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Sample records for children study protocol

  1. Proposed motor development assessment protocol for epidemiological studies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, P L; Missiuna, C; Echeverria, D; Knox, S S

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to the implementation of a large-scale epidemiological study of child development. It addresses specifically how one might assess gross motor development longitudinally in a large population-based study of children, and recommends a three-phase process. Phase I, applied at key ages with the entire population, involves the use of parent-report screening tools that ask about specific age-appropriate motor skills, as well as any parental concerns about "quantity" or "quality" of their child's motor function and about any loss of motor function. In phase II, children who "fail" the screening phase (at any stage) are evaluated with specified developmental motor assessments. Those who "pass" revert to the screening stream, while those who "fail" continue to phase III. In this third component of the study, children are referred to experts in child development formally engaged in the study (including developmental paediatricians, paediatric neurologists and developmental therapists). These experts will use protocol-based evaluations to ascertain whether a child has a problem in development, what the problem might be from a diagnostic perspective, how "severe" the problem is, and what management services are or should be provided. It is argued that this is an efficient approach to the study of a population that would enable investigators to detect specific relatively common developmental motor disorders (in particular, cerebral palsy and developmental coordination disorder). PMID:19098137

  2. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis;

    2013-01-01

    Background During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness...... intervention includes an educational program aimed at the child with cancer, the child’s schoolteachers and classmates, and the child’s parents. Children with cancer will each have two ambassadors assigned from their class. The ambassadors visit the child with cancer at the hospital at alternating 2-week......, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. Discussion RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the effect of early rehabilitation for children with cancer, and to use...

  3. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Ole Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2012-01-01

    yields a Global Seasonal Score and a prevalence of SAD. Outcomes from the two groups will be compared. Moreover, outcomes from subgroups of the visually impaired population will be compared. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study is approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency. Results will be published in...... persons with severe visual impairments or blindness and to compare the results to a control group without visual impairments. Moreover, the authors wish to investigate whether SAD is correlated to the degree of impairment or to the diagnosis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 2781 persons with visual impairments...

  4. Better movers and thinkers (BMT: A quasi-experimental study into the impact of physical education on children's cognition—A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Dalziell

    2015-01-01

    This protocol provides the details of the rationale and design of the study and details of the intervention, outcome measures, and the recruitment process. The study will address gaps within current research by evaluating if a change of approach in the delivery of PE within schools has an effect on children's cognition, PA habits, and GMC within a Scottish setting.

  5. Promoting social communication through music therapy in children with autism spectrum disorder:Multidimensional investigation: Systematic review, RCT study protocol, treatment guide, feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Geretsegger, Monika

    2015-01-01

    In this book, a PhD study is presented that investigates if and how music therapy may help to promote social communication in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).The study examined several dimensions of this complex field, and includes four articles: (i) a systematic review (Cochrane review) synthesising research evidence on overall effects of music therapy for individuals with ASD; (ii) a study protocol specifying the design of TIME-A, a randomised controlled trial (RCT) examining e...

  6. Prevalence of Symptoms of Severe Asthma and Allergies in Irish School Children: An ISAAC Protocol Study, 1995–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Holohan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood asthma is a recurring health burden and symptoms of severe asthma in children are also emerging as a health and economic issue. This study examined changing patterns in symptoms of severe asthma and allergies (ever eczema and hay fever, using the Irish International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC protocol. ISAAC is a cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire survey of randomly selected representative post-primary schools. Children aged 13–14 years were studied: 2,670 (in 1995, 2,273 (in 1998, 2,892 (in 2002–2003, and 2,805 (in 2007. Generalized linear modelling using Poisson distribution was employed to compute adjusted prevalence ratios (PR. A 39% significant increase in symptoms of severe asthma was estimated in 2007 relative to the baseline year 1995 (adjusted PR: 1.39 [95% CI: 1.14–1.69] increasing from 12% in 1995 to 15.3% in 2007. Opposite trends were observed for allergies, showing a decline in 2007, with an initial rise. The potential explanations for such a complex disease pattern whose aetiological hypothesis is still evolving are speculative. Changing environmental factors may be a factor, for instance, an improvement in both outdoor and indoor air quality further reinforcing the hygiene hypothesis but obesity as a disease modifier must also be considered.

  7. Narrative exposure therapy for immigrant children traumatized by war: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of effectiveness and mechanisms of change

    OpenAIRE

    Kangaslampi, Samuli; Garoff, Ferdinand; Peltonen, Kirsi

    2015-01-01

    Background Millions of children worldwide suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and other mental health problems due to repeated exposure to war or organized violence. Forms of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are the most commonly used treatment for PTSD and appear to be effective for children as well, but little is known about the mechanisms of change through which they achieve their effectiveness. Here we present the study protocol of a randomized controlled trial (RC...

  8. Parental intimate partner homicide and its consequences for children : protocol for a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alisic, Eva; Groot, Arend; Snetselaar, Hanneke; Stroeken, Tielke; van de Putte, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Background: The loss of a parent due to intimate partner homicide has a major impact on children. Professionals involved have to make far-reaching decisions regarding placement, guardianship, mental health care and contact with the perpetrating parent, without an evidence base to guide these decisio

  9. Improving health-related fitness in children: the fit-4-Fun randomized controlled trial study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eather Narelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Declining levels of physical fitness in children are linked to an increased risk of developing poor physical and mental health. Physical activity programs for children that involve regular high intensity physical activity, along with muscle and bone strengthening activities, have been identified by the World Health Organisation as a key strategy to reduce the escalating burden of ill health caused by non-communicable diseases. This paper reports the rationale and methods for a school-based intervention designed to improve physical fitness and physical activity levels of Grades 5 and 6 primary school children. Methods/Design Fit-4-Fun is an 8-week multi-component school-based health-related fitness education intervention and will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. Primary schools from the Hunter Region in NSW, Australia, will be invited to participate in the program in 2011 with a target sample size of 128 primary schools children (age 10-13. The Fit-4-Fun program is theoretically grounded and will be implemented applying the Health Promoting Schools framework. Students will participate in weekly curriculum-based health and physical education lessons, daily break-time physical activities during recess and lunch, and will complete an 8-week (3 × per week home activity program with their parents and/or family members. A battery of six health-related fitness assessments, four days of pedometery-assessed physical activity and a questionnaire, will be administered at baseline, immediate post-intervention (2-months and at 6-months (from baseline to determine intervention effects. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion criteria, randomization, intervention program, assessments, process evaluation and statistical analyses are described. Discussion The Fit-4-Fun program is an innovative school-based intervention targeting fitness improvements in primary school children. The program will

  10. Study protocol:Rehabilitation including social and physical activity and education in children and teenagers with cancer (RESPECT)

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Karen Vitting; Christensen, Karl Bang; Halse, Henrik; Heilmann, Carsten; Hejgaard, Nete; Johansen, Christoffer; Madsen, Marianne; Madsen, Svend Aage; Simovska, Venka; Strange, Birgit; Thing, Lone Friis

    2013-01-01

    Background During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. Methods/design The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years n...

  11. Slow cortical potential Neurofeedback and self-management training in outpatient care for children with ADHD: study protocol and first preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eChristiansen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD today is predominantly pharmacological. While it is the most common treatment, it might not always be the most appropriate one. Moreover, long term effects remain unclear. Behavior therapy and non-pharmacological treatments such as neurofeedback (NF are promising alternatives, though there are no routine outpatient care/effectiveness studies yet that have included children with medication or changes in medication.Methods/design: This paper presents the protocol of a randomized controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of a Slow Cortical Potential (SCP NF protocol with self-management (SM in a high frequent outpatient care setting. Both groups (NF/SM receive a total of 30 high frequent therapy sessions. Additionally, 6 sessions are reserved for comorbid problems. The primary outcome measure is the reduction of ADHD core symptoms according to parent and teacher ratings.Preliminary Results: Untill now 58 children were included in the study (48 males, with a mean age of 8.42 (1.34 years, and a mean IQ of 110 (13.37. Conners-3 parent and teacher ratings were used to estimate core symptom change. Since the study is still ongoing, and children are in different study stages, pre-post and follow-up results are not yet available for all children included. Preliminary results suggest overall good pre-post effects, though. For parent and teacher ratings an ANOVA with repeated measures yielded overall satisfying pre-post effects (η2 .175 to .513. Differences between groups (NF vs. SM could not yet be established (p = .81.Discussion: This is the first randomized controlled trial to test the effectiveness of a NF protocol in a high frequent outpatient care setting that does not exclude children on or with changes in medication. First preliminary results show positive effects. The rationale for the trial, the design, and the strengths and limitations of the study are

  12. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study

    OpenAIRE

    Skerfving, Annemi; Johansson, Fredrik; Elgán, Tobias H

    2014-01-01

    Background Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children’s ...

  13. Study protocol: SPARCLE – a multi-centre European study of the relationship of environment to participation and quality of life in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colver Allan

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SPARCLE is a nine-centre European epidemiological research study examining the relationship of participation and quality of life to impairment and environment (physical, social and attitudinal in 8–12 year old children with cerebral palsy. Concepts are adopted from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health which bridges the medical and social models of disability. Methods/Design A cross sectional study of children with cerebral palsy sampled from total population databases in 9 European regions. Children were visited by research associates in each country who had been trained together. The main instruments used were KIDSCREEN, Life-H, Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, Parenting Stress Index. A measure of environment was developed within the study. All instruments were translated according to international guidelines. The potential for bias due to non response and missing data will be examined. After initial analysis using multivariate regression of how the data captured by each instrument relate to impairment and socio-economic characteristics, relationships between the latent traits captured by the instruments will then be analysed using structural equation modelling. Discussion This study is original in its methods by directly engaging children themselves, ensuring those with learning or communication difficulty are not excluded, and by studying in quantitative terms the crucial outcomes of participation and quality of life. Specification and publication of this protocol prior to analysis, which is not common in epidemiology but well established for randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews, should avoid the pitfalls of data dredging and post hoc analyses.

  14. Better movers and thinkers (BMT): A quasi-experimental study into the impact of physical education on children's cognition—A study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziell, Andrew; Boyle, James; Mutrie, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    This study will extend on a pilot study and will evaluate the impact of a novel approach to PE, Better Movers and Thinkers (BMT), on students' cognition, physical activity habits, and gross motor coordination (GMC). The study will involve six mainstream state schools with students aged 9–11 years. Three schools will be allocated as the intervention condition and three as the control condition. The design of the study is a 16-week intervention with pre-, post- and 6 month follow-up measurements taken using the ‘Cognitive Assessment System (CAS)’ GMC tests, and the ‘Physical Activity Habits Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C).’ Qualitative data will be gathered using student focus groups and class teacher interviews in each of the six schools. ANCOVA will be used to evaluate any effect of intervention comparing pre-test scores with post-test scores and then pre-test scores with 6 month follow-up scores. Qualitative data will be analysed through an iterative process using grounded theory. This protocol provides the details of the rationale and design of the study and details of the intervention, outcome measures, and the recruitment process. The study will address gaps within current research by evaluating if a change of approach in the delivery of PE within schools has an effect on children's cognition, PA habits, and GMC within a Scottish setting. PMID:26844172

  15. Better movers and thinkers (BMT): A quasi-experimental study into the impact of physical education on children's cognition-A study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziell, Andrew; Boyle, James; Mutrie, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    This study will extend on a pilot study and will evaluate the impact of a novel approach to PE, Better Movers and Thinkers (BMT), on students' cognition, physical activity habits, and gross motor coordination (GMC). The study will involve six mainstream state schools with students aged 9-11 years. Three schools will be allocated as the intervention condition and three as the control condition. The design of the study is a 16-week intervention with pre-, post- and 6 month follow-up measurements taken using the 'Cognitive Assessment System (CAS)' GMC tests, and the 'Physical Activity Habits Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C).' Qualitative data will be gathered using student focus groups and class teacher interviews in each of the six schools. ANCOVA will be used to evaluate any effect of intervention comparing pre-test scores with post-test scores and then pre-test scores with 6 month follow-up scores. Qualitative data will be analysed through an iterative process using grounded theory. This protocol provides the details of the rationale and design of the study and details of the intervention, outcome measures, and the recruitment process. The study will address gaps within current research by evaluating if a change of approach in the delivery of PE within schools has an effect on children's cognition, PA habits, and GMC within a Scottish setting. PMID:26844172

  16. An oral health education video game for high caries risk children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Aljafari, Ahmad; Rice, Colm; Gallagher, Jennifer Elizabeth; Hosey, Marie Therese

    2015-01-01

    Background Tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of childhood in the world. Many children develop caries early in their lives, and go on to develop further caries and sepsis as they grow up, indicating failure in prevention. As a result, many end up requiring general anaesthesia to undergo treatment for a disease that is completely preventable. Previous studies have suggested that the families of these children need better oral health education as well as better support in implementi...

  17. Built environment and active play among Washington DC metropolitan children: A protocol for a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Jennifer D.; Ray, Rashawn; Biles, Amber D; Knight, Brandon; Saelens, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has demonstrated that children who participate in active play are more likely to be physically active, thereby improving long-term health outcomes. Many adult studies have also shown that neighborhood built environments can encourage or discourage routine physical activity. Limited evidence has demonstrated that children who reside in neighborhoods with a built environment that is more inviting to active play exhibit lower overweight and obesity rates as well as an overall...

  18. Investigating within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's physical activity, dietary intake, and body composition: Protocol for the MATCH study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve F; Liao, Yue; Dzubur, Eldin; Leventhal, Adam M; Huh, Jimi; Gruenewald, Tara; Margolin, Gayla; Koprowski, Carol; Tate, Eleanor; Intille, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Parental stress is an understudied factor that may compromise parenting practices related to children's dietary intake, physical activity, and obesity. However, studies examining these associations have been subject to methodological limitations, including cross-sectional designs, retrospective measures, a lack of stress biomarkers, and the tendency to overlook momentary etiologic processes occurring within each day. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the MATCH (Mothers And Their Children's Health) study, a longitudinal investigation using novel real-time data capture strategies to examine within-day associations of maternal stress with children's physical activity and dietary intake, and how these effects contribute to children's obesity risk. In the MATCH study, 200 mothers and their 8 to 12 year-old children are participating in 6 semi-annual assessment waves across 3 years. At each wave, measures for mother-child dyads include: (a) real-time Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) of self-reported daily psychosocial stressors (e.g., work at a job, family demands), feeling stressed, perceived stress, parenting practices, dietary intake, and physical activity with time and location stamps; (b) diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, accelerometer-monitored physical activity, and 24-hour dietary recalls; (c) retrospective questionnaires of sociodemographic, cultural, family, and neighborhood covariates; and (d) height, weight, and waist circumference. Putative within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's dietary intake, physical activity, and body composition will be tested through multilevel modeling and latent growth curve models, respectively. The results will inform interventions that help mothers reduce the negative effects of stress on weight-related parenting practices and children's obesity risk. PMID:25987483

  19. Randomised controlled trial of improvisational music therapy's effectiveness for children with autism spectrum disorders (TIME-A): study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Geretsegger Monika; Holck Ulla; Gold Christian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous research has suggested that music therapy may facilitate skills in areas typically affected by autism spectrum disorders such as social interaction and communication. However, generalisability of previous findings has been restricted, as studies were limited in either methodological accuracy or the clinical relevance of their approach. The aim of this study is to determine effects of improvisational music therapy on social communication skills of children with aut...

  20. Do children with cerebral palsy benefit from computerized working memory training? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Løhaugen, Gro CC; Beneventi, Harald; Andersen, Guro L; Sundberg, Cato; Østgård, Heidi Furre; Bakkan, Ellen; Walther, Geir; Vik, Torstein; Skranes, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common motor disability in childhood (2 to 3 per 1000 live births), and is frequently accompanied by cognitive impairments and behavioural problems. Children with CP are at increased risk of attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)) including working memory deficits. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate if cognitive training may improve working m...

  1. Improved outcome in children with advanced stage B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL): results of the United Kingdom Children Cancer Study Group (UKCCSG) 9002 protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Atra, A; Imeson, J. D.; Hobson, R.; Gerrard, M; Hann, I M; Eden, O B; Carter, R. L.; Pinkerton, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    From July 1990 to March 1996, 112 children with stage III or IV B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) with up to 70% FAB L3-type blasts (n= 42) in the bone marrow without central nervous system (CNS) disease were treated on the United Kingdom Children Cancer Study Group (UKCCSG) 9002 protocol (identical to the French LMB 84). The median age was 8.3 years. There were 81 boys and 31 girls. According to the extent of the primary disease, patients were sub-staged into three groups: IIIA with unre...

  2. Antibiotics for bronchiectasis exacerbations in children: rationale and study protocol for a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Anne B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite bronchiectasis being increasingly recognised as an important cause of chronic respiratory morbidity in both indigenous and non-indigenous settings globally, high quality evidence to inform management is scarce. It is assumed that antibiotics are efficacious for all bronchiectasis exacerbations, but not all practitioners agree. Inadequately treated exacerbations may risk lung function deterioration. Our study tests the hypothesis that both oral azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid are superior to placebo at improving resolution rates of respiratory exacerbations by day 14 in children with bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis. Methods We are conducting a bronchiectasis exacerbation study (BEST, which is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial, in five centres (Brisbane, Perth, Darwin, Melbourne, Auckland. In the component of BEST presented here, 189 children fulfilling inclusion criteria are randomised (allocation-concealed to receive amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (22.5 mg/kg twice daily with placebo-azithromycin; azithromycin (5 mg/kg daily with placebo-amoxicillin-clavulanic acid; or placebo-azithromycin with placebo-amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for 14 days. Clinical data and a paediatric cough-specific quality of life score are obtained at baseline, at the start and resolution of exacerbations, and at day 14. In most children, blood and deep nasal swabs are also collected at the same time points. The primary outcome is the proportion of children whose exacerbations have resolved at day 14. The main secondary outcome is the paediatric cough-specific quality of life score. Other outcomes are time to next exacerbation; requirement for hospitalisation; duration of exacerbation; and spirometry data. Descriptive viral and bacteriological data from nasal samples and blood markers will also be reported. Discussion Effective, evidence-based management

  3. School-based intervention to reduce anxiety in children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (PACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stallard Paul

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotional problems such as anxiety and low mood in children are common, impair everyday functioning and increase the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few children with emotional health problems are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate preventive approaches. Methods/Design The study is designed to be a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of an efficacious school-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT prevention program (FRIENDS on symptoms of anxiety and low mood in children 9 to 10 years of age. The unit of allocation is schools which are assigned to one of three conditions: school-led FRIENDS, health-led FRIENDS or treatment as usual. Assessments will be undertaken at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is change on the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Secondary outcome measures assess changes in self-esteem, worries, bullying and life satisfaction. An economic evaluation will be undertaken. Discussion As of September 2011, 41 schools have been recruited and randomized. Final 12-month assessments are scheduled to be completed by May 2013. Trial Registration ISRCTN23563048

  4. Randomised controlled trial of improvisational music therapy's effectiveness for children with autism spectrum disorders (TIME-A: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geretsegger Monika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has suggested that music therapy may facilitate skills in areas typically affected by autism spectrum disorders such as social interaction and communication. However, generalisability of previous findings has been restricted, as studies were limited in either methodological accuracy or the clinical relevance of their approach. The aim of this study is to determine effects of improvisational music therapy on social communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorders. An additional aim of the study is to examine if variation in dose of treatment (i.e., number of music therapy sessions per week affects outcome of therapy, and to determine cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design Children aged between 4;0 and 6;11 years who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will be randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Parents of all participants will receive three sessions of parent counselling (at 0, 2, and 5 months. In addition, children randomised to the two intervention groups will be offered individual, improvisational music therapy over a period of five months, either one session (low-intensity or three sessions (high-intensity per week. Generalised effects of music therapy will be measured using standardised scales completed by blinded assessors (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS and parents (Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS before and 2, 5, and 12 months after randomisation. Cost effectiveness will be calculated as man years. A group sequential design with first interim look at N = 235 will ensure both power and efficiency. Discussion Responding to the need for more rigorously designed trials examining the effectiveness of music therapy in autism spectrum disorders, this pragmatic trial sets out to generate findings that will be well generalisable to clinical practice. Addressing the issue of dose variation, this study's results will also provide information on the relevance of session

  5. Hand sanitisers for reducing illness absences in primary school children in New Zealand: a cluster randomised controlled trial study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poore Marion R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New Zealand has relatively high rates of morbidity and mortality from infectious disease compared with other OECD countries, with infectious disease being more prevalent in children compared with others in the population. Consequences of infectious disease in children may have significant economic and social impact beyond the direct effects of the disease on the health of the child; including absence from school, transmission of infectious disease to other pupils, staff, and family members, and time off work for parents/guardians. Reduction of the transmission of infectious disease between children at schools could be an effective way of reducing the community incidence of infectious disease. Alcohol based no-rinse hand sanitisers provide an alternative hand cleaning technology, for which there is some evidence that they may be effective in achieving this. However, very few studies have investigated the effectiveness of hand sanitisers, and importantly, the potential wider economic implications of this intervention have not been established. Aims The primary objective of this trial is to establish if the provision of hand sanitisers in primary schools in the South Island of New Zealand, in addition to an education session on hand hygiene, reduces the incidence rate of absence episodes due to illness in children. In addition, the trial will establish the cost-effectiveness and conduct a cost-benefit analysis of the intervention in this setting. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial will be undertaken to establish the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of hand sanitisers. Sixty-eight primary schools will be recruited from three regions in the South Island of New Zealand. The schools will be randomised, within region, to receive hand sanitisers and an education session on hand hygiene, or an education session on hand hygiene alone. Fifty pupils from each school in years 1 to 6 (generally aged from 5 to 11 years

  6. Quality of the parent-child interaction in young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aanstoot Henk-Jan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM parents have full responsibility for the diabetes-management of their child (e.g. blood glucose monitoring, and administering insulin. Behavioral tasks in childhood, such as developing autonomy, and oppositional behavior (e.g. refusing food may interfere with the diabetes-management to achieve an optimal blood glucose control. Furthermore, higher blood glucose levels are related to more behavioral problems. So parents might need to negotiate with their child on the diabetes-management to avoid this direct negative effect. This interference, the negotiations, and the parent's responsibility for diabetes may negatively affect the quality of parent-child interaction. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge about the quality of interaction between parents and young children with T1DM, and the possible impact this may have on glycemic control and psychosocial functioning of the child. While widely used global parent-child interaction observational methods are available, there is a need for an observational tool specifically tailored to the interaction patterns of parents and children with T1DM. The main aim of this study is to construct a disease-specific observational method to assess diabetes-specific parent-child interaction. Additional aim is to explore whether the quality of parent-child interactions is associated with the glycemic control, and psychosocial functioning (resilience, behavioral problems, and quality of life. Methods/Design First, we will examine which situations are most suitable for observing diabetes-specific interactions. Then, these situations will be video-taped in a pilot study (N = 15. Observed behaviors are described into rating scales, with each scale describing characteristics of parent-child interactional behaviors. Next, we apply the observational tool on a larger scale for further evaluation of the instrument (N = 120. The parents are asked

  7. The effect of the video game Mindlight on anxiety symptoms in children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder [study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnhoven, L.A.M.W.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Engels, R. C. M. E.; Granic, I.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the clinical setting, a large proportion of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience anxiety symptoms. Because anxiety is an important cause of impairment for children with an ASD, it is necessary that effective anxiety interventions are implemented for these children. Recently, a serious game called Mindlight has been developed that is focused on decreasing anxiety in children. This approach is based on recent research suggesting that video games might be suit...

  8. The effect of the video game Mindlight on anxiety symptoms in children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder [study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, L.A.M.W.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Granic, I.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the clinical setting, a large proportion of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience anxiety symptoms. Because anxiety is an important cause of impairment for children with an ASD, it is necessary that effective anxiety interventions are implemented for these children

  9. [High risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. Preliminary report after introducing a new version of New York (1997) protocol adjusted to the age of the patients. Report of the Polish Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczen, S; Klus, K; Armata, J; Kowalczyk, J; Wisniewska-Slusarz, H; Kolecki, P; Derwich, K; Matysiak, M; Krauze, A; Rokicka-Milewska, R; Pawelec, K; Boguslawska-Jaworska, J; Juszczak, K; Pisarek, J; Sońta-Jakimczyk, D; Tomaszewska, R; Łuszczynska, A; Wysocki, M; Styczyński, J

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the experience of the Polish Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group in the treatment of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children using a new version of the New York (1997-1999). Protocol with treatment intensity adjusted according to the age of the patients. From April 1997 to December 1999 a group of 49 children with leukocytosis ranging from 50 900/mm3 to 580 000/mm3 (median 122 000/mm3) and 6 children with leukocytosis below 50 000/mm3 and poor response to steroids were treated with this protocol. Children below 10 years (43 patients) were treated according to the previous protocol, children above 10 years (12 patients) were treated with intensified protocol (high doses of ARA-C in consolidation and intermediate doses of Mtx in maintenance). Induction was identical for all patients. Complete remission was achieved in 92.6% patients. There were 2 relapses. Six children died - 3 without remission, 2 due to a relapse, 1 due to treatment complications. The current opinions concerning classification of HRG-ALL and treatment possibilities in this group of children are discussed. PMID:12021459

  10. Behavioural sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): protocol for a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Lycett, Kate; Sciberras, E; Mensah, F K; Gulenc, A; Hiscock, H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly experience behavioural sleep problems, yet these difficulties are not routinely assessed and managed in this group. Presenting with similar symptoms to ADHD itself, sleep problems are complex in children with ADHD and their aetiology is likely to be multifactorial. Common internalising and externalising comorbidities have been associated with sleep problems in children with ADHD; however, this relationship is ...

  11. The DOMUS study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordly, Mie; Benthien, Kirstine Skov; Von Der Maase, Hans;

    2014-01-01

    is a controlled randomized clinical trial with a balanced parallel-group randomization (1:1). The planned sample size is 340 in- and outpatients treated at the Department of Oncology at Copenhagen University Hospital. Patients are randomly assigned either to: a) standard care plus SPC enriched with a...... cancer can be a powerful tool to improve patients' quality of life and support family/caregivers during the disease trajectory. The present study offers a model for achieving optimal delivery of palliative care in the patient's preferred place of care and attempt to clarify challenges. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  12. The diagnosis of urinary tract infections in young children (DUTY: protocol for a diagnostic and prospective observational study to derive and validate a clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of UTI in children presenting to primary care with an acute illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downing Harriet

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is common in children, and may cause serious illness and recurrent symptoms. However, obtaining a urine sample from young children in primary care is challenging and not feasible for large numbers. Evidence regarding the predictive value of symptoms, signs and urinalysis for UTI in young children is urgently needed to help primary care clinicians better identify children who should be investigated for UTI. This paper describes the protocol for the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract infection in Young children (DUTY study. The overall study aim is to derive and validate a cost-effective clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of UTI in children presenting to primary care acutely unwell. Methods/design DUTY is a multicentre, diagnostic and prospective observational study aiming to recruit at least 7,000 children aged before their fifth birthday, being assessed in primary care for any acute, non-traumatic, illness of ≤ 28 days duration. Urine samples will be obtained from eligible consented children, and data collected on medical history and presenting symptoms and signs. Urine samples will be dipstick tested in general practice and sent for microbiological analysis. All children with culture positive urines and a random sample of children with urine culture results in other, non-positive categories will be followed up to record symptom duration and healthcare resource use. A diagnostic algorithm will be constructed and validated and an economic evaluation conducted. The primary outcome will be a validated diagnostic algorithm using a reference standard of a pure/predominant growth of at least >103, but usually >105 CFU/mL of one, but no more than two uropathogens. We will use logistic regression to identify the clinical predictors (i.e. demographic, medical history, presenting signs and symptoms and urine dipstick analysis results most strongly associated with a positive urine culture result. We will

  13. A Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Delivered by Aspiring Physical Education Teachers to Children from Social Disadvantage: Study Protocol and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Gavin; Brennan, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design of a school-based healthy lifestyle intervention for eight-year-old to nine-year-old school children from lower socio-economic backgrounds, intended to increase physical activity, decrease sedentary behaviours, reduce screen-time behaviours, encourage healthy attitudes and behaviours to nutrition, and reduce body mass index.…

  14. Study protocol: SPARCLE – a multi-centre European study of the relationship of environment to participation and quality of life in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Colver Allan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background SPARCLE is a nine-centre European epidemiological research study examining the relationship of participation and quality of life to impairment and environment (physical, social and attitudinal) in 8–12 year old children with cerebral palsy. Concepts are adopted from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health which bridges the medical and social models of disability. Methods/Design A cross sectional study of children with cerebral palsy sampled f...

  15. Improving allied health professionals’ research implementation behaviours for children with cerebral palsy: protocol for a before-after study

    OpenAIRE

    Imms, Christine; Novak, Iona; Kerr, Claire; Shields, Nora; Randall, Melinda; Harvey, Adrienne; Graham, H Kerr; Reddihough, Dinah

    2015-01-01

    Background Cerebral palsy is a permanent disorder of posture and movement caused by disturbances in the developing brain. It affects approximately 1 in every 500 children in developed countries and is the most common form of childhood physical disability. People with cerebral palsy may also have problems with speech, vision and hearing, intellectual difficulties and epilepsy. Health and therapy services are frequently required throughout life, and this care should be effective and evidence in...

  16. NEURAPRO-E study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markulev, Connie; McGorry, Patrick D; Nelson, Barnaby;

    2016-01-01

    response to omega-3 PUFA treatment in the UHR group. CONCLUSION: This is the protocol of the NeuraproE study. Utilizing a large sample, results from this study will be important in informing indicated prevention strategies for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, which may be the strongest avenue...... polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), coupled with the falling transition rate in ultra high-risk (UHR) samples, mean that further study of such benign, potentially neuroprotective interventions is clinically and ethically required. Employing a multicentre approach, enabling a large sample size, this study will...

  17. [Protocol for the preparation of preschool children to venous puncture using therapeutic play].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M R; Ribeiro, C A; de Borba, R I; da Silva, C V

    2001-03-01

    This exploratory-descriptive study aims at elaborating a protocol, using therapeutic play, for the preparation of preschool children to venous puncture and also at testing its efficiency and applicability. The children that attended the play session were more cooperative when they were punctured. They understood the need and technical aspects of this clinical procedure; manifested their feelings, elaborated familiar and hospital situations that resulted in a better relationship with the other children and the nursing team. Authors concluded that this protocol is feasible and useful and suggested that it should be incorporated in the nursing care plan to hospitalized children. PMID:12046567

  18. Evaluation of an oral preventive protocol in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Fernandes Maria Zélia; Quinderé Lêda Bezerra; Souza Lélia Batista de; Pinto Leão Pereira

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a preventive oral protocol in children receiving antineoplastic treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) before initiating a larger intervention study. During a seven month period, fourteen children from two to ten years old with a diagnosis of ALL were evaluated. Patients with ALL who received a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouth rinse (seven children) were compared to a control group of patients who were not given the same preventive tre...

  19. Dental care protocol based on visual supports for children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Mastroberardino, Stefano; Campus, Guglielmo; Olivari, Benedetta; Faggioli, Raffaella; Lenti, Carlo; Strohmenger, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) have often difficulties to accept dental treatments. The aim of this study is to propose a dental care protocol based on visual supports to facilitate children with ASDs to undergo to oral examination and treatments. Material and Methods 83 children (age range 6-12 years) with a signed consent form were enrolled; intellectual level, verbal fluency and cooperation grade were evaluated. Children were introduced into a four stages path in...

  20. Australian Cerebral Palsy Child Study: protocol of a prospective population based study of motor and brain development of preschool aged children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Roslyn N; Jordan, Rachel; Pareezer, Laura; Moodie, Anne; Finn, Christine; Luther, Belinda; Arnfield, Evyn; Pym, Aaron; Craven, Alex; Beall, Paula; Weir, Kelly; Kentish, Megan; Wynter, Meredith; Ware, Robert; Fahey, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Cerebral palsy (CP) results from a static brain lesion during pregnancy or early life and remains the most common cause of physical disability in children (1 in 500). While the brain lesion is static, the physical manifestations and medical issues may progress resulting in altered motor patterns. To date, there are no prospective longitudinal studies of CP that follow a birth cohort to track early gross and fine motor development and use Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to determin...

  1. Improving access to preparatory information for children undergoing general anaesthesia for tooth extraction and their families: study protocol for a Phase III randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hosey, Marie Therese; Donaldson, Ana Nora; Huntington, Corinne; Liossi, Christina; Reynolds, Patricia A; Alharatani, Reham; Newton, J Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Background Children can find anaesthesia induction especially distressing and postoperative psychological and physical morbidity are common. Preparation programmes for general anaesthesia (GA) are highly effective in reducing this distress. A Phase II study has already verified the effectiveness of a prototype preoperative GA-coping computer game to help children cope with induction in a dental GA setting. The biggest patient users of pediatric GA services in the UK are children who need to h...

  2. Paediatric trauma systems and their impact on the health outcomes of severely injured children: protocol for a mixed methods cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Kate; McCarthy, Amy; Mitchell, Rebecca; Black, Deborah; Foster, Kim; Jan, Stephen; Burns, Brian; Tall, Gary; Rigby, Oran; Gruen, Russell; Kennedy, Belinda; Holland, Andrew J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Injury is a leading cause of death and disability for children. Regionalised trauma systems have improved outcomes for severely injured adults, however the impact of adult orientated trauma systems on the outcomes of severely injured children remains unclear. The objective of this study is to review the processes of care and describe the impacts of a regionalised trauma system on the outcomes of severely injured children. Methods This article describes the design of a mixed methods...

  3. Pan-Britain, mixed-methods study of multidisciplinary teams teaching parents to manage children's long-term kidney conditions at home: Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swallow Veronica M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Care of children and young people (children with long-term kidney conditions is usually managed by multidisciplinary teams. Published guidance recommends that whenever possible children with long-term conditions remain at home, meaning parents may be responsible for performing the majority of clinical care-giving. Multidisciplinary team members, therefore, spend considerable time promoting parents' learning about care-delivery and monitoring care-giving. However, this parent-educative aspect of clinicians' role is rarely articulated in the literature so little evidence exists to inform professionals' parent-teaching interventions. Methods/Design This ongoing study addresses this issue using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods involving the twelve children's kidney units in England, Scotland and Wales. Phase I involves a survey of multidisciplinary team members' parent-teaching interventions using: i A telephone-administered questionnaire to determine: the numbers of professionals from different disciplines in each team, the information/skills individual professionals relay to parents and the teaching strategies/interventions they use. Data will be managed using SPSS to produce descriptive statistics ii Digitally-recorded, qualitative group or individual interviews with multidisciplinary team members to explore their accounts of the parent-teaching component of their role. Interviews will be transcribed anonymously and analysed using Framework Technique. Sampling criteria will be derived from analysis to identify one/two unit(s for subsequent in-depth study Phase II involves six prospective, ethnographic case-studies of professional-parent interactions during parent-teaching encounters. Parents of six children with a long-term kidney condition will be purposively sampled according to their child's age, diagnosis, ethnicity and the clinical care-giving required; snowball sampling will identify the

  4. Danish Focus group protocol for children & adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werther, Michelle Nadia; Pedersen, Dorthe; Sansolios, Sanne

    2010-01-01

    child (Heary & Hennessy, 2002). As in this particularly research it is decided to use the FG method to collect the dietary empiric, it must also be recognised that this method is not common to use with children at the age of 5, and therefore finding literature with best suitable ways to conduct the......As one aim of the research was to gain knowledge about children’s perception on food and meals as well as physical activity, it was decided that a qualitative method would be most appropriate. In addition the use of FG as research method was chosen, as this method gives the researcher the...... opportunity to explore the children’s knowledge and perception of a given subject. Thus recognizes the participants as experts of their world. FG’s have the additional advantages of minimize the possibility of the children responding to please the interviewer, and also remove the pressure from the individual...

  5. Universal protocol for alopecia areata clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesinkovska, Natasha A; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2013-12-01

    Within the area of alopecia areata research, there is an obvious need for well-designed clinical trials of therapeutic agents. The National Alopecia Areata Foundation (NAAF) has created an initiative for the development of a unified protocol with guidelines for clinical studies. The NAAF universal protocol represents a joint effort of clinicians and investigators with experience in treating alopecia areata. This protocol will serve as a tremendous resource to facilitate future clinical studies. PMID:24326554

  6. PEG-asparaginase allergy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the NOPHO ALL2008 protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Louise Tram; Harila-Saari, Arja; Ruud, Ellen;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: L-Asparaginase is an effective drug in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The use of L-asparaginase may be limited by serious adverse events of which allergy is the most frequent. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical aspects of PEG......-asparaginase allergy in children treated according to the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL2008 protocol. PROCEDURE: Children (1-17 years) enrolled in the NOPHO ALL2008 protocol between July 2008 and August 2011, who developed PEG-asparaginase allergy were identified through the NOPHO...

  7. Rheumatic Fever Follow-Up Study (RhFFUS protocol: a cohort study investigating the significance of minor echocardiographic abnormalities in Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémond Marc Gerard Wootton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, rheumatic heart disease (RHD is almost exclusively restricted to Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander people with children being at highest risk. International criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of RHD have been developed but the significance of minor heart valve abnormalities which do not reach these criteria remains unclear. The Rheumatic Fever Follow-Up Study (RhFFUS aims to clarify this question in children and adolescents at high risk of RHD. Methods/design RhFFUS is a cohort study of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children and adolescents aged 8–17 years residing in 32 remote Australian communities. Cases are people with non-specific heart valve abnormalities detected on prior screening echocardiography. Controls (two per case are age, gender, community and ethnicity-matched to cases and had a prior normal screening echocardiogram. Participants will have echocardiography about 3 years after initial screening echocardiogram and enhanced surveillance for any history suggestive of acute rheumatic fever (ARF. It will then be determined if cases are at higher risk of (1 ARF or (2 developing progressive echocardiography-detected valve changes consistent with RHD. The occurrence and timing of episodes of ARF will be assessed retrospectively for 5 years from the time of the RhFFUS echocardiogram. Episodes of ARF will be identified through regional surveillance and notification databases, carer/subject interviews, primary healthcare history reviews, and hospital separation diagnoses. Progression of valvular abnormalities will be assessed prospectively using transthoracic echocardiography and standardized operating and reporting procedures. Progression of valve lesions will be determined by specialist cardiologist readers who will assess the initial screening and subsequent RhFFUS screening echocardiogram for each participant. The readers will be blinded to the initial assessment and

  8. Effects of exercise intensity and nutrition advice on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents: a multicentre randomised controlled trial study protocol.

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Katrin A; Coombes, Jeff S.; Green, DJ; Gomersall, SR; Keating, SE; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Hollekim-Strand, Siri Marte; Hosseini, Mansoureh Sadat; Rø, Torstein Baade; Haram, M; Huuse, EM; Davies, PS; Cain, PA; Leong, GM; Ingul, Charlotte Bjørk

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of paediatric obesity is increasing, and with it, lifestyle-related diseases in children and adolescents. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has recently been explored as an alternate to traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in adults with chronic disease and has been shown to induce a rapid reversal of subclinical disease markers in obese children and adolescents. The primary aim of this study is to compare the effects of HIIT with MICT on...

  9. Effects of exercise intensity and nutrition advice on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents: a multicentre randomised controlled trial study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Katrin A; Coombes, Jeff S; Green, Daniel J.; Gomersall, Sjaan R; Keating, Shelley E.; Tjonna, Arnt Erik; Hollekim-Strand, Siri Marte; Hosseini, Mansoureh Sadat; Ro, Torstein Baade; Haram, Margrete; Huuse, Else Marie; Davies, Peter S. W.; Cain, Peter A; Leong, Gary M; Ingul, Charlotte B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of paediatric obesity is increasing, and with it, lifestyle-related diseases in children and adolescents. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has recently been explored as an alternate to traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in adults with chronic disease and has been shown to induce a rapid reversal of subclinical disease markers in obese children and adolescents. The primary aim of this study is to compare the effects of HIIT with MICT on...

  10. Complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to improve children's nutrition and health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal : a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Erismann, Séverine; Shrestha, Akina; Diagbouga, Serge; Knoblauch, Astrid; Gerold, Jana; Herz, Ramona; Sharma, Subodh; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Drescher, Axel; Yang, Ray-Yu; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition and intestinal parasitic infections are common among children in Burkina Faso and Nepal. However, specific health-related data in school-aged children in these two countries are scarce. In the frame of a larger multi-stakeholder project entitled "Vegetables go to School: Improving Nutrition through Agricultural Diversification" (VgtS), a study has been designed with the objectives to: (i) describe schoolchildren's health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal; and to (ii) provide an ev...

  11. Security Protocol Design: A Case Study Using Key Distribution Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Dojen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays security protocols are a key component in providing security services for fixed and mobile networks. These services include data confidentiality, radio link encryption, message integrity, mobile subscriber authentication, electronic payment, certified e-mail, contract signing and nonrepudiation. This paper is concerned with design of effective security protocols. Security protocols are introduced and some common attacks against security protocols are discussed. The vulnerabilities that lead to theattacks are analyzed and guidelines for effective security protocol design are proposed. The presented guidelines are applied to the Andrew Secure RPC protocol and its adapted versions. It is demonstrated that compliance with the guidelines successfully avoidsfreshness and parallel session attacks.

  12. Optimised low-dose multidetector CT protocol for children with cranial deformity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Jose Luis [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo, Department of Radiology, Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain); Pombar, Miguel Angel [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, Department of Radiophysics, Santiago de Compostela, La Coruna (Spain); Pumar, Jose Manuel [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, Department of Radiology, Santiago de Compostela, La Coruna (Spain); Campo, Victor Miguel del [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo, Department of Public Health, Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain)

    2013-08-15

    To present an optimised low-dose multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) protocol for the study of children with cranial deformity. Ninety-one consecutive MDCT studies were performed in 80 children. Studies were performed with either our standard head CT protocol (group 1, n = 20) or a low-dose cranial deformity protocol (groups 2 and 3). Group 2 (n = 38), initial, and group 3 (n = 33), final and more optimised. All studies were performed in the same 64-MDCT equipment. Cranial deformity protocol was gradationally optimised decreasing kVp, limiting mA range, using automatic exposure control (AEC) and increasing the noise index (NI). Image quality was assessed. Dose indicators such us CT dose index volume (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP) and effective dose (E) were used. The optimised low-dose protocol reached the following values: 80 kVp, mA range: 50-150 and NI = 23. We achieved a maximum dose reduction of 10-22 times in the 1- to 12-month-old cranium in regard to the 2004 European guidelines for MDCT. A low-dose MDCT protocol that may be used as the first diagnostic imaging option in clinically selected patients with skull abnormalities. (orig.)

