lecciones aprendidas

    OpenAIRE

    Luca G. Castellani

    2015-01-01

    La Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Utilización de las Comunicaciones Electrónicas en los Contratos Internacionales es el primer tratado suscrito con el objetivo de facilitar el uso transfronterizo de las comunicaciones electrónicas en las relaciones comerciales. Este artículo describe los objetivos de la política detrás de la preparación de dicho instrumento, su ámbito de aplicación y sus principales disposiciones sustantivas. Se hace referencia específica a la interacción de esa C...

  18. Prueba de inclinación (“Head-up Tilt Test”), lecciones aprendidas en 564 casos consecutivos: Lessons Learned from 564 Consecutive Cases Head-Up Tilt Test

    OpenAIRE

    Oswaldo Gutiérrez-Sotelo; Yorleny Alfaro-Badilla

    2012-01-01

    Introducción. El síncope es un motivo frecuente de consulta; el mecanismo causal más común es el reflejo, que incluye el síncope neurocardiogénico (SN), la hipotensión ortostática, la hipersensibilidad del seno carotídeo, entre otros. Estas variantes se valoran mediante la prueba de inclinación, con o sin estímulo farmacológico con nitroglicerina. El presente estudio recoge la experiencia con este examen auxiliar realizado en nuestro centro en los últimos 8 años. Material y métodos. Es un est...

  19. La producción familiar como alternativa de un desarrollo sostenible para la Amazonía; Lecciones aprendidas de iniciativas de uso forestal por productores familiares en la Amazonía boliviana, brasilera, ecuatoriana y peruana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokorny, B.; Godar, J.; Hoch, L.; Johnson, J.; Koning, de J.; Medina, G.; Steinbrenner, R.; Vos, V.; Weigelt, J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Between 2005 and 2009, the EU-financed project ForLive set out to analyse promising local forest management initiatives in the Amazon Basin in four countries: Ecuador, Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru. Researchers aimed to identify locally viable practices that benefit livelihoods and ecological

  20. Learned lessons of the radiological accident occurred in La Ciudadela of El Cementerio, Gran Caracas. September 2005; Lecciones aprendidas del accidente radiologico ocurrido en La Ciudadela de El Cementerio, Gran Caracas. Septiembre 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, D.; Cubillan, Y.; Figuera, J.L.; Mora, G.; Pacheco, J.; Yanez, H.; Carrizales, L. [Servicio de Radiofisica Sanitaria (RFS), Unidad de Tecnologia Nuclear, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Carretera Panamericana Km. 11, Altos del Pipe, Caracas (Venezuela)]. e-mail: dlea@ivic.ve

    2006-07-01

    On September 20, 2005 when a mission conformed by five (05) officials: two (02) belonging to the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEP) and three (03) of the Ministry of Health (MS) it was prepared to carry out a routine inspection in the one temporary warehouse of sources in disuse located in La Ciudadela of El Cementerio, identified administratively as Warehouse Number 5 (MS) Area X, noticed that those armor-plating that kept the radioactive sources of Cs-137 had been violated. Those people that entered to the warehouse were able to extract the armor-plating in whose interior its were found an important number of sources of Cs-137 in disuse, used in the decade of 70 and 80 in treatment of cancer of the uterine neck, by means of the Brachytherapy technique of Differed charge manual, low dose rate, as well as, lead sheets with the apparent intention of selling them as junk. The intruders extracted a total of 58 radioactive sources of Cs-137 of its armor-plating for then to disperse them inside warehouse and in the external areas to this. An important number of the dispersed sources its had lost it integrity what gave place to a combined scenario of exposed dispersed sources in a public area with the danger of radioactive contamination by Cs-137. A task force conformed by the following institutions: Ministry of Health (MS), Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET), Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Investigations (IVIC), Unit of Dangerous Materials of the Metropolitan Firemen under the coordination of Civil Protection (PC) it was the one in charge of responding to the radiological accident, of conformity to the National Plan for the Answer to Radiological Accidents. All the radioactive sources dispersed in La Ciudadela achieved to be recovered. The experience of the accident and as learned lesson it was the importance of harmonizing the Generic Procedures for the Evaluation and Answer during Radiological Emergencies, IAEA-TECDOC-1162 technical document, Vienna, August 2000, with the procedures of the answering in charge of responding to accidents with dangerous materials. (Author)

  1. Sociedad/comunidad: relaciones de adaptación/resistencia al proyecto contenido en la modernidad: lecciones aprendidas a partir de la experiencia en educación popular/comunitaria/rural en Corral de Piedra, Nicoya (2011-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Herra Castro, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo discute respecto de la lógica y el orden vertical de dominio contenido en la modernidad/colonialidad y de sus expresiones en la dinámica educativa costarricense. Muestra la tensión existente entre educación formal y las posibilidades de libertad y desconexión al orden impuesto en la modernidad que busca y propicia la educación popular. Lo anterior se hace con base en la experiencia del proyecto “Alfabetización crítica en la cultura escolar: sociedad y Derechos Humanos” en la pro...

  2. Evaluación en salud pública: lecciones aprendidas de la gestión de la tuberculosis pulmonar Measurement in Public Health: what pulmonary tuberculosis management has taught us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Patrick Chaulk

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Las tasas de tuberculosis pulmonar están aumentando en todo el mundo, incluida España. Uno de los retos principales al tratar esta enfermedad es conseguir un buen cumplimiento terapéutico, puesto que alrededor de un 30-35% de los pacientes no sigue la pauta de medicación prescrita. Este artículo revisa un conjunto de estrategias de evaluación y medidas de la práctica para valorar la efectividad de los programas comunitarios orientados a reforzar el cumplimiento terapéutico de los pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar activa. Se revisan 4 estrategias de evaluación tradicionales (estudio de un caso, estudio retrospectivo y de casos controles, predicción/pronóstico y análisis de coste-efectividad y 2 enfoques de evaluación emergentes y prometedores (evaluación de calidad de vida e indicadores de continuidad de la asistencia. Varias de las estrategias de evaluación revisadas indican que los programas de tratamiento mediante la terapia de observación directa (directly observed therapy [DOT], amplios, comunitarios y centrados en el paciente, alcanzan los índices más altos de cumplimiento terapéutico. Se recomienda la utilización conjunta de varias de estas estrategias de evaluación para crear un cuerpo de evidencia que refleje el impacto de los programas de intervención comunitaria en la mejora de los resultados de salud, en este caso concreto para los pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar.Pulmonary tuberculosis rates are increasing worldwide, including in Spain. One of the main challenges when treating this disease is achieving treatment completion, since studies have shown that approximately 30-35% of all patients do not take their medications as intended. The present article explores a continuum of evaluation strategies and performance measures for assessing the effectiveness of community-based programs designed to enhance treatment completion in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Four traditional evaluation strategies (case studies, retrospective and case-control studies, forecasting/modeling, and cost effectiveness analysis and 2 emerging and promising approaches (quality of life assessment and indicators of the continuum of care are presented. Several of the evaluation strategies reviewed indicate that treatment programs using directly observed therapy (DOT that are comprehensive, community-based and patient-centered achieve the highest treatment completion rates. Combinations of these strategies are recommended to create a body of evidence capturing the impact and nuances of community-based public health interventions in improving health outcomes, in this case for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

  3. Las “Lecciones Académicas” de Evangelista Torricelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Herrera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En las Lecciones Académicas (“Lezioni accademiche”, Torricelli a la manera divulgativa dibujó un boceto de bastantes de sus ideas científicas, algunas novedosas, como la circulación general de la atmósfera. El estilo culto e irónico, pero informal, que utilizó le permitió exponer conceptos que de otra manera, dadas las circunstancias, hubiera sido casi imposible. En estas notas muestro algunos ejemplos.

  4. Desesperança aprendida: sentidos de alunos de uma escola pública sobre si mesmos como aprendizes

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho tem como objetivo geral investigar a desesperança aprendida na fala de três alunos de uma 6ªsérie do Ensino Fundamental, Ciclo II, em uma escola pública da cidade de Guarulhos, São Paulo. Os objetivos específicos são investigar os sentidos construídos pelos alunos sobre si mesmos como aprendizes e os sentidos sobre as razões de suas ações em sala de aula. Esta pesquisa está ancorada na Teoria da Atividade Sócio-Histórico Cultural (Vygotsky, 2003; Leontiev, 1977; Engeström, 1989)...

  5. Chile: Its Conventional Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    Bolivia’s gas to Mexico and North America. Chile’s President Lagos likewise invited Bolivia to construct a plant in Chile to facilitate gas production at...tdf.htm>. Internet. Accessed 30 October 2004. 20 21 BIBLIOGRAPHY Barros, Van Buren Mario. Historia Diplomatica de Chile . Santiago: Editorial Andres

  6. Lecciones desatendidas entorno a la epidemia de dengue en Argentina, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A Bernardini Zambrini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo es una reflexión acerca del impacto de la epidemia 2009 en Argentina, con 26.000 afectados y seis muertes, y como las consecuencias pudieron haber sido mucho menores si hubiese existido dialogo y entendimiento entre epidemiología y política sanitaria. La falta de preparación, la descoordinación en la respuesta y el impacto sobre la población, confirman la brecha existente entre la evidencia científica y la toma de decisión política. La epidemiologia y la política sanitaria tienen distintas prioridades, distintos tiempos y distinta escala de valores. Las lecciones de la epidemia de 2009 deberían servir para acercar estos dos pilares de la salud publica de cara al beneficio de la comunidad, que al fin, es el objetivo común.

  7. Evaluación de las leyes: lecciones de la criminología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rubio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo se argumenta que la labor de evaluar el impacto de las leyes no puede ser un ejercicio teórico sino que requiere un enfoque especializado, empírico, local y multidisciplinario. De la criminología, una disciplina auxiliar del derecho penal, se pueden obtener valiosas lecciones prácticas, teóricas y normativas, por ejemplo, en su manera de abordar el tema de la recolección de información. También se hace referencia a sus enseñanzas teóricas para el debate conceptual sobre el crimen y se sugieren pautas metodológicas para evaluar el impacto de las reformas legales.

  8. La prueba de la eficiencia: un estudio de casos de las relaciones de colaboración que mantienen empresas con organizaciones sin fin de lucro en Chile The proof of efficiency: a case study on cooperative relations between firms and nonprofits in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Rodríguez M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es describir la relación de colaboración que mantienen cuatro empresas de capital español, con OSFL en Chile, en el marco de las acciones de Responsabilidad Social que desarrollan. Interesó observar el origen de la relación, la asignación de valor que las empresas atribuían a la relación y las posibles acciones o consecuencias, lecciones o aprendizajes que surgían de ellas.The purpose of this paper is to describe the collaborative relationship established, within the framework of social responsibility initiatives, between four Spanish companies based in Chile and nonprofit Chilean organizations. The study focused on the origin of the relations, as well as the value assigned by the companies to such relationship and the possible consequences, lessons or learning they may produce.

  9. Lecciones de la Gran Depresión para la recuperación económica en 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina D. Romer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo compara la Gran Depresión de los años treinta con la actual crisis mundial y presenta algunas lecciones útiles para el diseño de políticas que permitan superar la crisis y comenzar una recuperación firme. Una de esas lecciones es que una expansión fiscal pequeña sólo tiene efectos pequeños y que una expansión monetaria puede ayudar a sanear la economía aunque las tasas de interés sean cercanas a cero. Además, los diseñadores de política se deben abstener de reducir los estímulos antes de tiempo y considerar que la recuperación financiera y la recuperación real van juntas.

  10. Lecciones de la Gran Depresión para la recuperación económica en 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Romer, Christina D.

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo compara la Gran Depresión de los años treinta con la actual crisis mundial y presenta algunas lecciones útiles para el diseño de políticas que permitan superar la crisis y comenzar una recuperación firme. Una de esas lecciones es que una expansión fiscal pequeña sólo tiene efectos pequeños y que una expansión monetaria puede ayudar a sanear la economía aunque las tasas de interés sean cercanas a cero. Además, los diseñadores de política se deben abstener de reducir los estímulos...

  11. Stronger Ties With Chile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chile was the first South American country to establish diplomatic relations with China. It was also the first Latin American country to support China’s entry into the WTO,recognize China’s full market

  12. Relaciones entre variables sociodemográficas, incapacidad funcional, dolor y desesperanza aprendida en pacientes con diagnóstico de artritis reumatoide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Vinaccia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio descriptivo transversal fue estudiar las relaciones entre variables sociodemográficas, incapacidad funcional, dolor y desesperanza aprendida en pacientes con artritis reumatoide. Se utilizó una muestra de 124 pacientes (110 mujeres y 14 hombres diagnosticados con artritis reumatoide según los criterios del American College of Rheumatology. Como instrumento de medida de la discapacidad funcional se utilizó el Activities of Daily Living (HAQ-ADL, para evaluar el dolor se aplicó el Pain Severity Scale MOS y para la desesperanza aprendida el Arthritis Helplessness Index (AHÍ. Los resultados indicaron que los factores sociodemográficos son mejores predictores de desesperanza que el dolor y la incapacidad funcional, hecho que presenta evidentes discrepancias con investigaciones que plantean lo contrario, es decir una fuerte relación entre incapacidad funcional, dolor y desesperanza. Probablemente estas diferencias dependan de factores culturales que diferencian claramente la sociedad norteamericana de la colombiana con respecto al rol, la forma de atención y al cuidado de los enfermos crónicos. Esto nos permite entender más coherentemente una enfermedad crónica multifactorial, como es la artritis reumatoide, mediante un modelo bio-psico-social-ambiental y cultural.

  13. ALBERT O. HIRSCHMAN Y LA ECONOMÍA DEL DESARROLLO: LECCIONES PARA EL PRESENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Hurtado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Albert Hirschman vivió casi cinco años en Colombia, donde según él, adquirió un punto de vista. Este punto de vista le permitió formular una aproximación original al desarrollo, alejada de las grandes teorías y del mero empirismo; lo llamó una estrategia de desarrollo y, en ella, resaltaba los eslabonamientos entre sectores productivos pero, sobre todo, las habilidades, creencias y expectativas necesarias, y muchas veces inexplotadas, para hacer posible un proceso dinámico de toma de decisiones. Estaba convencido de que los individuos eran más que simples beneficiarios de las políticas de desarrollo y los veía como agentes activos de sus propios procesos. Este artículo, después de explorar su punto de vista, presenta las posibles lecciones de Hirschman a la economía del desarrollo actual, en general, y al método de experimentos sociales controlados, en particular.

  14. LA REFORMA ESTRUCTURAL DE LAS PENSIONES DE SEGURIDAD SOCIAL EN AMERICA LATINA: MODELOS, CARACTERISTICAS, RESULTADOSY LECCIONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Mesa Lago

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available La reforma estructural de las pensiones de la seguridad social es un tema de debate internacional y América Latina ha sido pionera en dicha reforma, tiene una experiencia acumulada de dos décadas y ha ejercido una influencia importante en otras regiones del mundo. Este artículo recopila información legal y estadística sobre dicha reforma en diez países latinoamericanos, con el fin de acometer tres tareas: (I analizar los tres modelos generales diversos seguidos y apuntar las características de las reformas entre los países;(II evaluar el desempeño de la reforma contrastándola con nueve supuestos convencionales sobre sus efectos (en la cobertura, el pago de las cotizaciones, la competencia y el costo administrativo, el impacto en el ahorro nacional, el rendimiento de la inversión, etc; y (III extraer lecciones de estas reformas que sean útiles para la región y otros países.

  15. A propósito del maestro ignorante y sus lecciones: testimonio de una relación transferencial

    OpenAIRE

    Frigerio Graciela

    2003-01-01

    El artículo remite a la producción y trayectoria de Rancière como un modo de nombrar una filosofía extramuros. Desde esta extraterritorialidad, transitando nociones del psicoanálisis, Frigerio da cuenta de la pertinencia pedagógica y la actualidad de las lecciones de Rancière para los educadores que hoy, en América Latina, tienen a su cargo la responsabilidad de educar. El texto puede recorrerse en clave de transferencia. Destaca los modos en los que el amor de transferencia se vuelven condic...

  16. Chile's Madam President

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    After becoming the first female to win a presidential election in the socially conservative country, Chilean President-elect Michelle Bachelet created history again when unveiling a cabinet that was absolutely gender-balanced on January 30. Following similar breakthroughs of women politicians in Liberia and Germany, what happened in Chile is considered another case of women gaining power worldwide.

  17. La edad de la empatía. Lecciones de la naturaleza para una sociedad más justa y solidaria, por Fran de Waal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Milito Barone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rsseña del libro Fran de Waal, La edad de la empatía. Lecciones de la naturaleza para una sociedad más justa y solidaria (Barcelona: Tusquets Editores, 2011, 258 pp. ISBN: 978-84-8383-350-6

  18. Transferencia de políticas y construcción de lecciones para la modernización administrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Culebro Moreno

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En años recientes, el sector público ha sido objeto de numerosas transformaciones, muchas de ellas han tenido el propósito de mejorar los servicios (salud, educación, turismo mediante la introducción de novedosas herramientas que provienen generalmente del sector privado. Con el fin de estudiar mejor este tipo de reformas al interior de la administración pública el presente artículo tiene un doble objetivo: por una lado, describir el modelo de transferencia de políticas públicas para entender los procesos de gestión gubernamental; y por otro, explorar los principales componentes del modelo de construcción de lecciones del exterior con el propósito de comprender mejor los distintos procesos y elementos de la reforma administrativa. Se toma como referencia de aplicación la experiencia del Consejo Mexicano de Promoción Turística y el Comité de Planeación del Estado de Jalisco, en cuanto a los aspectos normativos, regulativos y cognitivos de la perspectiva institucional. Metodológicamente se parte del análisis de las experiencias anteriores para ilustrar los distintos mecanismos de aprendizaje y construcción de lecciones para evidenciar las características de las dimensiones institucionales bajo las cuales toman lugar los procesos de transformación institucional y reforma administrativa.

  19. Chile exploits LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    Simultaneously with its exploitation of offshore hydrocarbon reservoirs Chile is developing the production and selling of LNG. Chile produces a large quantity of associated gas from its reservoirs at Megallanes and processes it at the Manantiales, Cullen and Posesion plants recovering propane, butane and natural gas liguids. The stripped gas is reinjected for pressure maintenance operations. With the completion of the LNG program full use of the gas will be achieved. It will totally meet the needs of combustible liquids for the central and northern parts of the country, a volume of 2200 million cu m/yr. For its treatment natural gas is sent through gas pipelines to the LNG plant at Cabo Negro. By means of a cooling process, the gas is cooled to -160 C where it becomes a liquid and its volume is reduced by a factor of 600. It is then stored in tanks at atmospheric pressure.

  20. Processos de aprendizagem, competências aprendidas, funcionamento, compartilhamento e armazenagem de conhecimentos em grupos de pesquisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Cecília Odelius

    Full Text Available A finalidade deste artigo é descrever o funcionamento, os processos de aprendizagem, armazenagem e compartilhamento de informações em grupos de pesquisa. Para isso, pauta-se por referenciais teóricos oriundos de abordagens cognitivistas e construtivistas. Desenvolvida numa instituição pública de ensino superior, esta pesquisa valeu-se da coleta de dados obtidos por meio de análise documental e de entrevistas semiestruturadas com líderes de 10 grupos. As entrevistas foram registradas em diários de campo e gravadas em áudio. As categorias extraídas dos dados levantados balizaram não apenas as análises de conteúdo, mas também a apresentação de resultados. Foi verificado que os grupos de pesquisa diferem quanto ao objeto e aos métodos de pesquisa, ao tamanho, ao tempo de existência, aos recursos disponíveis, às técnicas e aos equipamentos, o que influencia o desenvolvimento de competências específicas ligadas à realização das pesquisas de cada área. Há semelhanças no que se refere aos processos de aprendizagem, aos conteúdos e às competências genéricas aprendidas por seus integrantes (entre os quais, estudantes de graduação e de pós-graduação. Entre essas competências intelectuais, típicas da produção de conhecimentos, estão: a elaboração de projetos e a coleta, registro e análise de dados. Os resultados indicam também que, quando perguntados sobre o que aprendiam nesses grupos, nove líderes referiram-se especialmente a habilidades relativas à gestão de pessoas, tais como: lidar com diferenças individuais, de ritmo de trabalho, de escolaridade, de experiência profissional, de valores, de crenças e de cultura. A aprendizagem nos grupos ocorre de maneira informal, por meio de conversas entre participantes, e formal, através de leitura dirigida, da participação em eventos científicos e pela realização de pesquisas, sob a supervisão do líder. O compartilhamento de conhecimentos ocorre

  1. Indicadores regionales de desarrollo sustentable en Chile: ¿Hasta qué punto son útiles y necesarios?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Blanco

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Cada vez más necesitamos maneras de asegurar patrones de desarrollo que sean sustentables, es decir, que sean ambiental, social y económicamente apropiados para nosotros y para las generaciones venideras. Los indicadores de desarrollo sustentable son una herramienta promisoria que permitiría "aterrizar" el concepto de sustentabilidad, apoyando la manera en que se toman las decisiones. En Chile existen pocas experiencias sobre el tema. Este artículo presenta el trabajo realizado para desarrollar indicadores de desarrollo sustentable en cuatro regiones del país. El artículo se centra en las lecciones que han surgido de la experienciaWe are increasingly needing ways to secure patterns of development that be sustainable, that is, environmentally, socially and economically appropriate for us and for future generations. Sustainability indicators are a promising tool that would allow us to "land" the concept, supporting the way in which decisions are made. In Chile there are few experiences on the subject. This paper presents the work carried out to develop sustainability indicators in four regions. The paper focuses on the lessons that have been drawn from the experience

  2. Chile: segundo tiempo Chile: Half-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERT L FUNK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo examina el año político chileno, ofreciendo un análisis crítico del concepto de 'segundo tiempo' autoimpuesto por la presidenta Michelle Bachelet a comienzos del 2008. Resumiendo algunas de las políticas implementadas, el trabajo cuestiona si se logró marcar una linea y dejar atrás los dos primeros y difíciles años del cuarto gobierno de la Concertación. Analizando las medidas tomadas y las encuestas de opinión pública, se encuentra que el reenfoque de las prioridades del gobierno y una complicada coyuntura externa ayudó a levantar los niveles de apoyo de la presidenta y su gobierno.The article examines the political year in Chile, offering a critical analysis of the concept of 'Second Period' which President Michelle Bachelet defined at the beginning of 2008. Summarising some of the policies implemented, the piece asks whether the government was able to draw a line, leaving behind the first, difficult two years of the Concertación s fourth government. Analyzing the measures taken and public opinion polls, the paper finds that a re-focussing of the government's priorities together with a complicated external environment helped to raise support for the president as well as her government.

  3. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help......-Seeking Behavior of the Urban Poor Chapter 5: Spatial Organization and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 6: Conclusion...

  4. Pesando riscos e benefícios: lições aprendidas com as intervenções terapêuticas de um caso com pré-eclâmpsia grave Balance entre beneficios y riesgos: lecciones aprendidas con las intervenciones terapéuticas de un caso con preclampsia grave Balancing the benefits and risks: lessons learned from the therapeutic interventions of a case with severe preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Shiqin Xu; Xiaofeng Shen; Fuzhou Wang

    2013-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: A pré-eclâmpsia é uma síndrome da disfunção de múltiplos órgãos (SDMO) devido a suas manifestações típicas e atípicas que incluem hipertensão, proteinúria, síndrome HELLP, encefalopatia hipertensiva e coagulopatia. O manejo ideal desses pacientes requer uma avaliação do balanço entre os benefícios e riscos das estratégias terapêuticas, anestésicas e obstétricas. RELATO DE CASO: Paciente grávida de 35 anos, com uma gravidez anterior sem complicações, deu entrada em no...

  5. Pesando riscos e benefícios: lições aprendidas com as intervenções terapêuticas de um caso com pré-eclâmpsia grave Balance entre beneficios y riesgos: lecciones aprendidas con las intervenciones terapéuticas de un caso con preclampsia grave Balancing the benefits and risks: lessons learned from the therapeutic interventions of a case with severe preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqin Xu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: A pré-eclâmpsia é uma síndrome da disfunção de múltiplos órgãos (SDMO devido a suas manifestações típicas e atípicas que incluem hipertensão, proteinúria, síndrome HELLP, encefalopatia hipertensiva e coagulopatia. O manejo ideal desses pacientes requer uma avaliação do balanço entre os benefícios e riscos das estratégias terapêuticas, anestésicas e obstétricas. RELATO DE CASO: Paciente grávida de 35 anos, com uma gravidez anterior sem complicações, deu entrada em nosso instituto médico em caráter de emergência às 29 semanas de gravidez. A paciente apresentava-se com tontura, angústia no peito, palpitação, visão embaçada e sangramento vaginal. Após exame físico e laboratorial, a paciente foi diagnosticada com pré-eclâmpsia grave, síndrome HELLP, descolamento prematuro da placenta e SDMO. A paciente também apresentava deformidade da coluna vertebral e pélvica, fixação da articulação mandibular e deslocamento traqueal por causa de um acidente de trânsito ocorrido havia 11 anos. Portanto, uma cesariana de urgência foi feita sob anestesia geral com intubação nasotraqueal usando fio-guia. A paciente recebeu alta diretamente da unidade de terapia intensiva obstétrica no sétimo dia pós-operatório, com pressão arterial normal e recuperação completa das funções orgânicas. CONCLUSÕES: Este caso merece uma discussão mais detalhada sobre as considerações anestésicas no momento de se tomar uma decisão clínica para o tratamento de tal paciente. O bloqueio do neuroeixo é a primeira escolha para pacientes com pré-eclâmpsia submetidas à cesariana quando existe uma trombocitopenia moderada, mas não progressiva. Quando se opta pela anestesia geral, sedação e analgesia adequadas são necessárias para o bom controle da resposta do estresse à intubação, especialmente em pacientes com sinais neurológicos, e para evitar complicações cerebrais sérias.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La preclampsia es un síndrome de la disfunción de múltiples órganos (SDMO debido a sus manifestaciones típicas y atípicas que incluyen hipertensión, proteinuria, síndrome HELLP, encefalopatía hipertensiva y coagulopatía. El manejo ideal de esos pacientes necesita una evaluación del balance entre los beneficios y riesgos de las estrategias terapéuticas, anestésicas y obstétricas. RELATO DE CASO: Paciente embarazada de 35 años, con un embarazo anterior sin complicaciones, llegó a nuestro instituto médico en carácter de urgencia a las 29 semanas de embarazo. La paciente estaba con mareos, molestias en el pecho, cardiopalmia, visión nublada y sangramiento vaginal. Posteriormente al examen físico y laboratorial, la paciente fue diagnosticada con preclampsia grave, síndrome HELLP, desplazamiento prematuro de la placenta y SDMO. La paciente también presentaba una deformidad de la columna vertebral y pélvica, fijación de la articulación mandibular y desplazamiento traqueal debido a un accidente de tránsito ocurrido hacía 11 años. Por tanto, se realizó una cesárea de urgencia con anestesia general con intubación nasotraqueal usando un cable guía. La paciente recibió alta directamente de la unidad de cuidados intensivos obstétrica (UCI-OB al séptimo día del postoperatorio, con una presión arterial normal y la recuperación completa de las funciones orgánicas. CONCLUSIONES: Este caso merece una discusión más detallada sobre las consideraciones anestésicas al momento de tomar una decisión clínica para el tratamiento de tal paciente. El bloqueo del neuro eje es la primera elección para pacientes con preclampsia sometidas a la cesárea cuando existe una trombocitopenia moderada, pero no progresiva. Cuando se opta por la anestesia general, una sedación y una analgesia adecuadas se hacen necesarias para el buen control de la respuesta del estrés a la intubación, especialmente en los pacientes con signos neurológicos, y para evitar las complicaciones cerebrales serias.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS for its typical and atypical manifestations including hypertension, proteinuria, HELLP syndrome, hypertensive encephalopathy and coagulopathy. Optimal management for such patients is determined from an assessment of the balance between benefits and risks of anesthetic and obstetric therapeutic strategies. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old pregnant woman, with one past uncomplicated pregnancy presented at 29 weeks to our medical institute as an emergency with dizziness, chest distress, palpitation, blurred vision and vaginal bleeding. After physical examination and laboratory tests, the patient was diagnosed with severe preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, placental abruption, and MODS. The patient also presented spinal and pelvic deformity, fixation of articulus mandibularis, and tracheal displacement because of a traffic accident 11 years ago. Therefore, urgent cesarean section was performed under general anesthesia with nasal tracheal intubation using a guide wire. The patient was discharged directly home from the obstetric intensive care unit on the 7th postoperative day with normal blood pressure and full recovery of organic function. CONCLUSIONS: This case merits further discussion on the anesthesia considerations concerning how to make a clinical decision when treating such a patient. Neuraxial block is the first choice for preeclampsia patients undergoing cesarean section when a moderate but not progressive thrombocytopenia exists. When general anesthesia is decided, adequate sedation and analgesia is needed to better control the stress response to intubation especially in patients with neurological signs, and to prevent major cerebral complications.

  6. Indefensión escolar aprendida en alumnos de educación media superior y su relación con dos indicadores del desempeño académico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Barraza Macías

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this research paper, we establish the relationship between the variable school learned helplessness and two indicators of academic performance. In order to achieve this goal, a correlational, cross-sectional, non-experimental study was developed. The instrument used was the Learned Helplessness School Inventory, which was applied to 462 students at the College La Forestal Graduates located in the city of Durango. Their main results suggest that there is a moderate perception of the variable learned helplessness in school students polled and that this variable is related to the average GPA and the number of failed subjects. Resumen En el presente artículo de investigación, se establece la relación que existe entre la variable indefensión escolar aprendida y dos indicadores del desempeño académico. Para el logro de este objetivo, se desarrolló un estudio correlacional, transversal, no experimental. El instrumento utilizado fue el Inventario de Indefensión Escolar Aprendida, que se aplicó a 462 alumnos del Colegio de Bachilleres La Forestal de la ciudad de Durango. Sus principales resultados permiten afirmar que existe una percepción moderada de la variable indefensión escolar aprendida en los alumnos encuestados y que esta variable se relaciona con el promedio de calificación y con el número de materias reprobadas.

  7. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  8. Biomasa en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson Cifuentes, Gabriel; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    El artículo presenta el desarrollo de la biomasa en Chile, dentro del complejo marco energético existente en el país, el cual, aún no logra potenciar e incentivar el desarrollo de energías renovables y depende fuertemente de los combustibles fósiles, acrecentando el riesgo latente de sufrir una crisis energética, en el mediano plazo, producto de la paulatina incorporación de nuevas centrales generadoras de energías, que satisfagan la creciente demanda energética pronosticada. Este ar...

  9. Comentario a la Presentación del Libro "Lecciones de Historia de la Medicina"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Groot Liévano

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Sea lo primero dar las gracias al Dr. Juan Mendoza-Vega por la atención especial que ha tenido para conmigo al pedirme que haga el comentario de esta segunda edición de su conocido texto "Lecciones de Historia de la Medicina".

    Hay dos razones para tal agradecimiento: la primera, su enaltecedor concepto que tiene de mis capacidades, concepto más basado en la amistad que en la realidad, y la segunda, ella sí fundamental: el privilegio de leer esta edición bien escrita y amena como la primera pero ampliada con todos los avances de los últimos quince años. Se denomina "Lecciones" porque la modestia del autor así lo quiso pero en verdad es mucho más que eso porque en efecto se trata de un elegante resumen de la historia de la medicina desde la época mágica hasta el momento actual pasando por Grecia, Roma, el Medioevo, el aporte islámico, el Renacimiento y el mundo moderno con la aparición del concepto mecanicista, la mentalidad anatomo-patológica, la fisiopatología, la microbiología, la genética y la perspectiva de un mundo complejo en el que la biología molecular, la ingeniería genética y los avances de la informática jugarán un papel preponderante si se mantienen dentro de las normas bioéticas que convienen al hombre y a su entorno siguiendo la clásica tradición médica de servir a aquel de la mejor manera posible como lo establecía ya el Juramento Hipocrático hace dos mil cuatrocientos años.

    Cada etapa, además, aparece bellamente descrita dentro del marco socio-cultural de la época. Tan agradable y docto paseo lo presenta el Dr. Mendoza en catorce capítulos, cada uno de los cuales se anuncia, desde el propio índice del libro, con un inteligente resumen que invariablemente invita a la
    pronta lectura del respectivo texto.
    La historia es el hilo que une el pasado con el presente y le permite al hombre valorar su posición
    sobre la tierra y abrigar

  10. Presentación del Libro “Lecciones de Historia de la Medicina”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mendoza-Vega

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Esta segunda edición de las Lecciones es corrección y novedad sobre las lecciones que aparecieron hace ya 14 años, en 1989, y que editó el Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario primordialmente para texto de los alumnos de su Facultad de Medicina.

    Desde aquella época, siguiendo los dictados de Arnold Toynbee, gran historiador británico, se intentó una mirada a la historia de la medicina que saliera de lo anecdótico, que saliera de las listas de nombres y de figuras célebres y de acontecimientos, para tratar de mostrar a los estudiantes y a los lectores benévolos la relación entre lo que pensó la humanidad en determinados momentos sobre el fenómeno que hoy en castellano llamamos enfermedad y lo que fue en general la vida humana en esos momentos.

    Por supuesto, para evitar la aridez de un texto absolutamente desprovisto de anécdotas, traté de conservar también algo de los nombres, algo de las fechas y quizás mucho de las pequeñas historias alrededor de los grandes personajes de la historia de la medicina: comencé imaginando al hombre primitivo, al grupo humano más elemental, allá cuando comenzaron a pararse en las patas de atrás y a usar las de adelante para hacer cosas y me pareció que no estaba descaminado el pensar que en ese momento uno de los miembros del grupo, hombre o mujer, con un poco más de brillo en los ojos, con un poco más de inteligencia que los demás, tuvo la habilidad y tuvo el buen juicio para enfrentarse a un accidente, para tomar quizás el miembro fracturado de una accidentado e inmovilizarlo y así quitar el dolor y se hizo entonces acreedor a que los miembros del grupo y los de otros grupos con los que hiciera contacto volvieran, hacia ese miembro más inteligente, los ojos cada vez que aparecía el fenómeno de enfermedad, incluyendo el momento en que quisieron preguntarle ¿ésto por qué ocurre?

    A partir de ese momento planteo a lo largo de estas páginas, ha pasado la

  11. Chile: Transantiago recargado Chile: Transantiago Reloaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO MARDONES Z

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El 2007 fue el segundo año del gobierno de Michelle Bachelet. Se trató de un año sin elecciones; con un buen desempeño económico, a pesar de una inflación creciente en los últimos meses; y marcado por la discusión sobre escándalos de corrupción. Sin embargo, lo que más afectó al Gobierno fue la desastrosa puesta en marcha de la reforma al sistema de transporte público de la capital: Transantiago. Este puso un velo sobre los importantes avances en materias previsionales y educacionales, cuestionando no sólo la capacidad ejecutiva del Gobierno, sino que profundizando un flanco de indisciplina al interior de la coalición oficialista (Concertación; síntoma de su desgaste después de 17 años ocupando la Presidencia de Chile.The year 2007 was the second in Michelle Bachelet’s presidencial term. It was a year free of elections, exhibiting a fairly good economic performance, despite the high rate of inflation shown during the last months. Public discussion on corruption escandals was frequent; however, the most important issue was the disestrous beginning of the reform on the public transportation system of the country’s capital: Transantiago. This has placed a veil over the important achievements on the pension system and education, questioning not only the government’s capacity, but also opening and edge of indiscipline within the ruling coalition (Concertación, which is a symtom of its erosion after 17 years in the presidential office.

  12. Posibilidades de una fenomenología no-eidética: Las lecciones de 1910/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Maldonado

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available El autor examina sistemáticamente el breve texto de las lecciones husserlianas de Gotinga, "Problemas fundamentales de la fenomenología" (1 91 0/11, en las que Husserl introduce las cuestiones generales de la fenomenología no desde el camino de la eidética, sino desde el de la experiencia. La importancia del texto aquí abordado en sus sietepartes radica fundamentalmente en lo siguiente: en constituir la primerapresentación clara de la temática de la intersubjetividad como problemacentral de la fenomenología; en la presencia del mundo como temaexplícito de la reflexión fenomenológica y en la presentación global de losproblemas de la idea de la fenomenología estática en el marco de constitución del mundo.

  13. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  14. Desarrollo y aplicación de lecciones de estadística en-línea con objetos de aprendizaje en un ambiente universitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Organista Sandoval

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan resultados preliminares de una investigación-desarrollo que tuvo el propósito de desarrollar lecciones de Estadística en línea con inserción de objetos de aprendizaje y estimar el efecto sobre el aprendizaje de los alumnos participantes en un ambiente natural universitario. Se utilizaron señalamientos teóricos constructivistas para el desarrollo de las lecciones, para conformarle al estudiante un ambiente en línea propicio para la construcción activa de su conocimiento. La aplicación de las lecciones se realizó con 92 alumnos universitarios (tres grupos. Se aplicó una encuesta de datos generales previo a la intervención educativa. Al final, se entrevistaron a los docentes responsables y se conformaron tres grupos de discusión con los alumnos. Los resultados mostraron un mejor aprendizaje en Estadística en 6 de las 7 comparaciones hechas para los subgrupos que tuvieron la mayor actividad en el web. La opinión de alumnos y docentes fue favorable a este tipo de innovación educativa. Finalmente, es conveniente puntualizar las bondades de incorporar este tipo de innovaciones en cursos universitarios y asi transitar hacia una mejora integral del proceso educativo.

  15. Fires in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  16. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  17. ALGUNAS LECCIONES SOBRE EL ACCESO A RECURSOS GENÉTICOS EN COLOMBIA. DOS ESTUDIOS DE CASO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEMOGA GABRIEL

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN

    En Colombia el acceso a los recursos genéticos (ARG con fines científicos o de aplicación comercial está regulado por la Decisión 391/96 de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones y sus normas reglamentarias. Durante los primeros años de su aplicación, la eficacia de esta normatividad fue casi nula resultado de deficiencias institucionales y de la falta de información e interés de los investigadores e instituciones de investigación. Con el fin de extraer lecciones sobre los procedimientos de obtención de ARG y de promover una mejor respuesta institucional de las autoridades ambientales, se examinan dos estudios de caso. La información se obtuvo de los expedientes N.º 2571 y N.º RGE0018-07 del Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial (MAVDT. En la solicitud del Instituto de Biotecnología de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, después de siete años de trámite no ha sido posible obtener el ARG; al contrario, el MAVDT inició un proceso sancionatorio por acceso ilegal. En la solicitud de la “Unión Temporal Centro Colombiano de Genómica y Bioinformática de Ambientes Extremos GeBix” el respectivo ARG se firmó luego de 406 días de trámite. Se puede concluir que la obtención de contrato ARG, requiere conocimiento del procedimiento por parte del investigador y una respuesta adecuada en la implementación de la legislación por parte del MAVDT. Si bien actualmente el desarrollo del trámite es menos difícil para los investigadores, son necesarios ajustes institucionales y normativos para que la obtención de un contrato de ARG facilite, en lugar de obstaculizar la investigación científica.

    Palabras clave: Acceso recursos genéticos, bioprospección, investigación biológica, Decisión 391 de 1996, Colombia.

    ABSTRACT

    Access to genetic resources (AGR with scientific or commercial purposes is regulated in Colombia by Decision 391/96 of the Andean Community of

  18. complejidad en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Bustamante-Ubilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objetivo caracterizar el clima organizacional al interior de 2 hospitales dealta complejidad de Chile, determinando las dimensiones más y menos influyentes. Para su desarrollose aplicó un cuestionario que consta de 71 variables agrupadas en 14 dimensiones a una muestra de561 funcionarios. La interpretación de los resultados se realizó a través del análisis del valor prome-dio estandarizado y su confiabilidad ratificada mediante el alfa de Cronbach. A partir de lo anterior, sedeterminó que las dimensiones que influyen por encima del promedio fueron: identidad, motivaciónlaboral y responsabilidad; en tanto que las dimensiones que muestran un nivel de impacto por debajodel promedio resultaron ser: equipo y distribución de personas y material, administración del conflictoy comunicación.© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

  19. [Chile: Standing up again].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes B, Humberto

    2010-03-01

    One of the biggest earthquakes recorded in human history has recently devastated a large part of the Chilean territory and, followed by a Tsunami, destroyed cities, seaports, fishermen's coves, bridges, and countryside houses. This cataclysm affected a large proportion of our population, leaving homeless families, no working tools for work places, hospitals, schools, public buildings, museums. However, the loss of human Uves was small compared to similar disasters. It destroyed part of the national heritage as well as damaged people's living conditions. A national movement started immediately to help and recover, and international resources, both human and technological were also set in motion. As after previous earthquakes in Chile, young M.D.'s and medical students were organized in voluntary groups backed by institutions or by their own organizations and went from large cities as Santiago and others to provide medical and psychological care to those in most need. Young members and students of other health professions (nurses, physical therapists, etc.) were included in these groups or worked in their own ones. National and international experience indicates that the forthcoming months require special care of psychological reactions and sequel (posttraumatic stress symptoms) and health consequences after water pollution, restrictions in housing and deteriorated sanitary conditions. Nevertheless, our country will stand up once more.

  20. Country watch: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Leiva, M

    1996-01-01

    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented.

  1. It Pays to Invest in Chile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ Chile is the first country to establish coopera-tive relations with China in South America, and also the first one to support China's ac-cession to the World Trade Organization.In 2005, Chile and China signed a free trade agreement.After that, China has become Chile's largest trad-ing partner, and Chile become China's second largest partner in South America.

  2. Modernitet og forbrugskultur i Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2012-01-01

    I de sidste årtier er Chile blevet et egentligt forbrugersamfund. Udbredelsen af forbrugskulturen og forbrugerismen er centrale fænomener i chilenernes dagligliv og har nået et omfang, som har konsekvenser for de borgere, der ikke kan deltage fuldt ud heri, noget som er typisk for et samfund med en...... ujævn økonomisk udvikling og med store sociale forskelle. Denne proces er ikke et produkt af en stille, fredelig og naturlig samfundsudvikling, således som magteliten og de toneangivende intellektuelle i Chile har fremstillet det. Som jeg vil vise, er skabelsen af et egentlig forbrugssamfund knyttet til...... til i dag. Ifølge disse er Chile blevet et moderne samfund netop i kraft af, at Chile er et ægte forbrugersamfund med alt, hvad dette indebærer, såvel materielt som symbolsk. For det tredje er billedet af Chile som en ”supermoderne” nation i den latinamerikanske kontekst en udbredt forestilling hos...

  3. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Danyang

    2005-01-01

      Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.……

  4. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Danyang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.

  5. LECCIONES DE POLÍTICA MACROECONÓMICA PARA EL DESARROLLO, A LA LUZ DE LA EXPERIENCIA DEL PASADO DECENIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Frenkel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo procura lecciones de política macroeconómica contrastando la expe-riencia de los países en desarrollo durante los años 2000, incluyendo su desempeño durante la crisis reciente, con los tres decenios anteriores de globalización finan-ciera. La principal lección es el papel decisivo de dichas políticas macroeconómicas para impulsar el crecimiento, la estabilidad financiera y un desempeño sólido frente a los choques externos, reales y financieros. Además, el contraste sugiere un con-junto de orientaciones de política macroeconómica que contribuyen a alcanzar el cumplimiento simultáneo de los tres objetivos mencionados. El análisis se presenta en dos partes. La primera se dedica a fundamentar la lección principal e identificar las orientaciones de política. En la segunda parte esas políticas macroeconómicas son expuestas sintéticamente y se analiza algunos aspectos de su instrumentación, particularmente de las políticas monetaria y cambiaria. Cierra el trabajo una sec-ción de reflexiones finales.

  6. Wildfires in Chile: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, Xavier; Sarricolea, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature examining the wildfire phenomenon in Chile. Since ancient times, Chile's wildfires have shaped the country's landscape, but today, as in many other parts of the world, the fire regime - pattern, frequency and intensity - has grown at an alarming rate. In 2014, > 8000 fires were responsible for burning c. 130,000 ha, making it the worst year in Chile's recent history. The reasons for this increase appear to be the increment in the area planted with flammable species; the rejection of these landscape modifications on the part of local communities that target these plantations in arson attacks; and, the adoption of intensive forest management practices resulting in the accumulation of a high fuel load. These trends have left many native species in a precarious situation and forest plantation companies under considerable financial pressure. An additional problem is posed by fires at the wildland urban interface (WUI), threatening those inhabitants that live in Chile's most heavily populated cities. The prevalence of natural fires in Chile; the relationship between certain plant species and fire in terms of seed germination strategies and plant adaptation; the relationship between fire and invasive species; and, the need for fire prevention systems and territorial plans that include fire risk assessments are some of the key aspects discussed in this article. Several of the questions raised will require further research, including just how fire-dependent the ecosystems in Chile are, how the forest at the WUI can be better managed to prevent human and material damage, and how best to address the social controversy that pits the Mapuche population against the timber companies.