  13. Clinical trials of CCLSG L874 and I874 protocols without cranial irradiation for standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood; A study from the children's cancer and leukemia study group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Shoichi (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Fujimoto, Takeo; Tsurusawa, Masahito (and others)

    1992-10-01

    In the CCLSG-874 protocol for children with low-risk (LR) and intermediate-risk (IR) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), two regimens with or without cranial irradiation (CI) were compared with respect to their ability to prevent central nervous system (CNS) leukemia and to improve overall outcome of ALL. From 1987 to 1990, 82 and 109 evaluable patients were registered into L874 and I874 protocols for LR and IR patients, respectively. All responders to induction therapy were randomized to treatment with 18 Gy of CI plus intrathecal methotrexate (MTX it) or to treatment with high-dose MTX plus MTX it. Patients were then treated with standard maintenance regimens of L874 and I874. At a median follow-up of 39 months (range 14-58 months) there was no difference in the rate of hematologic relapse between the CI group and MTX group. The rate of CNS relapse in the MTX group seemed to be higher (3 of 39 in L874 and 2 of 54 in I874) than that in the CI group (1 of 43 in L874 and 0 of 55 in I874), but these data were not statistically significant. The rates of 4-year event-free survival (EFS) in L874 were 81.1[+-]7.6% (mean[+-]SE) and 75.2[+-]7.9% (ns) for the CI and MTX group, respectively, and the rates of EFS in I874 were 70.0[+-]13.6% and 70.0[+-]9.0% (ns) for the CI and MTX group, respectively. These data suggest that MTX alone may be as effective as CI to prolong disease-free survival in LR and IR ALL although further continuous studies are needed. Analysis of serial CCLSG protocols for ALL from 1981 revealed that the rate of EFS of ALL allover including all risk groups has gradually been increasing from 44.2[+-]3.6% for 811 protocol and 53.1[+-]3.5% for 841 to 65.5[+-]3.6% for the present 874 protocol. (author).

  14. Systematic review of the effectiveness of the Wilbarger protocol with children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weeks S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Scott Weeks, Kobie Boshoff, Hugh StewartSchool of Health Sciences Occupational Therapy Program, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaBackground: Sensory processing disorders have an estimated prevalence of 5%–10% in children without disability and 40%–88% in children with disability. A subtype of sensory processing disorder is sensory overresponsivity, which can result in fear, irritability, aggression, or avoidance behaviors in children. The Wilbarger protocol is the most prescriptive program used to treat sensory overresponsivity in children aged 2–12 years. Strong anecdotal evidence suggests that the Wilbarger protocol successfully reduces challenging behavior in children with sensory overresponsivity. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and appraise the existing evidence for the effectiveness of the Wilbarger protocol with children aged 0–18 years.Methods: A systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature written in English. The electronic databases searched up to April 2012 included CINAHL, Ovid Medline (R, Embase, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, AMED, and the Web of Science. OT Seeker and Google Scholar were searched for missed literature, along with hand-searching of retained articles. Adult studies were excluded. The Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies by McMaster University and the levels of hierarchy from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council were used to appraise the literature.Results: A total of 341 studies were found, and 302 were screened for eligibility after duplicates were removed. Four level IV intervention (case series with pretest/posttest studies were included for indepth review. All four studies had very small sample sizes, exhibited low methodological quality, differed in outcome measures used, and lacked homogeneity of samples and treatment fidelity.Conclusion: A lack of high quality evidence currently exists to support or

  15. Effects of exercise intensity and nutrition advice on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents: a multicentre randomised controlled trial study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Katrin A; Coombes, Jeff S; Green, Daniel J; Gomersall, Sjaan R; Keating, Shelley E; Tjonna, Arnt Erik; Hollekim-Strand, Siri Marte; Hosseini, Mansoureh Sadat; Ro, Torstein Baade; Haram, Margrete; Huuse, Else Marie; Davies, Peter S W; Cain, Peter A; Leong, Gary M; Ingul, Charlotte B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of paediatric obesity is increasing, and with it, lifestyle-related diseases in children and adolescents. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has recently been explored as an alternate to traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in adults with chronic disease and has been shown to induce a rapid reversal of subclinical disease markers in obese children and adolescents. The primary aim of this study is to compare the effects of HIIT with MICT on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents. Methods and analysis Multicentre randomised controlled trial of 100 obese children and adolescents in the cities of Trondheim (Norway) and Brisbane (Australia). The trial will examine the efficacy of HIIT to improve cardiometabolic outcomes in obese children and adolescents. Participants will be randomised to (1) HIIT and nutrition advice, (2) MICT and nutrition advice or (3) nutrition advice. Participants will partake in supervised exercise training and/or nutrition sessions for 3 months. Measurements for study end points will occur at baseline, 3 months (postintervention) and 12 months (follow-up). The primary end point is myocardial function (peak systolic tissue velocity). Secondary end points include vascular function (flow-mediated dilation assessment), quantity of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, myocardial structure and function, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, autonomic function, blood biochemistry, physical activity and nutrition. Lean, healthy children and adolescents will complete measurements for all study end points at one time point for comparative cross-sectional analyses. Ethics and dissemination This randomised controlled trial will generate substantial information regarding the effects of exercise intensity on paediatric obesity, specifically the cardiometabolic health of this at-risk population. It is expected that communication of results will allow for the development of

  16. The results of treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and leukocyte count over 50 x 109/1 according to the modified New York protocol. Preliminary report of Polish Leukemia-Lymphoma Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    92 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and leukocyte count over 50 x 109/1 were treated according to the modified New York protocol. The modifications were based on elements of Dana Faber protocol. The 4 year DFS was 66%. (author)

  17. Inhaled corticosteroids for abnormal pulmonary function in children with a history of Chronic Lung Disease of Infancy: study protocol [ISRCTN55153521

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauve Reginald

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable evidence from the literature that children with chronic lung disease of infancy (CLD have abnormal pulmonary function in childhood and this could have an impact on their life quality and overall health. There are similarities between CLD and asthma, and corticosteroids are the mainstay treatment for asthma. Many physicians use inhaled corticosteroids in children with CLD with no evidence. Therefore we wish to conduct a randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trial to test for the role of inhaled corticosteroids in children aged from3 to 9 years with a history of CLD. Our primary hypothesis will be that inhaled corticosteroids are beneficial in children with CLD. Methods Our primary hypothesis is that using inhaled steroids; Beclomethasone Dipropionate (QVAR 100 mcg 2 puffs 2 times a day for 6 weeks will improve the respiratory system resistance and the quality of life in children with CLD. Discussion We propose that Beclomethasone Dipropionate (QVAR will affect the pulmonary function after 6 weeks of treatment. In summary we think that our study will highlight knowledge on whether the use of inhaled steroids is clinically effective for CLD.

  18. Low-dose protocol for head CT in evaluation of hydrocephalus in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A suspicion of ventriculo–peritoneal shunt failure is classified as the most common indication for CT in children with hydrocephalus. The main target of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of a low-dose protocol and to compare a total DLP received by patients in compared protocols. Our retrospective analysis included 256 examinations performed in patients aged from 1 month to 18 years, with body mass ranging from 3 to 100 kg. The examinations were conducted in the years 2009–2011. A total number of 128 examinations were performed on the basis of the low-dose protocol and 128 according to a standard protocol using the Siemens SOMATOM Definition AS 128-slice scanner. The analysis showed a full value of the diagnostic low-dose protocol with a simultaneous decrease of the total dose of DLP to the average of 40%. Application protocol with lower mAs in assessing the causes of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt failure in children with hydrocephalus is coherent with the valid principles of radiation protection in pediatrics and reduces the total DLP while maintaining a very good diagnostic value

  19. The effectiveness of Grief-Help, a cognitive behavioural treatment for prolonged grief in children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Spuij, Mariken; Prinzie, Peter; Dekovic, Maja; van den Bout, Jan; Paul A Boelen

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing recognition of a syndrome of disturbed grief referred to as prolonged grief disorder (PGD). PGD is mostly studied in adults, but clinically significant PGD symptoms have also been observed in children and adolescents. Yet, to date no effective treatment for childhood PGD exists. The aims of this study are: (1) to investigate the effectiveness of Grief-Help, a nine-session cognitive-behavioural treatment for childhood PGD, combined with five sessions of parental cou...

  20. The effect of family-based multidisciplinary cognitive behavioral treatment in children with obesity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruyff Carolien C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased rapidly during the last three decades in the Netherlands. It is assumed that mainly environmental factors have contributed to this trend. Parental overweight and low social economic status are risk factors for childhood obesity. Childhood obesity affects self-esteem and has negative consequences on cognitive and social development. Obese children tend to become obese adults, which increases the risk for developing cardiovascular complications, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and psychosocial problems. Additionally, the secretion of several gastrointestinal hormones, responsible for appetite and food intake, is impaired in obese subjects. Weight reduction through lifestyle changes in order to change health risks is, until now, suggested as the preferred treatment for childhood obesity. The objective of this study is the effect evaluation of a family-based cognitive behavioral multidisciplinary lifestyle treatment. The intervention aims to establish long-term weight reduction and stabilization, reduction of obesity-related health consequences and improvement of self-image by change of lifestyle and learning cognitive behavioral techniques. Study design/Methods In this randomized clinical trial newly presented children with obesity (8-17 years old are divided, by randomization, in an intervention and control group, both consisting of 40 obese children. The intervention is carried out in groups of 8-11 children, and consists of respectively 7 and 5 separate group meetings for the children and their parents and 1 joint group meeting of 2 ½ hours. Main topics are education on nutrition, self-control techniques, social skills, physical activity and improvement of self-esteem. The control group is given advice on physical activity and nutrition. For normal data comparison, data were collected of 40 normal-weight children, 8-17 years old. Discussion Because of the increasing prevalence of

  1. A pilot effectiveness study of the Enhancing Parenting Skills (EPaS) 2014 programme for parents of children with behaviour problems: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Margiad Elen; Hutchings, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Background The Enhancing Parenting Skills (EPaS) 2014 programme is a home-based, health visitor-delivered parenting support programme for parents of children with identified behaviour problems. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the EPaS 2014 programme compared to a waiting-list treatment as usual control group. Methods/Design This is a pragmatic, multicentre randomised controlled trial. Sixty health visitors will each be asked to identify two families that have a child scoring ...

  2. The 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' community effectiveness trial: study protocol of a community-based healthy lifestyle program for fathers and their children

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan Philip J; Lubans David R; Plotnikoff Ronald C; Callister Robin; Burrows Tracy; Fletcher Richard; Okely Anthony D; Young Myles D; Miller Andrew; Clay Victoria; Lloyd Adam; Collins Clare E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' program was designed to help overweight fathers lose weight and positively influence the health behaviors of their children. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the previously established program in a community setting, in a large effectiveness trial. Methods/Design The Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids community trial consists of three stages: (i) Stage 1 - program refinement and resource development (ii) Stage 2 - community randomized c...

  3. Statistical principles for prospective study protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Robin; Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research to...... "statistically significant" or not. In the present paper we outline the considerations and suggestions on how to build a trial protocol, with an emphasis on having a rigorous protocol stage, always leading to a full article manuscript, independent of statistical findings. We conclude that authors, who find...... (rigorous) protocol writing too troublesome, will realize that they have already written the first half of the final paper if they follow these recommendations; authors simply need to change the protocols future tense into past tense. Thus, the aim of this clinical commentary is to describe and explain the...

  4. The Good Schools Toolkit to prevent violence against children in Ugandan primary schools: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the Good School Toolkit, developed by Raising Voices, in preventing violence against children attending school and in improving child mental health and educational outcomes. Methods/design We are conducting a two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial with parallel assignment in Luwero District, Uganda. We will also conduct a qualitative study, a process evaluation and an economic evaluation. A total of 42 schools, representative of Luwero District, Uganda, were allocated to receive the Toolkit plus implementation support, or were allocated to a wait-list control condition. Our main analysis will involve a cross-sectional comparison of the prevalence of past-week violence from school staff as reported by children in intervention and control primary schools at follow-up. At least 60 children per school and all school staff members will be interviewed at follow-up. Data collection involves a combination of mobile phone-based, interviewer-completed questionnaires and paper-and-pen educational tests. Survey instruments include the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools to assess experiences of violence; the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to measure symptoms of common childhood mental disorders; and word recognition, reading comprehension, spelling, arithmetic and sustained attention tests adapted from an intervention trial in Kenya. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first study to rigorously investigate the effects of any intervention to prevent violence from school staff to children in primary school in a low-income setting. We hope the results will be informative across the African region and in other settings. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01678846 PMID:23883138

  5. Neighbourhoods for Active Kids: study protocol for a cross-sectional examination of neighbourhood features and children's physical activity, active travel, independent mobility and body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Melody; McPhee, Julia; Carroll, Penelope; Ikeda, Erika; Mavoa, Suzanne; Mackay, Lisa; Kearns, Robin A; Kyttä, Marketta; Asiasiga, Lanuola; Garrett, Nicholas; Lin, Judy; Mackett, Roger; Zinn, Caryn; Moewaka Barnes, Helen; Egli, Victoria; Prendergast, Kate; Witten, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction New Zealand children's physical activity, including independent mobility and active travel, has declined markedly over recent decades. The Neighbourhoods for Active Kids (NfAK) study examines how neighbourhood built environments are associated with the independent mobility, active travel, physical activity and neighbourhood experiences of children aged 9–12 years in primary and intermediate schools across Auckland, New Zealand's largest city. Methods and analysis Child-specific indices of walkability, destination accessibility and traffic exposure will be constructed to measure the built environment in 8 neighbourhoods in Auckland. Interactive online-mapping software will be used to measure children's independent mobility and transport mode to destinations and to derive measures of neighbourhood use and perceptions. Physical activity will be measured using 7-day accelerometry. Height, weight and waist circumference will be objectively measured. Parent telephone interviews will collect sociodemographic information and parent neighbourhood perceptions. Interviews with school representative will capture supports and barriers for healthy activity and nutrition behaviours at the school level. Multilevel modelling approaches will be used to understand how differing built environment variables are associated with activity, neighbourhood experiences and health outcomes. Discussion We anticipate that children who reside in neighbourhoods considered highly walkable will be more physically active, accumulate more independent mobility and active travel, and be more likely to have a healthy body size. This research is timely as cities throughout New Zealand develop and implement plans to improve the liveability of intensifying urban neighbourhoods. Results will be disseminated to participants, local government agencies and through conventional academic avenues. PMID:27531740

  6. Psychosocial interventions for disruptive behavioural problems in children living in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkey, Matthew D; Hosein, Megan; Purgato, Marianna; Morton, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs) are among the most common forms of child psychopathology and have serious long-term academic, social, and mental health consequences worldwide. Psychosocial treatments are the first line of evidence-based treatments for DBDs, yet their effectiveness often varies according to patient sociodemographic characteristics, practice setting, and implementation procedures. While a large majority of the world's children live in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), most studies have evaluated psychosocial treatments for DBDs in high-income Anglo countries. Methods and analysis The primary objective of this systematic review is to assess the effects of psychosocial treatments for DBDs in children and adolescents (under age 18) diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, or other disruptive behavioural problems living in LMIC. The secondary objectives are to: (1) describe the range and types of psychosocial treatments used to address DBDs in LMIC and (2) identify key dissemination and implementation factors (adaptation processes, training/supervision processes, and financial costs). All controlled trials comparing psychosocial treatments versus waiting list, no treatment, or treatment as usual in children living in LMIC will be included. Studies will be identified using the methods outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines without restrictions on language, publication type, status, or date of publication. The primary outcome measures will be disruptive behavioural problems (eg, oppositionality, defiance, aggression or deceit). Secondary outcomes will be positive mental health outcomes (eg, prosocial behaviour), function impairment, institutionalisation (or hospitalisation), academic outcomes and caregiver outcomes. Ethics and dissemination This study uses data from published studies; therefore ethical review is not required. Findings will be

  7. Internet-based information and self-help program for parents of children with burns: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Josefin Sveen; Gerhard Andersson; Lisa Ekselius; Folke Sjöberg; Bo Buhrman; Mimmie Willebrand

    2015-01-01

    Background: A burn is one of the most traumatic and painful injuries a child can experience and it is also a very stressful experience for the parents. Given the great psychological distress and perceived lack of multi-professional support experienced by the parents, there is a need for support during in-hospital treatment as well as during recovery. The aim of the study is to develop and evaluate an internet-based information and self-help program for parents of children who have been hospit...

  8. The effectiveness of a trauma-focused psycho-educational secondary prevention program for children exposed to interparental violence: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overbeek Mathilde M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children who witness interparental violence are at a heightened risk for developing psychosocial, behavioral and cognitive problems, as well as posttraumatic stress symptoms. For these children the psycho-educational secondary prevention program 'En nu ik...!' ('It's my turn now!' has been developed. This program includes specific therapeutic factors focused on emotion awareness and expression, increasing feelings of emotional security, teaching specific coping strategies, developing a trauma narrative, improving parent-child interaction and psycho-education. The main study aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of the specific therapeutic factors in the program. A secondary objective is to study mediating and moderating factors. Methods/design This study is a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial across cities in the Netherlands. Participants (N = 140 are referred to the secondary preventive intervention program by police, social work, women shelters and youth (mental health care. Children, aged 6-12 years, and their parents, who experienced interparental violence are randomly assigned to either the intervention program or the control program. The control program is comparable on nonspecific factors by offering positive attention, positive expectations, recreation, distraction, warmth and empathy of the therapist, and social support among group participants, in ways that are similar to the intervention program. Primary outcome measures are posttraumatic stress symptoms and emotional and behavioral problems of the child. Mediators tested are the ability to differentiate and express emotions, emotional security, coping strategies, feelings of guilt and parent-child interaction. Mental health of the parent, parenting stress, disturbances in parent-child attachment, duration and severity of the domestic violence and demographics are examined for their moderating effect. Data are collected one week before the program

  9. Optimising Ankle Foot Orthoses for children with Cerebral Palsy walking with excessive knee flexion to improve their mobility and participation; protocol of the AFO-CP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerkum Yvette L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle-Foot-Orthoses with a ventral shell, also known as Floor Reaction Orthoses (FROs, are often used to reduce gait-related problems in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP, walking with excessive knee flexion. However, current evidence for the effectiveness (e.g. in terms of walking energy cost of FROs is both limited and inconclusive. Much of this ambiguity may be due to a mismatch between the FRO ankle stiffness and the patient’s gait deviations. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of FROs optimised for ankle stiffness on the walking energy cost in children with SCP, compared to walking with shoes alone. In addition, effects on various secondary outcome measures will be evaluated in order to identify possible working mechanisms and potential predictors of FRO treatment success. Method/Design A pre-post experimental study design will include 32 children with SCP, walking with excessive knee flexion in midstance, recruited from our university hospital and affiliated rehabilitation centres. All participants will receive a newly designed FRO, allowing ankle stiffness to be varied into three configurations by means of a hinge. Gait biomechanics will be assessed for each FRO configuration. The FRO that results in the greatest reduction in knee flexion during the single stance phase will be selected as the subject’s optimal FRO. Subsequently, the effects of wearing this optimal FRO will be evaluated after 12–20 weeks. The primary study parameter will be walking energy cost, with the most important secondary outcomes being intensity of participation, daily activity, walking speed and gait biomechanics. Discussion The AFO-CP trial will be the first experimental study to evaluate the effect of individually optimised FROs on mobility and participation. The evaluation will include outcome measures at all levels of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, providing a unique

  10. Conducting Research with Children: The Limits of Confidentiality and Child Protection Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Emma; Goodenough, Trudy; Kent, Julie; Ashcroft, Richard

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of child protection protocols within research conducted with children. Based partly on primary data this paper raises questions about the role of ethics committees in defining the limits of confidentiality in relation to child protection protocols within research, the perceptions of both children and parents about…

  11. The feasibility and acceptability of a preventive intervention programme for children with depressed parents: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    de Angel, Valeria; Prieto, Fernanda; Gladstone, Tracy R.G.; Beardslee, William R.; Irarrázaval, Matías

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the most important risk factors for childhood depression is being the child of a depressed parent. These at-risk children have two to four times the probability of having an affective episode compared with their peers. Preventive interventions such as Beardslee’s Preventive Intervention Program (PIP) that are targeted at children of depressed parents have proven effective in many countries. The PIP is a family-based approach that works by promoting resilience in children and...

  12. The effectiveness of a trauma-focused psycho-educational secondary prevention program for children exposed to interparental violence: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, M.M.; Schipper, de J.C.; Lamers-Winkelman, F.; Schuengel, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children who witness interparental violence are at a heightened risk for developing psychosocial, behavioral and cognitive problems, as well as posttraumatic stress symptoms. For these children the psycho-educational secondary prevention program 'En nu ik...!' ('It's my turn now!') has b

  13. A Study of MAC Protocols for WBANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Ullah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN. A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent requirements.

  14. A study of MAC protocols for WBANs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Shen, Bin; Islam, S M Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2010-01-01

    The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent requirements. PMID:22315531

  15. Common beans and cowpeas as complementary foods to reduce environmental enteric dysfunction and stunting in Malawian children: Study protocol for two randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interventions to decrease the burden of childhood malnutrition are urgently needed, as millions of children die annually owing to undernutrition and hundreds of millions more are left cognitively and physically stunted. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a pervasive chronic subclinical inflamm...

  16. The impact of insecticide-treated school uniforms on dengue infections in school-aged children : study protocol for a randomised controlled trial in Thailand.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilder-Smith Annelies; Byass Peter; Olanratmanee Phanthip; Maskhao Pongsri; Sringernyuang Luechai; Logan James G; Lindsay Steve W; Banks Sarah; Gubler Duane; Louis Valérie R; Tozan Yesim; Kittayapong Pattamaporn

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There is an urgent need to protect children against dengue since this age group is particularly sensitive to the disease. Since dengue vectors are active mainly during the day, a potential target for control should be schools where children spend a considerable amount of their day. School uniforms are the cultural norm in most developing countries, worn throughout the day. We hypothesise that insecticide-treated school uniforms will reduce the incidence of dengue infection...

  17. 'Be active, eat right', evaluation of an overweight prevention protocol among 5-year-old children: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Veldhuis Lydian; Struijk Mirjam K; Kroeze Willemieke; Oenema Anke; Renders Carry M; Bulk-Bunschoten Anneke MW; HiraSing Remy A; Raat Hein

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has at least doubled in the past 25 years with a major impact on health. In 2005 a prevention protocol was developed applicable within Youth Health Care. This study aims to assess the effects of this protocol on prevalence of overweight and health behaviour among children. Methods and design A cluster randomised controlled trial is conducted among 5-year-old children included by 44 Youth Health Care teams randomised with...

  18. 'Be active, eat right', evaluation of an overweight prevention protocol among 5-year-old children: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Veldhuis, Lydian; Struijk, Mirjam; Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Renders, Carry; Bulk-Bunschoten, Anneke; Hirasing, Remy; Raat, Hein

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has at least doubled in the past 25 years with a major impact on health. In 2005 a prevention protocol was developed applicable within Youth Health Care. This study aims to assess the effects of this protocol on prevalence of overweight and health behaviour among children. METHODS AND DESIGN: A cluster randomised controlled trial is conducted among 5-year-old children included by 44 Youth Health Care teams randomised...

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08 on Hyperactivity and Inattention in Male Children and Adolescents: BACHI Study Protocol (ANZCTRN12612000827831

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Kean

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical diagnoses of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and the use of prescription medications for its treatment have increased in recent years. Current treatments may involve the administration of amphetamine-type substances, a treatment path many parents are apprehensive to take. Therefore, alternative pharmacological treatments are required. Few nutritional or pharmacological alternatives that reduce ADHD associated symptoms (hyperactivity and inattention have been subjected to rigorous clinical trials. Bacopa monnieri is a perennial creeping herb. CDRI 08 is a special extract of Bacopa monnieri which has been subjected to hundreds of scientific studies and has been shown in human randomized controlled trials (RCTs to improve memory, attention, and mood. It is hypothesised that chronic administration of CDRI 08 will improve attention, concentration and behaviour in children with high levels of hyperactivity and/or inattention. This paper reports the protocol for the first 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel groups trial examining the efficacy and safety of CDRI 08 in male children aged 6–14 years with high levels of inattention and hyperactivity. The primary outcome variable will be the level of hyperactivity and inattention measured by the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS. Secondary outcome variables include cognition, mood, sleep, and EEG. Trial registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12612000827831.

  20. Statistical principles for prospective study protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Robin; Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research to......, risk differences, and other quantities that convey information. One of the goals in biomedical research is to develop parsimonious models - meaning as simple as possible. This approach is valid if the subsequent research report (the article) is written independent of whether the results are...... "statistically significant" or not. In the present paper we outline the considerations and suggestions on how to build a trial protocol, with an emphasis on having a rigorous protocol stage, always leading to a full article manuscript, independent of statistical findings. We conclude that authors, who find...

  1. Prevalence, Motivations, and Social, Mental Health and Health Consequences of Cyberbullying Among School-Aged Children and Youth: Protocol of a Longitudinal and Multi-Perspective Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInroy, Lauren B; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Bhole, Payal; Van Wert, Melissa; Schwan, Kaitlin; Birze, Arija; Daciuk, Joanne; Beran, Tanya; Craig, Wendy; Pepler, Debra J; Wiener, Judith; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Johnston, David

    2016-01-01

    Background While the online environment may promote important developmental and social benefits, it also enables the serious and rapidly growing issue of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying constitutes an increasing public health problem – victimized children and youth experience a range of health and mental health concerns, including emotional and psychosomatic problems, maladaptive behaviors, and increased suicidality. Perpetrators demonstrate a lack of empathy, and may also struggle with health and mental health issues. Objective This paper describes the protocols applied in a longitudinal and multi-perspective mixed-methods study with five objectives: (1) to explore children/youth’s experiences, and children/youth’s, parents’, and teachers’ conceptions, definitions, and understanding of cyberbullying; (2) to explore how children/youth view the underlying motivations for cyberbullying; (3) to document the shifting prevalence rates of cyberbullying victimization, witnessing, and perpetration; (4) to identify risk and protective factors for cyberbullying involvement; and (5) to explore social, mental health, and health consequences of cyberbullying. Methods Quantitative survey data were collected over three years (2012-2014) from a stratified random baseline sample of fourth (n=160), seventh (n=243), and tenth (n=267) grade children/youth, their parents (n=246), and their teachers (n=103). Quantitative data were collected from students and teachers during in-person school visits, and from parents via mail-in surveys. Student, parent, and teacher surveys included questions regarding: student experiences with bullying/cyberbullying; student health, mental health, and social and behavioral issues; socio-demographics; and information and communication technology use. In-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted twice with a sub-sample of students (n=57), purposively selected based on socio-demographics and cyberbullying experience, twice with

  2. Self Fault-Tolerance of Protocols: A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The prerequisite for the existing protocols' correctness is that protocols can be normally operated under the normal conditions, rather than dealing with abnormal conditions.In other words, protocols with the fault-tolerance can not be provided when some fault occurs. This paper discusses the self fault-tolerance of protocols. It describes some concepts and methods for achieving self fault tolerance of protocols. Meanwhile, it provides a case study, investigates a typical protocol that does not satisfy the self fault-tolerance, and gives a new redesign version of this existing protocol using the proposed approach.

  3. Internet-based information and self-help program for parents of children with burns: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefin Sveen

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: We believe that this program will offer parents of children with burns information and support, decrease symptoms of stress, and that parents will perceive the program as useful. If the program is found to be beneficial, it could be implemented in burn care as it is accessible and cost-effective.

  4. The effects of parental components in a trauma-focused cognitive behavioral based therapy for children exposed to interparental violence: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Margreet M.; Telman, Machteld D.; de Schipper, J. Clasien; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Schuengel, Carlo; Finkenauer, Catrin

    2015-01-01

    Background Interparental violence is both common and harmful and impacts children’s lives directly and indirectly. Direct effects refer to affective, behavioral, and cognitive responses to interparental violence and psychosocial adjustment. Indirect effects refer to deteriorated parental availability and parent-child interaction. Standard Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy may be insufficient for children traumatized by exposure to interparental violence, given the pervasive impact o...

  5. A prospective randomised trial comparing nasogastric with intravenous hydration in children with bronchiolitis (protocol) The comparative rehydration in bronchiolitis study (CRIB)

    OpenAIRE

    Borland Meredith; Acworth Jason; Babl Franz E; Oakley Ed; Kreiser David; Neutze Jocelyn; Theophilos Theane; Donath Susan; South Mike; Davidson Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Bronchiolitis is the most common reason for admission of infants to hospital in developed countries. Fluid replacement therapy is required in about 30% of children admitted with bronchiolitis. There are currently two techniques of fluid replacement therapy that are used with the same frequency-intravenous (IV) or nasogastric (NG). The evidence to determine the optimum route of hydration therapy for infants with bronchiolitis is inadequate. This randomised trial will be the...

  6. The effect of family-based multidisciplinary cognitive behavioral treatment in children with obesity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kruyff Carolien C; Pijl Hanno; Wit Jan M; Vos Rimke C; Houdijk Euphemia CAM

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased rapidly during the last three decades in the Netherlands. It is assumed that mainly environmental factors have contributed to this trend. Parental overweight and low social economic status are risk factors for childhood obesity. Childhood obesity affects self-esteem and has negative consequences on cognitive and social development. Obese children tend to become obese adults, which increases the risk for developing cardiovas...

  7. Psychosocial interventions for disruptive behavioural problems in children living in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Burkey, Matthew D.; Hosein, Megan; Purgato, Marianna; Adi, Ahmad; Morton, Isabella; Kohrt, Brandon A.; TOL, WIETSE A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs) are among the most common forms of child psychopathology and have serious long-term academic, social, and mental health consequences worldwide. Psychosocial treatments are the first line of evidence-based treatments for DBDs, yet their effectiveness often varies according to patient sociodemographic characteristics, practice setting, and implementation procedures. While a large majority of the world's children live in low- and middle-income c...

  8. The impact of insecticide-treated school uniforms on dengue infections in school-aged children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilder-Smith Annelies

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to protect children against dengue since this age group is particularly sensitive to the disease. Since dengue vectors are active mainly during the day, a potential target for control should be schools where children spend a considerable amount of their day. School uniforms are the cultural norm in most developing countries, worn throughout the day. We hypothesise that insecticide-treated school uniforms will reduce the incidence of dengue infection in school-aged children. Our objective is to determine the impact of impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence. Methods A randomised controlled trial will be conducted in eastern Thailand in a group of schools with approximately 2,000 students aged 7–18 years. Pre-fabricated school uniforms will be commercially treated to ensure consistent, high-quality insecticide impregnation with permethrin. A double-blind, randomised, crossover trial at the school level will cover two dengue transmission seasons. Discussion Practical issues and plans concerning intervention implementation, evaluation, analysing and interpreting the data, and possible policy implications arising from the trial are discussed. Trial registration clinicaltrial.gov. Registration number: NCT01563640

  9. Optimising Ankle Foot Orthoses for children with Cerebral Palsy walking with excessive knee flexion to improve their mobility and participation; protocol of the AFO-CP study

    OpenAIRE

    Kerkum Yvette L; Harlaar Jaap; Buizer Annemieke I; van den Noort Josien C; Becher Jules G; Brehm Merel-Anne

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Ankle-Foot-Orthoses with a ventral shell, also known as Floor Reaction Orthoses (FROs), are often used to reduce gait-related problems in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP), walking with excessive knee flexion. However, current evidence for the effectiveness (e.g. in terms of walking energy cost) of FROs is both limited and inconclusive. Much of this ambiguity may be due to a mismatch between the FRO ankle stiffness and the patient’s gait deviations. The primary ai...

  10. Protocols for Late Maxillary Protraction in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients at Childrens Hospital Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Stephen L-K

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the protocols used at Childrens Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) to protract the maxilla during early adolescence. It is a modification of techniques introduced by Eric Liou with his Alternate Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Constriction (ALT-RAMEC) technique. The main differences between the CHLA protocol and previous maxillary protraction protocols are the age the protraction is attempted, the sutural loosening by alternating weekly expansion with constriction and the use of C...

  11. A prospective randomised trial comparing nasogastric with intravenous hydration in children with bronchiolitis (protocol The comparative rehydration in bronchiolitis study (CRIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borland Meredith

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchiolitis is the most common reason for admission of infants to hospital in developed countries. Fluid replacement therapy is required in about 30% of children admitted with bronchiolitis. There are currently two techniques of fluid replacement therapy that are used with the same frequency-intravenous (IV or nasogastric (NG. The evidence to determine the optimum route of hydration therapy for infants with bronchiolitis is inadequate. This randomised trial will be the first to provide good quality evidence of whether nasogastric rehydration (NGR offers benefits over intravenous rehydration (IVR using the clinically relevant continuous outcome measure of duration of hospital admission. Methods/Design A prospective randomised multi-centre trial in Australia and New Zealand where children between 2 and 12 months of age with bronchiolitis, needing non oral fluid replacement, are randomised to receive either intravenous (IV or nasogastric (NG rehydration. 750 patients admitted to participating hospitals will be recruited, and will be followed daily during the admission and by telephone 1 week after discharge. Patients with chronic respiratory, cardiac, or neurological disease; choanal atresia; needing IV fluid resuscitation; needing an IV for other reasons, and those requiring CPAP or ventilation are excluded. The primary endpoint is duration of hospital admission. Secondary outcomes are complications, need for ICU admission, parental satisfaction, and an economic evaluation. Results will be analysed using t-test for continuous data, and chi squared for categorical data. Non parametric data will be log transformed. Discussion This trial will define the role of NGR and IVR in bronchiolitis Trail registration The trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12605000033640

  12. Protocol for north of England and Scotland study of tonsillectomy and adeno-tonsillectomy in children (NESSTAC. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial comparing surgical intervention with conventional medical treatment in children with recurrent sore throats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lock Catherine

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncertainties surrounding the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of childhood tonsillectomy for recurrent sore throat led the NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme to commission this research to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of tonsillectomy and adeno-tonsillectomy in comparison with standard non-surgical management in children aged under 16 with recurrent throat infections. The aim is to evaluate if tonsillectomy and adeno-tonsillectomy reduces the number of episodes of sore throats among children to a clinically significant extent. Methods/design A simple prospective pragmatic randomised controlled trial with economic analysis and prospective cohort study of non-trial participants comparing surgical intervention with conventional medical treatment. The treatment arm will receive tonsillectomy and adeno-tonsillectomy while in the control arm non-surgical conventional medical treatment only will be used. The primary outcome measure will be reported number of episodes of sore throat over two years with secondary outcomes measures of reported number of episodes of sore throat, otitis media and upper respiratory tract infection which invoke a GP consultation; reported number of symptom-free days; reported severity of sore throats and surgical and anaesthetic morbidity. The study will take place in five hospitals in the UK. The trial population will be 406 children aged 4–15 on their last birthday with recurrent sore throat referred by primary care to the 5 otolaryngology departments. The duration of the study is seven years (July 2001- July 2008. Discussion As with all pragmatic randomised controlled trials it is impossible to control the external environment in which the research is taking place. Since this trial began a number of factors have arisen which could affect the outcome including; a reduction in the incidence of respiratory tract infections, marked socio-economic differences in

  13. Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Grimes, Carley A; Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J.; Caryl A. Nowson

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (“SONIC”) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in ...

  14. 'Be active, eat right', evaluation of an overweight prevention protocol among 5-year-old children : Design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); M.K. Struijk (Mirjam); W. Kroeze (Willemieke); A. Oenema (Anke); C.M. Renders (Carry); A.M.W. Bulk-Bunschoten (Anneke); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has at least doubled in the past 25 years with a major impact on health. In 2005 a prevention protocol was developed applicable within Youth Health Care. This study aims to assess the effects of this protocol on prevalence

  15. A Study of Voice over Internet Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Gerami

    2010-01-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol, is an application that enables data packet networks to transport real time voice traffic. VOIP uses the Internet as the transmission network. This paper describes VoIP and its requirements. The paper further discusses various VoIP protocol, security and its market.

  16. [The research protocol III. Study population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Gómez, Jesús; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    The study population is defined as a set of cases, determined, limited, and accessible, that will constitute the subjects for the selection of the sample, and must fulfill several characteristics and distinct criteria. The objectives of this manuscript are focused on specifying each one of the elements required to make the selection of the participants of a research project, during the elaboration of the protocol, including the concepts of study population, sample, selection criteria and sampling methods. After delineating the study population, the researcher must specify the criteria that each participant has to comply. The criteria that include the specific characteristics are denominated selection or eligibility criteria. These criteria are inclusion, exclusion and elimination, and will delineate the eligible population. The sampling methods are divided in two large groups: 1) probabilistic or random sampling and 2) non-probabilistic sampling. The difference lies in the employment of statistical methods to select the subjects. In every research, it is necessary to establish at the beginning the specific number of participants to be included to achieve the objectives of the study. This number is the sample size, and can be calculated or estimated with mathematical formulas and statistic software. PMID:27174763

  17. Innovative interventions to promote positive dental health behaviors and prevent dental caries in preschool children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xiaoli; Lo, Edward Chin Man; McGrath, Colman; Ho, Samuel Mun Yin

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries (tooth decay) is highly prevalent and is largely attributable to unhealthy self-care behaviors (diet and oral hygiene). The conventional (health) education (CE), focusing on disseminating information and giving normative advice, often fails to achieve sustained behavioral changes. This study incorporates two innovative elements into CE: (i) motivational interviewing (MI), a client-centered counseling for changing behaviors, and (ii) an interactive caries risk assessme...

  18. Diet, Physical Activity, Lifestyle Behaviors, and Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in Irish Children: The Cork Children’s Lifestyle Study Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Eimear; Kearney, Patricia M.; Perry, Ivan J; Browne, Gemma M; Harrington, Janas M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is complex, and its aetiology is known to be multifaceted. The contribution of lifestyle behaviors, including poor diet and physical inactivity, to obesity remains unclear. Due to the current high prevalence, childhood obesity is an urgent public health priority requiring current and reliable data to further understand its aetiology. Objective The objective of this study is to explore the individual, family, and environmental factors associated with childhood over...

  19. Meropenem vs standard of care for treatment of late onset sepsis in children of less than 90 days of age: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Cabre Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late onset neonatal sepsis (LOS with the mortality of 17 to 27% is still a serious disease. Meropenem is an antibiotic with wide antibacterial coverage. The advantage of it over standard of care could be its wider antibacterial coverage and thus the use of mono-instead of combination therapy. Methods NeoMero-1, an open label, randomised, comparator controlled, superiority trial aims to compare the efficacy of meropenem with a predefined standard of care (ampicillin + gentamicin or cefotaxime + gentamicin in the treatment of LOS in neonates and infants aged less than 90 days admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. A total of 550 subjects will be recruited following a 1:1 randomisation scheme. The trial includes patients with culture confirmed (at least one positive culture from normally sterile site except coagulase negative staphylococci in addition to one clinical or laboratory criterion or clinical sepsis (at least two laboratory and two clinical criteria suggestive of LOS in subjects with postmenstrual age The study will start recruitment in September 2011; the total duration is of 24 months. Trial registration EudraCT 2011-001515-31

  20. Mac protocols for wireless sensor network (wsn): a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data communication between nodes is carried out under Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol which is defined at data link layer. The MAC protocols are responsible to communicate and coordinate between nodes according to the defined standards in WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks). The design of a MAC protocol should also address the issues of energy efficiency and transmission efficiency. There are number of MAC protocols that exist in the literature proposed for WSN. In this paper, nine MAC protocols which includes S-MAC, T-MAC, Wise-MAC, Mu-MAC, Z-MAC, A-MAC, D-MAC, B-MAC and B-MAC+ for WSN have been explored, studied and analyzed. These nine protocols are classified in contention based and hybrid (combination of contention and schedule based) MAC protocols. The goal of this comparative study is to provide a basis for MAC protocols and to highlight different mechanisms used with respect to parameters for the evaluation of energy and transmission efficiency in WSN. This study also aims to give reader a better understanding of the concepts, processes and flow of information used in these MAC protocols for WSN. A comparison with respect to energy reservation scheme, idle listening avoidance, latency, fairness, data synchronization, and throughput maximization has been presented. It was analyzed that contention based MAC protocols are less energy efficient as compared to hybrid MAC protocols. From the analysis of contention based MAC protocols in term of energy consumption, it was being observed that protocols based on preamble sampling consume lesser energy than protocols based on static or dynamic sleep schedule. (author)

  1. Peer mentorship to promote effective pain management in adolescents: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes Loran P; Tsao Jennie CI; Allen Laura B; Zeltzer Lonnie K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This protocol is for a study of a new program to improve outcomes in children suffering from chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, recurrent headache, or recurrent abdominal pain. Although teaching active pain self-management skills through cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or a complementary program such as hypnotherapy or yoga has been shown to improve pain and functioning, children with low expectations of skill-building programs may lack motivation to comply w...

  2. Prospective observational study protocol to investigate long-term adverse effects of methylphenidate in children and adolescents with ADHD: the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Use Chronic Effects (ADDUCE) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, S K; Carucci, S; Garas, P; Häge, A; Banaschewski, T; Buitelaar, J K; Dittmann, R W; Falissard, B; Hollis, C; Kovshoff, H; Liddle, E; McCarthy, S; Nagy, P; Neubert, A; Rosenthal, E; Sonuga-Barke, E; Wong, I; Zuddas, A; Coghill, D C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Methylphenidate is the most frequently used medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Europe. Following concerns about its safety, the European Commission called for research into the long-term effects of methylphenidate on children and adolescents with ADHD. The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Use Chronic Effects (ADDUCE) research programme was designed to address this call. At the heart of this programme is a 2-year longitudinal naturalistic pharmacovigilance study being conducted in 27 European sites. Methods and analysis 3 cohorts of children and adolescents (aged 6–17) living in the UK, Germany, Italy and Hungary are being recruited: Group 1 (Medicated ADHD): 800 ADHD medication-naive children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD about to start methylphenidate treatment for the first time. Group 2 (Unmedicated ADHD): 400 children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD who have never been treated with ADHD medication and have no intention of beginning medication. Group 3 (Non-ADHD): 400 children and adolescents without ADHD who are siblings of individuals in either group 1 or 2. All participants will be assessed 5 times during their 2-year follow-up period for growth and development, psychiatric, neurological and cardiovascular health. The primary outcome measure will be the height velocity SD score. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval for the study has been granted by the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service. Following this approval, patient information leaflets and consent forms were translated as necessary and submissions made by lead sites in each of the other 3 countries to their own ethics committees. Following ethical approval in each country, local ethical permissions at each site were sought and obtained as needed. The study's website (http://www.adhd-adduce.org/page/view/2/Home) provides information for researchers, participants and the general

  3. Interactive verification of Markov chains: Two distributed protocol case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hölzl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic model checkers like PRISM only check probabilistic systems of a fixed size. To guarantee the desired properties for an arbitrary size, mathematical analysis is necessary. We show for two case studies how this can be done in the interactive proof assistant Isabelle/HOL. The first case study is a detailed description of how we verified properties of the ZeroConf protocol, a decentral address allocation protocol. The second case study shows the more involved verification of anonymity properties of the Crowds protocol, an anonymizing protocol.

  4. Study Application of RADIUS Protocol on Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fang; YANG Huan-yu; LI Hong

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents how to apply the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)protocol ,which is generally applied to dial-up network, to the authentication & charge of Broad Band accessing control system on Ethernet. It is provided that the Broad Band accessing control system included a self-designed communication protocol is used in communicating between an terminal user and Network Access Server .The interface module on the servers side and the Radius system is also given in this article.