  7. Chile Energy Policy Review 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-22

    Since 1990, Chile has been the fastest growing economy in Latin America thanks to sound economic management and integration into the global economy. Chile can also be proud of its energy policy achievements. The pioneering privatisation and liberalisation of its electricity sector in the 1980s was the foundation for a competitive energy sector, which has sustained the rapid growth of the Chilean economy over the past two decades. Nonetheless, Chile faces the continuing challenge of finding additional energy supplies to fuel economic growth. Chile has limited fossil energy resources and depends on imports to meet three-quarters of its energy needs. The country's electricity sector has faced three periods of significant stress over the past decade. The last episode took place in 2007/2008, when the loss of natural gas imports from Argentina was further exacerbated by a drought in the central system, where hydropower normally accounts for over half of electricity generation. Drawing on the experience of IEA member countries, the Review assesses Chile's major energy challenges and provides recommendations. Six main themes emerge: the successful liberalisation of the power sector in the 1980s; the essential role played by the state in ensuring energy security; the re-formulation of Chile's long-term energy policy; the proposed reorganisation of the institutional framework; greater independence for the system operators; and the need for a clear framework of regulation so that long-term investment decisions integrate social and environmental costs. This publication is essential reading for all who are interested in Chilean energy issues and in learning about the important role sound energy policy can play in developing a nation's economic and social welfare.

  8. Fourth Generation Warfare in Chile: Illicit Drug Trafficking Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    Investigations Police of Chile (Policia de Investigaciones de Chile – PDI). Carabineros de Chile is the uniformed Chilean national police force created in...Chile also has an investigative police force, the Investigations Police of Chile (Policia de Investigaciones de Chile, PDI). This is the civil police... Investigaciones de Chile Homepage, http://www.investigaciones.cl/ (accessed February 20, 2011). 56 CONACE Homepage http://www.conacedrogas.cl/portal

  9. Las lecciones de Chernóbil: Ciencia y tecnología en la sociedad global y el proyecto cosmopolita

    OpenAIRE

    Willy Soto Acosta

    2012-01-01

    El artículo parte de las tres grandes lecciones que dejó la tragedia de Chernóbil. En primer lugar, que las invenciones científicas y tecnológicas pueden escapar del control humano y pueden llegar a re- presentar un riesgo, es decir, un potencial negativo contra la misma humanidad. Segundo, que la ciencia y la tecnología pueden volverse contra el mismo gé- nero humano si no son enmarcadas dentro de un proyecto cosmopolita.Tercero, Chernóbil demostró que los riesgos ecológicos no respetan fron...

  10. Déficit de calidad del Índice Nacional de Defunciones: lecciones aprendidas al estudiar la mortalidad de dos cohortes de admitidos a tratamiento por drogas Quality deficits in the Spanish National Death Index: lessons learned from studying the mortality of two cohorts of people admitted to drug abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Molist

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: El uso sanitario del Índice Nacional de Defunciones (INDEF está aumentando por su gratuidad y accesibilidad. Partiendo de hallazgos inesperados al cruzar dos cohortes de pacientes con el INDEF, se pretende valorar la calidad de la información de esta fuente. Métodos: Los registros individuales de dos cohortes de tratados por drogas en Barcelona (n=19.974 y Madrid (n=17.557 se cruzaron con el INDEF y luego con el Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE para asignar el estado vital. Se obtuvieron la especificidad y la sensibilidad del INDEF en relación al INE, y estimaciones de la mortalidad con ambos sistemas. Se calculó también la subestimación de la mortalidad en el conjunto de España en el mismo periodo. Resultados: Durante 1997-2008, en Madrid, la búsqueda independiente en el INDEF subestimó la mortalidad un 18,9% con respecto al INE. Una búsqueda individualizada posterior restringida a los muertos detectados en el INE pero no en el INDEF la redujo al 13,9%. En Barcelona, con búsqueda combinada (independiente más restringida, la subestimación fue del 3,3%. Durante 2001-2002 la subestimación con búsquedas combinadas llegó al 32,3% en Madrid y al 7,3% en Barcelona. La subestimación también se aprecia en el conjunto de la población española (1,8% en 1997-2008 y 9,3% en 2001-2002. Durante 1997-2008 la especificidad de las búsquedas independientes en el INDEF fue del 100%, pero su sensibilidad en Madrid fue sólo del 81%. Conclusiones: La calidad del INDEF es suficiente para muchos usos sanitarios, pero subestima la mortalidad con importantes variaciones temporoespaciales. Mejorar sus algoritmos de búsqueda, posibilitar tabulaciones on-line de los principales resultados, introducir controles de calidad y evaluarlo sistemáticamente, permitirían aumentar su calidad.Objective: The use of the Spanish National Death Index (S-NDI is increasing as it is free and easily accessible. Prompted by unexpected findings when linking two cohorts of patients with the S-NDI, this study was performed to evaluate the quality of mortality data from this source. Methods: Individual records of two cohorts of persons admitted to drug abuse treatment in Barcelona (n=19,974 and Madrid (n=17,557 were linked with the S-NDI and then with the National Statistics Institute (NSI to assign vital status. The sensitivity and specificity of the S-NDI in relation to the NSI and estimates of mortality with both systems were obtained. Underestimation of mortality by the S-NDI for the same period in the whole of Spain was also calculated. Results: For Madrid, from 1997-2008, independent searches in the S-NDI underestimated mortality by 18.9% compared with the NSI. A subsequent individualized search limited to deaths detected by the NSI but not by the S-NDI reduced underestimation to 13.9%. For Barcelona, underestimation with a combined search (independent plus limited was 3.3%. From 2001-2002, underestimation with combined searches reached 32.3% in Madrid and 7.3% in Barcelona. Underestimation was also seen in the general Spanish population (1.8% in 1997-2008 and 9.3% in 2001-2002. From 1997-2008, the specificity of independent searches in the S-NDI was 100%, but its sensitivity in Madrid was only 81%. Conclusions: The quality of the S-NDI is good enough for many uses in the health sector, but this index underestimates mortality with substantial spatiotemporal variations. The quality of the S-NDI could be increased by improving its search algorithms, enabling on-line tabulations of the main results, and introducing quality controls and routine evaluations.

  11. Déficit de calidad del Índice Nacional de Defunciones: lecciones aprendidas al estudiar la mortalidad de dos cohortes de admitidos a tratamiento por drogas Quality deficits in the Spanish National Death Index: lessons learned from studying the mortality of two cohorts of people admitted to drug abuse treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Gemma Molist; Gregorio Barrio; Sara Santos; M. Teresa Brugal; Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo; José Pulido; Anna Guitart; Luis de la Fuente

    2012-01-01

    Objetivos: El uso sanitario del Índice Nacional de Defunciones (INDEF) está aumentando por su gratuidad y accesibilidad. Partiendo de hallazgos inesperados al cruzar dos cohortes de pacientes con el INDEF, se pretende valorar la calidad de la información de esta fuente. Métodos: Los registros individuales de dos cohortes de tratados por drogas en Barcelona (n=19.974) y Madrid (n=17.557) se cruzaron con el INDEF y luego con el Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE) para asignar el estado vita...

  12. "Don't Tell My Father": Important Lessons Learned through EFL Classroom Small Talk ("No le digan a mi padre": lecciones importantes aprendidas a través de la comunión fática en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala González, Gabriela; de Cervantes Orozco, Miguel Adrián Leonel; González Cabrera, Víctor Daniel; Romero Mayora, Faviola; Mugford Fowler, Gerrard Edwin

    2011-01-01

    All too often phatic communion is neglected in the English as a foreign language classroom or relegated to the level of formulaic language which merits little or no attention. In this article we argue that phatic communion plays an important role in establishing, developing and maintaining interpersonal relationships between teacher and learners…

  13. Women and Politics in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Julieta

    1983-01-01

    Political parties in Chile of both the left and right have focused more on drawing women into their ideologies than on considering what political issues mean to women. A look at feminist thought shows how political life for women includes not only the traditional political arena but also domestic life. (IS)

  14. The biomethane potential in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiffert, M.; Miranda, J.A. [Institute for Energy and Environment gGmbH, German Biomass Research Centre, Torgauer Strasse 116, 04347 Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, M. [Institute for Energy and Environment gGmbH, German Biomass Research Centre, Torgauer Strasse 116, 04347 Leipzig (Germany); Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Hamburg University of Technology, Eissendorfer Strasse 40, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    Within the last decade natural gas gained considerable importance in Chile. The contribution of natural gas within the energy system will increase in the future by predicted 3.6% annually until the year 2015. Due to limited resources within its own country, the energy system of Chile depends on natural gas imports preferential from Argentina. Therefore, the aim of several stakeholders from policy and industry is to reduce the share of imported primary energy within the overall energy system. In order to reach this goal, the use of domestic resources and particularly the utilisation of biomass as one of the most important renewable sources of energy in Chile could play an important role. Against this background, the goal of this paper is the analysis of the technical potentials of biomethane as a substitute for natural gas. For the production of biomethane the anaerobic or bio-chemical (i.e. Biogas) as well as the thermo-chemical conversion pathways (i.e. Bio-SNG) are considered. The results of this analysis show that biomass converted to biomethane is a promising energy provision option for Chile and it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  15. Evangelización y sacramentos en la Nueva España (s. XVI) según Jerónimo de Mendieta. Lecciones de ayer para hoy (Reseña)

    OpenAIRE

    Luque-Alcaide, E. (Elisa)

    1994-01-01

    Reseña del libro de Dionisio BOROBIO, Evangelización y sacramentos en la Nueva España (s. XVI) según Jerónimo de Mendieta. Lecciones de ayer para hoy, Servicio de Publicaciones Instituto Teológico Franciscano, Murcia 1992, 193 pp.

  16. Tres lecciones de tinieblas, de José Ángel Valente: naturaleza musical, claves de poética e implicaciones simbólicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Escobar Borrego

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work offers a study of the musical characterization of Tres lecciones de tinieblas (1980 by José Ángel Valente (1929-2000. This is done, first, by the analysis of poetic keys provided by the author in various texts (interviews, essays, speeches, diary ... so, subsequently, identify the sources of the poems, whether musical –from Gregorian chant to Webern, Boulez or Schenker–, literary (Gonzalo de Berceo, etc., philosophical (Miguel de Molinos ... In all models presented excels, in particular, the assimilation by Valente of the genre of Leçons Ténèbres –especially Couperin and Charpentier–, as well as of the tradition of Spanish Golden age, with echoes of Tomás Luis de Victoria, Quevedo and his Lágrimas de Hieremías castellanas, the “silent music” of San Juan de la Cruz or the “musical poetry” of Gongora, among other flagship references. Finally, given the complex nature generic of Tres lecciones, we study with special attention, in short, both the Pythagorean symbolism as the musical properties of the letters-numbers to conclude with some notes on the poetics of the fragment.

  17. The Judicialization of (Separation of Powers Politics: Lessons from Chile La judicialización de la (separación de poderes política: Lecciones de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druscilla L. Scribner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most analyses of the judicialization of politics focus on judicial policy-making and rights creation; however when judicialization of politics unfolds in a separation of powers political context courts are also involved in distributing power. The task of power delineation among branches of government is different from policy-making or rights adjudication. Judicializing political disputes about power gives courts the opportunity to alter the balance of institutional power, to create stronger executives (or legislatures and a stronger (or weaker role for themselves. To illustrate these points, this article examines how the Chilean Constitutional Tribunal (TC adjudicated a specific type of separation of powers conflict between the Legislature and the Executive from 1990-2005. The analysis of the TC doctrine overtime highlights how the TC has shifted the balance of power in the policy-making process and augmented its influence within the political system. La mayoría de los análisis de la judicialización de la política se centran en la creación judicial de políticas y derechos. Sin embargo, cuando la judicialización de la política se desarrolla en un contexto institucional de separación de poder, los tribunales también están involucrados en la distribución de poder. La tarea de delimitación de poder entre los poderes del Estado es diferente de la formulación de políticas o adjudicación de los derechos. Judicialización de las disputas políticas sobre el poder confiere a los tribunales la oportunidad de alterar el equilibrio de poder institucional, para crear ejecutivos (o legislaturas más fuertes y un papel para los tribunales altos más dinámico (o débil. Para ilustrar estos puntos, este artículo examina cómo el Tribunal Constitucional Chileno (TC adjudicó un tipo de conflicto específico entre los poderes legislativo y ejecutivo desde 1990 hasta 2005. Un análisis de la jurisprudencia “ley vs. reglamento” del Tribunal Constitucional pone de relieve cómo el TC ha distribuido el poder entre los ramos políticos y aumentado su influencia dentro del sistema político.

  18. Acuicultura Insostenible en Chile (Unsustainable aquaculture in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer, Marcos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa acuicultura en Chile sólo será alternativa a la pesca si se consigue llevar su producción a parámetros de sostenibilidad, no solamente económica sino, fundamentalmente, ambiental. Con un esfuerzo dirigido hacia medidas legislativas y de control, e investigación aplicada, podríamos acercarnos a una acuicultura ambientalmente sostenible.

  19. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De...... socialistiske regeringer har accepteret et begrænset demokrati og videreført en nyliberal økonomisk politik, der har bragt dem på konfrontationskurs med massebevægelserne og isoleret Chile fra de andre lande i regionen, der søger integration og gensidig støøte. Udgivelsesdato: Februar...

  20. Area Handbook Series: Chile: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    encomiendas , or trusteeships. Enco- menderos (those who received encomiendas ) in turn controlled the Indians. In Chile, however, there were too few...Indians to operate an encomienda system to support the many Spaniards who soon arrived-nor was there sufficient gold and silver for the Indians to pay...provided a con- 7 Chile: A Country Study venient rationale for capturing and enslaving Indians to fill the needs of the encomiendas in central Chile

  1. Desarrollo y aplicación de lecciones de estadística en-línea con objetos de aprendizaje en un ambiente universitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavigne, Gilles

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se presentan resultados preliminares de una investigación-desarrollo que tuvo el propósito de desarrollar lecciones de Estadística en línea con inserción de objetos de aprendizaje y estimar el efecto sobre el aprendizaje de los alumnos participantes en un ambiente natural universitario. Se utilizaron señalamientos teóricos constructivistas para el desarrollo de las lecciones, para conformarle al estudiante un ambiente en línea propicio para la construcción activa de su conocimiento.La aplicación de las lecciones se realizó con 92 alumnos universitarios (tres grupos. Se aplicó una encuesta de datos generales previo a la intervención educativa. Al final, se entrevistaron a los docentes responsables y se conformaron tres grupos de discusión con los alumnos. Los resultados mostraron un mejor aprendizaje en Estadística en 6 de las 7 comparaciones hechas para los subgrupos que tuvieron la mayor actividad en el web. La opinión de alumnos y docentes fue favorable a este tipo de innovación educativa. Finalmente, es conveniente puntualizar las bondades de incorporar este tipo de innovaciones en cursos universitarios y asi transitar hacia una mejora integral del proceso educativo.Abstract: This communication is presenting the preliminary results of a research-development project aiming to evaluate the pedagogical impact of constructivist based learning objects integrated into online Statistic lessons within a live university environment. The experiment was performed with 92 students distributed into three course groups. A survey of the students' general profile was applied previous to the educative intervention and, thereafter, the three participating teachers were interviewed and the students invited to participate to three discussion groups.The results show that, with the exception of one subgroup, the students with a greater online activity obtained a better mark. The overall opinion of the teachers and of the students was

  2. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  3. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

  4. Antarctica: Chile’s Claim,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    any decree, war, or treaty. The report, Geographic and Hydrographic His- tory of the Kingdom of Chile, whose author was Gov- ernor Manuel Amat y...men include Lieu- tenants Ponce and Torrealba of the Chilean Army and Captain Ariel Gonzalez and Corporal Rojas of the Chilean Navy. The interest in...Land, 62 of, 28-30, 36-38, Aguirre Cerda, Pedro, 82, 76, 88 93,96 "stages of growth" of, Alderete, Jeronimo de, 91 31-32 Amat y Jumient, Manuel

  5. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  6. EL RACISMO AMBIENTAL EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS MEZA-LOPEHANDÍA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  7. President of Chile at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, in the ATLAS cavern with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesman, Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, and Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General. Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, signing a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT).The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, paid a visit to CERN during her three-day tour of Switzerland. The charismatic Michelle Bachelet and her large delegation were greeted by the CERN Director-General and then taken to see the ATLAS experiment and the LHC. She also took time to meet the Chilean community working at CERN, comprising several physicists in the Theory Group and the ATLAS experiment. The meeting was followed by the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científi...

  8. Chile. A model mining country?; Chile. Ein Bergbau-Musterland?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Sven [Projektbuero der Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) und des chilenischen Geologie und Bergbaudienstes SERNAGEOMIN, Santiago de Chile (Chile). Projekt ' Grundlagen der Sanierung von Bergbaualtlasten in Chile' ; Dalheimer, Manfred [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany). Abt. Internationale Zusammenarbeit Amerika

    2009-03-19

    Chile is characterised economically and culturally by mining. The copper industry is highly important. In 2007 two thirds of export proceeds were generated solely by copper, copper concentrate and other minerals. With the increase in the price of raw materials since 2004 the state income rose considerably with the result that the national debt was offset. However, this increase was barely noticeable among the wider public. Further reasons for doubt with regards to the mining industry are that a new mining project generally not only creates jobs, but also changes local structures, competes with water utilisation and usually leaves contaminated sites. The responsible politicians and mining authorities are aware of these relationships and are drawing up corresponding laws and decrees. These include the Environmental Act, the bills for mine closures and the systematic redevelopment of old mining sites. At least voluntary commitments for current large-scale mining are in force until the bills are passed. (orig.)

  9. Chile: los mapuches y el Bicentenario Chile: Mapuches e do Bicentenario Chile: Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Bicentenario de la República de Chile se conmemoró en el mes de septiembre del año 2010. Además de marcar un importante hito histórico, coincidió con un cambio político en el Gobierno del país, el que pasó de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia a la Alianza de partidos formada por la derecha chilena. Se cumplieron por tanto 20 años desde que en el año 1990 cambiara el Gobierno militar presidido por el general Pinochet. Ese largo tiempo, dos décadas, coincide con un período de políticas que el Estado ha implementado hacia los Pueblos Indígenas. El Proyecto “Conmemoraciones y Memorias Subalternas” ha realizado durante el año 2010 un conjunto de investigaciones de terreno y documentales tendientes a comprender del modo más objetivo y científico lo ocurrido en el período y por tanto la situación actual de las sociedades mapuches en sus complejas relaciones con la chilena.O Bicentenario da República do Chile comemorou-se no mês de Setembro do ano 2010. Junto com transformar-se num marco histórico, coincidiu com uma mudança política no Governo do país, que passou da Concertação de Partidos pela Democracia (centro-esquerda à Aliança de partidos formada pela direita chilena. Cumpriram-se por tanto 20 anos desde que em 1990 mudasse o Governo militar presidido pelo general Pinochet. Esse longo tempo, duas décadas, coincide com um período de políticas que o Estado implementou para com os Povos Indígenas. O Projeto “Comemorações e Memórias Subalternas” realizou durante o ano 2010 um conjunto de pesquisas de campo e documentais tendentes a compreender do modo mais objetivo e científico o ocorrido no período e, por tanto, a situação atual das sociedades mapuches em suas complexas relações com a chilena.The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right

  10. Crecimiento pro pobre en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Contreras

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Con datos de panel para el periodo 1996-2001 y datos de corte transversal para 1990 y 2003, este artículo evalúa si el crecimiento en Chile ha sido “pro pobre”. Se emplean dos metodos: i se estima la “curva de incidencia del crecimiento” y luego se estima paramétrica y no paramétricamente la relación entre el ingreso per capita de los hogares en 1996 y el cambio en el ingreso de 1996-2001. Los resultados indican que el crecimiento ha incidido significativamente en la reducción de pobreza. Por otra parte, existe evidencia de convergencia para la mitad más pobre de la distribución de ingresos.

  11. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  12. 2010 Chile Earthquake Aftershock Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barientos, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    The Mw=8.8 earthquake off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance our understanding of megathrust earthquakes and associated phenomena. The 2010 Chile earthquake ruptured the Concepcion-Constitucion segment of the Nazca/South America plate boundary, south of the Central Chile region and triggered a tsunami along the coast. Following the 2010 earthquake, a very energetic aftershock sequence is being observed in an area that is 600 km along strike from Valparaiso to 150 km south of Concepcion. Within the first three weeks there were over 260 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater and 18 with magnitude 6.0 or greater (NEIC, USGS). The Concepcion-Constitucion segment lies immediately north of the rupture zone associated with the great magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake, and south of the 1906 and the 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes. The last great subduction earthquake in the region dates back to the February 1835 event described by Darwin (1871). Since 1835, part of the region was affected in the north by the Talca earthquake in December 1928, interpreted as a shallow dipping thrust event, and by the Chillan earthquake (Mw 7.9, January 1939), a slab-pull intermediate depth earthquake. For the last 30 years, geodetic studies in this area were consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading of the subduction interface at depth; this led to identify the area as a mature seismic gap with potential for an earthquake of magnitude of the order 8.5 or several earthquakes of lesser magnitude. What was less expected was the partial rupturing of the 1985 segment toward north. Today, the 2010 earthquake raises some disturbing questions: Why and how the rupture terminated where it did at the northern end? How did the 2010 earthquake load the adjacent segment to the north and did the 1985 earthquake only partially ruptured the plate interface leaving loaded asperities since

  13. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  14. 1960 Puerto Montt, Valdivia, Chile Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960, a Mw 9.5 earthquake, the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded, occurred in southern Chile. The series of earthquakes that followed...

  15. Diversidad de la familia Carabidae (Coleoptera en Chile Diversity of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO ROIG-JUÑENT

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Carabidae constituye dentro de los coléopteros chilenos, la cuarta familia en importancia por su cantidad de especies. El presente trabajo incluye una breve compilación acerca de la historia de la familia y de las primeras expediciones realizadas en Chile. También se realizan comparaciones de la diversidad de carábidos chilenos con respecto a otros países y el Neotrópico. Para Chile, se conocen 21 tribus, con 95 géneros y 365 especies, que representan el 38,8, 28,8 y 7,9 % de la fauna del Neotrópico, respectivamente. Chile posee un bajo número de tribus comparado con otros países, sin embargo, constituye un área importante por la presencia de seis tribus relictuales, principalmente pangeicas o gondwánicas. Chile posee 18 géneros endémicos (18,5 % de su fauna de Carabidae, 28 cuya distribución está restringida a Chile y Argentina y seis restringidos a Chile, Argentina y Uruguay. La cantidad de especies presentes en Chile es inferior a la que poseen otros países de América del Sur, pero la cantidad de especies endémicas es muy alta (204 y representa el 55,8 % de su fauna de carábidos. El alto grado de endemismo que posee Chile con respecto a otros países de América del Sur puede deberse a su condición de aislamiento, siendo las barreras más importantes la región desértica del norte y la cordillera de Los Andes. Este hecho también se vislumbra por la ausencia de importantes tribus neotropicales como Galeritini, Scaritini y Brachinini. También se incluyen en este trabajo claves para la identificación de todas las tribus y géneros presentes en Chile, como así también una breve descripción acerca de la diversidad y ambientes en los que se encuentra cada géneroThe family Carabidae is the fourth largest Coleoptera family in Chile. The present work includes a brief compilation on the taxonomic history of the family and the first expeditions to Chile. In addition, knowledge of carabid diversity in Chile is compared with

  16. Where Do Mexico and Chile Stand on Inclusive Education? Short Title: Inclusion in Mexico and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cedillo, Ismael; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Ramos-Abadie, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the background, current situation and challenges of educational integration and inclusive education in Mexico and Chile. These countries obtained similar low results on the academic achievement of their students (Mexico last and Chile second last) among OECD countries; and above average scores, among Latin-American countries.…

  17. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, G; Acuña, R; Troncoso, M; Portell, D P; Toledo, M S; Valenzuela, J

    1997-11-01

    This article summarizes studies designed to evaluate the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile, described in 21 reports from nine centers in various Chilean regions published between 1985 and 1995. According to their data, H. pylori infection is quite frequent among patients with a variety of gastric conditions, including adults (43%-92%) and children (6%-100%). Levels of specific IgG antibodies to H. pylori are also elevated among patients with duodenal ulcers (100%) and gastritis (86%) as well as asymptomatic adults (75%). Combination therapy with three (but not two) drugs has been proved effective, with clinical improvement, ulcer cure, and H. pylori eradication occurring in well-controlled studies. Available evidence suggests that antibiotic resistance is not a major problem in treatment. The H. pylori reinfection rate is low (4.2% per year), suggesting that combination therapy with three drugs constitutes a cost-effective alternative for treating colonized symptomatic patients. Concurrent preliminary studies revealed that antibodies to VacA but not CagA proteins correlate with disease severity in Chilean patients. It can be concluded that local research assists local administrators of health resources to implement adequate policies to prevent, control, and treat H. pylori-related pathologies.

  19. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  20. The Revolutionary Left and Terrorist Violence in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    Fraude Electoral Designada por la Facultad de Derecho de la Pontifica Universidad de Chile," in Libro Blanco del Cambio de Gobierno de Chile, Editorial...armed forces. Argentine police arrested Edgardo Enriquez, whom they deported to Chile. Humberto Sotomayor apparently left the movement, leaving Andres...often either deport them or sentence them to jail or internal -14- exile. The government seems able to capture the miristas who infiltrate into Chile

  1. [Beginning of the Microbiology education in Chile: formation centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco) may be imported into the United States from Chile,...

  3. Las lecciones de Chernóbil: Ciencia y tecnología en la sociedad global y el proyecto cosmopolita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Soto Acosta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo parte de las tres grandes lecciones que dejó la tragedia de Chernóbil. En primer lugar, que las invenciones científicas y tecnológicas pueden escapar del control humano y pueden llegar a re- presentar un riesgo, es decir, un potencial negativo contra la misma humanidad. Segundo, que la ciencia y la tecnología pueden volverse contra el mismo gé- nero humano si no son enmarcadas dentro de un proyecto cosmopolita.Tercero, Chernóbil demostró que los riesgos ecológicos no respetan fronteras y amenazan a casi la totalidad del planeta Tierra. El trabajo enfoca la problemática desde la teoría de la sociedad del riesgo global y enfatiza la necesidad de un desarrollo científico y tecnológico en función de la vida (humana, animal, vegetal y no de los inte- reses de élites políticas y económicas o del poderío de los Estados.

  4. Expedition Atacama - project AMOS in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, J.; Kaniansky, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Slovak Video Meteor Network operates since 2009 (Tóth et al., 2011). It currently consists of four semi-automated all-sky video cameras, developed at the Astronomical Observatory in Modra, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia. Two new generations of AMOS (All-sky Meteor Orbit System) cameras operate fully automatically at the Canary Islands, Tenerife and La Palma, since March 2015 (Tóth et al., 2015). As a logical step, we plan to cover the southern hemisphere from Chile. We present observational experiences in meteor astronomy from the Atacama Desert and other astronomical sites in Chile. This summary of the observations lists meteor spectra records (26) between Nov.5-13, 2015 mostly Taurid meteors, single and double station meteors as well as the first light from the permanent AMOS stations in Chile.

  5. DETERMINANTES DE LA LECTURA EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Los lectores se forman principalmente leyendo libros. Numerosa evidencia muestra que en Chile los niveles de lectura son bajos, tanto en términos cuantitativos como cualitativos. Existe, además, un consenso respecto de la importancia de la habilidad y el hábito de lectura tanto para el individuo como para la sociedad y la economía. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar los factores que afectan el nivel de lectura de libros en Chile. Para ello, se revisa el rol que desempeña la l...

  6. A propósito del maestro ignorante y sus lecciones: testimonio de una relación transferencial On the ignorant schoolmaster and his lessons: testimony of a tranferential relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Graciela Frigerio

    2003-01-01

    El artículo remite a la producción y trayectoria de Rancière como un modo de nombrar una filosofía extramuros. Desde esta extraterritorialidad, transitando nociones del psicoanálisis, Frigerio da cuenta de la pertinencia pedagógica y la actualidad de las lecciones de Rancière para los educadores que hoy, en América Latina, tienen a su cargo la responsabilidad de educar. El texto puede recorrerse en clave de transferencia. Destaca los modos en los que el amor de transferencia se vuelven condic...

  7. Republic of Chile : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Chile's public procurement system is considered generally free of corruption, supported by probity of the civil servants, decentralization, and good budgetary and control systems. However, it is affected by deficiencies that the government recognizes, and is taking action to overcome, particularly with respect to procurement of goods and services. There is no unified comprehensive, and pub...

  8. DEZVOLTAREA CONTEMPORANĂ A TURISMULUI DIN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Mihaela Győri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary development of the Chilean Tourism sector is analyzed mainly on thebasis of data supplied by the National Service of Tourism in Chile. Figures on inboundtourism, domestic tourism, lodging, employment, receipts, as well as the existing structurewithin the sector, were taken into consideration for the investigated period of 1999-2006.

  9. Statistical analysis of wind energy in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, David [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); The University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, WI-53706 (United States); Jara, Danilo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-05-15

    Bearing in mind the current and pressing need for an update of the existing Chilean power supply system - which has been remarkably influenced by new requirements - the search for new energy supply sources has become a top priority. The wind resource, vis-a-vis its associated mature technology features and its apparent availability throughout Chile, comes forward as a feasible option likely to play a more important role in any future national energy generation matrix. With a view to understanding the local wind resource, this document surveys a sample set of wind profiles available in the northern Chile area, thus becoming the first public survey of this kind. It also tackles theoretical energy production and capacity factors. Those became the basis of the wind modelling we undertook for Chile's participation in COP15. This paper shows wind generation is a suitable option for curbing down Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG) in Chile. (author)

  10. Upward trend for Chile; Andenstaat im Aufwind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneffel, Peter

    2010-03-15

    After an economic boom of 20 years, Chile may soon experience a change of paradigm in an economy based on renewable energy sources. Wind power is booming, and hydroelectric power is going strong as well. It will depend on the new government to see that the process of change continues. (orig.)

  11. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como los profesionales y técnicos. El sector privado cubre aproximadamente a 17.5% de la población perteneciente a los grupos sociales de mayores ingresos. Un pequeño sector de la población, perteneciente a la clase alta, realiza pagos directos de bolsillo a proveedores privados de servicios de atención a la salud. Alrededor de 10% de la población está cubierta por otras agencias públicas, fundamentalmente los Servicios de Salud de las Fuerzas Armadas. Recientemente el sistema se reformó creando el Régimen General de Garantías en Salud, que establece un Sistema Universal con Garantías Explícitas que se tradujo, en 2005, en el Plan de Acceso Universal con Garantías Explícitas (AUGE, que garantiza el acceso oportuno a servicios de calidad para 56 problemas de salud, incluyendo cáncer en niños, cáncer de mama, trastornos isquémicos del corazón, VIH/SIDA y diabetes.This paper describes the Chilean health system, including its structure, financing, beneficiaries, and its physical, material and human resources. This system has two sectors, public and private. The public sector comprises all the organisms that constitute the National System of Health Services, which covers 70% of the population, including the rural and urban poor, the low middle-class, the retired, and the self-employed professionals and technicians.The private sector covers 17.5% of the population, mostly the upper middle-class and the high-income population. A small

  12. Party Change in Chile in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Angell

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article looks at the changes in party systems generally in modern democracies, and argues that many trends observed internationally - growing mistrust of parties, growing electoral de-alignment - are also observed in Chile. Hence any analysis of party change in Chile has to take into account what is happening in other countries with well-established party systems. The article argues that the comparison with the past tends to be limited to the exceptional 1964-1973 period and that a more extended analysis points to many continuities in the Chilean party system. Competing arguments over whether there is new party cleavage in Chile based on the opposition between support for authoritarianism or support for democracy are also examined*.Resumen Este artículo estudia los cambios generales en los sistemas de partidos en las democracias modernas y argumenta que muchas de las tendencias que se observan internacionalmente -como el aumento en la desconfianza en los partidos, o desalineaciones electorales cada vez mayores- también se observan en Chile. De esta forma, cualquier análisis de cambios en el sistema de partidos de Chile tiene que considerar lo que está sucediendo en otros países con sistemas de partidos bien establecidos. El artículo postula que la comparación del sistema de partidos chileno con el pasado reciente tiende a estar limitado al período excepcional 1964-1973 y que un análisis más extendido implicaría muchas más continuidades de las esperadas. También se cuestiona las nuevas discusiones sobre si existe o no una nueva fisura partidaria, basada en la oposición entre el apoyo y rechazo al sistema autoritario, o el apoyo a la democracia.

  13. Microfinanzas y Remesas: La Experiencia de Cooperativas de Ahorro y Crédito

    OpenAIRE

    Dave Grace

    2003-01-01

    Presentación que da a conocer el funcionamiento de la Red Internacional de Remesas - IRnet en los países de México, Honduras, Jamaica, El Salvador y Guatemala. Asimismo, brinda información acerca de las lecciones aprendidas del Consejo Mundial de Cooperativas de Ahorro y Crédito (WOCCU), así como sus futuros proyectos.

  14. El CollectiveAccess, un sistema de gestió i difusió de col·leccions de museus, arxius i biblioteques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcaraz Martínez, Rubén

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Es presenten les característiques principals del CollectiveAccess, un sistema de gestió i difusió de col·leccions digitals per a museus, arxius i biblioteques. Se'n descriuen els components principals, el procés d'instal·lació, l'estructura interna del sistema i es mostren alguns exemples de casos d'ús. Les versions analitzades del sistema són la 1.4 del Providence i la 2.0 del Pawtucket.Se presentan las principales características de CollectiveAccess, un sistema de gestión y difusión de colecciones digitales para museos, archivos y bibliotecas. Se describen sus principales componentes, el proceso de instalación, la estructura interna del sistema y se muestran algunos ejemplos de casos de uso. Las versiones analizadas del sistema son la 1.4 de Providence y la 2.0 de Pawtucket.This paper describes the main features of CollectiveAccess, a collections management and presentation system for the digital collections of museums, archives and libraries. The paper describes the main features of the system and explains how to install and configure the package. It also examines CA’s internal structure and gives examples of how it can be used. The system analyzed in the paper uses Version 1.4 of the core cataloguing application Providence and Version 2.0 of the public web-tool Pawtucket.

  15. Thermoluminescence properties of Chile Guajillo (paprika) Mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)]. E-mail: gkitis@auth.gr; Cruz Zaragoza, E. [Institute of Nuclear Science, UNAM, PO Box 70-753, Mexico DF (Mexico); Furetta, C. [Physics Department, University La Sapienza, P.le A. Moro 2. 00187 Rome (Italy)

    2005-08-01

    The thermoluminescence properties of the inorganic dust extracted from the Chile Guajillo (paprika) Mexicano, were studied in order to verify the possibility of using the TL technique to discriminate between irradiated and non irradiated peppers. The inorganic dust was found to consist of quartz 60%, albite (NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}) 30%, and ortose (KAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}) 10%. Its thermoluminescence dose response covers the wide dose range of 1Gy-10kGy, which was attributed mainly to feldspars. Its high sensitivity and its stability over 10 irradiation-readout cycles allow the application of a single grain-single aliquot regeneration dosimetry in Chile Guajillo (paprika). Evaluations based on trapping parameters show that thermal fading at room temperature for glow-peaks above 180 deg.. C, is not a problem in the dosimetry of paprika.

  16. Soviet Policy in Cuba and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-06

    document dated June 30, 1973, instructing all Communist Party members in Santiago to secure arms and to evacuate the upper class barrio alto in case of...loans. (Other reports indicated a figure of $100 million.) It was also announced in Santiago that the Soviet Union had granted $108 million for long-term...Chile at Rojo, Santiago : Universidad Tecnica del Estado, 1971. See also Luis Corvalan, El Camino de Victoria, Santiago : Impresova Horizonte, 1971, pp

  17. Volby v Chile 2009

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Twenty years has passed from dissolution of authoritarian regime of Augusto Pinochet and in the presidential election 2009/2010 in Chile the right-wing candidate won. The era of continuous government of centre-leftist coalition, that administrated country from the period of transition, was ended off. The thesis focuses on the analysis of presidential and parliamentary elections, in the first place on the question what was the matter of triumph of the opposite candidate in the presidential ele...

  18. Tackling Social Exclusion: Evidence from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies an innovative welfare program in Chile that combines a period of frequent home visits to households in extreme poverty, with guaranteed access to social services. Program impacts are identified using a regression discontinuity design, exploring the fact that program eligibility is a discontinuous function of an index of family income and assets. The analysis finds strong and lasting impacts of the program on the take-up of subsidies and employment services. These impacts ar...

  19. The epidemiology of tuberculosis in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Chile's tuberculosis morbidity notification statistics suggest that there has been a 3% average annual decrease in tuberculosis cases in the last 5 years (1978-82). In addition, over the period 1974-83, there was a 50% decline in the number of deaths from tuberculosis. In 1982, there were 6941 recorded cases of tuberculosis in Chile, only 6.5% of which involved children under 15 years of age; in that same year, there were 984 deaths from tuberculosis, 14.4% of which occurred in children. The majority of cases reported (78%) involve pulmonary tuberculosis. Over 90% of children under 15 years of age are covered by Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination. This was achieved by immunizing 91% of all newborns, 83% of children in their first year of school, and 98% of those in their final year. Laboratories capable of case-finding now cover 95% of Chile's total area. Since 1975, an average of 47 bacilloscopies have been performed per 1000 consultations. Abandonment of treatment has been reduced to 12% and fewer than 20% of cases require hospitalization. Finally, the introduction of shortened rifampicin treatment has reduced the case-fatality rate from 6% to 3%.

  20. Registro nuevo de Amphipyrinae en Chile A new record of Amphipyrinae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania S. Olivares

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez en Chile la especie Agrotisia subhyalina Hampson, entre las latitudes 18° 29' S 70° 20' O hasta 29° 54' S 71° 16' O (I-IV regiones en Chile. Se redescriben los genitales del macho y de la hembra y se presentan algunos aspectos taxonómicos de la especie.The species Agrotisia subhyalina Hampson is recorded for the first time from Chile (18° 29' S 70° 20' W to 29° 54' S 71° 16' W, I to IV Chilean regions. Redescriptions of male and female are presented, along with some taxonomic aspects of the species.

  1. Perú-Chile: imágenes mutuas (Perú-Chile: mutual images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro González Riesle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A partir de los enfoques sobe Expansionismo-Revanchismo de Elizondo y las Imágenes en Espejo de Scott, se analizaron los contenidos de blogs referentes a imágenes mutuas entre Perú y Chile, comprendidos a partir de la fecha (16-01-2008 de presentación por parte del Perú de la Demanda ante el Tribunal de la Haya para la solución del Diferendo Limítrofe con Chile, hasta el 30-03-2011. Se han registrado intensas y variadas manifestaciones de hostilidad mutua, que respaldan la vigencia de la dinámica Expansionismo-Revanchismo en las imágenes mutuas entre Chile y Perú en los blogs analizados. Paralelamente, se detectaron contenidos correspondientes a actitudes integracionistas entre ambos países. Los resultados fundamentan la utilidad del enfoque de las Imágenes en Espejo como instrumento para el análisis de contenido de blogs portadores de mensajes de hostilidad e integración entre ambos países. Se propone una estrategia psicosocial binacional para desactivar la dinámica Expansionismo- revanchismo que contribuiría a producir catastróficas consecuencias para las generaciones actuales y futuras de ambos países; y, promover la integración fronteriza entre Tacna (Perú y Arica (Chile. ABSTRACT: The contents of blogs relating to mutual images between Peru and Chile were analyzed from the approaches about Expansionism – Revanchism of Elizondo, and The images on the mirror of Scott, included the date of the presentation (January 16th, 2008 by Peru of the demand before the International Court of Justice at the Hague for the solution of the border dispute with Chile until March 30th, 2011. There have been intense and varied manifestations of mutual hostility that support the validity of Expansionism-Revanchism dynamics in the mutual images between Chile and Peru in the analyzed blogs. At the same time, it was detected content corresponding to integrationist attitudes between the two countries. The results underlie the utility

  2. Los contratos-programa en las universidades: Lecciones de la comparación internacional. The Contract-Programs in Universities: Lessons from the International Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. García de Fanelli

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2005 el Ministerio de Educación de la Argentina incorporó una nueva política para asignar recursos públicos a las universidades nacionales: los contratos-programa. Su propósito ha sido brindar fondos para el mejoramiento de la calidad a partir de planes institucionales de mejora elaborados por las propias universidades. Se espera además que estos planes sean respuestas a las debilidades detectadas durante los procedimientos de evaluación externa llevados a cabo por la Comisión Nacional de Evaluación y Acreditación Universitaria (CONEAU. En este trabajo se exponen los resultados de una investigación comparativa sobre los casos de Francia y la Comunidad de Cataluña destinada a contribuir con el diseño de esta política de contractualización. La metodología de investigación incluyó el análisis de documentos, la observación de instancias de negociación y entrevistas con actores clave del gobierno y de las universidades. Se concluye señalando las principales lecciones que se desprenden de este análisis comparativo y subrayando las claras ventajas que presenta esta mecanismo en pos de alinear los objetivos estratégicos del gobierno y de las universidades, tras el fin común de mejorar la calidad. In 2005, the Ministry of Education of Argentina launched a new policy to allocate public funds to national universities: the contractualization policy. Its purpose is to allocate funds to improve teaching quality based on an institutional plan defined by each university. It is expected that this plan addresses the main weaknesses detected during the external assessment coordinated by the National Committee of University Assessment and Accrediting (CONEAU. This paper presents the main findings of a research project carried out to help in the design of this contractualization policy. The two most important antecedents, the French and the Catalonian cases, are examined through the study of official documents, on-site observation

  3. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  4. Chile, Latin America, and the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Wilhelmy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Text of a presentation in the Colloquium Chile and the World, organized by the Princeton University Program in Latin American Studies, May 6, 2005, in honor of Professor Paul E.Sigmund. The views expressed have not been reviewed or endorsed by the Chile Pacific Foundation. Manfred Wilhelmy holds a Ph.D. in Politics (1973 from Princeton University

  5. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  6. Honors in Chile: New Engagements in the Higher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skewes, Juan Carlos; Sampaio, Carlos Alberto Cioce; Conway, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    Honors programs are rare in Latin America, and in Chile they were unknown before 2003. At the Universidad Austral de Chile, an interdisciplinary group of scholars linked to environmental studies put forward a pilot project for implementing a new experience in higher education. Challenged by an educational environment where (i) apathy and…

  7. China and Chile Are to Be Free-Trade Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In line with the words "We hope that Chile's Next Partner is China", Chile is believed to choose China as the new negotiation party of Free Trade Agreements after signing respectively free trade agreements with Canada, the United States, EU and ROK. On January 24, Chile's trade delegation composed of 20 members led by Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs paid the first visit to China to launch first five-day round of mutual trade negotiation.Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile and Barbirlo Kafuleirla, Chile's Ambassador to China received special visit of reporters about this round.

  8. El programa filosófico del joven Heidegger. (En torno a las lecciones de 1919. la idea de la filosofía y el problema de la concepción del mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Adrián Escudero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo desarrolla el núcleo del programa filosófico del joven Heidegger a partir de las primeras lecciones de Friburgo. Este programa gira en torno a dos cuestiones fundamentales. Por un lado, una cuestión temática: el fenómeno de la vida humana y sus diferentes formas de manifestación y aprehensión, que lleva a Heidegger a una interesante relectura en clave ontológica de Aristóteles, Pablo, Agustín, Eckhart, Lutero o Schleiermacher. Por otro lado, una cuestión eminentemente metodológica: la de cómo acceder de manera correcta a la esfera primaria de la vida, que desemboca en un primer profundo cuestionamiento de la fenomenología reflexiva de Husserl

  9. La atencion preescolar en Chile: desafios para la redemocratizacion (Preschool Care in Chile: Challenges for Redemocratization. Discussion Paper No. 13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filp, Johanna; Undurrage, Consuelo

    This paper examines the current status of programs for preschool children in Chile. Section 1 of the paper provides an overview of the situation of preschool children in Chile. The country's population includes more than 1.6 million children between the ages of 0 and 5 years 11 months, and in urban areas, 18.4 percent of children between the ages…

  10. Estudio del campo ocupacional del traductor en Santiago de Chile (A Study of Opportunities for Professional Translators in Santiago, Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Ileana; And Others

    A study of translation as a profession in Chile covered two areas: a diagnostic study of the real need for literary, scientific, and technical translations, and a followup study of graduates of the translation degree program at the Catholic Pontifical University of Chile (Santiago). The analysis considered the relationship between the need for…

  11. The Death of Socialism in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    him to return. During his absence Chile was ruled by a junta lead by General Carlos Ibanez del Campo . Welcomed back in March 1925, Alessandri kept...dictatorship of Colonel (later General) Carlos Ibanez del Campo in 1931-32. The first two were the product of divisions within the political community; the last...the Investigaciones detachment, and tanks were lined up in front of the palace. At 1:30 P.M. shortly after the Air Force bombed the presidential palace

  12. Pobreza Multidimensional en Chile: 1990-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Sanhueza; Angela Denis; Francisca Gallegos

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta una propuesta de medición multidimensional de la pobreza para Chile. Siguiendo el enfoque conceptual de Amartya Sen, pobreza no es meramente insuficiencia de ingresos, sino se define como privación de capacidades para la realización de funcionamientos valiosos en la vida. Medimos carencias individuales en tres grupos de la población: niños, población económicamente activa y adultos mayores, y en cinco dimensiones: educación, salud, vivienda, empleo e ingresos. La justifi...

  13. EFECTOS DEL EMBARAZO ADOLESCENTE EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    LOYOLA HEUFEMANN, AMANDA

    2014-01-01

    Los efectos del embarazo adolescente en Chile han sido poco estudiados aun cuando existe diversa literatura para el resto del mundo, en especial para países desarrollados. Este trabajo estima el efecto del embarazo adolescente sobre la asistencia o completitud de la educación secundaria, años de escolaridad y participación laboral. Usando datos de corte transversal del a˜no 2012 y un enfoque de variable instrumental a trav´es del uso de la entrega comunal de la píldora anticoncept...