  5. Activities and participation of children and adolescents after mild traumatic brain injury and the effectiveness of an early intervention (Brains Ahead!): study protocol for a cohort study with a nested randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Renaud, M. Irene; Lambregts, Suzanne A. M.; de Kloet, Arend J.; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E.; van de Port, Ingrid G. L.; van Heugten, Caroline M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately 20 % of children and adolescents who have sustained mild traumatic brain injuries may experience long-term consequences, including cognitive problems, post-traumatic stress symptoms and reduced load-bearing capacity. The underestimation and belated recognition of these long-term consequences may lead to chronic and disruptive problems, such as participation problems in school and in social relationships. The aim of this study is to examine the level of activities and ...

  6. A Study of MAC Protocols for WBANs

    OpenAIRE

    Sana Ullah; Bin Shen; S. M. Riazul Islam; Pervez Khan; Shahnaz Saleem; Kyung Sup Kwak

    2009-01-01

    The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to s...

  7. Studying Media Access andControl Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Alalelddin Fuad Yousif

    2010-01-01

    This thesis project’s goal is to enable undergraduate students to gain insight into media access and control protocols based upon carrying out laboratory experiments. The educational goal is to de-mystifying radio and other link and physical layer communication technologies as the students can follow packets from the higher layers down through the physical layer and back up again. The thesis fills the gap between the existing documentation for the Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) re...

  8. Study on the safety and efficacy of miltefosine for the treatment of children and adolescents with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in Bangladesh, and an association of serum vitamin E and exposure to arsenic with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: an open clinical trial and case–control study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, D; Hasnain, M G; Hossain, M S; Ghosh, D; Ghosh, P; Hossain, H; Baker, J; Nath, R; Haque, R; Matlashewski, G; Hamano, S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a dermatological complication that occurs primarily among treated visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients, and sporadically in a few without a history of VL. It mostly affects children and adolescents but is also common in adults. The conventional treatment with 120 intramuscular injections of sodium stibogluconate (SSG) is phasing out. Miltefosine (MF) is the only eventual alternative to SSG; however, its efficacy and safety profiles for treatment of children and adolescents with PKDL are lacking. In addition, risk factors for PKDL are poorly investigated. Host genetic, nutritional and environmental factors could be potential risk factors. As such, here we propose to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MF for 12 weeks at an allometric dose for children and adolescents with PKDL, and also to explore potential risk factors for PKDL. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional survey will look for suspected participants with PKDL among treated VL children and adolescents, a subsequent open clinical trial with MF at allometric dose, with a follow-up at 12 months. A case–control study will be carried out for PKDL risk factors. Assuming 95% cure rate, 95% CI and α=0.05, a sample size of 73 children with PKDL is needed. Considering an attrition rate of 10%, the final sample size is 80 children in each group. Descriptive and analytical analyses will be performed. Primary outcome is safety and cure rate of 12 weeks of treatment with MF. Ethics and dissemination International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) Ethical Review Committee (ERC) approved the protocol (PR#013045). Written informed consent will be taken from all participants and their guardians (in case of minor). A Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) of ICDDR,B ERC will monitor all study activities to ensure the safety of the participants. Trial registration number NCT02193022; Pre-results. PMID:27188804

  9. Extraction protocols for orthodontic treatment: A retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkarasu, Vaishnevi N.; Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Dicksit, Daniel D.; Gundavarapu, Kalyan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Various extraction protocols have been followed for successful orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extraction protocols in patients who had previously undergone orthodontic treatment and also who had reported for continuing orthodontic treatment from other clinics. Materials and Methods: One hundred thirty eight patients who registered for orthodontic treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry were divided into 10 extraction protocols based on the Orthodontic treatment protocol given by Janson et al. and were evaluated for statistical significance. Results: The descriptive statistics of the study revealed a total of 40 (29%) patients in protocol 1, 43 (31.2%) in protocol 2, 18 (13%) in protocol 3, 16 (11.6%) in protocol 5, and 12 (8.7%) in Type 3 category of protocol 9. The Type 3 category in protocol 9 was statistically significant compared to other studies. Midline shift and collapse of the arch form were noticed in these individuals. Conclusion: Extraction of permanent teeth such as canine and lateral incisors without rational reasons could have devastating consequences on the entire occlusion. The percentage of cases wherein extraction of permanent teeth in the crowded region was adopted as a treatment option instead of orthodontic treatment is still prevalent in dental practice. The shortage of orthodontists in Malaysia, the long waiting period, and lack of subjective need for orthodontic treatment at an earlier age group were the reasons for the patient's to choose extraction of the mal-aligned teeth such as the maxillary canine or maxillary lateral incisors. PMID:27041899

  10. Influence of Noncompliance With Radiation Therapy Protocol Guidelines and Operative Bed Recurrences for Children With Rhabdomyosarcoma and Microscopic Residual Disease: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Postoperative radiation therapy (RT) is recommended for patients with rhabdomyosarcoma having microscopic disease. Sometimes RT dose/volume is reduced or omitted in an attempt to avoid late effects, particularly in young children. We reviewed operative bed recurrences to determine if noncompliance with RT protocol guidelines influenced local-regional control. Methods and Materials: All operative bed recurrences among 695 Group II rhabdomyosarcoma patients in Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRS) I through IV were reviewed for deviation from RT protocol. Major/minor dose deviation was defined as >10% or 6-10% of the prescribed dose (40-60 Gy), respectively. Major/minor volume deviation was defined as tumor excluded from the RT field or treatment volume not covered by the specified margin (preoperative tumor volume and 2- to 5-cm margin), respectively. No RT was a major deviation. Results: Forty-six of 83 (55%) patients with operative bed recurrences did not receive the intended RT (39 major and 7 minor deviations). RT omission was the most frequent RT protocol deviation (19/46, 41%), followed by dose (17/46, 37%), volume (9/46, 20%), and dose and volume deviation (1/46, 2%). Only 7 operative bed recurrences occurred in IRS IV (5% local-regional failure) with only 3 RT protocol deviations. Sixty-three (76%) patients with recurrence died of disease despite retrieval therapy, including 13 of 19 nonirradiated children. Conclusion: Over half of the operative bed recurrences were associated with noncompliance; omission of RT was the most common protocol deviation. Three fourths of children die when local-regional disease is not controlled, emphasizing the importance of RT in Group II rhabdomyosarcoma.

  11. Evaluation of a health promotion program in children: Study protocol and design of the cluster-randomized Baden-Württemberg primary school study [DRKS-ID: DRKS00000494

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyhaupt Jens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing prevalences of overweight and obesity in children are known problems in industrialized countries. Early prevention is important as overweight and obesity persist over time and are related with health problems later in adulthood. "Komm mit in das gesunde Boot - Grundschule" is a school-based program to promote a healthier lifestyle. Main goals of the intervention are to increase physical activity, decrease the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, and to decrease time spent sedentary by promoting active choices for healthy lifestyle. The program to date is distributed by 34 project delivery consultants in the state of Baden-Württemberg and is currently implemented in 427 primary schools. The efficacy of this large scale intervention is examined via the Baden-Württemberg Study. Methods/Design The Baden-Württemberg Study is a prospective, stratified, cluster-randomized, and longitudinal study with two groups (intervention group and control group. Measurements were taken at the beginning of the academic years 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. Efficacy of the intervention is being assessed using three main outcomes: changes in waist circumference, skinfold thickness and 6 minutes run. Stratified cluster-randomization (according to class grade level was performed for primary schools; pupils, teachers/principals, and parents were investigated. An approximately balanced number of classes in intervention group and control group could be reached by stratified randomization and was maintained at follow-up. Discussion At present, "Komm mit in das Gesunde Boot - Grundschule" is the largest school-based health promotion program in Germany. Comparative objective main outcomes are used for the evaluation of efficacy. Simulations showed sufficient power with the existing sample size. Therefore, the results will show whether the promotion of a healthier lifestyle in primary school children is possible using a relatively low effort

  12. Interactive verification of Markov chains: Two distributed protocol case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Hölzl; Tobias Nipkow

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic model checkers like PRISM only check probabilistic systems of a fixed size. To guarantee the desired properties for an arbitrary size, mathematical analysis is necessary. We show for two case studies how this can be done in the interactive proof assistant Isabelle/HOL. The first case study is a detailed description of how we verified properties of the ZeroConf protocol, a decentral address allocation protocol. The second case study shows the more involved verification of anonymi...

  13. Asparaginase-associated pancreatitis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the NOPHO ALL2008 protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Raheel A; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Albertsen, BK;

    2014-01-01

    L-asparaginase is an important drug in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Treatment is associated with several toxicities, including acute pancreatitis. Clinical course, presentation, re-exposure to L-asparginase after pancreatitis and risk of recurrent pancreatitis...... within an asparaginase-intensive protocol has been poorly reported. Children (1-17 years) on the ongoing Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL2008 protocol with asparaginase-associated pancreatitis (AAP) diagnosed between 2008 and 2012 were identified through the online NOPHO...

  14. What factors contribute to positive early childhood health and development in Australian Aboriginal children? Protocol for a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data (The Seeding Success Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Falster, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa; Eades, Sandra; Lynch, John; Banks, Emily; Brownell, Marni; Craven, Rhonda; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Randall, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Australian Aboriginal children are more likely than non-Aboriginal children to have developmental vulnerability at school entry that tracks through to poorer literacy and numeracy outcomes and multiple social and health disadvantages in later life. Empirical evidence identifying the key drivers of positive early childhood development in Aboriginal children, and supportive features of local communities and early childhood service provision, are lacking. Methods and analysis The st...

  15. Adapting a rapid river assessment protocols to be used by elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to adapt a rapid river assessment protocols (RAP to be used by elementary school children. The study was conducted in Ipameri, GO and the RAP was adapted for the evaluation of streams in the Cerrado biome. Based on two protocol models, the developed RAP included: physical parameters that affect the functioning of streams, language adapted to the educational level of elementary school and the presence of drawings that could facilitate the field application of RAP by the students. For consolidation of the adapted instrument, it was offered a monitoring workshop to 95 students from two public education institutions, and developed an analysis and interpretation of the pattern of responses obtained during the practical step of the workshop. The Bartlett and Levene tests revealed no statistical differences between the response patterns of the students, allowing to infer that the developed RAP was understandable by the evaluators. The application of the RAP was fast (20 to 40 minutes and the students reported that the developed instrument helped them to familiarize with environmental issues. In addition, the monitoring workshop helped them to understand the instrument and the available illustrations facilitated the field evaluation. In addition, the students concluded that they have become aware of the issues related to the water resource preservation and also that participation in the environmental monitoring workshop allowed the appropriation of knowledge about the river system functioning. It was concluded that adapted RAP has been proved to be a useful and interesting tool for using in environmental education projects and programs.

  16. SIMULATION STUDY AND IMPLEMENTATION ON ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Yadav

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc networks are characterized by a lack of infrastructure, and by a random and quickly changing network topology; thus the need for a robust dynamic routing protocol that can accommodate such an environment. Consequently, many routing algorithms have come in toexistence to satisfy the needs of communications in such networks. This article presents a simulation study and comparison the performance between two categories of routing protocols, table-driven (Proactive and on-demand (Reactive routing protocols, this two categories were illustrated by using two different examples ofrouting protocols, first example is DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance-Vector from the Proactive family and the second example isAODV (Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector and DSR (Dynamic Source Routing Protocol from the Reactive family. Both protocols weresimulated by using NS-2 (network simulator-2 package. Both routing protocols were compared in terms of average throughput (packets delivery ratio while varying data rate, TCP types ,maximumpackets in queue and number of packet drop while varying data rate by using the Trace file. For the same queue length DSDV performsbetter than AODV. AODV is preferred due to its more efficient use of bandwidth.

  17. Air pollution and respiratory health of children: the PEACE panel study in Umea., Sweden.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forsberg, B.; Segerstedt, B.; Stjernberg, N.; Roemer, W.

    1998-01-01

    The Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe (PEACE) study examined the acute effects of short-term changes in air pollution on symptomatic children. We were one of 14 research centres in Europe that used a common study protocol. Seventy five children in an urban panel and 72 children in a

  18. Partner randomized controlled trial: study protocol and coaching intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbutt Jane M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children with asthma live with frequent symptoms and activity limitations, and visits for urgent care are common. Many pediatricians do not regularly meet with families to monitor asthma control, identify concerns or problems with management, or provide self-management education. Effective interventions to improve asthma care such as small group training and care redesign have been difficult to disseminate into office practice. Methods and design This paper describes the protocol for a randomized controlled trial (RCT to evaluate a 12-month telephone-coaching program designed to support primary care management of children with persistent asthma and subsequently to improve asthma control and disease-related quality of life and reduce urgent care events for asthma care. Randomization occurred at the practice level with eligible families within a practice having access to the coaching program or to usual care. The coaching intervention was based on the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Targeted behaviors included 1 effective use of controller medications, 2 effective use of rescue medications and 3 monitoring to ensure optimal control. Trained lay coaches provided parents with education and support for asthma care, tailoring the information provided and frequency of contact to the parent's readiness to change their child's day-to-day asthma management. Coaching calls varied in frequency from weekly to monthly. For each participating family, follow-up measurements were obtained at 12- and 24-months after enrollment in the study during a telephone interview. The primary outcomes were the mean change in 1 the child's asthma control score, 2 the parent's quality of life score, and 3 the number of urgent care events assessed at 12 and 24 months. Secondary outcomes reflected adherence to guideline recommendations by the primary care pediatricians and included the proportion of children prescribed controller medications

  19. European study protocol: `Effect of short-term changes in urban air pollution on the respiratory health of children with chronic respiratory symptoms. The PEACE project, Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, W.; Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology and Public Health] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Over the last decades, concentrations of air pollution components such as SO{sub 2} and airborne, coarse particulates have decreased in many areas in Europe. This decrease can be ascribed to emission abatement measures and changes in energy production for industrial processes and space heating. Levels of other pollutants such as NO{sub 2} have increased during the same period, mostly due to higher intensity of motor vehicle traffic. Older epidemiologic studies on health effects of air pollution used indicator pollutants such as SO{sub 2}, Total Suspended Particulate matter (TSP) and Black Smoke at extremely high levels. More recent studies using the same and other indicators such as PM10 (particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of 10 {mu}m) have shown effects of air pollution on mortality and morbidity at lower levels, even sometimes lower than current WHO air quality guidelines for Europe. These findings suggest that due to the changing composition of air pollution, effects of air pollution can be seen below levels of exposure which were thought to be safe. Another reason is that the recent studies are conducted at levels which were hard to find in earlier days. Therefore new, quantitative data are needed to evaluate the current guidelines and standards. In order to achieve this, standardization of methodology as well as the execution of epidemiologic studies using such standardized methodology is needed. In the framework of the ENVIRONMENT Research Programme of the Commission of the European Communities, a collaborative study was funded that sought to develop a standardized methodology for epidemiologic studies of effects short-term changes in air pollution on the respiratory system

  20. Single dose oral dexamethasone versus multi-dose prednisolone in the treatment of acute exacerbations of asthma in children who attend the emergency department: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cronin John

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a major cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality. In acute exacerbations of asthma, corticosteroids reduce relapses, subsequent hospital admission and the need for ß2-agonist therapy. Prednisolone is relatively short-acting with a half-life of 12 to 36 hours, thereby requiring daily dosing. Prolonged treatment course, vomiting and a bitter taste may reduce patient compliance with prednisolone. Dexamethasone is a long-acting corticosteroid with a half-life of 36 to 72 hours. It is used frequently in children with croup and bacterial meningitis, and is well absorbed orally. The purpose of this trial is to examine whether a single dose of oral dexamethasone (0.3 mg/kg is clinically non-inferior to prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day for three days in the treatment of exacerbations of asthma in children who attend the Emergency Department. Methods/design This is a randomized, non-inferiority, open-label clinical trial. After informed consent with or without assent, patients will be randomized to either oral dexamethasone 0.3 mg/kg stat or prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day for three days. The primary outcome measure is the comparison between the Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM across both groups on Day 4. The PRAM score, a validated, responsive and reliable tool to determine asthma severity in children aged 2 to 16 years, will be performed by a clinician blinded to treatment allocation. Secondary outcomes include relapse, hospital admission and requirement for further steroid therapy. Data will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat and a per protocol basis. With a sample size of 232 subjects (105 in each group with an estimated 10% loss to follow-up, we will be able to reject the null hypothesis - that the population means of the experimental and control groups are equal with a probability (power of 0.9. The Type I error probability associated with this test (of the null hypothesis is 0.05. Discussion This

  1. 'Be active, eat right', evaluation of an overweight prevention protocol among 5-year-old children: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veldhuis Lydian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has at least doubled in the past 25 years with a major impact on health. In 2005 a prevention protocol was developed applicable within Youth Health Care. This study aims to assess the effects of this protocol on prevalence of overweight and health behaviour among children. Methods and design A cluster randomised controlled trial is conducted among 5-year-old children included by 44 Youth Health Care teams randomised within 9 Municipal Health Services. The teams are randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The teams measure the weight and height of all children. When a child in the intervention group is detected with overweight according to the international age and gender specific cut-off points of BMI, the prevention protocol is applied. According to this protocol parents of overweight children are invited for up to three counselling sessions during which they receive personal advice about a healthy lifestyle, and are motivated for and assisted in behavioural change. The primary outcome measures are Body Mass Index and waist circumference of the children. Parents will complete questionnaires to assess secondary outcome measures: levels of overweight inducing/reducing behaviours (i.e. being physically active, having breakfast, drinking sweet beverages and watching television/playing computer games, parenting styles, parenting practices, and attitudes of parents regarding these behaviours, health-related quality of life of the children, and possible negative side effects of the prevention protocol. Data will be collected at baseline (when the children are aged 5 years, and after 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Additionally, a process and a cost-effectiveness evaluation will be conducted. Discussion In this study called 'Be active, eat right' we evaluate an overweight prevention protocol for use in the setting of Youth Health Care. It is hypothesized that the

  2. Evaluation of the correlation between type 1 diabetes and cognitive function in children and adolescents, and comparison of this correlation with structural changes in the central nervous system: a study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabbasi, Ata; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Ebrahimi Qavam, Soqra; Larijani, Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) affects nearly 15 million children worldwide and failure to achieve and maintain good glycaemic control in this group can lead to diabetes-related complications. Children with T1DM can experience impairment in cognitive function such as memory, attention and executive function. This study is designed to evaluate the correlation between diabetes and cognitive dysfunction as well as to clarify whether this correlation can be linked to neurological structural changes in 6–11-year-old children with diabetes. Methods and analysis 310 eligible children with diabetes will be divided into two groups based on glycaemic control according to their HbA1c index. The control group will include 150 children aged 6–11 without diabetes. The following parameters will be measured and investigated: duration of the disease since diagnosis, required daily insulin dose, frequency of insulin administration, hospital admissions due to diabetes, hypoglycaemic episodes during the last year, and episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis. The following components of cognitive function will be evaluated: memory, attention, executive function, decision-making and academic performance. Cognitive function and subsequent subtests will be assessed using Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) tools. Brain structural indices such as intracranial vault (ICV), as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), ventricle, hippocampus, total intracranial, total brain, grey matter and white matter volume will be measured using MRI. ANOVA, correlational tests (Spearman) and regression models will be used to evaluate the hypothesis. Ethics and dissemination This study is approved by the ethics committee of the Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute (EMRI) of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) under reference number 00300. Our findings are to be published in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated both electronically and in print. PMID

  3. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitag Christine M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group-based social skills training (SST has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD. To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA–FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS compared to treatment as usual (TAU. It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. Methods/design The SOSTA – net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. Discussion This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. Trial registration ISRCTN94863788 – SOSTA – net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.

  4. Optimizing early child development for young children with non-anemic iron deficiency in the primary care practice setting (OptEC): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Kawsari; Thorpe, Kevin E; Mamak, Eva; Maguire, Jonathon L; Birken, Catherine S.; Fehlings, Darcy; Hanley, Anthony J.; Macarthur, Colin; Zlotkin, Stanley H.; Parkin, Patricia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Three decades of research suggests that prevention of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in the primary care setting may be an unrealized and unique opportunity to prevent poor developmental outcomes in children. A longitudinal study of infants with IDA showed that the developmental disadvantage persists long term despite iron therapy. Early stages of iron deficiency, termed non-anemic iron deficiency (NAID), provide an opportunity for early detection and treatment before progression to ...

  5. Characterisation of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields in the Spanish INMA birth cohort: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Gallastegi, Mara; Guxens, Mònica; Jiménez-Zabala, Ana; Calvente, Irene; Fernández, Marta; Birks, Laura; Struchen, Benjamin; Vrijheid, Martine; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernandez, Mariana; Torrent, Maties; Ballester, Ferran; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guerra, David

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Analysis of the association between exposure to electromagnetic fields of non-ionising radiation (EMF-NIR) and health in children and adolescents is hindered by the limited availability of data, mainly due to the difficulties on the exposure assessment. This study protocol describes the methodologies used for characterising exposure of children to EMF-NIR in the INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente- Environment and Childhood) Project, a prospective cohort study. Methods/Des...

  6. A prospective observational study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of clinical decision rules for children presenting to emergency departments after head injuries (protocol): the Australasian Paediatric Head Injury Rules Study (APHIRST)

    OpenAIRE

    Babl, Franz E; Lyttle, Mark D; Bressan, Silvia; Borland, Meredith; Phillips, Natalie; Kochar, Amit; Stuart R Dalziel; Dalton, Sarah; Cheek, John A; Furyk, Jeremy; Gilhotra, Yuri; Neutze, Jocelyn; Ward, Brenton; Donath, Susan; Jachno, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background Head injuries in children are responsible for a large number of emergency department visits. Failure to identify a clinically significant intracranial injury in a timely fashion may result in long term neurodisability and death. Whilst cranial computed tomography (CT) provides rapid and definitive identification of intracranial injuries, it is resource intensive and associated with radiation induced cancer. Evidence based head injury clinical decision rules have been derived to aid...

  7. Feasibility and pilot study of the effects of microfinance on mortality and nutrition in children under five amongst the very poor in India: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ojha, Shalini; Szatkowski, Lisa; Sinha, Ranjeet; Yaron, Gil; Fogarty, Andrew W; Allen, Stephen; Choudhary, Sunil; Smyth, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    Background The United Nations Millennium Development Goals include targets for the health of children under five years old. Poor health is linked to poverty and microfinance initiatives are economic interventions that may improve health by breaking the cycle of poverty. However, there is a lack of reliable evidence to support this. In addition, microfinance schemes may have adverse effects on health, for example due to increased indebtedness. Rojiroti UK and the Centre for Promoting Sustainab...

  8. Response rate of Pakistani children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia to medical research council acute lymphoblastic leukaemia 97 chemotherapy protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), a malignancy of lymphoid lineage cells, has excellent prognosis in children. In Pakistan, a few studies highlighted the response of ALL to chemotherapy. The Present study was planned to see the response rate of Pakistani children with ALL to Medical Research Council ALL 97 (MRCALL97) chemotherapy protocol. This descriptive case series was conducted at the Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and the Department of Paediatric Oncology, Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from February 16, 2007 to August 16, 2007. Methods: Diagnosed children with ALL fulfilling the inclusion criteria were interviewed regarding history of the present, past illnesses, and family history. Physical examination was performed. Presenting clinical features, blood counts and blood and bone marrow blasts percentage were used to see the response on day 29 post chemotherapy. The data was recorded on a structured proforma for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 33 patients were studied including 26 males and 7 females. Twenty-five patients belonged to age group 2-9 years, and 8 to 9 years, median age being 4.5 years. Presenting WBC count was 50 X 10/sup 9/L in 3 patients. At the end of induction, complete remission was achieved in 31 out of 33 (94%) patients while two patients did not achieve remission. Conclusion: Response rate of Pakistani children with ALL to chemotherapy was superior to the previously reported figures from Pakistan. (author)

  9. Studies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica P; Edwards, Susan C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter first discusses the urgent need for prevention of childhood diseases that impose a huge and growing burden on families and society. It provides a review of recent research in this area to illustrate both the strengths and limitations of molecular epidemiology in drawing needed links between environmental exposures and illness in children. For illustration, three of the major diseases in children are discussed: asthma, cancer and developmental disorders. All three impose significant difficulties, have increased in recent decades, and are thought to be caused in substantial part by environmental factors, such as toxic exposures due to lifestyle choices (i.e. smoking and diet), pollutants in the workplace, ambient air, water and the food supply. These exogenous exposures can interact with "host" factors, such as genetic susceptibility and nutritional deficits, to cause disease. Molecular epidemiology has provided valuable new insights into the magnitude and diversity of exposures beginning in utero, the unique susceptibility of the young, and the adverse preclinical and clinical effects resulting from the interactions between these factors. However, molecular epidemiology also faces certain constraints and challenges that are specific to studies of the very young, including ethical issues, technical issues due to the limited amount of biological specimens that can be obtained, and communication of results to parents and communities. These challenges are particularly apparent when incorporating the newer epigenetic and "omic" techniques and biomarkers into studies of children's diseases. PMID:22997878

  10. Studies on Algorithms for Self-Stabilizing Communication Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Layuan; LI Chunlin

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the algorithms forself-stabilizing communication protocols are studied. First someconcepts and a formal method for describing the proposed algorithms aredescribed, then an improved algorithm for achieving global states ispresented. Thestudy shows that the improved algorithm can be applied to obtain the globalstates in the case of a loss of cooperation of the different processesin the protocol, which can be used as a recovery point that will be usedby the following recovery procedure. Thus, the improved algorithm can beused to self-stabilize a communication protocol. Meanwhile,a recovery algorithm for self-stabilizing communicationprotocols is presented. After a failure is detected, all processes caneventuallyknow the error. The recovery algorithm uses the contextual information exchanged during the progress of the protocol and recorded on the stablememory. The proof of correctness and analysis of complexity for these algorithms have been made. The availability and efficiency of the algorithms have been verified by illustrating the example protocols.Finally, some conclusions and remarks are given.

  11. A parathyroid adenoma case study: Protocol review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Technetium-99m (99mTc) Sestamibi as opposed to Thallous-201 Chloride and 99mTc Sodium Pertechnetate subtraction, has become the radiopharmaceutical of choice for detection of parathyroid adenomas. A 17-year-old female patient presented to the department for a parathyroid 99mTc Sestamibi scan to evaluate possible parathyroid adenoma/s. She was initially admitted with increasing serum Calcium levels, polyuria, abdominal pain and general malaise. The patient was injected with 900MBq of 99mTc Sestamibi, and a pinhole dynamic at a distance of 10 cm from the neck was acquired followed by a 5-minute static image at 7 cm. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) was then performed on a dual-head gamma camera followed by an anterior and posterior 10-minute static image. At 3 and 5 hours post injection the 10-minute static image was repeated. This study was reported as normal with uniform uptake and washout of the tracer over the 5-hour period. An ultrasound study was performed, and it showed a lesion believed to be a parathyroid adenoma measuring 2.2 x 0.8 x 0.4 cm in size in the right upper lobe of the thyroid. A subsequent thyroid scan was performed to confirm that it was non-functioning thyroid tissue. The patient was injected with 250MBq of 99mTc Sodium Pertechnetate and scanned with a pinhole collimator at a distance of 7 cm. When the 99mTc Sestamibi and 99mTc Sodium Pertechnetate scan were viewed together, it was clear that there was excess 99mTc Sestamibi distribution on the right upper lobe of the thyroid, which washed out over time. This corresponded to the ultrasound findings and was confirmed at surgery to be a parathyroid adenoma. A 99mTc Sodium Pertechnetate scan and an ultrasound are now also routinely performed on patients presenting for 99mTc Sestamibi parathyroid scans

  12. Protocol of Radiographic Examination of Children in Order to Improve the Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Pulmonary radiograms are essential in the diagnostics of lung diseases of children and youth. In childhood, sometimes immediately after a child's birth, there is a need to apply this diagnostic method. Namely, even in the first days of life some pathological conditions can exist which can lead to progressive respiratory failure (respiratory distress syndrome, aspirational syndrome, lung anomaly). An experienced clinician paediatrician can suspect the pathological condition, but for a sure and a timely diagnosis, a radiographic confirmation is necessary. Long lasting cough, fever and chest pain of unexplained ethiology are also indications for a radiographic examination in childhood. In the evaluation of treatment repeated radiograms are often necessary too. Considering that children are radiovulnerable population, and that during these examinations neighbouring organs (bone marrow, thyroid gland) are also irradiated, it is necessary to undertake all measures to minimise harmful consequences of irradiation during diagnostic X-ray examinations. In order to improve radiation protection, a protocol for radiographic examination of small children was worked out. Paediatricians and child-radiologists worked in producing this protocol closely together. In order to achieve a satisfactory protection of patients during respiratory tract examination the doses of radiation were controlled with thermoluminiscent dosimetric systems which had been found adequate for X-ray diagnostics dosimetry. (author)

  13. Lower-dose CT urography (CTU) with iterative reconstruction technique in children – initial experience and examination protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional X-ray urography is one of the basic imaging techniques in urinary tract diseases in children. CT urography (CTU) employing standard Filtered Back Projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithms is connected with higher radiation dose. Advanced iterative reconstruction techniques enable lowering the radiation dose to the level comparable with conventional X-ray urography with better visualization of the urinary tract. Study protocol and indications for this modified technique should be discussed. Introduction of iterative image reconstruction techniques allowed to significantly reduce the radiation dose delivered during examinations performed at our Department, including CT examinations of urinary tract in children. During the last two years, CT urography replaced conventional X-ray urography and became the basic imaging technique in our Department. We discuss the study protocol regarding pediatric CTU examinations. The main goal is to receive an optimal image quality at reduced radiation dose. CTU examinations performed using the standard filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction technique are associated with radiation doses about 1.5 times higher than those in conventional X-ray urography. Implementation of iterative reconstruction algorithms in advanced CT scanners allow to reduce the radiation dose to a level comparable or even lower than that in X-ray urography. In addition, urinary tract can be evaluated more precisely in multiplanar reformatted (MPR) and volume rendered (VR) images. 1. Advanced iterative reconstruction techniques allow to reduce radiation dose in CT examinations and to extend indications for CT urography in children. 2. Urinary tract can be evaluated more precisely in multiplanar reformatted and volume rendered images. 3. CTU may replace conventional X-ray urography in children

  14. MR spectroscopy in children: protocols and pitfalls in non-tumorous brain pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jacques F

    2016-06-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) delivers information about cell content and metabolism in a noninvasive manner. The diagnostic strength of MRS lies in its evaluation of pathologies in combination with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRS in children has been most widely used to evaluate brain conditions like tumors, infections, metabolic diseases or learning disabilities and especially in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. This article reviews some basic theoretical considerations, routine procedures, protocols and pitfalls and will illustrate the range of spectrum alterations occurring in some non-tumorous pediatric brain pathologies. PMID:27233789

  15. “Young people, adult worries”: RCT of an internet-based self-support method “Feel the ViBe” for children, adolescents and young adults exposed to family violence, a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    van Rosmalen-Nooijens, K. A. W. L.; Prins, J. B.; Vergeer, M; Wong, S H; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Violence in families affects children. Exposure to violence is seen as child abuse. Figures show that about one third of children exposed to violence become victim or perpetrator in their adult life: known as intergenerational transmission. Violence also affects sexual and reproductive health. To prevent problems in adult life, children need help and support. However, while trying to protect their parents, children often do not seek help, or perceive the threshold as too high. Sin...

  16. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites Children and Clinical Studies Learn more about Children and Clinical Studies Importance of Children in Clinical Studies Children have often had to ...

  17. Characterisation of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields in the Spanish INMA birth cohort: Study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Gallastegi (Mara); M. Guxens (Mònica ); A. Jiménez-Zabala (Ana); I. Calvente (Irene); M. Fernández (Marta); L. Birks (Laura); B. Struchen (Benjamin); M. Vrijheid (Martine); M. Estarlich (Marisa); M.F. Fernandez (Mariana); M. Torrent (Maties); F. Ballester (Ferran); J.J. Aurrekoetxea (Juan José); J. Ibarluzea (Jesús); D. Guerra (David); J. González (Julián); M. Röösli (Martin); L. Santa-Marina (Loreto)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Analysis of the association between exposure to electromagnetic fields of non-ionising radiation (EMF-NIR) and health in children and adolescents is hindered by the limited availability of data, mainly due to the difficulties on the exposure assessment. This study protocol de

  18. Children Learning About Secondhand Smoke (CLASS II):protocol of a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqi, Kamran; Huque, Rumana; Jackson, Cath; Parrott, Steve; Dogar, Omara; Shah, Sarwat; Thomson, Heather; Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) increases children's risk of acquiring chest and ear infections, tuberculosis, meningitis and asthma. Smoking bans in public places (where implemented) have significantly reduced adults' exposure to SHS. However, for children, homes remain the most likely place for them to be exposed to SHS. Additional measures are therefore required to protect children from SHS. In a feasibility study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we have shown that a school-based smo...

  19. Taking Action Together: A YMCA-based protocol to prevent Type-2 Diabetes in high-BMI inner-city African American children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Rita A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associated with a tripling in obesity since 1970, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in children has risen 9-10 fold. There is a critical need of protocols for trials to prevent T2DM in children. Methods/Design This protocol includes the theory, development, evaluation components and lessons learned from a novel YMCA-based T2DM prevention intervention designed specifically for high-BMI African American children from disadvantaged, inner-city neighborhoods of Oakland, California. The intervention was developed on the basis of: review of epidemiological and intervention studies of pediatric T2DM; a conceptual theory (social cognitive; a comprehensive examination of health promotion curricula designed for children; consultation with research, clinical experts and practitioners and; input from community partners. The intervention, Taking Action Together, included culturally sensitive and age-appropriate programming on: healthy eating; increasing physical activity and, improving self esteem. Discussion Evaluations completed to date suggest that Taking Action Together may be an effective intervention, and results warrant an expanded evaluation effort. This protocol could be used in other community settings to reduce the risk of children developing T2DM and related health consequences. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01039116.

  20. Asparaginase-associated pancreatitis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the NOPHO ALL2008 protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Raheel A; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Albertsen, Birgitte K; Prunsild, Kaie; Zeller, Bernward; Vaitkeviciene, Goda; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Heyman, Mats; Taskinen, Mervi; Harila-Saari, Arja; Kanerva, Jukka; Frandsen, Thomas L

    2014-04-01

    L-asparaginase is an important drug in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Treatment is associated with several toxicities, including acute pancreatitis. Clinical course, presentation, re-exposure to L-asparginase after pancreatitis and risk of recurrent pancreatitis within an asparaginase-intensive protocol has been poorly reported. Children (1-17 years) on the ongoing Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL2008 protocol with asparaginase-associated pancreatitis (AAP) diagnosed between 2008 and 2012 were identified through the online NOPHO ALL toxicity registry. NOPHO ALL2008 includes eight or 15 doses of intramuscular pegylated L-asparginase (PEG-asparaginase) 1000 iu/m(2) /dose at 2-6 weeks intervals, with a total of 30 weeks of exposure to PEG-asparaginase (clinicaltrials.gov no: NCT00819351). Of 786 children, 45 were diagnosed with AAP with a cumulative risk of AAP of 5·9%. AAP occurred after a median of five doses (range 1-13), and 11 d (median) from the latest administration of PEG-Asparaginase. Thirteen patients developed pseudocysts (30%) and 11 patients developed necrosis (25%). One patient died from pancreatitis. Twelve AAP patients were re-exposed to L-asparginase, two of whom developed mild AAP once more, after four and six doses respectively. In conclusion, re-exposure to PEG-asparaginase in ALL patients with mild AAP seems safe. PMID:24428625

  1. Rorschach Responses of Sexually Abused Children: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Gregory T.; Jenkins-Monroe, Valata

    1994-01-01

    Using archival data, this study compared Rorschach protocols of 94 sexually abused children to the Exner norms in order to determine the potential usefulness of the Rorschach test in the area of child abuse assessment and treatment. Of the 18 Rorschach variables studied, 17 significantly distinguished at least one subject group from the norms.…

  2. The Cost-Effectiveness of an Intensive Treatment Protocol for Severe Dyslexia in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; Goettsch, Wim G.; Ekkebus, Michel; Gerretsen, Patty; Stolk, Elly A.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of interventions for dyslexia have focused entirely on outcomes related to literacy. In this study, we considered a broader picture assessing improved quality of life compared with costs. A model served as a tool to compare costs and effects of treatment according to a new protocol and care as usual. Quality of life was measured and valued…

  3. Evaluation of an oral preventive protocol in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia Avaliação de um protocolo preventivo oral em crianças com leucemia linfoblástica aguda

    OpenAIRE

    Edja Maria Melo de Brito Costa; Maria Zélia Fernandes; Lêda Bezerra Quinderé; Lélia Batista de Souza; Leão Pereira Pinto

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a preventive oral protocol in children receiving antineoplastic treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) before initiating a larger intervention study. During a seven month period, fourteen children from two to ten years old with a diagnosis of ALL were evaluated. Patients with ALL who received a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouth rinse (seven children) were compared to a control group of patients who were not given the same preventive tre...

  4. Adoption of the children's obesity clinic's treatment (TCOCT) protocol into another Danish pediatric obesity treatment clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Most, Sebastian W; Højgaard, Birgitte; Teilmann, Grete Katrine;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treating severe childhood obesity has proven difficult with inconsistent treatment results. This study reports the results of the implementation of a childhood obesity chronic care treatment protocol. METHODS: Patients aged 5 to 18 years with a body mass index (BMI) above the 99th......, but independent of baseline BMI SDS, age, co-morbidity, SES, pubertal stage, place of referral, hours of treatment per year, and mean visit interval time. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic use of the TCOCT protocol reduced the degree of childhood obesity with acceptable retention rates with a modest time...

  5. "Young people, adult worries": RCT of an internet-based self-support method "Feel the ViBe" for children, adolescents and young adults exposed to family violence, a study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmalen-Nooijens, K.A.W.L.; Prins, J.B.; Vergeer, M.; Wong, S.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Violence in families affects children. Exposure to violence is seen as child abuse. Figures show that about one third of children exposed to violence become victim or perpetrator in their adult life: known as intergenerational transmission. Violence also affects sexual and reproductive h

  6. A Structured Forensic Interview Protocol Improves the Quality and Informativeness of Investigative Interviews with Children: A Review of Research Using the NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Michael; Orbach, Yael; Hershkowitz, Irit; Esplin, Phillip W.; Horowitz, Dvora

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To show how the results of research on children's memory, communicative skills, social knowledge, and social tendencies can be translated into guidelines that improve the quality of forensic interviews of children. Method: We review studies designed to evaluate children's capacities as witnesses, explain the development of the…

  7. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial

    OpenAIRE

    Freitag Christine M; Cholemkery Hannah; Elsuni Leyla; Kroeger Anne K; Bender Stephan; Kunz Cornelia Ursula; Kieser Meinhard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manu...

  8. Association of physical activity with cognition, metacognition and academic performance in children and adolescents: a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Pesce, Caterina; Cavero-Redondo, Iván; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Pardo-Guijarro, María Jesús; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Schools provide a relevant context for improving children's and adolescents’ physical and mental health by increasing physical activity during school hours and/or beyond. The interest in the relationship between physical activity programmes and cognition during development has recently increased, with evidence suggesting a positive association. We present a protocol of systematic reviews and meta-analysis of intervention studies that, by determining the effects of chronic physica...

  9. A comparative study of protocols for secure quantum communication under noisy environment: single-qubit-based protocols versus entangled-state-based protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vishal; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban; Banerjee, Subhashish

    2016-07-01

    The effect of noise on various protocols of secure quantum communication has been studied. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping, Pauli type as well as various collective noise models on the protocols of quantum key distribution, quantum key agreement, quantum secure direct quantum communication and quantum dialogue. From each type of protocol of secure quantum communication, we have chosen two protocols for our comparative study: one based on single-qubit states and the other one on entangled states. The comparative study reported here has revealed that single-qubit-based schemes are generally found to perform better in the presence of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping noises, while entanglement-based protocols turn out to be preferable in the presence of collective noises. It is also observed that the effect of noise depends upon the number of rounds of quantum communication involved in a scheme of quantum communication. Further, it is observed that squeezing, a completely quantum mechanical resource present in the squeezed generalized amplitude channel, can be used in a beneficial way as it may yield higher fidelity compared to the corresponding zero squeezing case.

  10. Children Learning About Secondhand Smoke (CLASS II): protocol of a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqi, Kamran; Huque, Rumana; Jackson, Cath; Parrott, Steve; Dogar, Omara; Shah, Sarwat; Thomson, Heather; Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) increases children’s risk of acquiring chest and ear infections, tuberculosis, meningitis and asthma. Smoking bans in public places (where implemented) have significantly reduced adults’ exposure to SHS. However, for children, homes remain the most likely place for them to be exposed to SHS. Additional measures are therefore required to protect children from SHS. In a feasibility study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we have shown that a school-based smok...

  11. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites Children and Clinical Studies Learn more about Children and Clinical Studies Importance of Children in Clinical Studies Children have often had to accept medicines and ...

  12. The effectiveness of a web-based Dutch parenting program to prevent overweight in children 9-13 years of age: study protocol for a two-armed cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, E.L.M.; Fransen, G.A.J.; Molleman, G.R.M.; Velden, K. van der; R.C.E.M. Engels,

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although parental support is an important component in overweight prevention programs for children, current programs pay remarkably little attention to the role of parenting. To close this gap, we developed a web-based parenting program for parents entitled "Making a healthy deal with yo

  13. The effectiveness of a web-based Dutch parenting program to prevent overweight in children 9–13 years of age: study protocol for a two-armed cluster randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiter, E.L.M.; Fransen, G.A.J.; Molleman, G.R.M.; Velden, K. van der; Engels, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although parental support is an important component in overweight prevention programs for children, current programs pay remarkably little attention to the role of parenting. To close this gap, we developed a web-based parenting program for parents entitled "Making a healthy deal with your child". This e-learning program can be incorporated into existing prevention programs, thereby improving these interventions by reinforcing the role of parenting and providing parents with pract...

  14. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with gait and mobility training on functionality in children with cerebral palsy: study protocol for a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Duarte, Natália de Almeida Carvalho; de Mendonça, Mariana Emerenciano; Pasini, Hugo; Lima, Vânia Lúcia Costa de Carvalho; Franco, Renata Calhes; de Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camilo; Corrêa, João Carlos Ferrari; Collange, Nelci Zanon; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Galli, Manuela; Fregni, Felipe; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2013-01-01

    Background The project proposes three innovative intervention techniques (treadmill training, mobility training with virtual reality and transcranial direct current stimulation that can be safely administered to children with cerebral palsy. The combination of transcranial stimulation and physical therapy resources will provide the training of a specific task with multiple rhythmic repetitions of the phases of the gait cycle, providing rich sensory stimuli with a modified excitability thresho...