  14. Recent IBA setup improvements in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 1 (Chile)]. E-mail: pmiranda@fisica.ciencias.uchile.cl; Chesta, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 1 (Chile); Cancino, S.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 1 (Chile); Morales, J.R. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 1 (Chile); Dinator, M.I. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 1 (Chile); Wachter, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 1 (Chile); Tenreiro, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Campus Curico, Universidad de Talca (Chile)

    2006-07-15

    This paper describes the main characteristics of the ion beam facility based on a 3.75 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator model KN3750 of HVE at University of Chile. Recent setup improvements on three beam lines available, one dedicated for PIXE analyzes, one designed for RBS-PESA analyzes and a multipurpose vacuum chamber, as well as beam energy calibration experiments of the accelerator will be summarized. Current research activities are focused on the application of the different IBA techniques for the material, biological and environmental analysis. In addition, nuclear activation analysis and the study of nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest has begun to be developed as basic research.

  15. 75 FR 10846 - The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application March 2, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange.... Applicants: The Chile Fund, Inc. (``Chile Fund''), Aberdeen Australia Equity Fund (``Australia Fund,'' together with the Chile Fund, the ``Current Funds''), Aberdeen Asset Management Asia Limited...

  16. [Reflections about the historical development of biomedical sciences in Chile and the role of Revista Médica de Chile: an homage on 130-years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Fernández, Luis

    2002-12-01

    When Revista Médica de Chile turns to be 130 years old, the author reflects about the difficulties that scientific and technological creativity faces in Chile, considering that there was a 70 years gap between its historical origin in Chile compared to developed countries. The scientific progress erases the boundaries between Biomedicine and science and technology. This progress has resulted in an improvement in the quality of scientific publications in Revista Medica de Chile. The editorial work has also contributed to this improvement. Revista Medica de Chile has obtained international recognition and stands in a good position as a medical journal in Latin America and Chile.

  17. Contributions to the mammalogy of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Ronald H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Schamberger, Mel L.

    1979-01-01

    Collections of mammals were made during more than three years of biological investigations in Chile sponsored by the Corporación Nacional Forestal under the aegis of the Peace Corps (Smithsonian Environmental Program). Genera and species hitherto unreported for that country were taken and many useful data concerning distributional patterns of other (mostly little-known) species were gathered. These collections have also proved valuable in better understanding Chilean mammals from a taxonomic point of view and contribute knowledge of the species' natural history. Specimens are to be deposited in the (United States) National Museum of Natural History (USNM) or are to be retained by the Corporación Nacional Forestal, Avda, Bulnes 285, Depto. 401, Santiago. Numbers provided below are field numbers. A final division of specimens between the two institutions has not yet been made. A number of specimens reported here were not taken by Peace Corps personnel but have been obtained by the National Museum of Natural History from other sources. Specimens in the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH) were used in making comparisons. Some of Fulk's (GWF) specimens are at Texas Tech University. Other are at the Servicio Agricola y Ganadero in Santiago (as are specimens of some introduced species taken by Schamberger). Reise's (DF) are at the Universidad de Chile-Concepción and in his personal collection.

  18. Silencio y memoria: Nocturno de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Iniesta Ruiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio, sostenido por el Trabajo de Fin de Grado Representación y ficción: Nocturno de Chile y Sostiene Pereira (2015, se introduce en la construcción literaria articulada en la obra Nocturno de Chile, de Roberto Bolaño, examinando y evaluando sus fronteras, fronteras que resultan tan movedizas como las de cualquier construcción inserta en el marco de la ficción. Las implicaciones históricas y políticas del relato hacen que su impronta testimonial cobre una fuerza inusitada, y nociones como la memoria, la violencia o el silencio ayudan a vertebrar una obra de arte verbal que logra, en el decurso de su propia narración, asediar al lector con las angustiosas imágenes de un pasado hecho presente en el camino de un tiempo político que se subyuga a la propia creación artística.

  19. [The Vida Chile program: results and challenges with health promotion policy in Chile, 1998-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Judith; Cancino, Anselmo; Pezoa, Sergio; Salamanca, Fernando; Soto, Marina

    2007-01-01

    The Government of Chile has placed a high priority on health promotion. This is evident in the advances made through its National Plan for Health Promotion (Plan Nacional de Promoción de la Salud) and the Vida Chile National Council for Health Promotion (Consejo Nacional para la Promoción de la Salud Vida Chile). Chaired by the minister of health, Vida Chile is made up of 28 public and private institutions from around the country. Vida Chile has a network of local councils that have been established in the country's comunas (communes, or local-level divisions of the country's provinces) and that include government officials and representatives of local societal and community organizations and private businesses. This report details the methods used to evaluate the National Plan as well as provides a preliminary assessment of the technical and financial results for the 1998-2006 period. Coverage indicators (number of participants; number of accredited health-promoting schools, workplaces, and universities; and number of health promotion events) and the extent of strategy implementation were used to measure the success of the program. Health promotion activities grew markedly during this period. Among the notable accomplishments were the following four: (1) 98% of the communes now have their own community health promotion plan and intersectoral Vida Chile committee to implement the plan, (2) there has been an increase in societal and community groups involved in the health promotion strategies, (3) 34% of the primary and secondary schools have become accredited health-promoting schools, and (4) approximately 20% of the total population benefited directly from community-health-plan activities in 2006. The average per capita cost of the community health plans' activities in 2006 was US$ 6.60. The two most important factors that facilitated the operation of the local health promotion plans were participation by community and societal groups and having an adequate

  20. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  1. ALGUNAS LECCIONES SOBRE EL ACCESO A RECURSOS GENÉTICOS EN COLOMBIA. DOS ESTUDIOS DE CASO. Some lessons about Access to Genetic Resources in Colombia. Two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL RICARDO NEMOGÁ SOTO

    Full Text Available En Colombia el acceso a los recursos genéticos (ARG con fines científicos o de aplicación comercial está regulado por la Decisión 391/96 de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones y sus normas reglamentarias. Durante los primeros años de su aplicación, la eficacia de esta normatividad fue casi nula resultado de deficiencias institucionales y de la falta de información e interés de los investigadores e instituciones de investigación. Con el fin de extraer lecciones sobre los procedimientos de obtención de ARG y de pro-mover una mejor respuesta institucional de las autoridades ambientales, se examinan dos estudios de caso. La información se obtuvo de los expedientes N.º 2571 y N.º RGE0018-07 del Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial (MAVDT. En la solicitud del Instituto de Biotecnología de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, después de siete años de trámite no ha sido posible obtener el ARG; al contrario, el MAVDT inició un proceso sancionatorio por acceso ilegal. En la solicitud de la 'Unión Temporal Centro Colombiano de Genómica y Bioinformática de Ambientes Extremos GeBix' el respectivo ARG se firmó luego de 406 días de trámite. Se puede concluir que la obtención de contrato ARG, requiere conocimiento del procedimiento por parte del investigador y una respuesta adecuada en la implementación de la legislación por parte del MAVDT. Si bien actualmente el desarrollo del trámite es menos difícil para los investigadores, son necesarios ajustes institucionales y normativos para que la obtención de un contrato de ARG facilite, en lugar de obstaculizar la investigación científica.Access to genetic resources (AGR with scientific or commercial purposes is regulated in Colombia by Decision 391/96 of the Andean Community of Nations and its prescribed norms. During the first years of the implementation of these norms, their effectiveness was almost null as a result of institutional deficiencies and the lack of

  2. El Parque Portal Bicentenario en Santiago de Chile / Portal Bicentennial Park in Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beach Lobos, Myriam;

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta los principios que orientaron el diseño del Parque Portal Bicentenario, un parque de 50 hás. que será el eje principal de la nueva urbanización “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario”, actualmente en construcción en los terrenos del ex aeropuerto de Los Cerrillos en Santiago de Chile.The following text was submitted to the Architecture Competition together with the project drawings. It presents the principles that leaded the design. The 123 acres park will be the main axis of a new urban development in Santiago “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario” at present under construction on the area occupied by the former Cerrillos Airport, Santiago de Chile.

  3. TRANSPARENCIA Y LEYES SECRETAS EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Contreras V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor analiza el problema de constitucionalidad de las leyes secretas en Chile, en razón de las modificaciones introducidas a la Constitución en el 2005. Primero, describe brevemente el fundamento sobre la publicidad de la ley en el Estado Democrático. Luego, se analiza el nuevo principio constitucional de publicidad establecido en el artículo 8º de la Constitución. Adicionalmente, se examina la constitucionalidad de las leyes secretas desde dos puntos de vista: confrontando la compatibilidad con el principio general de transparencia -como base de la institucionalidad- y analizando la afectación en el contenido esencial del derecho fundamental de acceso a la información pública.

  4. Three halls for music performance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Jaime; Heuffemann, Carolina; Ramirez, Daniel; Galvez, Fernando

    2002-11-01

    The primary purpose of this work was to investigate about the present acoustic conditions of used architectonic spaces in Santiago of Chile for orchestras of classic music performance. The studied halls were three: Aula Magna Universidad de Santiago, Teatro Municipal de Nunoa, and Teatro Baquedano. The used methodology was based on studies made by L. Beranek, M. Barron, among others, in concert halls worldwide. As it guides, for the measurement procedure, physical parameters RT, EDT, C50, C80, LF, BR, G, U50 were evaluated according to norm ISO 3382. On the other hand, it has been defined, to proposal way, a questionnaire of subjective valuation directed to musicians, specialized conductors, and listeners.

  5. A DRONE FLIGHT OVER PARANAL, CHILE

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Aerial clip (shot using a drone and a Go pro) describing ESO's astronomical observatory facilities in the Atacama desert, Northern Chile. Locations covered by the drone flight include Cerro Paranal, with the Residencia (external and internal views) and the Very Large Telescope facility on Cerro Paranal, from above and with a peek into Unit Telescope 1 and its 8,2 m diameter mirror; final image on Cerro Armazones, the site chosen for building ESO's next telescope, the E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope). With a 39-metre main mirror, it will be the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world. The Argentinian Codillera with the Llullaillaco volcano are visible in the background.

  6. Sobre lectura y escritura en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grínor Rojo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios de los últimos años realizados en Chile sobre lectura, competencia de lectura y lectura de noticias sobre política, revelan valores negativos que rondan el 50. Estos datos, a los que se suman los cuarenta millones de analfabetos en América Latina, están en la base del rechazo en este artículo de la afirmación de la muerte del libro y de la frívola fe en el reemplazo del libro por el uso de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (llenar de computadoras las escuelas, insistiendo en cambio en atender seriamente a los lazos entre razón, libro y lectura en el desarrollo individual y de la sociedad

  7. Sobre lectura y escritura en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Grínor Rojo

    2011-01-01

    Los estudios de los últimos años realizados en Chile sobre lectura, competencia de lectura y lectura de noticias sobre política, revelan valores negativos que rondan el 50. Estos datos, a los que se suman los cuarenta millones de analfabetos en América Latina, están en la base del rechazo en este artículo de la afirmación de la muerte del libro y de la frívola fe en el reemplazo del libro por el uso de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (llenar de computadoras las escuelas), ...

  8. Los valores del urbanismo en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo López Moya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En el mes de junio de 2004 fue presentado al Senado de Chile un proyecto de ley destinado a modificar la Ley General de Urbanismo y Construcciones (LGUC, con el fin de adecuarla para permitir la formación y edificación de «áreas urbanas condicionadas» (AUC. Esto es, conjuntos residenciales urbanos, construidos fuera del límite urbano convencional. Unos, en áreas rurales ubicadas inmediatamente adyacentes al mismo, llamadas «áreas de extensión urbana condicionada» (AEUC, y otros, ubicados en áreas rurales segregadas, denominadas «áreas de desarrollo urbano condicionado» (ADUC.

  9. Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter Leal, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, agriculture remains a key economic factor for rural development. Accordingly, the Chilean government, through the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), provides financial support for fostering entrepreneurship among small farmers to enable them to become more competitive in global ma

  10. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-12

    Chile: Country Report,” Economist Intelligence Unit, December 2008. 32 Eva Vergara, “Bachelet Crea Comisión para Enfrenter Desempleo por Crisis...sexual and labor exploitation. The U.S. Department of State’s 2008 Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report states that Chile does not fully comply with the...minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking because it’s statutory framework does not specifically prohibit labor trafficking. However

  11. Wirtschaftliche Stellung deutscher Unternehmen in Chile: Ergebnisse einer empirischen Analyse

    OpenAIRE

    Kassai, László B.

    2014-01-01

    Die Abschätzung der wirtschaftlichen Bedeutung deutscher Unternehmen in Chile anhand der Auswertung von 14 schriftlichen Interviews mit deutschen Tochtergesellschaften im Jahre 1987 ist der Inhalt dieses Beitrages. Die Einordnung erfolgt vor dem Hintergrund sowohl der wirtschaftlichen Situation der ganzen Region (Lateinamerika) als auch der industriellen Entwicklung in Chile bis 1987. Die Analyse kommt zum Schluß, daß die im Durchschnitt lang ansässigen Unternehmen a) eine rege Innovations...

  12. Lecciones de Derecho Privado Romano

    OpenAIRE

    De Martin, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    La presente obra tiene por finalidad efectuar una contribución a los estudios del Derecho Romano, siendo sus principales destinatarios los ingresantes de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata, que se enfrentan en su primer año al apasionante universo de las Ciencias Jurídicas. Los distintos contenidos temáticos abordados corresponden a los trabajos que fui efectuando para los estudiantes, durante mi actividad como docente en la cátedra, para po...

  13. Manual de lecciones sobre objetos

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Pautas para la enseñanza inicial con niños, apoyado con Objetos. Traducido por S. Bond (Profesor de la Universidad Nacional). Contiene: Desarrollo de la observación - Desarrollo de las ideas de forma - Ejercicios preliminares para enseñar a los niños a observar formas - Desarrollo de las ideas de dibujo -  de color - de número - de tamaño - de peso -  de sonido -  sobre el cuerpo humano - de lugar - morales

  14. Once lecciones para el conflicto

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    El posconflicto no es nuevo en Colombia ni en el mundo. En las tres últimas décadas, en los cinco continentes, por acuerdo de paz negociado entre gobiernos e insurgentes, por intervención de la comunidad internacional o porque una de las partes en conflicto se impuso, se dieron o están en curso procesos de posconflico en varios países. Algunos de ellos son: Angola, El Salvador, Fiyi, Filipinas, Guatemala, Irlanda, Nepal, Nicaragua, República de Macedonia, Ruanda, Sri Lanka y Sudáfrica.

  15. La Medialuna: un edificio para Chile/The Crescent, a building for Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Recchione, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se refiere los antecedentes históricos sobre la escuela ecuestre de la jineta y su introducción en las faenas agrícola-ganaderas chilenas. Se reseña el nacimiento del rodeo como deporte nacional chileno y los requerimientos del complejo espacio de la “fiesta del rodeo”: un problema arquitectónico y también urbanístico./ The equestrian school of "La Jineta" in Chile, and the architecture for the national holiday of "rodeo."

  16. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  17. Macroeconomic fluctuations and bank behavior in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Restrepo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze bank behavior in Chile over time, looking at how their balance sheets and performance move both in the short and long run, and how they react to macroeconomic shocks. The evolution of banking aggregates over an 18 year period (1989-2006, using quarterly data is examined. Techniques common in the real business cycle literature are applied to establish empirical patterns. Robustness tests using several filters are performed. The effects of macro shocks on banking variables are analyzed, both by means of an event study, and by estimating impulse responses with VARs. The results show that credit lags the cycle, demand deposits lead it, both being procyclical, while the capital adequacy ratio (CAR is countercyclical. In addition, a shock to interest rates reduces loans (total, commercial, consumption, and increases non performing loans (NPL and the capital adequacy ratio (CAR. A shock to GDP growth has a positive effect on loans, return over equity (ROE, and a negative impact on NPL and CAR.

  18. Financiamiento Solidario para Vivienda en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rojas Mujica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Programa de Desarrollo Solidario (PDS del Banco del Desarrollo consiste en brindar apoyo financiero y formativo a mujeres de escasos recursos a lo largo de todo Chile, a través de un crédito solidario, sin ningún otro tipo de garantía que la confianza, la responsabilidad y la solidaridad. En este Programa se trabaja con grupos de al menos 8 mujeres de muy escasos recursos que no tienen acceso al sistema bancario tradicional por no contar con ingresos demostrables ni estables. El apoyo financiero se canaliza a través de créditos solidarios. El apoyo formativo consiste en un trabajo en forma previa al otorgamiento de los créditos y luego un seguimiento periódico del grupo, durante todo el periodo de reembolso del crédito. A la fecha, han participado en este programa más de 10.000 mujeres, estimándose que más de 6.000 de ellas han dedicado estos préstamos al mejoramiento de la calidad de su vivienda, movilizando en forma directa más de 2 millones de dólares.

  19. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level.

  20. Long-term ecological research in the forests of the United States: Key lessons for its application in Chile and around the world Estudios ecológicos de largo plazo en bosques de Estados Unidos: Lecciones claves para su aplicación en Chile y otras regiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JERRY F FRANKLIN

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term ecological research addresses questions to which short-term research projects cannot effectively respond because of the temporal scales over which many ecosystem processes operate. In North America, this type of research has yielded important information on key processes and organisms in many forest types, from eastern broadleaf forests to the coniferous forests of the west, and from tropical to boreal latitudes. Long-term ecological research (that conducted at the decade scale or longer in the forests of North America has included watershed studies, silvicultural trials, establishment of permanent plots to assess forest demographics, and the study of disturbance regimes and predator-prey systems. Instituting such research in forest ecosystems of other regions of the world, especially at corresponding latitudes on either side of the equator, will help scientists understand patterns of natural disturbance and succession, the effects of alternative management strategies, and the impacts of climate change. Key recommendations based on North American long-term ecological research include: 1 the importance of multidisciplinary research, 2 the need to invest in data storage and management, 3 the deployment of both basic and advanced technology (e.g., eddy covariance systems, and 4 development of collaboration networks among regions, institutions, and individual researchers.La investigación ecológica de largo plazo es capaz de abordar ciertas preguntas de una manera mejor que los proyectos de corto plazo, debido a las escalas temporales en que funcionan muchos procesos ecológicos. En Norteamérica, este tipo de investigación ha brindado conocimiento sobre importantes procesos y organismos claves en muchos tipos forestales, extendiéndose desde los bosques caducifolios de la costa este a los bosques de coniferas en la costa oeste, y en latitudes tropicales hasta boreales. La investigación ecológica de largo plazo en los bosques de Norteamérica ha incluido estudios de cuencas, ensayos silviculturales, establecimiento de parcelas permanentes para investigar demografía forestal, y el estudio de regímenes de perturbación y sistemas predadores/presa. El inicio de investigación de largo plazo en ecosistemas forestales de otras regiones del mundo, especialmente en latitudes correspondientes a ambos lados del ecuador, ayudará a los científicos a comprender los regímenes de perturbaciones naturales y sucesión, así como los efectos de varias estrategias del manejo forestal, y los impactos de cambio climático. Recomendaciones claves basadas en la experiencia de Norteamérica incluyen: 1 la importancia de la investigación multidisciplinaria, 2 la necesidad de invertir recursos en el manejo de bases de datos, 3 la aplicación tanto de tecnología básica como avanzada (por ejemplo, sistemas de detección de ‘eddy covariance’ para cuantificar el intercambio de carbono entre los bosques y la atmósfera, y 4 colaboración entre regiones, instituciones, y científicos individuales.

  1. La cooperación público-privada como instrumento de desarrollo: Lecciones de seis aglomeraciones agroindustriales en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Guaipatin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Public-private  cooperation as an instrument of development: Lessons from six agroindustrial  agglomerates in Latin AmericaThe article analyses how the processes of publicprivate cooperation have emerged and under what  conditions they have effectively contributed to  economic development, using, as case studies, the  experience of six sub-national areas in Mexico,  Colombia, Chile and Brazil where a significant number of businesses in the same productive  sectors are concentrated. The study stresses the  importance that big businesses with interests in  developing the area, institutions with a historical  trajectory related to the sector, and public policies  that promote processes of cooperation between businesses, especially small ones, are playing.  The cases demonstrate the existence of a virtuous  circle where public action can promote the construction of social capital and where, at the same  time, its presence can improve conditions so that  public-private cooperation will emerge as an  effective promotional instrument in the economic  development of the area.   Resumen:El artículo analiza cómo surgen los procesos de  cooperación público-privada y bajo qué condiciones éstos contribuyen efectivamente al desarrollo  económico, empleando para tal fin, como estudios  de caso, la experiencia de seis territorios subnacionales en México, Colombia, Chile y Brasil que concentran un significativo número de firmas de  un mismo rubro productivo. El estudio resalta la  importancia que juegan en estos procesos la existencia de firmas grandes con interés en el desarrollo del territorio, de instituciones con trayectoria histórica relacionadas al sector, y de políticas  públicas promotoras de procesos de cooperación  entre empresas, especialmente pequeñas. Los  casos muestran la existencia de un círculo virtuoso donde la acción pública puede promover la  construcción de capital social y donde a su

  2. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies.

  3. [The evolution theory in the medical sciences in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Coke, R

    1994-02-01

    The evolutionist ideas of Lamarck, Darwin and Haeckel entered the country through the arrival of their books. "On the origin of Species" arrived in Chile in 1869. The most outstanding immigrant european physicians that discussed these ideas were Rodulfo A Phillippi (1808-1904) and Juan José Brunner (1825-1899). Both discussed Darwin's ideas in their books and conferences as academics of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile. The first Chilean physicians that read and discussed the validity of evolution theory were Adolfo Valderrama (1834-1902) and Pedro Candia Salgado. Both wrote articles about this matter in Revista Médica de Chile in 1872 and 1874. The professor of general biology, Juan Noé Crevani, italian physician and zoologist that arrived in Chile in 1912, was the first to teach directly the concepts of the evolution theory until his death in 1947. Professor Noé founded the great biological school of the twentieth century in Chile and his disciples introduced the concepts of Mendelian theory and neodarwinism in the decade of fifties. The theory of evolution was taught as a chapter of general biology in the Faculty of Medicine between 1913 and 1947, but its practical applications to medicine were introduced with the birth of medical genetics in the decade of fifties and the foundation of Chilean Genetics society in 1964, under the direction of professors Danko Brncic and Gustavo Hoecker, both awarded with the National Sciences Prize.

  4. Percepción y uso de la tecnología por estudiantes de décimo año en las lecciones de Educación Cívica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo González Ayala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza el uso que los estudiantes de décimo año del Colegio Experimental Bilingüe de Palmares hacen de la tecnología de la que disponen, así como el acceso a la misma y la percepción que tienen sobre el uso de las TIC en las lecciones de Educación Cívica. El estudio utiliza encuestas y grupos focales para acercarse a la realidad del estudiantado respecto al uso y aprovechamiento de la tecnología, así como a su percepción del proceso educativo, en particular en Educación Cívica. Se concluye que las y los jóvenes hacen un uso intensivo de la tecnología, de acuerdo a sus posibilidades de acceso, a la vez que participan de manera directa en el uso de la tecnología para fines propios, aunque no necesariamente vinculadas con su formación académica. Además, se evidencia que la percepción que tienen sobre la Educación Cívica es buena, pero que esta mejora cuando se hace uso de las TIC como estrategias metodológicas, siempre y cuando dichos recursos tecnológicos sean bien aprovechados.

  5. El círculo del tiempo: Observaciones acerca de las relaciones entre sujeto y tiempo en las "Lecciones de la fenomenología de la conciencia interna del tiempo" de E. Husserl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel E. Garrido-Maturano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las Lecciones de fenomenología de la conciencia interna del tiempo. En primer lugar se propone mostrar la excedencia del tiempo cósmico respecto de la temporalidad de la conciencia. En segundo determinar si la descripción husserliana de la forma del flujo de la conciencia absoluta del tiempo es circular, es decir, si no presupone el tiempo objetivo que pretende constituir. En tercero someter a análisis crítico la automostración del flujo absoluto de la conciencia. Finalmente se menciona la aporética que se cierne sobre toda investigación que quiera reducir uno forma del tiempo a la otra o asirlas independientemente.The article examines Husserl´s work On the Phenomenology of the Consciousness of Internal Time. Firsttly, it seeks to show the surplus of cosmic time with regard to the temporality of consciousness. Secondly, an attempt is made to establish whether the Husserlian description of the form of the flow of consciousness is circular, i.e., whether it does not presupposes the objective time that it purports to constitute. Thirdly, a critical analysis of the self-manifestation of the absolute flow of consciousness is advanced. Finally, a reference is made to the aporetics that befalls any investigation that tries to reduce one form of time to the other or to apprehend them independently.

  6. Lecciones globales de la reforma mexicana de salud: empoderamiento a través del uso de evidencias Global lessons of the mexican health reform: empowerment through the use of evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Frenk

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ilustra, con la reciente reforma al sistema mexicano de salud, el potencial del conocimiento en el diseño e implantación de las políticas públicas. En primer lugar se discute la relación entre conocimiento y salud. En una segunda parte se describen los esfuerzos que se llevaron a cabo en México para generar evidencias que eventualmente nutrieron el diseño e implantación de las políticas locales de salud. En seguida se analizan los contenidos de la reforma del sistema mexicano de salud y su concepto rector, La democratización de la atención a la salud. El artículo concluye con una discusión de las lecciones globales de esta experiencia de reforma.This paper illustrates, using as an example the recent reform of the Mexican health system, the potential of knowledge in the design and implementation of public policies. In the first part the relationship between knowledge and health is described. In part two, the efforts in Mexico to generate evidence that would eventually nourish the design and implementation of health policies are discussed. In the following sections the content and the guiding concept of the reform, the democratization of health, are analyzed. The paper concludes with the discussion of the main global lessons of this reform experience.

  7. 75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... (Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations On the basis...)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and... (April 2010), entitled Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia: Investigation...

  8. 76 FR 65933 - Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD37 Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a... United States of baby kiwi fruit from Chile, subject to a systems approach. Under this systems approach... baby kiwi from Chile using mitigation measures other than fumigation with methyl bromide....

  9. 75 FR 32901 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Chile AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we are recognizing an additional area of the Republic of Chile as a pest-free area for... the documentation submitted by the Republic of Chile, which we made available to the public review...

  10. CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a…

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Vegetables § 319.56-23 Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a... from Chile in accordance with this section and all other applicable provisions of this subpart. 3 3...

  12. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  13. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's... antidumping duty orders on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the... reviews of the antidumping duty orders on mushrooms from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the PRC, pursuant...

  14. 75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... TRADE COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States... duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia. SUMMARY: The Commission... orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead...

  15. 77 FR 12903 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2012-2014 U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Work Program... suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new work program for implementing the U.S.-Chile...

  16. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, Simon A.; Pallister, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo

    2009-06-01

    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  17. Desigualdad Geográfica en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Agostini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite success in reducing poverty over the last twenty years, inequality in Chile has remained virtually unchanged, making Chile one of the least equal countries in the world. High levels of inequality have been shown to hamper further reductions in poverty as well as economic growth and local inequality has been shown to affect such outcomes as violence and health. The study of inequality at the local level is thus crucial for understanding the economic well-being of a country. Local measures of inequality have been difficult to obtain, but recent theoretical advances have enabled the combination of survey and census data to obtain estimators of inequality that are robust at disaggregated geographic levels. In this paper, we employ this methodology to produce consistent estimators of inequality for every county in Chile. We find a great deal of variation in inequality, with countylevel Gini coefficients ranging from 0.41 to 0.63.

  18. Globalization, Inequality, and Transnational Activism: A Case Study on Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moctezuma Garcia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has transformed how states are governed through a neoliberal economic approach that reinforces an unregulated capitalist market. An emphasis on Chile is important because it was the first state in Latin America to apply neoliberalism and has been hailed as a prime example for other developing states to integrate similar strategies to strengthen the local economy. However, inequality continues to persist despite economic gains. A combination of historical struggles affecting victims of the Pinochet era and present struggles with poverty, have resulted in a constant conflict between the power elite and the rest of society. Social movements in Chile have played a pivotal role in raising international awareness and pressuring the local government to protect the rights of highly vulnerable populations. A focus on transnational activism provides an effective medium for local and international advocates to work together toward holding Chile accountable for addressing social disparities.

  19. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, Simon A.; Zogorski, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  20. Biogeografía marina de Chile continental Marine biogeography of continental Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO A. CAMUS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Por casi un siglo, varios autores han analizado los patrones de distribución de la fauna y flora marina del Pacífico de Sudamérica y de la costa de Chile en particular, con el propósito de establecer el número de las unidades biogeográficas presentes. Si bien los patrones generales actuales son relativamente bien conocidos, la mayoría de los estudios se ha enfocado en las discontinuidades distribucionales y en propuestas de clasificación más que en los factores y procesos dinámicos que han formado las unidades espaciales identificadas. Aun en el caso de las clasificaciones, las conclusiones publicadas se basan principalmente en el análisis de uno o pocos grupos seleccionados, y presentan diferencias importantes en los criterios de selección de los grupos, el número de especies involucrado y la metodología usada. Por otra parte, las discrepancias entre estudios específicos tienden a obscurecer un fenómeno relevante y de mayor escala como es la dinámica de las biotas, uno de los aspectos biogeográficos menos conocidos en Chile. En tal contexto, este trabajo presenta una revisión de literatura sobre la biogeografía marina de Chile y sus aspectos asociados, con los siguientes objetivos: (a resumir las características oceanográficas, climáticas y geomorfológicas de la costa continental de Chile; (b discutir 27 clasificaciones biogeográficas publicadas para la costa chilena, analizando los criterios y procedimientos usados por los autores, sus conclusiones principales, y la concordancia entre los estudios; (c evaluar los procesos dispersivos y vicariantes asociados a los desplazamientos y modificaciones de las biotas de la región, en función de los antecedentes disponibles sobre las condiciones existentes y los principales eventos ocurridos durante los períodos Terciario y Cuaternario; y (d proponer un escenario de cambio biogeográfico basado en determinantes históricas y su influencia en la formación, carácter y din

  1. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo [Comision Chilena de EnergIa Nuclear, Casilla 188D, Santiago (Chile); Loewe, Marcelo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Facultad de Fisica, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Gutierrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile); Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Av. Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Saavedra, Carlos [Universidad de Conception, Departamento de Fisica, Esteban Iturra S/N, Barrio Universitario, Conception (Chile); Haberle, Patricio [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa MarIa, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail: lsoto@cchen.cl

    2008-11-01

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, {approx}160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only {approx}40 to experimental physicists; {approx}178 are men and only {approx}22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that {approx}160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y TecnologIa (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not

  2. The Seismogenic Coupling Zone in Central Chile - Amphibious Experiments SPOC (Subduction Processes Off Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, C. M.; Stiller, M.; Mechie, J.; Lueth, S.; Wigger, P.; Oncken, O.; Reichert, C.; Bataille, K.

    2003-12-01

    Nearly all interplate megathrust earthquakes occur in the seismogenic coupling zone between converging plates. In the area of the 1960 Chile earthquake (Mw = 9.5), we aim at a quantitative understanding of the seismicity and its relation to processes operating at depth and at the surface. As a first step, the offshore experiment SPOC with RV SONNE was combined with an onshore-offshore, active-passive seismic experiment between 36\\deg and 39\\deg S, crossing the rupture area of the 1960 Chile earthquake. The campaign comprised: (1) a 2-D wide-angle component recording chemical shots and airgun pulses along three consecutive E-W onshore profiles; (2) a seismic reflection experiment in the onshore-offshore transition; and (3) a 3-D component which recorded both active and passive sources. Offshore, the upper plate is split into many segments with pronounced forearc basins and a narrow accretionary wedge. A thick subduction channel seems to cause a non-frontally accreting subduction mode. Along the westernmost part of the southernmost E-W refraction seismic line, the profile spread of the active reflection seismic survey at 38\\deg 15' S was 54 km long, and also recorded the airgun shots of the marine profile with the first 18 km of its spread. Different mainly eastward dipping reflection bands are observed. Between 5-25 km depth the internal structure of the Palaeozoic accretionary wedge is described. Reflections between 16-42 km correlate with Wadati-Benioff seismicity and are interpreted as imaging the top of the downgoing plate. In the central part of the profile a break in reflectivity located below the axis of the coastal cordillera more or less coincides with the intersection between the oceanic plate and the continental Moho. This break in reflectivity also approximately correlates with the downdip end of the seismogenic plate interface as defined by geodetic modelling. These new seismic data provide the geometry of the subduction zone in the area, and hence

  3. Ameaças naturais e avaliação subjetiva na construção da vulnerabilidade social diante de desastres naturais no Chile e Brasil Amenazas naturales y evaluación subjetiva en la construcción de la vulnerabilidad social ante desastres naturales en chile y brasil Naturalhazards and subjective assessment in the construction of social vulnerability to cope with natural disasters in chile and brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Romero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PortuguêsSão analisados de pontos de vista objetivo e subjetivo, alguns dos fatores econômicos, políticos, sociais e culturais que participam da construção da vulnerabilidade social com que comunidades do Chile e Brasil têm enfrentado desastres naturais recentes, que incluem inundações, deslizamentos, terremotos e tsunamis. Fatores globais têm gerado restrições econômicas que se manifestam localmente em um aumento da vulnerabilidade social devido à falta de inversões públicas em obras de proteção. Adicionalmente, se observam processos de exclusão e segregação social, traduzidos em uma ocupação humana permanente e sistemática de áreas expostas às ameaças naturais, nas quais se localiza a população de menores recursos. As percepções dos riscos naturais, as formas de organização social e as expectativas e frustrações das comunidades locais constituem valiosas lições que deveriam ser bases do aprendizado social necessário para evitar que estas tragédias continuem repetindo-se em nossos países. Español Se analiza desde los puntos de vista objetivo y subjetivo, algunos de los factores económicos, políticos, sociales y culturales que han participado de la construcción de la vulnerabilidad social con que, comunidades de Chile y Brasil, han enfrentado desastres naturales recientes, que han incluido inundaciones, remociones en masa de sedimentos, terremotos y tsunamis. Factores globales han generado restricciones económicas que se han manifestado localmente en un aumento de la vulnerabilidad social debido a la falta de inversiones públicas en obras de protección. Adicionalmente, se han observado procesos de exclusión y segregación social, traducidos en una ocupación humana permanente y sistemática de áreas expuestas a las amenazas naturales, en las cuáles se ha ubicado a la población de menores recursos. Las percepciones de los riesgos naturales, las formas de organización social y las expectativas y

  4. [Measles: the disease, epidemiology, history and vaccination programs in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpiano, Luis; Astroza, Leonor; Toro, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Measles, one of most important inmuno-preventable diseases, remains as a worldwide concern issue with an important morbidity and mortality. Particularly in the America region declared free of measles in 2010 by WHO, they still appear imported cases that origin outbreaks of variable magnitude in susceptible subjects usually none vaccinated which is the current situation in Santiago, the capital city of Chile. In this review we present characteristics of the etiological agent, the disease, epidemiological aspects with national historical focus, impact of immunization programs and outbreaks in Chile, in order to contribute to knowledge and management of this always present public health problem.

  5. MORTALIDAD POR ABORTO EN CHILE: ANALISIS EPIDEMIOLOGICO 1985-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Szot M,Jorge; Moreno W,Cristina

    2003-01-01

    El aborto, por su contribución a la mortalidad materna, ha sido tradicionalmente un problema de salud pública en América Latina y en Chile. En la actualidad, si bien es cierto la mortalidad por esta causa ha disminuido, la cantidad de abortos realizados permanece alta. Por este motivo, se ha querido efectuar una caracterización desde la perspectiva epidemiológica de la mortalidad por aborto ocurrido en Chile entre 1985 y 2000. Los resultados confirman la baja en la mortalidad durante el perío...

  6. ADAPTACION DE ESPECIES DE BAMBU DE CLIMA TEMPLADO EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    CAMPOS ROASIO, JORGE NELSON

    2005-01-01

    Hasta la fecha no se había estudiado la posibilidad de adaptar especies exóticas de las mejores especies de bambú, a las condiciones agroclimáticas de Chile con fines industriales. Sólo había pequeñas muestras de adaptación de algunas especies, las que fueron traídas a Chile básicamente con fines ornamentales. Considerando estos antecedentes y la existencia a nivel mundial de más de 1.300 especies, algunas de las cuales se desarrollan en climas templados, se desarrolló el proyecto “Adap...

  7. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    9 Julieta Palma and Raúl Urzúa, Anti-Poverty Policies and Citizenry: The "Chile Solidario" Experience, United Nations Educational, Scientific and...heavy machinery, oil , aircraft, electrical machinery, and motor vehicles. In 2009, the United States was Chile’s top source of imports and the second...45% to 67% of the total supply between 1990 and 2006. Chile now imports about 99% of its crude oil , 72% of its natural gas, and 92% of its coal.79

  8. Chile: Inauguración de la universidad Alberto Hurtado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Montes SJ.

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available El 20 de octubre de 1997, se inauguró en Santiago de chile la Universidad Alberto Hurtado, dirigida por la Compañía de Jesús. En esa ocasión, su Rector, Fernando Montes S.J, pronunció su discurso inaugural en presencia del presidente chileno Eduardo Frei, del expresidente Patricio Alwing y de unas mil personas, entre senadores, diputados, figuras políticas, académicas y religiosas de Chile. Encuentro produce aquí el texto completo del discurso del Padre Montes S. J.

  9. Scenarios for wind power in Brazil, Argentina and Chile; Cenarios para a energia eolio eletrica no Brasil, Argentina e Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: jdedecca@fem.unicamp.br, larissa@fem.unicamp.br, januzzi@fem.unicamp.br; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative-Latin America (IEI-LA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], email: rodolfo@iei-la.org

    2010-07-01

    The Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian power matrixes presented in the last two decades a growth of the non-renewable energy sources share, especially fossil sources, mainly in installed capacity and in a lesser degree in energy production. Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council have elaborated a reference energy scenario together with a scenario analyzing the institution of ample measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Feed-in tariffs and auction or bidding mechanisms implemented in Brazil and Argentina and the renewable portfolio standard implemented in Chile allied with the wind industry state in these countries indicate that Chile and Argentina will fulfill the 2020 wind power installed capacity predicted in the reference scenarios, while Brazil will reach the energy revolution scenario prediction. Important energy policy changes are required if the Chile and Argentina energy revolution scenarios wind power installed capacity are to become a reality in 2020. (author)

  10. Production and consumption of energy in Chile 1987. Produccion y consumo de energia en Chile 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Presents information, at a national level, on production and consumption of various types of energy, including statistical data on commercial deals (hydrocarbons, coal) and the activities of the companies (hydromechanical energy, vegetable wastes for power generation and biogas). Electrical energy is described in detail. The first chapter presents an energy overview of the country and its energy sources, evaluating each one in order to obtain the total energy produced in Chile. The second chapter deals with electric power in the country, classifying power installed, generated and consumed by category of producer, consumer and generating type. The third chapter discusses the planned capacity of the Zonas Electricas, and the fourth chapter reviews the characteristics of the installations, production statistics, consumption and operation of the grid.

  11. CHILE'S RUSH TO FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS El frenesí de Chile por los Tratados de Libre Comercio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LESLIE WEHNER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the reasons for Chile's aggressive Free Trade Agreement (FTA policy. Assessing both how the Chilean government has converged with the export sector and how the government has been able to co-opt, soften and divide those on the losing side of any FTA policy, are key to understanding Chile's vast number of FTAs. However, FTAs are also a constitutive part of a country's foreign policy, which converts these accords into a vehicle for the achievement of state goals dealing with economic issues and power configurations and expectations. It is the interplay between domestic groups' interests and the state's foreign policy goals that explain Chile's rush to FTAs.Este artículo analiza las razones que llevan a Chile a implementar una política agresiva de Tratados de Libre Comercio (TLC. Para comprender el porqué del frenesí y del número de acuerdos se evalúa cómo el gobierno de Chile logra converger con el sector exportador, y cómo coopta, divide y disminuye a los grupos perdedores de esta política. Sin embargo, los TLC son además parte de la política exterior de un país; lo que hace de estos acuerdos un vehículo para alcanzar objetivos estratégicos para el Estado. Es la interrelación entre los intereses de grupos domésticos y los objetivos de política exterior del Estado los que explican el porqué del frenesí de Chile por alcanzar un alto número de TLC.

  12. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    González-Acuña,D.; I. CABEZAS; Moreno, L; Castro, D

    2007-01-01

    Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866) por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909) parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región), Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866), are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909) parasiting alpacas in ...

  13. Energy from the Andes. The hydropower plant La Confluencia in Chile; Energie aus den Anden. Die Wasserkraftanlage La Confluencia in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Mathias [Hochschule Regensburg (Germany). Bauingenieurwesen

    2012-11-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the hydropower plant La Confluencia situated nearly 150 km south of Santiago de Chile (Chile). La Confluencia is a project development of a Norwegian-Australian joint venture of SN Power utilities (Oslo, Norway) and Pacific Hydro (Melbourne, Australia). Constructora Hochtief Tecsa (Santiago, Chile) took over the order to construct the plant completely including planning, construction, equipment and operation. The system concept was developed in collaboration with Poeyry Energy (Zurich, Switzerland). The plant design was devised in cooperation with Intertechne (Curitiba, Brazil), EDIC Ingenieros (Santiago, Chile) and Geocontrol (Madrid, Spain).

  14. La capacitación a partidos políticos desde el Instituto de Formación y Estudios en Democracia (IFED: 2011-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Gutiérrez Barboza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como finalidad describir el proceso constitutivo del Área de Formación y Capacitación a Partidos Políticos del Instituto de Formación y Estudios en Democracia (IFED del Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones de Costa Rica, a fin de recuperar las experiencias y lecciones aprendidas durante el período comprendido entre junio del 2011 y abril del 2013

  15. Great Chile Earthquake of May 22, 1960 - Anniversary Edition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960 (19:11 UTC), a Mw 9.5 earthquake occurred in southern Chile (39.5 S, 74.5 W). This was the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded. (It was...

  16. Dynamics of Investment for Market-Oriented Farmers in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, A.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Lensink, R.; Moll, H.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Using panel data from a survey conducted in 2006 and 2008 of 177 market-oriented farmers in central Chile, we investigate investment under imperfect capital markets. Specifically we determine the impact of formal credit constraints on fixed investment. By controlling for endogeneity problems, we fin

  17. The Credit Constraints of Market-Oriented Farmers in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, Alvaro; Lensink, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Using data from two surveys conducted in 2006 and 2008 with 177 farmers, this article determines whether market-oriented farmers in central Chile are credit constrained, and it identifies the main factors that influence formal credit provision. In so doing, this study explicitly tests whether social

  18. Neoliberal Education and Student Movements in Chile: Inequalities and Malaise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabalin, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the major consequences of the neoliberal education system implemented in Chile during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet and how two important student movements contested this structure. In 2006 and 2011, thousands of students filled the streets to demand better public education, more social justice and equal opportunities.…

  19. Transit Search from Antarctica and Chile - Comparison and Combination

    CERN Document Server

    Fruth, T; Csizmadia, Sz; Dreyer, C; Eigmüller, P; Erikson, A; Kabath, P; Pasternacki, T; Rauer, H; Titz-Weider, R; Abe, L; Agabi, A; Gonçalves, I; Guillot, T; Mékarnia, D; Rivet, J -P; Crouzet, N; Chini, R; Lemke, R; Murphy, M

    2014-01-01

    Observing sites at the East-Antarctic plateau are considered to provide exceptional conditions for astronomy. The aim of this work is to assess its potential for detecting transiting extrasolar planets through a comparison and combination of photometric data from Antarctica with time series from a midlatitude site. During 2010, the two small aperture telescopes ASTEP 400 (Dome C) and BEST II (Chile) together performed an observing campaign of two target fields and the transiting planet WASP-18b. For the latter, a bright star, Dome C appears to yield an advantageous signal-to-noise ratio. For field surveys, both Dome C and Chile appear to be of comparable photometric quality. However, within two weeks, observations at Dome C yield a transit detection efficiency that typically requires a whole observing season in Chile. For the first time, data from Antarctica and Chile have been combined to extent the observational duty cycle. This approach is both feasible in practice and favorable for transit search, as it i...

  20. Sowing Consumers in the Garden of Mass Retailing in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José

    2014-01-01

    It is known that some key elements of modern consumer credit were originally developed in department stores. However, almost no attention has been given to new developments in this area. This paper studies the case of retail credit in Chile. Special attention is given to a particular technique kn...

  1. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Society for Microbiology, Chapter 16. 10. Medina E, Yrarrazaval M. (1983) Fiebre tifoidea en Chile: Consideraciones epideniologicas. Revista Medica de...R. (1975) Enteroparasitosis en manipuladores del’ arýa de salud oriente de Santiago. Boletin Chileno de Parasitologia 27: 115-116. 15. RiE.tori C

  2. Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…

  3. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  4. How Chile is taking its first steps towards nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitev, Lubomir [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-08-15

    Chile's Association of Engineers is urging the government to launch a programme of new nuclear build due to the rising electricity demand that could lead to four reactors being in operation by 2030. Fernando Sierpe, head of the association's nuclear power committee, talks to NucNet about plans, progress and possible obstacles.

  5. Regional metallogenic structure based on aeromagnetic data in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-San; Lu, Min-Jie

    2016-12-01

    Chile is a very important country that forms part of the Andean metallogenic belts. The Atacama and Domeyko fault systems in northern Chile control the tectonic-magmatic activities that migrate eastward and the types of mineral resources. In this paper, we processed and interpreted aeromagnetic data from northern Chile using reduction to pole, upward field continuation, the second derivative calculation in the vertical direction, inclination angle calculation, and analytical signal amplitude analysis. We revealed the locations and planar distribution characteristics of the regional deep faults along the NNE and NS directions. Furthermore, we observed that the major reasons for the formation of the tectonic-magmatic rocks belts were the nearly parallel deep faults distributed from west to east and multiple magmatic activities along these faults. We ascertained the locations of volcanic mechanisms and the relationships between them using these regional deep faults. We deduced the spatial distributions of the basic-intermediate, basic, and acidic igneous rocks, intrusive rocks, and sedimentary sequences. We showed the linear positive magnetic anomalies and magnetic anomaly gradient zones by slowly varying the background, negative magnetic anomaly field, which indicated the presence of strong magmatic activities in these regional deep faults; it also revealed the favorable areas of copper and polymetallic mineralization. This study provides some basic information for further research on the geology, structural characteristics, and mineral resource prospecting in northern Chile.

  6. Severe mortality impact of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Fuentes, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies of the 1957 influenza pandemic are scarce, particularly from lower income settings. METHODS: We analyzed the spatial-temporal mortality patterns of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile including detailed age-specific mortality data from a large city and inves...

  7. Accreditation in Higher Education in Chile: Results and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Oscar; Gonzalez, Luis Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the results that the accreditation system implemented in Chile has brought to higher education institutions and undergraduate and graduate programs, taking into account both its positive and negative implications. Design/methodology/approach: The examination of the Chilean accreditation…

  8. Popular Education for Peasant Communities in Chile. Chapter 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante R., Isabel; Letelier G., Eugenia

    The rural population of Chile has been served poorly by the formal educational system, rural educational attainment lags behind that of urban areas, and outmigration and alienation of rural youth are high. In the past decade, popular education has attempted to educate rural people and put them in control of their destinies by drawing on popular…

  9. New species of Anisophya Karabag from Chile (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phanopterinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of the most primitive Neotropical bush katydids (Phaneropterinae) — including species of Cosmophyllum Blanchard, Stenophylla Brunner von Wattenwyl, Marenestha Brunner von Wattenwyl, Anisophya Karabag, Coryphoda Brunner von Wattenwyl, and Burgilis Stål — are endemic in Chile. The Chilean species...

  10. How Local Market Pressures Shape Leadership Practices: Evidence from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Fromm, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Chile is well known worldwide for its extensive use of market-driven mechanisms in education. Using a case study strategy in three schools, this paper shows that "universal" voucher system and mixed provision (co-existence of subsidised private and state-funded schools) policies are reshaping school management practices. The paper draws…

  11. Creating Dialogues: Exploring the "Good Early Childhood Educator" in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the different ways in which a number of Chilean stakeholders conceptualise the "good early childhood educator" in Chile. In a context where new foreign narratives are increasingly dominating the field and the recent standardisation of the educators' professional role is being implemented, this…

  12. 75 FR 11583 - The Chile Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application March 8, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Company Act of 1940 (the ``Act'') for an exemption from section 17(a) of the Act. Applicant: The...

  13. The Impact of Chile's School Feeding Program on Education Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Chile operates one of the oldest and largest school feeding programs in Latin America, targeting higher-calorie meals to relatively poorer schools. This paper evaluates the impact of higher-calorie meals on the education outcomes of public, rural schools and their students. It applies a regression-discontinuity design to administrative data,…

  14. [Health research and health technology assessment in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA.

  15. Jazz en Chile: su historia y función social Jazz in Chile: its history and social function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Menanteau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una visión general de la historia del jazz en Chile que destaca la función social de esta música y el cambio que tuvo a través del tiempo. Estos cambios se relacionaron con diferentes valoraciones de la práctica jazzística local. En un principio el jazz fue música popular masiva. Posteriormente fue valorado estéticamente por un segmento de élite, quienes eran profesionales en áreas no musicales y en muchos casos eran instrumentistas aficionados. En una tercera etapa, músicos profesionales asumieron la práctica del jazz como una plataforma para fusionar el lenguaje jazzístico con recursos tomados de la música tradicional chilena. Este tránsito del jazz en Chile está cruzado por factores socioeconómicos y estéticos, que se analizan en el trabajo.The article presents an overview of the history of jazz in Chile on the basis of the social function of jazz and the changes it has underwent over the years in terms of the valúes it has represented for Chilean society. Initially jazz was considered as mass popular music. Afterwards it was valued in aesthetic terms by a group belonging to the élite of Chilean society. Many of them belonged to non-music professions and in some cases were amateur musicians. Most recently professional musicians took up jazz as the basis for combining the jazz style with elements belonging to traditional music of Chile. This process in Chile is also influenced by social, economic and aesthetic aspects which are explored in this article.

  16. ESO Delegation to Visit Chile: the Chile-Eso Treaty and Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The ESO Council, in its extraordinary session on 28 April 1994, among other matters discussed the relations with the Republic of Chile and the situation around Paranal mountain [1], the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Council decided to send a high ranking delegation to Santiago de Chile to discuss with Chilean authorities the pending problems, including the finalisation of the new Treaty between the Republic of Chile and ESO and the legal aspects of the Paranal location. The ESO delegation will consist of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. The delegation will arrive in Chile during the second half of May 1994. The ESO delegation will meet with the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and the Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose Miguel Insulza. Other meetings at high level are being planned. The delegation will report about these discussions to the ESO Council during its ordinary session on 7 - 8 June 1994. FOUR PARANAL PHOTOS AVAILABLE A series of four photos which show the current status of the work at Paranal has been prepared. Photographic colour prints for use by the media can be requested from the ESO Information and Photographic Service (please remember to indicate the identification numbers). [1] See ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994. PHOTO CAPTIONS ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-1: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is situated in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. In this view towards the West, the ocean is seen in the background. The altitude is 2650 metres

  17. Análisis comparativo de las variables más relevantes para el desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Jiménez Gómez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En este artículo se analiza la evolución histórica de variables que han sido consideradas como relevantes para el desarrollo de Brasil, Chile, Corea del Sur, Finlandia e Irlanda, países donde en las últimas décadas se ha realizado una serie de transformaciones de índole social y económica que son interesantes contrastar con el desarrollo seguido por Costa Rica. A través de un análisis comparativo con estos países, se trata de identificar las lecciones aprendidas y las diferencias entre los indicadores de las variables estudiadas para inferir algunas conclusiones de su evolución en el largo plazo y su implicación en el desarrollo de los países en cuestión. Palabras Claves: Desarrollo, ingreso nacional bruto, competitividad, educación, desarrollo humano. Abstract This article analyzes the historical evolution of some variables that have been considered as relevant to the development of Brazil, Chile, South Korea, Finland and Ireland, which in recent decades made transformations on social, economic and a combination of both fields that can serve as a guide for other developing countries like Costa Rica. Through a comparative analysis of these countries, will be possible to take a note about the lessons learned and the differences between the selected indicators, and in fact, this scenario reflects the changes made and the position where you will find the country. Keywords: Development, GNI, competitiveness, education, human development.

  18. Simbolic boundaries and middle classes. Social mobility in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayarí Castillo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available After more than three decades of the implementation of the policies of structural adjustment in Chile, the middle classes increased their weight in the social structure and changed their economic sector, occupation and trajectories of social mobility. This article analyzes the perceptionof symbolic boundaries, which emerging of these macro-processes and shapes the subjectivity of middle class subjects into upward mobility processes and modifies their perceptions of inequality. Whit this objective the paper presents a qualitative analysis of cases in which discursive components like meritocracy, the effort and the idea of “barriers/obstacles” became a key discursive axis. This article is inscribed within the recent studies on middle classes for the Chilean case, which focus specially on the cultural aspects after reproduction of stratification and inequality in Chile.

  19. Nuevos inmigrantes en Chile: Los determinantes de su actividad emprendedora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio MANCILLA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile es poca la literatura que estudia a los inmigrantes desde una perspectiva económica, y menos la que aborda su actitud emprendedora (a pesar de que son proporcionalmente más emprendedores que los habitantes locales. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los factores que influyen en el emprendimiento de los in - migrantes sudamericanos en Chile. Se utilizó un modelo logit ajustado para even - tos extraños para determinar el impacto sobre la probabilidad de emprendimiento individual. Algunos resultados indican que el tiempo de residencia, forma legal de ingreso al país, nivel educacional y experiencia previa de emprendimiento, influyen en la probabilidad de crear una actividad empresarial.

  20. [Chile: political education and a critical reading of television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattelart, M

    1979-01-01

    A study of television was conducted in Chile in 1971. There is a discontinuous aspect in the requests of the public, especially in times of crisis and rupture with the traditional order. In order to measure the various levels of appreciation and critique raised by the television in various areas of the working class in Chile, the poblaciones (peripheric residential zones) were chosen as the place for the study. 100 interviews were conducted. 60% of the people questioned were sympathizers or militants of the various left wing parties; the other 40% were sympathizers or militants of the opposition (Christian democracy, National party and right wing of the radical party). Television does not make any distinction between the publics, but the public makes distinctions between the effects of television. Melodramas and detective programs have the largest adhesion in the popular public of Latin America.

  1. Reforma educativa y política en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Angell

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines two important educational reforms introduced since the return to democracy in Chile. The first one was targeted at the poorest 10% of schools in Chile. The second was a fundamental reform of the primary educational sector. Both have been successful in meeting their objectives, and mark a fundamental shift from the educational reforms of the Pinochet government. The reasons for the success of the reforms are broken down into political, institutional and operational factors. In essence, a small team of trained educational reformers, with widespread support and strong backing from the Minister of Education and the President were able to overcome the resistance of the bureaucrats of the Ministry of Education and that of the school teachers union.

  2. Conservation easements and mining: The case of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-Bernstein, M.; Montecinos Carvajal, Y.; Ladle, R.; Jepson, P.; Jaksic, F.

    2013-12-01

    Private protected areas (PPAs) are important designations with the potential to complement and improve public protected area (PA) networks in many countries. PPAs come in many forms and offer a wide variety of incentives, rights, responsibilities, and protections. One popular model, now being considered for adoption in Chile, is the conservation easement. In this article, we examine how well conservation easements would perform as PPA designations in countries such as Chile that have strong mining industries. Mining, and other concessions, in PAs is emerging as an important point of contention between conservation and development. PPA designations should be carefully designed to offer protections that conform to standards that will complement PA networks, that are perpetual, and that require a publically accountable and transparent process to overturn or modify.

  3. Codex Alimentarius Commission: Its Importance in Chile´s Food Safety History

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Throughout Chile´s food safety history, the Codex Alimentarius and its Commission have been crucial to its development. Particularly, the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) has been a reference in food standard setting for Chile. In order to share the experience of Chile in the development of its national food control systems and the role the CAC has played in it, a summary of the history and important milestones is presented in this paper.

  4. Entrepreneurship in Chile from a Viewpoint of a Foreign Investor

    OpenAIRE

    Česká, Markéta

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on entrepreneurship in Chile from a viewpoint of a foreign investor. The main objective is to depict the business environment of Chile, using an example of a real business case. The first part concentrates on PESTLE analysis of Chile. Second part focuses on the conditions of launching and running a business in that country. In the third part a hotel project is analysed and relevant conclusions are drawn.

  5. [Public health infrastructure investment difficulties in Chile: concessions and public tenders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyenechea, Matías

    2016-05-12

    This paper seeks to highlight the problems of gaps in health infrastructure in Chile, and to analyze the mechanisms by which it is provided. In Chile this is done in two ways: the first is through competitive bidding or sector-wide modality. The second way is through hospital concessions. Both mechanisms have had difficulties in recent years, which are reported. Finally, we propose ways to improve the provision of health infrastructure in Chile.

  6. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-29

    immunologic familiarity with I this antigen, sera collected 10 days after immunization were examined by IgM "ELISA. In this instance significant rises of 0...do not have the same immunologic familiarity with S. typhi 0 antigen as Chilean children. U.S. adults respond to immun.zation as often with a primary...vaccination between May 3 and June 18, 1982. -25- REFERENCES 1. Departamento Planificacion Estadistica, Mjnisterio de Salud, Santiago Chile. 2. Ristori

  7. Ancient Leishmaniasis in a Highland Desert of Northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Antonietta Costa; Carney Matheson; Lucia Iachetta; Agustín Llagostera; Otto Appenzeller

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. METHODOLOGY: We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses...

  8. Strategic Challenges in the Regional Environment Facing Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-19

    relationship between criminal groups and drug dealers. Carabineros (Uniformed Police Force) and Investigaciones de Chile (Investigation Police) have...2004; available from <http://www.latercera.cl/ articulo /0,5819,3255_5664_49521165,00.html>; Internet; accessed 02 Feb 2004. 21 Military Studies and... articulo /0,5819,3255_5664_49521165,00.html> Internet. Accessed 02 February 2004. Williams, Phil. “New Contexts, Smart Enemies” in Non-State Threats and Future Wars, ed. Robert Bunker, Portland: Frank Cass & Co., 2003

  9. The Student Movement in Chile: Origins, trajectory and impact

    OpenAIRE

    Beranová, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Latin America cannot be conceived without acknowledging the social movements, which are often the engines of political and social changes on the continent. Until recently, Chile appeared to be the country where the social order was perceived as the most accomplished in relation to its politically unstable neighbouring countries, as well as in relation to its proper history. The 2011 student movement, which is the most significant social movement within the last twenty years of the Chilean his...

  10. Chile; Staff Report for the 2015 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This 2015 Article IV Consultation highlights that the GDP growth of Chile has remained lackluster over the past year. The main force behind the economic slowdown in 2014 has been the sharp fall in private investment, mainly the consequence of the end of the mining boom, but also reflecting the uncertainty and adjustment costs associated with the structural reform agenda. The IMF staff expects growth to increase modestly to 2.5 percent in 2015, mainly thanks to strong fiscal support. Private d...

  11. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Munoz; Becker, Peter H.; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-11-01

    Seabird eggs are proposed as biomonitors of chemical contamination in Chile. - Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g{sup -1} wet weight). The highest {sigma}DDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g{sup -1}). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g{sup -1}), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines ({sigma}OHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepcion Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile.

  12. Annuity Markets in Chile : Competition, Regulation - and Myopia?

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The author studies annuity rates in Chile and relates them with industry competition. He finds (1) that annuity insurance companies paying higher broker commissions paid lower annuity rates; and (2) a structural break of the long-run elasticity of annuity rates to the risk-free rate in 2001. Moreover, this structural break coincided with the submission of a new draft pension law proposing greater transparency in annuity markets and a generalized drop in broker commissions. The high commission...

  13. Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, A.; Carrasco, J.C. (Unidad de Desarrollo Tecnologico, Univ. de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)); Neugebauer, J. (Polysius AG (ThyssenKrupp Technologies AG), 59269 Beckum (Germany)). e-mail: aberg@udt.cl

    2008-10-15

    MSW amount, along with its disposition cost and environmental impacts have been significantly increasing in Chile. Therefore, goal of current study is to evaluate viable technological solutions for the energetic recovery of MSW. Experimental work in the city Concepcion has been performed on pre-treatment processes. Results show that an appropriate physical separation leads to fractions with specific characteristics, therefore applicable for different energetic uses. Keywords: Municipal solid waste (MSW), combustion, biogas, developing countries.

  14. Controlling Light Pollution in Chile A Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm G.; Sanhueza, P.; Schwarz, H. E.; Walker, A. R.

    2006-12-01

    In 1999, after 6 years of intense work wirh Chilean authoritie Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, the then President of Chile signed into law Supreme Decree 686, the environmentally-linked "Norma Luminica". This, in effect, required that lighting in the three astronomically-sensitive Regions of Northern Chile (II Paranal,Armazones III Las Campanas IV La Silla, Tololo, Pachon) be directed downwards instead of into the sky. Various grace periods up to a maximum of five years were specified for different types of lighting. Street lighting was due to be fully compliant by 1st October, 2005. 70% of the street lighting in these 3 Regions now meets specifications and work continues towards full compliance. More sophisticated draft legislation is under consideration with several Chilean national authorities. This may include international lighting norms, energy-saving caps and measures to address energy-saving, environmental and human-health issues. With vigilance, these measures are likely to extend the useful life of all existing and major planned observatories in Chile by several decades.

  15. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities.

  16. Teenage sexuality and rights in Chile: from denial to punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Ahumada, Claudia

    2009-11-01

    While Chile sees itself as a country that has fully restored human rights since its return to democratic rule in 1990, the rights of teenagers to comprehensive sexuality education are still not being met. This paper reviews the recent history of sexuality education in Chile and related legislation, policies and programmes. It also reports a 2008 review of the bylaws of 189 randomly selected Chilean schools, which found that although such bylaws are mandatory, the absence of bylaws to prevent discrimination on grounds of pregnancy, HIV and sexuality was common. In relation to how sexual behaviour and discipline were addressed, bylaws that were non-compliant with the law were very common. Opposition to sexuality education in schools in Chile is predicated on the denial of teenage sexuality, and many schools punish sexual behaviour where transgression is perceived to have taken place. While the wider Chilean society has been moving towards greater recognition of individual autonomy and sexual diversity, this cultural shift has yet to be reflected in the government's political agenda, in spite of good intentions. Given this state of affairs, the Chilean polity needs to recognise its youth as having human rights, or will continue to fail in its commitment to them.

  17. Privatization of Social Security: Lessons from Chile Privatization of Social Security: Lessons from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Diamond

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available In Chile, all covered workers must save 10% of monthly earnings wilh a highly regulated intermediary Ihat monages a single fund and provides survivors and disability insurance. Workers pay a commission charge, in addition to the mandatory 10%, to finance this insurance and to cover the costs and profits of the intermediaries. On becoming eligible to receive benefits, a worker can choose between a sequence of phased withdrawals and a real annuity. In addition, there is a sizable guaranteed minimum pension. Unlike the purchased annuities, the minimum pension is not indexed, but adjusted by Ihe government from time to time. The Chilean reform gets high marks for defending the system from polilical risk and for its effects on capital accumulation and on the functioning of the capital markel. The Chilean reform gets low marks for the provision of insurance and for administrative cost. Perhaps the most surprising aspect of the Chilean reform is the high cost of running a privatized social security system, higher than the "inefficient" system thal it replaced. Valdes-Prieto has estimated that the average administrative charge per effective affiliate while active is 2.94% of average taxable earnings. This is close to 30% of the 10% mandatory saving rate. The cost per person is not far from costs observed in older privately-managed pension systems. However, it is higher than administrative cost in well-run unified government-managed systems. The issue here is the administrative efficiency of the primte markel, not anything particularly costly about the Chilean system. In Chile, all covered workers must save 10% of monthly earnings wilh a highly regulated intermediary Ihat monages a single fund and provides survivors and disability insurance. Workers pay a commission charge, in addition to the mandatory 10%, to finance this insurance and to cover the costs and profits of the intermediaries. On becoming eligible to receive benefits, a worker can choose

  18. Seroepidemiology of human toxoplasmosis in Chile Seroepidemiología de la toxoplasmosis en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del C. Contreras

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of already published and unpublished seroepidemiological surveys for toxoplasmosis, carried out in Chile in 1982-1994, is reviewed, expanded and analyzed. The surveys included 76,317 apparently healthy individuals of different ages (0.57% of the country's total population, from 309 urban and rural-periurban localities. Urban groups were integrated by blood donors, delivering mothers and middle grade schoolchildren, while rural-periurban individuals corresponded to unselected family groups. Blood samples were collected in filter paper. The presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined by the indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT, titers > 16 were considered positive. The test resulted positive in 28,124 (36.9% of the surveyed people. Two hundred and six (0.3% individuals presented IHAT titers > 1000, probably corresponding to acute or reactivated infections. A progressive increase of positive IHAT from northern to southern regions of the country was noted, phenomenom probably related to geographical conditions and to a higher production and consumption of different types of meat in the latter regions. It is postulated that ingestion of T. gondii cysts by humans is epidemiologically as important as ingestion of oocysts. The results presented stress the epidemiological importance of toxoplasmosis in humans, and warn about eventual implications in immunocompromised patients and in transplacental transmission, organ transplants and transfusions.En este trabajo se revisa, se amplía y se analiza en conjunto una serie de encuestas seroepidemiológicas sobre toxoplasmosis efectuadas en Chile entre 1982 y 1994, utilizando la reacción de hemaglutinación indirecta (RHAI. El estudio incluyó 76.317 personas aparentemente sanas de diferentes edades (0,57% de la problación total del país, procedentes de 309 localidades urbanas y rural-periurbanas. Los grupos urbanos estuvieron constituídos por donantes de sangre, parturientas y

  19. Environmental management in Chile: The power plants case; Gestion ambiental en Chile: Caso de las centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadrijevic, Maritza [Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente, (Chile)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the general aspects of the historic evolution o the legal norms on environmental matters in Chile; general aspects of the electric generation system and the instruments of environmental management currently applied in the fossil fueled power plants, such as: the assessment system of the environmental impact; compliance of the air quality and emissions Standards and plans for decontamination [Espanol] En este trabajo se dan a conocer aspectos generales de la evolucion historica de las normas juridicas en materia ambiental en Chile; aspectos generales del sistema de generacion electrica y los instrumentos de gestion ambiental que actualmente se aplican a las plantas de generacion termoelectricas, tales como: el sistema de evaluacion de impacto ambiental; cumplimiento de normas de la calidad de aire y de emision y, planes de descontaminacion

  20. Hacia un nuevo modelo de desarrollo rural en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Toro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los sectores sociales más vulnerables en Chile se encuentra íntimamente relacionado al minifundio, a la ruralidad y al trabajador agrícola. La realidad de la industria agraria nacional está determinada por su inherente naturaleza estacional, por la escasez hídrica y por la alta tendencia hacia la informalidad de las relaciones laborales, factores que en conjunto merman la calidad de vida de la población y disminuyen las posibilidades de desarrollo del mundo rural. El diagnóstico es el de una absoluta desvinculación con el mundo social y con el desarrollo económico exhibido en las grandes urbes del país. Por su parte, las estrategias gubernamentales que han pretendido impulsar el desarrollo rural en el país, no han contemplado la total complejidad de sus territorios y se han limitado a fomentar el desarrollo productivo agrícola y a mejorar la cobertura de servicios básicos de la población. El presente artículo, problematiza lo rural como fenómeno sociológico a partir de la resignificación del concepto a lo largo de su historia epistemológica, analizando críticamente el modelo de desarrollo rural presente en Chile. Abstract One of the poorest social strata in Chile is related to small farmsteads, rurality, and farmworker dependent.The reality of the national agricultural industry is determined by it’s seasonal nature, water scarcity and because of it’s high propensity to informality in labor relations. Together, these factors diminish the quality of life and the posibilities of development of rural population. The diagnosis of rurality in Chile is synonim of marginality. Meanwhile, government strategies that have sought to boost rural development have not considered the full complexity of rural territories and have been limited to encourage agricultural production and to improve basic services of the population. This paper problematises the rural concept rural as sociological phenomenon. In addition, the prevailing

  1. [Mortality in Chile 1955-1975: trends and causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taucher, E

    1978-12-01

    Sources for data on mortality in Chile are available from the Instituto National de Estadistica, and from the Servicio National de Salud. For the purpose of this study every possible effort was made to get valid data, relying on the national death register, and on medical certificates of death. Between 1953 and 1963 the mortality rate was 12-13/1000; it abruptly descended in 1973, and rose again, to reach the level of 7.2/1000 in 1975. Male mortality is higher than female mortality. In the years 1974-1975 the mortality rate descended considerably for infants and for children 1-4. If one compares mortality rates in Chile and Sweden for 1975, it is obvious that modern medical technology and different sanitary conditions are responsible for the low mortality rate in Sweden. As to the causes of mortality, 9 diseases are responsible for more than 90% of deaths. During the past 15 years death from cancer was about 110/1000, while violent deaths and deaths by accidents augmented. The death rate for respiratory diseases decreased significantly in 1974-1975. In comparing causes of death in Chile and in the U.S. one notices that respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, and circulatory diseases account for a great number of deaths in Chile, while in the U.S. accidents account for 73.4% of deaths in the 15-24 year old group. Tuberculosis, which has almost disappeared in the U.S., accounts for 5% of deaths in Chile in the 15-44 year old group. Such differences are due to cultural, social and economic diversity in the structure of the 2 countries. Pneumonia still accounts for 50% of infant mortality, and malnutrition for about 39% of mortality of children under 5. Still, most causes of death, like diarrhea in children, could be avoided with proper diagnosis and treatment. Nutrition, sanitary conditions, medical attention, and socioeconomic conditions are finally responsible if Chilean mortality rates still are much higher than those of developed countries.

  2. Field survey of the 16 September 2015 Chile tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2016-04-01

    On the evening of 16 September, 2015 a magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile's Coquimbo region. The ensuing tsunami caused significant inundation and damage in the Coquimbo or 4th region and mostly minor effects in neighbouring 3rd and 5th regions. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1922 and 1943 tsunamis in the region along with the catastrophic 2010 Maule and recent 2014 tsunamis, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were a few tsunami victims; while a handful of fatalities were associated to earthquake induced building collapses and the physical stress of tsunami evacuation. The international scientist joined the local effort from September 20 to 26, 2015. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 500 km stretch of coastline from Caleta Chañaral de Aceituno (28.8° S) south of Huasco down to Llolleo near San Antonio (33.6° S). We surveyed more than 40 locations and recorded more than 100 tsunami and runup heights with differential GPS and integrated laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Totoral near Punta Aldea with both tsunami and runup heights exceeding 10 m as surveyed on September 22 and broadcasted nationwide that evening. Runup exceeded 10 m at a second uninhabited location some 15 km south of Caleta Totoral. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of central Chile at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2015 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1922, 1943, 2010 and 2014 Chile tsunamis. The

  3. Una arteria norte-sur y el Santiago de Chile „non plus ultra’: la historia de un largo trayecto. / A north-south artery and Santiago de Chile 'non plus ultra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Pavez Reyes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este escrito resume la prehistoria e historia del Complejo Vial Norte-Sur, de Santiago de Chile, como parte de las acciones del Estado de Chile, en la época del urbanismo realizado por el sector público. /This paper summarizes the prehistory and history of North-South Road Complex, Santiago de Chile, as part of the actions of the State of Chile, at the time of planning by the public sector.

  4. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D González-Acuña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866 por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909 parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región, Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866, are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909 parasiting alpacas in the General Lagos area (I Region is also confirmed. The importance of this situation is discussed in the present report.

  5. 76 FR 78231 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... continental United States of fresh Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. Based... fresh Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. We solicited comments on...

  6. A propósito del maestro ignorante y sus lecciones: testimonio de una relación transferencial On the ignorant schoolmaster and his lessons: testimony of a tranferential relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Frigerio

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo remite a la producción y trayectoria de Rancière como un modo de nombrar una filosofía extramuros. Desde esta extraterritorialidad, transitando nociones del psicoanálisis, Frigerio da cuenta de la pertinencia pedagógica y la actualidad de las lecciones de Rancière para los educadores que hoy, en América Latina, tienen a su cargo la responsabilidad de educar. El texto puede recorrerse en clave de transferencia. Destaca los modos en los que el amor de transferencia se vuelven condición de emancipación cuando ofrecen la regla de la confianza como encuadre de una pedagogía. Insiste en destacar que es posible interrumpir las profecías de fracaso que acompañan la relación con la cultura, de modo que el origen social deje de ser una marca que actúa como condena. Un amor de transferencia puede ofrecer una salida de la condena sin que implique renegar de la pertenencia; puede permitir que cada sujeto recupere la oportunidad de no quedar atrapado en el origen, cuando la asimetría fundante de las relaciones no deviene la sede de una desigualdad. La igualdad se transforma, entonces, en una condición de la emancipación posible.This paper refers to the production and trajectory of Rancière as a way of developing an outsider philosophy. From this extraterritoriality, through psychoanalytic concepts, Frigerio rescues the pedagogical relevancy and topicality of the lessons of Rancière for the teachers nowadays in charge of education in Latin America. This text can be used as a clue about transference. It emphasizes the different ways transfer love follows to become a condition for emancipation when it offers trust as a framework for pedagogy. It also stresses that it is possible to interrupt the failure prophecies related with culture, so that nobody be condemned for their social origins. Transfer love may offer a way out of condemnation without denying the place or group to which one belongs; it can also hinder that anyone be

  7. 76 FR 18511 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Figs From Chile into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ..., and baby kiwi fruit from Chile. We solicited comments on the notice for 60 days ending on April 12... fresh pomegranates and baby kiwi from Chile into the United States,\\2\\ published in the Federal Register... pomegranates and baby kiwi from Chile in our May 2010 notice. The commenter stated that fumigation of...

  8. 78 FR 70276 - Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction With Trade Winds-The...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction..., International Trade Administration is organizing a trade mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama and Ecuador... from the USFCS, including in Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama and Ecuador. Each trade mission stop...

  9. Ontological disorders: nightmares, psychotropic drugs and evil spirits in southern Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonelli, C.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores several equivocations in the relationship between state healthcare workers and the Pehuenche population in southern Chile. In particular, it focuses on radical differences in understanding the body, personhood, sleeping and dreaming. In Alto Bío Bío, Chile, while healthcare wor

  10. [Claudio Costa Casaretto M.D. (1914-1999) in Revista Medica de Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, A

    1999-10-01

    The work of Dr. Claudio Costa Casaretto covers a broad field in the history of Medicine in Chile. He contributed with the historical aspects in the Centennial issue of Revista Médica de Chile in July, 1972. He published 85 papers in this journal in a lapse of 20 years. In his works, he investigated about medical personalities with the highest relevance for Chilean medicine such as Dr. William Blest, graduated in Edinburgh and director of the first Medicine Course in Chile in 1833, the French obstetrician Dr. Lorenzo Sazie, first Dean of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile in 1843 and Dr. Eloisa Díaz, first physician graduated in Chile and South America in 1887. He published the translation from Latin of Juan Ignacio Molina's verses "Elegies to smallpox", Chilean writer and erudite of the XVIII century. He also undertook the origins of Universidad de San Felipe (1737), Universidad de Chile (1842) and Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (1889) and the main educational events occurred in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile, during the past century. He also published about the public health situation and sanitary care during the XIX century, about the conflict between private and public teaching and other political events of the past century. The work of Dr. Costa as a whole, is a real history textbook of Chilean Medicine. Dr. Costa and Dr. Enrique Laval are the most important Chilean medical historians of the XX century.

  11. Credit constraints in rural financial markets in Chile: determinants and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, A.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from two surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008 on 177 farmers in Chile, this study measures access to credit and empirically determine the effects of credit constraints on investment and production for market-oriented farmers in central Chile. More specifically, four issues are dealt with:

  12. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United... Singapore. DATES: July 15, 2010: Deadline for filing written submissions. December 13, 2010: Transmittal of...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...

  13. 76 FR 14320 - Importation of Figs and Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... allowed. Importation of pomegranates (Punica granatum) from Chile is allowed if the fruit is fumigated... Pomegranate (Punica granatum) and Fig (Ficus carica) from Chile Imported into the Continental United States.... Fresh figs (Ficus carica) and fresh pomegranates (Punica granatum) may be imported into the...

  14. Citizenship ‘from Above’? The Case of Chile, 1964-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Ree, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    During the last fifty years, citizenship in Chile has been re-interpreted and reformulated in different ways. By combining top-down and bottom-up approaches towards citizenship, this article argues that the reformulation of citizenship in Chile has been brought about through both state-initiated pro

  15. Cold atoms observed for the first time at the Universidad de Santiago de Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, Ignacio E; Aguilar, Felipe [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Avenida Ecuador 3493, Estacion Central, Santiago (Chile); Aguirre-Gomez, J G [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Conception Avenida Esteban Iturra s/n Barrio Universitario, Conception (Chile)], E-mail: ignacio.olivares@gmail.com

    2008-11-01

    A cloud of cold {sup 85}Rb atoms was recently observed for the first time in Chile in a magneto optical trap using a Rb getter. We also observed cooling and trapping of the {sup 87}Rb isotope. This experience represents a preliminary result for an ongoing effort to promote the experimental research in the field of quantum optics in Chile.

  16. Apprenticeship in Latin America: The INACAP Program in Chile. A Case Study. Occasional Paper #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.

    The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…

  17. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, 1892 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae is recorded for the first time from Chile. Male and female adults were reared from leaf-tying larvae collected on Myrica pavonis (Myricaceae, which is a new host plant record for S. smithiana.

  18. 77 FR 64106 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... policy mission participation fees. Commercial Setting: Chile's fast growing economy and business friendly.... In a speech on February 28, 2012, President Pi era announced the Government of Chile (GoC) would... growth for years to come. ITA's U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (US&FCS) at the U.S. Embassy...

  19. Uma insólita visita: Fidel Castro no Chile de Allende An uncommon visit: Fidel Castro in Allende’s Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Aggio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca expor sinteticamente o que foi a viagem que Fidel Castro realizou ao Chile em novembro de 1971, e também refletir a respeito tanto das estratégias políticas evidenciadas por Castro em sua estadia no Chile, quanto sobre as conseqüências que derivaram dessas estratégias para o processo conhecido como a "experiência chilena". Conclui afirmando que, se não se pode atribuir à visita de Fidel toda a confrontação que mais tarde iria se estabelecer no Chile, também não se pode isentar integralmente o dirigente cubano de uma certa responsabilidade quanto à situação que se impôs. Esta viagem de Fidel ao Chile de Allende foi uma viagem incomum, distinta de qualquer padrão diplomático, e abrigou silenciosamente uma profunda disputa política no interior da esquerda latino-americana que permaneceu por muito tempo desconhecida.This paper discusses briefly the meaning of Fidel Castro’s visit to Chile in November 1971; it intends as well to present a reflection on both the political strategies shown by Fidel during his stay in Chile and its consequence for the process known as "the Chilean experience". It takes us to assume that if all confrontation that occurred in Chile late on cannot be attributed to this visit, neither can Fidel be considered completely free from responsibility for it. This visit to Allende’s Chile was uncommon, different from all diplomatic patterns; it resulted in a silent and deep political dispute in the Latin-American Left, which remained unknown for much time.

  20. FÍSICA: SU TRAYECTORIA EN CHILE (1800-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO GUTIÉRREZ GALLARDO

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta el desarrollo de la Física en Chile desde los comienzos de la República hasta 1960, poniendo énfasis en el desarrollo interno de la disciplina, la evolución de su concepción y la transmisión de su saber. El trabajo enfrenta el mito de la inexistente tradición científica en Chile, mostrando que en el caso de la Física ha habido un largo y sostenido desarrollo. En este desarrollo de la Física se distinguen cuatro etapas: (1 como capítulo de la Filosofía Escolástica; (2 como ciencia útil o indistinguible de la ingeniería; (3 como ciencia cultural y centro de una concepción científica del mundo; y (4 como disciplina con problemas propios, donde la investigación deviene parte central de su desarrollo. Para el historiador de la ciencia la novedad es que su desarrollo sigue una lógica donde los parámetros locales tienen una influencia muy significativa en comparación con aquellos determinados por el desarrollo mundial de la disciplinaThis paper presents the development of Physics in Chile from the beginnings of the Republic until the year 1960, emphasizing the internal development of the discipline, the evolution of its conception and the transmission of its body of knowledge. This work faces the myth of the non-existent scientific tradition in Chile by showing in the case of Physics a long and sustained development. In this development we distinguish four stages of Physics: (1 As a chapter of Scholastic Philosophy; (2 As a discipline closely related to engineering and real-life problems; (3 As cultural science and base of a scientific view of the world; (4 As a discipline with its own problems, where research becomes a central part of its development. For the science historian the novelty is that this development follows a logic where the local parameters have strong influence as compared to those determined by the universal development of the discipline

  1. Quaternary pollen record from laguna de tagua tagua, chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, C J

    1983-03-25

    Pollen of southern beech and podocarp at Laguna de Tagua Tagua during the late Pleistocene indicates that cooler and more humid intervals were a feature of Ice Age climate at this subtropical latitude in Chile. The influence of the southern westerlies may have been greater at this time, and the effect of the Pacific anticyclone was apparently weakened. The climate today, wet in winter and dry in summer, supports broad sclerophyll vegetation that developed during the Holocene with the arrival of paleo-Indians and the extinction of mastodon and horse.

  2. Geopolitics representation: Chile and Argentina in southern ice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Isabel Manzano Itura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Geopolitics, from concept named in 1917 by Rudolf Kjellén has been in continuous evolution until today. Since the incorporation of the representations, the first concept has been of vital importance in different territorial conflicts’ analysis. By means of a geopolitical analysis, the present article intends to understand the geopolitical representations in the area of southern ice fields, the last boundaries issue that still remains in abeyance between Chile and Argentina and how is that both countries have discussed the problem on a basis of representations, in which maps have been the image of each one facing the other, favoring in this way competition between states.

  3. Desarrollo de la Energía Mareomotriz en Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vega Salinas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo trata una revisión del estado del arte de la energía marina, que puede ser generada por las mareas o el oleaje, se analizaron las experiencias a nivel mundial, así como se estudió la factibilidad técnica y económica de la instalación de esta fuente de energía en Chile, específicamente para la industria del cultivo de salmón.

  4. Fruit production in Chile: bright past, uncertain future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 (the last agricultural census, Chile had 308, 445 ha of fruit orchards: an increase of almost 32% from the previous census (1997. The most important species were table grapes (20%, avocados (13% and apples (12%. Some 22% of the fruit crops growing area corresponded to juvenile orchards; within the species with higher proportion of juvenile orchards were prunes (42% and blueberries (56%. Most orchards are located between latitude 27º18` S (Copiapó and 40º36´S (Puerto Varas. The industry is driven by the export component which accounts for more than 50% of the fruits produced. In the crop season 2009-2010, approximately 254 million boxes (around 2.5 million tons were exported, representing over US$ 3.5 million. Processed and fresh fruits represented 8.2 and 26.7% of the total forest and agricultural Chilean exports in 2008, respectively. The main markets for this fruits were USA/Canada (42% and Europe (32%. The fruit grower receives, on average, 12-16% of the total price of the fruit in its final destination. Each year the fruit industry employs 450.000 people directly, of which 1/3 are permanent. Even though the fruit industry employs the highest proportion of the agricultural labor and the growing area has increased in the last 20 years, the proportion of agricultural employment has decreased from 19.5% in 1989 to 10.8% in 2008. It might also be noted that Chile invests only 0.7% of the GDP in research. In the last 40 years, the fruit industry has been a motor for the Chilean economic development, but the lower rates of currency exchange, the rising costs of energy (oil, electricity, and the increasing scarcity of hand labor have drastically reduced the profitability and are putting at risk the viability of a large proportion of the fruit orchards in Chile. It is estimated that this season around 65% of the orchards will have a negative economic balance in their operations. Higher investment in research, improvements in fruit quality

  5. MOVILIDAD SUSTENTABLE EN CHILE: OPORTUNIDADES, EXPERIENCIAS LOCALES Y REFERENCIAS GLOBALES

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Díaz Tejeda

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo propone Premisas Conceptuales, Premisas Metodológicas y el desarrollo de Aspectos Estratégicos para la implementación de soluciones a la Movilidad Urbana. Se inspira en las ideas, experiencias e investigaciones de diversas personas quienes abordan desde lógicas puntuales aspectos temáticos específicos en el marco de la Planificación Urbana en general y de las aplicaciones en Transporte en particular. Chile atraviesa por una oportunidad histórica, quizás paradójicamente, a partir...

  6. Medication Overdoses at a Public Emergency Department in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Aguilera, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While a nationwide poison control registry exists in Chile, reporting to the center is sporadic and happens at the discretion of the treating physician or by patients’ self-report. Moreover, individual hospitals do not monitor accidental or intentional poisoning in a systematic manner. The goal of this study was to identify all cases of intentional medication overdose (MO that occurred over two years at a large public hospital in Santiago, Chile, and examine its epidemiologic profile. Methods: This study is a retrospective, explicit chart review conducted at Hospital Sótero del Rio from July 2008 until June 2010. We included all cases of identified intentional MO. Alcohol and recreational drugs were included only when they were ingested with other medications. Results: We identified 1,557 cases of intentional MO and analyzed a total of 1,197 cases, corresponding to 0.51% of all emergency department (ED presentations between July 2008 and June 2010. The median patient age was 25 years. The majority was female (67.6%. Two peaks were identified, corresponding to the spring of each year sampled. The rate of hospital admission was 22.2%. Benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA were the causative agents most commonly found, comprising 1,044 (87.2% of all analyzed cases. Acetaminophen was involved in 81 (6.8% cases. More than one active substance was involved in 35% of cases. In 7.3% there was ethanol co-ingestion and in 1.0% co-ingestion of some other recreational drug (primarily cocaine. Of 1,557 cases, six (0.39% patients died. TCA were involved in two of these deaths. Conclusion: Similar to other developed and developing nations, intentional MO accounts for a significant number of ED presentations in Chile. Chile is unique in the region, however, in that its spectrum of intentional overdoses includes an excess burden of tricyclic antidepressant and benzodiazepine overdoses, a

  7. Estrategia de desarrollo del sector privado (PSDS) para Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Zahler

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo de este informe es desarrollar el "outline" elaborado por el BID, para perfilar una propuesta de estrategia que podría ser adoptada por el Banco para apoyar el desarrollo del sector privado en Chile. El informe sostiene que el sector público chileno viene desarrollando, desde hace tiempo políticas de desarrollo que, acompañadas por una interacción con el sector privado (buscando un adecuado marco de actuación para las actividades de éste), han constituido un éxito en la Región. Es...

  8. Lejos de NYC: El hip-hop en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Quitzow

    2005-01-01

    En este artículo se abordan las manifestaciones concretas de una forma cultural urbana exportada desde Occidente a los países en desarrollo. A través de una reconstrucción de la historia de la cultura hip hop en Chile, se han intendado esbozar algunas conclusiones sobre su influencia en la formación de una identidad cultural urbana, tratando además de relacionar el desarrollo histórico del movimiento y de las prácticas actuales de la juventud en Santiago con tendencias más amplias en la socie...

  9. Large groups in the Chile-UK quasar survey

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, P R; Campusano, L E; Graham, M J; Newman, Peter R.; Clowes, Roger G.; Campusano, Luis E.; Graham, Matthew J.

    1997-01-01

    The Chile-UK quasar survey, a new-generation 140 deg^2 UVX survey to B = 20, is now \\sim 25 per cent complete. The catalogue currently contains 319 quasars and 93 emission line galaxies. Using the minimal-spanning tree method, we have independently confirmed the \\sim 200 h^-1 Mpc group of quasars at z \\simeq 1.3 discovered by Clowes & Campusano (1991). We have discovered a new \\sim 150 h^-1 Mpc group of 13 quasars at median z \\simeq 1.51. The null hypothesis of a uniform, random distribution is rejected at a level of significance of 0.003 for both groups.

  10. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2015-03-01

    Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world's only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated.

  11. Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae, Magnoliopsida) una especie silvestre promisoria de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    San Martín Acebedo, José; Doll, Ursula

    1998-01-01

    Se organiza y sintetiza la información relacionada con la botánica, ecología y el contenido químico de extraíbles de hojas, corteza y madera de Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae, Magnoliopsida), árbol siempreverde, autóctono, endémico y termófilo de los bosques y matorrales esclerófilos naturales del área mediterránea de Chile. La popularidad y conocimiento de la especie tiene arraigo en la medicina popular empírica, dado el efecto farmacológico atribuible fundamentalmente, al alcaloide boldina, pre...

  12. The Intertemporal Approach to the Current Account: Evidence for Chile

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    Sergio A. Salas Landeau

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the existence of "excess" current-account imbalances in Chile in the 1960-1999 period. This phenomenon is modelled using present value tests that allow for variable interest rates and exchange rate fluctuations. Despite its simplicity, most of the observed imbalances in the current account are accounted for by the model. Results suggest that using models where agents behave as forward-looking rational agents, is a valid framework. Moreover, the analysis highlights the rel-evance of variable interest rates and exchange rates. Results also imply that capital controls, that were widely used in the period under study, were not effective.

  13. Chanco formation, a potential Cretaceous reservoir, central Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecione, G.

    1983-07-01

    The Chanco embayment lies 300 km SSW of Santiago, Chile. The sequence within this basin above the metamorphic basement is: Chanco Formation (very clean sandstone), Quiriquina Formation (glauconitic sandstone, rich in organic matter), and Navidad Group (a very good caprock). This section thus contains reservoir, source and caprocks, and is therefore very promising for petroleum investigations. The offshore C-1 well yielded salt-water with gas shows, and two wells drilled onshore yielded shows of gas. The C-1 well lies on a gently-dipping EW-striking anticlinal structure, the presence of which makes the area very prospective.

  14. Parasites of the Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes in Chile Parásitos del picaflor chico (Sephanoides sephaniodes en Chile

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    Daniel González-Acuña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal and external parasites from 12 Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes were collected between January 2004 and December 2008 from the Biobío Region south-central Chile and Santiago (central Chile. Helminths collected included 1 trematode species (Mosesia sp. and 1 cestode species (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. The mite Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii was the only ectoparasite species found. All these parasites represent new records for Chile and the first parasites reported for this host species.Se recolectaron parásitos internos (gastrointestinales y externos de 12 picaflores (Sephanoides sephaniodes entre enero del 2004 y diciembre del 2008, de la región del Biobío en el centro-sur de Chile y en Santiago, en la región central de Chile. Los helmintos recolectados incluyeron 1 especie de trematodo (Mosesia sp. y 1 de cestodo (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. Únicamente se encontró 1 especie de ectoparásito, el ácaro Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii. Todos los parásitos mencionados representan nuevos registros para Chile y se registran por primera vez para este hospedero.