  15. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with gait and mobility training on functionality in children with cerebral palsy: study protocol for a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Duarte, Natália de Almeida Carvalho; de Mendonça, Mariana Emerenciano; Pasini, Hugo; Lima, Vânia Lúcia Costa de Carvalho; Franco, Renata Calhes; de Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camilo; Corrêa, João Carlos Ferrari; Collange, Nelci Zanon; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Galli, Manuela; Fregni, Felipe; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2013-01-01

    Background: The project proposes three innovative intervention techniques (treadmill training, mobility training with virtual reality and transcranial direct current stimulation that can be safely administered to children with cerebral palsy. The combination of transcranial stimulation and physical therapy resources will provide the training of a specific task with multiple rhythmic repetitions of the phases of the gait cycle, providing rich sensory stimuli with a modified excitability thresh...

  16. The effectiveness of VIPP-V parenting training for parents of young children with a visual or visual-and-intellectual disability: study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Overbeek, Mathilde M.; Sterkenburg, Paula S.; Kef, Sabina; Schuengel, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Background Visual or visual-and-intellectual disabilities of children make daily interactions more difficult for their parents and may impact the quality of the parent-child relationship. To support these parents, an existing intervention (Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting; VIPP; Juffer F, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, van IJzendoorn MH, 2008. Promoting positive parenting; an attachment-based intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2008) was adapted for use w...

  17. Biomass to energy : GHG reduction quantification protocols and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the growing concerns over greenhouses gases and their contribution to climate change, it is necessary to find ways of reducing environmental impacts by diversifying energy sources to include non-fossil fuel energy sources. Among the fastest growing green energy sources is energy from waste facilities that use biomass that would otherwise be landfilled or stockpiled. The quantification of greenhouse gas reductions through the use of biomass to energy systems can be calculated using various protocols and methodologies. This paper described each of these methodologies and presented a case study comparing some of these quantification methodologies. A summary and comparison of biomass to energy greenhouse gas reduction protocols in use or under development by the United Nations, the European Union, the Province of Alberta and Environment Canada was presented. It was concluded that regulatory, environmental pressures, and public policy will continue to impact the practices associated with biomass processing or landfill operations, such as composting, or in the case of landfills, gas collection systems, thus reducing the amount of potential credit available for biomass to energy facility offset projects. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  18. Protocol of study and pursuit of the radioinduced burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of localized overexposures based on local experience and international criteria is being carried out within the framework of a cooperation agreement between the Buenos Aires Burned Hospital and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority. This protocol was designed considering separately acute and chronic reactions, including the following aspects: patient reception: clinical findings, laboratory tests, photographic recording, and multidisciplinary evaluation; dose reconstruction: evaluation of the dose distribution by biophysical and biological procedures; extension and depth estimation: telethermography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, radioisotopic procedures, capillaroscopy and percutaneous oxymetry; therapeutic strategies: pain treatment, prevention of infections, systemic administration of pentoxiphyllin and alpha-tocopherol, local application of trolamine and antioxidants, prevention and treatment of radioinduced fibrosis. When it is indicated, surgical treatment includes partial or total excision followed by covering by graft or flap. The application of tissue-engineering techniques will be considered. Study of individual radiosensitivity: evaluation of apoptosis in peripheral lymphocytes and clonogenic assays in dermal fibroblasts 'in vitro' irradiated. (author)

  19. The results of treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and leukocyte count over 50 x 10{sup 9}/1 according to the modified New York protocol. Preliminary report of Polish Leukemia-Lymphoma Study Group; Wstepne wyniki leczenia zmodyfikowanym programem Nowy Jork dzieci chorych na ostra bialaczke limfoblastyczna z leukocytoza ponad 50x10{sup 9}/1. Doswiadczenia Polskiej Grupy Pediatrycznej ds Leczenia Bialaczki i Chloniakow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armata, J. [Klinika Hematologii Dzieciecej, Akademia Medyczna, Cracow (Poland)] [and others

    1993-12-31

    92 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and leukocyte count over 50 x 10{sup 9}/1 were treated according to the modified New York protocol. The modifications were based on elements of Dana Faber protocol. The 4 year DFS was 66%. (author). 21 refs, 6 figs.

  20. Enhancing the early home learning environment through a brief group parenting intervention: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Jan M.; Cann, Warren; Matthews, Jan; Berthelsen, Donna; Obioha C Ukoumunne; Trajanovska, Misel; Bennetts, Shannon K.; Hillgrove, Tessa; Hamilton, Victoria; Westrupp, Elizabeth; Hackworth, Naomi J

    2016-01-01

    Background The quality of the home learning environment has a significant influence on children’s language and communication skills during the early years with children from disadvantaged families disproportionately affected. This paper describes the protocol and participant baseline characteristics of a community-based effectiveness study. It evaluates the effects of ‘smalltalk’, a brief group parenting intervention (with or without home coaching) on the quality of the early childhood home l...

  1. Study and Improvement of WTLS Protocol in WAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kai; LIU Ying; XIAO Guozhen

    2001-01-01

    Wireless application protocol (WAP)is a set of protocol designed for mobile terminal toconnect to Internet and is likely to become world stan-dard. Wireless transport layer security (WTLS) incor-porates the security features in WAP. In this paper,the analysis of the performance of WTLS is made.Two improvement schemes on WTLS are given: oneis that the client stores the certificate of servers; theother is that a new WTLS protocol is proposed basedon the designed authentication scheme.

  2. A Comparative Study of Various Routing Protocols in VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Rakesh; Dave, Mayank

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a subclass of Mobile ad hoc networks which provides a distinguished approach for Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The survey of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary for smart ITS. This paper discusses the advantages / disadvantages and the applications of various routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks. It explores the motivation behind the designed, and traces the evolution of these routing protocols. F inally the paper conclud...

  3. A Comparative Study of Various Routing Protocols in VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Kumar; Mayank Dave

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a subclass of Mobile ad hoc networks which provides a distinguished approach for Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The survey of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary for smart ITS. This paper discusses the advantages / disadvantages and the applications of various routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks. It explores the motivation behind the designed, and traces the evolution of these routing protocols. Finally the paper conclude...

  4. Comparison Study of Transmission Control Protocol and User Datagram Protocol Behavior over Multi-Protocol Label Switching Networks in Case of Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha A.A Radaei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In only a few years, Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS has evolved from an exotic technology to a mainstream tool used by service providers to create revenue-generating services. MPLS provides a high reliable Label Switched Path (LSP. MPLS failures may degrade the reliability of the MPLS networks. Approach: For that reason, many studies have been conducted to keep the high reliability and survivability of the MPLS networks. Unlike User Datagram Protocol (UDP, Transmission Control Protocol does not perform well in case of like-failure of MPLS networks because of its inability to distinguish packet loss due to link-failure. After the recovery time, TCP takes longer time than UDP to continue as it was before the failure. Results: In terms of packet loss, TCP performs better than UDP. However, the receiving rate of the TCP traffic is much worse than UDP traffic. A need for a mechanism to improve the behavior of TCP after a link failure is needed. This study focused on comparing the behavior of different types TCP as well as UDP traffic over MPLS networks in case of link, node or congestion failures. Conclusion: Although extensions of RSVP-TE protocol support fast recovery mechanism of MPLS networks, the behavior of TCP will be affected during recovery time much more than with UDP.

  5. A Comparative Study of Various Routing Protocols in VANET

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a subclass of Mobile ad hoc networks which provides a distinguished approach for Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The survey of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary for smart ITS. This paper discusses the advantages / disadvantages and the applications of various routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks. It explores the motivation behind the designed, and traces the evolution of these routing protocols. F inally the paper concludes by a tabular comparison of the various routing protocols for VANET.

  6. The bakery protocol : a comparitive case-study in formal verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, W.O.D.; Korver, H.P.

    1995-01-01

    A Comparative Case-Study in Formal Verification Groote and the second author verified (a version of) the Bakery Protocol in $muCRL$. Their process-algebraic verification is rather complex compared to the protocol. Now the question is: How do other verification techniques perform on this protocol? In

  7. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A Comparative Study of QoS Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Gangwar, Sanjeev; Kumar, Krishan

    2012-01-01

    This Article presents a thorough overview of QoS routing metrics, resources and factors affecting performance of QoS routing protocols. The relative strength, weakness, and applicability of existing QoS routing protocols are also studied and compared. QoS routing protocols are classified according to the QoS metrics used type of QoS guarantee assured.

  8. Recommended Protocol for Round Robin Studies in Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Shawn; Brown, Christopher U.; Slotwinski, John

    2016-01-01

    One way to improve confidence and encourage proliferation of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and parts is by generating more high quality data describing the performance of AM processes and parts. Many in the AM community see round robin studies as a way to generate large data sets while distributing the cost among the participants, thereby reducing the cost to individual users. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has conducted and participated in several of these AM round robin studies. While the results of these studies are interesting and informative, many of the lessons learned in conducting these studies concern the logistics and methods of the study and unique issues presented by AM. Existing standards for conducting interlaboratory studies of measurement methods, along with NIST’s experience, form the basis for recommended protocols for conducting AM round robin studies. The role of round robin studies in AM qualification, some of the limitations of round robin studies, and the potential benefit of less formal collaborative experiments where multiple factors, AM machine being only one, are varied simultaneously are also discussed. PMID:27274602

  9. Cost analysis of the Kozak protocol as used in an Ontario hospital in the treatment of children with epidermolysis bullosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Wodinsky, H. B.

    1984-01-01

    Conventional treatment of epidermolysis bullosa is often unsuccessful. The Kozak protocol is an alternative that has been given considerable public support in Ontario. The incremental cost of this treatment program at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, was examined. The departments of nursing, pharmacy and food services each kept records of salaries and supply costs applicable to the care of nine patients with epidermolysis bullosa who were treated in the fiscal year 1982-83. The select...

  10. Electronic and postal reminders for improving immunisation coverage in children: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachou, Martel J; Mukinda, Fidele K; Motaze, Villyen; Wiysonge, Charles S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, suboptimal immunisation coverage causes the deaths of more than one million children under five from vaccine-preventable diseases every year. Reasons for suboptimal coverage are multifactorial, and a combination of interventions is needed to improve compliance with immunisation schedules. One intervention relies on reminders, where the health system prompts caregivers to attend immunisation appointments on time or re-engages caregivers who have defaulted on scheduled appointments. We undertake this systematic review to investigate the potential of reminders using emails, phone calls, social media, letters or postcards to improve immunisation coverage in children under five. Methods and analysis We will search for published and unpublished randomised controlled trials and non-randomised controlled trials in PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Science Citation Index, WHOLIS, Clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Platform. We will conduct screening of search results, study selection, data extraction and risk-of-bias assessment in duplicate, resolving disagreements by consensus. In addition, we will pool data from clinically homogeneous studies using random-effects meta-analysis; assess heterogeneity of effects using the χ2 test of homogeneity; and quantify any observed heterogeneity using the I2 statistic. Ethics and dissemination This protocol does not need approval by an ethics committee because we will use publicly available data, without directly involving human participants. The results will provide updated evidence on the effects of electronic and postal reminders on immunisation coverage, and we will discuss the applicability of the findings to low and middle-income countries. We plan to disseminate review findings through publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presentation at relevant conferences. In addition, we will prepare a policymaker-friendly summary using a validated format (eg, SUPPORT Summary) and

  11. RPL Routing Protocol a case study: Precision agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y.; Chanet, J.P.; K. M. Hou

    2012-01-01

    International audience The routing protocol for low power and lossy network (RPL) was designed in the ROLL working group at IETF since the year of 2008. Until the latest version of draft 19 released, this protocol algorithms and its four application scenario, such as home automation, industrial control, urban environment and building automation, have been nearly grounded. However, it is still very difficult to find effective approaches to simulate and evaluate RPL's behavior and other exte...

  12. STUDY OF VANET ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR END TO END DELAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunilkumar M. Bhagat

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Less than a century since the automobile was made affordable enough for the general public, hundreds of millions of vehicles now travel along highways and streets around the world. Innovations in safety, comfort, and convenience have made vast improvements in automobiles during that time, and now new technologies promise to change the face of vehicular travel once again. Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET is network which provides the communication between vehicle to vehicle for p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o travelers with new features and applications that have never previously been possible. This paper focuses on vehicle to vehicle (V2V communications in VANET. Lot of research is going on for determining route between source and destination vehicles for routing the information with good packet delivery ratio. In this paper we provide a simulation and study of VANET Routing Protocols for end-to-end delay in V2V communication.

  13. Protocol: optimisation of a grafting protocol for oilseed rape (Brassica napus) for studying long-distance signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Ostendorp, Anna; Pahlow, Steffen; Deke, Jennifer; Thieß, Melanie; Kehr, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Background Grafting is a well-established technique for studying long-distance transport and signalling processes in higher plants. While oilseed rape has been the subject of comprehensive analyses of xylem and phloem sap to identify macromolecules potentially involved in long-distance information transfer, there is currently no standardised grafting method for this species published. Results We developed a straightforward collar-free grafting protocol for Brassica napus plants with high repr...

  14. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, S Raja; Seenivasagam, V

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated. PMID:26881272

  15. Protocol for fir tree sampling for provenance studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Thomas; Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    Isotopic (stable and radiogenic) as well as trace element fingerprinting methods used for tracing the geographical origin, rely on databases, that need to contain data sets representative of the measurands of the individual samples for a specific geographic entity. Through this work, we want to assess different sampling strategies for obtaining representative sample of fir trees (Abies sp.). Motivation for this work is the protection of the local Austrian Christmas tree market from wrongly tagged trees of non-Austrian origin. In particular, we studied three typical Christmas trees the most common species sold as Christmas tree, namely Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann Fir), from the same locality in lower Austria. For the initial tests we applied the elemental fingerprinting method, to study the suitability of the different parts of the tree applying ICP-MS analysis after complete acid digestion in a high pressure asher system (HPA-S).Needle samples from each year of life of the tree and stem wood from three different heights were analyzed for their trace element content to prove the repeatability and to find the best sampling protocol. For the analysis of the needles, the natural wax coating had to be removed in order to get reproducible results. For the analysis of stem wood only the bark was removed. As expected the data of all three trees allowed the differentiation of the individual needle ages, but interestingly enough also between the three sampling heights of the needs. Both needles and wood proved to be suitable for successful fingerprinting, but importantly, provided that sample of the same type and ages are compared. The same samples for the three trees will also be used for isotopic analysis studies to better understand the influence of age and sampling height on the representativeness of fir tree samples. Based on elemental fingerprinting alone, a successful discrimination between local (Austrian) and foreign (Danish, Irish) Christmas trees was possible.

  16. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E-Newsletters About NHLBI Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory ... Learn more about Children and Clinical Studies Importance of Children in Clinical Studies Children have often ...

  17. First steps: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of the Group Family Nurse Partnership (gFNP) program compared to routine care in improving outcomes for high-risk mothers and their children and preventing abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from the USA suggests that the home-based Family Nurse Partnership program (FNP), extending from early pregnancy until infants are 24 months, can reduce the risk of child abuse and neglect throughout childhood. FNP is now widely available in the UK. A new variant, Group Family Nurse Partnership (gFNP) offers similar content but in a group context and for a shorter time, until infants are 12 months old. Each group comprises 8 to 12 women with similar expected delivery dates and their partners. Its implementation has been established but there is no evidence of its effectiveness. Methods/Design The study comprises a multi-site randomized controlled trial designed to identify the benefits of gFNP compared to standard care. Participants (not eligible for FNP) must be either aged after the collection of baseline information. Researchers are blind to group assignment. The primary outcomes at 12 months are child abuse potential based on the revised Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory and parent/infant interaction coded using the CARE Index based on a video-taped interaction. Secondary outcomes are maternal depression, parenting stress, health related quality of life, social support, and use of services. Discussion This is the first study of the effectiveness of gFNP in the UK. Results should inform decision-making about its delivery alongside universal services, potentially enabling a wider range of families to benefit from the FNP curriculum and approach to supporting parenting. Trial registration ISRCTN78814904. PMID:24011061

  18. A Comparision Study of Common Routing Protocols Used In Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim Alhadidi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze and compare performance of both reactive and proactive Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs routing protocols using different environments. Wireless networks are divided into two types: infrastructure and ad hoc network. In wireless ad hoc networks each node can be a sender, router and receiver, so these types of network are less structure compared to infrastructure network. Therefore wireless ad hoc networks need special routing protocols to overcome the limitations of wireless ad hoc networks. Wireless ad hoc networks routing protocols can be categorized into two types: reactive (on demand routing protocols and proactive routing protocols. In proactive routing protocols the nodes periodically send control messages across the network to build routing table. Different routing protocols have been simulated using GloMoSim (Global Mobile Information system simulation library and PARSEC compiler. Five multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols have been simulated to cover a range of design choices: Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP, Fisheye State Routing (FSR, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV and Location Aided Routing (LAR. The protocols are evaluated in different environments to investigate performance metrics. Performance metric includes the following aspects: packets deliver ratio, end-to-end delay and end-to-end throughput.

  19. Pilot study of a paediatric emergency department oral rehydration protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, R.; Busuttil, M; Stuart, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain if the use of a paediatric oral rehydration protocol in the emergency department changed rates of admission, total time spent in hospital, total time spent in the emergency department, or number of unscheduled returns to the emergency department.

  20. Fate of clinical research studies after ethical approval--follow-up of study protocols until publication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Blümle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many clinical studies are ultimately not fully published in peer-reviewed journals. Underreporting of clinical research is wasteful and can result in biased estimates of treatment effect or harm, leading to recommendations that are inappropriate or even dangerous. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of clinical studies approved 2000-2002 by the Research Ethics Committee of the University of Freiburg, Germany. Published full articles were searched in electronic databases and investigators contacted. Data on study characteristics were extracted from protocols and corresponding publications. We characterized the cohort, quantified its publication outcome and compared protocols and publications for selected aspects. RESULTS: Of 917 approved studies, 807 were started and 110 were not, either locally or as a whole. Of the started studies, 576 (71% were completed according to protocol, 128 (16% discontinued and 42 (5% are still ongoing; for 61 (8% there was no information about their course. We identified 782 full publications corresponding to 419 of the 807 initiated studies; the publication proportion was 52% (95% CI: 0.48-0.55. Study design was not significantly associated with subsequent publication. Multicentre status, international collaboration, large sample size and commercial or non-commercial funding were positively associated with subsequent publication. Commercial funding was mentioned in 203 (48% protocols and in 205 (49% of the publications. In most published studies (339; 81% this information corresponded between protocol and publication. Most studies were published in English (367; 88%; some in German (25; 6% or both languages (27; 6%. The local investigators were listed as (co-authors in the publications corresponding to 259 (62% studies. CONCLUSION: Half of the clinical research conducted at a large German university medical centre remains unpublished; future research is built on an incomplete database. Research resources are

  1. Study protocol for the Fukushima health management survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accidents that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 have resulted in long-term, ongoing anxiety among the residents of Fukushima, Japan. Soon after the disaster, Fukushima Prefecture launched the Fukushima Health Management Survey to investigate long-term low-dose radiation exposure caused by the accident. Fukushima Medical University took the lead in planning and implementing this survey. The primary purposes of this survey are to monitor the long-term health of residents, promote their future well-being, and confirm whether long-term low-dose radiation exposure has health effects. This report describes the rationale and implementation of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. This cohort study enrolled all people living in Fukushima Prefecture after the earthquake and comprises a basic survey and 4 detailed surveys. The basic survey is to estimate levels of external radiation exposure among all 2.05 million residents. It should be noted that internal radiation levels were estimated by Fukushima Prefecture using whole-body counters. The detailed surveys comprise a thyroid ultrasound examination for all Fukushima children aged 18 years or younger, a comprehensive health check for all residents from the evacuation zones, an assessment of mental health and lifestyles of all residents from the evacuation zones, and recording of all pregnancies and births among all women in the prefecture who were pregnant on 11 March. All data have been entered into a database and will be used to support the residents and analyze the health effects of radiation. The low response rate (<30%) to the basic survey complicates the estimation of health effects. There have been no cases of malignancy to date among 38 114 children who received thyroid ultrasound examinations. The importance of mental health care was revealed by the mental health and lifestyle survey and the pregnancy and birth survey. This long

  2. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Studies Children have often had to accept medicines and treatments based on what is known to ... children's health with the goal to develop treatments, drugs, and devices specific to children. Resources for a ...

  3. Hypertension Improvement Project (HIP: study protocol and implementation challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollak Kathryn I

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension affects 29% of the adult U.S. population and is a leading cause of heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure. Despite numerous effective treatments, only 53% of people with hypertension are at goal blood pressure. The chronic care model suggests that blood pressure control can be achieved by improving how patients and physicians address patient self-care. Methods and design This paper describes the protocol of a nested 2 × 2 randomized controlled trial to test the separate and combined effects on systolic blood pressure of a behavioral intervention for patients and a quality improvement-type intervention for physicians. Primary care practices were randomly assigned to the physician intervention or to the physician control condition. Physician randomization occurred at the clinic level. The physician intervention included training and performance monitoring. The training comprised 2 internet-based modules detailing both the JNC-7 hypertension guidelines and lifestyle modifications for hypertension. Performance data were collected for 18 months, and feedback was provided to physicians every 3 months. Patient participants in both intervention and control clinics were individually randomized to the patient intervention or to usual care. The patient intervention consisted of a 6-month behavioral intervention conducted by trained interventionists in 20 group sessions, followed by 12 monthly phone contacts by community health advisors. Follow-up measurements were performed at 6 and 18 months. The primary outcome was the mean change in systolic blood pressure at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were diastolic blood pressure and the proportion of patients with adequate blood pressure control at 6 and 18 months. Discussion Overall, 8 practices (4 per treatment group, 32 physicians (4 per practice; 16 per treatment group, and 574 patients (289 control and 285 intervention were enrolled. Baseline characteristics of patients and

  4. A Comparative Study of Key Management Protocols for WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Verma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased employment of WSN (Wireless Sensor Network in real life applications and their hostile and remote locations accelerate demand of security in WSN. Publicly accessible wireless communication channel also makes WSN vulnerable to numerous security attacks. Scarcity of resources acquaints new sort of challenges and difficulties during implementation of effective security mechanisms. In this paper, we evaluate and compare performance of three different security mechanisms (ECRKS, CKP and AP scheme. ECRKS (Energy-efficient, Connected, Resilient Key pre-distribution Scheme is based upon multi hop communication architecture specifically designed for homogeneous WSN. Clustering based protocols, AP (Asymmetric pre-distribution scheme and CKP (Clustering based Key management Protocol are proposed for heterogeneous WSN. All the above mentioned schemes are simulated in MATLAB to evaluate their effectiveness and suitability for WSN. Simulation result shows that CKP outperforms other two schemes in terms of transmission distance, memory burden, energy dissipation and resilience.

  5. Devising of analyses protocols for biofilm growth studies

    OpenAIRE

    Conde Martín de la Vega, José

    2008-01-01

    The laboratory LEGI is involved in a project dealing with biofilter modelling. Experimental investigations have already been performed on a laboratory scale pilot. To complete these experiments, a deeper knowledge of the biofilm composition and structure is needed. In particular, an understanding of the evolution of the respective fractions of bacteria cells and EPS in the biofilm for different hydrodynamic conditions is required. The subject consists of devising the experimental protocol to ...

  6. Peer mentorship to promote effective pain management in adolescents: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Loran P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This protocol is for a study of a new program to improve outcomes in children suffering from chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, recurrent headache, or recurrent abdominal pain. Although teaching active pain self-management skills through cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT or a complementary program such as hypnotherapy or yoga has been shown to improve pain and functioning, children with low expectations of skill-building programs may lack motivation to comply with therapists' recommendations. This study will develop and test a new manualized peer-mentorship program which will provide modeling and reinforcement by peers to other adolescents with chronic pain (the mentored participants. The mentorship program will encourage mentored participants to engage in therapies that promote the learning of pain self-management skills and to support the mentored participants' practice of these skills. The study will examine the feasibility of this intervention for both mentors and mentored participants, and will assess the preliminary effectiveness of this program on mentored participants' pain and functional disability. Methods This protocol will recruit adolescents ages 12-17 with chronic pain and randomly assign them to either peer mentorship or a treatment-as-usual control group. Mentored participants will be matched with peer mentors of similar age (ages 14-18 who have actively participated in various treatment modalities through the UCLA Pediatric Pain Program and have learned to function successfully with a chronic pain disorder. The mentors will present information to mentored participants in a supervised and monitored telephone interaction for 2 months to encourage participation in skill-building programs. The control group will receive usual care but without the mentorship intervention. Mentored and control subjects' pain and functioning will be assessed at 2 months (end of intervention for mentored participants and

  7. Management of Ontario children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia by the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute protocols.

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, S J; Barr, R D; Andrew, M.; deVeber, L L; Pai, M K

    1989-01-01

    There is ample evidence of the value of intensive therapeutic strategies in the management of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the commonest form of malignant disease in children. Such a program, devised at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI), Boston, and incorporating high-dose L-asparaginase, was adopted in 1984 by the Children's Hospital at Chedoke-McMaster, Hamilton, Ont., and the Children's Hospital of Western Ontario, London. We describe the experience of these institutions in th...

  8. Pediatric mature B-cell non Hodgkin lymphoma treatment with LMB-96 protocol. The Children Cancer Hospital Egypt experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Abdel Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Burkitt lymphoma (BL is a highly aggressive mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and is the fastest growing human tumor. The outcome of childhood NHL has improved steadily over the past decades through the use of intensive sequential multi-agent chemotherapy regimens.Methods: A retrospective study having all patients 18 years old or younger diagnosed with mature B cell NHL and treated at Children Cancer Hospital Egypt (CCHE. All children were treated according to the modified (LMB 96 protocol during the period between July 2007 and December 2012. Patients were followed up till June 2013.Results: Three hundred and seventy-seven patients were diagnosed with mature B cell NHL and received the LMB96 treatment protocol. The majorities were males (76.4% with a median age of 5.3 years, and ranged from 0.1-18.0 years. The median follow-up period was 28.2 months (range 0.9-72 months. Burkitt lymphoma was the most predominant pathologic subtype (79.6%, n = 300, and abdominal mass as a primary site was the most common presentation (71.3%. Twenty seven patients (7.2% were treated as group A, 268 (71.0% as group B, and 82 (21.8% patients as high risk group C. Seventy-one (18.8% patients suffered adverse events. Major adverse events were early deaths in 17 patients (4.5%, death during induction chemotherapy seen in 18 patients (4.7%, and during maintenance therapy in 7 patients (1.8%, tumor progression in 19 patients (5.0%, and relapse in 10 patients (3.7%. Sixty-three patients (16.7% died during the study period. The main causes of death were tumor lysis syndrome (TLS in 25.3%, and severe sepsis during chemotherapy in 41.3% of the patients. The 3 years OS and EFS were 83.3% and 80.4% respectively for the whole groups of patients. OS and EFS were 100% for group A, and 87.5%±3.9% and 85.9±4.3% for group B. For group C BM+/CNS- patients, OS was 55.62%±15.8%, and EFS of 53.8%±15.6%. For BM+/CNS+ patients, OS and EFS were 63.2%±21.76% and 57.9%

  9. Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.B.; Woodruff, L.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W.F.; Garrett, R.G.; Kilburn, J.E.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of 19 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography. Only three of these samples had detectable pesticide concentrations. A separate sample of A-horizon soil was collected for microbial characterization by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), soil enzyme assays, and determination of selected human and agricultural pathogens. Collection, preservation and analysis of samples for both organic compounds and microbial characterization add a great degree of complication to the sampling and preservation protocols and a

  10. Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The 3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of 19 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography. Only three of these samples had detectable pesticide concentrations. A separate sample of A-horizon soil was collected for microbial characterization by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), soil enzyme assays, and determination of selected human and agricultural

  11. Examining the social determinants of children's developmental health: protocol for building a pan-Canadian population-based monitoring system for early childhood development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhn, Martin; Janus, Magdalena; Enns, Jennifer; Brownell, Marni; Forer, Barry; Duku, Eric; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Raos, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early childhood is a key period to establish policies and practices that optimise children's health and development, but Canada lacks nationally representative data on social indicators of children's well-being. To address this gap, the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher-administered questionnaire completed for kindergarten-age children, has been implemented across most Canadian provinces over the past 10 years. The purpose of this protocol is to describe the Canadian Neighbourhoods and Early Child Development (CanNECD) Study, the aims of which are to create a pan-Canadian EDI database to monitor trends over time in children's developmental health and to advance research examining the social determinants of health. Methods and analysis Canada-wide EDI records from 2004 to 2014 (representing over 700 000 children) will be linked to Canada Census and Income Taxfiler data. Variables of socioeconomic status derived from these databases will be used to predict neighbourhood-level EDI vulnerability rates by conducting a series of regression analyses and latent variable models at provincial/territorial and national levels. Where data are available, we will measure the neighbourhood-level change in developmental vulnerability rates over time and model the socioeconomic factors associated with those trends. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval for this study was granted by the Behavioural Research Ethics Board at the University of British Columbia. Study findings will be disseminated to key partners, including provincial and federal ministries, schools and school districts, collaborative community groups and the early childhood development research community. The database created as part of this longitudinal population-level monitoring system will allow researchers to associate practices, programmes and policies at school and community levels with trends in developmental health outcomes. The CanNECD Study will guide future early childhood

  12. A Complete Study on Unipath Routing Protocols in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Ganesh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc network is a cluster of wireless mobile nodes making a network with dynamically changing topology without using any permanent access point as a base station. To create connectivity among nodes more than single hop is needed due to low transmission range. Increasing of mobile nodes enhances this overhead. Many standards have been developed for transmission and to find effective routes from a source to some destination. In this paper, we have analyzed the main protocols and issues of routing in MANETs.

  13. The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians have a life expectancy more than ten years less than that of non-Aboriginal Australians, reflecting their disproportionate burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease throughout the lifespan. Little is known about the health and health trajectories of Aboriginal children and, although the majority of Aboriginal people live in urban areas, data are particularly sparse in relation to children living in urban areas. Methods/Design The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH is a cohort study of Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years, from urban and large regional centers in New South Wales, Australia. SEARCH focuses on Aboriginal community identified health priorities of: injury; otitis media; vaccine-preventable conditions; mental health problems; developmental delay; obesity; and risk factors for chronic disease. Parents/caregivers and their children are invited to participate in SEARCH at the time of presentation to one of the four participating Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations at Mount Druitt, Campbelltown, Wagga Wagga and Newcastle. Questionnaire data are obtained from parents/caregivers and children, along with signed permission for follow-up through repeat data collection and data linkage. All children have their height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and complete audiometry, otoscopy/pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry. Children aged 1-7 years have speech and language assessed and their parents/caregivers complete the Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status. The Study aims to recruit 1700 children by the end of 2010 and to secure resources for long term follow up. From November 2008 to March 2010, 1010 children had joined the study. From those 446 children with complete data entry, participating children ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years old, with 144 aged 0-3, 147 aged 4-7, 75 aged 8-10 and 79 aged 11

  14. Preparing for severe contrast media reactions in children - results of a national survey, a literature review and a suggested protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To identify current practices within paediatric radiology in the UK with regard to the use of prophylactic medication, prior to administering intravenous (IV) radiocontrast medium (RCM). In addition, the pre-injection risk management strategies of the departments questioned was to be evaluated, and using consensus opinion, a protocol for managing patients identified as being at high risk for an adverse reaction to RCM was to be outlined. Materials and methods: An online survey of paediatric radiology consultants representing all geographic regions of the UK was carried out. The questions asked included an assessment of the risk factors for adverse reactions to RCM, and how such reactions are anticipated and managed. The questionnaire asked about the perceived indications for, and the use of prophylactic medication prior to RCM administration. Results: A response rate of 51% was achieved. The majority of respondents felt that a history of previous RCM reaction was an indication to administer prophylactic drugs prior to a further dose of RCM. No other risk factor was believed to require prophylactic medication. Conclusion: Using information obtained from the survey, a literature search was performed to assess the evidence available in support of each practice. A protocol was devised to identify children at risk of an adverse reaction to RCM, and guide the use of prophylactic medication in this group of patients. The survey highlighted considerable variability in the risk-assessment and management practices within paediatric radiology in the UK. The derived protocol may guide radiologists' management of children at risk for an RCM reaction.

  15. Simulation study for Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using DMAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Sejwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of deafness problem in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs using directional antennas. Directional antennas arebeneficial for wireless ad hoc networks consisting of a collection of wireless hosts. A suitable Medium Access Control (MAC protocol must be designed to best utilize directional antennas. Deafness is caused whentwo nodes are in ongoing transmission and a third node (Deaf Node wants to communicate with one of that node. But it get no response because transmission of two nodes are in process. Though directional antennas offer better spatial reuse, but this problem can have a serious impact on network performance. A New DMAC (Directional Medium Access Control protocol uses flags in DNAV (Directional Network Allocation Vector tables to maintain information regarding the transmissionbetween the nodes in the network and their neighbor’s location. Two performance matrices have been used to show the impact of New DMAC algorithm on Deafness problem using simulator. These are RTS Failure Ratio and RTS Retransmission due to timeout

  16. An Imaging Diagnostic Protocol in Children with Clinically Suspected Acute Appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifanio, Matias; Antonio de Medeiros Lima, Marco; Corrêa, Patricia; Baldisserotto, Matteo

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate a new diagnostic strategy using clinical findings followed by ultrasound (US) and, in selected cases, MRI. This study included 166 children presenting signs and symptoms suggesting acute appendicitis. Cases classified as suggesting appendicitis according to clinical exams had to be referred to surgery, whereas the other cases were discharged. Unclear cases were evaluated using US. If the US results were considered inconclusive, patients underwent MRI. Of the 166 patients, 78 (47%) had acute appendicitis and 88 (53%) had other diseases. The strategy under study had a sensitivity of 96 per cent, specificity of 100 per cent, positive predictive value of 100 per cent, negative predictive value of 97 per cent, and accuracy of 98 per cent. Eight patients remained undiagnosed and underwent MRI. After MRI two girls presented normal appendixes and were discharged. One girl had an enlarged appendix on MRI and appendicitis could have been confirmed by surgery. In the other five patients, no other sign of the disease was detected by MRI such as an inflammatory mass, free fluid or an abscess in the right iliac fossa. All of them were discharged after clinical observation. In the vast majority of cases the correct diagnosis was reached by clinical and US examinations. When clinical assessment and US findings were inconclusive, MRI was useful to detect normal and abnormal appendixes and valuable to rule out other abdominal pathologies that mimic appendicitis. PMID:27215717

  17. Family-based interventions to increase physical activity in children: a meta-analysis and realist synthesis protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Atkin, Andrew J.; Panter, Jenna; Corder, Kirsten; Wong, Geoff; Mai J M Chinapaw; van Sluijis, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the established relationship between physical activity and health, data suggest that many children are insufficiently active, and that levels decline into adolescence. Engaging the family in interventions may increase and maintain children's physical activity levels at the critical juncture before secondary school. Synthesis of existing evidence will inform future studies, but the heterogeneity in target populations recruited, behaviour change techniques and intervention ...

  18. Partner randomized controlled trial: study protocol and coaching intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Garbutt Jane M; Highstein Gabrielle; Yan Yan; Strunk Robert C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many children with asthma live with frequent symptoms and activity limitations, and visits for urgent care are common. Many pediatricians do not regularly meet with families to monitor asthma control, identify concerns or problems with management, or provide self-management education. Effective interventions to improve asthma care such as small group training and care redesign have been difficult to disseminate into office practice. Methods and design This paper describes ...

  19. Study on Security Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Dhivya Devi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The extremely undefendable to attacks which is being composed of hundreds and thousands of tiny sensory nodes with less energy, memory and power is the existence of wireless sensor network. The area covered by WSN application has raised the level of security to the adoption and consumption of sensor networks without any interrupts throughout the wide area of occurrence. Sensor networks are interacting with very sensitive data and deployed in hostile unattended environments, where the security issues should be concentrated to attain their potential. This paper lights a torch on security of WSN and different attacks in it and mainly focuses on the effect of Denial of Service (DoS attacks, which is caused by a flood attack where there is a composition of many illegitimate nodes sits inside the network can produce traffic and dampen the security of WSN. On behalf of the security aspects, this paper also has concentrating on the anatomy of security protocols.

  20. Depression screening and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents: a systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Thombs Brett D; Roseman Michelle; Kloda Lorie A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression is an important cause of disability among children and adolescents. Depression screening is one possible method for managing depression, and screening programs have been initiated in some school and medical settings. However, in 2005, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care and the United Kingdom National Institute of Clinical Excellence did not recommend depression screening among children and adolescents. By contrast, in 2009, the United States Preve...

  1. Study protocol: Intensive care anxiety and emotional recovery (Icare) - A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, M.; Aitken, L. M.; Cooke, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Survivors of intensive care units (ICUs) commonly present with symptoms of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during recovery. A number of factors have been identified as predictors of these adverse emotional outcomes, but the role of state anxiety during critical illness in the development of these emotional problems remains unknown. Purpose The Intensive Care Anxiety and Emotional Recovery (ICARe) study protocol proposes the development of a s...

  2. Bulk transfer protocols on satellite link - Study within the OSI reference model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, I.

    Since satellite systems, such as TELECOM1 in France, are available for data transmission, new protocols need to be designed to fit the requirements of satellite communication systems and to offer specific facilities to the users. The main features of these new transmission protocols, as they have been specified by NADIR studies, are described. Next, the reasons for choosing to study these protocols within the OSI Reference Model are explained. A detailed study about introducing the protocol mechanisms described above in the OSI Reference model layers is then presented. Different approaches are presented, and the solutions studied are appraised in terms of efficiency, and of conformity to the OSI Reference Model. Finally, the experiments planned by NADIR are mentionned.

  3. Osteonecrosis in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a magnetic resonance imaging study after treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojala, A.; Lanning, F.; Paakko, E.; Lanning, B. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in complete bone marrow remission at the end of the treatment. Finally, the study suggests that the intensification phase of the treatment protocols with intensive dexamethasone medication might be responsible for the development of osteonecrosis. (N.C.)

  4. Osteonecrosis in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a magnetic resonance imaging study after treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in complete bone marrow remission at the end of the treatment. Finally, the study suggests that the intensification phase of the treatment protocols with intensive dexamethasone medication might be responsible for the development of osteonecrosis. (N.C.)

  5. Advantages of a Warfarin Protocol for Long-term Care Pharmacists: a Retrospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sargent, Randall; Brocklebank, Cynthia; Tam-Tham, Helen; Williamson, Tyler; Quail, Patrick; Turner, Diana; Drummond, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background Warfarin is an anticoagulant prescribed to 12% of long-term care residents to reduce the risk of thrombo-embolism. This study used indicators to compare warfarin management by pharmacists to usual care. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study comparing a pharmacist-managed warfarin protocol with usual care of qualified warfarin recipients at long-term care facilities (two protocol, one control) in Calgary, Alberta. We compared the proportion of international normalized ratio ...