  15. Free-living benthic marine invertebrates in Chile Invertebrados bentónicos marinos de vida libre en Chile

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    MATTHEW R LEE

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive literature review was conducted to determine the species richness of all the possible taxa of free-living benthic marine invertebrates in Chile. In addition, the extent of endemism to the Pacific Islands and deep-sea, the number of non-indigenous species, and the contribution that the Chilean benthic marine invertebrate fauna makes to the world benthic marine invertebrate fauna was examined. A total of 4,553 species were found. The most speciose taxa were the Crustacea, Mollusca and Polychaeta. Species richness data was not available for a number of taxa, despite evidence that these taxa are present in the Chilean benthos. The Chilean marine invertebrate benthic fauna constitutes 2.47 % of the world marine invertebrate benthic fauna. There are 599 species endemic to the Pacific Islands and 205 in the deep-sea. There are 25 invasive or non-indigenous species so far identified in Chile. Though the Chilean fauna is speciose there is still a considerable amount of diversity yet to be described, particularly amongst the small bodied invertebrates and from the less well explored habitats, such as the deep-seaSe realizó una revisión exhaustiva de la literatura para determinar la riqueza de especies de todos los taxa de invertebrados bentónicos de vida libre en Chile. Además, se analizó el endemismo de invertebrados marinos bentónicos para las islas chilenas del Pacífico y el mar profundo y el número de especies no indígenas; del mismo modo que la contribución de estos invertebrados a la riqueza mundial de invertebrados bentónicos marinos. Para Chile se acumuló un total de 4.553 especies de invertebrados bentónicos. Los taxa con más especies fueron Crustacea, Mollusca y Polychaeta. En algunos taxa de invertebrados no se encontró información sobre la diversidad de especies presentes en Chile, a pesar de existir evidencia de que éstos están presentes en el bentos marino chileno. Los invertebrados bentónicos marinos

  16. Moluscos dulceacuícolas exóticos en Chile Exotic freshwater mollusks in Chile

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    Sergio Letelier V.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de moluscos exóticas dulceacuícolas registradas en esta contribución, corresponden a ejemplares recolectados en humedales en acuarios comerciales o interceptados en barreras aduaneras, así como de referencias bibliográficas. Un total de 7 especies pertenecientes a 6 géneros fueron identificadas: Pomacea bridgesii; Helobia sp.; Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata; Melanoides maculata; Physa sp.; Physella venustula y Biomphalaria sp. Melanoides maculata fue recolectada en el río Lluta y clasificada como especie criptogénica. Los moluscos exóticos recolectados podrían tener éxito en su establecimiento si se considera la vulnerabilidad de los hábitats nativos debido al cambio en las condiciones climáticas globales o a las elevaciones térmicas producidas en el sector costero por los fenómenos de El Niño. En este sentido, las especies subtropicales observadas se podrían considerar como no endémicas y vectores potenciales de zoonosis parasitarias. Las principales vías de introducción de moluscos dulceacuícolas exóticos se derivaron del intercambio comercial, por lo cual, y frente a su incremento interregional, se hace necesario recopilar datos ecológicos y taxonómicos adecuados que permitan evaluar el riesgo de su establecimiento, así como servir de base para la aplicación de futuros tratamientos en bioseguridad.The exotic freshwater mollusk species we report here were collected in wetlands, commercial aquariums, or were given to us by government officials who intercepted some exotic species at customs offices. Other records came from the specialized literature. These species are Pomacea bridgesii; Helobia sp.; Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata; Melanoides maculata; Physa sp., Physella venustula and Biomphalaria sp. It is not clear how Melanoides maculata, found in the Río Lluta, reached Chile. The exotic species collected could expand their ranges in Chilean territory given global environmental and climate change or the

  17. Frecuencia de micobacterias ambientales en Chile en el año 2008 Frequency of environmental mycobacterium in Chile. 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica Scappaticcio B; Maritza Velasco R; Tamara Leiva C; Juan Carlos Rodríguez D

    2011-01-01

    Objetivos: Conocer la frecuencia de aislamientos de micobacterias ambientales en Chile en el año 2008. Material y Métodos: Se recibieron 600 cultivos desde 22 laboratorios de Bacteriología de la Tuberculosis de los distintos Servicios de Salud de la red que comprende el Programa de Control de la Tuberculosis del país, durante un período de cuatro meses del año 2008. Quinientos cuarenta y cinco (90,8%) correspondieron a localización pulmonar y 55 (9,2%) a extrapulmonar. Se confirmó la alcohol-...

  18. Chile y la globalización: una dependencia potencialmente peligrosa Chile and globalization: a potentially dangerous dependence

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    Fernando Duque

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo tiene varios propósitos. Primero, discutir el concepto de globalización en sus diferentes acepciones, particularmente, la económica, la política y la cultural. En segundo lugar, intenta tratar de describir y demostrar el enorme grado de dependencia que Chile tiene del actual proceso globalizador. En tercer término, se trata de señalar que la actual globalización, es un proceso similar al que ha ocurrido en otras épocas de la historia. Especialmente se comenta en detalle el análisis del profesor Ferguson quien compara la actual globalización con la que ocurrió a fines del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX. Se concluye que el actual proceso de globalización es tan volátil, inestable y peligroso como fue la globalización decimonónica. Se concluye también indicando que es altamente probable que el actual proceso globalizador, termine en forma similar a como terminó la globalización 1870-1914. Finalmente se argumenta que debido a que Chile está geográficamente ubicado en la parte más austral del hemisferio sur, es probable que el país salga relativamente intacto de la conflagración que se avecina.This article begins by discussing the different meanings of globalization, especially the economic, political and social ones. It then describes how Chile is greatly dependent on the current globalization process, as well as points out that this process is similar to others that have taken place in other times in history. It discusses in detail professor Ferguson's analysis comparing the current globalization with the one that occurred at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. The article concludes that the current process is as volatile, unstable and dangerous as that of the 19th century, and that it is highly probable that it will end as that of 1870-1914. It also argues that since Chile is on the southernmost part of the southern hemisphere, it will be relatively preserved from the oncoming conflagration.

  19. Síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus Andes en Chile CARDIOPULMONARY SYNDROME DUE TO ANDES VIRUS IN CHILE

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    CONSTANZA CASTILLO H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1993 han ocurrido 204 casos de Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH en Chile. Los brotes epidémicos comenzaron en el sur y avanzan hacia el norte del país. Los más afectados son varones jóvenes, obreros agrícolas o forestales. En Chile, el SCPH es causado por el virus Andes, cuyo reservorio es el Oligorizomys longicaudatus (ratón de cola larga, que se distribuye desde la III Región al sur. El cuadro clínico es similar al descrito en EE.UU., caracterizado por una fase prodrómica que simula un estado gripal o cuadro gastrointestinal febril y que agrava por la aparición de edema pulmonar agudo e inestabilidad hemodinámica (fase cardiopulmonar. Sin embargo, cursa con mayores alteraciones hemorragí-paras y compromiso renal. La mortalidad inicial fue sobre 50% y actualmente es de alrededor del 33,3%. La presente revisión incluye: historia de la enfermedad, reservorio, modos de transmisión, patogenia, cuadro clínico, diagnóstico, tratamiento y medidas de prevenciónSince 1993, 204 cases of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS occurred in Chile. Epidemic began in the south and moved thereafter to the northern regions. The disease affected predominantly young males, who worked in agricultural labours or as timber workers. The HCPS in Chile is caused by the Andes virus. The reservoir is the wild rat Oligoryzomis longicaudatus distributed from the III to the XII Region. The clinical features are similar to those described for Sin Nombre Virus. The disease has a prodromal stage characterised by fever, muscular pain, with or without gastrointestinal manifestations, followed by the rapid onset of respiratory insufficiency and haemodynamic unstability. Andes virus courses more often with haemorrhagic disorders and overt renal failure, than Sin Nombre Virus. The initial mortality was over 50% and declined to 33,3% in the last year. History of hantavirus-diseases, reservoir, and mode of contagion, pathogenesis, clinical

  20. EL ACTO DE NOMBRARSE MISTRAL EN POEMA DE CHILE

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    Magda Sepúlveda Eriz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La viajera espectral de Poema de Chile reflexiona sobre la adopción del nombre Mistral. Los fundamentos de esta elección van desde retornar a una intimidad anterior, la escena primigenia del campo, hasta el rechazo a la sociedad urbana. Este acto moderno de autonominarse constituye una atribución consciente frente al menoscabo y a los insultos recibidos en una posición representativa anterior. En vista de lo cual, la fantasma reclama los lugares, las palabras, los bienes y exige la recomposición de los cuerpos despedazados por el discurso blanco y etnocéntrico.The travelling spectrum of Poema de Chile reflects on the adoption of the name Mistral. The causes of this choice gofrom coming back to a previous intimacy -the original scene of the country- to the rejection of the urban society. The name she gives herself is a conscious act and therefore, a modern one, which is used as a response to the damage she received when she was in a previous situation. As a result, the ghost calls for the places, the language and the goods that were stolen, and she demands to recover the bodies that were torn by the white and ethnocentric discourse.

  1. Abortion in Chile: the practice under a restrictive regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta

    2014-11-01

    This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome.

  2. Identification of trypanosomes isolated from reduviidae from north Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, G A; Schottelius, J

    1984-01-01

    Examination of 54 Triatoma infestans from a village near the European Southern Observatory La Silla in Chile and of 9 Triatoma spinolai from the territory of the observatory showed that 10 T. infestans were infected with trypanosomatids. Mice were infected with in vitro cultures initiated with five different trypanosomatid isolates and treated with the immunosuppressive drug cyclophosphamide to increase the parasitemia of the flagellates. Evidence of the presence of T. cruzi was provided by a comparative biometrical analysis of blood trypomastigotes and the occurrence of intracellular amastigotes. Three methods for further identification were used: examination of kDNA ultrastructure, disc electrophoresis of soluble proteins and the Aaptos papillata II lectin induced agglutination. We obtained the following results for all isolates: (1) presence of a central band of the kDNA; (2) T. cruzi specific double bands of the protein patterns; (3) positive reaction with Aaptos papillata II. No differences between the five isolates from Chile and T. cruzi or T. cruzi-like strains from other countries could be observed. Based on these results an infection of the bugs with T. rangeli and T. conorhini could be excluded.

  3. FERROCARRILES EN LA ZONA AUSTRAL DE CHILE, 1869-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo Martinic B.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se entrega una visión completa acerca de los ferrocarriles construidos y explotados en la región austral de Chile y se ofrece asimismo una explicación sobre su modesta expresión hist��rica, cosa notable en un territorio como la Patagonia chilena en cuya colonización y desarrollo ulterior fue importante la utilización de la tecnología industrial moderna. Se dan a conocer también algunas interesantes iniciativas ferrocarrileras que no llegaron a materializarseIn spite of the important development in Chilean Patagonia between circa 1870 an 1973, particulary in the old Magellan Territory, an almost surprising fact was that in between many incorporated industrial technology the railroad, a paradigm of modernity, had a scarce representation. In this paper, a complete review about railroads settled and exploted in southernmost Chile is done and a explanation of its modest expression and some interesting projects that necer became materialized which explains the emptiness in the historical information on the subject

  4. [Blood supply during disasters: the experience of Chile in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Marcela; Maldonado, Mónica; Tagle, Federico; León, Sergio; Soto, Alejandra; Mena, Aaron; Toro, Carla

    2011-05-01

    A review of the management of blood supply and its administration during disasters was conducted based on the experience of several events that occurred primarily from 2000-2010, particularly the earthquake that measured 8.8 on the Richter scale that struck central and southern Chile on 27 February 2010. The objective was to provide information that could be useful in improving response plans and strategies during potential future disasters. The descriptive information on response procedures was obtained from interviews, internal reports, and the computer database from the Maule regional blood production center. The results lead to the conclusion that to respond efficiently and effectively to the need for blood in the immediate wake of a disaster it is essential to have both a centralized management system that facilitates the supply and administration of blood and volunteers with competence in health that are willing to swiftly arrive during these events. A change in the profile of blood donors during such emergencies was also observed. In Chile, for example, during the two weeks after the earthquake, the ratio of male/female donors was reversed. There was 61.1% participation by women, whereas in the week before the event women accounted for only 37%.

  5. THE CLIMATE OF NORTHERN CHILE: MEAN STATE, VARIABILITY AND TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Garreaud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este manuscrito documenta las características principales del clima del norte de Chile, lugar donde se ubican, y donde se proyecta, la instalación de varios observatorios astronómicos. Primeramente se provee de una descripción del clima regional a una escala espacial amplia, donde se describe la importancia relativa de la celda de Hadley, del Monsón Sud-Americano, y perturbaciones extra-tropicales en dar forma al estado promedio de la temperatura, precipitación y vientos en la región. Entonces, se describen los efectos de la Oscilación del Sur-El Niño para producir algún nivel de variabilidad inter-anual en el clima del norte de Chile. Se concluye este trabajo, basándose en lo expuesto en estudios recientes, con un resumen de las tendencias observadas y proyecciones en el cambio climático para lo que resta del siglo XXI.

  6. Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine in Chile: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iragüen, D; Urcelay, S; San Martín, B

    2011-04-01

    Iragüen, D., Urcelay, S., San Martín, B. Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine in Chile: a pilot study. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap.34, 108-115. In Chile, there is no present government policy to survey and analyse adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the field of veterinary medicine. The intent of this study is to assess, for the first time, ADR frequency in treated animals. To this purpose, a 6-month period pilot study based on WHO recommendations was conducted to monitor ADRs in cats and dogs for frequently used drugs and common labelled signs. Of a total of 149 detected ADRs, 29 (6 in cats and 23 in dogs) were notified by means of ADR report forms, while the rest was identified after reviewing patient clinical records, thus evidencing strong under-reporting problems. More than 70% of ADRs were related to antimicrobials, vaccines and tranquilizers. In dogs, there was a significant effect on ADRs' presentation when acepromazine, amoxicillin, carprofen, ivermectin, sextuple vaccine (polyvalent vaccine that confers immunity against canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, Leptospira canicola, L. icterohemmoragiae, canine adenovirus type 2 and canine parainfluenza virus) and phytomenadione (subcutaneous injection) were administered. In the case of cats, a significant influence on ADRs was detected when acepromazine, amoxicillin or vitamin K was administered. Present results suggest the need for a pharmacovigilance programme in veterinary medicine for timely ADR-presenting drug detection and drug safety improvement.

  7. Spearfishing to depletion: evidence from temperate reef fishes in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Natalio; Gelcich, L Stefan; Vásquez, Julio A; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2010-09-01

    Unreliable and data-poor marine fishery landings can lead to a lack of regulatory action in fisheries management. Here we use official Chilean landing reports and non-conventional indicators, such as fishers' perceptions and spearfishing competition results, to provide evidence of reef fishes depletions caused by unregulated spearfishing. Results show that the three largest and most emblematic reef fishes targeted mainly by spearfishers (> 98% of landings) [Graus nigra (vieja negra), Semicossyphus darwini (sheephead or pejeperro), and Medialuna ancietae (acha)] show signs of depletion in terms of abundance and size and that overall the catches of reef fishes have shifted from large carnivore species toward smaller-sized omnivore and herbivore species. Information from two snorkeling speargun world championships (1971 and 2004, Iquique, Chile) and from fishers' perceptions shows the mean size of reef fish to be declining. Although the ecological consequences of reef fish depletion are not fully understood in Chile, evidence of spearfishing depleting temperate reef fishes must be explicitly included in policy debates. This would involve bans or strong restrictions on the use of SCUBA and hookah diving gear for spearfishing, and minimum size limits. It may also involve academic and policy discussions regarding conservation and fisheries management synergies within networks of no-take and territorial user-rights fisheries areas, as a strategy for the sustainable management of temperate and tropical reef fisheries.

  8. Desarrollo metropolitano integrado: El caso de Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Schiappacasse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El Área Metropolitana de Santiago (AMS ocupa un rol significativo en términos demográficos y de desarrollo económico en Chile. Sin embargo existen debilidades importantes en el establecimiento de mecanismos adecuados que permitan definir su orientación estratégica en un marco global competitivo; esta situación se intensifica en la medida que las áreas metropolitanas en Chile, no poseen una institucionalidad definida y un marco legal que las sustente. El AMS esta siendo afectada por cambios estructurales típicos en la evolución de las grandes metrópolis, con las consecuentes externalidades negativas que incrementan las dificultades para enfrentar y orientar su crecimiento y para establecer instancias de colaboración entre los diferentes actores involucrados. En este artículo se analiza la situación del AMS, en el marco de la discusión internacional, en relación a las metas estratégicas necesarias para el logro de un desarrollo metropolitano sustentable. La intención es contribuir al debate nacional actual en torno a la revisión y cambio de las políticas de planificación, en particular, aquellas orientadas a enfrentar los procesos dinámicos que están experimentando las ciudades.

  9. Peru-Chile upwelling dynamics under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerder, Véra; Colas, Francois; Echevin, Vincent; Codron, Francis; Tam, Jorge; Belmadani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System (PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution, eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological productivity.

  10. [Revista Médica de Chile in the year 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes B, Humberto; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaquín

    2009-08-01

    During the first semester of 2009 Revista Médica de Chile has received an increasing number of manuscripts. Close to 30% were rejected while most other are in the process of being improved by the authors after receiving criticisms by external peer reviewers and the editors. The time lag between acceptance and publication of manuscripts is on an average six months. During 2008, 10% of articles published were submitted by authors from countries other than Chile and most of them were printed in English. Impact factor and other indexes provided by the ISI Web of Knowledge showed a promising improvement in 2008. The International Advisory Committee and the National Editorial Committee were renewed, a new Section on Laboratory Medicine was incorporated and several minor changes were done in design and format, in the title page and the issues' content. The main problems to be faced relate to the increasing cost of editing and printing, with a reduction in commercial advertising historically contributed by the pharmaceutical industry. Another major concern is to stimulate governmental agencies, scientific societies and universities to establish a national independent registry of clinical trials, that should become a mandatory requisite for every manuscript submitted to Chilean medical journals, reporting clinical trials performed in the country; foreign manuscripts should document the satisfaction of an identical requisite in their original source.

  11. Oxygenation variability off Northern Chile during the last two centuries

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    J. A. Díaz-Ochoa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Peru Chile Current ecosystem is characterized by high biological productivity and important fisheries. Although this system is likely to be severely affected by climate change, its response to current global warming is still uncertain. In this paper we analyze 10–166 year old sediments in two cores collected in Mejillones Bay, an anoxic sedimentary setting favorable for preservation of proxies. Based on a 166 year chronology we used indicators of bottom water oxygenation proxies (Mo, V, S, and the (lycopane+n-C35/n-C31 ratio and surface water productivity (biogenic opal, counts of diatom valves, biogenic Ba, organic carbon and chlorins to reconstruct environmental variations in Mejillones Bay. We find that at decadal scales, and during the last two centuries, a shift in the coastal marine ecosystem off Northern Chile took place which was characterized by intense ENSO-like activity and large fluctuations in biological export productivity, in bottom water oxygenation, and increased eolic activity (inferred from Ti/Al and Zr/Al. On top of this short-term variability, a gradual increase of sulfidic conditions has occurred being even more intensified since the early 1960s.

  12. Lejos de NYC: El hip-hop en Chile

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    Rainer Quitzow

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se abordan las manifestaciones concretas de una forma cultural urbana exportada desde Occidente a los países en desarrollo. A través de una reconstrucción de la historia de la cultura hip hop en Chile, se han intendado esbozar algunas conclusiones sobre su influencia en la formación de una identidad cultural urbana, tratando además de relacionar el desarrollo histórico del movimiento y de las prácticas actuales de la juventud en Santiago con tendencias más amplias en la sociedad chilena. En particular, se ha intentado determinar si el hip hop proporciona un formato significativo para la expresión de los problemas de los jóvenes urbanos de Chile, o si es parte de lo que algunos autores denominan una “pérdida cultural”, como consecuencia del capitalismo global y el imperialismo cultural de Estados Unidos.

  13. Assessing computer waste generation in Chile using material flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steubing, Bernhard; Böni, Heinz; Schluep, Mathias; Silva, Uca; Ludwig, Christian

    2010-03-01

    The quantities of e-waste are expected to increase sharply in Chile. The purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative data basis on generated e-waste quantities. A material flow analysis was carried out assessing the generation of e-waste from computer equipment (desktop and laptop PCs as well as CRT and LCD-monitors). Import and sales data were collected from the Chilean Customs database as well as from publications by the International Data Corporation. A survey was conducted to determine consumers' choices with respect to storage, re-use and disposal of computer equipment. The generation of e-waste was assessed in a baseline as well as upper and lower scenarios until 2020. The results for the baseline scenario show that about 10,000 and 20,000 tons of computer waste may be generated in the years 2010 and 2020, respectively. The cumulative e-waste generation will be four to five times higher in the upcoming decade (2010-2019) than during the current decade (2000-2009). By 2020, the shares of LCD-monitors and laptops will increase more rapidly replacing other e-waste including the CRT-monitors. The model also shows the principal flows of computer equipment from production and sale to recycling and disposal. The re-use of computer equipment plays an important role in Chile. An appropriate recycling scheme will have to be introduced to provide adequate solutions for the growing rate of e-waste generation.

  14. Chile. Actores Populares en la Protesta Nacional, 1983-1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa REVILLA BLANCO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Los acontecimientos y los actores implicados en las movilizaciones producidas en Santiago de Chile en 1983-84, son el objeto de andlisis de este artículo. Tras una breve exposición del contexto económico y político, se describen los rasgos fundamentales y la evolución de las protestas. Del análisis de los hechos se deducen tres objetivos implícitos en las movilizaciones: recuperación de la identidad política y social, integración polltica de los excluidos y democracia. Los resultados son dispares; mientras en el plano político se produce una derrota, en lo referente a la expresividad de las acciones y al problema de la integración, las movilizaciones fueron exitosas.ABSTRACT: ThLs article focuses on the events and actors involved in the mobilizations tha took place in Santiago de Chile between 1983-1984. After a short exposition of the political and economic context, it describes the main characteristics and the protest's evolution. Three implicit objetives can be identified from the demostrations: the recovering of social and political identity, the political integration of the excluded people and democracy. The results are inequal; while on the political level a defeat ocurs, with regard to the expressiveness of the actions and the integration's problem, the mobilizations were successful.

  15. Isotopic composition and origin of the precipitation in Northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravena, R. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada); Suzuki, O. [Exploracion y Desarrollo de Recursos Hidricos, Santiago (Chile); Pena, H. [Direccion General de Aguas, Ministerio de Obras Publicas, Santiago (Chile); Pollastri, A. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Fuenzalida, H. [Departamento de Geofisica, Universidad of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Grilli, A. [Empresa Metropolitana de Obras Sanitarias, Santiago (Chile)

    1999-06-01

    A 3 a data set of isotopes in precipitation from northern Chile show a very distinct pattern, with {delta}{sup 18}O values ranging between -18 and -15per thousand at high altitude stations, compared to {delta}{sup 18}O values between -10 and -6per thousand at the lower altitude areas. The {sup 18}O-depleted values observed in the high altitude area, the Altiplano, are related to processes that affect the air masses that originated over the Atlantic, cross the Amazon Basin (continental effect), ascend the Andes (altitude effect) and precipitated (convective effect) in the Altiplano. It is postulated that a second source of moisture, associated with air masses from the Pacific, may contribute to the {sup 18}O-enriched values observed in the lower altitude areas. Similar isotopic patterns are documented in springs and groundwater indicating that the data presented in this paper are an accurate representation of the long term behavior isotopic composition of rain in northern Chile. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. An overview of the dinosaur fossil record from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubilar-Rogers, David; Otero, Rodrigo A.; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.; Vargas, Alexander O.; Gutstein, Carolina S.

    2012-08-01

    In Chile, the record of dinosaurs in Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments is often restricted to footprints, with few skeletal remains. Tetanuran theropods are known in the Upper Jurassic, and bones of titanosaur sauropods in the Late Cretaceous, including partial skeletons (e.g. Atacamatitan chilensis Kellner et al.). Also from the late Cretaceous, an ornithopod vertebra, a pair of theropod teeth and one tarsometatarsus of a gaviiform bird (Neogaeornis wetzeli Lambrecht) have been reported. The Cenozoic fossil record comprises abundant and well-preserved marine birds from Eocene and Miocene units, with a specially abundant record of Sphenisciformes and less frequently, Procellariiformes. There is an excellent Miocene-Pliocene record of other birds such as Odontopterygiformes, including the most complete skeleton ever found of a pelagornithid, Pelagornis chilensis Mayr and Rubilar-Rogers. Fossil birds are also known from Pliocene and Pleistocene strata. A remarkable collection of birds was discovered in lacustrine sediments of late Pleistocene age associated to human activity. The perspectives in the study of dinosaurs in Chile are promising because plenty of material stored in institutional collections is not described yet. The record of Chilean dinosaurs is relevant for understanding the dynamics and evolution of this group of terrestrial animals in the western edge of Gondwana, while Cenozoic birds from the Region may contribute to the understanding of current biogeography for instance, the effect of the emergence and establishment of the Humboldt Current.

  17. Tendencias generales en la toponimia del Norte Grande de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Latorre

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo el autor se propone examinar las facetas más salientes de la preponderancia del sustrato indígena en la toponimia mayor del Norte Grande, asunto poco o nada tratado en descripciones del español de Chile. Pasa revista a voces como "Arica", "Chañaral", "Iquique", "Taltal", "Tocopilla", "Chuquicamata", "Andes", "Antofagasta", "Calama", "Pica", "Loa" y otras. Finalmente, da algunas explicaciones de esa marcada presencia de topónimos autóctonos a pesar de cinco siglos de dominio español. (In this paper, the author examines the most salient features of the prevalence of indigenous backgrounds in the toponymy of Northernmost Chile, an aspect barely tackled, or simply neglected, in the descriptions of Chilean Spanish. The author reviews terms such as "Arica", "Chañaral", "Iquique", "Taltal", "Tocopilla", "Chuquicamata", "Andes", "Antofagasta", "Calama", "Pica", "Loa", and others. Also, some explanations are offered that may justify the notorious presence of native placenames, in spite of five centuries of Spanish domination.

  18. Complexity in Size, Recurrence and Source of Historical Earthquakes and Tsunamis in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisternas, M.

    2013-05-01

    Central Chile has a 470-year-long written earthquake history, the longest of any part of the country. Thanks to the early and continuous Spanish settlement of this part of Chile (32°- 35° S), records document destructive earthquakes and tsunamis in 1575, 1647, 1730, 1822, 1906 and 1985. This sequence has promoted the idea that central Chile's large subduction inter-plate earthquakes recur at regular intervals of about 80 years. The last of these earthquakes, in 1985, was even forecast as filling a seismic gap on the thrust boundary between the subducting Nazca Plate and the overriding South America Plate. Following this logic, the next large earthquake in metropolitan Chile will not occur until late in the 21st century. However, here I challenge this conclusion by reporting recently discovered historical evidence in Spain, Japan, Peru, and Chile. This new evidence augments the historical catalog in central Chile, strongly suggests that one of these earthquakes previously assumed to occur on the inter-plate interface in fact occurred elsewhere, and forces the conclusion that another of these earthquakes (and its accompanying tsunami) dwarfed the others. These findings complicate the task of assessing the hazard of future earthquakes in Chile's most populated region.

  19. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Chile and ESO for Establishing a New Center for Observation in Chile - ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    On October 21, 2002, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Chile, Mrs. María Soledad Alvear and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , signed an Agreement that authorizes ESO to establish a new center for astronomical observation in Chile . This new center for astronomical observation will be for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , the largest ground based astronomical project for the next decades. On this occasion, Minister Alvear stated that "we want to have ALMA working as soon as possible, which will constitute a pride not only to Chilean scientists but for the whole country and in particular, for the community of the Antofagasta Region" . ESO Director General Cesarsky said that "signing this agreement between the Government of Chile and ESO is a historical step in the astronomical collaboration between Chile and ESO and it will allow Chile to host, once again, a project of worldwide interest and impact" . ALMA is a joint project on equal basis between ESO and AUI (Associated Universities, Inc.). These organizations represent the scientific interests of Europe on one side and the United States with Canada on the other side. Chilean astronomers are closely involved with the project and 10% of the observing time will be reserved for Chilean science. ALMA will be built in the Andes, on the Plateau of Chajnantor (see the Chajnantor Photo Gallery ), 5000 metres above sea level and 60 km East of the town of San Pedro de Atacama. The array will be comprised of 64 antennas with unprecedent sensitivity and angular resolution that will allow studying the origin of galaxies, stars and planets, opening new horizons for astronomy, and being able to observe galaxies across the universe where stars are being formed. The agreement now signed between ESO and the Government of the Republic of Chile recognizes the interest that the ALMA Project has for Chile, as it will deepen and strengthen the cooperation in scientific and technological matters

  20. The installation IGCC power plans in the petroleum refinement: international experiences and lessons for Mexico; La instalacion de plantas IGCC en la refinacion de petroleo: experiencias internacionales y lecciones para Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Joel [Ecole du Petrole et des Moteurs, Institut Franzais du Petrole, (France)

    2004-06-15

    In this work, are presented the technical and economic elements of the international experience for the installation of IGCC power plants in the petroleum refinement and the lessons for Mexico in the installation of this technology in PEMEX Refinacion are analyzed. The construction of IGCC power plants in the petroleum refinement has grown 14.3 % at worldwide level as of 1996, in which there was already an installed capacity of 160 MW. At the end of 2003 an installed capacity of 2,500 MW was reached. The growth in the installation of IGCC power plants fundamentally appears in Europe, being Italy and Spain leader countries in the construction of this technology in the petroleum refinement. However, countries like Holland, Japan, Singapore and the United States count on IGCC power plants for electricity and hydrogen generation, which take advantage of low value fuels such as vacuum tower residues, petroleum coke, asphalt, liquid fuels, among others. In Mexico, the installation IGCC power plants in the petroleum refinement is null, nevertheless Petroleos Mexicanos counts with the approval of the government for the installation of cogeneration power plants in its facilities. This approval would allow PEMEX to carry out projects for the installation IGCC power plants, specifically in PEMEX Refinacion, for the generation of electricity and hydrogen from the advantage of heavy residues of low economic value. The opportunity that the installation IGCC power plants in the petroleum refinement offers is directed towards the commercialization of the electricity and hydrogen, which would impel PEMEX Refinacion to enter the competition of the electrical market in Mexico. [Spanish] En este trabajo, se presentan los elementos tecnicos y economicos de la experiencia internacional para la instalacion de plantas IGCC en la refinacion de petroleo y se analizan las lecciones para Mexico en la instalacion de esta tecnologia en PEMEX Refinacion. La construccion de plantas IGCC en la

  1. [Residues of tetracycline and quinolones in wild fish living around a salmon aquaculture center in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortt Z, Antonia; Cabello C, Felipe; Buschmann R, Alejandro

    2007-02-01

    The presence of residues of tetracycline, quinolones and antiparasitic drugs was investigated in wild fish captured around salmon aquaculture pens in Cochamó, Region X, Chile. Residues of both antibiotics were found in the meta [corrected] of two species of wild fish that are consumed by humans, robalo (Elginops maclovinus) and cabrilla (Sebastes capensis) [corrected] These findings suggest that the antibiotic usage in salmon aquaculture in Chile has nvironmental implications that may affect human and animal health. More studies are needed in Chile to determine the relevance of these findings for human and animal health and the environment to regulate this use of antibiotics.

  2. Hydrogeologische Untersuchungen der Geothermalfelder von Puyehue und Cordón Caulle, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    -Resumen extendido- Investigaciones realizadas en conjunto con la Universidad de Chile, en las áreas geotermales activas entre Lago Ranco y Lago Rupanco en el Sur de Chile (40.5ºS) han sido enfocadas a establecer balances hídricos e hidroquímicos. Esta tesis muestra los resultados de dos estudios de terreno realizados en las temporadas enero-marzo 2001 y enero-febrero 2002, y una investigación bibliográfica y recopilación de datos llevada a cabo en Chile. Los cálculos del caudal total se bas...

  3. 50 años de música electroacústica en Chile Electroacustic Music in Chile: Fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Schumacher Ratt

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cincuenta años han pasado desde que León Schidlowsky compusiera Nacimiento, la primera obra electroacústica chilena. Cincuenta años de una historia a menudo desconocida, compuesta de algunos éxitos resonantes, de desarrollos a veces truncos y de silencios bastante expresivos. La música electroacústica en Chile ha tenido un desarrollo pendular: de momentos de gran pasión e interés ha pasado al desconocimiento casi absoluto, y viceversa. A pesar de ya medio siglo de historia en el país -y algo más en el mundo- pareciera que los alcances y posibilidades de la música electroacústica, o más bien del concepto que en ella subyace (la tecnología aplicada a la música, en este caso más precisamente, la informática musical, no son en nuestro medio aún lo suficientemente bien analizados, comprendidos y proyectados en cuanto a la producción musical actual y futura. En este artículo, intentamos aproximarnos a las posibilidades y exigencias que ofrece actualmente esta disciplina desde el punto de vista del análisis, de la composición y de la interpretación musical. Como ubicación, se revisará algo de nuestra historia poniendo el acento en los extremos, en sus inicios y en los años que nos son más próximosFifty years ago, León Schidlowsky wrote Nacimiento (Birth, the first electroacustic work in composed Chile. Fifty years have elapsed of a history which very frequently has been forgotten. It is mude up of resounding achievements, periods of development, sometimes interrupted, and very meaningful gaps. Like a pendulum, electroacustic music in Chile has swung from periods of great passion and interest to other periods when has been practically ignored, and viceversa. In spite of almost half a century of history in Chile and a slightly longer period in the world, it would seem that the extent and possibilities of electroacustic music or better, the concept underlying this music -a technology applied to music, or more precisely to

  4. Tidal Energy Resource Assessment in Chacao Channel, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, M.; Suarez, L.; Cienfuegos, R.; Thomson, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Chacao Channel, located in Los Lagos region in Chile (41º S; 73º W), is a highly energetic tidal channel, with a complex hydrodynamics resulting from the propagation of tidal waves through a narrow channel. The channel flow exhibits bi-directional tidal currents up to 4 to 5 m/s along with a high tidal range up to 6 m in its east end (Aiken, 2008: Cáceres et al., 2003). The channel has previously been identified as one of the most attractive sites in Chile for tidal energy extraction (Garrad Hassan and Partners, 2009); however this statement is based on global model predictions over coarse bathymetric information. In this investigation, the first hydrodynamic characterization of the Chacao channel is carried out in order to assess the hydrokinetic power available and to select the most interesting spots where the first tidal energy extraction devices might be installed in Chile. The Chacao channel hydrodynamic characterization and resource assessment is carried out in two stages: field measurements and numerical hydrodynamic modeling. The first stage involves a 10 m resolution multi-beam bathymetry of the channel, sea-level measurements using 6 tidal gauges distributed over the channel berms, tidal current measurements with 6 ADCPs distributed along the channel, and detailed measurements of turbulence in a specific spot in the channel using the Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) developed by Thomson et al. (2013). In a second stage, numerical hydrodynamic modeling using FVCOM (Chen et al., 2003) was prepared for the entire Chacao channel region, using the field data collected in the first stage for calibration and validation of the model. The obtained results allow us to define suitable sites for marine energy extraction, finding large areas with 30 to 60 m depths where horizontal currents are above 1.5 m/s during 60% of the time of a 28 days tidal cycle, however the high levels of turbulence detected by the TTM indicate the need for more detailed studies on the

  5. Adding the human dimension to drought: an example from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangecroft, Sally; Van Loon, Anne; Maureira, Héctor; Rojas, Pablo; Alejandro Gutiérrez Valdés, Sergio; Verbist, Koen

    2016-04-01

    Drought and water scarcity are important hazards and can lead to severe socio-economic impacts in many regions of the world. Given the interlinked interactions and feedbacks of hydrological droughts and their impacts and management, we need tools to evaluate these complexities and effects on the availability of water resources. Here we use a real-world case study of the Huasco basin (Northern Chile) in which we quantify the influence of human activities on hydrological drought signals. In this arid region, Andean snowmelt provides water essential for users, with agriculture acting as the main water consumer (85% of total). An increasing water demand from different water sectors (agriculture, mining, and domestic water usage) has increased pressure on available water and its management. Consequently, the Santa Juana dam was built by 1995 to increase irrigation security for downstream users, and recent management and restrictions have been established with the objective to limit impacts of hydrological droughts across the basin. The feedbacks between water availability and water management are explored for this water stressed region in Chile. Hydro-meteorological (e.g. precipitation, temperature, streamflow, reservoir levels) variables have been analysed to assess trends and drought patterns. Data over the past three decades has indicated a decrease in surface water supply, with the basin entering a situation of water scarcity during the recent multiyear drought (2007 - to-date), partly caused by meteorological drought and partly by abstraction. During this period, water supply failed to meet the demands of water users, resulting in the implementation of water restrictions. As well as the necessary continuous hydro-meteorological data, here we used information on human water users and scenario modeling, allowing for the analysis and quantification of feedbacks. This work highlights the importance of local knowledge, especially in understanding water laws, rights

  6. Los patelogastrópodos intermareales de Chile y Perú Intertidal limpets of Chile and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ESPOZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se entrega un sistema de clasificación que refleja las relaciones de parentesco, inferidas a partir del análisis de la región 16S de ADN mitocondrial, de los patelogastrópodos que habitan en la zona intermareal a lo largo de la costa rocosa de Chile y Perú. Además, se incluye el análisis comparativo de estos patelogastrópodos en relación con la estructura, la morfología y los patrones de color de la concha, los dientes de la rádula y la anatomía corporal. Adicionalmente, se entrega información respecto de la distribución y ecología para todos los miembros de este grupo. Los resultados muestran que la fauna Lottiidae de Chile y Perú consiste en al menos nueve especies de patelogastrópodos intermareales. Esto es, ocho especies de patelogastrópodos agrupadas dentro del clado monofilético Scurria (S. variabilis, S. zebrina, S. viridula, S. plana, S. scurra, S. araucana, S. ceciliana y una especie no determinada y un "taxón problemático" asignado preliminarmente dentro del género Lottia (Lottia orbignyi. El grupo está presente entre los 5º S y 54º S, registrándose en los niveles intermareales superior, medio e inferior, desde zonas expuestas a protegidas del oleaje. A nivel intraespecífico, los resultados nos permiten proponer la sinonimia de S. parasitica con S. variabilis, y de S. ceciliana con S. boehmita. Según esto, S. variabilis presentaría al menos tres ecofenotipos: (1 en sustratos rocosos a lo largo de todo su rango geográfico, (2 sobre las conchas de Fissurella crassa y F. limbata principalmente en Chile centro-sur y (3 sobre las placas del chitón Enoplochiton niger en el norte de Chile y sur del Perú. Por su parte, S. ceciliana es una especie de patelogastrópodo que presenta un patrón morfológico y de coloración de la concha altamente variable. En general, la alta variabilidad del patrón de color y morfología de la concha sitúa a estos patelogastrópodos entre los más complejos y

  7. Chile: Neoliberalismo y subdesarrollo económico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Concha Monardes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se expone que el Régimen Militar que gobernó a Chile entre 1973 y 1990 ejecutó reformas  económicas y sociales con el objetivo declarado de crear una nueva economía. Presentado como  el modelo que terminaría con los atrasos del país hasta convertirlo en uno plenamente desarrollado, los gobiernos democráticos que le sucedieron, han mantenido vigente la fórmula hasta el día de hoy. Este artículo esboza algunas de las causas que podrían explicar el bloqueo chileno hacia el desarrollo económico.

  8. Crecimiento, Empleo e Impuestos al Trabajo: Chile 1998-2001

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Bergoeing; Felipe Morandé

    2002-01-01

    Desde 1984 y hasta 1997, la economía chilena experimentó un crecimiento per cápita promedio de 5,4 por ciento, lo que la ubica dentro de las economías exitosas del mundo de las últimas dos décadas. Sin embargo, entre 1998 y 2001 esa tasa cayó bruscamente a 1,2 por ciento por año. Este artículo analiza el rol de la acumulación de factores y la eficiencia en su uso durante los últimos 20 años en Chile para entender la evolución del producto, en el contexto de un modelo de crecimiento neoclásico...

  9. [Fecal microbiota transplantation: first case report in Chile and review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Ricardo; Quera, Rodrigo; Meyer, Lital; Rivera, Daniela

    2014-08-01

    Clostridium difficile (CD) infection is increasing in frequency and severity in in-hospital and outpatient clinical settings, with a recurrence that can reach 30% after first episode. The recurrences are usually treated with longer courses of metronidazole or vancomycin. Other treatments have been used, such as probiotics, fidaxomicin, rifaximin, immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies against toxins A and B. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a promising strategy in this group of patients, with effectiveness greater than 90%. We present the first case reported in Chile of this therapeutic strategy in a patient with Crohn's disease and recurrent CD infection who presented after the fecal transplantation an Escherichia coli bacteremia, suggesting the need for caution in the use of this strategy. 10 months after the FMT the patient presented a new episode of E. coli bacteremia and two episodes of diarrhea due to CD infection, treated both of them with vancomycin with good clinical response.

  10. Chile: la persistencia de las memorias antagónicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Waldman Mitnick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los años transcurridos en democracia, en Chile siguen persistiendo las sombras del pasado dictatorial. El país todavía no ha logrado realizar el duelo por un pasado tan doloroso, y las memorias antagónicas y contrapuestas siguen vigentes. Ello se manifiesta, por ejemplo, en los conflictos generados en torno a la conmemoración del 11 de septiembre, en los polémicos debates por los memoriales erigidos en honor de personajes políticos de izquierda y de derecha, así como en las contradictorias miradas respecto a uno de los personajes más emblemáticos de la represión dictatorial, Miguel Krassnoff, tal como aparece en dos libros de reciente publicación.

  11. Participación electoral en Chile, 1988-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Navia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra que la participación electoral en Chile hoy no es menor a la observada hasta antes de 1973. La alta tasa de participación en 1988 representa una comprensible anomalía. Después de 15 años sin votar, los chilenos participaron entusiastamente en el plebiscito. Pero a partir de entonces, la tasa de participación tendió a la baja hasta llegar a fines de los 90 a niveles similares a los observados antes del quiebre democrático de 1973. Usando un marco teórico que aborda la participación como una función basada en costos y beneficios, discute la participación electoral en Chile en un contexto internacional, subrayando las diferencias y similitudes de los patrones existentes antes de 1973 y después de 1988, enfatizando tanto lógicas de inscripción como de participación electoral. Al hacerlo, aborda la tensión que existe entre un electorado estable y un número creciente de personas no inscritas para votar. Por último, identifica algunas propuestas que permitirían eliminar las trabas institucionales que han llevado a la formación de dos clases de adultos, aquellos que estando inscritos están obligados a votar y los que al no estar inscritos no pueden sufragar. Puntualmente, argumenta que al automatizar la inscripción se puede incorporar a todos sin tener siquiera que entrar a discutir la obligatoriedad del votoContrary to a widespread belief, post-1990 electoral participation in Chile is not lower than before 1973. The high turnout rates observed in 1988 constitute an understandable anomaly. After 15 years without elections, Chileans enthusiastically participated in the plebiscite. Yet, after that event, turnout rates fell during the 1990s to levels similar to those observed before 1973. Using a theoretical framework that defines turnout as a function based on cost and benefits, I discuss electoral participation in Chile in an international context, highlighting the differences and similarities between the

  12. A failed platform: The Citizen Consensus Conference travels to Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureta, Sebastián

    2016-05-01

    This article starts by reviewing the setbacks that the recent Science and Technology Studies literature has identified in the functioning of technologies of democracy, the different arrangements that look to enact deliberation on technoscientific issues. Putting a focus on the Citizen Consensus Conference, it then proposes that several of these setbacks are related to the kind of "work" that these technologies are expected to do, identifying two kinds of it: performing a laboratory-based experiment and constituting a platform for the dissemination of facts. It then applies this framework to study a Citizen Consensus Conference carried out in Chile in 2003. After a detailed genealogy of the planning, implementation and afterlife of this exercise, the article concludes that several of the limitations experienced are derived from a "successful outcome" conceived as solely running a neat lab-based experiment, arguing for the need to incorporate its functioning as a platform with all the associated transformations and messiness.

  13. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Southern Chile, 1995-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Raúl; Rioseco, María Luisa; Bastidas, Lorena; Trincado, Daniela; Riquelme, Mauricio; Loyola, Hugo; Valdivieso, Francisca

    2015-04-01

    Hantavirus is endemic to the Region de Los Lagos in southern Chile; its incidence is 8.5 times higher in the communes of the Andean area than in the rest of the region. We analyzed the epidemiologic aspects of the 103 cases diagnosed by serology and the clinical aspects of 80 hospitalized patients during 1995-2012. Cases in this region clearly predominated during winter, whereas in the rest of the country, they occur mostly during summer. Mild, moderate, and severe disease was observed, and the case-fatality rate was 32%. Shock caused death in 75% of those cases; high respiratory frequency and elevated creatinine plasma level were independent factors associated with death. Early clinical suspicion, especially in rural areas, should prompt urgent transfer to a hospital with an intensive care unit and might help decrease the high case-fatality rate.

  14. Site Protection Efforts at the AURA Observatory in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro; Smith, Malcolm G.

    2016-10-01

    The AURA Observatory site in northern Chile, which includes Cerro Tololo and Cerro Pachon, has been operational for over 50 years now, facing a variety of challenges to its long-term future. The site now hosts over 20 operational telescopes, ranging from small projects with 0.4m telescopes to the Blanco 4m, the SOAR 4.1m, and the 8m Gemini-South telescopes. In addition, we have recently begun the construction of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) on the summit of Cerro Pachon. We summarize our efforts over the past 20-30 years to highlight the importance of site protection through education and public outreach as well as through more recent promotion of IDA certifications in the region and support for the World Heritage initiatives described by others in this conference.