  6. Recommended protocols based on a survey of current practice in genotoxicity testing laboratories: study evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillinger, R L; Nestmann, E R; Sigal, E A; Swierenga, S H

    1991-02-01

    The approach used in the survey of current methodologies used in mammalian cell genotoxicity testing (unscheduled DNA synthesis, mutation, cell transformation and cytogenetics testing) is discussed. The recommended protocols, described in the preceding papers, were developed using responses to detailed questionnaires. This summary outlines general observations related to the survey methodology and to the protocols themselves. Also discussed are the qualities of an effective survey; the evolution of a survey and of a protocol; and the contributions and limitations of this study. PMID:1996127

  7. Predicting implementation from organizational readiness for change: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly P Adam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is widespread interest in measuring organizational readiness to implement evidence-based practices in clinical care. However, there are a number of challenges to validating organizational measures, including inferential bias arising from the halo effect and method bias - two threats to validity that, while well-documented by organizational scholars, are often ignored in health services research. We describe a protocol to comprehensively assess the psychometric properties of a previously developed survey, the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment. Objectives Our objective is to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the psychometric properties of the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment incorporating methods specifically to address threats from halo effect and method bias. Methods and Design We will conduct three sets of analyses using longitudinal, secondary data from four partner projects, each testing interventions to improve the implementation of an evidence-based clinical practice. Partner projects field the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment at baseline (n = 208 respondents; 53 facilities, and prospectively assesses the degree to which the evidence-based practice is implemented. We will conduct predictive and concurrent validities using hierarchical linear modeling and multivariate regression, respectively. For predictive validity, the outcome is the change from baseline to follow-up in the use of the evidence-based practice. We will use intra-class correlations derived from hierarchical linear models to assess inter-rater reliability. Two partner projects will also field measures of job satisfaction for convergent and discriminant validity analyses, and will field Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment measures at follow-up for concurrent validity (n = 158 respondents; 33 facilities. Convergent and discriminant validities will test associations between organizational readiness and

  8. Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David B., E-mail: dsmith@usgs.gov [US Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, MS 973, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Woodruff, Laurel G. [US Geological Survey, St. Paul, MN 55112 (United States); O' Leary, Richard M. [US Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, MS 973, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Cannon, William F. [US Geological Survey, 954 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Garrett, Robert G. [Geological Survey of Canada, 601 Booth Street, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0E8 (Canada); Kilburn, James E. [US Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, MS 973, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Goldhaber, Martin B. [US Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, MS 964, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The <2-mm fraction of each sample was analyzed for Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Ti, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Te, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following a near-total digestion in a mixture of HCl, HNO{sub 3}, HClO{sub 4}, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic

  9. A study protocol to evaluate the relationship between outdoor air pollution and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selemane Ismael

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study protocol is designed to assess the relationship between outdoor air pollution and low birth weight and preterm births outcomes performing a semi-ecological analysis. Semi-ecological design studies are widely used to assess effects of air pollution in humans. In this type of analysis, health outcomes and covariates are measured in individuals and exposure assignments are usually based on air quality monitor stations. Therefore, estimating individual exposures are one of the major challenges when investigating these relationships with a semi-ecologic design. Methods/Design Semi-ecologic study consisting of a retrospective cohort study with ecologic assignment of exposure is applied. Health outcomes and covariates are collected at Primary Health Care Center. Data from pregnant registry, clinical record and specific questionnaire administered orally to the mothers of children born in period 2007-2010 in Portuguese Alentejo Litoral region, are collected by the research team. Outdoor air pollution data are collected with a lichen diversity biomonitoring program, and individual pregnancy exposures are assessed with spatial geostatistical simulation, which provides the basis for uncertainty analysis of individual exposures. Awareness of outdoor air pollution uncertainty will improve validity of individual exposures assignments for further statistical analysis with multivariate regression models. Discussion Exposure misclassification is an issue of concern in semi-ecological design. In this study, personal exposures are assigned to each pregnant using geocoded addresses data. A stochastic simulation method is applied to lichen diversity values index measured at biomonitoring survey locations, in order to assess spatial uncertainty of lichen diversity value index at each geocoded address. These methods assume a model for spatial autocorrelation of exposure and provide a distribution of exposures in each study location

  10. Study of Optimal Perimetric Testing in Children (OPTIC: Feasibility, Reliability and Repeatability of Perimetry in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipesh E Patel

    Full Text Available To investigate feasibility, reliability and repeatability of perimetry in children.A prospective, observational study recruiting 154 children aged 5-15 years, without an ophthalmic condition that affects the visual field (controls, identified consecutively between May 2012 and November 2013 from hospital eye clinics. Perimetry was undertaken in a single sitting, with standardised protocols, in a randomised order using the Humphrey static (SITA 24-2 FAST, Goldmann and Octopus kinetic perimeters. Data collected included test duration, subjective experience and test quality (incorporating examiner ratings on comprehension of instructions, fatigue, response to visual and auditory stimuli, concentration and co-operation to assess feasibility and reliability. Testing was repeated within 6 months to assess repeatability.Overall feasibility was very high (Goldmann=96.1%, Octopus=89% and Humphrey=100% completed the tests. Examiner rated reliability was 'good' in 125 (81.2% children for Goldmann, 100 (64.9% for Octopus and 98 (63.6% for Humphrey perimetry. Goldmann perimetry was the most reliable method in children under 9 years of age. Reliability improved with increasing age (multinomial logistic regression (Goldmann, Octopus and Humphrey, p<0.001. No significant differences were found for any of the three test strategies when examining initial and follow-up data outputs (Bland-Altman plots, n=43, suggesting good test repeatability, although the sample size may preclude detection of a small learning effect.Feasibility and reliability of formal perimetry in children improves with age. By the age of 9 years, all the strategies used here were highly feasible and reliable. Clinical assessment of the visual field is achievable in children as young as 5 years, and should be considered where visual field loss is suspected. Since Goldmann perimetry is the most effective strategy in children aged 5-8 years and this perimeter is no longer available, further

  11. Treatment results of the Tokai-POSG 8610HR pilot protocol for children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, Teruaki; Inoue, Noriko [Hamamatsu Medical Univ., Shizuoka (Japan); Horibe, Keizo [and others

    1997-10-01

    We reported the treatment results of Tokai-POSG 8610HR pilot protocol for children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). From Oct. 1986 to Jan. 1991, 43 eligible children were enrolled, who had one or more following high-risk factors: age{>=}10 years old, initial white blood cell count (WBC) of 50,000/{mu}l or more, and extramedullary leukemia. All patients received induction therapy consisting of vincristine, dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide and daunorubicin, followed by central nervous system prophylaxis by 24 Gy cranial irradiation, consolidation therapy and cyclic maintenance by multidrugs for 3 years after diagnosis. Complete remission was achieved in 39 patients. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rate was 72.6{+-}7.1%. The only factor of an adverse association with EFS was a initial WBC of 10,000/{mu}l or more (p=0.002) in the 24 patients who were 10 years old or over. The factors related to a negative survival were male gender (p=0.031) and an initial WBC of 10,000/{mu}l or more (p=0.0012) in 43 patients. The major toxicities of the therapy were pancreatitis and allergic reaction due to{sub L}-ASP administration, and growth hormone deficiency due to cranial irradiation. Tokai 8610HR pilot protocol was a promising regimen, but further intensive chemotherapy was needed for improvement or the prognosis of the older patients with high initial WBC greater than 10,000/{mu}l. (author)

  12. Treatment results of the Tokai-POSG 8610HR pilot protocol for children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported the treatment results of Tokai-POSG 8610HR pilot protocol for children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). From Oct. 1986 to Jan. 1991, 43 eligible children were enrolled, who had one or more following high-risk factors: age≥10 years old, initial white blood cell count (WBC) of 50,000/μl or more, and extramedullary leukemia. All patients received induction therapy consisting of vincristine, dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide and daunorubicin, followed by central nervous system prophylaxis by 24 Gy cranial irradiation, consolidation therapy and cyclic maintenance by multidrugs for 3 years after diagnosis. Complete remission was achieved in 39 patients. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rate was 72.6±7.1%. The only factor of an adverse association with EFS was a initial WBC of 10,000/μl or more (p=0.002) in the 24 patients who were 10 years old or over. The factors related to a negative survival were male gender (p=0.031) and an initial WBC of 10,000/μl or more (p=0.0012) in 43 patients. The major toxicities of the therapy were pancreatitis and allergic reaction due toL-ASP administration, and growth hormone deficiency due to cranial irradiation. Tokai 8610HR pilot protocol was a promising regimen, but further intensive chemotherapy was needed for improvement or the prognosis of the older patients with high initial WBC greater than 10,000/μl. (author)

  13. Children : Their Place in Organization Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh, Donncha

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that children and childhood constitute a ¿white space¿ in organization studies, which should now be explored, mapped and analysed.Rather than being separate, children and organization are deeply implicated in one another, which provides a rich basis for theoretical inquiry. The paper draws on Spivak's concept of the subaltern and on actor-network theory to articulate how and where organization studies might critically engage with, and find a place for, children and childhood...

  14. A STUDY ON LICHEN PLANUS IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Neerja Puri; Asha Puri

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Lichen planus is considered to be rare in children. However, it does not appear to be uncommon in Indian subcontinent. Aims: The study was undertaken to analyse the clinical profile of childhood lichen planus. Material and Methods: We selected 30 children with LP for the study. The children selected were below the age of 14 years of age. Results and Discussion: In our study, it was seen that that the maximum onset of disease was between 5-9 years of age and mean age of children ...

  15. Children with intellectual disabilities and pain perception: a review and suggestions for future assessment protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Dijk; A. Valkenburg; A.A. Boerlage; D. Tibboel; J.S. Veerkamp

    2009-01-01

    AIM: This was to review what is known about pain assessment in children with intellectual disabilities and to translate findings into clinical dental practice. Methods: Literature review. Review: The association between anxiety and pain as reported in the literature was explored. The specific pain e

  16. Pediatric mature B-cell non Hodgkin lymphoma treatment with LMB-96 protocol. The Children Cancer Hospital Egypt experience

    OpenAIRE

    Hany Abdel Rahman; Emad Moussa; Mohamed Sedky; Iman Gouda; Madiha El Wakeel; Omneya Hassanein

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is the fastest growing human tumor. The outcome of childhood NHL has improved steadily over the past decades through the use of intensive sequential multi-agent chemotherapy regimens.Methods: A retrospective study having all patients 18 years old or younger diagnosed with mature B cell NHL and treated at Children Cancer Hospital Egypt (CCHE). All children were treated according to the modified (...

  17. Therapist-Designed Adaptive Riding in Children With Cerebral Palsy : Results of a Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angsupaisal, Mattana; Visser, Baudina; Alkema, Anne; Meinsma-van der Tuin, Marja; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2015-01-01

    Background. It is debatable whether adaptive riding (AR) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) improves postural control and gross motor development. Objective. The study aim was to explore the feasibility of an extensive assessment protocol for a randomized controlled trial of therapist-designed ada

  18. The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morley D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available David Morley, Sarah Dummett, Laura Kelly, Jill Dawson, Ray Fitzpatrick, Crispin JenkinsonNuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UKBackground: With an ageing population and increasing demands on health and social care services, there is growing importance attached to the management of long-term conditions, including maximizing the cost-effectiveness of treatments. In line with this, there is increasing emphasis on the need to keep people both active and participating in daily life. Consequently, it is essential that well developed and validated instruments that can meaningfully assess levels of participation and activity are widely available. Current measures, however, are largely focused on disability and rehabilitation, and there is no measure of activity or participation for generic use that fully meets the standards set by regulatory bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration. Here we detail a protocol for the development and validation of a new patient-reported outcome measure (PROM for assessment of participation and activity in people experiencing a variety of health conditions, ie, the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire (Ox-PAQ. The stages incorporated in its development are entirely in line with current regulations and represent best practice in the development of PROMs.Methods: Development of the Ox-PAQ is theoretically grounded in the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The project incorporates a new strategy of engaging with stakeholders from the outset in an attempt to identify those characteristics of PROMs considered most important to a range of potential users. Items will be generated through interviews with patients from a range of conditions. Pretesting of the instrument will be via cognitive interviews and focus groups. A postal survey will be conducted, with data subject to factor and Rasch analysis in order to

  19. Simulation Based: Study and Analysis of Routing Protocol in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali D. Khairnar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET consists of vehicles which communicate with each other and exchange data via wireless communication links available between the vehicles which are in communication ranges of vehicles to improve the road safety in city. The communication between vehicles is used to provide road safety, comfort and entertainment. The performance of communication depends on how better routing takes place in the network. Routing data between the source and destination vehicle depends on the routing protocols being used in vehicular ad-hoc network. In this simulation based study we investigated about different ad hoc routing protocols for vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET. The main goal of our study was to identify which ad hoc routing protocol has better performance in highly mobile environment of vehicular ad-hoc network. We have measured the performance of routing protocols using 802.11p in vehicular ad-hoc network in which we considered the scenario of city (i.e. Route between Nerul and Vashi where we have take 1200 different types of vehicles and checked their performance. Routing protocols are selected after the literature review. The selected protocols are then evaluated through simulation under 802.11p in terms of performance metrics (i.e PDR & E2E delay

  20. Can a management pathway for chronic cough in children improve clinical outcomes: protocol for a multicentre evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic cough is common and is associated with significant economic and human costs. While cough can be a problematic symptom without serious consequences, it could also reflect a serious underlying illness. Evidence shows that the management of chronic cough in children needs to be improved. Our study tests the hypothesis that the management of chronic cough in children with an evidence-based management pathway is feasible and reliable, and improves clinical outcomes. Methods/Design We are conducting a multicentre randomised controlled trial based in respiratory clinics in 5 major Australian cities. Children (n = 250) fulfilling inclusion criteria (new patients with chronic cough) are randomised (allocation concealed) to the standardised clinical management pathway (specialist starts clinical pathway within 2 weeks) or usual care (existing care until review by specialist at 6 weeks). Cough diary, cough-specific quality of life (QOL) and generic QOL are collected at baseline and at 6, 10, 14, 26, and 52 weeks. Children are followed-up for 6 months after diagnosis and cough resolution (with at least monthly contact from study nurses). A random sample from each site will be independently examined to determine adherence to the pathway. Primary outcomes are group differences in QOL and proportion of children that are cough free at week 6. Discussion The clinical management pathway is based on data from Cochrane Reviews combined with collective clinical experience (250 doctor years). This study will provide additional evidence on the optimal management of chronic cough in children. Trial registration ACTRN12607000526471 PMID:21054884

  1. Outcome After First Relapse in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia : A Report Based on the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) Relapse ALL 98 Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, H.; de Groot-Kruseman, H. A.; Damen-Korbijn, C. M.; de Bont, E. S. J. M.; Schouten-van Meeteren, A. Y. N.; Hoogerbrugge, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. We report on the treatment of children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in first relapse. The protocol focused on: (1) Intensive chemotherapy preceding allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in early bone marrow relapse; (2) Rotational chemotherapy in late rela

  2. Outcome after first relapse in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report based on the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) relapse all 98 protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den; Groot-Kruseman, H.A. de; Damen-Korbijn, C.M.; Bont, E.S. de; Schouten-van Meeteren, A.Y.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We report on the treatment of children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in first relapse. The protocol focused on: (1) Intensive chemotherapy preceding allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in early bone marrow relapse; (2) Rotational chemotherapy in late rela

  3. Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS)

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG; Portes, A.

    2006-01-01

    Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS) was designed to study the adaptation process of the immigrant second generation which is defined broadly as United States-born children with at least one foreign-born parent or children born abroad but brought at an early age to the United States. The original survey was conducted with large samples of second-generation immigrant children attending the 8th and 9th grades in public and private schools in the metropolitan areas of Miami/Ft. Laude...

  4. Protocol for assessing maternal, environmental and epigenetic risk factors for dental caries in children

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Surani; Speicher, David J; Bakr, Mahmoud M.; Benton, Miles C.; Lea, Rodney A.; Scuffham, Paul A; Mihala, Gabor; Johnson, Newell W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Expenditure on dental and oral health services in Australia is $3.4 billion AUD annually. This is the sixth highest health cost and accounts for 7 % of total national health expenditure. Approximately 49 % of Australian children aged 6 years have caries experience in their deciduous teeth and this is rising. The aetiology of dental caries involves a complex interplay of individual, behavioural, social, economic, political and environmental conditions, and there is increasing intere...

  5. A Pilot Study on the effects of Music Therapy on Frontotemporal Dementia - developing a research protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Wigram, Tony; Ottesen, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    protocols. As an example of a non-pharmacologic treatment procedure music therapy was investigated. With the focus to develop a research protocol for a future larger population study a pilot study was carried out. In two case studies a combination of data collection methods were examined with the overall......-Related Quality of Life (ADRQL), the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), and the Neuro-Psychiatric Inventory (NPI), and related to case descriptions and video analyses. Results: Recommendations for a mixed method research protocol focused on measuring the effect of music therapy with persons with......, and pharmacological treatment of the psychiatric symptoms is difficult, requiring specialist proficiency in the field. Pilot study: As there is not yet sufficient research that examines the effects of non-pharmacologic treatment with this group there is a need to develop valid and reliable research...

  6. Case Studies of Environmental Risks to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Lynn R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents case studies on children's exposure to pesticides, including risks through the use of the insecticide aldicarb on bananas, the home use of diazinon, and the use of interior house paint containing mercury. These cases illustrate how regulatory agencies, parents, health-care providers, and others who come into contact with children have…

  7. Children's Friendship Development: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing friendships is an important developmental goal of early childhood, but little research has addressed ways in which parents support the friendship development of their young children with disabilities. The purpose of this survey study was to explore the support strategies that parents use to facilitate their children's friendships.…

  8. Older Persons’ Transitions in Care (OPTIC: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummings Greta G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in health status, triggered by events such as infections, falls, and geriatric syndromes, are common among nursing home (NH residents and necessitate transitions between NHs and Emergency Departments (EDs. During transitions, residents frequently experience care that is delayed, unnecessary, not evidence-based, potentially unsafe, and fragmented. Furthermore, a high proportion of residents and their family caregivers report substantial unmet needs during transitions. This study is part of a program of research whose overall aim is to improve quality of care for frail older adults who reside in NHs. The purpose of this study is to identify successful transitions from multiple perspectives and to identify organizational and individual factors related to transition success, in order to inform improvements in care for frail elderly NH residents during transitions to and from acute care. Specific objectives are to: 1. define successful and unsuccessful elements of transitions from multiple perspectives; 2. develop and test a practical tool to assess transition success; 3. assess transition processes in a discrete set of transfers in two study sites over a one year period; 4. assess the influence of organizational factors in key practice locations, e.g., NHs, emergency medical services (EMS, and EDs, on transition success; and 5. identify opportunities for evidence-informed management and quality improvement decisions related to the management of NH – ED transitions. Methods/Design This is a mixed-methods observational study incorporating an integrated knowledge translation (IKT approach. It uses data from multiple levels (facility, care unit, individual and sources (healthcare providers, residents, health records, and administrative databases. Discussion Key to study success is operationalizing the IKT approach by using a partnership model in which the OPTIC governance structure provides for team decision-makers and

  9. Sarcopenia and its determinants among Iranian elderly (SARIR: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi Rezvan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elderly populations increase in world because of improved health status in communities, so health and independency of seniors has become and will be one of the main priorities of public health systems. Ageing have been associated with changes in body composition, including loss of muscle mass, loss of bone mass and increase fat mass. Involuntary age related loss of muscle mass, sarcopenia,has been linked to functional impairment and physical disability. Several definitions for sarcopenia have been presented based on the method of measuring body composition, but an internationally accepted definition doesn’t presently exist yet. In 2010, the European working group on sarcopenia developed a new definition for sarcopenia according to measure muscle mass and muscle function. Several studies have been done about sarcopenia in world, but to our knowledge this study is the first in Iran which is one of the largest countries of the Middle East that faces a fast growing elderly population. The aim of this study is to evaluate sarcopenia and related risk factors in Iran according new definition of sarcopenia. Methods This study will be conducted in two phase among elderly men and women over 55 years in the 6th district of TehranThe first phase will be a population-based cross-sectional study to determine the frequency of sarcopenia in the study population, and to conduct case finding for the second phase. The second phase will be a case–control study to comparison the metabolic and inflammatory factors in sarcopenic and non sarcopenic groups. The association between sarcopenia and major dietary pattern will be evaluated using factor analysis. Conclusion This study is the first study that evaluates sarcopenia and its risk factor in Iranian elderlies. We discuss details of how we collect the data and appropriate instruments to measure muscle mass, muscle power and muscle strength, and suitable cut- off to define sarcopenia in

  10. Clinical protocols for 31P MRS of the brain and their use in evaluating optic pathway gliomas in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: In vivo 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) measures phosphorus-containing metabolites that play an essential role in many disease processes. An advantage over 1H MRS is that total choline can be separated into phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine which have opposite associations with tumour grade. We demonstrate 31P MRS can provide robust metabolic information on an acceptable timescale to yield information of clinical importance. Methods: All MRI examinations were carried out on a 3T whole body scanner with all 31P MRS scans conducted using a dual-tuned 1H/31P head coil. Once optimised on phantoms, the protocol was tested in six healthy volunteers (four male and two female, mean age: 25 ± 2.7). 31P MRS was then implemented on three children with optic pathway gliomas. Results: 31P MRS on volunteers showed that a number of metabolite ratios varied significantly (p < 0.05 ANOVA) across different structures of the brain, whereas PC/GPC did not. Standard imaging showed the optic pathway gliomas were enhancing on T1-weighted imaging after contrast injection and have high tCho on 1H MRS, both of which are associated with high grade lesions. 31P MRS showed the phosphocholine/glycerophosphocholine ratio to be low (<0.6) which suggests low grade tumours in keeping with their clinical behaviour and the histology of most biopsied optic pathway gliomas. Conclusion: 31P MRS can be implemented in the brain as part of a clinical protocol to provide robust measurement of important metabolites, in particular providing a greater understanding of cases where tCho is raised on 1H MRS

  11. Virtualization of network environment and study of dynamic routing protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Tremolosa Rovira, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] The main purpose of this thesis has been to build a Virtual Network Laboratory Environment. This concept has been performed with a virtual environment generator called VNUML developed by “Universidad Politecnica de Madrid”. All the component of this labs like VNUML, Quagga and the tools to test it like Wireshark has been studied before. In fact, we've learnt how to install Ubuntu in an USB pen-drive and all the study environment has been developed using this USB. During the thesis, w...

  12. An Empirical Study on variants of TCP over AODV routing protocol in MANET

    CERN Document Server

    Morshed, Md Monzur; Islam, Md Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    The cardinal concept of TCP development was to carry data within the network where network congestion plays a vital role to cause packet loss. On the other hand, there are several other reasons to lose packets in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks due to fading, interfaces, multi-path routing, malicious node, and black hole. Along with throughput, fairness of TCP protocols is important to establish a good communication. In this paper, an empirical study has been done by simulation and analysis of TCP variations under AODV routing protocol. In our simulation, we studied multiple variations of TCP, such as Reno, New-Reno, Vegas, and Tahoe. The simulation work has been done in NS2 environment. Based on the analysis simulation result of we carried out our observations with respect to the behavior of AODV routing protocol for different TCP packets under several QoS metrics such as drop, throughput, delay, and jitter.

  13. Journey to vaccination: a protocol for a multinational qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Wheelock, Ana; Miraldo, Marisa; Parand, Anam; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the past two decades, childhood vaccination coverage has increased dramatically, averting an estimated 2–3 million deaths per year. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains inconsistently recorded and substandard. Although structural barriers are known to limit coverage, social and psychological factors can also affect vaccine uptake. Previous qualitative studies have explored beliefs, attitudes and preferences associated with seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination uptake, y...

  14. Can a management pathway for chronic cough in children improve clinical outcomes: protocol for a multicentre evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masters IB

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic cough is common and is associated with significant economic and human costs. While cough can be a problematic symptom without serious consequences, it could also reflect a serious underlying illness. Evidence shows that the management of chronic cough in children needs to be improved. Our study tests the hypothesis that the management of chronic cough in children with an evidence-based management pathway is feasible and reliable, and improves clinical outcomes. Methods/Design We are conducting a multicentre randomised controlled trial based in respiratory clinics in 5 major Australian cities. Children (n = 250 fulfilling inclusion criteria (new patients with chronic cough are randomised (allocation concealed to the standardised clinical management pathway (specialist starts clinical pathway within 2 weeks or usual care (existing care until review by specialist at 6 weeks. Cough diary, cough-specific quality of life (QOL and generic QOL are collected at baseline and at 6, 10, 14, 26, and 52 weeks. Children are followed-up for 6 months after diagnosis and cough resolution (with at least monthly contact from study nurses. A random sample from each site will be independently examined to determine adherence to the pathway. Primary outcomes are group differences in QOL and proportion of children that are cough free at week 6. Discussion The clinical management pathway is based on data from Cochrane Reviews combined with collective clinical experience (250 doctor years. This study will provide additional evidence on the optimal management of chronic cough in children. Trial registration ACTRN12607000526471

  15. FIRE (facilitating implementation of research evidence: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seers Kate

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evidence underpins best practice, but is not always used in healthcare. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS framework suggests that the nature of evidence, the context in which it is used, and whether those trying to use evidence are helped (or facilitated affect the use of evidence. Urinary incontinence has a major effect on quality of life of older people, has a high prevalence, and is a key priority within European health and social care policy. Improving continence care has the potential to improve the quality of life for older people and reduce the costs associated with providing incontinence aids. Objectives This study aims to advance understanding about the contribution facilitation can make to implementing research findings into practice via: extending current knowledge of facilitation as a process for translating research evidence into practice; evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of two different models of facilitation in promoting the uptake of research evidence on continence management; assessing the impact of contextual factors on the processes and outcomes of implementation; and implementing a pro-active knowledge transfer and dissemination strategy to diffuse study findings to a wide policy and practice community. Setting and sample Four European countries, each with six long-term nursing care sites (total 24 sites for people aged 60 years and over with documented urinary incontinence Methods and design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial with three arms (standard dissemination and two different programmes of facilitation, with embedded process and economic evaluation. The primary outcome is compliance with the continence recommendations. Secondary outcomes include proportion of residents with incontinence, incidence of incontinence-related dermatitis, urinary tract infections, and quality of life. Outcomes are assessed at baseline

  16. Auricular point acupressure for chronic pain: a feasibility study of a 4-week treatment protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chao Hsing; Chien, Lung-Chang; Huang, Li Chun; Suen, Lorna Kwai-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This 1-group, 4-week observational study aimed to (1) assess the feasibility of recruiting, retention, and completion of a 4-week auricular point acupressure (APA) treatment protocol for chronic pain in adult patients and (2) assess the effects of APA in pain reduction (pain severity and pain interference) among these patients. The participants received a 4-week APA treatment protocol in weekly cycles. Each weekly cycle included 5 days with APA seeds taped onto the ear and 2 days without. Each participant was called every day to monitor adherence to the treatment protocol (the actual times the participant pressed the seeds each day and the duration of applied pressure), to answer analgesic use, and to answer the pain intensity questionnaire. Thirty participants were initially enrolled in this study, but 5 did not continue. The retention rate was 83% (n = 25). Approximately 60% of the participants (n = 15) adhered to the 4-week APA and completed all data assessments. At baseline assessment, only 40% of all participants (n = 12 of 30) were confident that APA would reduce and eliminate pain; nonetheless, all participants reported fewer episodes of pain occurrences and pain intensity with the APA treatment. For the participants who completed the 4-week APA protocol (n = 15), 96% (n = 14) decreased analgesic medication intake and 88% (n = 13) felt "much better" after the APA treatment. Participants reported an average reduction of 63% in the worst pain intensity at day 7. By the end of the 4-week APA protocol, an even greater reduction in pain intensity was reported (66%, n = 10, at day 28). The participants who did not complete the treatment protocol reported an average pain reduction of 29%, which fluctuated to 22% before they dropped out. Auricular point acupressure is feasible for patients with chronic pain. The preliminary findings of this feasibility study show a reduction in pain intensity and improvement in physical function, which demonstrate the potential for

  17. Advantages of a Warfarin Protocol for Long-term Care Pharmacists: a Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Randall; Brocklebank, Cynthia; Tam-Tham, Helen; Williamson, Tyler; Quail, Patrick; Turner, Diana; Drummond, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background Warfarin is an anticoagulant prescribed to 12% of long-term care residents to reduce the risk of thrombo-embolism. This study used indicators to compare warfarin management by pharmacists to usual care. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study comparing a pharmacist-managed warfarin protocol with usual care of qualified warfarin recipients at long-term care facilities (two protocol, one control) in Calgary, Alberta. We compared the proportion of international normalized ratio (INR) tests in the range 2.0 to 3.0, time in range, number of tests, and frequency of bleeding at protocol and control sites. Our primary outcome, time in INR therapeutic range, is an indicator for assuring care quality. A cross-sectional survey at these sites compared health professionals’ perceptions of workload and effectiveness of warfarin management. Results Of the 197 residents’ charts reviewed in the study period, those on protocol had 45.0 INR tests while those on usual care had 52.7 tests (p = .034, 95% CI for the difference: 0.6 to 14.6 INR tests). No significant difference was found for time in therapeutic range, number of tests in range, or major bleeding events. Of 178 health professionals surveyed, those from protocol facilities were more satisfied with warfarin management (p = .013). Workload and safety were perceived similarly at all sites. Interpretation Our results suggest that a pharmacist-managed warfarin protocol is as effective as usual care and has advantages pertaining to work satisfaction, knowledge of drug interactions, consistent documentation, and fewer INR tests. Further research on teamwork and coagulation management in long-term care facilities is recommended. PMID:27403212

  18. Emotion processing and social participation following stroke: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Clare L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF defines participation as a person’s performance in life situations, including the size of social networks, and satisfaction with social contacts. Stroke survivors are known to experience a reduction in the number of their social networks and contacts, which cannot be explained solely in terms of activity limitations caused by physical impairment. Problems of emotional processing, including impaired mood, emotion regulation and emotion perception, are known to occur following stroke and can detrimentally influence many aspects of social interaction and participation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether emotion processing impairments predict stroke survivors’ restricted social participation, independent of problems with activity limitation. Methods/design We aim to recruit 125 patients admitted to NHS Grampian with a confirmed diagnosis of stroke. All participants will be assessed on measures of emotion processing, social participation and activity limitation at approximately one month post stroke and again at approximately one year post stroke in order to assess change over time. Discussion It is important to develop a greater understanding of the emotional factors which may underlie key social deficits in stroke recovery in an ageing population where stroke is one of the leading causes of severe, complex disability. This research may enable us to identify those who are risk of participation restriction and target them in the acute stroke phase of stroke so that adverse outcome is avoided and rehabilitation potential is fulfilled.

  19. The Bipolar Interactive Psychoeducation (BIPED study: trial design and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Ian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bipolar disorders affect between 3–5% of the population and are associated with considerable lifelong impairment. Since much of the morbidity associated with bipolar disorder is caused by recurrent depressive symptoms, which are often only poorly responsive to antidepressants, there is a need to develop alternative, non-pharmacological interventions. Psychoeducational interventions have emerged as promising long-term therapeutic options for bipolar disorder. Methods/design The study is an exploratory, individually randomised controlled trial. The intervention known as 'Beating Bipolar' is a psychoeducational programme which is delivered via a novel web-based system. We will recruit 100 patients with a diagnosis of DSM-IV bipolar disorder (including type I and type II currently in clinical remission. The primary outcome is quality of life. This will be compared for those patients who have participated in the psychoeducational programme with those who received treatment as usual. Quality of life will be assessed immediately following the intervention as well as 10 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes include current depressive and manic symptoms, number of episodes of depression and mania/hypomania experienced during the follow-up period, global functioning, functional impairment and insight. An assessment of costs and a process evaluation will also be conducted which will explore the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention as well as potential barriers to effectiveness. Discussion Bipolar disorder is common, under-recognised and often poorly managed. It is a chronic, life-long, relapsing condition which has an enormous impact on the individual and the economy. This trial will be the first to explore the effectiveness of a novel web-based psychoeducational intervention for patients with bipolar disorder which has potential to be easily rolled out to patients. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials

  20. STUDY & ANALYSIS OF SECURED E-COMMERCE TRANSACTIONS INFORMATION PROTOCOLS-PURCHASING ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepu Soni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Commerce is the very rapid growing field in today’s scenario. It is used for Purchasing Order i.e. for buying and selling electronic goods and all other type of things. And there is need for development of a number of e-commerce protocols, which ensure integrity, confidentiality, atomicity and fair exchange.The protocol uses a smart card for ensuring mutual authentication, dispute resolution and fair exchange and reduces reliance on a trusted third party. Also study and analysis of the security in e-transactions may avoid some of the frauds on internet transactionsfor purchasing and buying orders.

  1. STUDY ON NEIGHBORHOOD DISCOVERY PROTOCOL IN COMMUNICATION NETWORKSGRANULAR SLUDGE BY BATCH TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时成阁; 胡家骏

    2001-01-01

    One algorithm and one method for PNNI(Private Network to Network Interface) routing were presented. The algorithm is OIL (Older Is Leader) algorithms for Peer Group selection, and the method is the DOO (Distributed object-oriented) method for HDOS (Hierarchy Distributed-Object System), PNNI systems and IP(Internet Protocol) networks. Based on the specifications from ATM forum, and the creative ideas from Distributed System realization, this paper studies and analyzes the private ATM network environment. The OIL algorithm and the DOO method are both for PNNI routing protocol. Through the PNNI simulation, the availability and robustness are proved for the above two improvements.

  2. Effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling for smoking cessation in parents: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bricker Jonathan B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is the world's fourth most common risk factor for disease, the leading preventable cause of death, and it is associated with tremendous social costs. In the Netherlands, the smoking prevalence rate is high. A total of 27.7% of the population over age 15 years smokes. In addition to the direct advantages of smoking cessation for the smoker, parents who quit smoking may also decrease their children's risk of smoking initiation. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling to increase smoking cessation rates among smoking parents. A total of 512 smoking parents will be proactively recruited through their children's primary schools and randomly assigned to either proactive telephone counselling or a control condition. Proactive telephone counselling will consist of up to seven counsellor-initiated telephone calls (based on cognitive-behavioural skill building and Motivational Interviewing, distributed over a period of three months. Three supplementary brochures will also be provided. In the control condition, parents will receive a standard brochure to aid smoking cessation. Assessments will take place at baseline, three months after start of the intervention (post-measurement, and twelve months after start of the intervention (follow-up measurement. Primary outcome measures will include sustained abstinence between post-measurement and follow-up measurement and 7-day point prevalence abstinence and 24-hours point prevalence abstinence at both post- and follow-up measurement. Several secondary outcome measures will also be included (e.g., smoking intensity, smoking policies at home. In addition, we will evaluate smoking-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes towards smoking, social norms, self-efficacy, intention to smoke in 9-12 year old children of smoking parents. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized

  3. Effectiveness of the home-based alcohol prevention program "In control: No alcohol!": study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdurmen Jacqueline EE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands, children start to drink at an early age; of the Dutch 12-year olds, 40% reports lifetime alcohol use, while 9.7% reports last-month drinking. Starting to drink at an early age puts youth at risk of developing several alcohol-related problems later in life. Recently, a home-based prevention program called "In control: No alcohol!" was developed to delay the age of alcohol onset in children. The main aim of this project is to conduct a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. Methods/Design The prevention program will be tested with an RCT among mothers and their 6 grade primary school children (11-12 years old, randomly assigned to the prevention or control condition. The program consists of five printed magazines and an activity book designed to improve parental alcohol-specific socialization. Parent-child dyads in the control group receive a factsheet information brochure, which is the standard alcohol brochure of the Trimbos Institute (the Netherlands Institute for Mental Health and Addiction. Outcome measures are initiation of alcohol use (have been drinking at least one glass of alcohol, alcohol-specific parenting, susceptibility to drinking alcohol, alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, and frequency and intensity of child alcohol use. Questionnaires will be administered online on secured Internet webpages, with personal login codes for both mothers and children. Mothers and children in both the experimental and control condition will be surveyed at baseline and after 6, 12, and 18 months (follow-ups. Discussion The present study protocol presents the design of an RCT evaluating the effectiveness of the home-based "In control: No alcohol!" program for 6 grade primary school children (11-12 years old. It is hypothesized that children in the prevention condition will be less likely to have their first glass of alcohol, compared to the control condition. When the

  4. Promoting Sleep Health Among Families of Young Children in Head Start: Protocol for a Social-Ecological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuck, Karen A; Blank, Arthur; True-Felt, Barbara; Chervin, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate or poor quality sleep in early childhood impairs social-emotional and cognitive function via effects on the developing brain and increases obesity risk via hormonal and endocrine effects. The prevalence of short sleep duration, behavioral sleep problems, and sleep-disordered breathing among children aged 3 to 5 years is 20% to 50%. Healthy sleep habits increase sleep duration and prevent behavioral sleep problems. Awareness of sleep-disordered breathing symptoms leads to its timely treatment. We designed a study that aims to empower families whose children are in early childhood programs with the knowledge and skills needed to obtain healthy sleep and to recognize a sleep problem. We used the social-ecological framework to guide individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy interventions. This study builds on the Sweet Dreamzzz, Inc, Early Childhood Sleep Education Program (ECSEP) in Head Start. A stepped-wedge-cluster randomized trial will test effects on child, parent, and classroom outcomes; a policy evaluation will assess the impact of knowledge-translation strategies. The study has 3 aims. The first is to adapt educational materials into multimedia formats and build the capacity of Head Start agencies to implement the study. The second aim is to enroll 540 parent-child dyads in a primary prevention trial of sleep health promotion in Head Start and to analyze effects on children's sleep duration (primary outcome); parents' knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavior; and children's sleep difficulties. The third aim is to conduct a secondary prevention feasibility study of screening and guidance for sleep problems. Secondary outcomes are changes in classroom behaviors and policies. Integrating sleep health literacy into early childhood programs could affect the life-course development of millions of children. PMID:27584877

  5. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites ...

  6. Formative research to develop theory-based messages for a Western Australian child drowning prevention television campaign: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denehy, Mel; Crawford, Gemma; Leavy, Justine; Nimmo, Lauren; Jancey, Jonine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, children under the age of 5 years are at particular risk of drowning. Responding to this need requires the development of evidence-informed drowning prevention strategies. Historically, drowning prevention strategies have included denying access, learning survival skills and providing supervision, as well as education and information which includes the use of mass media. Interventions underpinned by behavioural theory and formative evaluation tend to be more effective, yet few practical examples exist in the drowning and/or injury prevention literature. The Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory will be used to explore participants' perspectives regarding proposed mass media messaging. This paper describes a qualitative protocol to undertake formative research to develop theory-based messages for a child drowning prevention campaign. Methods and analysis The primary data source will be focus group interviews with parents and caregivers of children under 5 years of age in metropolitan and regional Western Australia. Qualitative content analysis will be used to analyse the data. Ethics and dissemination This study will contribute to the drowning prevention literature to inform the development of future child drowning prevention mass media campaigns. Findings from the study will be disseminated to practitioners, policymakers and researchers via international conferences, peer and non-peer-reviewed journals and evidence summaries. The study was submitted and approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee. PMID:27207621

  7. Digital protocol for reference-based guided surgery and immediate loading: a prospective clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tahmaseb; R. de Clerck; I. Aartman; D. Wismeijer

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of a computer-aided three-dimensional planning protocol in combination with previously inserted reference mini-implants and CAD/CAM technology to restore completely edentulous patients. The study evaluated implant and superstructure survival in a prospective clin

  8. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN DYNAMIC WINDOW SECURED IMPLICIT GEOGRAPHIC FORWARDING ROUTING PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Idris Umar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An Ideal WSNs should operate with the least possible energy required in order to increase the lifetime of the sensor nodes and at the same time, ensure network connectivity. But the Inherent power limitation makes power-awareness a critical requirement for WSN, this calls for the need to manage energy in sensor nodes. Also In order to ensure successful transmission of data from sensor node source to destination, it becomes necessary to maintain network availability. The network must be resilient to individual node failure which can happen due to zero power posses by the node and due to security attacks posed on the node and the network. Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Forwarding (DWSIGF routing protocol has proven to be robust, efficient and resistant to some security attack which causes failure in network availability. However the extent to which energy is consumed in sensor nodes which deploys DWSIGF as its routing protocol has never been mentioned. In this research, we performed a comparative study on energy consumption in DWSIGF routing protocol. Using the first order radio model, we determined the energy consumed in a network. The protocol (DWSIGF is matched up against its counterpart SIGF as the traffic is increased. Observation shows that DWSIGF due to the variable timing assigned to the CTS collection window, CTS signal fails to reach destination as collection window time expires, thus the need for retransmission. This in turn consumes more energy than the counterpart SIGF which has a fixed CTS collection time. The simulation work was done using Matlab 7.0. Energy consumed in the random variant of both protocols (DWSIGF and SIGF was also observed to be higher than the priority variant of the protocols.

  10. A family of quantum protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Devetak, I; Winter, A

    2003-01-01

    We introduce two dual, purely quantum protocols: for entanglement distillation assisted by quantum communication (``mother'' protocol) and for entanglement assisted quantum communication (``father'' protocol). We show how a large class of ``children'' protocols (including many previously known ones) can be derived from the two by direct application of teleportation or super-dense coding. Furthermore, the parent may be recovered from most of the children protocols by making them ``coherent''. We also summarize the various resource trade-offs these protocols give rise to.

  11. Community paediatric respiratory infection surveillance study protocol: a feasibility, prospective inception cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma C; Ingle, Suzanne Marie; Muir, Peter; Beck, Charles; Finn, Adam; Leeming, John Peter; Cabral, Christie; Kesten, Joanna May; Hay, Alastair D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common reasons for primary care consultations and antibiotic prescribing. Locally relevant syndromic and microbiological surveillance information has the potential to improve the care of children with RTIs by normalising illness (parents) and reducing uncertainty (clinicians). Currently, most RTI studies are conducted at the point of healthcare service consultation, leaving the community burden, microbiology, symptom duration and proportion consulting largely unknown. This study seeks to establish the feasibility of (mainly online) participant recruitment and retention, and the acceptability/comparability of parent versus nurse-collected microbiological sampling, to inform the design of a future surveillance intervention study. Evidence regarding consultation rates and symptom duration is also sought. Methods and analysis A community-based, feasibility prospective inception cohort study, recruiting children aged ≥3 months and rates. Feasibility will be assessed using recruitment and retention rates, data completeness; and acceptability by quantitative survey and qualitative interviews. Symptomatic parent and nurse swab pairs will be compared for microbe isolation. PMID:27580839

  12. Efficacy of family mediation and the role of family violence: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Cleak, Helen; Schofield, Margot; Bickerdike, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Family law reforms in Australia require separated parents in dispute to attempt mandatory family dispute resolution (FDR) in community-based family services before court attendance. However, there are concerns about such services when clients present with a history of high conflict and family violence. This study protocol describes a longitudinal study of couples presenting for family mediation services. The study aims to describe the profile of family mediation clients, including ...

  13. A Pilot Study Involving the Effect of Two Different Complex Training Protocols on Lower Body Power

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Chad E.; Lyons Brian; Hannon James C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Complex training (CT) involves the coupling of two exercises ostensibly to enhance the effect of the second exercise. Typically, the first exercise is a strength exercise and the second exercise is a power exercise involving similar muscles. In most cases, CT is designed to enhance power. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, this study was designed to determine if lower body power could be enhanced using complex training protocols. Second, this study investigated whether the...

  14. Bridging the gap between comprehensive extraction protocols in plant metabolomics studies and method validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Van der Auwera, Anastasia; Foubert, Kenn; Voorspoels, Stefan; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    It is vital to pay much attention to the design of extraction methods developed for plant metabolomics, as any non-extracted or converted metabolites will greatly affect the overall quality of the metabolomics study. Method validation is however often omitted in plant metabolome studies, as the well-established methodologies for classical targeted analyses such as recovery optimization cannot be strictly applied. The aim of the present study is to thoroughly evaluate state-of-the-art comprehensive extraction protocols for plant metabolomics with liquid chromatography-photodiode array-accurate mass mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-amMS) by bridging the gap with method validation. Validation of an extraction protocol in untargeted plant metabolomics should ideally be accomplished by validating the protocol for all possible outcomes, i.e. for all secondary metabolites potentially present in the plant. In an effort to approach this ideal validation scenario, two plant matrices were selected based on their wide versatility of phytochemicals: meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) for its polyphenols content, and spicy paprika powder (from the genus Capsicum) for its apolar phytochemicals content (carotenoids, phytosterols, capsaicinoids). These matrices were extracted with comprehensive extraction protocols adapted from literature and analysed with a generic LC-PDA-amMS characterization platform that was previously validated for broad range phytochemical analysis. The performance of the comprehensive sample preparation protocols was assessed based on extraction efficiency, repeatability and intermediate precision and on ionization suppression/enhancement evaluation. The manuscript elaborates on the finding that none of the extraction methods allowed to exhaustively extract the metabolites. Furthermore, it is shown that depending on the extraction conditions enzymatic degradation mechanisms can occur. Investigation of the fractions obtained with the different extraction methods

  15. Study protocol of physical activity and sedentary behaviour measurement among schoolchildren by accelerometry - Cross-sectional survey as part of the ENERGY-project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    te Velde Saskia J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity and sedentary behaviour among children should be measured accurately in order to investigate their relationship with health. Accelerometry provides objective and accurate measurement of body movement, which can be converted to meaningful behavioural outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the best evidence for the decisions on data collection and data processing with accelerometers among children resulting in a standardized protocol for use in the participating countries. Methods/Design This cross-sectional accelerometer study was conducted as part of the European ENERGY-project that aimed to produce an obesity prevention intervention among schoolchildren. Five countries, namely Belgium, Greece, Hungary, Switzerland and the Netherlands participated in the accelerometer study. We used three different Actigraph models-Actitrainers (triaxial, GT3Xs and GT1Ms. Children wore the device for six consecutive days including two weekend days. We selected an epoch length of 15 seconds. Accelerometers were placed at children's waist at the right side of the body in an elastic belt. In total, 1082 children participated in the study (mean age = 11.7 ± 0.75 y, 51% girls. Non-wearing time was calculated as periods of more than 20 minutes of consecutive zero counts. The minimum daily wearing time was set to 10 hours for weekdays and 8 hours for weekend days. The inclusion criterion for further analysis was having at least three valid weekdays and one valid weekend day. We selected a cut-point (count per minute (cpm of 5200 cpm for vigorous physical activity. We also created time filters for school-time during data cleaning in order to explore school-time physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns in particular. Discussion This paper describes the decisions for data collection and processing. Use of standardized protocols would ease future use of accelerometry and the comparability of results between studies.

  16. Clinical and genetic characteristics of acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21 in children and results of therapy according to protocol AML-MM-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Kalinina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A t(8;21 is the most frequent abnormality in AML in children. Patients with this genetic abnormality are traditionally expected favorable prognosis with a probability of cure up to 80 %. Known additional cytogenetic abnormalities in AML with t(8;21 not affecting prognosis. These include loss of one sex chromosome and del(9q-. Prognosis impact of additional abnormalities involving chromosomes 7 and 11 in patients with t(8;21 is unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyse of additional anomalies, that occur in patients with t(8;21, and their influence on prognosis. During the study period 173 children with AML have received AML-MM-2000 treatment protocol in Russia and Belarus. Of these, in 33 patients (11 girls and 22 boys, median age — 10.5 years t(8;21 was detected by chromosome banding or molecular-genetic analysis. In group with t(8;21 CNS leukemia in 8 patients was detected, extramedullary lesion — in 8 patients. In 4 patients CNS leukemia combined with presence of extramedullary lesions. These factors did not influence on therapy outcome. Overall survival of AML patients with t(8;21 was 0,67 ± 0,08 compared to 0,44 ± 0,04 in patients with AML without this translocation (p = 0,04. Special subgroup consist of 5 patients with t(8;21 and identified chromosomal abnormalities affecting chromosome 7 and 11, which were a poor prognostic factor: event-free survival in this subgroup of patients (n = 5 was 0,0 ± 0,0, compared to 0,34 ± 0,16 in patients with t(8;21 without additional anomalies (n = 28 (p = 0,027.

  17. Stream Control Transmission Protocol as a Transport for SIP: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Marco

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The dominant signalling protocol both in future wireless and wired networks will be the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP, as pointed out in the 3G IP-based mobile networks specifications, entailing a fully Internet integrated network. The use of SIP in the IP Multimedia Subsytem (IMS of Release 5 involves the development of servers capable to handle a large number of call requests. The signaling traffic associated to such requests could explode, if an intelligent congestion control were not introduced. Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP was born to support transport of SS7 signaling messages. However, many of the SCTP features are also useful for transport of SIP messages, as: congestion control mechanism, good separation among independent messages, multihoming. Indeed, adoption of SCTP as transport of SIP signaling might prove useful in some situations where usual transport protocols, like TCP and UDP, suffer performance degradation. In this paper, we analyse the general framework wherein SIP operates and we discuss the benefits of using SCTP as a transport for SIP, toward fair sharing of network resources. This study is carried on in the context of the implementation of an high-performance SIP Proxy Server. We also present some preliminar results of an implementation of SIP over SCTP/UDP in a real LAN environment.

  18. A Study of Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Body Area Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Islam, S M Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup; 10.3390/s100100128

    2010-01-01

    The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements.

  19. Reduction in gastrointestinal bleeding by development and implementation of a protocol for stress ulcer prophylaxis: a before-after study

    OpenAIRE

    Ikemura, Mai; Nakasako, Shinji; Seo, Ryutaro; Atsumi, Takahiro; Ariyoshi, Koichi; Hashida, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Background The implementation of a protocol has been associated with improvements in the processes of care in clinical settings. Although stress ulcer prophylaxis is recommended for critically ill patients at high risk, there is currently no consensus on its use. Therefore, we herein developed a protocol for stress ulcer prophylaxis, and evaluated therapeutic outcomes in a before-after study. Methods The protocol was developed by considering the effectiveness, disadvantages (including adverse...

  20. Clinical Study on Ocular Trauma in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zicai Huang; Hongni Li; Yixia Huang; Zhongxia Zhou

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical characteristics of ocular trauma in children and put forward the major treatment and prevention of ocular trauma in children.Methods: To analyze the clinical data by 77 eyes in 77 cases of ocular trauma in children from April 1999 to February 2002. Results: The male and female were in the ratio of 2.21: 1. Right eye ocular traumas were more than left ones. Ocular penetrating trauma was 83.12% and blunt trauma 12.99%. 41 cases (53.25%) were injured by themselves while 33 cases by others. 90.91% patients came from the countryside.Conclusion: The rate of blindness of children with ocular trauma could be reduced by prompt treatment. The study indicated that ocular trauma preventive publicity should be faced in the countryside in order to improve the understanding of the severity of ocular trauma and treat it as a social problem.

  1. Disinfection Contact Time study plan (100-N Area tracer protocol). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Hanford, Inc. will prepare an Engineering Tracer Study Protocol for the determination of contact time for the disinfection process at Group A Non-transient Non-community water treatment plant for the 100-N Water Plant at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Included in this report are the results of a study that determine the actual detention time within the plant clearwell, and thus the disinfection contact time at several clearwell effluent flow rates

  2. Children's Schooling and Parents' Investment in Children: Evidence from the Head Start Impact Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander M. Gelber; Adam Isen

    2011-01-01

    Parents may have important effects on their children, but little work in economics explores whether children's schooling opportunities crowd out or encourage parents' investment in children. We analyze data from the Head Start Impact Study, which granted randomly-chosen preschool-aged children the opportunity to attend Head Start. We find that Head Start causes a substantial increase in parents' involvement with their children--such as time spent reading to children, math activities, or days ...

  3. Whole spine CT for evaluation of scoliosis in children - Feasibility of sub-milli Sievert scanning protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Optimization of CT radiation dose is important for children due to their higher risk of radiation-induced adverse effects. Anatomical structures with high inherent contrast, such as bones can be imaged at very low radiation doses by optimizing scan parameters. Purpose: To assess feasibility of sub-milli Sievert whole spine CT scanning protocol for evaluation of scoliosis in children. Material and Methods: With approval of the ethical board, we performed whole spine CT for evaluation of scoliosis in 22 children (age range, 3-18 years; mean age, 13 years; 13 girls, 9 boys) on a 128-slice dual source multidetector-row CT scanner. Lowest possible quality reference mAs value (image quality factor for xy-z automatic exposure control or xyz-AEC, CARE Dose 4D) was selected on a per patient basis. Remaining parameters were held constant at 3.0:1 pitch, 128 X 0.6 mm detector collimation, 115.2 mm table feed per gantry rotation, 100 kVp, and 1 and 3 mm reconstructed sections. Average mAs, projected estimated dose savings with AEC, computed tomography dose index volume (CTDI vol), and dose length product (DLP) were recorded. Artifacts were graded on a four-point scale (1, no artifacts; 4, severe artifacts). Ability to identify vertebral and pedicular contours, and measure pedicular width and degree of vertebral rotation was graded on a three-point scale (1, unacceptable; 3, excellent). Results: All CT examinations were deemed as reliable for identifying vertebral and pedicular contours as well as for measuring pedicular width (5.9 ± 1.6 mm) and degree of vertebral rotation (28.7± 23.4 deg). Mean objective image noise and signal to noise ratio (SNR) were 57.5 ± 21.5 ± 4.7 2.3, respectively. With a mean quality reference mAs of 13, the scanner employed an average actual effective mAs of 10 ± 3.8 (range, 6-18 mAs) with an estimated radiation dose saving of 43.5 ± 16.3% with xyz-AEC compared with fixed mAs. The mean CTDI, DLP, and estimated effective doses were 0

  4. Sign Language Studies with Chimpanzees and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cantfort, Thomas E.; Rimpau, James B.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews methodologies of sign language studies with chimpanzees and compares major findings of those studies with studies of human children. Considers relevance of input conditions for language acquisition, evidence used to demonstrate linguistic achievements, and application of rigorous testing procedures in developmental psycholinguistics.…

  5. Markedly improved outcomes and acceptable toxicity in adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia following treatment with a pediatric protocol: a phase II study by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superiority of the pediatric protocol for adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has already been demonstrated, however, its efficacy in young adults remains unclear. The ALL202-U protocol was conducted to examine the efficacy and feasibility of a pediatric protocol in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with BCR–ABL-negative ALL. Patients aged 15–24 years (n=139) were treated with the same protocol used for pediatric B-ALL. The primary objective of this study was to assess the disease-free survival (DFS) rate and its secondary aims were to assess toxicity, the complete remission (CR) rate and the overall survival (OS) rate. The CR rate was 94%. The 5-year DFS and OS rates were 67% (95% confidence interval (CI) 58–75%) and 73% (95% CI 64–80%), respectively. Severe adverse events were observed at a frequency that was similar to or lower than that in children treated with the same protocol. Only insufficient maintenance therapy significantly worsened the DFS (hazard ratio 5.60, P<0.001). These results indicate that this protocol may be a feasible and highly effective treatment for AYA with BCR–ABL-negative ALL

  6. Minimal intervention dentistry: part 3. Paediatric dental care--prevention and management protocols using caries risk assessment for infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gomez, F J; Crystal, Y O; Domejean, S; Featherstone, J D B

    2012-11-01

    Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children throughout the world highlight the need for a simple but effective infant oral care programme. This programme needs to include a medical disease prevention management model with an early establishment of a dental home and a treatment approach based on individual patient risk. This article presents an updated approach with practical forms and tools based on the principles of caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA. This method will aid the general practitioner to develop and maintain a comprehensive protocol adequate for infant and young children oral care visits. Perinatal oral health is vitally important in preventing early childhood caries (ECC) in young children. Providing dental treatment to expectant mothers and their young children in a 'dual parallel track' is an effective innovative strategy and an efficient practice builder. It promotes prevention rather than intervention, and this may be the best way to achieve long-lasting oral health for young patients. General dental practice can adopt easy protocols that will promote early preventive visits and anticipatory guidance/counselling rather than waiting for the need for restorative treatment. PMID:23175072

  7. The precautionary principle as a provisional instrument in environmental policy: The Montreal Protocol case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • I examine whether a policy invoked under the Precautionary Principle can move beyond provisional status. • I review the certainty of conclusions based upon the Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project. • There is high certainty that anthropogenic ozone depletion has health consequences in polar regions. • Current research focuses on long term projections of risk that perpetuates high uncertainty. • Establishment of a community to generate Assessments acts to perpetuate the period of uncertainty. - Abstract: Environmental studies identify possible threats to the health of the public or the environment when the scientific certainty of risk is low, but the potential cost is high. Governments may respond by invoking the Precautionary Principle, holding that scientific certainty is not required to take actions that reduce possible risk. EU guidelines suggest that precautionary measures remain provisional until sufficient scientific certainty is generated. Here I study the Scientific Assessments produced for the Montreal Protocol, and the scientific community that generates them, and ask whether a long-standing program of scientific investigation and monitoring can generate sufficient scientific certainty to move beyond dependence on the Precautionary Principle. When the Montreal Protocol was ratified, many scientists strongly suspected that anthropogenic substances like chlorofluorocarbons were depleting stratospheric ozone. Although the risk was uncertain, the perceived cost to public health of ozone depletion was high. A quarter century after formulating the Montreal Protocol, science can define the conditions for ozone depletion with great certainty, but uncertainty remains in determining the scale and distribution of the attributable increase in damaging ultra-violet (UV) radiation. Organisations, such as NASA, and scientists that contribute to the Scientific Assessments comprise the community in which the scientific consensus of risk is

  8. The National Children's Study: a 21-year prospective study of 100,000 American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrigan, Philip J; Trasande, Leonardo; Thorpe, Lorna E; Gwynn, Charon; Lioy, Paul J; D'Alton, Mary E; Lipkind, Heather S; Swanson, James; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Clark, Edward B; Rauh, Virginia A; Perera, Frederica P; Susser, Ezra

    2006-11-01

    Prospective, multiyear epidemiologic studies have proven to be highly effective in discovering preventable risk factors for chronic disease. Investigations such as the Framingham Heart Study have produced blueprints for disease prevention and saved millions of lives and billions of dollars. To discover preventable environmental risk factors for disease in children, the US Congress directed the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, through the Children's Health Act of 2000, to conduct the National Children's Study. The National Children's Study is hypothesis-driven and will seek information on environmental risks and individual susceptibility factors for asthma, birth defects, dyslexia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, schizophrenia, and obesity, as well as for adverse birth outcomes. It will be conducted in a nationally representative, prospective cohort of 100,000 US-born children. Children will be followed from conception to 21 years of age. Environmental exposures (chemical, physical, biological, and psychosocial) will be assessed repeatedly during pregnancy and throughout childhood in children's homes, schools, and communities. Chemical assays will be performed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and banks of biological and environmental samples will be established for future analyses. Genetic material will be collected on each mother and child and banked to permit study of gene-environment interactions. Recruitment is scheduled to begin in 2007 at 7 Vanguard Sites and will extend to 105 sites across the United States. The National Children's Study will generate multiple satellite studies that explore methodologic issues, etiologic questions, and potential interventions. It will provide training for the next generation of researchers and practitioners in environmental pediatrics and will link to planned and ongoing prospective birth cohort studies in other nations. Data from the National Children's Study will

  9. Proposed computerized protocol for epidemiological study of patients undergoing microsurgery of the larynx

    OpenAIRE

    Catani, Guilherme Simas do Amaral; Carvalho, Bettina; Ido Filho, Jorge Massaaki; Macedo Filho, Evaldo Dacheux de; Pinto, José Simão de Paula; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Stahlke Junior, Henrique Jorge, 1942-

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The merging of medicine with information technology facilitates the retrieval of stored data, aiding the conduct of research with greater scientific rigor. Studies in the field of otorhinolaryngology, specifically in the area of laryngology and voice, are of fundamental importance, since 70% of the economically active need their voice to work. Objective: To create a computerized protocol of the diseases of the larynx, apply and validate it, and use it to evaluate patient...

  10. Multi-centred mixed-methods PEPFAR HIV care & support public health evaluation: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Fayers Peter; Namisango Eve; Mwangi-Powell Faith; Powell Richard A; Downing Julia; Moreland Scott; McCrone Paul; Penfold Suzanne; Simms Victoria; Harding Richard; Curtis Siân; Higginson Irene J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A public health response is essential to meet the multidimensional needs of patients and families affected by HIV disease in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to appraise curret provision of HIV care and support in East Africa, and to provide evidence-based direction to future care programming, and Public Health Evaluation was commissioned by the PEPFAR programme of the US Government. Methods/Design This paper described the 2-Phase international mixed methods study protocol uti...

  11. Study protocol. The Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark (The CHAMPS-study DK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, Niels; Jespersen, Eva; Franz, Claudia;

    2012-01-01

    An increasingly passive life-style in the Western World has led to a rise in life-style related disorders. This is a major concern for all segments of society. The county council of the municipality of Svendborg in Denmark, created six Sport Schools with increased levels of suitable physical...... activities, which made it possible to study the health outcomes in these children whilst comparing them to children who attended the 'normal' schools of the region using the design of a "natural experiment"....

  12. The effects of exercise during pregnancy on the newborn’s brain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeMoyne Elise L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is generally accepted that an active lifestyle is beneficial for cognition in children, adults and the elderly. Recently, studies using the rat animal model found that the pups of mothers who exercised during pregnancy had increased hippocampal neurogenesis and better memory and learning abilities. The aim of this report is to present the experimental protocol of a study that is designed to verify if an active lifestyle during pregnancy in humans has an impact on the newborn's brain. Methods 60 pregnant women will be included in a randomized controlled study. The experimental group will be asked to exercise a minimum of 20 minutes three times per week, at a minimal intensity of 55% of their maximal aerobic capacity. The control group will not be exercising. The effect of exercise during pregnancy on the newborn's brain will be investigated 8 to 12 days postpartum by means of the mismatch negativity, a neurophysiological brain potential that is associated to auditory sensory memory. We hypothesize that children born to mothers who exercised during their pregnancy will present shorter latencies and larger mismatch negativity amplitudes, indicating more efficient auditory memory processes. Discussion As of September 2011, 17 women have joined the study. Preliminary results show that the experimental group are active 3.1 ± 0.9 days per week while the control group only exercise 0.8 ± 0.6 days per week. The results of this study will present insight on fetal neuroplasticity and will be a valuable tool for health professionals who wish to encourage pregnant women to exercise. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NTC01220778

  13. A follow-up study of heroin addicts (VEdeTTE2: study design and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampis Fabio

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Italy, a large cohort study (VEdeTTE1 was conducted between 1998–2001 to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments in reducing mortality and increasing treatment retention among heroin addicts. The follow-up of this cohort (VEdeTTE2 was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments on long-term outcomes, such as rehabilitation and social re-integration. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol of the VEdeTTE2 study, and to present the results of the pilot study carried out to assess the feasibility of the study and to improve study procedures. Methods The source population for the VEdeTTE2 study was the VEdeTTE1 cohort, from which a sample of 2,200 patients, traced two or more years after enrolment in the cohort, were asked to participate. An interview investigates drug use; overdose; family and social re-integration. Illegal activity are investigated separately in a questionnaire completed by the patient. Patients are also asked to provide a hair sample to test for heroin and cocaine use. Information on treatments and HIV, HBV and HCV morbidity are obtained from clinical records. A pilot phase was planned and carried out on 60 patients. Results The results of the pilot phase pointed out the validity of the procedures designed to limit attrition: the number of traced subjects was satisfactory (88%. Moreover, the pilot phase was very useful in identifying possible causes of delays and attrition, and flaws in the instruments. Improvements to the procedures and the instruments were subsequently implemented. Sensitivity of the biological test was quite good for heroin (78% but lower for cocaine (42.3%, highlighting the need to obtain a hair sample from all patients. Conclusion In drug addiction research, studies investigating health status and social re-integration of subjects at long-term follow-up are lacking. The VEdeTTE2 study aims to investigate these outcomes at long-term follow-up. Results of the

  14. Pathways to Language: A Naturalistic Study of Children with Williams Syndrome and Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Yonata; Eilam, Ariela

    2013-01-01

    This is a naturalistic study of the development of language in Hebrew-speaking children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with Down syndrome (DS), whose MLU extended from 1[multiplied by]0 to 4[multiplied by]4. Developmental curves over the entire span of data collection revealed minor differences between children with WS, children with DS,…

  15. The longitudinal urban cohort ageing study (LUCAS: study protocol and participation in the first decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapp Ulrike

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present concept, study protocol and selected baseline data of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS in Germany. LUCAS is a long-running cohort study of community-dwelling seniors complemented by specific studies of geriatric patients or diseases. Aims were to (1 Describe individual ageing trajectories in a metropolitan setting, documenting changes in functional status, the onset of frailty, disability and need of care; (2 Find determinants of healthy ageing; (3 Assess long-term effects of specific health promotion interventions; (4 Produce results for health care planning for fit, pre-frail, frail and disabled elderly persons; (5 Set up a framework for embedded studies to investigate various hypotheses in specific subgroups of elderly. Methods/Design In 2000, twenty-one general practitioners (GPs were recruited in the Hamburg metropolitan area; they generated lists of all their patients 60 years and older. Persons not terminally ill, without daily need of assistance or professional care were eligible. Of these, n = 3,326 (48 % agreed to participate and completed a small (baseline and an extensive health questionnaire (wave 1. In 2007/2008, a re-recruitment took place including 2,012 participants: 743 men, 1,269 women (647 deaths, 197 losses, 470 declined further participation. In 2009/2010 n = 1,627 returned the questionnaire (90 deaths, 47 losses, 248 declined further participation resulting in a good participation rate over ten years with limited and quantified dropouts. Presently, follow-up data from 2007/2008 (wave 2 and 2009/2010 (wave 3 are available. Data wave 4 is due in 2011/2012, and the project will be continued until 2013. Information on survival and need of nursing care was collected continuously and cross-checked against official records. We used Fisher’s exact test and t-tests. The study served repeatedly to evaluate health promotion interventions and concepts. Discussion LUCAS

  16. Erythema infectiosumin children: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prćić Šonja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema infectiositm is a childhood illness characterized by mild constitutional symptoms and a blotchy or maculo-papular lacy rash on the cheeks (slapped - cheek spreading primarily to the extremities and trunk. The disease- is-caused by human parvovirus B19. Erythema infectiosum epidemics occur in a cyclic fashion, mostly during winter and spring months. The diagnosis of erythema infectiosum is usually based on the appearance and pattern of the rash. The aim of our study was to establish the frequency and clinical characteristics of erythema infectiosum in children, in the period between 2000 and 2004 at the Institute of Child and Youth Health Care, Department of Dermatology, Novi Sad. There were 0.23% of children with a clinical picture of infectious erythema. There was an outbreak of erythema infectiosum from December 2001 to September 2002. The highest number of cases was detected in April and May of 2002. from 2003 to 2004, no cases with infekctious erythema were diagnosed. The average age of infected children was 7.38. Female children were affected slightly more often than male (56.41%:43.58%. Pruritus was detected in 10.26% of children. The most constant clinical sign was reticular exanthema on the limbs, present in 100% of cases, followed by 89.74% of cheek exanthema, while limb and trunk exanthema was present in 7.68% of children. Adenopathies and mild constitutional symptoms were present in 5.12% of children. No complications were recorded in any of the cases. .

  17. Risk, resilience, and the rorschach: a longitudinal study of children who experienced sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Douglas; Heinze, Hillary J; Arble, Eamonn

    2013-01-01

    Experiencing sexual abuse increases the risk that children will report or otherwise demonstrate problems with emotion, behavior, and health. This longitudinal study of 44 children who experienced sexual abuse examined whether information processing as assessed via the Rorschach Inkblot Test was associated with child-reported depression symptoms assessed via the Children's Depression Inventory (Kovacs, 1992) concurrently and an average of 15 months later. Children whose Rorschach protocols were relatively free of scores suggesting intense distress, complex processing, and sexual content were more likely to experience remission of depression symptoms at follow-up. Findings provide incremental validity for certain Rorschach indexes to inform prognosis regarding depression symptoms and perhaps their treatment. PMID:23941130

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Adding Magnesium Chloride to Conventional Protocol of Citrate Alkali Therapy in Children with Urolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Alaleh Gheissari; Amin Ziaee; Faezeh Farhang; Fatemeh Farhang; Zahra Talaei; Alireza Merrikhi; Taghi Ghafghazi; Mohsen Moslehi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Potassium citrate (K-Cit) is one of the medications widely used in patients with urolithiasis. However, in some cases with calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis, the significant response to alkaline therapy with K-Cit alone does not occur. There is scarce published data on the effect of magnesium chloride (Mg-Cl 2 ) on urolithiasis in pediatric patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a combination of K-Cit - MgCl 2 as oral supplements on urinary parameters in children w...

  19. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Adding Magnesium Chloride to Conventional Protocol of Citrate Alkali Therapy in Children with Urolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Gheissari, Alaleh; Ziaee, Amin; Farhang, Faezeh; Farhang, Fatemeh; Talaei, Zahra; Merrikhi, Alireza; Ghafghazi, Taghi; Moslehi, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Potassium citrate (K-Cit) is one of the medications widely used in patients with urolithiasis. However, in some cases with calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis, the significant response to alkaline therapy with K-Cit alone does not occur. There is scarce published data on the effect of magnesium chloride (Mg-Cl2) on urolithiasis in pediatric patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a combination of K-Cit - MgCl2 as oral supplements on urinary parameters in children with...

  20. Study protocol. The Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark (The CHAMPS-study DK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedderkopp Niels

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasingly passive life-style in the Western World has led to a rise in life-style related disorders. This is a major concern for all segments of society. The county council of the municipality of Svendborg in Denmark, created six Sport Schools with increased levels of suitable physical activities, which made it possible to study the health outcomes in these children whilst comparing them to children who attended the ‘normal’ schools of the region using the design of a “natural experiment”. Methods Children from the age of 6 till the age of 10, who accepted to be included in the monitoring process, were surveyed at baseline with questionnaires, physical examinations and physical and biological testing, including DXA scans. The physical examination and testing was repeated during the early stage of the study. Every week over the whole study period, the children will be followed with an automated mobile phone text message (SMS-Track asking questions on their leisure time sports activities and the presence of any musculoskeletal problems. Children who report any such problems are monitored individually by health care personnel. Data are collected on demography, health habits and attitudes, physical characteristics, physical activity using accelerometers, motor performance, fitness, bone health, life-style disorders, injuries and musculoskeletal problems. Data collection will continue at least once a year until the children reach grade 9. Discussion This project is embedded in a local community, which set up the intervention (The Sport Schools and thereafter invited researchers to provide documentation and evaluation. Sport schools are well matched with the ‘normal’ schools, making comparisons between these suitable. However, subgroups that would be specifically targeted in lifestyle intervention studies (such as the definitely obese could be relatively small. Therefore, results specific to minority groups may be

  1. Indicators of Sexual Abuse in Children's Rorschach Responses: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, Ralph C.

    1995-01-01

    Rorschach protocols of 18 sexually-abused children were compared to protocols of 18 clinical controls. Dependent variables included responses with overt sexual contents, sexual symbols, and near-sexual content. Results suggested that the dependent variables, in combination, could differentiate sexually abused children from other groups. Other…

  2. Study of television viewing habits in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sharmila Banerjee; Gupta, Yogita; Aneja, Satinder

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies from developing countries have reported that Television (TV) viewing, if excessive and of poor quality has a proven negative influence on child health. Indian studies on this subject are few. The present study aimed at determining TV viewing habits of children and their families as well as parental perspectives on the impact of TV on child health using a provider completed indigenously developed questionnaire in Hindi. The study group comprised of 109 children attending a government hospital who belonged predominantly to lower socio-economic strata with poor maternal literacy. It was observed that 100 % children watched excessive TV (> 2 h daily), with majority viewing unsupervised and low quality content. There were minimal parental restrictions and no active discussion regarding contents. Negative impact was found on play, hobbies, sleep hygiene and eating habits in most children. Most parents were unaware of unhealthy viewing and the associated deleterious effects. As pediatricians we need to enquire about TV viewing habits routinely and educate parents about appropriate TV viewing. PMID:24682808

  3. Population-centered Risk- and Evidence-based Dental Interprofessional Care Team (PREDICT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Milgrom, Peter; Shirtcliff, R. Michael; Bailit, Howard L.; Huebner, Colleen E; Conrad, Douglas; Ludwig, Sharity; Mitchell, Melissa; Dysert, Jeanne; Allen, Gary; Scott, JoAnna; Mancl, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Background To improve the oral health of low-income children, innovations in dental delivery systems are needed, including community-based care, the use of expanded duty auxiliary dental personnel, capitation payments, and global budgets. This paper describes the protocol for PREDICT (Population-centered Risk- and Evidence-based Dental Interprofessional Care Team), an evaluation project to test the effectiveness of new delivery and payment systems for improving dental care and oral health. Me...

  4. Conservative Treatment Protocol for Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour: a Follow-up Study of 3 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsün Yildirim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The keratocystic odontogenic tumour is classified as a developmental cyst derived from the enamel organ or from the dental lamina. The treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumour of the jaw remains controversial. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of our conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumour.Methods: Three patients with different complaints referred to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Selçuk University. Initial biopsy was carried out in all patients and keratocystic odontogenic tumours was diagnosed subsequent to histopathological examination. The patients with keratocystic odontogenic tumours were treated by enucleation followed by open packing. This conservative treatment protocol was selected because of existing young aged patients. The average follow-up duration of the cases was 2 years.Results: Out of 3 cases, 2 lesions were present in mandible and 1 lesion in maxilla. There was no evidence of recurrence during follow-up. All the cases were monitored continuously with panoramic radiographs, computed tomography and clinical evaluations.Conclusions: This conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumours, based on enucleation followed by open packing would be a possible choice with a view of offering low recurrence rate and low morbidity rate particularly in young patients.

  5. On shaky ground - A study of security vulnerabilities in control protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent introduction of information technologies such as Ethernet R into nuclear industry control devices has resulted in significantly less isolation from the outside world. This raises the question of whether these systems could be attacked by malware, network hackers or professional criminals to cause disruption to critical operations in a manner similar to the impacts now felt in the business world. To help answer this question, a study was undertaken to test a representative control protocol to determine if it had vulnerabilities that could be exploited. A framework was created in which a test could express a large number of test cases in very compact formal language. This in turn, allowed for the economical automation of both the generation of selectively malformed protocol traffic and the measurement of device under test's (DUT) behavior in response to this traffic. Approximately 5000 protocol conformance tests were run against two major brands of industrial controller. More than 60 categories of errors were discovered, the majority of which were in the form of incorrect error responses to malformed traffic. Several malformed packets however, caused the device to respond or communicate in inappropriate ways. These would be relatively simple for an attacker to inject into a system and could result in the plant operator losing complete view or control of the control device. Based on this relatively small set of devices, we believe that the nuclear industry urgently needs to adopt better security robustness testing of control devices as standard practice. (authors)

  6. Proposed computerized protocol for epidemiological study of patients undergoing microsurgery of the larynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catani, Guilherme Simas do Amaral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The merging of medicine with information technology facilitates the retrieval of stored data, aiding the conduct of research with greater scientific rigor. Studies in the field of otorhinolaryngology, specifically in the area of laryngology and voice, are of fundamental importance, since 70% of the economically active need their voice to work. Objective: To create a computerized protocol of the diseases of the larynx, apply and validate it, and use it to evaluate patients undergoing laryngoscopic microsurgery of the larynx. Method: We created a database of ENT diseases through a literature review of textbooks and scientific articles. Next, we computerized the data and incorporated it into the SINPE©, creating a master protocol (ENT diseases and a specific protocol (laryngeal diseases. Data were collected prospectively from patients undergoing laryngeal microsurgery in the ENT Hospital of Paraná. The collected data were analyzed with graphs through the SINPE© Analyzer module. Results: We evaluated 245 patients aged 9-79 years, and determined that 36.61% (93 patients underwent surgery for the presence of polyps on the vocal folds, 12.6% (32 underwent surgery for papillomatosis, and 11.83% (29 underwent surgery for intracordal cysts. Conclusions: The creation of an electronic database of clinical ENT diseases was feasible. We were also able to implement and validate the protocol. The database may be released to physicians involved in clinical data collection and retrieval of information to conduct scientific research in an organized manner. The most common laryngeal disorders identified were polyps, papilloma, and intracordal cysts.

  7. Proposed computerized protocol for epidemiological study of patients undergoing microsurgery of the larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Guilherme Simas do Amaral; Carvalho, Bettina; Filho, Jorge Massaaki Ido; Filho, Evaldo Dacheux de Macedo; Pinto, José Simão de Paula; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Stahlke, Henrique Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The merging of medicine with information technology facilitates the retrieval of stored data, aiding the conduct of research with greater scientific rigor. Studies in the field of otorhinolaryngology, specifically in the area of laryngology and voice, are of fundamental importance, since 70% of the economically active need their voice to work. Objective: To create a computerized protocol of the diseases of the larynx, apply and validate it, and use it to evaluate patients undergoing laryngoscopic microsurgery of the larynx. Method: We created a database of ENT diseases through a literature review of textbooks and scientific articles. Next, we computerized the data and incorporated it into the SINPE©, creating a master protocol (ENT diseases) and a specific protocol (laryngeal diseases). Data were collected prospectively from patients undergoing laryngeal microsurgery in the ENT Hospital of Paraná. The collected data were analyzed with graphs through the SINPE© Analyzer module. Results: We evaluated 245 patients aged 9–79 years, and determined that 36.61% (93 patients) underwent surgery for the presence of polyps on the vocal folds, 12.6% (32) underwent surgery for papillomatosis, and 11.83% (29) underwent surgery for intracordal cysts. Conclusions: The creation of an electronic database of clinical ENT diseases was feasible. We were also able to implement and validate the protocol. The database may be released to physicians involved in clinical data collection and retrieval of information to conduct scientific research in an organized manner. The most common laryngeal disorders identified were polyps, papilloma, and intracordal cysts. PMID:25991956

  8. Efficiency of different protocols for enamel clean-up after bracket debonding: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Carvalho Freitas Sigilião

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six protocols for cleaning-up tooth enamel after bracket debonding.Methods:A total of 60 premolars were divided into six groups, according to the tools used for clean-up: 12-blade bur at low speed (G12L, 12-blade bur at high speed (G12H, 30-blade bur at low speed (G30L, DU10CO ORTHO polisher (GDU, Renew System (GR and Diagloss polisher (GD. Mean roughness (Ra and mean roughness depth (Rz of enamel surface were analyzed with a profilometer. Paired t-test was used to assess Ra and Rz before and after enamel clean-up. ANOVA/Tukey tests were used for intergroup comparison. The duration of removal procedures was recorded. The association between time and variation in enamel roughness (∆Ra, ∆Rz were evaluated by Pearson's correlation test. Enamel topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.Results:In Groups G12L and G12H, original enamel roughness did not change significantly. In Groups G30L, GDU, GR and GD, a smoother surface (p < 0.05 was found after clean-up. In Groups G30L and GD, the protocols used were more time-consuming than those used in the other groups. Negative and moderate correlation was observed between time and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Ra and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Rz (r = - 0.445, r = - 0.475, p < 0.01.Conclusion:All enamel clean-up protocols were efficient because they did not result in increased surface roughness. The longer the time spent performing the protocol, the lower the surface roughness.

  9. Automated extraction protocol for quantification of SARS-Coronavirus RNA in serum: an evaluation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui Wing-bong

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously developed a test for the diagnosis and prognostic assessment of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS based on the detection of the SARS-coronavirus RNA in serum by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of automating the serum RNA extraction procedure in order to increase the throughput of the assay. Methods An automated nucleic acid extraction platform using the MagNA Pure LC instrument (Roche Diagnostics was evaluated. We developed a modified protocol in compliance with the recommended biosafety guidelines from the World Health Organization based on the use of the MagNA Pure total nucleic acid large volume isolation kit for the extraction of SARS-coronavirus RNA. The modified protocol was compared with a column-based extraction kit (QIAamp viral RNA mini kit, Qiagen for quantitative performance, analytical sensitivity and precision. Results The newly developed automated protocol was shown to be free from carry-over contamination and have comparable performance with other standard protocols and kits designed for the MagNA Pure LC instrument. However, the automated method was found to be less sensitive, less precise and led to consistently lower serum SARS-coronavirus concentrations when compared with the column-based extraction method. Conclusion As the diagnostic efficiency and prognostic value of the serum SARS-CoV RNA RT-PCR test is critically associated with the analytical sensitivity and quantitative performance contributed both by the RNA extraction and RT-PCR components of the test, we recommend the use of the column-based manual RNA extraction method.

  10. Evaluation of the service delivery protocol utilised with sexually abused mentally disabled children in the Boland / Goosen M.

    OpenAIRE

    Goosen, Maria.

    2012-01-01

    Children's rights have become paramount to many initiatives that highlight the plight of children in South Africa. These rights form the cornerstones of South Africa's legal obligations towards all children in this country. Although we have the best legal framework to protect children, they are still exposed to horrible and inhuman acts like sexual abuse. Child sexual abuse knows no gender, colour, race, social or economical status and is an extremely traumatic experience for any child. Me...

  11. Overweight and thinness in 7-9 year old children from Florianópolis, Southern Brazil: a comparison with a French study using a similar protocol Sobrepeso e baixo peso em crianças de 7 a 9 anos de idade de Florianópolis, Sul do Brasil: uma comparação com estudo francês usando protocolo similar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Altenburg de Assis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess nutritional status based on weight and height variables in children aged 7-9-y-old in a city from the South of Brazil (Florianópolis and to compare the prevalence of thinness and overweight and environmental factors between Brazil and France. METHODS: Randomly stratified samples of 7-9 y-old children (Florianópolis, n= 2.232; France, n= 1.582. Both studies followed the protocol recommended by the European Childhood Obesity Group. Weight and height were recorded according to World Health Organization recommendation. Thinness and overweight were defined using the French references. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were compared. RESULTS: Florianópolis children were taller and heavier than the French. The frequency of thinness was lower in Florianópolis as compared to France (1.1 vs 3.9%. Overweight frequency was 19.9% in Florianópolis as compared to 16.3% in France. French children had a higher level of physical activity. In particular, 66.5% of French children had a regular sport activity compared to 35.7% in Florianópolis. In France, daily television and screen viewing time was 2 hours per day as compared to 3.3 hours in Brazil. CONCLUSION: Behavioral parameters, particularly sedentary lifestyle, could account for the higher prevalence of overweight in Brazilian children. Strategies to decrease the prevalence of overweight in children should take into account the particularities of each country.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional de crianças de sete a nove anos de idade de Florianópolis (Brasil e comparar a prevalência de sobrepeso e baixo peso com um estudo realizado na França. MÉTODOS: Os dois estudos comparados consistiram em investigações transversais de amostras aleatórias estratificadas de crianças de sete a nove anos da idade (Florianópolis, n= 2.232 ; França, n= 1.582 , delineados com base no protocolo recomendado pelo European Childhood Obesity Group. As medidas antropométricas (peso e

  12. Study protocol: the sleeping sound with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberklaid Frank

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 70% of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD experience sleep problems including difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep. Sleep problems in children with ADHD can result in poorer child functioning, impacting on school attendance, daily functioning and behaviour, as well as parental mental health and work attendance. The Sleeping Sound with ADHD trial aims to investigate the efficacy of a behavioural sleep program in treating sleep problems experienced by children with ADHD. We have demonstrated the feasibility and the acceptability of this treatment program in a pilot study. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial (RCT is being conducted with 198 children (aged between 5 to 12 years with ADHD and moderate to severe sleep problems. Children are recruited from public and private paediatric practices across the state of Victoria, Australia. Upon receiving informed written consent, families are randomised to receive either the behavioural sleep intervention or usual care. The intervention consists of two individual, face-to-face consultations and a follow-up phone call with a trained clinician (trainee consultant paediatrician or psychologist, focusing on the assessment and management of child sleep problems. The primary outcome is parent- and teacher-reported ADHD symptoms (ADHD Rating Scale IV. Secondary outcomes are child sleep (actigraphy and parent report, behaviour, daily functioning, school attendance and working memory, as well as parent mental health and work attendance. We are also assessing the impact of children's psychiatric comorbidity (measured using a structured diagnostic interview on treatment outcome. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first RCT of a behavioural intervention aiming to treat sleep problems in children with ADHD. If effective, this program will provide a feasible non-pharmacological and acceptable intervention improving child sleep and ADHD

  13. Why standard brain-computer interface (BCI) training protocols should be changed: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeunet, Camille; Jahanpour, Emilie; Lotte, Fabien

    2016-06-01

    Objective. While promising, electroencephaloraphy based brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) are barely used due to their lack of reliability: 15% to 30% of users are unable to control a BCI. Standard training protocols may be partly responsible as they do not satisfy recommendations from psychology. Our main objective was to determine in practice to what extent standard training protocols impact users’ motor imagery based BCI (MI-BCI) control performance. Approach. We performed two experiments. The first consisted in evaluating the efficiency of a standard BCI training protocol for the acquisition of non-BCI related skills in a BCI-free context, which enabled us to rule out the possible impact of BCIs on the training outcome. Thus, participants (N = 54) were asked to perform simple motor tasks. The second experiment was aimed at measuring the correlations between motor tasks and MI-BCI performance. The ten best and ten worst performers of the first study were recruited for an MI-BCI experiment during which they had to learn to perform two MI tasks. We also assessed users’ spatial ability and pre-training μ rhythm amplitude, as both have been related to MI-BCI performance in the literature. Main results. Around 17% of the participants were unable to learn to perform the motor tasks, which is close to the BCI illiteracy rate. This suggests that standard training protocols are suboptimal for skill teaching. No correlation was found between motor tasks and MI-BCI performance. However, spatial ability played an important role in MI-BCI performance. In addition, once the spatial ability covariable had been controlled for, using an ANCOVA, it appeared that participants who faced difficulty during the first experiment improved during the second while the others did not. Significance. These studies suggest that (1) standard MI-BCI training protocols are suboptimal for skill teaching, (2) spatial ability is confirmed as impacting on MI-BCI performance, and (3) when faced

  14. Children and their parents : A comparative study of the legal position of children

    OpenAIRE

    Vonk, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    This is a book about children and their parents. There are many different kinds of children and at least about as many different kinds of parents. In addition to the many different disciplines that study children and their parents, such as sociology, psychology, child studies and gender studies, to name but a few, this study concerns a legal question with regard to the parent-child relationship, namely how the law assigns parents to children. This subject is approached in a comparative legal ...

  15. Research on Protocol Migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪芸; 顾冠群; 等

    1996-01-01

    This paper elaborates the concept and model of protocol migration in network interconnection.Migration strategies and principles are discussed and several cases are studied in detail which show the basic procedure and techniques used in protocol migration.

  16. Development of new method and protocol for cryopreservation related to embryo and oocytes freezing in terms of fertilization rate: A comparative study including review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Mayadhar; Bajpai, Minu; Patnaik, Santosh; Mishra, Pravash; Behera, Priyamadhaba; Dwivedi, Sada Nanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cryopreservation is basically related to meritorious thin samples or small clumps of cells that are cooled quickly without loss. Our main objective is to establish and formulate an innovative method and protocol development for cryopreservation as a gold standard for clinical uses in laboratory practice and treatment. The knowledge regarding usefulness of cryopreservation in clinical practice is essential to carry forward the clinical practice and research. Materials and Methods: We are trying to compare different methods of cryopreservation (in two dozen of cells) at the same time we compare the embryo and oocyte freezing interms of fertilization rate according to the International standard protocol. Results: The combination of cryoprotectants and regimes of rapid cooling and rinsing during warming often allows successful cryopreservation of biological materials, particularly cell suspensions or thin tissue samples. Examples include semen, blood, tissue samples like tumors, histological cross-sections, human eggs and human embryos. Although presently many studies have reported that the children born from frozen embryos or “frosties,” show consistently positive results with no increase in birth defects or development abnormalities is quite good enough and similar to our study (50–85%). Conclusions: We ensure that cryopreservation technology provided useful cell survivability, tissue and organ preservation in a proper way. Although it varies according to different laboratory conditions, it is certainly beneficial for patient's treatment and research. Further studies are needed for standardization and development of new protocol.

  17. Children and media: a cultural studies approach

    OpenAIRE

    D av i d B u c k i n g h a m

    2012-01-01

    Defying the traditional psychology understanding on what are the effects of the media and also the researches made on the subject, the present article offers an approach to the study of the relationship between children and the media, focusing mainly on television. We retrace the Cultural Studies perspective, although the researches from the Birmingham Centre have not worked over such age group.The work includes the model of the cultural circuit, it refuses to understand meaning as something ...

  18. A sample preparation protocol for 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies of water-soluble metabolites in blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheedy, John R; Ebeling, Peter R; Gooley, Paul R; McConville, Malcolm J

    2010-03-15

    We describe a general protocol for preparing protein-containing biofluids for (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomic studies. In this protocol, untreated samples are diluted in deuterated solvents to precipitate proteins and recover metabolites quantitated relative to standard reference compounds such as 3-trimethylsilylpropionic acid (TSP) and 2,2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulfonic acid (DSS). The efficacy of this protocol was tested using a bovine serum albumin/metabolite mix and human serum samples. This sample preparation method can be readily applied to any protein-containing biofluid for (1)H NMR studies. PMID:19941831

  19. Cardiovascular Health in Anxiety or Mood Problems Study (CHAMPS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tully, Phillip J; Turnbull, Deborah A; Horowitz, John D; Beltrame, John F.; Selkow, Terina; Baune, Bernhard T; Markwick, Elizabeth; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Baumeister, Harald; Cosh, Suzanne; Gary A Wittert

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous psychological and pharmacological interventions have primarily focused on depression disorders in populations with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and the efficacy of anxiety disorder interventions is only more recently being explored. Transdiagnostic interventions address common emotional processes and the full range of anxiety and depression disorders often observed in populations with CVDs. The aim of CHAMPS is to evaluate the feasibility of a unified protocol (UP) for t...