  15. [Scarlet fever epidemic during year 1929 in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval R, Enrique

    2009-04-01

    Scarlet fever is endemic in Chile, with relatively low morbidity and periodic exacerbations every 4 or 5 years, which can become epidemics. From 1921 to 1927, the number of patients hospitalized in the country fluctuated from 15 to 65 per year, until an epidemic involving nearly 3.000 patients started at the end of 1928 and continued during all 1929. 978 patients died, 537 (52.5%) were from Santiago. Public Health authorities confronted this emergency with prevention, prophylaxis, isolation and treatment measures and 558 beds were disposed for patient hospitalization. Vaccination trials were undertaken and specific treatment with antitoxins was used in patients with toxic clinical cases, having satisfactory results. Convalescent patients were controlled in order to stop the spread of the infection. After approximately 3 years, this disease returned to its regular endemicity.

  16. FACTORS RELATED TO TOTAL ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN OLDER ADULTS (CHILE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakozdi, Tamara; Leiva, Laura; Bunout, Daniel; Barrera, Gladys; de la Maza, María Pía; Henriquez, Sandra; Hirsch, Sandra

    2015-10-01

    Objetivo: evaluar el Gasto Energético Total (GET) en ancianos sanos que viven institucionalizados o independientes en Chile. Método: se evaluaron veintisiete jovenes (27-30 años), 27 adultos mayores institucionalizados (> 65 años ) y 27 ancianos independientes (> 65 años). Se midió la composición corporal utilizando absorciometría bifotónica de rayos X. Se calculó el gasto energético por actividad física (GEAF) y el gasto energético total (GET) utilizando acelerómetros Actiheart; se aplicó Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) y se midió el Timed Up and Go (TUG). Resultados: el GEAF fue 171, 320 y 497 kcal/día en ancianos institucionalizados, independientes y jóvenes, respectivamente (p.

  17. [Vaccines against hepatitis A and B in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, M Teresa

    2009-06-01

    The mode of transmission and epidemiological approach for hepatitis A and B are different. However, both are preventable with vaccines whose efficacy and long lasting protection has been demonstrated. This review describes the secular tendency of both infections in Chile, their risk factors that have contributed to their persistence in the country and the interventions that have been carried out to reduce the disease burden. Although the vaccine for hepatitis B was incorporated to the immunization program in 2005, the vaccine for hepatitis A persists in the list of interventions that must be assumed with priority by the Ministry of Health. If Chilean health authorities pretend to reach the enteric disease indicators of developed countries, they must accelerate the epidemiological transition towards the elimination of hepatitis A.

  18. Climatology of surface ultraviolet-radiation in Valparaiso, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Raul R. [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Ave. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile) and Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Km. 30, 5 Via Perimetral, Guayaquil (Ecuador)]. E-mail: raul.cordero@usm.cl; Roth, Pedro [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Ave. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Georgiev, Aleksandar [Technical University of Sofia, 4023 Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Silva, Luis da [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Ave. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2005-11-15

    Despite the lack of long-term records, it is possible to describe many of the short term characteristics, dependencies and climatology of surface UV irradiance. This paper describes the climatology of on ground UV irradiance at Valparaiso (33.05 deg. S, 71.63 deg. W, sea level), Chile. The dependence of UV-B irradiance on ozone and on other climate variables is discussed with reference to our observations conducted during the last four years. Special attention was paid to detect 'ozone events' by surface UV irradiance measurements. By analyzing time series of the UV-B/UV-A ratio, we suppressed the cloud variability effect and detected events that implied ozone column changes of about 15%. According to our measurements, during the last four years, the ozone column over Valparaiso was not affected negatively by the Antarctic ozone hole phenomenon.

  19. DEMETER Satellite Observations of Particle Burst Prior to Chile Earthquake

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhenxia; Shen, Xuhui; Ma, Yuqian; Chen, Huaran; You, Xinzhao; Yuan, Yahong

    2010-01-01

    The lithosphere activity during seismogenic or occurrence of one earthquake may emit electromagnetic wave which propagate to ionosphere and radiation belt, then induce disturbance of electric and magnetic field and the precipitation of high energy charged particles. This paper, based on the data detected by DEMETER satellite, present the high energy charged particle burst(PB) with 4 to 6 times enhancement over the average value observed about ten days days before Chile earthquake. The obvious particle burst was also observed in the northern hemisphere mirror points conjugate of epicenter and no PB events in different years over the same epicenter region was found. The energy spectra of the PBs are different from the one averaged within the first three months in 2010. At the same time, the disturbance of the VLF electric spectrum in ionosphere over the epicenter detected by the DEMETER satellite are also observed in the same two orbits. Those observations from energetic PB and VLF electric spectrum disturbance...

  20. [Human resources for health in Chile: the reform's pending challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Claudio A

    2009-09-01

    Omission of human resources from health policy development has been identified as a barrier in the health sector reform's adoption phase. Since 2002, Chile's health care system has been undergoing a transformation based on the principles of health as a human right, equity, solidarity, efficiency, and social participation. While the reform has set forth the redefinition of the medical professions, continuing education, scheduled accreditation, and the introduction of career development incentives, it has not considered management options tailored to the new setting, a human resources strategy that has the consensus of key players and sector policy, or a process for understanding the needs of health care staff and professionals. However, there is still time to undo the shortcomings, in large part because the reform's implementation phase only recently has begun. Overcoming this challenge is in the hands of the experts charged with designing public health strategies and policies.

  1. MOVILIDAD SUSTENTABLE EN CHILE: OPORTUNIDADES, EXPERIENCIAS LOCALES Y REFERENCIAS GLOBALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Díaz Tejeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone Premisas Conceptuales, Premisas Metodológicas y el desarrollo de Aspectos Estratégicos para la implementación de soluciones a la Movilidad Urbana. Se inspira en las ideas, experiencias e investigaciones de diversas personas quienes abordan desde lógicas puntuales aspectos temáticos específicos en el marco de la Planificación Urbana en general y de las aplicaciones en Transporte en particular. Chile atraviesa por una oportunidad histórica, quizás paradójicamente, a partir de un evento de catástrofe ocurrido en Febrero del 2010; esta oportunidad es la de re-plantear el proceso de Planificación Urbana bajo los alcances del Desarrollo Sustentable.

  2. Identidad y fronteras urbanas en Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Márquez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo analiza a través de un ejercicio etnográfico los procesos de construcción identitaria de los habitantes de barrios pobres y medios de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile. Se plantea que las identidades que alli se construyen son expresión de los procesos de segregación urbana de la ciudad de Santiago y ellas dan cuenta del debilitamiento de un modelo urbano asentado en la heterogeneidad social, la noción de espacio público y valores como la ciudadanía política y la integración social. Paradojalmente, esta misma segregación urbana abre también paso a un imaginario y una práctica de vida comunitaria y tribal que refuerza y protege al nosotros de la peligrosidad de los otros.

  3. How was the UNAIDS drug access initiative implemented in Chile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, François

    2004-01-01

    In 1997, UNAIDS decided to implement Drug Access Initiatives (DAI) in four different pilot-countries. We studied the implementation of the DAI in Chile as part of the evaluation program conducted by the 'Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA' (ANRS/France). The objective was to understand how the politico-organizational dynamic influenced the implementation process of the DAI. Approximately 50 semi-directed interviews and observation activities were conducted with the actors who participated in the implementation of the DAI or who played a role in the HIV/AIDS context. The program theory models were established and their evolution analyzed. This article offers an original analysis of an international HIV/AIDS drug access program that was put in place at a time when such programs were seen as a priority by international and governmental institutions. It also offers some insights for the creation of international projects that will be locally implemented.

  4. [Health care reform in Chile: 2005 to 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso D, Vicente; Montero L, Joaquín

    2010-08-01

    Five years ago Chile implemented a Health Care Reform to reduce the great inequalities in health care provision that affects the low- income, high-risk segment of its population. A universal care plan ("AUGE") was designed to make medical coverage available to all Chilean citizens suffering from one of a specified, growing list of diseases (66 at present time). The diseases are prioritized by the Ministry of Health and its inclusion in the plan is revised periodically by an Advisory Committee according to four cardinal criteria: burden of disease, effectiveness of treatment, specific capacity of the health system and financial costs. The plan is funded by the state and enforced by law through a set of four specific guarantees: access, opportunity, quality and financial protection. This paper reviews the origin and development of the reform, the benefits and drawbacks of the application of the specific guarantees and the perception of the public regarding its strengths and weaknesses.

  5. A serological survey of leptospirosis in sheep in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, J; Riedemann, S; Tadich, N

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate exposure to Leptospira spp. in sheep in the Xth Region in the south of Chile, 629 ovine serum samples were collected from 11 convenience selected sheep farms, using within farm random sampling. The sera collected were examined for antibodies to the following serovars; icterohaemorrhagiae, autumnalis, hardjo, pomona, ballum, and canicola, using the Microscopic Agglutination Test. Ten out of eleven flocks had sheep which were seropositive for at least one Leptospira spp. Positive tests, the majority at low titres, were obtained from 36/629 (5.7%) of all the serum samples tested. The most frequently detected serovars were, in descending order: icterohaemorrhagiae, autumnalis and hardjo. The greatest proportion of positive samples came from sheep which were over 30 months old.

  6. Nursing leadership in Chile: a concept in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Ana M; Astudillo, Paula R; Barrios, Sara A; Rivas, Edith E

    2002-10-01

    The purposes of this two-year research study were to uncover Chilean nurses' perspectives of the elements that comprise leadership, and to identify challenges faced by nurse leaders in modern health administration. The research question is, What are the structural components that define and characterize nursing leadership in Chile? Nine nurses from different professional backgrounds volunteered to take part in audiorecorded successive interviews. The research methodology was a kind of grounded theory. Findings suggest that leadership is characterized mainly by exerting a positive influence on others based on good communication, knowledge of management, and a futurist vision of the nursing profession. Crisis and transition in nursing leadership were associated with external and internal forces, such as reforms in healthcare organizations and changes in the nursing conceptual framework.

  7. Anisakid parasites in commercial hake ceviche in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Frenzel, Pablo; Torres, Patricio

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the occurrence of anisakid nematode larvae in hake ceviche sold in restaurants in Valdivia (39°48'S, 73°14'W) and Niebla (39°49'S, 73°22'W), Chile. Between August and November 2012, 78 portions of ceviche were collected (6 from each of the 13 restaurants that sell this product). Each portion was weighed and divided into approximately 30-g samples, which were placed in petri dishes with 0.15 M NaCl. All samples were manually shredded and then examined with a stereomicroscope. Muscles of 41 southern hake (Merluccius australis), a fish sold fresh in Valdivia, also were examined by candling to determine the presence of anisakid larvae. The presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in ceviche sold in Chile was identified for the first time. The pH of ceviche ranges from 4.1 to 4.8, which favors the presence of viable anisakid larvae that tolerate the acid pH similar to that found in the stomach of their mammalian host. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in the prevalence, mean abundance, and mean density of anisakid larvae in ceviche were found between localities. Larvae were detected in ceviche from 3 of 6 restaurants in Valdivia and 4 of 7 restaurants in Niebla. Of the 78 examined portions of ceviche, 21.8% had larvae. The prevalence of viable larvae was 16.7 and 7.1% in the examined portions from Valdivia and Niebla, respectively. In the 41 hake muscle samples from Valdivia, the prevalence (4.9%), mean abundance (0.1), and mean density (0.03) was the same for Pseudoterranova and Anisakis larvae. No inspection processes or pretreatments are currently in place for raw fish to achieve safe conditions for ceviche in restaurants from Valdivia and Niebla.

  8. Chile: todas íbamos a ser reinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mardones Z

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe los acontecimientos políticos del año 2006 marcados por la elección y asunción de Michelle Bachelet a la presidencia de Chile en marzo, y la muerte del ex dictador Augusto Pinochet en diciembre. Aunque el nuevo Gobierno prometía una altísima sintonía con la gente, y aunque el desempeño económico ha sido bueno, las instituciones políticas exhiben una creciente desafección ciudadana iniciada tempranamente con la movilización estudiantil secundaria, y una seguidilla de escándalos de corrupción. Una parte de estos problemas puede adjudicarse al propio Gobierno, incluida la débil conformación del gabinete de ministros; sin embargo, es el momento de la Concertación -coalición que lleva 17 años en el poder- lo que explica el mayor desgasteThe paper describes the political events of 2006, featuring the election and assumption of Michelle Bachelet as Chile's President in March, and the death of the former dictator Augusto Pinochet in December. Even though the new Government augured in tune with the citizenship, and despite good economic performance, the political institutions exhibit a growing distrust from citizens, which started early with demonstrations of high school students, and a rollover of corruption scandals. In part, these problems can be seen as the Government's own fault, including a weak cabinet of ministers. However, the main reason for most of the wear away is the current moment of the Concertación, the ruling coalition with 17 years in power

  9. La isla de calor estival en Temuco, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Capelli de Steffens

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Temuco es una ciudad localizada en el centro sur de Chile (38º 45’ S y 72º 40’ W. Morfológicamente, el sitio de la ciudad corresponde a las terrazas fluviales del río Cautín que se desarrollan en forma encajonada entre los cerros Ñielol (350 m y Conunhueno (360 m. Esta ciudad se ha desarrollado rápidamente en las últimas décadas, por lo tanto es necesario conocer el efecto antrópico en la misma. Para evaluar parte de ese efecto se analiza la isla de calor urbana estival en la ciudad de Temuco, Chile. Se efectuaron mediciones de temperatura del aire y humedad a través de la ciudad para determinar la forma y la intensidad de la isla de calor urbano. Se utilizaron estaciones móviles e información de una estación meteorológica fija. La ciudad presenta un comportamiento térmico diferente a lo largo del día. Durante el día genera una isla de calor que responde en líneas generales al modelo ideal de calentamiento urbano. La intensidad de la isla calórica (∆Tu-r fue 6.3ºC y 1.2ºC durante el día y la noche, respectivamente. La influencia de los cerros que limitan la ciudad es importante. El estudio confirma la idea que el clima urbano de una ciudad es un mosaico de microclimas que interactuan continuamente.

  10. Trophic interactions in northern Chile upwelling ecosystem, year 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica E Barros

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A food web model is constructed to describe predator-prey interactions, community structure and trophic flows in northern Chile upwelling ecosystem (18°20'S, 24°S, for the year 1997. The model is built using the Ecopath with Ecosim software version 6.4, and encompasses 21 functional groups, ranging from primary producers (phytoplankton to top predators (birds and marine mammals, the principal fishing resources and the fishery. Input parameters required to build the model were gathered from specialized literature, grey literature and our own estimates. The results indicated that the total biomass (B T was estimated at 624.7 ton km-2. The combined biomass of small pelagic fish represented 26% of B T, while the combined biomass of demersal fish represented only 0.1% of B T. These results highlight the importance of pelagic fish in this system. Predation mortality resulted to be the main source of mortality. Nevertheless, fishing mortality was important in anchovy, mackerel, common dolphinfish and jack mackerel. The mean trophic level of the fishery was estimated as 3.7, with landings sustained mainly by anchovy. Primary production required to sustain the landings (PPR was estimated at 7.5% of calculated total net primary production, which is lower than PPR estimates in other upwelling ecosystems. The average trophic transfer efficiency was 18%, which is in the range (10-20% informed for marine ecosystems. Results indicate that in 1997 the northern Chile marine ecosystem was characterized for being a system far from maturity, dominated in terms of biomass and flows by the pelagic realm.

  11. Ancient Leishmaniasis in a highland desert of Northern Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. METHODOLOGY: We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses of bone fragments from the skulls of the affected individuals.Leishmaniasis is not normally found in the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile; where the harsh climate does not allow the parasite to complete its life cycle. The presence of Leishmaniasis in ancient skulls from the region implies infection by the protozoan in an endemic area-likely, in our subjects, to have been the lowlands of North-Eastern Argentina or in Southern Bolivia. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the presence of the disease in ancient times in the high altitude desert of San Pedro de Atacama is the result of an exogamic system of patrilocal marriages, where women from different cultures followed their husbands to their ancestral homes, allowing immigrant women, infected early in life, to be incorporated in the Atacama desert society before they became disfigured by the disease. The present globalization of goods and services and the extraordinary facile movement of people across borders and continents have lead to a resurgence of infectious diseases and re-emergence of infections such as Leishmaniasis. We show here that such factors were already present millennia ago, shaping demographic trends and the epidemiology of infections just as they do today.

  12. Lung cancer and arsenic concentrations in drinking water in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreccio, C; González, C; Milosavjlevic, V; Marshall, G; Sancha, A M; Smith, A H

    2000-11-01

    Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 microg/liter in drinking water in the period 1958-1970. Concentrations have since been reduced to 40 microg/liter. We investigated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital controls. The study identified 152 lung cancer cases and 419 controls. Participants were interviewed regarding drinking water sources, cigarette smoking, and other variables. Logistic regression analysis revealed a clear trend in lung cancer odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with increasing concentration of arsenic in drinking water, as follows: 1, 1.6 (95% CI = 0.5-5.3), 3.9 (95% CI = 1.2-12.3), 5.2 (95% CI = 2.3-11.7), and 8.9 (95% CI = 4.0-19.6), for arsenic concentrations ranging from less than 10 microg/liter to a 65-year average concentration of 200-400 microg/liter. There was evidence of synergy between cigarette smoking and ingestion of arsenic in drinking water; the odds ratio for lung cancer was 32.0 (95% CI = 7.2-198.0) among smokers exposed to more than 200 microg/liter of arsenic in drinking water (lifetime average) compared with nonsmokers exposed to less than 50 microg/liter. This study provides strong evidence that ingestion of inorganic arsenic is associated with human lung cancer.

  13. When memory becomes heritage: Experiences from Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bianchini, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationships between memory politics and urban heritage in the construction of a twenty-first century democratic society. It focuses on the case of Chile and concentrates on three examples of public buildings in the capital city, Santiago. Given what can be considered a difficult heritage –linked to the recent experience of dictatorship and state sponsored violence– these buildings have been in recent years objects of heritage politics, directed to address a public memory related to those events. Based on these case studies, the article critically discusses the materialization of the dominant human rights discourse in the current memory politics affecting Santiago’s urban heritage.Este artículo aborda las relaciones entre políticas de memoria y patrimonio urbano en el proceso de construcción de una sociedad democrática del siglo XXI. El análisis se centra en el caso de Chile y presenta tres ejemplos de edificios públicos de la capital, Santiago. Los tres sitios representan lo que puede considerarse un patrimonio difícil –vinculado a una reciente experiencia de dictadura y violencia de Estado– y, por esta razón, han sido objeto, en años recientes, de políticas patrimoniales dirigidas a gestionar la memoria pública de esos eventos. A través de estos casos, el artículo analiza críticamente la materialización del discurso dominante de los derechos humanos en las actuales políticas de memoria que afectan al patrimonio urbano de Santiago.

  14. The state of solar energy resource assessment in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Alberto; Escobar, Rodrigo [Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Colle, Sergio [Laboratorios de Engenharia de Processos de Conversao e Tecnologia de Energia - LEPTEN, Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); de Abreu, Samuel Luna [IFSC - Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Sao Jose, Sao Jose - SC (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The Chilean government has determined that a renewable energy quota of up to 10% of the electrical energy generated must be met by 2024. This plan has already sparked interest in wind, geothermal, hydro and biomass power plants in order to introduce renewable energy systems to the country. Solar energy is being considered only for demonstration, small-scale CSP plants and for domestic water heating applications. This apparent lack of interest in solar energy is partly due to the absence of a valid solar energy database, adequate for energy system simulation and planning activities. One of the available solar radiation databases is 20-40 years old, with measurements taken by pyranographs and Campbell-Stokes devices. A second database from the Chilean Meteorological Service is composed by pyranometer readings, sparsely distributed along the country and available from 1988, with a number of these stations operating intermittently. The Chilean government through its National Energy Commission (CNE) has contracted the formulation of a simulation model and also the deployment of network of measurement stations in northern Chile. Recent efforts by the authors have resulted in a preliminary assessment by satellite image processing. Here, we compare the existing databases of solar radiation in Chile. Monthly mean solar energy maps are created from ground measurements and satellite estimations and compared. It is found that significant deviation exists between sources, and that all ground-station measurements display unknown uncertainty levels, thus highlighting the need for a proper, country-wide long-term resource assessment initiative. However, the solar energy levels throughout the country can be considered as high, and it is thought that they are adequate for energy planning activities - although not yet for proper power plant design and dimensioning. (author)

  15. [Revista Médica de Chile in the year 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes B, Humberto; Bustos-González, Atilio; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaquín

    2013-08-01

    During the year 2012, 539 manuscripts were submitted to this journal, following an increasing trend in the recent decade. Rejection rate was 33%. This higher number of submissions demanded a larger number and wider scope of external reviews, retarding the editorial process. The mean time lapse from reception to acceptance (or rejection) was 6.3 months (range 2-14) and from acceptance to publication 5.3 months (range 3-7). Research articles were 43.9% of published manuscripts and the remaining articles were Reviews, Special Articles, Case Reports, articles on Medical Ethics, Medical Education, Evidence Based Medicine, Public Health, History of Medicine, Letters to the Editor and others. Thirty seven published manuscripts (14.6%) came from foreign countries and 9 of them were published with full text in English. The 2012 Impact Factor was 0.360, showing little variation from previous years, locating the journal in the upper part of quartil 4 in the ISI-JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal", while the SCImago Journal & Country Rank locates the Revista in quartil 2 of its category "Medicine (miscellaneous)". In contrast with the low citation rate, the number of visits to the open access electronic version in www.scielo.cl averages over 3 million visits per year, illustrating that the interest among readers outnumbers the country's expectable readership. Only 22% of articles declared to have received financial help from entities external to the institution where the work was performed, coming mainly from Chilean Governmental competitive funds. The aim of Revista Médica de Chile is to provide readers and authors a valuable source of information about current relevant topics in general and internal medicine, progress in related specialties and updates in basic sciences, rendering them available to Health professionals in Chile and worldwide, following international standards of ethical and scientific quality in medical publications.

  16. Dengue-1 virus isolation during first dengue fever outbreak on Easter Island, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Cecilia; Abarca, Katia; Ovalle, Jimena; Ferrer, Pablo; Godoy, Paula; Olea, Andrea; Aguilera, Ximena; Ferrés, Marcela

    2003-11-01

    Dengue virus was detected for the first time in Chile, in an outbreak of dengue fever on Easter Island. The virus was isolated in tissue culture and characterized by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction as being dengue type 1.

  17. Dengue-1 Virus Isolation during First Dengue Fever Outbreak on Easter Island, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Perret, Cecilia; Abarca, Katia; Ovalle, Jimena; Ferrer, Pablo; Godoy, Paula; Olea, Andrea; Aguilera, Ximena; Ferrés, Marcela

    2003-01-01

    Dengue virus was detected for the first time in Chile, in an outbreak of dengue fever on Easter Island. The virus was isolated in tissue culture and characterized by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction as being dengue type 1.

  18. The Press Conference for the 7th China Auto International (Chile & Peru) Exhibition Tour Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On September 9,2009,the press conference and the flag presentation cercmony of the 7th China Auto International (Chile & Peru) Exhibition Tour (CAIET) was held at the auditorium of China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT).

  19. Vervoortihelcon, a new genus of the subfamily Helconinae Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1998-01-01

    A new genus of the tribe Helconini Foerster (Braconidae: Helconinae), Vervoortihelcon (type species: Vervoortihelcon scaramozzinoi spec, nov.) from Chile is described and illustrated. The new subtribe Vervoortihelconina is named to include the new genus.

  20. Phosphate geochemistry, mineralization processes, and Thioploca distribution in shelf sediments off central Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmkvist, Lars; Arning, Esther T.; Küster-Heins, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    mineralization, and occurrence of dense communities of the filamentous sulfur bacteria, Thioploca spp., on the continental shelf off central Chile during the austral summer when high phytoplankton productivity and anoxic bottom water prevailed. Freshly deposited phytodetritus stimulated extremely high sulfate...

  1. CCPIT Successfully Signed Preferential Certificate of under the China-Chile Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On March 1, 2010,China and Chile signed China-Peru Free Trade Agreement. in Beijing.After the two countries completing the domestic legal procedures, this agreement has been fully implemented since March 1, 2010.

  2. 75 FR 8111 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject reviews. DATES: Effective Date: February...

  3. The Invisible Blockade and the Covert War: U.S. Relations with Chile, 1970-1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    Their disappointment has been emotion- ally presented by Gary MacEoin, who stated: 2 This Chilean exDerience has a much wider meaning for mankind...de Chile-100%) Dow (Dow Quimica Chilena-100%, Petroquimica Dow-70%) Ford (Ford Motor de Chile-100%) General Cable (MADECO-approximately 50%) General...Electric (Electromat-majority) General Tire (INSA-37%) :BEC (Concretos Ready-Mix-100%) International Chemical Fibers ( Quimica Industrial-60%) ITT

  4. Protection of Existing and Potential Astronomical Sites in Chile - an Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. G.; Sanhueza, P.; Norman, D.; Schwarz, H.; Orellana, D.

    2002-12-01

    The IAU's Working Group on Controlling Light Pollution (iauwg) has declared Mauna Kea and a wide strip of Northern Chile between Antofagasta and Chajnanator as top priorities for its efforts to protect existing and potential sites in the Northern and Southern hemispheres respectively. This report provides an update on the iauwg's co-ordinated efforts to protect areas around the major international optical observatories in Chile, as well as the "Chilean Special Zone" (CSZ) mentioned above. This zone is of current and potential interest for the installation of extremely large optical telescopes and includes the ALMA radio-astronomy site. The CSZ is potentially vulnerable to adverse effects of mining in the region. Progess has been made in demonstrating to local mining interests within the CSZ the economic advantages of quality lighting. Educational and outreach activities to a variety of target audiences are building on legislation covering dark skies - itself part of work by the Chilean government to protect the natural heritage of Chile. Substantial good will was generated by an international, bilingual conference held last March in Chile. Just in the region around AURA's Observatory in Chile (Gemini South, CTIO and SOAR), a portable planetarium has been used to reach out to over 600 teachers and 65,000 pupils in the RedLaSer schools network within the last three years. This has attracted the direct interest of Chile's Ministry of Education. Videoconferencing over Internet2 is being used for educational purposes between Chile and various sites in the US. The NSF- initiated Mamalluca municipal observatory now receives more visitors than all the international observatories in Chile combined and is the focus of an expanding local industry of astronomical eco-tourism. Most of this work was supported by funding from, or via, the US NSF through CTIO and Gemini, and from ESO, OCIW, CONAMA and the IDA.

  5. Santiago de Chile, ¿ejemplo de una reestructuración capitalista global?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Términos como "ciudad global", "ciudad difusa", "ciudad dual", entre otros, merecen ser rediscutidos y contrastados con el proceso de transformaciones experimentado por Santiago de Chile producto de la reestructuración capitalista. En este sentido, este trabajo pretende discutir acerca de la conveniencia de otorgar a la capital de Chile éstos y otros adjetivos frecuentemente utilizados en la literatura urbanística internacional.

  6. Is Chile Complying with its Light Pollution Regulations? A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. G.; Sanhueza, P.; Schwarz, H. E.; Walker, A. R.

    2005-12-01

    Monte Patria is the first Municipality in Chile to comply fully with Supreme Decree 686, the Chilean, environmentally-based legislation governing exterior lighting in Northern Chile - the "norma luminica". "Before" and "after" photographs of Monte Patria were published in last June's issue of "Physics Today", in the context of the global effort to control light pollution. Some photographs of other Chilean towns have been obtained for this poster and for display at the International Dark Sky Association's stand at this meeting. Highlights include detailed midnight and dawn panoramas taken by us during October, 2005 - the month in which the six-year "grace period" for all external lighting in northern Chile's astronomically-sensitive 2nd, 3rd and 4th Regions was supposed to come into full compliance. It is clear that significant progress is being made. The chief obstacle has been financial. Large-scale changeout of street lighting requires an outlay of many millions of dollars from cash-strapped municipalities. Chile's central government has moved in to provide financing at the 80-100/% level in many cases. Once Chile's congressional elections are over, we will be able to judge the political will to complete the changeover. Various large mining operations are currently engaged in major lighting changeovers; such changes are especially important in the various mines that are directly visible from existing major observatories in Northern Chile. The importance to astronomy is that full compliance with DS686 will, on average, extend the potential useful life of all the major optical observatories in Northern Chile by several decades. Funding for the Office for the Protection of the Quality of the Skies of Chile (OPCC) is provided by the Chilean National Environment Committee (CONAMA), NOAO, Gemini, ESO and the Las Campanas Observatory of the Carnegie Institute of Washington.

  7. Solar cooking and wood in Chile, energetical alternatives; Cocina solares y manejo de lena en Chile, alternativas energeticas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, R. P.

    2004-07-01

    Firewood in Latin America is, after petroleum, the second primary source of energy. In Chile, the statistics have shown that the total use of energy produce by firewood fluctuates between 16 and 21% from which the residential sector represents 54%. There are great social and environmental impacts produced by the use of firewood. For the near future, it will be difficult to eradicate the firewood consumption in Latin America. In looking for sustainable use of firewood to produce energy, NGOs have developed efficient systems for production, management and consume of it. For this research we will focus on the efficient use of biomass and solar energy use for cooking, both to be applied in suitable places. The paper shows Chilean experiences on both, biomass and solar energy production, and how these programs have impacted the national statistics in energy consumption. (Author)

  8. Present knowledge on the fossil mammals record from Chile; Estado actual del conocimiento de los mamiferos fosiles de Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, J.; Yanez, J.; Rovira, J.

    2010-07-01

    An updated revision is presented regarding fossil mammals of aquatic and terrestrial environments. This update includes up to year 2008. Those registrations of doubtful assignation or that couldn't be confirmed were not considered in this review. These new registrations are classified in four groups of time that extend from the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene to the Pleistocene-Recent. The evidence shows that the greatest quantity of fossils are concentrated from the Early Miocene to the Middle Miocene reaching 37 (41.5%) genus of a total of 77 and 54 (49.5%) fossil species of a total of 89. It is observed a significant increase in works devoted to paleontology of mammal fossils in Chile between 1981-2008. (Author)

  9. The Bulimulidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The bulimulid genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847 is the most species-rich genus of land snails found in Chile, with the majority of its species found only in the northern part of the country, usually in arid coastal zones. This genus has been sparsely studied in Chile and there is little information on their distribution, diversity or ecology. Here, for the first time, a formal analysis of the diversity of bulimulids in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile, is reported. Of the seventeen species recorded for the area, most of them were efectively found in the field collections and one record was based on literature. Five taxa are described as new: Bostryx ancavilorum sp. nov., Bostryx breurei sp. nov., Bostryx calderaensis sp. nov., Bostryx ireneae sp. nov. and Bostryx valdovinosi sp. nov., and the known geographic distribution of seven species is extended. Results reveal that the Región de Atacama is the richest region in terrestrial snails in Chile, after the Juan Fernández Archipelago. All of the terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile, most of them with restricted geographic distributions along the coastal zones, and none of them are currently protected by law. Further sampling in northern Chile will probably reveal more snail species to be discovered and described. PMID:26587346

  10. CHILES Con Pol: An ultra-deep JVLA survey probing galaxy evolution and cosmic magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Rupen, Michael P.; Greiner, Maksim; Ensslin, Torsten A.; Bonzini, Margherita; Padovani, Paolo; Harrison, Ian; Brown, Michael L.; Gim, Hansung; Yun, Min S.; Maddox, Natasha; Stewart, Adam; Fender, Rob P.; Tremou, Evangelia; Chomiuk, Laura; Peters, Charee; Wilcots, Eric M.; Lazio, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We are undertaking a 1000 hour campaign with the Karl G. Jansky VLA to survey 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz. Our observations are part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an SKA-era sensitivity of 500 nJy per 4 arcsecond resolving beam, the deepest view of the radio sky yet. CHILES Con Pol will open new and fertile parameter space, with sensitivity to star formation rates of 10 Msun per year out to an unprecedented redshift of z=2, and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and sub-millimeter galaxies out to redshifts of z=8 and beyond. This rich resource will extend the utility of radio band studies beyond the usual radio quasar and radio galaxy populations, opening sensitivity to the starforming and radio-quiet AGN populations that form the bulk of extragalactic sources detected in the optical, X-ray, and infrared bands. In this talk I will outline the key science of CHILES Con Pol, including galaxy evolution and novel measurements of intergalactic magnetic fields. I will present initial results from the first 180 hours of the survey and describe our forthcoming Data Release 1. I invite the astronomical community to consider unique science that can be pursued with CHILES Con Pol radio data.

  11. Un Plan Regulador para Cartagena, una ciudad de la costa central de Chile: una visión de futuro en 1976. / A master plan for Cartagena, a city on the central coast of Chile: a vision in 1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavez Reyes,María Isabel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la reseña de un proyecto de planificación urbana, conforme a la escuela desarrollada por la FAU de la Universidad de Chile, durante la etapa madura del Estado Planificador Urbano-Regional chileno. / It provides an overview of an urban planning project, developed under the FAU School of the University of Chile, during the mature stage of the Urban-Regional Planning State of Chile.

  12. Lecciones de las crisis mexicanas para Corea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.; Wengel, J. ter; Chalapati Rao, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    The Corean crisis in 1997-1998 resembled the Mexican crisis of 1982 more than it did the Mexican crisis of 1995, because it was more associated with international bank debt. It would help if government did not provide implict guarantees on this kind of debt.

  13. Lecciones olvidadas de tres economistas difuntos

    OpenAIRE

    Lluís Barbé

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo el autor se lamenta de la importancia cada vez menor que se otorga a la historia del pensamiento económico en la comunidad académica mundial, defiende que esta recesión está dando lugar a visiones unidimensionales de la obra de los principales autores en economía y afirma que, si lo analizamos de cerca, podemos sorprendernos de la simplicidad de las concepciones más corrientes. Como triple ilustración, básicamente citando algunas partes omitidas de sus trabajos, el autor hace ...

  14. Lecciones de marketing político

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Alfieri

    2014-01-01

    Las campañas electorales se arman según determinados hechos o coyunturas, sin embargo, dudo que la manera de hacer marketing político en las próximas elecciones municipales o generales, difiera mucho de lo que vimos en la campaña 2011

  15. Qué se investiga en relación a enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica en Chile CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE RESEARCH IN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    MANUEL OYARZÚN G.

    2002-01-01

    Con el propósito de conocer qué se investiga sobre enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva (EPOC) en Chile, se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica acerca de las publicaciones en revistas biomédicas de investigaciones sobre EPOC realizadas en Chile. Se revisó los índices MEDLINE y LILACS entre 1982 y 2001. Además, se revisó los resúmenes que comunican investigaciones sobre EPOC presentados a los 5 últimos Congresos Anuales Chilenos sobre Enfermedades Respiratorias. Los temas más frecuentes de las publi...

  16. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  17. Hacia un planteamiento de arquitectura docente, en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Clure Alamos, Oscar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available On this pages the author expound the different architectural Solutions adopted for school projects from his professional experience: 22 years (1959-1981 in the Construction Society of Educational Establishments in Santiago de Chile, as well as the execution -four years at the Santiago University (late State Technical University- of the modified project for the Planetarium which had been projected by the Construction Society. He also expound briefly a number of constructions of educational character carried out through the practicing of his profession. Taking as a base these experiences, he offers some suggestions and conclusions that will be useful for future programmes intended to solve the problems of the school buildings. From a critical and objective position he tries to show the actual situation on the educational architecture in this country.En estas páginas se pretende dar a conocer diferentes soluciones arquitectónicas adoptadas en los proyectos escolares, a través de mi experiencia profesional, durante 22 años (1959 - 1981 en la Sociedad Constructora de Establecimientos Educacionales en Santiago de Chile. También la ejecución, durante 4 años (1981 - 1985, en la Universidad de Santiago (ex Universidad Técnica del Estado del proyecto modificado y la construcción del edificio para el Planetario, que había realizado en la Sociedad Constructora. En forma breve expondré, además, algunas obras de carácter educacional, realizadas en el ejercicio privado de mi profesión. En base a estas experiencias procuraré entregar algunas sugerencias y conclusiones que podrían ser útiles en futuros programas destinados a resolver los problemas de las construcciones docentes. Desde una posición crítica y objetiva intentaré también dar a conocer la situación actual de la arquitectura educacional en el país.

  18. Waiting list in a public health facility in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Letelier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Waiting lists are a well-known problem in public healthcare systems worldwide. For instance, England had over one million people in waiting lists for elective surgical procedures in 2000. Spain had over 360 000 patients in surgical waiting lists in 2007. Chile has been trying to manage waiting times through the GES (Explicit Guarantees in Healthcare plan, which was established by the Chilean government in 2005. Waiting lists for the guaranteed-care diseases in the GES plan had 380 000 patients at the beginning of 2010, and that number was reduced to zero in 2011. Internationally, there are some descriptive studies about waiting lists that focus on variables such as waiting times and number of patients in the list. In Chile, however, this type of study is lacking. Purpose This study aims to describe the characteristics of waiting lists for medical specialties between April and October 2011. It also aims to identify the components of management models in public healthcare centers, and to identify and analyze waiting-time frames of patients referred to a secondary or tertiary healthcare public center from a public primary healthcare center. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study of the waiting list for first-time consultations for medical specialties was carried out. Referred patients were described and grouped using indicators of access to healthcare and waiting time between April and October 2011. Each consultation request or referral of a new patient was included in the waiting list and analyzed. Results There were 15 935 requests for consultations; 5 717 requests were resolved, and 8 544 were not (54% of the total requests for consultation. There was a mean waiting time of 498 days for non-resolved requests for consultation, and a mean of 141 days for resolved requests. The specialties in highest demand were orthopedic surgery and ophthalmology. The main waiting-list management processes were referral and reception of requests

  19. Citizenship ‘from Above’? The Case of Chile, 1964-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard van der Ree

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last fifty years, citizenship in Chile has been re-interpreted and reformulated in different ways. By combining top-down and bottom-up approaches towards citizenship, this article argues that the reformulation of citizenship in Chile has been brought about through both state-initiated projects and civil society responses, which have interacted over time. State projects have been based on ideological doctrines in order to resolve problems emanating from ‘below’, while civil society responses have come from the ways in which the state have sought to implement its projects. Even though this historical process has produced both periods of rapid expansion and radical restriction of citizenship, in the end it produced a stable but asymmetric model of citizenship in Chile.Resumen: ¿Ciudadanía ‘desde arriba’? El caso de Chile, 1964-2010Durante los últimos cincuenta años, la ciudadanía en Chile ha sido re-interpretada y reformulada de diferentes modos. Combinando las aproximaciones descendentes y ascendentes, en este artículo se defiende que la reformulación de la ciudadanía en Chile fue provocada tanto por proyectos iniciados por el estado como por respuestas de la sociedad civil, que, con el tiempo, han llegado a interactuar. Los proyectos estatales se han basado en doctrinas ideológicas para resolver problemas que emanaban desde ‘abajo’, mientras que las respuestas de la sociedad civil han sido provocadas por las maneras en que el estado ha intentado implementar sus proyectos. Aunque el proceso histórico ha producido tanto periodos de rápida extensión como de radicales restricciones de la ciudadanía, al final resultó en Chile un modelo estable, aunque asimétrico.

  20. Ortografía y fonética en la Aurora de Chile Orthography and phonetics in the Aurora de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Almau Almau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan los aspectos ortográficos y fonéticos más significativos del periódico “ministerial y político” la Aurora de Chile, dirigido por Camilo Henríquez y redactado por numerosos colaboradores, que apareció semanalmente en 1812 y 1813. Dicho periódico posee un indudable valor documental no solo por ser el primer impreso relevante de Chile, sino por tratarse de un corpus amplio, compuesto por noticias nacionales e internacionales de diversa índole, que refleja perfectamente las preocupaciones ideológicas del movimiento independentista.This paper analyses the most significant orthographic and phonetic aspects of Aurora de Chile, a ministerial and political newspaper published weekly during 1812-1813, which was directed by Camilo Henríquez and written by many contributors. This newspaper has an enormous documentary value, not only because it is the first relevant newspaper in Chile, but also because it constitutes a large corpus, which is made up of national and international news of various kinds, and which clearly reflects the independence movement ideological concerns.

  1. Manuel de Espanol para Profesores del Cuerpo de Paz--Chile (Peace Corps Teacher's Manual for Spanish--Chile). Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Patricia

    This teaching manual is designed for the Spanish language training of Peace Corps volunteers serving in Chile, and focuses on daily communication skills needed in that context. It contains 12 topical lessons outlining targeted language and communication competencies, suggested classroom activities, phrase and vocabulary lists, grammar and usage…

  2. Evaluacion de la Interaccion Adulto-Nino en Aulas Pre-escolares de Concepcion, Chile. [Evaluation Adult-Child Interaction in Preschool Classrooms of Concepcion, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen De G., Maria Elena; Herrera G., Maria Olivia; Villalon B., Malva; Suzuky S., Emy

    2000-01-01

    Presents findings from investigation of the validity of the Arnett Caregiver Interaction Scale, CIS (1989), in preschools in Concepcion, Chile. Demonstrates the reliability and validity of the scale to evaluate the interaction of the childhood educator with young children, suggesting changes to the scale. Notes differences found for school type.…

  3. Radiation doses in neuroangiography for a clinical hospital in Chile; Dosis de radiacion en neuroangiografia para un hospital clinico de Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergara, F.; Valenzuela, E., E-mail: franciscovergara@hotmail.com [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Medicina. Centro de Terapia Endovascular; Ubeda, C.A.; Nocetti, D., E-mail: carlos.ubeda.uta@gmail.com [Universidade de Tarapaca (Chile). Centro de Estudos en Ciencias Radiologicas (CECRad). Dept. de Tecnologic Medica. Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud (FACSAL)

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of radiation to the patient in neuroangiography procedures diagnostic and therapy in a Chile's Hospital, using a biplane angiographic system Siemens model ArtisZee. This research was conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the support of their radiation protection programs for patients.

  4. Analysis of contaminating elements in tree rings in Santiago, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romo-Kroeger, C.M.; Avila, M.J.; Eaton, L.C.; Lopez, L.A. [Faculty of Sciences. Univ. of Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    1996-12-31

    Using the 22`` isochronous cyclotron at the University of Chile, we have performed PIXE analyses on a group of samples collected from trees of metropolitan parks in Santiago. Dendrochronology was performed on each sample, which was then sectioned for the PIXE and other analyses, neutron activation and electro-chemistry. Available samples are trunk sections or cores obtained by the use of a 4.0 mm stainless steel incremental corer. We took three cores from each tree with permission of the municipalities. For the PIXE we use infinitely thick targets, as wood slabs taken along the trunk radius, and thin targets obtained by acid digestion of wood pieces and deposition on Kapton foils. Self supporting thick targets were placed directly in the PIXE chamber in a position so as to allow the irradiation of a specific annual ring. Potassium and Calcium appear as the most abundant elements in wood. Other elements such as S, Cu, Zn, As, Br and Pb were detected in amounts above the natural background in wood, and can be attributed to environmental contamination. The K/Ca ratios appear to be different for each species of tree, and seem to be related to the physico-chemical properties of wood. Preliminary results show important amounts of As and Cu (supposedly from mining origin) with increasing presence in the recent years. Pb and Zn (supposedly from vehicle origin) are also higher in recent years. (author)

  5. Self-generated Literacy Practices in Disadvantaged Environments in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Calderón López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the role of literacy in disadvantaged environments and the interplay between self-generated literacy practices and their conceptualization of literacy in 7 to 10-year-old Chilean pupils from two different schools located in Santiago, Chile. The study was framed within a participatory approach focused on promoting the children’s agency and voice in the research. A range of second-level data materials were collected through interviews with parents, photographs and existing documents. Although at a resources-associated level the sociocultural context did not inhibit the emergence of literacy practices, the context did contribute to the children’s understanding of literacy. This study raises the need for considering how children’s understanding of literacy influence their involvement and learning about reading and writing as their experiences and perceptions have an important role in their learning process, particularly on how they develop their reading and writing practices. The findings implied that by raising the participants’ awareness of the relevance of everyday practices in relation with reading and writing, they are likelier to feel more comfortable and empowered towards their own literacy practices. Particularly, the empowerment of children coming from a disadvantaged background would give them more opportunities to support their learning. By making the children aware of the relevance of their own perceptions and practices, the pupils could gain in confidence, be agents of their learning processes, and have more resources to succeed on the demanding school environment.

  6. Healthcare Accessibility Shortfalls and Hospital Infrastructures in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mainardi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available To measure healthcare accessibility, a previous study formulated a stochastic cost frontier model, and applied it to distances of communal centres from nearest emergency hospitals in Chile. Based on a larger set of variables, this study re-estimates the distance threshold, and tests alternative specifications and distribution assumptions over the period 2000-05. Complementing the analysis, ordered probit regressions help examine the cross-commune allocation of hospitals with varying complexity of medical services. Thirdly, excess distance estimates are used with other covariates in tobit models of health sector infrastructure investments. Socio-economic, demographic and geophysical conditions, along with non-hospital healthcare facilities, explain spatial inequality of hospitals. Excess distances are robust to different model specifications and distribution assumptions, and do not appear to be compensated by standards of services of the nearest hospitals or new healthcare infrastructure and upgrading investments in support to the communes concerned. Communes with perceived inadequacy in timing of medical attention turn out to often register large location inefficiency too. For the most critical communal cases, the excess distance burden amounts.