  20. Cytogenetic Studies in Children with Developmental Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan S.A. El-Dawi, *El-Sayed G. Khedr, *Tarek A. Atia, **Hassan Ali

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Developmental delay (DD could be syndromic or non-syndromic, and collectively it affects 10% of all children. There are numerous causes of DD that could be genetical, hormonal and/or neurological. The frequency of defected chromosomal anomalies in patients with DD is variable and estimates between 9% and 36%. However, the accurate diagnosis needs further tests based on the information gather from parents and the findings on physical examination. Objective: We aim to evaluate the pattern of chromosomal abnormalities in children with non-syndromic DD, in order to detect the treatable cases, and offering an appropriate genetic counseling. Methodology: 50 children suffering from DD with or without mental retardation(MR and/or congenital anomalies were subjected to the present study. Additionally, another 50 normally developed children were considered as control group. Peripheral blood samples were collected, cultured, harvested, metaphase spread and then chromosomes were stained for G-banding using Trypsin-Giemsa technique. Chromosomes were analyzed, metaphase spreads were captured, and karyotyping has been done. Result: Seven cases (14% out of the 50 affected children carried structural chromosomal rearrangements. Six (85.7% out of the seven structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in autosomal chromosomes and one (14.3% in sex chromosome. Surprisingly, we have found a case (2% carrying pericentric inversion of chromosome 3 within the normal control group. Conclusions: Chromosomal studies are valuable in detecting such cases with DD. Prenatal genetic diagnosis is of clinical importance to prevent and offer genetic counseling. Additionally, small proportion of apparently normal population could carry some types of structural chromosomal anomalies

  1. Survival of Mexican Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia under Treatment with the Protocol from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 00-01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elva Jiménez-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim in this paper is to describe the results of treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL in Mexican children treated from 2006 to 2010 under the protocol from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI 00-01. The children were younger than 16 years of age and had a diagnosis of ALL de novo. The patients were classified as standard risk if they were 1–9.9 years old and had a leucocyte count 100 × 109/L. The poor outcomes were associated with toxic death during induction, complete remission, and relapse. These factors remain the main obstacles to the success of this treatment in our population.

  2. Observational study of children with aerophagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loening-Baucke, Vera; Swidsinski, Alexander

    2008-09-01

    Aerophagia is a rare disorder in children. The diagnosis is often delayed, especially when it occurs concomitantly with constipation. The aim of this report is to increase awareness about aerophagia. This study describes 2 girls and 7 boys, 2 to 10.4 years of age, with functional constipation and gaseous abdominal distention. The abdomen was visibly distended, nontender, and tympanitic in all. Documenting less distention on awakening helped to make the diagnosis. Air swallowing, belching, and flatulence were infrequently reported. The rectal examination often revealed a dilated rectal ampulla filled with gas or stool and gas. The abdominal X-ray showed gaseous distention of the colon in all and of the stomach and small bowel in 8 children. Treatment consisted of educating parents and children about air sucking and swallowing, encouraging the children to stop the excessive air swallowing, and suggesting to them not to use drinking straws and not to drink carbonated beverages. The aerophagia resolved in all in 2 to 20 months (mean=8 months). PMID:18445758

  3. The Bakery Protocol: A Comparative Case-Study in Formal Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, D.; Korver, H.

    2008-01-01

    Groote and the second author verified (a version of) the Bakery Protocol in μCRL. Their process-algebraic verification is rather complex compared to the protocol. Now the question is: How do other verification techniques perform on this protocol? In this paper we present a new correctness proof by u

  4. Recruitment of heterosexual couples in public health research: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouget Enrique R

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health research involving social or kin groups (such as sexual partners or family members, rather than samples of unrelated individuals, has become more widespread in response to social ecological approaches to disease treatment and prevention. This approach requires the development of innovative sampling, recruitment and screening methodologies tailored to the study of related individuals. Methods In this paper, we describe a set of sampling, recruitment and screening protocols developed to enlist urban, drug-using, heterosexual couples into a public health research study. This population is especially hard to reach because they are engaged in illegal and/or stigmatized behaviors. The protocols were designed to integrate adaptive sampling, street- and referral-based recruitment, and screening procedures to verify study eligibility and relationship status. Discussion Recruitment of heterosexual couples through one partner, preferably the female, can be an effective enlistment technique. Verification of relationship status is an important component of dyadic research. Comparison of parallel questionnaires administered to each member of a dyad can aid in the assessment of relationship status. However, multiple independent sources of information should be used to verify relationship status when available. Adaptive sampling techniques were effective in reaching drug-using heterosexual couples in an urban setting, and the application of these methods to other groups of related individuals in clinical and public health research may prove to be useful. However, care must be taken to consider potential sources of sampling bias when interpreting and generalizing study results.

  5. Early Intervention with a Parent-Delivered Massage Protocol Directed at Tactile Abnormalities Decreases Severity of Autism and Improves Child-to-Parent Interactions: A Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Louisa M T; Schalock, Mark; Gabrielsen, Kristen R; Budden, Sarojini S; Buenrostro, Martha; Horton, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    Tactile abnormalities are severe and universal in preschool children with autism. They respond well to treatment with a daily massage protocol directed at tactile abnormalities (QST massage for autism). Treatment is based on a model for autism proposing that tactile impairment poses a barrier to development. Two previous randomized controlled trials evaluating five months of massage treatment reported improvement of behavior, social/communication skills, and tactile and other sensory symptoms. This is the first report from a two-year replication study evaluating the protocol in 103 preschool children with autism. Parents gave daily treatment; trained staff gave weekly treatment and parent support. Five-month outcomes replicated earlier studies and showed normalization of receptive language (18%, P = .03), autistic behavior (32%, P = .006), total sensory abnormalities (38%, P = .0000005), tactile abnormalities (49%, P = .0002), and decreased autism severity (medium to large effect size, P = .008). In addition, parents reported improved child-to-parent interactions, bonding, and decreased parenting stress (44%, P = .00008). Early childhood special education programs are tasked with addressing sensory abnormalities and engaging parents in effective home programs. Until now, they have lacked research-based methods to do so. This program fulfills the need. It is recommended to parents and ECSE programs (ages 3-5) at autism diagnosis. PMID:25878901

  6. Comparison between stress myocardial perfusion SPECT recorded with cadmium-zinc-telluride and Anger cameras in various study protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of stress myocardial perfusion SPECT could be enhanced by new cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) cameras, although differences compared to the results with conventional Anger cameras remain poorly known for most study protocols. This study was aimed at comparing the results of CZT and Anger SPECT according to various study protocols while taking into account the influence of obesity. The study population, which was from three different institutions equipped with identical CZT cameras, comprised 276 patients referred for study using protocols involving 201Tl (n = 120) or 99mTc-sestamibi injected at low dose at stress (99mTc-Low; stress/rest 1-day protocol; n = 110) or at high dose at stress (99mTc-High; rest/stress 1-day or 2-day protocol; n = 46). Each Anger SPECT scan was followed by a high-speed CZT SPECT scan (2 to 4 min). Agreement rates between CZT and Anger SPECT were good irrespective of the study protocol (for abnormal SPECT, 201Tl 92 %, 99mTc-Low 86 %, 99mTc-High 98 %), although quality scores were much higher for CZT SPECT with all study protocols. Overall correlations were high for the extent of myocardial infarction (r = 0.80) and a little lower for ischaemic areas (r = 0.72), the latter being larger on Anger SPECT (p 201Tl or 99mTc-Low group and in whom stress myocardial counts were particularly low with Anger SPECT (228 ± 101 kcounts) and dramatically enhanced with CZT SPECT (+279 ± 251 %). Concordance between the results of CZT and Anger SPECT is good regardless of study protocol and especially when excluding obese patients who have low-count Anger SPECT and for whom myocardial counts are dramatically enhanced on CZT SPECT. (orig.)

  7. Comparison between stress myocardial perfusion SPECT recorded with cadmium-zinc-telluride and Anger cameras in various study protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, Antoine; Karcher, Gilles [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM U947, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Djaballah, Wassila [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM U947, Nancy (France); Fourquet, Nicolas [Clinique Pasteur, Toulouse (France); Rouzet, Francois; Le Guludec, Dominique [AP-HP, Hopital Bichat, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); INSERM U 773 Inserm and Denis Diderot University, Paris (France); Koehl, Gregoire; Roch, Veronique [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Imbert, Laetitia [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Centre Alexis Vautrin, Department of Radiotherapy, Vandoeuvre (France); Poussier, Sylvain [INSERM U947, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Fay, Renaud [INSERM, Centre d' Investigation Clinique CIC-P 9501, Nancy (France); Marie, Pierre-Yves [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); INSERM U961, Nancy (France); Hopital de Brabois, CHU-Nancy, Medecine Nucleaire, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2013-03-15

    The results of stress myocardial perfusion SPECT could be enhanced by new cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) cameras, although differences compared to the results with conventional Anger cameras remain poorly known for most study protocols. This study was aimed at comparing the results of CZT and Anger SPECT according to various study protocols while taking into account the influence of obesity. The study population, which was from three different institutions equipped with identical CZT cameras, comprised 276 patients referred for study using protocols involving {sup 201}Tl (n = 120) or {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi injected at low dose at stress ({sup 99m}Tc-Low; stress/rest 1-day protocol; n = 110) or at high dose at stress ({sup 99m}Tc-High; rest/stress 1-day or 2-day protocol; n = 46). Each Anger SPECT scan was followed by a high-speed CZT SPECT scan (2 to 4 min). Agreement rates between CZT and Anger SPECT were good irrespective of the study protocol (for abnormal SPECT, {sup 201}Tl 92 %, {sup 99m}Tc-Low 86 %, {sup 99m}Tc-High 98 %), although quality scores were much higher for CZT SPECT with all study protocols. Overall correlations were high for the extent of myocardial infarction (r = 0.80) and a little lower for ischaemic areas (r = 0.72), the latter being larger on Anger SPECT (p < 0.001). This larger extent was mainly observed in 50 obese patients who were in the {sup 201}Tl or {sup 99m}Tc-Low group and in whom stress myocardial counts were particularly low with Anger SPECT (228 {+-} 101 kcounts) and dramatically enhanced with CZT SPECT (+279 {+-} 251 %). Concordance between the results of CZT and Anger SPECT is good regardless of study protocol and especially when excluding obese patients who have low-count Anger SPECT and for whom myocardial counts are dramatically enhanced on CZT SPECT. (orig.)

  8. CT Pelvis in Children; Should We Routinely Scan Pelvis for Wilms Tumor and Hepatoblastoma? Implications for Imaging Protocol Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Waseem; McHugh, Kieran; Aslam, Mubashir; Sajjad, Zafar; Abid, Waqas; Youssef, Talaat; Ali, Arif; Fadoo, Zahra

    2015-10-01

    Wilms tumor and hepatoblastoma are the most common intra-abdominal solid organ childhood tumors. CT examination is one of the routinely performed procedures in hospitals for children with these tumors inspite of high radiation exposure associated with CT scans. Sixty patients (Wilms tumor = 45, hepatoblastoma = 16) were evaluated retrospectively. Higher proportion (44.4%) of metastatic disease was identified at presentation in the Wilms tumor subset as compared to hepatoblastoma (6.3%) [p=0.006]. Metastatic disease was noted in 6 patients having Wilms tumor on follow-up while it was also low in hepatoblastoma which was noted in only 2 patients (p > 0.05). No significant difference was identified in pelvic extension of disease at presentation in both studied population (p > 0.05). Pelvic metastasis was noted in 1 patient only with Wilms tumor on follow-up while no pelvic metastasis was seen in the hepatoblastoma patients (p-value > 0.05). PMID:26454401

  9. Children and media: a cultural studies approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D av i d B u c k i n g h a m

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Defying the traditional psychology understanding on what are the effects of the media and also the researches made on the subject, the present article offers an approach to the study of the relationship between children and the media, focusing mainly on television. We retrace the Cultural Studies perspective, although the researches from the Birmingham Centre have not worked over such age group.The work includes the model of the cultural circuit, it refuses to understand meaning as something that the media distributes to a passive audience and it states that the audience has an active role but works under conditions strange to its own choice. Regarding children, their relationship with the media is structured and restrained by broader social discourses and institutions that try to define childhood in some given ways.

  10. Protocol for three-Dimensional magnetic resonance study of inner ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To create a protocol for the study of the labyrinthine structures of the inner ear using fast MR sequences. We studied the petrous apex in 50 healthy volunteers at 1.5 T using T2-weighted fast MR for three-dimensional analysis. We sought the series of images of the inner ear that fulfilled the following objectives: 1) representing all the structures in the inner ear and neural complex of the internal auditory canal (IAC) in several spatial planes; 2) if possible, defining each structure totally in a single image; 3) attempting to save time; 4) making the workstation tasks simple and uniform in all the patients in order to apply general guidelines for every case, and 5) providing images similar to those known so that the existing radiological semiology could be applied. We chose a radiological series consisting of 7 images: 1) an oblique coronal plane of the cochlea; 2) an axial plane at the level of the cochlea, vesicular nerve, lateral semicircular canal and IAC; 3) a para sagittal plane through the vestibular nerve, superior and posterior semicircular canals and their common branch; 4) a para sagittal plane of the cochlea representing all the spirals; 5) a para sagittal plane of the IAC; 6) an axial plane showing the neural structures within the IAC, and 7) an axial plane at the level of the cochlear aqueduct. The protocol defined in the present report is useful for the three-dimensional MR study of the membranous labyrinth. (Author) 22 refs

  11. The "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" randomized controlled trial for girls: study design, protocol, and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Ana Carolina Barco; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the study design, protocol, and baseline results of the "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" program. The intervention is being evaluated through a randomized controlled trial in 10 public schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data on the following variables were collected and assessed at baseline and will be reevaluated at 7 and 12 months: body mass index, waist circumference, dietary intake, nutrition, physical activity, social cognitive mediators, physical activity level, sedentary behaviors, self-rated physical status, and overall self-esteem. According to the baseline results, 32.4% and 23.4% of girls were overweight in the intervention and control groups, respectively, and in both groups a higher percentage failed to meet daily recommendations for moderate and vigorous physical activity and maximum screen time (TV, computer, mobile devices). There were no significant differences between the groups for most of the variables, except age (p = 0.000) and waist circumference (p = 0.014). The study showed a gap in the Brazilian literature on protocols for randomized controlled trials to prevent obesity among youth. The current study may thus be an important initial contribution to the field. PMID:26248094

  12. Nail disorders in children, a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Akbaş

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aims of the study to investigate the frequency and the nature ofnail disorders in children significant clinical data is available. Nail disorders although common in children in some parts of our country. This study was carried out to document the clinical and demographic pattern of nail disorders in a dermatology outpatient clinic of a pediatric hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Material and Methods: All consecutive patients a total of 3000 children from age 0-16 were admitted to dermatology outpatient clinic of Ankara Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Education and Research Hospital during January 2011 to December 2011 were studied and retrospectively evaluated for age, gender, drug use, diseases, systemic or genetic disorders and demographic features. Diagnostic evaluation results were noted and patients were categorized for demographic features and diagnosis. Results: These 133 patients (M: F 58:75, %44 vs 56, respectively were under 16 years of age and have 17 different dermatological disorders related with nail symptoms. Fifty three of (39,8% these patient were under 2 years of age, 31 (23.3% were between 3-5 years, 30 (22.5% were between 6-11 years old, 19 of 133 (14%, 2 were between 11-16 years of age. Through all of ages and independent of gender the most etiologies of nail disorders were, onychomadesis, paronychia, onycholysis, onychomycosis and systemic nail presentation of systemic dermatosis. Conclusion: Nail disorders are different in children than in adults. In our study, the first 5 years of age was found in 53% of nail disorders. Nail disorders are uncommon but may be seen as a part of a systemic disease and may be associated with cosmetic and psychologic problem.

  13. Dosimetry study comparing NCS report-2 versus IAEA TRS-398 protocol for high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a dosimetry study is presented in which the results of absorbed dose determined at reference condition according to the IAEA TRS-398 protocol and the NCS report-2 are compared. The IAEA TRS-398 protocol for absorbed dose calibration is based on ionization chamber having absorbed dose to water calibration factor Ndw, while the NCS-2 dosimetry report for absorbed dose calibration is based on an ionization chamber having air- kerma calibration factor Nk. This study shows that the absorbed dose which is calculated with The IAEA TRS-398 formalisms is higher than that calculated with NCS report-2 formalisms within range from 0.4 to 0.9% in cobalt-60 beam as sensed by different ionization chambers, and from 0.2 to 1.1% for different higher energy photon beams of 6, 8 and 18 MV. The chambers used are PTW 30001, 30004, and NE-2571; which have calibration factors Nk and Ndw traceable to the BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures)

  14. Synchrotron radiation X-ray micro-fluorescence: Protocol to study mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Karla Mayra; Bönecker, Marcelo; Perez, Carlos Alberto; Mantesso, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    The micro-X-ray fluorescence by synchrotron radiation (μ-XRF) is a method to determine the composition of tissues without destroying the samples. However, this technique has never been used for the analysis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). This study compared different protocols for fixing, storing, preserving, and establishing the correct numbers of dental derived MSC submitted to μ-XRF analysis. Stem cells were obtained from human dental tissue. After cell expansion, and MACS isolation, the samples were fixed and the following quantities of cells 1 × 10(4) to 1 × 10(7) were divided in two groups: G1: fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde diluted in phosphate-buffered saline solution, and G2: fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde diluted in MilliQ water. The G1 cells showed precipitation of chemical components from the solution resulting in the formation of salt crystals while G2 cells were clear and almost transparent in the sample holder. With regards to cells concentration, the best results occurred when four droplets of 1 × 10(7) cells were analyzed. This work shows that to identify and study the distribution of trace elements in MSC by μ-XRF, the best protocol is fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde diluted with MilliQ water at 4°C and a concentration of four incremental droplets of 1 × 10(7) cells. PMID:26749077

  15. Online support program for parents of children with a chronic kidney disease using intervention mapping: a development and evaluation protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geense, W.W.; van Gaal, B.G.I.; Knoll, J.L.; Cornelissen, E.A.M.; Schoonhoven, L.; Kok, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The care for children with a chronic kidney disease (CKD) is complex. Parents of these children may experience high levels of stress in managing their child's disease, potentially leading to negative effects on their child's health outcomes. Although the experienced problems are well kno

  16. Simulation Studies On An Energy Efficient Multipath Routing Protocol Using Directional Antennas For Manets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Chilukuri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the development of an energy efficient multipath routing protocol with directional antenna for MANET as an optimization task as well as a multidisciplinary entity. A comprehensive analysis to link all the multi-disciplinary viewpoints involved in the development of desired multipath routing protocol with requisite technical details is presented in this paper. A simple and elegant mathematical formulation for the analysis of relative improvement of the performance metrics of ad-hocnetworks with omnidirectional and directional antenna is presented. Through extensive numerical simulations, the multi-dimensional desirable performance attributes of wireless link such as improvedrange, improved RSS, reduced RF transmit power and consequent reduced consumption of battery power have been analyzed keeping the directional gain of the antenna as a variable parameter. Development or modification of a protocol with concurrent focus on multipath routing with optimization of the batteryenergy is a significant step to increase the life time of MANET without recharging. Selection of the energy efficient path amongst several alternative ones is of paramount significance in the evaluation of overall performance of MANET system. A formulation to compute the required Battery Energy taking into account the data pertaining to the power efficiency of the associated transceiver design as well as the specified link performance parameters is also discussed. Through a case study involving the specifications of a typical transceiver operating in the 2.4 GHz band, the desirable impact of higher gain of a directional antenna in the reduction of RF transmitter power is illustrated. The consequential reduced battery power consumption while still retaining the specified performance parameters of the adhoc network like range and Received Signal Strength (RSS is also demonstrated. This paper also addresses the importance of alignment of beam peaks of directional

  17. Protocol Evaluating the effectiveness of a school-based group programme for parents of children at risk of ADHD: the ‘PArents, Teachers and CHildren WORKing Together (PATCHWORK)’ cluster RCT protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Sayal, Kapil; Daley, David; James, Marilyn; Yang, Min; Batty, Martin J.; Taylor, John A; Pass, Sarah; Sampson, Christopher James; Sellman, Edward; Valentine, Althea; Hollis, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Early intervention for childhood behavioural problems may help improve health and educational outcomes in affected children and reduce the likelihood of developing additional difficulties. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a common childhood behavioural disorder, recommend a stepped care approach for the identification and management of these problems. Parents of children wit...

  18. Protocol for studying extinction of conditioned fear in naturally cycling female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Lisa Y; Cover, Kara K; Landau, Aaron J; Milad, Mohammed R; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer

    2015-01-01

    Extinction of conditioned fear has been extensively studied in male rodents. Recently, there have been an increasing number of studies indicating that neural mechanisms for certain behavioral tasks and response behaviors are different in females and males. Using females in research studies can represent a challenge because of the variation of gonadal hormones during their estrous cycle. This protocol describes well-established procedures that are useful in investigating the role of estrogen in fear extinction memory consolidation in female rats. Phase of the estrous cycle and exogenous estrogen administration prior to extinction training can influence extinction recall 24 hr later. The vaginal swabbing technique for estrous phase identification described here aids the examination and manipulation of naturally cycling gonadal hormones. The use of this basic rodent model may further delineate the mechanisms by which estrogen can modulate fear extinction memory in females. PMID:25741747

  19. A multi-parametric protocol to study exercise intolerance in McArdle's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Giulia; Bertolucci, Federica; Logerfo, Annalisa; Simoncini, Costanza; Papi, Riccardo; Franzoni, Ferdinando; Dell'Osso, Giacomo; Servadio, Adele; Masoni, Maria Chiara; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2015-12-01

    McArdle's disease is the most common metabolic myopathy of muscle carbohydrate metabolism, due to deficiency of myophosphorylase and alteration of glycogen breakdown in muscle. The clinical manifestations usually begin in young adulthood, with exercise intolerance, exercise-induced muscle cramps, pain and recurrent episodes of myoglobinuria. Many patients experience the second wind phenomenon, characterized by an improved tolerance for aerobic exercise approximately after eight minutes of motor activity, secondary to the increased availability of blood glucose and free fatty acids associated to an enhanced glucose uptake by muscle cells. In this study, we aimed to test a multi-parametric protocol in order to detect the impairment of muscular metabolism and motor performance in patients with McArdle's disease. We enrolled 5 patients and 5 age-matched healthy subjects, that were evaluated by: (01) monitoring of physical activity with an electronic armband; (02) testing of cardiopulmonary, metabolic and respiratory responses to exercise with a cardiopulmonary exercise test and analyzing muscle fatigue during exercise test by surface electromyography (04) evaluating blood lactate and oxidative stress biomarkers at rest and during exercise. The patients were tested at baseline and after three days of carbohydrate-rich diet integrated with tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate and creatine. The multiparametric protocol proved to be useful to detect the oxidative capacity impairment and the second wind phenomenon of patients. We did not observe any significant differences of muscle metabolic response during the exercise test after three days of carbohydrate-rich diet. PMID:27199539

  20. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF 97 CASES TO ARRIVE AT TREATMENT PROTOCOLS FOR FLOATING KNEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Floating knee is an injury in which fractures are present both above and below isolating it. It’s a high velocity injury 1 f requently associated with multiple fractures and injuries to other organs . ² The management i.e. , timing of surgery , no of incisions and the type of implants is still a gray area as several protocols have been advocated. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This study comprises of 97 cases and was conducted in the two tertiary care hospitals of Hyderabad , during a period of 6 yrs i.e. , between 2007 - 2013. The average of the patients is 28.2 years and the Male to Female ratio is 6:1 , there were 68 open fractur es. Each case is individually assessed and managed. Different implants are used to fix these fractures depending upon the situation and fracture type. RESULTS : All the cases are evaluated after fracture union based on criteria Karlstrom and Olerud. Sixty f ive patients had union of femoral and tibial fractures with 90 degrees of knee flexion falling into the category of excellent and good results. Complications encountered were Infection , Knee - stiffness , nonunion , malunion , injury to nerves. CONCLUSIONS : The re is no fixed protocol in the number of incisions , choice of fixation device , and timing of surgery in the management of floating knee injuries. Each case should be dealt with basing on its merits. The management should be tailor - made for that particular case.

  1. Listening to Children: Exploring Intuitive Strategies and Interactive Methods in a Study of Children's Special Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carie

    2012-01-01

    Stemming from the UNCRC, childhood researchers have proposed a variety of methodological strategies for upholding children's rights and understanding their perspectives. This paper aims to advance the conversation on engaging children's perspectives by presenting data collection methods used in a qualitative study exploring children's special…

  2. Sharp Lymphoid Leukemia in children. Results of the treatment in the second study BFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    123 children were studied with LLA, between January of 1993 and December of 1995. The children entered to the protocol were assigned to two groups: with standard risk or low risk and of high risk for relapses. The objective was to achieve a decrease in the relapses and to diminish the use of the radiotherapy (for the fear of lesions to the central nervous system and the formation of cerebral tumors). The inclusion approaches contemplated children between 10 and 12 years with LLA, with recount of leukocytes and visceromegalia up to an index of 0.8, without presence of illness extra medullar, without genetic alterations of caryotypes or chromosomes, also, they should have a good answer to the treatment with prednisone and a complete remission to the induction therapy

  3. Multi-centred mixed-methods PEPFAR HIV care & support public health evaluation: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayers Peter

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A public health response is essential to meet the multidimensional needs of patients and families affected by HIV disease in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to appraise curret provision of HIV care and support in East Africa, and to provide evidence-based direction to future care programming, and Public Health Evaluation was commissioned by the PEPFAR programme of the US Government. Methods/Design This paper described the 2-Phase international mixed methods study protocol utilising longitudinal outcome measurement, surveys, patient and family qualitative interviews and focus groups, staff qualitative interviews, health economics and document analysis. Aim 1 To describe the nature and scope of HIV care and support in two African countries, including the types of facilities available, clients seen, and availability of specific components of care [Study Phase 1]. Aim 2 To determine patient health outcomes over time and principle cost drivers [Study Phase 2]. The study objectives are as follows. 1 To undertake a cross-sectional survey of service configuration and activity by sampling 10% of the facilities being funded by PEPFAR to provide HIV care and support in Kenya and Uganda (Phase 1 in order to describe care currently provided, including pharmacy drug reviews to determine availability and supply of essential drugs in HIV management. 2 To conduct patient focus group discussions at each of these (Phase 1 to determine care received. 3 To undertake a longitudinal prospective study of 1200 patients who are newly diagnosed with HIV or patients with HIV who present with a new problem attending PEPFAR care and support services. Data collection includes self-reported quality of life, core palliative outcomes and components of care received (Phase 2. 4 To conduct qualitative interviews with staff, patients and carers in order to explore and understand service issues and care provision in more depth (Phase 2. 5 To undertake document

  4. Studies in Visual Perception and Reading in Disadvantaged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S. Alan

    Two studies were carried out to measure the difficulties in visual perception which affect the reading abilities of disadvantaged children. The first study involved children in the first grades of eight poverty-area schools. Results reinforced earlier findings that urban disadvantaged children scored poorly on tests of visual perception.…

  5. Optimization of the scan protocols for CT-based material extraction in small animal PET/CT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ching-Ching [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Tzu Chi College of Technology, 880, Sec 2, Chien-Kuo Rd., Hualien, Taiwan (China); Yu, Jhih-An [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Bang-Hung [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Tung-Hsin, E-mail: tung@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-11

    We investigated the effects of scan protocols on CT-based material extraction to minimize radiation dose while maintaining sufficient image information in small animal studies. The phantom simulation experiments were performed with the high dose (HD), medium dose (MD) and low dose (LD) protocols at 50, 70 and 80 kV{sub p} with varying mA s. The reconstructed CT images were segmented based on Hounsfield unit (HU)-physical density (ρ) calibration curves and the dual-energy CT-based (DECT) method. Compared to the (HU;ρ) method performed on CT images acquired with the 80 kV{sub p} HD protocol, a 2-fold improvement in segmentation accuracy and a 7.5-fold reduction in radiation dose were observed when the DECT method was performed on CT images acquired with the 50/80 kV{sub p} LD protocol, showing the possibility to reduce radiation dose while achieving high segmentation accuracy.

  6. Enuresis: Epidemiological study in Moroccan children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enuresis is a common symptom that leads to significant psychosocialsequalae. In this study we analyzed three surveys in three different urbanand suburban regions in Morocco in order to evaluate the epidemiologicalcharacteristics and profiles of the young patients who had enuresis and theattitudes of their parents towards this problem. There were 1520 children andadolescents in this analysis whose age ranged between 5 and 15 years. Theywere attending various outpatient surgical and medical clinics when theirparents were asked to answer a pre-prepared questionnaire. The prevalence ofenuresis was 35% with preponderance of males (54%). The cause could not bedefined (primary) in 91.5% of the patients with enuresis. There were familialfactors associated with enuresis that included history of enuresis in theparents or siblings in 56% of the cases and coercion attitude of the parentsin 23%. Enuresis was associated with impediment of learning in 23%andchastisement of children in 85.4% of the cases. Twenty-three percent ofpatients also had chronic disorders. The parents were concerned mostly whenthe children approached puberty or when enuresis was secondary to anotherproblem. Spontaneous improvement was the rule by adolescence, hence only 8.7%sought medical advice for enuresis. Treatment was conventional in 67% of thecases and confined to restriction of fluids and food items in 73% of thetreated patients. We conclude that enuresis is apparently higher in Moroccanchildren compared to reports in other countries. However, enuresis was notconsidered a major medical problem of concern to parents who rarely soughtmedical advice for it. (author)

  7. Melanocytic nevi in children: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilkumar M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Melanocytic nevi show different presentations in children which have not much studied in India. PURPOSES: To document the incidence and pattern of melanocytic nevi in children. METHODS: A total of 4,256 paediatric cases attending the dermatology OPD, JIPMER during the study period from August 2002 to August 2004 were screened for melanocytic nevi. FINDINGS: Out of these, 41 (0.96% cases were found to have melanocytic nevi. The mean age of these cases was 1.4 years (range of 3 days to 14 years. Fourteen (34.1% of them were males and 27 (65.9% were females with male to female ratio of 1:1.9. Majority of these cases (32 cases, 78% were in the age group of 0-1 year. Thirty-seven (90.2% cases had single lesion and 4 (9.8% cases had multiple lesions. The size of the nevi varied from 1.5 cm to 20 cm in 40 (97.6% cases and more than 20 cm in 1 (2.4% case. The most common site of involvement was the back (32 cases, 78% followed by head and neck (6 cases, 14.6%. Out of the total of 41 cases, 30 (73.2% were Mongolian spots, 8 (19.5% were congenital melanocytic nevi, one case (2.4% each had giant congenital melanocytic nevus, nevus spilus and nevus of Ota. Four cases had other associated cutaneous disorders. These included ashleaf macules in 2 cases, epidermolysis bullosa simplex in 1 case and a solitary case had both cafι-au-lait macule and mixed hemangioma. The systemic associations included seizures (suspected neurocutaneous melanosis in a solitary case of congenital melanocytic nevi. CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of melanocytic nevi seen in children in this study partially differs from this of abroad studies. LIMITATION: Unicentre hospital-based study which cannot be generalized.

  8. Advancing Survivors’ Knowledge (ASK) about skin cancer study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Casey L.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Keske, Robyn R; Davine, Jessica A; McDonald, Aaron J; Sprunck-Harrild, Kim M; Coleman, Catherine; Haneuse, Sebastien J.; Mertens, Ann C.; Emmons, Karen M; Marghoob, Ashfaq A.; Elkin, Elena B.; Dusza, Stephen W.; Robison, Leslie L.; Alan C. Geller

    2015-01-01

    Background Advances in treatment have increased childhood cancer 5-year survival rates to greater than 80%. However, children previously treated with radiation are at significantly increased risk of developing subsequent neoplasms, the most common of which are skin cancers. The National Cancer Institute and Children’s Oncology Group have issued recommendations for survivors treated with radiation to perform monthly skin self-examinations and receive a physician skin examination at least annua...

  9. Advancing Survivors’ Knowledge (ASK) about skin cancer study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Casey L.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Keske, Robyn R; Davine, Jessica A; McDonald, Aaron J; Sprunck-Harrild, Kim M; Coleman, Catherine; Haneuse, Sebastien J.; Mertens, Ann C.; Emmons, Karen M; Marghoob, Ashfaq A.; Elkin, Elena B.; Dusza, Stephen W.; Robison, Leslie L.; Alan C. Geller

    2015-01-01

    Background: Advances in treatment have increased childhood cancer 5-year survival rates to greater than 80%. However, children previously treated with radiation are at significantly increased risk of developing subsequent neoplasms, the most common of which are skin cancers. The National Cancer Institute and Children’s Oncology Group have issued recommendations for survivors treated with radiation to perform monthly skin self-examinations and receive a physician skin examination at least annu...

  10. Outcome and Toxicity of an Ifosfamide-Based Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment Protocol in Children. The Importance of Local Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Murray Yule

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although the survival of children with soft tissue sarcoma (STS has improved considerably, the outcome of patients with metastatic disease, and those with primary tumours of the extremities or parameningeal sites remains disappointing. We describe the clinical outcome of an ifosfamide-based regimen with local therapy directed only to children who failed to achieve a complete response to initial chemotherapy.

  11. Children with severe malnutrition: can those at highest risk of death be identified with the WHO protocol?

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Maitland; Berkley, James A; Mohammed Shebbe; Norbert Peshu; Michael English; Newton, Charles R. J. C.

    2006-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Severe malnutrition is thought to be responsible, at least in part, for a large proportion of the many millions of deaths every year among children below the age of five years. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed guidelines for management of the severely malnourished child in the hospital. These guidelines outline ten initial steps for routine care, followed by treatment of associated conditions and rehabilitation. However, death rates among children...

  12. A Study on the Distributed Antenna Based Heterogeneous Cognitive Wireless Network Synchronous MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Fen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces distributed antennas into a cognitive radio network and presents a heterogeneous network. The best contribution of this paper is that it designs a synchronous cognitive MAC protocol (DAHCWNS-MAC protocol: distributed antenna based heterogeneous cognitive wireless network synchronous MAC protocol. The novel protocol aims at combining the advantages of cognitive radio and distributed antennas to fully utilize the licensed spectrum, broaden the communication range, and improve throughput. This paper carries out the mathematical modeling and performance simulation to demonstrate its superiority in improving the network throughput at the cost of increasing antenna hardware costs.

  13. Do autistic children have higher levels of caries? A cross-sectional study in Turkish children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namal Necmi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess whether the dental caries experience is higher in children with an autistic disorder (AD than in normal children. Three schools for autistic children and three standard elementary schools in Istanbul, Turkey, were included in a cross-sectional study. Subjects were orally examined. Socio-demographic information and data about their oral care habits were obtained from their parents from records. Sixty-two children with AD and 301 children without AD were examined. Their ages varied between 6 and 12 years. Children with AD compared to those without AD had lower experience of caries. Logistic regression analysis of DMFT showed that the dental status was positively affected in younger children (OR = 15.57; 95% CI 7.62, 31.80, children from families with high income (OR = 5.42; 95% CI 2.31, 12.75, children brushing teeth regularly (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.10, 3.68, children consuming less sugar (OR = 5.01; 95% CI 2.57, 9.76 and in those with AD (OR=3.99; 95% CI 1.56, 10.19. Children with AD had better caries status than children without AD at younger ages.

  14. Optimal protocol for teleconsultation with a cellular phone for dentoalveolar trauma: an in-vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental trauma is frequently unpredictable. The initial assessment and urgent treatment are essential for dentists to save the patient's teeth. Mobile-phone-assisted teleconsultation and telediagnosis for dental trauma could be an aid when a dentist is not available. In the present in-vitro study, we evaluated the success rate and time to transfer images under various conditions. We analyzed the image quality of cameras built into mobile phones based on their resolution, autofocus, white-balance, and anti-movement functions. The image quality of most built-in cameras was acceptable to perform the initial assessment, with the autofocus function being essential to obtain high-quality images. The transmission failure rate increased markedly when the image size exceeded 500 kB and the additional text messaging did not improve the success rate or the transmission time. Our optimal protocol could be useful for emergency programs running on the mobile phones.

  15. Optimal protocol for teleconsultation with a cellular phone for dentoalveolar trauma: an in-vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Se; Lee, Hae Na; Jeong, Jin Sun; Kwon, Jung Hoon; Lee, Grace H; Kim, Kee Dong [College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Dental trauma is frequently unpredictable. The initial assessment and urgent treatment are essential for dentists to save the patient's teeth. Mobile-phone-assisted teleconsultation and telediagnosis for dental trauma could be an aid when a dentist is not available. In the present in-vitro study, we evaluated the success rate and time to transfer images under various conditions. We analyzed the image quality of cameras built into mobile phones based on their resolution, autofocus, white-balance, and anti-movement functions. The image quality of most built-in cameras was acceptable to perform the initial assessment, with the autofocus function being essential to obtain high-quality images. The transmission failure rate increased markedly when the image size exceeded 500 kB and the additional text messaging did not improve the success rate or the transmission time. Our optimal protocol could be useful for emergency programs running on the mobile phones.

  16. Tackling inequalities in obesity: a protocol for a systematic review of the effectiveness of public health interventions at reducing socioeconomic inequalities in obesity amongst children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambra Clare L

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence of the impact of overweight and obesity on short- and long-term functioning, health and well-being. Internationally, childhood obesity rates continue to rise in some countries (for example, Mexico, India, China and Canada, although there is emerging evidence of a slowing of this increase or a plateauing in some age groups. In most European countries, the United States and Australia, however, socioeconomic inequalities in relation to obesity and risk factors for obesity are widening. Addressing inequalities in obesity, therefore, has a very high profile on the public health and health services agendas. However, there is a lack of accessible policy-ready evidence on what works in terms of interventions to reduce inequalities in obesity. Methods and design This article describes the protocol for a National Health Service Trust (NHS National Institute for Health Research-funded systematic review of public health interventions at the individual, community and societal levels which might reduce socioeconomic inequalities in relation to obesity amongst children ages 0 to 18 years. The studies will be selected only if (1 they included a primary outcome that is a proxy for body fatness and (2 examined differential effects with regard to socioeconomic status (education, income, occupation, social class, deprivation and poverty or the intervention was targeted specifically at disadvantaged groups (for example, children of the unemployed, lone parents, low income and so on or at people who live in deprived areas. A rigorous and inclusive international literature search will be conducted for randomised and nonrandomised controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies (with and/or without control groups and prospective repeat cross-sectional studies (with and/or without control groups. The following electronic databases will be searched: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Science Citation

  17. Risk group assignment differs for children and adults 1-45 yr with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated by the NOPHO ALL-2008 protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Nina; Birgens, Henrik; Abrahamsson, Jonas;

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia is poorer in adults than in children. Studies have indicated that young adults benefit from pediatric treatment, although no upper age limit has been defined....

  18. Psychological and Educational Studies with Spina Bifida Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, Leonard; And Others

    To measure school achievements in spina bifida children, to relate these measures to certain variables, to obtain information on educational problems, and to study facets of cognition and its changes with age, 77 spina bifida children and 53 amputees (all aged 5 to 15) were tested. Sixty non-disabled children were at times used for controls. The…

  19. Observational cohort study of HIV-infected African children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laufer, M.K.; Oosterhout, J.J. van; Perez, M.A.; Kanyanganlika, J.; Taylor, T.E.; Plowe, C.V.; Graham, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most information about children living with HIV is based on follow up from children identified through mother-to-child transmission studies. Children identified through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) represent a unique cohort that has not been previously described in the literatu

  20. Concrete release protocol case studies for decommissioning work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment'' contains provisions pertinent to releasing potentially radioactive materials from DOE facilities for reuse or recycle. A process of authorized release for materials recovered from radiation areas is permitted under Order 5400.5 and the proposed rule in Title 10, Part 834, of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 834). A generic disposition protocol to facilitate release of concrete under these provisions has been developed. This report analyzes the application of that generic protocol to site-specific cases at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The potential radiological doses and costs for several concrete disposition alternatives for the sewage treatment plant (STP) at the Central Facilities Area (CFA) of INEEL were evaluated in this analysis. Five disposition alternatives were analyzed for the concrete: (A) decontaminate, crush, and reuse; (B) crush and reuse without decontamination; (C) decontaminate, demolish, and dispose of at a nonradiological landfill; (D) demolish and dispose of at a nonradiological landfill without decontamination; and (E) demolish and dispose of at a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) facility. The analysis was performed for disposition of concrete from four INEEL structures: (1) trickle filter, (2) primary clarifier, (3) secondary clarifier, and (4) CFA-691 pumphouse for a generic case (based on default parameters from the disposition protocol) and an INEEL-specific case (based on INEEL-specific parameters). The results of the analysis indicated that Alternatives B and D would incur the lowest cost and result in a dose less than 1 mrem/yr (except for the trickle filter, the dose for which was estimated at 1.9 mrem/yr) for nonradiological workers. The analysis indicated that the main contributor to the radiological dose would be cobalt-60 contamination in the concrete. A characterization conducted

  1. The Development of Protocol Materials. Acquiring Teacher Competencies: Reports and Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. Othanel; Orlosky, Donald E.

    The development of protocol materials from the standpoint of the developer is discussed in this article. Emphasis is placed on the selection of concepts, analysis of concepts, utility of concepts, and issues about the development and use of protocol materials. A three-item bibliography is included. (MJM)

  2. A Bounded Retransmission Protocol for Large Data Packets: A Case Study in Computer Checked Algebraic Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, J.F.; Pol, J. van de

    2008-01-01

    This note describes a protocol for the transmission of data packets that are too large to be transferred in their entirety. Therefore, the protocol splits the data packets and broadcasts it in parts. It is assumed that in case of failure of transmission through data channels, only a limited number o

  3. Changes of CSF-protein pattern in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during prophylactic CNS therapy (Berlin protocol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)-protein profiles of ten children with previously untreated acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were investigated by agarose gel electrophoresis. The profiles were determined at diagnosis and during the fifth to eighth week of treatment when preventive therapy for central nervous system (CNS) leukemia (skull irradiation, intrathecal methotrexate (ithMTX) was administered. The profiles were compared with those obtained from a control group of 67 children and those from 42 patients with acute aseptic meningitis. The data from the latter group demonstrated the CSF-protein pattern of partial blood-CSF barrier (B-CSF-B) breakdown. The children with ALL showed no or only minor signs of a B-CSF-B impairment at diagnosis and after four weeks of systemic treatment. However, CSF changes indicative of a lesion of the B-CSF-B increased in all children continuously during CNS prophylaxis. The protein profile at the end of combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy was very similar to that in patients with acute aseptic meningitis. These observations point to neurotoxic side effects on the CNS barrier system with the combination of cranial radiation and ithMTX. A striking finding was restricted heterogeneity of gamma-globulin, observed in the CSF of nine out of the ten children with ALL before or during treatment. The significance of this abnormality is unknown

  4. Transnational migration and the study of children: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Katy

    2012-01-01

    This introductory article sets out the main challenges that the study of children poses for the understanding of transnational migration. Children are not simply a neglected empirical group, whose perspectives are rarely considered; children can also provide researchers with important insights concerning the nature of transnationalism if the phenomenon is considered through their eyes. Research on transnational children brings to the fore issues concerning familial practices and discourses, t...