  7. Policies of Maternal Love, Chile 1927-1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javiera Poblete Vargas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article has proposed to identify the political and economic usefulness that doctors and the "social visitors" (social worker conferred to a maternal love in Chile, in the treatment of binomial problem of Mother and Child, to the inside of their articles written in four scientific magazines, between 1927 and 1937: Social Service, Charitable, Social Assistance and Social Action. With the theoretical tools that it has provided to the historiography of cultural studies, gender studies, critical discourse analysis and the political philosophy, we will analyze the historical sources available and we will seek to demonstrate that in the political and ideological project of the health professionals and social service, this affective dimension will have a political and economic usefulness, to the extent that achieves naturalize and reinforce, in the women of the people, its maternal social/sexual role for training and caring of the life of future mothers and citizens of the country, in the midst of a crisis scenario

  8. The debate in Chile on organ donation revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Hugo Kottow Lang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Aumenta la escasez de órganos para trasplantes de cadáver a vivo, en tanto la lista de receptores crece por extensión de las indicaciones médicas para trasplantar y la longevidad de enfermos crónicos con disfunciones orgánicas. Chile tiene una tasa bajísima de 6,7 donantes por millón, pese a una ley de consentimiento presunto enmendada para acoger un “principio de reciprocidad”. Casi cuatro millones de personas documentan su rechazo a donar, y el 53% de familias niegan la donación en los presuntamente disponibles. Es urgente repensar y flexibilizar ciertos aspectos hasta ahora rechazados como algún incentivo no material, la donación parcial de órganos, la posibilidad de aceptar vínculos personales entre donantes y receptores, e incrementar la transparencia de los procedimientos para fomentar la confianza en ellos.

  9. Traumatic effects of political repression in Chile: a clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordal, Margarita Díaz

    2005-10-01

    The author examines psychic trauma resulting from human rights violations in Chile. Starting from trauma theories developed by authors such as Ferenczi, Winnicott and Stolorow, she posits the relevance of the subject's emotionally significant environment in the production of the traumatic experience. She describes the characteristics of the therapeutic process on the basis of a clinical case. She emphasizes the need to recognize the damage that may be produced within the reliable link between patient and analyst, pointing out the risk of retraumatization if analysts distance themselves and apply 'technique' rigorously, leaving out their own subjective assessments. Therapists must maintain their focus on the conjunction of the patient's intersubjective context and inner psychic world both when exploring the origin of the trauma and when insight is produced. The author posits repetition in the transference as an attempt at reparation, at finding the expected response from the analyst that will help patients assemble the fragments of their history and achieve, as Winnicott would put it, a feeling of continuity in the experience of being.

  10. [The Universidad Austral de Chile Medical School: a regional commitment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, C

    1997-07-01

    The Universidad Austral de Chile Medical School was created in 1966. Its general goal was to train a general physician with capacities to integrate biological, psychological and social issues, to deal with prevalent diseases as well as with the non referable casualties, to analyze health situations and to manage health teams. From its beginning, it incorporated anthropological and the public health contents to medical curriculum. Moreover, the formal teaching formation was reduced to 5 years, increasing the internship cycle to 2 years, with an important practice on primary health care in regional hospitals, that included a research project on health administration. A revision of the School curriculum showed the need of a better horizontal and vertical integration of medical education. Consequently, global courses were organized to gather knowledge that, until now, was delivered in a fragmented form. Our Medical School has a major impact in the southern region of the country and over 60% of its graduates have settled in this zone, improving its physician/inhabitant relationship and the number of specialists.

  11. Health informatics in Chile: responding to health reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurro, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    Chile is in the throes of health reforms aimed at ensuring that every person with specified chronic diseases receives timely and high quality care. CITs are crucial to the achievement of this vision because they make it possible to manage information and knowledge in a more efficient way. Until a few years ago, the incorporation of CITs was limited to individual initiatives, but since 2004 there has been a master plan to coordinate this task in the public sector. Some projects are now operative but there is still a long road to travel before getting to our destination. One of the most underdeveloped areas is the clinical applications of health CITs, especially the incorporation of biomedical knowledge to clinical practice. The two biggest challenges facing the Digital Agenda for the health care system are (i) to develop a critical mass of clinicians and health related professionals with expertise in Health Informatics; and (ii) to foster technical integration of the private and public sectors of the health care market.

  12. VOTO ECONÓMICO CON INCERTIDUMBRE. El caso de Chile

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    José Luis Sáez-Lozano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde que en 1931 Tibbits publicó un estudio sobre la relación entre el ciclo económico y los resultados electorales, el análisis del voto económico ha ido perfilando una teoría que explica la decisión de los electores. A diferencia de otras investigaciones, en este artículo se plantea un modelo de voto económico en el que suponemos que los electores son racionales, neutrales ante el riesgo y poseen incertidumbre ante la situación económica prospectiva del país. El objetivo último del elector es votar por el candidato que le permita maximizar la utilidad esperada de su decisión. De las estimaciones realizadas a partir de la matriz de microdatos agrupados de las elecciones presidenciales celebradas en Chile en 1993, 1999-2000 y 2005-2006, se concluye que el liderazgo y el contexto electoral son los factores que más condicionan el comportamiento de los electores. También comprobamos que el voto económico de los chilenos es sofisticado, racional y heterogéneo.

  13. Catastrophic debris avalanche deposit of Socompa volcano, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, P. W.; Gardeweg, M.; Ramirez, C. F.; Rothery, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Between 10,000 and 500 yr ago the Socompa volcano in northern Chile experienced a catastrophic collapse of a 70 deg sector of the original cone, causing a debris avalanche that descended nearly 3000 m vertically and traveled more than 35 km from the volcano. The deposits cover some 490 sq km and have a minimum volume of 15 cu km. Parts of the original cone slumped in a nearly coherent form and are now preserved as large blocks more than 400 m high. The primary avalanche traveled northwestward over sloping ground before coming to rest transiently, forming a prominent marginal ridge, and then slid away northeastward to form a secondary flow, overriding much of the primary avalanche deposit. Abundant, prismatic, jointed dacite blocks within the debris avalanche deposit and a thin, fine-grained pumiceous deposit beneath it suggest that the collapse was triggered by magmatic activity and may have been accompanied by a violent lateral blast. Collapse was followed by eruption of pumiceous pyroclastic flows and extrusion of voluminous dacite domes.

  14. El valle de Azapa en el norte de Chile

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    Cocilovo, José Alberto

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analiza el proceso microevolutivo de la población prehistórica del Valle de Azapa (Norte de Chile, mediante un nuevo estudio de la información preparada con motivo de experiencias anteriores, relacionada con la obtención de una explicación genético-poblacional sobre la diferenciación biológica observada en el área. Hemos empleado matrices de distancias D2 de Mahalanobis calculadas entre cinco grupos de distintas fases cronológicas para la muestra total y para cada uno de los sexos. Hemos utilizado una adaptación de un modelo que preve el incremento exponencial del parentesco a medida que aumenta la distancia cronológica entre las muestras. Los resultados obtenidos confirman una alta correlación entre distancias morfológicas y cronológicas. De acuerdo con lo esperado, casi un 80% de la variación métrica puede ser explicada por una función de las diferencias cronológicas (en número de generaciones basada en el desarrollo de un proceso dispersivo regulado por la acción de la migración.

  15. Dutch Minister of Science Visits ESO Facilities in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven, the Dutch Minister of Education, Culture and Science, who travelled to the Republic of Chile, arrived at the ESO Paranal Observatory on Friday afternoon, May 13, 2005. The Minister was accompanied, among others, by the Dutch Ambassador to Chile, Mr. Hinkinus Nijenhuis, and Mr. Cornelis van Bochove, the Dutch Director of Science. The distinguished visitors were able to acquaint themselves with one of the foremost European research facilities, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), during an overnight stay at this remote site, and later, with the next major world facility in sub-millimetre and millimetre astronomy, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). At Paranal, the guests were welcomed by the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky; the ESO Council President, Prof. Piet van der Kruit; the ESO Representative in Chile, Prof. Felix Mirabel; the Director of the La Silla Paranal Observatory, Dr. Jason Spyromilio; by one of the Dutch members of the ESO Council, Prof. Tim de Zeeuw; by the renowned astrophysicist from Leiden, Prof. Ewine van Dishoek, as well as by ESO staff members. The visitors were shown the various high-tech installations at the observatory, including many of the large, front-line VLT astronomical instruments that have been built in collaboration between ESO and European research institutes. Explanations were given by ESO astronomers and engineers and the Minister gained a good impression of the wide range of exciting research programmes that are carried out with the VLT. Having enjoyed the spectacular sunset over the Pacific Ocean from the Paranal deck, the Minister visited the VLT Control Room from where the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes and the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) are operated. Here, the Minister was invited to follow an observing sequence at the console of the Kueyen (UT2) and Melipal (UT3) telescopes. "I was very impressed, not just by the technology and the science, but most of all by all the people involved

  16. militar en la frontera de chile en el siglo XIX

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    Wilma Vilaboa Blome

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The historic origin of the habitat in the Bio-Bio Region was singular and repeated nowhere else in Chile. The uncivilized and fragmented geography, with no communication routes to the south of the Bio-Bio River towards the end of the nineteenth century, together with the resistance of the indigenous people and the perception of having a country divided in two parts by an inexpugnably frontier by means of civil colonisation, provoked the political decision of settling these territories by the action of military force. Thus, in the geographical area that appears as an interstice and is known as “The Frontier”, the territorial occupation followed defensive lines along the fluvial routes in the form of a series of military forts that developed to become cities such as Collipulli, Mulchen, Negrete and Temuco. This chronic situation of instability could neither allow the consolidation of foundation cities, nor the development of an agricultural economy or a commercial trade economy, which explains the late incorporation of this area to the nation. A country within a country; it neither assumes its rules nor submits to its jurisdiction; it does not even follow the economic model of its time.

  17. [Compliance with tuberculosis treatment in adults in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, X; Kirschbaum, A; Toro, J; Jadue, J; Muñoz, M; Espinoza, A

    1991-11-01

    A prospective study was conducted to estimate the current magnitude of adherence to short-course tuberculosis treatment, the degree of abandonment, the characteristics of treatment dropouts, and the causes of this abandonment. The study group was made up of tuberculosis patients over the age of 15 who received care at the Western and Southern Health Services of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, between 1 October 1987 and 31 January 1988. The percentage abandoning treatment, calculated by the life table method, was 11.5. The profile of patients who dropped out of treatment was as follows: male, under 45 years of age, single, low level of education, no steady work, homeless, and alcoholic. In addition, an opinion survey on the variables associated with abandonment was conducted and it was concluded that the main ones were alcoholism and intolerance to tuberculosis drugs. Awareness of this profile makes it possible to take measures to prevent patients from abandoning treatment, as well as to educate and even hospitalize at the start of treatment those tuberculous patients exhibiting such a profile.

  18. Metagenomes of the picoalga Bathycoccus from the Chile coastal upwelling.

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    Daniel Vaulot

    Full Text Available Among small photosynthetic eukaryotes that play a key role in oceanic food webs, picoplanktonic Mamiellophyceae such as Bathycoccus, Micromonas, and Ostreococcus are particularly important in coastal regions. By using a combination of cell sorting by flow cytometry, whole genome amplification (WGA, and 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained metagenomic data for two natural picophytoplankton populations from the coastal upwelling waters off central Chile. About 60% of the reads of each sample could be mapped to the genome of Bathycoccus strain from the Mediterranean Sea (RCC1105, representing a total of 9 Mbp (sample T142 and 13 Mbp (sample T149 of non-redundant Bathycoccus genome sequences. WGA did not amplify all regions uniformly, resulting in unequal coverage along a given chromosome and between chromosomes. The identity at the DNA level between the metagenomes and the cultured genome was very high (96.3% identical bases for the three larger chromosomes over a 360 kbp alignment. At least two to three different genotypes seemed to be present in each natural sample based on read mapping to Bathycoccus RCC1105 genome.

  19. Cultural experiences of immigrant nurses at two hospitals in Chile

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    Gabriel Rodríguez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to explore the cultural experiences of nurses who immigrated to Chile. The study´s theoretical framework was the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence.METHOD: Leininger's Observation-Participation-Reflection method was developed at two hospitals in the city of Santiago, and ethnographic interviews were held with 15 immigrant nurses.RESULTS: among Purnell's 12 domains, the following were identified: Overview/heritage, Communication, Workforce issues, Family roles and organization, Biocultural ecology and Health-care practices. The difficulties were related to the language and its semantic meaning, the new responsibilities and the difficult relationship with colleagues. "In search of better horizons - the decision to immigrate", "Gaining confidence and establishing a support network - employability and professional performance" and "Seeking for people´s acceptance - professional adaptation in a new cultural scenario" are cultural themes that represent their experiences.CONCLUSIONS: the competence to offer cultural care demands the development of public policies and continuing education programs at health institutions, specifically focused on immigrant nurses.

  20. Sustainable energy system. A case study from Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebremedhin, A.; Karlsson, B. [Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Bjoernfot, K. [Shell Raffinaderi AB, Torslandavaegen, Box 8889, SE-402 72 (Sweden)

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents some of the results of a power system analysis for Chile. The two major Chilean electric systems are roughly modelled and optimized using a linear programming method with the option to integrate renewable energy sources like wind power, solar power, mini-hydropower and biomass-fired power and also 'municipal waste'. A total of four different scenarios are outlined: reference system, new production units, gas and coal price variations and a policy measure to encourage power production based on renewable energy. The objective of the scenarios was to illustrate under what conditions integration of the different energy sources in the existing production system is possible. The study shows that even under current conditions, mini-hydro and waste to energy plants are economically viable. Wind power might be interesting alternatives if policy instrument measures are applied. On the other hand, it is hard for the other energy sources to enter the system even when higher price levels of gas and coal are applied. The system is more sensitive to coal price increases than to gas price increases and this mainly encourages CO{sub 2} emission reduction. (author)

  1. Gas geochemistry of the Cordon Caulle geothermal system, Southern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda, Fabian [SGGES, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Lahsen, Alfredo [Department of Geology, University of Chile, P.O. Box 13518 (21), Santiago (Chile); Powell, Thomas [Mighty River Power, P.O. Box 445, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2007-10-15

    The Cordon Caulle geothermal system is located in a NW-trending volcano-tectonic depression of the Southern Andean Volcanic Zone of Chile. Outflows of low chloride water were previously interpreted as the surface expression of a shallow steam-heated aquifer, with subsurface temperatures of 150-170 C. Gas data from fumaroles and hot springs have been used to assess the nature and temperature of the deeper, underlying geothermal reservoir. Fumaroles at the northeastern border of Cordon Caulle have {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios typical of subduction margins (6-7 R{sub A}) and N{sub 2}/Ar ratios of about 40, indicating deep convection of air-saturated groundwater. Fumaroles at the southwestern border have N{sub 2}/Ar ratios >300, suggesting the presence of a deep volcanic component. Gas ratios of fumarole discharges yield equilibration temperatures >300 C, whereas those of hot spring waters suggest temperatures of about 160 C. Based on these data, and comparisons with well documented liquid and vapor-dominated geothermal systems, a model is proposed of a boiling liquid-dominated geothermal system overlain by a secondary steam-heated aquifer. (author)

  2. Apuntes sobre el renacer de la huelga obrera en Chile

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    Daniel Núñez Arancibia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza un conjunto de manifestaciones indicativas del resurgimiento de la huelga obrera en Chile, con especial atención en el marco de las condiciones políticas en que evolucionaron las organizaciones obreras, desde finales de la dictadura hasta la reciente era neoliberal. Además se examina la reaparición de expresiones reivindicativas de los trabajadores, que se han dado a pesar de algunas medidas dirigidas a despolitizar las luchas laborales y de varias reformas legales que redujeron el espacio de actuación de las organizaciones obreras. Estos variados esfuerzos organizativos han tenido lugar en sectores primarios, en donde se confrontan las nuevas condiciones de flexibilización y precariedad que el empresariado chileno ha impulsado. En contra de las perspectivas estructuralistas, en este análisis se sustenta la importancia que los subcontratistas y los trabajadores tercerizados han tenido en dichos procesos, y la apelación a huelgas extralegales en tanto hechos significativos en relación con la actual crisis de las clásicas identidades ligadas a la vida fabril y al trabajo normal

  3. Interbasin underflow between closed Altiplano basins in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Errol L; Rosko, Michael J; Castro, Santiago O; Keller, Barry R; Bevacqua, Paolo S

    2003-01-01

    Interbasin ground water movement of 200 to 240 L/sec occurs as underflow beneath a mountainous surface water divide separating the topographically higher Salar de Michincha from the topographically lower Salar de Coposa internally drained basins in the Altiplano of northern Chile. Salt-encrusted flats (salars) and saline lakes occur on the lowest parts of the basin floors and comprise the principal evaporative discharge areas for the basins. Because a surface water divide separates the basins, surface water drainage boundaries do not coincide with ground water drainage boundaries. In the region, interbasin ground water movement is usually not recognized, but occurs for selected basins, and at places is an important component of ground water budgets. With increasing development of water for mining industry and potential exportation of ground water from the Altiplano for use at coastal cities, demonstration and quantification of interbasin movement is important for assessment of sustainable ground water development in a region of extreme aridity. Recognition and quantification of interbasin ground water underflow will assist in management of ground water resources in the arid Chilean Altiplano environment.

  4. Caregiver perceptions of child nutritional status in Magallanes, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzinger, Kristen; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Parra, Sonia G.; Barbosa, Clarita; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to identify risk factors for childhood overweight and obesity and the accuracy of caregivers’ perceptions of their child’s nutritional status in the Magallanes region, Patagonia, Chile. Methods Heights and weights of children attending day care centers and elementary schools were collected and caregivers completed questionnaires regarding their child’s health and behavior. The child’s nutritional status was diagnosed using the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards (for children under age 6) and the CDC 2000 Growth Charts (for children age 6 and older). Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors related to childhood overweight/obesity and weight underestimation by caregivers of overweight or obese children. Results Of the 795 children included in the study, 247 (31.1%) were overweight and 223 (28.1%) were obese. Risk factors for overweight/obesity included younger age and being perceived to eat more than normal by the caregiver. Caregivers were less likely to underestimate their child’s weight if the child was older or if the caregiver believed the child ate more than a normal amount. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in Magallanes and the majority of caregivers underestimate the extent of the problem in their children. PMID:24548582

  5. National and international astronomical activities in Chile 1849--2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, H. W.

    2003-03-01

    At all times and in many ways, Chilean astronomy has been influenced externally, either by astronomical expeditions from other parts of the world, or by astronomers that immigrated from other countries. We outline the history of the Chilean National Observatory, beginning with its origins out of Gilliss' US Naval Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere, over its directors Moesta, Vergara, Obrecht, Ristenpart to the middle of the 20th century, as well as the astronomical development at the Universidad Católica. In addition, various international expeditions, which aimed at observations of solar eclipses, the Venus transit of 1882, and the Mars opposition of 1907, were carried out. While a major photometric project of Harvard Observatory was active for only six weeks in the north of Chile, the spectroscopic Mills expedition of Lick Observatory in Santiago lasted several decades, and the solar observatory of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory near Calama even longer. Finally we give a brief overview of the evolution and the actual state of the international observatories Cerro Tololo, La Silla, Paranal, and Las Campanas.

  6. Apacheta, a new geothermal prospect in Northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urzua, Luis; Powell, Tom; Cumming, William B.; Dobson, Patrick

    2002-05-24

    The discovery of two high-temperature fumaroles, with gas geochemistry compatible with an economic geothermal system, established Apacheta as one of the most attractive geothermal exploration prospects in northern Chile. These remote fumaroles at 5,150 m elevation were first sampled in 1999 by ENAP and its partners, following up on the reports of a CODELCO water exploration well that flowed small amounts of dry steam at 4,540 m elevation in the valley 4.5 km east of the fumaroles. The prospect is associated with a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic complex located within a NW-trending graben along the axis of the high Andes. The regional water table is 4,200 masl. There are no hot springs, just the 88 degrees C steam well and the 109 degrees and 118 degrees C fumaroles with gas compositions that indicate reservoir temperatures of greater than or equal to 250 degrees C, using a variety of gas geothermometers. An MT-TDEM survey was completed in 2001-2002 by Geotermica del Norte (SDN), an ENAP-C ODELCO partnership, to explore the Apacheta geothermal concession. The survey results indicated that base of the low resistivity clay cap has a structural apex just west of the fumaroles, a pattern typically associated with shallow permeability within a high temperature geothermal resource. SGN plans to drill at least one exploration well in 2002-03 to characterize a possible economic resource at Apacheta.

  7. CONSORCIOS TECNOLÓGICOS EN ARGENTINA, CHILE, COLOMBIA Y URUGUAY

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    Roberto Álvarez E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza un conjunto de consorcios tecnológicos apoyados con recursos públicos en Argentina, Chile, Colombia y Uruguay. Estos programas buscan facilitar la interacción entre empresas e instituciones dedicadas a la producción de ciencia y tecnología. Los resultados, basados en datos recabados para un subconjunto de los grupos apoyados, ponen en relieve las dificultades y los largos tiempos que se re-quieren para lograr resultados concretos, en particular, en innovación tecnológica. El trabajo cuantitativo muestra una evaluación relativamente baja de las empresas res-pecto al efecto de estos instrumentos en la generación de innovaciones de productos y procesos y la obtención de patentes, aunque existen aspectos relativamente mejor evaluados, como el mejoramiento del acceso a conocimiento tecnológico, en ámbitos como el mercadeo y los recursos humanos. Esto puede deberse a que varios de los consorcios llevan poco tiempo en funcionamiento y necesitan un plazo más largo para ser evaluados.

  8. Image of the seismogenic coupling zone in Central Chile: The amphibious experiment SPOC (Subduction Processes Off Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, C. M.; Stiller, M.; Lüth, S.; Mechie, J.; Spoc Research Group

    2003-04-01

    Nearly all interplate megathrust earthquakes occur in the seismogenic coupling zone between converging plates. In the area of the 1960 Chile earthquake (Mw = 9.5), we aim at a quantitative understanding of the seismicity and its relation to processes operating at depth and at the surface. As a first step, the offshore experiment SPOC with RV SONNE was combined with an onshore-offshore, active-passive seismic experiment between 36° and 39° S, crossing the rupture area of the 1960 Chile earthquake. The campaign comprised: (1) a 2-D wide-angle component recording chemical shots and airgun pulses along three consecutive E-W onshore profiles; (2) a seismic reflection experiment in the onshore-offshore transition; and (3) a 3-D component which recorded both active and passive sources. Offshore, the upper plate is split into many segments with pronounced forearc basins and narrow accretionary wedges. A thick subduction channel seems to cause a non-accretionary subduction mode. Covering onshore the westernmost part of a long E-W refraction seismic line (one amongst three), the profile spread of the reflection seismic survey at 38° 15`S was 54 km long, with three set-ups of 18 km length each, and extended from the coast to the east. Furthermore, the offshore-onshore transition zone is imaged by a wide-angle section resulting from the registration of the airgun shots of the marine profile with the first 18 km of the spread of the NVR survey. Different mainly eastward dipping reflection bands are observed between 5-25 km depth. These bands are interpreted to describe the internal structure of the Palaeozoic accretionary wedge in the region. The reflections between 25-45 km depth correlate with Wadati-Benioff seismicity and are suggested to image the top of the downgoing plate. Below the coast, the plate dips with c. 15° below the continent. In the central part of the profile, a break in reflectivity located below the axis of the coastal cordillera more or less coincides

  9. La democracia incompleta en Chile: La realidad tras los rankings internacionales Incomplete Democracy in Chile: Reality Behind International Rankings

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    MANUEL ANTONIO GARRETÓN M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la imagen generalizada del caso chileno en los rankings internacionales como un proceso ejemplar de transición hacia la democracia y de la vida política democrática, Chile es una "democracia incompleta" debido a los enclaves autoritarios heredados de la dictadura y no superados en su totalidad. La democracia chilena, analizada a través de las dimensiones constitucional, electoral y ciudadana, presenta la contradicción entre los grandes avances conseguidos bajo los gobiernos de la Concertación y las debilidades en las tres dimensiones. Estas debilidades se explican por los limites fundantes en la soberanía popular observados a partir de la Constitución, que consagró la exclusión política a través del sistema binominal, de lo que se derivan los limites de la democracia electoral sujeta a restricciones fácticas y normativas en un diseño institucional deficiente. Asimismo, la dimensión ciudadana de la democracia se enfrenta a problemas de derechos civiles específicos de las minorías, desigualdades socioeconómicas, participación electoral y ausencia de instituciones de participación.Chile has a very good image on international rankings about its transition to democracy and democratic performance. Despite it, the Chilean case is still a case of incomplete democracy, due to the authoritarian enclaves inherited from the military dictatorship and not yet totally overcome. Analyzed through constitutional, electoral and citizen dimensions of democracy, the Chilean one shows a contradiction between the significant achievements under Concertación government in almost twenty years and the weaknesses of this three dimensions. These weaknesses originated in the limits to popular sovereignty grounded on the Constitution where it was consecrated political exclusions through the electoral bi-nominal system. This generated an institutional design, which leads to severe restrictions both factual and normative in political

  10. Psicología comunitaria y políticas sociales en Chile Psicologia comunitaria e políticas sociais no Chile Community psychology and social policies in Chile

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    Jaime Alfaro Inzunza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo analizamos la relación entre Psicología Comunitaria y políticas sociales, estableciendo la influencia de las políticas sociales sobre el desarrollo contemporáneo de la Psicología Comunitaria en Chile. Sostenemos que su consolidación como profesión se asocia estrechamente a la implementación de políticas sociales a partir de la década de los noventa y su conformación actual está condicionada y tensionada por las orientaciones de estas políticas. Se examina la evolución tanto de las políticas sociales como de la Psicología Comunitaria en Chile, los puntos de encuentro y las tensiones, de las que derivamos una serie de desafíos y proyecciones que examinamos en el presente artículo, con el objetivo de avanzar en la comprensión de esta relación.Este artigo investigou a relação entre a Psicologia Comunitária e as políticas sociais, estabelecendo a influência das políticas sociais sobre o desenvolvimento contemporâneo da Psicologia Comunitária no Chile. Afirmamos que a sua consolidação como profissão está intimamente associada à implementação de políticas sociais desde a década de noventa e sua formação atual está condicionada e tensionada pelas diretrizes dessas políticas. O estudo analisa a evolução das políticas sociais e da psicologia comunitária no Chile, os pontos de encontro e de tensão, dos quais se deriva uma série de desafios e projeções discutidos neste artigo com o objetivo de fazer avançar a compreensão desta relação.In this article we analyze the evolution of community psychology in Chile, and the influences of social policies in its development. We hold that its consolidation as a profession is closely associated to the implementation of social policies since the nineties, and its present conformation is determined and tightened by the orientation of these policies. From the evolution of social policies and Community Psychology in Chile we have come up with a series

  11. Algunas precisiones sobre la enseñanza de la arquitectura y el urbanismo en la Universidad de Chile /Some clarification on the architecture and urbanism teaching in the Universidad de Chile

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    David Maulén de los Reyes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El ex Decano de la Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo de la Universidad de Chile entrevistado, entrega antecedentes sobre el proceso de reforma de la enseñanza producida a mediados del siglo XX./ The ex-Dean of Architecture of the Universidad de Chile (FAU presents a background for the curricular reform occurred in the mid-20th century.

  12. EL CONEJO EUROPEO EN CHILE: HISTORIA DE UNA INVASIÓN BIOLÓGICA

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    Pablo Camus

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza las relaciones entre los seres humanos y su ambiente, a partir de la historia de la aclimatación y posterior invasión de conejos en Chile, constatando que, en el largo plazo, las acciones humanas tienen efectos e impactos insospechados sobre el medio natural. En efecto, si bien inicialmente los conejos fueron vistos como una oportunidad de desarrollo económico a partir del aprovechamiento de su piel y su carne, pronto esta especie se convirtió en una plaga difícil de controlar en diversas regiones del país, como Chile central, Tierra del Fuego e islas Juan Fernández. Así, con el paso del tiempo, el conejo se ha terminado por transformar en nuestro país en un verdadero "convidado de piedra".This work analyses the relationship between human beings and their environment taking into consideration the adjustment and eventual invasión of rabbits in Chile. It argües that in the long run, human actions have unsuspected effects upon the environment. In fact rabbits were seen initially as an opportunity for economic development because of the exploitation of their meat and skin. Later, rabbits became a plague in different áreas of Central Chile, Tierra del Fuego and Juan Fernández islands, which was difficult to control. Over the years rabbits became unwelcome guests in Chile.

  13. Protecting the Local Dark-Sky Areas around the International Observatories in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. G.

    2001-12-01

    This report covers efforts by IAU Commission 50's new Working Group on Light Pollution to slow or halt the spread of incipient light pollution near the VLT, the Magellan 6.5m telescopes, Gemini South, SOAR, Blanco and many smaller telescopes in Chile. An effort has just begun to protect the ALMA site in Northern Chile from RFI. Such work includes extensive outreach programs to the local population, schools and industry as well as to local, regional and national levels of government in Chile. The group is working internationally with such organizations as the IDA; one member has recently led the production of "The first world atlas of the artificial night-sky brightness". These efforts have resulted in the first national-level environmental legislation covering dark skies as part of a government effort to protect the environment. Chilean manufacturers are now producing competitive, full-cut-off, street lighting designed specifically to comply with the new legislation. The Chilean national tourism agency is supporting "Astronomical Tourism" based on the dark, clear skies of Chile. An international conference on Controlling Light Pollution and RFI will be held in La Serena, Chile on 5-7 March, 2002, backed up by a parallel meeting of Chilean amateur astronomers. Much work remains to be done. Most of this work is supported by funding from the US National Science Foundation through CTIO, and from ESO, OCIW and CONAMA.

  14. Maternity protection vs. maternity rights for working women in Chile: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Herrera, Tania

    2012-12-01

    Maternity leave in Chile has been a social right since 1919, when the International Labour Organization set the first global standards. From its inception, Chile's labour legislation focused on protecting motherhood and the family. The length of maternity leave has been extended several times since then but its main aim remains the protection of infant health. In 1931, Chile's first Labour Code required anyone employing 20 or more women to provide day care services and facilitate childcare and paid breastfeeding time for all mothers of children under one. Labour laws began to play an important role in accommodating the care of infants within working conditions, though not always effectively. In spite of job protection during pregnancy and breastfeeding, women can be dismissed on grounds other than pregnancy. It was only under Salvador Allende and again in the past two decades that Chile has enfranchised women as holders of health rights. However, many unresolved tensions remain. Chile promotes motherhood, but often considers that working women who demand employment protection abuse the system. Motherhood is a magic wand that represents the selflessness of women, but society throws a blanket of mistrust over women who wish to exercise their maternity rights and to determine the number and spacing of their children.

  15. Rupture features of the 2010 Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake extracted from surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Ling; Hwang, Ruey-Der; Jhuang, Yi-Shan; Lin, Cai-Yi

    2017-03-01

    This study used the rupture directivity theory to derive the fault parameters of the 2010 Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake on the basis of the azimuth-dependent source duration obtained from the Rayleigh-wave phase velocity. Results revealed that the 2010 Chile earthquake featured asymmetric bilateral faulting. The two rupture directions were N171°E (northward) and N17°E (southward), with rupture lengths of approximately 313 and 118 km, respectively, and were related to the locking degree in the source region. The entire source duration was approximately 187 s. After excluding the rise time from the source duration, the northward rupture velocity was approximately 2.02 km/s, faster than the southward rupture velocity (1.74 km/s). On average, the rupture velocity derived from this study was slower than that estimated from finite-fault inversion; however, several historical earthquakes in the Chile region also showed slow rupture velocity when using low-frequency signals, as surface waves do. Two earlier studies through global-positioning-system data analysis showed that the static stress drop of 50-70 bars for the 2010 Chile earthquake was higher than that for subduction-zone earthquakes. Hence, a remarkable feature was that the 2010 Chile earthquake had a slow rupture velocity and a high static stress drop, which suggested an inverse relationship between rupture velocity and static stress drop.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. AFLP analysis reveals a clonal population of Phytophthora pinifolia in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Alvaro; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Drenth, André; Slippers, Bernard; Ahumada, Rodrigo; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Phytophthora pinifolia is the causal agent of the recently discovered needle disease of Pinus radiata in Chile, referred to as "Daño Foliar del Pino" (DFP). The genetic structure of the pathogen population is unknown, which hinders our understanding of its appearance and spread in Chile since 2004. In this study, a population of 88 cultures of P. pinifolia isolated from P. radiata at several localities in Chile was evaluated for genotypic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Results of the AFLP analyses showed that the P. pinifolia population in Chile consists of two near identical genotypes but with no genetic differentiation based on geography, year of isolation or the part of the tree from which the isolates were obtained. Mating experiments did not lead to the production of gametangia suggesting that the organism is sterile. The fact that a single clonal genotype dominates the population of P. pinifolia in Chile supports the hypothesis that P. pinifolia was recently introduced into this country and that its impact is due to a new and susceptible host encounter.

  17. Genetic diversity and structure in semiwild and domesticated chiles (Capsicum annuum; Solanaceae) from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Meléndez, Araceli; Morrell, Peter L; Roose, Mikeal L; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2009-06-01

    The chile of Mesoamerica, Capsicum annuum, is one of five domesticated chiles in the Americas. Among the chiles, it varies the most in size, form, and color of its fruits. Together with maize, C. annuum is one of the principal elements of the neotropical diets of Mesoamerican civilizations. Despite the great economic and cultural importance of C. annuum both worldwide and in Mexico, however, very little is known about its geographic origin and number of domestications. Here we sampled a total of 80 accessions from Mexico (58 semiwild and 22 domesticated) and examined nucleotide sequence diversity at three single- or low-copy nuclear loci, Dhn, G3pdh, and Waxy. Across the three loci, we found an average reduction of ca. 10% in the diversity of domesticates relative to semiwild chiles and geographic structure within Mexican populations. The Yucatan Peninsula contained a large number of haplotypes, many of which were unique, suggesting an important region of chile domestication and center of diversity. The present sampling of loci did not conclusively resolve the number and location of domestications, but several lines of evidence suggest multiple independent domestications from widely distributed progenitor populations.

  18. Long-term monitoring of coastal ecosystems at Las Cruces, Chile: Defining baselines to build ecological literacy in a world of change Monitoreo de largo plazo en el ecosistema marino costero de Las Cruces, Chile: Definiendo líneas base para construir alfabetización ecológica en un mundo que cambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO A NAVARRETE

    2010-03-01

    algunas lecciones generales: a existe una coocurrencia de respuestas ecológicas rápidas y lentas frente a la exclusión de humanos en la misma comunidad costera rocosa. Las marcadas diferencias entre las tasas de recuperación de poblaciones afectadas son al menos en parte dependientes de las historias de vida (capacidad de dispersión de estas. b El monitoreo de largo plazo del “abastecimiento” de nuevos individuos (reclutamiento en comunidades marinas es crítico para evaluar la potencial retroalimentación de cambios en abundancia local sobre la llegada de nuevos individuos y de esta forma evaluar correctamente perturbaciones ambientales o antrópicas. c Cambios inesperados en dinámicas poblacionales pueden ocurrir en módulos aparentemente independientes del ecosistema litoral, como lo son las aves marinas que descansan o anidan al interior de la reserva. Adicionalmente, discutimos la forma en la cual datos ecológicos generados a partir de monitoreos de largo plazo fueron institucionalizados en un artículo de la ley de pesca y acuicultura. Al mismo tiempo resaltamos el desfase entre el conocimiento adquirido de los estudios de largo plazo en reservas marinas e instrumentos de conservación marina implementados por algunas agencias de gobierno en Chile. Concluimos señalando que la información proveniente de monitoreos de largo plazo ha resultado esencial para comprender cómo los ambientes marinos responden a disturbios naturales o antropogénicos, sin embargo el financiamiento de estos programas, que generalmente no tienen grandes ganancias en el corto plazo para las agencias de financiamiento, continúa siendo un gran desafío tanto en países desarrollados como los en vías de desarrollo.

  19. Transformaciones del modelo territorial de Santiago de Chile./ Transformations in the territorial model of Santiago de Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonás Figueroa Salas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de las tendencias morfológicas, como expresiones espaciales del crecimiento físico del Área Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile, sirve para reflexionar acerca de las diferentes y variadas contradicciones -negaciones y discontinuidades- que operan eventualmente entre el modelo territorial propuesto por los instrumentos de ordenamiento y la planta final resultante. Junto a ello, esta reflexión nos brinda la oportunidad de identificar las tendencias registradas por una urbanística de escala metropolitana, cuyo signo de los tiempos es el todo urbanizable, dejando de lado otras maneras y modos de encarar el crecimiento físico de la ciudad. En tal sentido, el diseño de una armadura de escala provincial, como factor de reequilibrio entre un débil sistema regional de ciudades y un área metropolitana excedida, constituye la segunda parte del escrito./The urban growth of Santiago, and it morphology, is the starting point in the study of the contradictions between the plans for Santiago and its results. The author also notes that the differences between the scales of planning is also an issue in the attempt to perform a better regional and local planning.

  20. Modelling the seasonal dynamics of the Peru-Chile Undercurrent off Central Chile (30-40°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Odette A.; Echevín, Vincent; Sepúlveda, Héctor H.; Colas, Francois; Quiñones, Renato A.

    2016-07-01

    The seasonal variability of the hydrology and the poleward subsurface Peru-Chile Undercurrent (PCUC) off the central Chilean coast (29-41°S) were examined using a high-resolution regional model. The model realistically reproduced observed sea level variability, such as intense anticyclonic eddies, the offshore intensification of the poleward flow and the reduced nearshore equatorward flow during autumn, as well as the equatorward intensification of nearshore meandering flow during spring. Values for geostrophic eddy kinetic energy were high along the coast between 30° and 37°S, and lower south of this area. The modelled poleward undercurrent showed latitudinal variability in velocity and transport. The maximum average transport reported was 0.8 Sv near 30°S, consistent with previous modelling studies and estimations derived from in situ observations. The poleward reduction in undercurrent strength was shown to be partly generated by the poleward decrease in wind stress curl and by the formation of a westward jet near 35°S associated with westward-propagating eddies. A Lagrangian analysis of the modelled water parcels transported by the undercurrent shows that only 14-20% of the subsurface floats transported by the undercurrent upwelled into the surface layer within the subsequent six months after their release. The floats remaining within the subsurface layer were likely transported further south by the current, offshore by westward-propagating eddies or equatorward by the deeper part of the surface coastal current.

  1. Policy Path Dependence of a Research Agenda: The Case of Chile in the Aftermath of the Student Revolt of 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, Andres

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly shifting higher education policy agenda in the aftermath of the students' movement of 2011 in Chile and its mismatch with Chile's research capacities in the field of higher education studies are analyzed to illustrate how research is path dependent on policy. I argue that a stable policy environment, where change is only marginal or…

  2. Teachers' Professional Development through University-School Partnerships: Theoretical Standpoints and Evidence from Two Pilot Studies in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Valeska; Calcagni, Elisa; Preiss, David D.; Ortiz, Dominga

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a teacher professional development programme, based on a university-schools partnership and a collective reflection model, addressing the needs of in-service teacher education in Chile. First, the main challenges faced by both teachers and teacher education in Chile are summarised. Then, the foundations of this model are…

  3. The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population,…

  4. Development of a Pilot Process for the Production of c-Phycocyanin from Spirulina sp. in Northern Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Villagra Gil, Diego Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Descripción del desarrollo de un proceso piloto para la extracción de c-ficocianina a partir de biomasa Spirulina sp. en base a operaciones unitarias sencillas y escalables. Centro Interdisciplinario de Líquidos Iónicos, Universidad de Chile Escuela de Ingeniería Industrial, Universidad de Tarapacá, Chile

  5. Estado del conocimiento y principales amenazas de los humedales boscosos de agua dulce de Chile Knowledge status and principal threats to freshwater forested wetlands of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO CORREA-ARANEDA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Los humedales boscosos de agua dulce son áreas naturalmente inundadas o saturadas, que sustentan vegetación boscosa hidrófila, están presentes en todo el mundo, y en Chile son conocidos como "pitrantos, hualves o hualhues". El presente estudio entrega el estado del conocimiento de estos humedales en Chile, mediante una descripción de sus características biológicas, fisicoquímicas e hidrodinámicas, identificando las principales amenazas para su conservación y las principales necesidades de investigación. Estos ambientes pueden presentar inundación permanente o temporal, dependiendo de un conjunto de procesos microclimáticos, biológicos y edafológicos. Su vegetación, del tipo hidrófila boscosa, es dominada por especies de la familia Myrtaceae. Tanto el comportamiento hídrico como la estructura vegetacional destacan dentro de los aspectos que determinan directamente las características fisicoquímicas del agua y los patrones de distribución de las comunidades biológicas. Los humedales boscosos de Chile han sido ampliamente estudiados desde un punto de vista vegetacional y florístico, pero carecen de estudios limnológicos, hidrológicos o faunísticos básicos, de lo cual deriva un total desconocimiento en relación a su funcionamiento a nivel ecosistémico y los efectos que pueden tener las actividades humanas en sus cuencas (e.g., agrícola, ganadera, forestal sobre sus componentes hídricos y biológicos. A pesar de ser ecosistemas de gran relevancia cultural y ecológica, se identifican importantes falencias en cuanto a su estado de conservación, al no encontrarse protegidos por las actuales herramientas de conservación existentes en el país. Por lo tanto, emergen como ecosistemas únicos, de relevancia mundial, prácticamente desconocidos en Chile y de gran interés para el desarrollo de numerosas líneas de investigación, aunque su alta susceptibilidad ante perturbaciones de origen antrópico amenaza su permanencia

  6. Estudio serológico preliminar de hepatitis E en cerdos en Chile Swine hepatitis E preliminary serological study in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. REINHARDT

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El virus de la hepatitis E (VHE en el hombre puede provocar epidemias masivas de hepatitis aguda. Se transmite vía oro-fecal, especialmente por agua contaminada. Se ha demostrado que el cerdo puede ser infectado con el VHE humano. Se han detectado anticuerpos y ARN del VHE en cerdos y otras especies animales, lo que sugiere un reservorio animal. Por otro lado, se identificó un agente nuevo denominado VHE porcino, distinto del VHE humano. En Chile, en seres humanos se ha encontrado prevalencia de anti- HEV de hasta 7%, pero no se ha determinado su estudio por RT-PCR ni tampoco se ha investigado su significado en especies animales. Mediante ELISA se determinaron anti-VHE (IgG, en 200 sueros de cerdos de planteles de la zona central de Chile y en 175 de la provincia de Valdivia, de diferentes edades y ambos sexos. De estos se seleccionaron 4 sueros anti-VHE positivos para estudios de VHE por RT-PCR, usando secuencias de VHE humano. Por ELISA se detectaron 9.5% anti-VHE positivos (19/200 en planteles de la zona central y 0.6% (1/175 de la provincia de Valdivia, Chile. El estudio por RT-PCR de los 4 sueros anti-VHE positivos no visualizó las bandas de precipitación esperadas. Estos resultados preliminares indican, por primera vez en Chile, que el virus E está presente en poblaciones de cerdos. Sin embargo, se necesitan de estudios más acabados para evaluar la magnitud del problema, usando secuencias de VHE porcinos y lograr la determinación del genoma viralThe hepatitis E virus (HEV can cause acute epidemic hepatitis outbreak in humans. The path of transmission is oro-fecal, especially through contaminated water.It has been demonstrated that pigs can be infected with the human form of HEV. HEV antibodies and RNA from HEV have been found in pigs and other animals. Recently a new strain, called porcine HEV, was identified which differs from the human HEV. In Chile prevalence of anti-HEV in human general population reach 7%. However no studies

  7. Great efforts required: Solar industry in Chile. Chile's solar industry is small but rapidly expanding; Noch viel zu tun. Die Solarbranche in Chile ist klein, aber sie entwickelt sich in raschem Tempo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosell, Alejandro Diego

    2010-03-15

    The photovoltaics industry in Chile so far has been radly noticed. There are a small number of manufacturers and installers of lamps and isolated photovoltaic systems wo started a regional sector that is working on opening a market for solar technology. After five hard years, the business is now facing better prospects. The Chilean government, too, is making efforts now to attract foreign investors. (orig.)

  8. Teacher-child interactions in Chile and their associations with prekindergarten outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Diana; Weiland, Christina; Barata, M; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Snow, Catherine; Treviño, Ernesto; Rolla, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Quality of teacher-child interactions is central to prekindergarten children's learning. In the United States, the quality of teacher-child interactions is commonly assessed using the teaching through interactions conceptual framework and an associ/ated observational tool, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS). This study examined: (a) whether there was evidence supporting three distinctive domains of teacher-child interactions in Chile (construct validity) and (b) whether these domains predicted end-of-prekindergarten language, academic, and executive function skills in Chile (predictive validity). The sample consisted of 91 Chilean prekindergarten classrooms (1,868 four-year-old children). The findings support both construct and predictive validity of the teaching through interactions conceptual framework as assessed by the CLASS in Chile. Implications for cross-country comparison of quality of teacher-child interactions in prekindergarten classrooms are discussed.

  9. A drone flight over ESO’s experimental sites in Chile

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    Paola Catapano, a member of CERN’s Communication Group, and Mike Struik, a member of the TE Department, were invited to visit ESO’s experimental sites – the ALMA observatory and the Very Large Telescope in Paranal, Chile. Enjoy some of the beautiful images they sent to the Bulletin.   Image courtesy Paola Catapano and Mike Struik. The 66 radio astronomy antennas of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observatory at 5,000 m altitude on the Chajnantor highland in Chile. The ALMA array specialises in the cold, invisible Universe, catching radiation from millimetre and submillimetre radiowaves night and day. ALMA is an international partnership between the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan, together with NRC (Canada), NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile.   Image cour...

  10. Santiago de Chile, ¿ejemplo de una reestructuración capitalista global?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Términos como "ciudad global", "ciudad difusa", "ciudad dual", entre otros, merecen ser rediscutidos y contrastados con el proceso de transformaciones experimentado por Santiago de Chile producto de la reestructuración capitalista. En este sentido, este trabajo pretende discutir acerca de la conveniencia de otorgar a la capital de Chile éstos y otros adjetivos frecuentemente utilizados en la literatura urbanística internacional.Terms like "global city", "diffuse city", "dual city", among others, deserve to be discussed and contrasted with urban processes that are been taking part in Santiago de Chile in the last decades. This article attempts to discuss the convenience of grant to Chile’s capital city these and others adjectives, commonly used in the urban literature

  11. A new species of Alsodes (Anura: Alsodidae) from Altos de Cantillana, central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Andrés; Correa, Claudio; Castro, Camila; Méndez, Marco A

    2015-02-05

    Based on morphological and molecular evidence (mitochondrial and nuclear sequences) we describe a new species of spiny-chest frog, Alsodes cantillanensis, from central Chile (around 34°S). The type locality, Quebrada Infiernillo, is located in the Coastal Range at approximately 65 km from Santiago (Metropolitan Region), the capital of Chile. The distribution of the new species is included entirely in that of A. nodosus (32-36°S approximately), which was identified as the sister taxon according to molecular phylogenetic analyses. Moreover, both species are sympatric in the type locality. The new species was found in a Nothofagus macrocarpa relict forest potentially threatened by gold mining activities. We identify other threats for its conservation and some biological data needed for understanding the evolution of this species. This discovery reveals the scarce knowledge about biogeography, evolution and ecology of spiny-chest frogs from central Chile

  12. Ideological Configurations and Prediction of Attitudes toward Immigrants in Chile and Germany

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    Héctor Carvacho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The concept of ideological configuration is proposed to refer to a complex of ideological attitudes – Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA and Social Dominance
    Orientation (SDO – based on a shared core of derogation of outgroups. This concept is used in two surveys, in Chile and in Germany, to predict
    attitudes toward foreigners. Analyses using structural equation modeling (SEM showed that a second-order factor involving RWA and SDO predicts hostility
    toward foreigners in Germany and affection toward Peruvian and Argentinean immigrants in Chile. This prediction was stronger in Germany than in Chile.
    The difference in strength is discussed in terms of the kind of measurements, different contexts of migration, and characteristics of the immigrants. Further
    research using the concept of ideological configuration is proposed.

  13. Vinos, carnes, ferrocarriles y el Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Argentina y Chile (1905-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lacoste

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1905 y 1910 Chile y Argentina negociaron la firma de un Tratado de Comercio con vistas a suprimir los aranceles aduaneros y consagrar el principio de "Cordillera Libre". El centro de atracción eran las exportaciones de ganado argentino a Chile y de vino chileno a Argentina. Pero en ambos países se produjo una fuerte reacción de los intereses creados con vistas a frustrar las tratativas diplomáticas. Tanto la Sociedad Nacional de Agricultura (Chile como el Centro Vitivinícola Nacional (Argentina realizaron intensas gestiones para alcanzar sus objetivos; esta última corporación llegó a movilizar miles de personas para oponerse al tratado; y hasta solicitó ayuda a los ferrocarriles británicos para que obstaculizaran el ingreso de los vinos chilenos al mercado argentino. La intensa resistencia de estas corporaciones terminaron por frustrar el proyecto, el cual fue definitivamente archivado en 1911.Between 1905 and 1910, Chile and Argentina negotiated the signature of a Trade Agreement in order to abolish the customs duties and consecrate the principle of "Free Mountain Range". The centre of attraction was the exports of Argentinean cattle to Chile and of Chilean wine to Argentina. But in both countries there aroused a strong reaction of the vested interests, purposely to thwart the diplomatic negotiations. Both, the Sociedad Nacional de Agricultura (Chile as well as the Centro Vitivinícola Nacional (Argentina carried out intense negotiations to reach their objectives; the latter even movilized thousands of people to oppose the treaty and went as far as requesting the help of the British railroads to block the entrance of Chilean wines to the Argentinean market. The stiff opposition of these corporations finally frustrated the project, which was definitively filed away in 1911.

  14. Coastal lows and sulfur air pollution in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, L.; Olivares, G.; Langner, J.; Aarhus, B.

    Air pollutants in Santiago (33.5°S, 70.8°W, 500 m a.s.l.), a city with 5 million inhabitants, located in a basin in Central Chile surrounded by the high Andes, frequently exceed air quality standards. This affects human health and it stresses vegetation. The most extreme winter and fall pollution events occur when the subsident regime of the Pacific high is further enhanced by coastal lows (CLs), which bring down the base of the subsidence inversion. Under these conditions, the air quality worsens significantly giving rise to acute air pollution episodes. We assess the ability of a regional transport/chemistry/deposition model (MATCH) coupled to a meteorological model (High Resolution Limited Area Model—HIRLAM) to simulate the evolution of oxidized sulfur (SO x) in connection with intensive CLs. We focus on SO x since it is an environmental issue of concern, and the emissions and concentrations of SO x have been regularly monitored making it easier to bracket model outputs for SO x than for other pollutants. Furthermore, the SO x emissions in the area are very large, i.e., about 0.4% of the global anthropogenic sources. Comparisons with observations indicate that the combination of HIRLAM and MATCH is a suitable tool for describing the regional patterns of dispersion associated with CLs. However, the low number and the limited geographical coverage of reliable air quality data preclude a complete evaluation of the model. Nevertheless, we show evidence of an enhanced contribution of the largest copper smelter in the area, i.e., Caletones, to the burden of SO x in the Santiago basin, especially in the form of sulfate associated to fine particles (diameters basin.

  15. Public health policies in Chile: seeking to regain trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Cuadrado

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La salud es un ámbito central en las agendas públicas. En el caso de Chile, este lugar central en las demandas ciudadanas ha venido de la mano de una creciente crítica al sistema de salud, sus actores e instituciones, al mismo tiempo en que se desenvuelve una crisis democrática y de legitimidad mayor dentro de la sociedad. El punto de partida de este análisis es la vinculación entre el escenario de crítica y descontento generalizado en la sociedad con lo que sucede en el sector salud, planteándose la interdependencia y el paralelismo entre estos distintos niveles de crisis. El análisis se articula en torno a las dimensiones de confianza y legitimidad, como elementos con potencial canalizador, tomando como marco de análisis la matriz sociopolítica. Para ello, se revisan algunos elementos conceptuales en torno a las ideas de confianza y legitimidad en las políticas públicas. El artículo se enfoca en ejemplos recientemente acaecidos relacionados con las dinámicas del sistema de salud chileno, la emergencia de las Instituciones de Salud Previsional y las lógicas de mercado en salud, pasando por la fallida reforma a la salud de la década pasada, los conflictos de interés en las políticas públicas, la pérdida de legitimidad de la autoridad sanitaria y el papel de los profesionales de salud en estos procesos. Finalmente, se plantea una discusión sobre la búsqueda de la confianza perdida como asunto central para el desarrollo futuro y la sustentabilidad de las políticas de salud.

  16. Memoria Colectiva del Golpe de Estado de 1973 en Chile

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    Jorge Manzi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se muestran resultados de una investigación cualitativa sobre memoria colectiva acerca de los hechos acontecidos el 11 de Septiembre de 1973 en Chile, sus causas y sus consecuencias. Sobre la base de datos provenientes de 44 entrevistas semiestructuradas, se realizó un análisis cualitativo de contenidos y uno lingüístico. Los resultados muestran diferencias en cuanto a coincidencias y discrepancias en los contenidos de la memoria colectiva en función de la posición política de los entrevistados y dependiendo de si estos contenidos están referidos a los hechos acontecidos el 11 de Septiembre, a sus causas o a sus consecuencias. Mientras en relación con los hechos predominan los contenidos compartidos, variando casi exclusivamente las valoraciones de éstos, en las causas aparecen diferencias entre las personas de derecha y las de centro e izquierda, que se acentúan en la temática de las consecuencias. Por su parte, el análisis lingüístico muestra que existen principalmente cuatro tipos de discursos que se distinguen en cuanto a contenidos y en función del grado de certeza que los entrevistados manifiestan en relación a los contenidos de la memoria. La posición política distingue contenidos en tanto conlleva una distinta valoración de los sucesos del 11 de Septiembre en personas de derecha y de centro e izquierda. Por su parte, las personas con mayor implicación política, tanto de derecha como de izquierda, comparten la característica de la certeza, mientras los de menor implicación política poseen un grado mayor de incertidumbre

  17. Blueberry production in Chile: current status and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chile has become a major actor in the blueberry industry as the most important supplier of off-season fresh fruit for the northern hemisphere. Blueberry exports passed from US$ 30 million (around 4,000 tons in 2000 to US$ 380 million (94,000 tons in 2011. The characteristics of the major blueberry growing regions (North, Central, South-central and South are presented in terms of acreage, varieties, management practices, extension of the harvest season, and soil and climatic conditions. Most fruit is from highbush varieties, picked by hand and exported fresh by boat to United States. Largest proportion of fruit is exported from mid December to late January, which coincides with lowest prices. The south-central region (latitudes 34º50' to 38º15' S was in 2007 the most important one with 5,075 ha (51.1% of area planted. Among the challenges for the Chilean blueberry industry in the near future are: 1. Lower profitability due to lower rates of currency exchange and higher costs, 2 - Greater scarcity and higher cost of labor, 3.- Need for higher productivity and sustainable production practices, 4- Fruit of high and consistent quality, and 5.- Greater investment in research. As a case study the article presents three approaches that can help identify areas with low availability of labor and improve its efficiency. The article shows the use of geomatic tools to establish labor availability, application of growth regulators to reduce crop load, increase fruit size and improve harvest efficiency, and the use of shakers to harvest fresh fruit for long distance markets. More research is needed to improve yields, reduce costs and give greater economical and ecological sustainability to the Chilean blueberry industry.

  18. Evolution of Irruputuncu volcano, Central Andes, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, I.; Roche, O.; Moune, S.; Aguilera, F.; Campos, E.; Pizarro, M.

    2015-11-01

    The Irruputuncu is an active volcano located in northern Chile within the Central Andean Volcanic Zone (CAVZ) and that has produced andesitic to trachy-andesitic magmas over the last ˜258 ± 49 ka. We report petrographical and geochemical data, new geochronological ages and for the first time a detailed geological map representing the eruptive products generated by the Irruputuncu volcano. The detailed study on the volcanic products allows us to establish a temporal evolution of the edifice. We propose that the Irruputuncu volcanic history can be divided in two stages, both dominated by effusive activity: Irruputuncu I and II. The oldest identified products that mark the beginning of Irruputuncu I are small-volume pyroclastic flow deposits generated during an explosive phase that may have been triggered by magma injection as suggested by mingling features in the clasts. This event was followed by generation of large lava flows and the edifice grew until destabilization of its SW flank through the generation of a debris avalanche, which ended Irruputuncu I. New effusive activity generated lavas flows to the NW at the beginning of Irruputuncu II. In the meantime, lava domes that grew in the summit were destabilized, as shown by two well-preserved block-and-ash flow deposits. The first phase of dome collapse, in particular, generated highly mobile pyroclastic flows that propagated up to ˜8 km from their source on gentle slopes as low as 11° in distal areas. The actual activity is characterized by deposition of sulfur and permanent gas emissions, producing a gas plume that reaches 200 m above the crater. The maximum volume of this volcanic system is of ˜4 km3, being one of the smallest active volcano of Central Andes.

  19. DESCENTRALIZACIÓN Y TRANSICIÓN EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mardones Z

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el proceso de descentralización en Chile, a partir de una revisión exhaustiva de prensa centrada en la discusión política de algunas leyes descentralizadoras aprobadas entre 1991 y 2005. El artículo caracteriza los actores y el contexto en el cual las reformas descentralizadoras fueron sancionadas, confirmando la relevancia de dos hipótesis presentes en la literatura sobre la política de la descentralización, referidas a los efectos de la democratización y del cálculo electoral, mientras que matiza la hipótesis de la descentralización como proceso top-down, poniendo de relieve el creciente poder político de los alcaldes. Adicionalmente, el artículo proporciona una sistematización inédita de resultados electorales municipales y regionales por partido y por coalición para el período en estudioThis work analyses the Chilean decentralization process by performing a thorough revision of press sources regarding the political debate revolving on decentralizing bills passed between 1991 and 2005. The study describes both the actors and the context in which reforms were approved in Chilean congress. In discussing the literature on the politics of decentralization, this paper confirms the relevance of two existing hypotheses: the effects of democratization, and the prospects of electoral performance. At the same time, it reassesses a third theory concerning decentralization as a top-down process by stressing the mayors' increasing power in Chilean politics. In addition, this paper provides a novel systematization of municipal and regional electoral results, by party and by coalition, for the period under study

  20. APRENDIZAJE DE LOS ESTUDIANTES. EL CASO DE NEPSO CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Williamson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de una investigación académica y una investigación+desarrollo (I+D llevadas a cabo por la Universidad de la Frontera, en varias regiones de Chile, orientadas a descubrir, sistematizar y describir como la investigación en sala de clases con encuesta de opinión, según la metodología del Proyecto Nuestra Escuela Pregunta Su Opinión-NE PSO. Dicha encuesta se desarrolla en distintas modalidades de organización del curriculum, en 15 establecimientos de educación básica, media y de educación de personas jóvenes y adultas, entre los años 2008 y 2012. Se concluye en la versatilidad de la meto dología propuesta, coherente con sus principios curriculares, de investigación, pedagógicos y didácticos para desarrollarse en los múltiples y variados contextos, niveles educacionales y modalidades curriculares, en que se organiza la educación del país. Esta metodología responde a las necesidades actuales de mejorar la calidad de los aprendizajes y las prácticas pedagógicas para resolver la crisis de la educación pública. Es necesario experimentar y proponer nuevos conceptos, metodologías, didácticas y cu rrículos viables y efectivos, que contribuyan a una relación pedagógica cooperativa entre profesores(as y estudiantes para que puedan alcanzar los logros de aprendizajes buscados por los programas oficiales y proyectos educativos de los establecimientos, tomando en cuenta diversos contextos curriculares y socioculturales.

  1. Bionenergy potential of radiata pine platantions in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acuna, E.; Espinosa, M.; Cancino, J.; Rubilar, R.; Munoz, F. [Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile)

    2008-07-01

    The bioenergy potential for electricity and ethanol production of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in Chile was modeled in a regional basis using inventory data by age class. Specific gravity equations by age and growing region, wood moisture content variability, and efficiency of a hypothetical power plant were used to estimate the amount of electricity produced by biomass at harvesting age including logging residues. Ethanol production was obtained using laboratory derived conversion equations from material collected from plantations at different ages. Uncertainty analyses of bioenergy production were obtained using probabilistic distribution functions and assumptions of 2.0 million radiata pine plantations by year 2030. Parameters used to run uncertainty analyses included rotation length, growth rates, annual planting, logging residues production by harvesting age, and power plant efficiency. Simulations were obtained for 25 years, from 2006 until 2030. Our results suggest that in year 2030, power generation may reach 1160 PJ using current harvesting practices, however use of logging residues may provide additional 290.34 PJ. Estimates of production for year 2010 would be able to supply full non-industrial power demand. Estimates of ethanol production were 6,22 x 107 L in 2006 and 39,82 x 107 L by year 2030 for stem harvesting, and 1,5 x 107 L in year 2006 and 9,95 x 107 L by year 2030 for logging residues. Ethanol generated by forest residues would be enough to meet fuel transportation government's requirement of 2% ethanol use by year 2010 in the Chilean Metropolitan Region.

  2. Elementos contextuales a la investigación en psicología en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Urzúa M.

    2008-01-01

    Se presenta una introducción a la enseñanza universitaria en Chile a fin de enmarcar el desarrollo de las Universidades y las Escuelas de Psicología en el país, en el contexto de la acreditación universitaria. A continuación, se describen las principales fuentes públicas de financiamiento, seguidas por una breve descripción del recurso humano especializado y los postgrados existentes en Chile en Psicología. Finalmente se mencionan las líneas de investigación que declaran las diversas escuelas...

  3. Hábitos alimentarios y bienestar subjetivo en estudiantes universitarios del sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Berta Schnettler; Marianela Denegrí; Horacio Miranda; José Sepúlveda; Ligia Orellana; Galo Paiva; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Distinguir tipologías de estudiantes universitarios en el sur de Chile, en base a su nivel de satisfacción con la vida y la alimentación, y caracterizarlas según sus hábitos alimentarios dentro y fuera del lugar de residencia, aspectos asociados a la salud y características demográficas. Material y método: Se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado a una muestra no probabilística de 347 estudiantes de la Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco-Chile. El instrumento de recogida de información...

  4. Libros, censuras y bibliotecarios. Desde Chile hacia América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Planas

    2016-01-01

    A pocos días de conmemorarse el 43 aniversario del golpe de estado en Chile que derrocó a Salvador Allende, la biblioteca de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación de la Universidad de La Plata sirvió como espacio para la presentación de El golpe al libro y a las bibliotecas de la Universidad de Chile, de los bibliotecarios María Angélica Rojas Lizama y José Ignacio Fernández Pérez (2015). Las opiniones de los autores, de los comentaristas y del público presente dejaron en evid...

  5. Public health infrastructure investment difficulties in Chile: concessions and public tenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Goyenechea

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El presente trabajo busca evidenciar los problemas de brechas en infraestructura sanitaria en Chile, así como analizar los mecanismos mediante los cuales ésta se provee. Ello se realiza mediante dos modalidades, la primera es la licitación competitiva o modalidad sectorial. La segunda forma es la concesión hospitalaria. En los últimos años ambos mecanismos presentan dificultades, las cuales se relatan en este documento. Finalmente, se plantean propuestas con el fin de mejorar la provisión de infraestructura sanitaria en Chile.

  6. Tracking the 2011 Student-led Collective Movement in Chile through Social Media Use

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Cristobal; Parraguez, Pedro; Barahona, Matias; Gloor, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Using social media archives of the 2011 Chilean student unrest and dynamic social network analysis, we study how leaders and participants use social media such as Twitter, and the Web to self-organize and communicate with each other, and thus generate one of the biggest "smart movements" in the history of Chile. In this paper we i) describe the basic network topology of the 2011 student-led social movement in Chile; ii) explore how the student leaders are connected to, and how are they seen b...

  7. Creating Three New Bike Tours in Santiago de Chile Case Study: Huaso Tours & Bike Rental

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor´s thesis was to create new bike tour services for the thesis case company Huaso Tours & Bike Rental, based in Santiago de Chile. The idea for the thesis was perceived from a free time activity of mountain biking in Santiago de Chile´s popular tourist attraction San Cristobal hill. This park draws thousands of bikers monthly to enjoy the green areas of the city, however, there is no mountain bike service offered to visit this hill. By conducting a small pre-researc...

  8. LOS HITOS CRÍTICOS DE LA TRAYECTORIA LABORAL ASCENDENTE DE PERUANAS Y PERUANOS EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    León Gin,Camila

    2012-01-01

    El siguiente artículo examina la trayectoria de peruanos y peruanas en el mercado del trabajo chileno de acuerdo a los hitos críticos o puntos de inflexión en su recorrido, para luego explorar sus efectos en el trayecto laboral ascendente de estos inmigrantes. Se indaga en los discursos, percepciones y significaciones que surgen de la experiencia en el trabajo en Chile a través de la realización de 32 relatos de vida a hombres y mujeres con una trayectoria laboral ascendente en Chile. Este tr...

  9. Prisión común, imaginario social e identidad. Chile, 1870-1920.

    OpenAIRE

    FELIPE DELGADO

    2011-01-01

    La publicación de este libro resulta ser el punto culminante en la decantación que han experimentado los trabajos de investigación sobre el desarrollo histórico del sistema carcelario en Chile. Antes de este libro, los trabajos sobre el tema estaban acotados a su divulgación en publicaciones o revistas especializadas sin gran difusión, reducidos solamente a los circuitos académicos. Es así como esta publicación renueva verdaderamente la discusión historiográfica en Chile al aportar nu...

  10. La evolución político-constitucional de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    El presente trabajo analiza la evolución en sus aspectos principales del régimen político y de la situación electoral en Chile, ocurrida en los recientes treinta años. Precedido por los antecedentes históricos pertinentes trata de lo sustancial en la Constitución Política de la República de Chile de 1980, en los triples aspectos de normas originales, reformadas y su aplicación. En especial se refiere al sistema de gobierno presidencial y sus matices, a los partidos políticos y a las tenden...

  11. A Universal Design Approach to Government Service Delivery: The Case of ChileAtiende.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    A common challenge for government administrations that aim to improve the delivery of information and services to citizens is to go beyond a government-centred approach. By focusing on citizens and the needs of a wide range of citizens, Universal Design (UD) can help to increase the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of government services. This paper examines the case of an internationally recognised Chilean government service delivery programme inspired by UD principles known as ChileAtiende ("ChileService"). A brief account of its creation and current status is provided.

  12. Explaining judicial corruption in the courts of Chile, Peru and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Basabe-Serrano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies the main variables that explain judicial corruption in Chile, Peru, and Ecuador. Improving the current methodological strategies used to measure judicial corruption and incorporating endogenous and exogenous variables in the model, this article argues that legal training of the judges, respect for the judicial career, and the fragmentation of political power explain different degrees of judicial corruption. Through a comparative diachronic and synchronic research design of Chile, Peru and Ecuador, the article shows institutional designs with more legal steps will be more inclined to illegal payments or other types of judicial corruption.

  13. Conocimiento y aplicación de la responsabilidad social empresarial en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos Romero, Cecilia de las Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    Esta investigación se centra en el estudio de la Responsabilidad Social Empresarial en Chile. La muestra la conforman 25 empresas, las entidades gremiales de empresarios, la Organización Internacional del Trabajo y periodistas especializados. Los instrumentos empleados son el Análisis de Contenido y las Entrevistas en Profundidad. La RSE en Chile no está más desarrollada porque los empresarios aún no reconocen la relación que existe entre el éxito empresarial y el cumplimiento de ...

  14. AMS measurement of 10Be concentrations in marine sediments from Chile Trench at the TANDAR laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, D.; Arazi, A.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Martí, G. V.; Negri, A. E.; Abriola, D.; Capurro, O. A.; Cardona, M. A.; de Barbará, E.; Gollan, F.; Hojman, D.; Pacheco, A. J.; Samsolo, N.; Togneri, M.; Villanueva, D.

    2017-03-01

    The 10Be/9Be ratios in marine sediments samples from the Southern Chile Trench have been measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The samples were measured at the TANDAR accelerator, where the discrimination of the 10Be radionuclides was achieved by means of a passive absorber in front of an ionization chamber. This setup along with the high voltage available, provided a complete suppression of the 10B isobar interference. The obtained values for the 10Be concentrations, of the order of 109 atoms/g, are the first 10Be measurements from the Southern Chile Trench and offer an excellent tracer to quantitatively study the recycling of sediments in Andean magmas.

  15. Using satellite images to monitor glacial-lake outburst floods: Lago Cachet Dos drainage, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Beverly A.; Cole, Christopher J.; Nimick, David A.; Wilson, Earl M.; Fahey, Mark J.; McGrath, Daniel J.; Leidich, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is monitoring and analyzing glacial-lake outburst floods (GLOFs) in the Colonia valley in the Patagonia region of southern Chile. A GLOF is a type of flood that occurs when water impounded by a glacier or a glacial moraine is released catastrophically. In the Colonia valley, GLOFs originating from Lago Cachet Dos, which is dammed by the Colonia Glacier, have recurred periodically since 2008. The water discharged during these GLOFs flows under or through the Colonia Glacier, into Lago Colonia and then the Río Colonia, and finally into the Río Baker—Chile's largest river in terms of volume of water.

  16. Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) analysis of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from salmonids in Chile and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apablaza, Patricia; Brevik, Oyvind J.; Mjos, Svein

    2015-01-01

    isolates of this bacterium could play an important role in the development of good management strategies. The aim of this study was to identify genetic markers for discrimination between isolates. A selection of eight VNTRs from 53 F. psychrophilum isolates from Norway, Chile, Denmark and Scotland were...... compared to those from Norway, which suggests a more homogenous reservoir in Norway. Transgenerational transmission of F. psychrophilum from other countries, exporting salmon embryos to Chile, may explain the differences in diversity. The same transmission mechanisms could also explain the wide...

  17. DISTRIBUCION DE METANO Y METANOL DISUELTO EN LA COSTA DE CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    JESSEN REYES, GERDHARD

    2010-01-01

    Este estudio describe por primera vez el sistema de filtraciones de gas intermareal y submareal en Isla Mocha frente a Chile central desde un punto de vista biogeoquímico, así como la distribución de metano y metano! disuelto en el océano costero desde el centro al extremo sur de Chile, a través de una transecta norte-sur desde los 35° hasta los 55° S. En Isla Mocha se identificaron cuatro filtraciones principales, liberando en el orden de 36 a 58 m3 de gas por hora lo que se traduce en...

  18. DISTRIBUCION DE METANO Y METANOL DISUELTO EN LA COSTA DE CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    JESSEN REYES ; GERDHARD

    2010-01-01

    Este estudio describe por primera vez el sistema de filtraciones de gas intermareal y submareal en Isla Mocha frente a Chile central desde un punto de vista biogeoquímico, así como la distribución de metano y metano! disuelto en el océano costero desde el centro al extremo sur de Chile, a través de una transecta norte-sur desde los 35° hasta los 55° S. En Isla Mocha se identificaron cuatro filtraciones principales, liberando en el orden de 36 a 58 m3 de gas por hora lo que se ...

  19. Frecuencia de micobacterias ambientales en Chile en el año 2008 Frequency of environmental mycobacterium in Chile. 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Scappaticcio B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer la frecuencia de aislamientos de micobacterias ambientales en Chile en el año 2008. Material y Métodos: Se recibieron 600 cultivos desde 22 laboratorios de Bacteriología de la Tuberculosis de los distintos Servicios de Salud de la red que comprende el Programa de Control de la Tuberculosis del país, durante un período de cuatro meses del año 2008. Quinientos cuarenta y cinco (90,8% correspondieron a localización pulmonar y 55 (9,2% a extrapulmonar. Se confirmó la alcohol-ácido resistencia por tinción de Ziehl Neelsen y para la identificación de especies o complejos micobacterianos se utilizaron pruebas tradicionales y bioquímicas de acuerdo al criterio de clasificación de Runyon, sondas genéticas y análisis de patrones de restricción (PRA. Resultados: De los 600 cultivos recibidos, 585fueron aptos para ser incluidos en el estudio. De éstos, en el 91,3% (n = 534 de los casos se aisló Mycobacterium tuberculosis, en un 0,3% Mycobacterium bovis subespecie BCG (n = 3 y un 8,4% (n = 48 correspondió a micobacterias ambientales. De estas últimas, Mycobacterium kansasii (2,6%, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (1,5% y Mycobacterium chelonae (1,0% fueron las más comúnmente aisladas. Conclusiones: De acuerdo a las cifras obtenidas en este estudio y comparadas con estudios de años anteriores (1988 y 1998 se concluye que el número de aislamientos de micobacterias ambientales permaneció relativamente constante esta última década, como también las especies más comúnmente aisladas.Objective: To know the frequency of environmental mycobacterium isolations in Chile in the year 2008. Methods: 600 AFB (acid fast bacilli positive cultures from 22 laboratories of Tuberculosis Bacteriology of the different Network Health Services that constitute the Tuberculosis Control Program of the country were studied, during four months at 2008. 545 (90.8% were pulmonary and 55 (9.2% extra pulmonary. Acidfast bacilli smears were

  20. Innovación y emprendimiento: Un modelo basado en el desarrollo del emprendedor

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Vicens; Sergio Grullón

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo plantea un modelo para el desarrollo del emprendimiento enfocado en la persona más que en una idea o un plan de negocios. Analiza las características de los programas de desarrollo de emprendedores a nivel global, y presenta una muestra representativa de las mejores prácticas. A partir de los principales hallazgos y de las lecciones aprendidas, se definen las características y componentes de un nuevo modelo de desarrollo de emprendedores y se presentan recomendaciones para impla...

  1. A simpatia e o espectador imparcial na obra de Adam Smith: o "homem prudente" como resultado dos hábitos e costumes sociais

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Cezar Augusto; Marin,Solange Regina

    2014-01-01

    Se aborda la importancia de los hábitos y costumbres sociales en la construcción del concepto smithiano de "hombre prudente" y su relación con el principio que origina la aprobación social. Por ende, investiga la conexión entre la filosofía moral de Adam Smith y su acercamiento a los principios humanos que guían la búsqueda de la persona a mejorar sus condiciones de vida. Entre las principales lecciones aprendidas a partir del estudio de la obra de Adam Smith, se encuentra que fue través de l...

  2. Enfoque integral para esquemas de pago por servicios de ecosistemas forestales

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, J.J.; F. Alpízar; R. Madrigal; Louman, B.

    2007-01-01

    El desarrollo de un esquema de PSE debe reflejar un proceso continuo y adaptativo. En este artículo se propone una metodología para la aplicación de un enfoque integral para esquemas de pago por servicios de ecosistemas forestales. La experiencia del esquema de pago por servicios de los ecosistemas en Costa Rica así como las lecciones aprendidas en otros países de América Latina muestran la importancia de considerar en detalle las fases de diagnóstico y definición de objetivos; el estudio de ...

  3. Microempresa: Informe de avances: Volumen 9: N° 2: Diciembre, 2006 Title: Microenterprise Development Review: Volume 9 : No. 2 : December, 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID); Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2006-01-01

    Esta edición de Microempresas incluye dos artículos principales. En el primero se describe cómo los bancos tradicionales de América Latina y el Caribe están incluyendo a las personas de bajos recursos en su cartera de clientes. Ofrece asimismo estudios de caso de México y Brasil, seguido de una serie de lecciones aprendidas. El segundo artículo analiza los sistemas de garantía de crédito como una medida para facilitar el acceso al crédito para las micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas.Abstract:...

  4. Planeacion estratégica en Instituciones del Sector Publico de América Latina (Strategic planning in Latin America public sector institutions)

    OpenAIRE

    Leer Guillén, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo presenta la implementación de planes estratégicos por medio de la metodología de clase mundial del Balanced Scorecard de Kaplan y Norton en ministerios de varios países de América Latina, así como las adaptaciones necesarias, experiencias y lecciones aprendidas en el proceso. AbstractThis article presents the implementation of strategic plans using the methodology of Kaplan and Norton´s world class balanced scorecard with required adaptations in several Latin American countries ...

  5. Algunas lexías monoverbales caracterizadoras del habla culta de Santiago de Chile. Aportes para un diccionario de uso del español de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Poblete V.

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo da cuenta de la presencia de aquellas lexías monoverbales que contribuirían a determinar el perfil del hablante culto de Santiago de Chile. El estudio se basó en un corpus representativo de 25 horas de grabación de distintos tipos de discurso y estos elementos caracterizadores fueron analizados por grupos etarios y por género. (This article presents the findings of a study made on a representative corpus of 25 hours of taped material containing different types of discourse recorded by cultivated speakers of Santiago de Chile. It focuses on the presence of characteristic lexemes that would contribute to determine the profile of "cultivated speaker" in this dialect. Age and sex variables were considered in the analysis.

  6. Taxonomy and biology of a new Oecophoridae (Lepidoptera from central Chile Taxonomía y biología de un nuevo Oecophoridae (Lepidoptera de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. HEATH-OGDEN

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The adult, larva, and pupa of Afdera jimenae Ogden & Parra sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Larvae live in leaf litter throughout all instars and are generalists feeding upon the fallen leaves of a number of different plant species of sclerophyllous forests. Comments on morphological details and bionomics of this species are given. This is the second species of Afdera know for ChileSe describe e ilustra el adulto, larva y pupa de Afdera jimenae Ogden & Parra sp. nov. Los diferentes estados larvarios se encuentran en la hojarasca del bosque esclerófilo de la Península de Hualpén, alimentándose de hojas en descomposición de diferentes especies vegetales. Se entregan comentarios sobre detalles morfológicos y bionómicos de la especie. Esta es la segunda especie de Afdera descrita para Chile

  7. Estabilización y Precios Relativos: Chile 1982-1991 Estabilización y Precios Relativos: Chile 1982-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Uthoff

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Estabilización y Precios Relativos: Chile 1982-1991 Chile, as other countries in the region, has reduced inflation rates to a two digit level varying within the range of 10 to 30 per cent. These rates are considered persistent and there is the political will to make them converge to levels prevailing in developed countries. This paper explores one of the implicit policy dilemmas surrounding this issue. Along with stabilization efforts, relative factor prices tend to move away from the values expected by participants in factor markets. This generares lack of confidence regarding the sustainability of the stabilization program. By means of a simple model, the paper shows that the distribution of benefics arising from increases in productivity affects relative prices and has important effects on the level at which inflation rates converge. The instruments used to produce such changes have additional effects on the variance of inflation rates.

  8. A new species of Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae from northern Chile Uma nova espécie de Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae do norte do Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Male and female adults of a new species of Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae are described and illustrated. Immature stages are associated with Baccharis scandens (Ruiz & Pav. Pers. (Asteraceae. The species was collected in two localities of northern Chile: near sea level in the Azapa valley, in the coastal desert of Arica Province and at 3000 m elevation in Socoroma, Parinacota Province.Os adultos macho e fêmea de uma nova espécie de Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae são descritos e ilustrados. Os estágios imaturos estão associados com Baccharis scandens (Ruiz & Pav. Pers. (Asteraceae. A espécie foi coletada em duas localidades do norte do Chile: vale de Azapa, perto do nível do mar, no deserto litoral da Província de Arica, e aos 3000 m de altitude em Socoroma, na Província de Parinacota.

  9. Rural electrification in Northern Chile - evaluation and operating experience with installed plants; ``Laendliche Basiselektrifizierung im Norden Chiles`` - Evaluierung und Betriebserfahrung installierter Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapiain, R. [Univ. de Tarapaca, Centro de Energias Renovables, Arica (Chile); Schmidt, R. [Univ. de Tarapaca, Centro de Energias Renovables, Arica (Chile); Ovalle, R [Univ. de Tarapaca, Centro de Energias Renovables, Arica (Chile); Torres, A. [Univ. de Tarapaca, Centro de Energias Renovables, Arica (Chile)

    1996-12-01

    PE electrification programmes have been carried out for some years in rural communities in Chile. Solar 12 Volt small systems are used to supply individual families and larger 220 V AC plants are used for schools, public facilities and street lighting. Financing is by the Province Government on the user`s application. To examine existing PE plants for electrification a one-year evaluation was carried out from the technical and socio-economic aspects, which is described in this article. (HW) [Deutsch] Seit einigen Jahren werden in laendlichen Kommunen Chiles PV-Elektrifizierungsprogramme durchgefuehrt. Zum Einsatz kommen solare 12-Volt-Kleinsysteme zur Versorgung einzelner Familien sowie groessere 220-V-Wechselstromanlagen fuer Schulen, oeffentliche Einrichtungen und Strassenbeleuchtungen. Die Finanzierung erfolgt auf Antrag der Nutzer durch die Provinzregierung. Zur Untersuchung bestehender PV-Anlagen zur Basiselektrifizierung wurde eine einjaehrige Evaluierung unter technischen sowie sozio-oekonomischen Aspekten durchgefuehrt, die im vorliegenden Beitrag dargestellt wird. (HW)

  10. Rockeras en Chile: negación de la reivindicación Women Rock Musicians in Chile: Negation of Self-Assertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Becker

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A través de un estudio comparativo de algunas rockeras nacionales, el presente trabajo busca reflexionar críticamente acerca del rol adjudicado a la mujer dentro de los círculos fuertemente masculinos que circundan este movimiento musical, junto con examinar cómo se refleja en performances y atributos musicales que responden a otros paradigmas simbólicos.Based on a comparative study of some women rock musicians from Chile, this article presents a critical reflection about the roles cast on women within the predominantly male rock circuits in Chile. Besides, an analysis is presented of the relationships of these roles with performances and musical attributes pertaining to other symbolic paradigms.

  11. How efficient are pension fund managers in Chile? Quão eficientes são os administradores de fundos de pensão no Chile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Barrientos

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper measures and evaluates technical efficiency among pension fund managers in Chile. Recent pension reform has established pension fund management market in nine countries in Latin America. The new pension providers compete for affiliates on the basis of fees, rates of return, and quality of service, and are subject to extensive regulation. Applying data envelopment analysis to data from Chile 1982-1999, the paper examines issues of efficiency, competition, and regulation. The analysis concludes that pension fund managers operate below the estimated "efficiency frontier", and there is no evidence of a sustained upward trend in technical efficiency over time.Este artigo se propõe a avaliar e medir a eficiência técnica dos administradores de fundos de previdência privada no Chile. A recente reforma sofrida pela previdência deu lugar a um mercado de gestão de fundos de aposentadoria em nove países da América Latina. Esses novos gestores de fundos de pensão competem por investidores através do custo de suas tarifas, dos índices de rendimento oferecidos e da qualidade do serviço prestado, estando sujeitos a uma regulamentação rigorosa. Aplicando a análise por envoltória de dados (DEA aos dados obtidos para o Chile entre 1982 e 1999, examinamos aqui as questões de eficiência, competitividade e regulamentação. Nossa análise conclui que os administradores de fundos de previdência privada operam abaixo do nível de eficiência desejado, e não há previsão de que venha a ocorrer nenhuma melhora consistente na eficiência técnica desses fundos num futuro próximo.

  12. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica Health services privatization: the experiences of Chile and Costa Rica

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    N. Homedes

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el modelo importado de privatización chileno.This study questions the premises that justify the neoliberal privatization of financing, managing and delivering health services. It also analyses the meaning of privatization and its strategies. We compare privatization in Chile and Costa Rica and suggest that the more limited, selective and locally designed privatization process in Costa Rica has resulted in a more equitable, and efficient health system than the imported privatization model introduced in Chile. The Costa Rican system also produces greater patient satisfaction and at the same time preserves the solidarity principle.

  13. Género y protección social: las transferencias condicionadas de ingresos en Chile = Gender and social protection: conditional cash transfers in Chile

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    Tabbush, Constanza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pone de manifiesto las preguntas que le plantea a una perspectiva de género, las nuevas formas de pensar la protección social en la región. Para ello, se toma como ejemplo las transferencias condicionadas de ingresos (TCI puestas en marcha en Chile. Basándose en el ejemplo del programa Puente, la estrategia inicial del sistema de protección social denominado Chile Solidario, el objetivo de este trabajo es analizar cómo estas formas de protección apelan a la participación de las mujeres para salir de la pobreza. Los hallazgos indican que la política de lucha contra la pobreza en Chile se enmarca en una visión multidimensional de la pobreza que, sin embargo, termina posicionando a las mujeres como responsables de lograr el bienestar de todos los miembros de sus hogares. Este artículo concluye proponiendo que el escenario chileno constituye un extremo ejemplo de la extensión de las responsabilidades individuales de las mujeres en la gestión de pobreza, sin proporcionarles ningún componente comunitario o colectivo

  14. Redes sociales y partidos políticos en Chile.

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    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se describe el origen y la evolución de dos partidos políticos chilenos (el Partido Radical y el Partido Demócrata Cristiano por medio del análisis de las redes sociales que los originaron y que los componen. Se propone un modelo teórico que consiste en la combinación de un análisis estructural basado en el estudio de redes sociales y en la descripción del sistema simbólico que las retroalimenta. La estructura y función de las redes sociales depende de la dirección en la que se dan los intercambios -redes horizontales y redes verticales-, de lo que se intercambia, y de la articulación que se da entre las redes. En toda sociedad se dan intercambios simétricos y asimétricos, que van conformando redes horizontales y verticales. Estas redes se van articulando entre sí, conformando el tejido social. El predominio de unas sobre otras y su combinación dan el carácter a la cultura política (ejemplo, autoritaria vs. igualitaria. En el caso de Chile encontramos que se trata de una sociedad horizontalmente estructurada en clases sociales, al interior de las cuales se advierten redes sociales informales que eventualmente y por razones ideológicas se van formalizando en partidos políticos. Estos grupos igualitarios de amigos ejercen informalmente control sobre sus propios miembros creando barreras invisibles que los distinguen de los demás, y aunque si bien es cierto que en ellos surgen líderes “naturales”, su liderazgo es condicional lo que permite el surgimiento de tendencias y facciones que a su vez pueden llegar a constituirse en nuevos partidos. Por ende, el sistema depende de negociaciones horizontales permanentes mediadas por un fuerte presidencialismo dentro de un sistema parlamentario fuerte y apoyado por una legitimidad casi fanática.

  15. The 2015 Illapel Earthquake in Chile: Initial Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    On September 16, 2015 at 19:54 hrs (local time) a magnitude 8.3 earthquake took place off the coast of the Coquimbo Region in central Chile. The National Seismological Centre (CSN) reported epicentral coordinates 71.864°W and 31.553°S and a W-phase magnitude of 8.4 This earthquake is the largest in the country since the February 27, 2010 event and the third largest since May 22, 1960, surpassing in size the one that took place off the coast of Iquique- Pisagua on April 1, 2014. Unlike the later, the 2015 earthquake showed no recognizable immediate precursor activity in the epicentral area. Focal mechanisms of the mainshock and larger aftershocks are consistent with the displacement of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate. The previous large earthquakes of similar size took place in this region on April 6, 1943, with a magnitude of 7.9 (Beck et al., 1998); Abe (1979) lists this earthquake with tsunami magnitude equivalent to 8.2 Preliminary estimates of the slip distribution, based on GNSS data, indicate that the rupture length reaches about 200-250 km with a maximum displacement of the order of 6 m. Coastal uplift of 40 cm close to the epicentral area is evidenced by biological markers. The epicenter is not located either at the region of maximum or minimum slip, but where there is a strong fault displacement gradient. Number of daily aftershocks within the first four weeks is decaying with a p-value of the order of 0.8 to 1. An anomalous maximum acceleration of the order of 80% g was recorded on the E-W horizontal component of the station located at a station in Montepatria, more than 80 km away from the region of maximum slip. Because the general area recorded values of 30%g, it is very likely that this high acceleration is due to ground effects. Historical seismicity in the region is examined to understand the possible future scenarios of large earthquakes. To the north, the 1922 (Mw=8.4, Mt=8.7) has been the last to rupture this zone; to the south

  16. Oxidation capacity of the city air of Santiago, Chile

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    Y. F. Elshorbany

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation capacity of the highly polluted urban area of Santiago, Chile has been evaluated during a summer measurement campaign carried out from 8–20 March 2005. The hydroxyl (OH radical budget was evaluated employing a simple quasi-photostationary-state model (PSS constrained with simultaneous measurements of HONO, HCHO, O3, NO, NO2, j(O1D, j(NO2, 13 alkenes and meteorological parameters. In addition, a zero dimensional photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCMv3.1 has been used to estimate production rates and total free radical budgets, including OH, HO2 and RO2. Besides the above parameters, the MCM model has been constrained by the measured CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs including alkanes and aromatics. Both models simulate the same OH concentration during daytime indicating that the primary OH sources and sinks included in the simple PSS model predominate. Mixing ratios of the main OH radical precursors were found to be in the range 0.8–7 ppbv (HONO, 0.9–11 ppbv (HCHO and 0–125 ppbv (O3. The alkenes average mixing ratio was ~58 ppbC accounting for ~12% of the total identified non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs. During the daytime (08:00 h–19:00 h, HONO photolysis was shown to be the most important primary OH radical source comprising alone ~55% of the total initial production rate, followed by alkene ozonolysis (~24% and photolysis of HCHO (~16% and O3 (~5%. The calculated average and maximum daytime OH production rates from HONO photolysis was 1.7 ppbv h−1 and 3.1 ppbv h−1, respectively. Based on the experimental results a strong photochemical daytime source of HONO is proposed. A detailed analysis of the sources of OH radical precursors has also been carried out.

  17. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries La perspectiva geolgica del Abate Juan Ignacio Molina sobre Italia y Chile entre los siglos XVIII y XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Menichetti

    2011-01-01

    The first geological observations in Chile can be traced to Juan Ignacio Molina, a Jesuit priest who was born in 1740 in Chile and died in 1829 in Bologna, Italy. He received a scholarship education with a strong leaning towards philosophy, the humanities and the sciences at the Jesuit College in Concepcion. In 1767, when all the Jesuits were expelled from Chile and the spanish colonies, he took refuge in Italy, first in Imola and then in Bologna where he taught Greek at the University and la...

  18. A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan Francisco; Catalán, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recorded for the first time since their original descriptions. All, except one, of the fourteen terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile; they are all terrestrial species, most of them have a restricted geographic distribution, and none of them is currently protected by law. The results reveal that the region of Atacama has one of the most diverse terrestrial snail biodiversity in Chile, ranking only after the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Distribution records of all the studied species and a taxonomic key are also provided. PMID:24715800

  19. Reflecting on the Japan-Chile Task-Based Telecollaboration Project for Beginner-Level Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, B. Greg

    2014-01-01

    Using O'Dowd and Ritter's (2006) Inventory of Reasons for Failed Communication in Telecollaborative Projects as a barometer, this article details the considerations and procedures followed in a task-based, asynchronous email telecollaboration project between EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners in Japan and Chile. In a climate…

  20. Exploring Quality of Life during the Transition from School to Work in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeria, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Data from Chile's national household survey (CASEN) for the years 1990-2003 reveal that the transition process from school to active working life has been postponed over the course of the 13 year period while its duration has steadily increased, resulting in a delayed integration into the labour force. This finding is consistent with experiences…