  5. Think-Aloud Protocols in Research on Essay Rating: An Empirical Study of Their Veridicality and Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2011-01-01

    Think-aloud protocols (TAPs) are frequently used in research on essay rating processes. However, there are very few empirical studies of the completeness of TAP data and the effects of this technique on rater performance (i.e., rating processes and outcomes). This study aims to start to address this research gap. As part of a larger study on rater…

  6. Study of effective dose of various protocols in equipment cone beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, M. R.; Maia, A. F. [Universidade Federale de Sergipe, Departamento de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria Prof. Jose Aloisio de Campos, Marechal Rondon s/n, Jardim Rosa Elze, 49-100000 Sao Cristovao, Sergipe (Brazil); Batista, W. O. [Instituto Federal da Bahia, Rua Emidio dos Santos s/n, Barbalho, Salvador, 40301015 Bahia (Brazil); Caldas, L. V. E.; Lara, P. A., E-mail: mrs2206@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Currently the cone beam computed tomography is widely used in various procedures of dental radiology. Although the doses values associated with the procedures of cone beam CT are low compared to typical values associated with dental radiology procedure in multi slices CT. However can be high compared to typical values of other techniques commonly used in dental radiology. The present scenario is a very wide range of designs of equipment and, consequently, lack of uniformity in all parameters associated with x-ray generation and geometry. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate and calculate the absorbed dose in organs and tissues relevant and estimate effective dose for different protocols with different geometries of exposure in five cone beam CT equipment. For this, a female Alderson anthropomorphic phantom, manufactured by Radiology Support Devices was used. The phantom was irradiated with 26 dosimeters LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100), inserted in organs and tissues along the layers forming the head and neck of the phantom. The equipment used, in this present assessment, was: i-CAT Classical, Kodak 9000 3D, Gendex GXCB 500, Sirona Orthophos X G 3D and Planmeca Pro Max 3D. The effective doses were be determined by the ICRP 103 weighting factors. The values were between 7.0 and 111.5 micro Sv, confirming the broad dose range expected due to the diversity of equipment and protocols used in each equipment. The values of effective dose per Fov size were: between 7 and 51.2 micro Sv for located Fov; between 17.6 and 52.0 micro Sv for medium Fov; and between 11.5 and 43.1 micro Sv to large Fov (maxillofacial). In obtaining the effective dose the measurements highlighted a relevance contribution of dose absorbed by the remaining organs (36%), Salivary glands (30%), thyroid (12%) and bone marrow (12%). (Author)

  7. Study of effective dose of various protocols in equipment cone beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently the cone beam computed tomography is widely used in various procedures of dental radiology. Although the doses values associated with the procedures of cone beam CT are low compared to typical values associated with dental radiology procedure in multi slices CT. However can be high compared to typical values of other techniques commonly used in dental radiology. The present scenario is a very wide range of designs of equipment and, consequently, lack of uniformity in all parameters associated with x-ray generation and geometry. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate and calculate the absorbed dose in organs and tissues relevant and estimate effective dose for different protocols with different geometries of exposure in five cone beam CT equipment. For this, a female Alderson anthropomorphic phantom, manufactured by Radiology Support Devices was used. The phantom was irradiated with 26 dosimeters LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100), inserted in organs and tissues along the layers forming the head and neck of the phantom. The equipment used, in this present assessment, was: i-CAT Classical, Kodak 9000 3D, Gendex GXCB 500, Sirona Orthophos X G 3D and Planmeca Pro Max 3D. The effective doses were be determined by the ICRP 103 weighting factors. The values were between 7.0 and 111.5 micro Sv, confirming the broad dose range expected due to the diversity of equipment and protocols used in each equipment. The values of effective dose per Fov size were: between 7 and 51.2 micro Sv for located Fov; between 17.6 and 52.0 micro Sv for medium Fov; and between 11.5 and 43.1 micro Sv to large Fov (maxillofacial). In obtaining the effective dose the measurements highlighted a relevance contribution of dose absorbed by the remaining organs (36%), Salivary glands (30%), thyroid (12%) and bone marrow (12%). (Author)

  8. A short-term inhalation study protocol: designed for testing of toxicity and fate of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma-Hock, Lan; Hofmann, Thomas; Landsiedel, Robert; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2014-01-01

    The Short-Term Inhalation Toxicity Study Design described here was specifically developed for the testing of nanoparticles. It consists of a 5-day inhalation exposure with a subsequent 3-week exposure-free period. The protocol has been optimized for the detection of toxic effects in the respiratory tract by incorporation of additional endpoints like collection of bronchoalveolar lavage and measurement of biomarkers indicative for pro-inflammatory and inflammatory changes. Analytical determination of the test compound concentrations in the lung and other organs can be included in the study design for the determination of organ burden and fate of the tested nanomaterial. Over 20 nanomaterials have been tested with this method. In case of those compounds, where data of 90-day inhalation studies were available, the qualitative effects were comparable in both study types. Likewise, the No Observed Adverse Effect Levels were similar between the two study types, showing that the short-term design is suitable for a first risk assessment. PMID:25103811

  9. Causes and consequences of cerebral small vessel disease. The RUN DMC study: a prospective cohort study. Study rationale and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Vlugt Maureen J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD is a frequent finding on CT and MRI scans of elderly people and is related to vascular risk factors and cognitive and motor impairment, ultimately leading to dementia or parkinsonism in some. In general, the relations are weak, and not all subjects with SVD become demented or get parkinsonism. This might be explained by the diversity of underlying pathology of both white matter lesions (WML and the normal appearing white matter (NAWM. Both cannot be properly appreciated with conventional MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI provides alternative information on microstructural white matter integrity. The association between SVD, its microstructural integrity, and incident dementia and parkinsonism has never been investigated. Methods/Design The RUN DMC study is a prospective cohort study on the risk factors and cognitive and motor consequences of brain changes among 503 non-demented elderly, aged between 50-85 years, with cerebral SVD. First follow up is being prepared for July 2011. Participants alive will be included and invited to the research centre to undergo a structured questionnaire on demographics and vascular risk factors, and a cognitive, and motor, assessment, followed by a MRI protocol including conventional MRI, DTI and resting state fMRI. Discussion The follow up of the RUN DMC study has the potential to further unravel the causes and possibly better predict the consequences of changes in white matter integrity in elderly with SVD by using relatively new imaging techniques. When proven, these changes might function as a surrogate endpoint for cognitive and motor function in future therapeutic trials. Our data could furthermore provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of cognitive and motor disturbances in elderly with SVD. The execution and completion of the follow up of our study might ultimately unravel the role of SVD on the microstructural integrity of the white

  10. Limiting CT radiation dose in children with craniosynostosis: phantom study using model-based iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaasalainen, Touko; Lampinen, Anniina [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Radiology, POB 340, Helsinki (Finland); University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Palmu, Kirsi [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Radiology, POB 340, Helsinki (Finland); School of Science, Aalto University, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Helsinki (Finland); Reijonen, Vappu; Kortesniemi, Mika [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Radiology, POB 340, Helsinki (Finland); Leikola, Junnu [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery, Helsinki (Finland); Kivisaari, Riku [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-09-15

    Medical professionals need to exercise particular caution when developing CT scanning protocols for children who require multiple CT studies, such as those with craniosynostosis. To evaluate the utility of ultra-low-dose CT protocols with model-based iterative reconstruction techniques for craniosynostosis imaging. We scanned two pediatric anthropomorphic phantoms with a 64-slice CT scanner using different low-dose protocols for craniosynostosis. We measured organ doses in the head region with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters. Numerical simulations served to estimate organ and effective doses. We objectively and subjectively evaluated the quality of images produced by adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) 30%, ASiR 50% and Veo (all by GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). Image noise and contrast were determined for different tissues. Mean organ dose with the newborn phantom was decreased up to 83% compared to the routine protocol when using ultra-low-dose scanning settings. Similarly, for the 5-year phantom the greatest radiation dose reduction was 88%. The numerical simulations supported the findings with MOSFET measurements. The image quality remained adequate with Veo reconstruction, even at the lowest dose level. Craniosynostosis CT with model-based iterative reconstruction could be performed with a 20-μSv effective dose, corresponding to the radiation exposure of plain skull radiography, without compromising required image quality. (orig.)

  11. Limiting CT radiation dose in children with craniosynostosis: phantom study using model-based iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical professionals need to exercise particular caution when developing CT scanning protocols for children who require multiple CT studies, such as those with craniosynostosis. To evaluate the utility of ultra-low-dose CT protocols with model-based iterative reconstruction techniques for craniosynostosis imaging. We scanned two pediatric anthropomorphic phantoms with a 64-slice CT scanner using different low-dose protocols for craniosynostosis. We measured organ doses in the head region with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters. Numerical simulations served to estimate organ and effective doses. We objectively and subjectively evaluated the quality of images produced by adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) 30%, ASiR 50% and Veo (all by GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). Image noise and contrast were determined for different tissues. Mean organ dose with the newborn phantom was decreased up to 83% compared to the routine protocol when using ultra-low-dose scanning settings. Similarly, for the 5-year phantom the greatest radiation dose reduction was 88%. The numerical simulations supported the findings with MOSFET measurements. The image quality remained adequate with Veo reconstruction, even at the lowest dose level. Craniosynostosis CT with model-based iterative reconstruction could be performed with a 20-μSv effective dose, corresponding to the radiation exposure of plain skull radiography, without compromising required image quality. (orig.)

  12. A Feasibility Randomised Controlled Trial of the New Orleans Intervention for Infant Mental Health: A Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Pritchett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Child maltreatment is associated with life-long social, physical, and mental health problems. Intervening early to provide maltreated children with safe, nurturing care can improve outcomes. The need for prompt decisions about permanent placement (i.e., regarding adoption or return home is internationally recognised. However, a recent Glasgow audit showed that many maltreated children “revolve” between birth families and foster carers. This paper describes the protocol of the first exploratory randomised controlled trial of a mental health intervention aimed at improving placement permanency decisions for maltreated children. This trial compares an infant's mental health intervention with the new enhanced service as usual for maltreated children entering care in Glasgow. As both are new services, the trial is being conducted from a position of equipoise. The outcome assessment covers various fields of a child’s neurodevelopment to identify problems in any ESSENCE domain. The feasibility, reliability, and developmental appropriateness of all outcome measures are examined. Additionally, the potential for linkage with routinely collected data on health and social care and, in the future, education is explored. The results will inform a definitive randomised controlled trial that could potentially lead to long lasting benefits for the Scottish population and which may be applicable to other areas of the world. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NC01485510.

  13. Histomorphometric assessment of bone necrosis produced by two cryosurgery protocols using liquid nitrogen: an experimental study on rat femurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Wildson Gurgel Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of liquid nitrogen cryosurgery on the femoral diaphysis of rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The femoral diaphyses of 42 Wistar rats were exposed to three local and sequential applications of liquid nitrogen for 1 or 2 min, intercalated with periods of 5 min of passive thawing. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 2, 4 and 12 weeks and the specimens obtained were processed and analyzed histomorphometrically. RESULTS: The depth and extent of peak bone necrosis were 124.509 µm and 2087.094 µm for the 1-min protocol, respectively, and 436.424 µm and 12046.426 µm for the 2-min protocol. Peak necrosis was observed in the second experimental week with both cryotherapy protocols. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that the 2-min protocol produced more marked bone necrosis than the 1-min protocol. Although our results cannot be entirely extrapolated to clinical practice, they contribute to the understanding of the behavior of bone tissue submitted to different cycles of liquid nitrogen freezing and may serve as a basis for new studies.

  14. The Impact of a Surgical Protocol for Enhanced Recovery on Living Donor Right Hepatectomy: A Single-Center Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Young Kyu; Lee, Seung Duk; Lee, Eung Chang; Park, Sang Jae

    2016-04-01

    The concept of surgery for enhanced recovery (SFER) program has never been an issue in the context of living donor right hepatectomy (LDRH), much less its effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes after the establishment of an SFER protocol for LDRH in a single center.A single-center cohort study was performed in 500 consecutive living donors who underwent right hepatectomy from January 2005 to June 2014 by analyzing the outcomes before and after an established SFER protocol that evolved with continuous refinements in surgical technique and management over 300 LDRHs, being in place on September 2011. Donor characteristics, operative outcomes, and postoperative complications divided into 2 groups (group 1, stepwise adjustment; group 2, complete adherence to the protocol) were compared.Donor characteristics were comparable in the 2 groups. Overall complication rate was 10.0% with no mortality. In group 2, operative time, hospital stay, and overall complication rate decreased significantly, and the morbidity was 1% and confined in grade I complication without reoperation, perioperative blood transfusion, or readmission. All donors in this series recovered fully and returned to the previous functional lifestyle.An SFER protocol on LDRH can be established by the gradual implementation of various refinements of surgical technique, and the recent outcomes achieved after the establishment of an SFER protocol could provide a current guidance on LDRH toward the ultimate goal of zero morbidity. PMID:27057855

  15. Development and Field-Testing of a Study Protocol, including a Web-Based Occupant Survey Tool, for Use in Intervention Studies of Indoor Environmental Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mendell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We developed and pilot-tested an overall protocol for intervention studies to evaluate the effects of indoor environmental changes in office buildings on the health symptoms and comfort of occupants. The protocol includes a web-based survey to assess the occupant's responses, as well as specific features of study design and analysis. The pilot study, carried out on two similar floors in a single building, compared two types of ventilation system filter media. With support from the building's ...

  16. Analysis of efficiency of the double- centrifugation protocol to prepare platelet rich plasma (PRP – an experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Reis MESSORA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective:The purpose of this study was to evaluatethe concentrations of platelets obtained from platelet rich plasma (PRP prepared according to the double-centrifugation protocol. Material and methods: Eight adult male rabbits (White New Zealand weighing 2.8 to 4 kg were used.After general anesthesia, 10 ml of blood were drawn from each animal via cardiac puncture. Each blood sample was centrifuged according to the protocol of Sonnleitner et al.(2000.The peripheral blood (total from each animal and the PRP samples platelets were counted manually. Data were submitted to statistical analysis.The normality of the data was confirmed and the Student’s t test was applied (p < 0.05.Results: PRP samples presented an average platele count significantly higher than that of peripheral blood.Conclusion Within the limits of this study, it was concluded that the double centrifugation protocol was adequate to prepare PRP .

  17. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Kathy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a community related public health nurses; (b school public health nurses; (c GPs and practice nurses (primary care; and (d occupational health nurses (workplace from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based - to determine the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  18. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moorhead, Anne

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups\\' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a) community related public health nurses; (b) school public health nurses; (c) GPs and practice nurses (primary care); and (d) occupational health nurses (workplace) from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods\\/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based) - to determine the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals\\' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  19. Cottonwood data collection protocol : Great Sand Dunes National Park : Elk/Bison grazing ecology study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol/SOP is from USGS to estimate percent consumption of cottonwood saplings, seedlings, and resprouts and recruitment rates of cottonwood subjected to...

  20. Formal security analysis of registration protocols for interactive systems: a methodology and a case of study

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, Jesus; Rodriguez, Francisco B

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present and formally analyze CHAT-SRP (CHAos based Tickets-Secure Registration Protocol), a protocol to provide interactive and collaborative platforms with a cryptographically robust solution to classical security issues. Namely, we focus on the secrecy and authenticity properties while keeping a high usability. Indeed, most interactive platforms currently base their security properties almost exclusively on the correct implementation and configuration of the systems. In this sense, users are forced to blindly trust the system administrators and developers. Moreover, as far as we know, there is a lack of formal methodologies for the verification of security properties for interactive applications. We propose here a methodology to fill this gap, i.e., to analyse both the security of the proposed protocol and the pertinence of the underlying premises. In this concern, we propose the definition and formal evaluation of a protocol for the distribution of digital identities. Once distributed, thes...

  1. The Study of MSADQ/CDMA Protocol in Voice/Data Integration Packet Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new packet medium access protocol, namely, minislot signalingaccess based on distributed queues(MSADQ/CDMA), is proposed in voice and data intergration CDMA networks. The MSADQ protocol is based on distributed queues and collision resolution algorithm. Through proper management of the PN codes, the number of random competition collision reduces greatly, the multiple access interference (MAI) decreases. It has several special access signaling channels to carry the voice and data access request. Each slot is devided into several control minislots (CMSs), in which the Data Terminals (DT) or Voice Terminals (VT) transmit their request. According to the voice and data traffic character, the signaling access structure is proposed. The code assign rules and queue managing rules are also proposed to ensure the QoS requirement of each traffic. Comparisions with other three protocol are developed by simulation, which shows that MSADQ/CDMA protocol occupies less PN codes, but still has very good performance.

  2. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children's health with the goal to develop treatments, drugs, and devices specific to children. Resources for a Wide Range of Audiences The Children and Clinical ... and Postcards ...

  3. Adherence to MRI protocol consensus guidelines in multiple sclerosis: an Australian multi-centre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease that causes significant morbidity within a young demographic. Diagnostic guidelines for MS have evolved, and imaging has played an increasingly important role in diagnosis over the last two decades. For imaging to contribute to diagnosis in a meaningful way, it must be reproducible. Consensus guidelines for MRI in MS exist to define correct sequence type and imaging technique, but it is not clear to what extent they are followed. This study reviewed MRI studies performed on Australian individuals presenting with a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination (FCD) for adherence to published guidelines and discussed practical implementation of MS guidelines in light of recent updates. The Ausimmune study was a prospective case control study of Australian participants presenting with FCD from 2003 to 2006. Baseline cranial and spinal cord MRI studies of 226 case participants from four separate Australian regions were reviewed. MRI sequences were classified according to anatomical location, slice plane, tissue weighting and use of gadolinium-containing contrast media. Results were compared with the 2003 Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centres MRI protocol for the diagnosis of MS. The composition of core cranial MRI sequences performed varied across the 226 scans. Of the studies, 91% included sagittal fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences. Cranial axial T2-weighted, axial FLAIR and axial proton density-weighted sequences were performed in 88%, 60% and 16% (respectively) of scans. Only 25% of the studies included a T1-weighted contrast-enhanced sequence. Concordance with the guidelines in all sequences was very low (2). Only a small number of MRI investigations performed included all of the sequences stipulated by consensus guidelines. This is likely due to poor awareness in the imaging community of the guidelines and the rationale behind certain sequences. Radiologists with a sub

  4. Why Standard Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) Training Protocols Should be Changed: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jeunet, Camille; Jahanpour, Emilie; Lotte, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Objective While promising, ElectroEncephaloGraphy based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) remain barely used due to their lack of reliability: 15% to 30% of users are unable to control a BCI. Standard training protocols may be partly responsible as they do not satisfy recommendations from psychology. Our main objective was to determine in practice to what extent standard training protocols impact users' Motor-Imagery based BCI (MI-BCI) control performance. Approach We performed two experiments...

  5. Study of Flat - Reactive On-Demand Routing Protocol (DSR & AODV): A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Atul D.Atalkar; Prof. Prashant S.Wankhede

    2014-01-01

    Mobile Ad-Hoc Network is a collection of mobile node, which communicates with each other to share information among them. Each node acts as a router itself. They are freely to move and change their position within a network and arrange themselves share all resources with each other. But to share information a routing protocol is needed. Routing protocol plays an important role in network design and provides the simplicity, decision rights to network, which will increase the perfor...

  6. Formal security analysis of registration protocols for interactive systems: a methodology and a case of study

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Jesús; Arroyo, David; Rodríguez, Francisco de Borja

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present and formally analyze CHAT-SRP (CHAos based Tickets-Secure Registration Protocol), a protocol to provide inter- active and collaborative platforms with a cryptographically robust solu- tion to classical security issues. Namely, we focus on the secrecy and au- thenticity properties while keeping a high usability. In this sense, users are forced to blindly trust the system administrators and developers. More- over, as far as we know, the use of formal me...

  7. Improving mental health care transitions for children and youth: a protocol to implement and evaluate an emergency department clinical pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbour, Mona; Reid, S.; Polihronis, C.; Cloutier, P.; GARDNER, W.; Kennedy, A.; Gray, C; Zemek, R.; Pajer, K; Barrowman, N; Cappelli, M

    2016-01-01

    Background While the emergency department (ED) is often a first point of entry for children and youth with mental health (MH) concerns, there is a limited capacity to respond to MH needs in this setting. Child MH systems are typically fragmented among multiple ministries, organizations, and providers. Communication among these groups is often poor, resulting in gaps, particularly in transitions of care, for this vulnerable population. The evidence-based Emergency Department Mental Health Clin...

  8. An evidenced based protocol on promoting positive parenting program (triple P) for pre-school children in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Yin-fung; 陳燕鳳

    2013-01-01

    Ineffective and tough parenting has been associated with physical child abuse. Parenting support would be the key component to act as a preventive measure of the problem. The evidenced based parenting intervention has proved to reduce prevalence of child abuse and children behavioural and emotional problems as well. As a result, there is a marked increased international recognition of the value of Positive Parenting Program (Triple P). Triple P is developed at University of Queensland in A...

  9. Effect of glucomannan supplementation on body weight in overweight and obese children: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zalewski, Bartłomiej Mateusz; Szajewska, Hania (gyermekgyógyász)

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Glucomannan (GNN), a water-soluble dietary fibre derived from the plant Amorphophallus konjac, is marketed for weight reduction. The exact mechanisms by which GNN might exert its actions are unclear. However, it has been shown that GNN slows gastric emptying by forming a viscous gel of large volume, which increases the feeling of satiety. Current evidence on the effectiveness of GNN for weight reduction is sparse, and well-designed trials performed in children are needed to asses...

  10. Correlates of mobile screen media use among children aged 0–8: protocol for a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Susan; Leavy, Justine; Jancey, Jonine

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood is a crucial period for shaping healthy behaviours; however, it currently appears to be dominated by screen time. A large proportion of young children do not adhere to the screen time recommendations, with the use of mobile screen devices becoming more common than fixed screens. Existing systematic reviews on correlates of screen time have focused largely on the traditional fixed screen devices such as television. Reviews specially focused on mobile screen media are almos...

  11. Children's Digital Practices: Case Studies of Children Viewing and Representing with Digital Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Daniel; Khoo, Kay Yong

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on case studies of four primary school children and their digital practices in Hong Kong. The study explored how the participating children view and represent through digital text in the context of their out-of-school technology use. Understanding how these practices extended into their English language classrooms was explicated…

  12. TRACHEOSTOMY IN CHILDREN: A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : A trachestomy is a small, surgical opening from the skin to the anterior wall of the trachea, pediatric patients for whom tracheostomy is more hazardous than adults, consideration have different anatomy, medical conditions, and prognoses than adults, even the tracheostomy tubes are different in size, the indications for tracheostomy in children include, bypassing airway obstruction (Laryngo- tracheobronchitis, epiglottitis, providing access for prolong ventilation, and facilitating tracheo-bronchial toilet, to day prime indication for pediatrics tracheostomy is subglottic stenosis. We have reviewed experience with 84 tracheostomies under 13 years of age in our hospital. We are here discussing the common indications and complications, difficulty in decannulation in pediatric patients, in our study the common indication is the foreign body bronchus followed by other conditions.

  13. Acupuncture Antiarrhythmic Effects on Drug Refractory Persistent Atrial Fibrillation: Study Protocol for a Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimin Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common form of arrhythmia. Several trials have suggested that acupuncture may prevent AF. However, the efficacy of acupuncture for AF prevention has not been well investigated. Therefore, we designed a prospective, two-parallel-armed, participant and assessor blinded, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial to investigate acupuncture in persistent AF (ACU-AF. Methods. A total of 80 participants will be randomly assigned to active acupuncture or sham acupuncture groups in a 1 : 1 ratio. Both groups will take the same antiarrhythmic medication during the study period. Patients will receive 10 sessions of acupuncture treatment once a week for 10 weeks. The primary endpoint is AF recurrence rate. Secondary endpoints are left atrium (LA and left atrial appendage (LAA changes in function and volume, and inflammatory biomarker changes. Ethics. This study protocol was approved by the institutional review boards (IRBs of Kyung Hee University Hospital (number 1335-04. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT02110537.

  14. Early signaling, referral, and treatment of adolescent chronic pain: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voerman Jessica S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pain is prevalent among young people and negatively influences their quality of life. Furthermore, chronic pain in adolescence may persist into adulthood. Therefore, it is important early on to promote the self-management skills of adolescents with chronic pain by improving signaling, referral, and treatment of these youngsters. In this study protocol we describe the designs of two complementary studies: a signaling study and an intervention study. Methods and design The signaling study evaluates the Pain Barometer, a self-assessed signaling instrument for chronic pain in adolescents. To evaluate the feasibility of the Pain Barometer, the experiences of youth-health care nurses will be evaluated in semi-structured interviews. Also, we will explore the frequencies of referral per health-care provider. The intervention study evaluates Move It Now, a guided self-help intervention via the Internet for teenagers with chronic pain. This intervention uses cognitive behavioural techniques, including relaxation exercises and positive thinking. The objective of the intervention is to improve the ability of adolescents to cope with pain. The efficacy of Move It Now will be examined in a randomized controlled trial, in which 60 adolescents will be randomly assigned to an experimental condition or a waiting list control condition. Discussion If the Pain Barometer is proven to be feasible and Move It Now appears to be efficacious, a health care pathway can be created to provide the best tailored treatment promptly to adolescents with chronic pain. Move It Now can be easily implemented throughout the Netherlands, as the intervention is Internet based. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1926

  15. A protocol for isolating insect mitochondrial genomes: a case study of NUMT in Melipona flavolineata (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Françoso, Elaine; Gomes, Fernando; Arias, Maria Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear mitochondrial DNA insertions (NUMTs) are mitochondrial DNA sequences that have been transferred into the nucleus and are recognized by the presence of indels and stop codons. Although NUMTs have been identified in a diverse range of species, their discovery was frequently accidental. Here, our initial goal was to develop and standardize a simple method for isolating NUMTs from the nuclear genome of a single bee. Subsequently, we tested our new protocol by determining whether the indels and stop codons of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequence of Melipona flavolineata are of nuclear origin. The new protocol successfully demonstrated the presence of a COI NUMT. In addition to NUMT investigations, the protocol described here will also be very useful for studying mitochondrial mutations related to diseases and for sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes with high read coverage by Next-Generation technology. PMID:26061343

  16. Wean Earlier and Automatically with New technology (the WEAN study: a protocol of a multicentre, pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessard Martin R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weaning is the process during which mechanical ventilation is withdrawn and the work of breathing is transferred from the ventilator back to the patient. Prolonged weaning is associated with development of ventilator-related complications and longer stays in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Computerized or Automated Weaning is a novel weaning strategy that continuously measures and adapts ventilator support (by frequently measuring and averaging three breathing parameters and automatically conducts Spontaneous Breathing Trials to ascertain whether patients can resume autonomous breathing. Automated Weaning holds promise as a strategy to reduce the time spent on the ventilator, decrease ICU length of stay, and improve clinically important outcomes. Methods/Design A pilot weaning randomized controlled trial (RCT is underway in the ICUs of 8 Canadian hospitals. We will randomize 90 critically ill adults requiring invasive ventilation for at least 24 hours and identified at an early stage of the weaning process to either Automated Weaning (SmartCare™ or Protocolized Weaning. The results of a National Weaning Survey informed the design of the Protocolized Weaning arm. Both weaning protocols are operationalized in Pressure Support mode, include opportunities for Spontaneous Breathing Trials, and share a common sedation protocol, oxygen titration parameters, and extubation and reintubation criteria. The primary outcome of the WEAN study is to evaluate compliance with the proposed weaning and sedation protocols. A key secondary outcome of the pilot RCT is to evaluate clinician acceptance of the weaning and sedation protocols. Prior to initiating the WEAN Study, we conducted a run-in phase, involving two patients per centre (randomizing the first participant to either weaning strategy and assigning the second patient to the alternate strategy to ensure that participating centres could implement the weaning and sedation protocols and

  17. Evaluation of an oral preventive protocol in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia Avaliação de um protocolo preventivo oral em crianças com leucemia linfoblástica aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edja Maria Melo de Brito Costa

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a preventive oral protocol in children receiving antineoplastic treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL before initiating a larger intervention study. During a seven month period, fourteen children from two to ten years old with a diagnosis of ALL were evaluated. Patients with ALL who received a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouth rinse (seven children were compared to a control group of patients who were not given the same preventive treatment (seven children as to the occurrence of oral mucosal complications. Children in both groups received daily oral hygiene care, and were examined daily by the pediatric dentistry team until discharge. A significant decrease in the incidence of oral mucositis and ulceration was observed in the children who received a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouth rinse (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a eficácia de um protocolo oral preventivo em crianças com leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA, submetidas ao tratamento antineoplásico, antes de iniciar um estudo mais abrangente. Durante um período de sete meses, foram avaliadas, consecutivamente, quatorze crianças com LLA, de dois a dez anos de idade. As crianças com LLA que fizeram bochechos com a solução de clorexidina 0,12% (sete crianças foram comparadas com aquelas do grupo controle (sete crianças no que diz respeito ao surgimento de lesões orais. Todas as crianças do estudo receberam diariamente orientação de higiene oral e foram igualmente examinadas pelo odontopediatra. Observou-se uma diminuição significativa na incidência de mucosite e ulceração oral nas crianças que fizeram bochecho profilático com clorexidina 0,12% (p < 0,05, teste exato de Fisher. Os achados obtidos no presente estudo são satisfatórios, e sugerem que uma aplicação sistemática de um protocolo preventivo reduza a incidência de complicações orais em crianças com LLA submetidas à quimioterapia.

  18. Security Protocols in a Nutshell

    OpenAIRE

    Toorani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Security protocols are building blocks in secure communications. They deploy some security mechanisms to provide certain security services. Security protocols are considered abstract when analyzed, but they can have extra vulnerabilities when implemented. This manuscript provides a holistic study on security protocols. It reviews foundations of security protocols, taxonomy of attacks on security protocols and their implementations, and different methods and models for security analysis of pro...

  19. Optimal Scanning Protocols for Dual-Energy CT Angiography in Peripheral Arterial Stents: An in Vitro Phantom Study

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    Abdulrahman Almutairi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the optimal dual-energy computed tomography (DECT scanning protocol for peripheral arterial stents while achieving a low radiation dose, while still maintaining diagnostic image quality, as determined by an in vitro phantom study. Methods: Dual-energy scans in monochromatic spectral imaging mode were performed on a peripheral arterial phantom with use of three gemstone spectral imaging (GSI protocols, three pitch values, and four kiloelectron volts (keV ranges. A total of 15 stents of different sizes, materials, and designs were deployed in the phantom. Image noise, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR, and the four levels of monochromatic energy for DECT imaging of peripheral arterial stents were measured and compared to determine the optimal protocols. Results: A total of 36 scans with 180 datasets were reconstructed from a combination of different protocols. There was a significant reduction of image noise with a higher SNR from monochromatic energy images between 65 and 70 keV in all investigated preset GSI protocols (p < 0.05. In addition, significant effects were found from the main effect analysis for these factors: GSI, pitch, and keV (p = 0.001. In contrast, there was significant interaction on the unstented area between GSI and ASIR (p = 0.015 and a very high significant difference between keV and ASIR (p < 0.001. A radiation dose reduction of 50% was achieved. Conclusions: The optimal scanning protocol and energy level in the phantom study were GSI-48, pitch value 0.984, and 65 keV, which resulted in lower image noise and a lower radiation dose, but with acceptable diagnostic images.

  20. Acute symptoms related to air pollution in urban areas: a study protocol

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    Forouzanfar Mohammad

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The harmful effects of urban air pollution on general population in terms of annoying symptoms are not adequately evaluated. This is in contrast to the hospital admissions and short term mortality. The present study protocol is designed to assess the association between the level of exposure to certain ambient air pollutants and a wide range of relevant symptoms. Awareness of the impact of pollution on the population at large will make our estimates of the pertinent covert burden imposed on the society more accurate. Methods/design A cross sectional study with spatial analysis for the addresses of the participants was conducted. Data were collected via telephone interviews administered to a representative sample of civilians over age four in the city. Households were selected using random digit dialling procedures and randomization within each household was also performed to select the person to be interviewed. Levels of exposure are quantified by extrapolating the addresses of the study population over the air pollution matrix of the city at the time of the interview and also for different lag times. This information system uses the data from multiple air pollution monitoring stations in conjunction with meteorological data. General linear models are applied for statistical analysis. Discussion The important limitations of cross-sectional studies on acute effects of air pollution are personal confounders and measurement error for exposure. A wide range of confounders in this study are controlled for in the statistical analysis. Exposure error may be minimised by employing a validated geographical information system that provides accurate estimates and getting detailed information on locations of individual participants during the day. The widespread operation of open air conditioning systems in the target urban area which brings about excellent mixing of the outdoor and indoor air increases the validity of outdoor pollutants

  1. Effects of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases on left ventricular structure and function: a study protocol

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    Botti Fiorenzo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental evidences suggest an increased collagen deposition in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. In particular, large amounts of collagen type I, III and V have been described and correlated to the development of intestinal fibrotic lesions. No information has been available until now about the possible increased collagen deposition far from the main target organ. In the hypothesis that chronic inflammation and increased collagen metabolism are reflected also in the systemic circulation, we aimed this study to evaluate the effects on left ventricular wall structure by assessing splancnic and systemic collagen metabolism (procollagen III assay, deposition (ultrasonic tissue characterization, and cardiac function (echocardiography in patients with different long standing history of IBD, before and after surgery. Methods Thirty patients affected by active IBD, 15 with Crohn and 15 with Ulcerative Colitis, submitted to surgery will be enrolled in the study in a double blind fashion. They will be studied before the surgical operation and 6, 12 months after surgery. A control group of 15 healthy age and gender-matched subjects will also be studied. At each interval blood samples will be collected in order to assess the collagen metabolism; a transthoracic echocardiogram will be recorded for the subsequent determination of cardiac function and collagen deposition. Discussion From this study protocol we expect additional information about the association between IBD and cardiovascular disorders; in particular to address the question if chronic inflammation, through the altered collagen metabolism, could affect left ventricular structure and function in a manner directly related to the estimated duration of the disease.

  2. Vitamin D and tuberculosis: a multicenter study in children

    OpenAIRE

    Venturini, Elisabetta; Facchini, Ludovica; Martinez-Alier, Nuria; Novelli, Vas; Galli, Luisa; Martino, Maurizio; Chiappini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to evaluate vitamin D levels in children with latent and active TB compared to healthy controls of the same age and ethnical background. Methods A multicenter observational study has been conducted in three tertiary care paediatric centres: Anna Meyer Children's University Hospital, Florence, Italy; Evelina London Children's Hospital, London, United Kingdom and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, United Kingdom. Vitamin D was considered deficient if the s...

  3. Gait maturation in children with cerebral palsy: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    J.S. Marques; P. Roquetti Fernandes; J. Fernandes Filho; F. B. Policarpo

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at observing children with cerebral palsy's (CP) gait maturation and to correlate gait maturation's motor skill parameters. Podogram and video shooting of eight children's gait were used. Children up to seven years of age participated in the study. Cluster analysis was applied, dividing the sample into two groups, using the relation between pelvis’ width and the spreading of the ankles (REL) as parameters. Data were analyzed using t-test, analysis of Deltas, and Pearson’s cor...

  4. Which dressing do donor site wounds need?: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Ubbink Dirk T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Donor site wounds after split-skin grafting are rather 'standard' wounds. At present, lots of dressings and topical agents for donor site wounds are commercially available. This causes large variation in the local care of these wounds, while the optimum 'standard' dressing for local wound care is unclear. This protocol describes a trial in which we investigate the effectiveness of various treatment options for these donor site wounds. Methods A 14-center, six-armed randomized clinical trial is being carried out in the Netherlands. An a-priori power analysis and an anticipated dropout rate of 15% indicates that 50 patients per group are necessary, totaling 300 patients, to be able to detect a 25% quicker mean time to complete wound healing. Randomization has been computerized to ensure allocation concealment. Adult patients who need a split-skin grafting operation for any reason, leaving a donor site wound of at least 10 cm2 are included and receive one of the following dressings: hydrocolloid, alginate, film, hydrofiber, silicone dressing, or paraffin gauze. No combinations of products from other intervention groups in this trial are allowed. Optimum application and changes of these dressings are pursued according to the protocol as supplied by the dressing manufacturers. Primary outcomes are days to complete wound healing and pain (using a Visual Analogue Scale. Secondary outcomes are adverse effects, scarring, patient satisfaction, and costs. Outcome assessors unaware of the treatment allocation will assess whether or not an outcome has occurred. Results will be analyzed according to the intention to treat principle. The first patient was randomized October 1, 2009. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the effectiveness of different treatment options for donor site wounds. The dressing(s that will prevail in effectiveness, satisfaction and costs will be promoted among clinicians dealing with such

  5. Acupuncture, Counseling, and Usual care for Depression (ACUDep: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    MacPherson Hugh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence on the effect of acupuncture or counseling for depression is not conclusive yet is sufficient to warrant further research. Our aim is to conduct a full-scale RCT to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of acupuncture and counseling compared to usual care alone. We will explore the experiences and perspectives of patients and practitioners. Methods/Design Randomized controlled trial with three parallel arms: acupuncture plus usual care, counseling plus usual care, and usual care alone, in conjunction with a nested qualitative study using in-depth interviews with purposive samples of trial participants. Participants: Patients aged over 18 years diagnosed with depression or mood disorder by their GP and with a score of 20 or above on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. Randomization: Computer randomization by York Trials Unit to acupuncture, counseling, and usual care alone in proportions of 2:2:1, respectively, with secure allocation concealment. Interventions: Patients allocated to acupuncture and counseling groups receive the offer of up to 12 weekly sessions. Both interventions allow flexibility to address patient variation, yet are constrained within defined protocols. Acupuncture is based on traditional Chinese medicine and counseling is non-directive within the humanistic tradition. Outcome: The PHQ-9 is the primary outcome measure, collected at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Also measured is BDI-II, SF-36 Bodily pain subscale, and EQ-5D. Texted mood scores are collected weekly over the first 15 weeks. Health-related resource use is collected over 12 months. Analysis: The sample size target was for 640 participants, calculated for an effect size of 0.32 on the PHQ-9 when comparing acupuncture with counseling given 90% power, 5% significance, and 20% loss to follow-up. Analysis of covariance will be used on an intention-to-treat basis. Thematic analysis will be used for qualitative data. We will

  6. Exploring the Effect of Video Used to Enhance the Retrospective Verbal Protocol Analysis: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how the use of video in the cognitive task analysis (CTA) retrospective verbal protocol analysis (RVPA) during a job analysis affects: (a) the quality of performing the CTA, (b) the time to complete the CTA, and (c) the cost to execute the CTA. Research has shown when using the simultaneous VPA during a CTA…

  7. The effect of using an interactive booklet on childhood respiratory tract infections in consultations: Study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial in primary care

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    Nuttall Jacqueline

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory tract infections in children result in more primary care consultations than any other acute condition, and are the most common reason for prescribing antibiotics (which are largely unnecessary. About a fifth of children consult again for the same illness episode. Providing parents with written information on respiratory tract infections may result in a reduction in re-consultation rates and antibiotic prescribing for these illnesses. Asking clinicians to provide and discuss the information during the consultation may enhance effectiveness. This paper outlines the protocol for a study designed to evaluate the use of a booklet on respiratory tract infections in children within primary care consultations. Methods/Design This will be a cluster randomised controlled trial. General practices will be randomised to provide parents consulting because their child has an acute respiratory tract infection with either an interactive booklet, or usual care. The booklet provides information on the expected duration of their child's illness, the likely benefits of various treatment options, signs and symptoms that should prompt re-consultation, and symptomatic treatment advice. It has been designed for use within the consultation and aims to enhance communication through the use of specific prompts. Clinicians randomised to using the interactive booklet will receive online training in its use. Outcomes will be assessed via a telephone interview with the parent two weeks after first consulting. The primary outcome will be the proportion of children who re-consult for the same illness episode. Secondary outcomes include: antibiotic use, parental satisfaction and enablement, and illness costs. Consultation rates for respiratory tract infections for the subsequent year will be assessed by a review of practice notes. Discussion Previous studies in adults and children have shown that educational interventions can result in reductions

  8. STUDY OF OVARIAN LESIONS IN CHILDREN

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    Nagarjuna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : AIM: To study ovarian lesions in paediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cases of ovarian lesions presenting to Niloufer Hospital during the study period spanning 7 years were included in the study. All cases were clinically examined and evaluated with serum markers like α-fetoprotein and β-HCG, ultrasonography of abdomen and pelvis and contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen and pelvis. The cases were managed either conservatively or surgically depending on the diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 36 cases of ovarian lesions presented to Niloufer Hospital during the study period. The age of the patients ranged from newborn to 14 years. The most common presenting symptom was an abdominal or pelvic mass. The most common ultrasound character of the non-neoplastic ovarian lesion was cystic whereas that of a neoplastic ovarian lesion was complex or mixed. Non neoplastic lesions were present in 22 patients. Neoplastic lesions were seen in 14 patients. CONCLUSION: Physiological or functional ovarian cysts are the commonest ovarian lesions seen in the paediatric age group. Ultrasonogram is accurate and very reliable in distinguishing neoplastic from non-neoplastic and malignant from benign ovarian lesions. Non-neoplastic lesions can be managed conservatively in about 40% of cases. Neoplastic lesions in children require a less radical approach in order to preserve ovarian function.

  9. Desorption isotherms of cementitious materials: study of an accelerated protocol and estimation of RVE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of French radioactive waste management and storage, the durability evaluation and prediction of concrete structures requires the knowledge of desorption isotherm of concrete. The aim of the present study is to develop an accelerated experimental method to obtain desorption isotherm of cementitious materials more quickly and to estimate the Representative Volume Element (RVE) size related to the desorption isotherm of concrete. In order to ensure that experimental results can be statistically considered representative, a great amount of sliced samples of cementitious materials with three different thicknesses (1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm) have been de-saturated. The effect of slice thickness and the saturation condition on the mass variation kinetics and the desorption isotherms is analyzed. The influence of the aggregate distribution on the water content and the water saturation degree is also analyzed. A method based on statistical analysis of water content and water saturation degree is proposed to estimate the RVE for water desorption experiment of concrete. The evolution of shrinkage with relative humidity is also followed for each material during the water desorption experiment. A protocol of cycle of rapid desaturation-re-saturation is applied and shows the existence of hysteresis between desorption and adsorption. (author)

  10. Scoping the impact of the national child measurement programme feedback on the child obesity pathway: study protocol.

    OpenAIRE

    Falconer Catherine; Park MinHae; Skow Áine; Black James; Sovio Ulla; Saxena Sonia; Kessel Anthony; Croker Helen; Morris Steve; Viner Russell; Kinra Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The National Child Measurement Programme was established to measure the height and weight of children at primary school in England and provides parents with feedback about their child’s weight status. In this study we will evaluate the impact of the National Child Measurement Programme feedback on parental risk perceptions of overweight, lifestyle behaviour and health service use. Methods The study will be a prospective cohort study of parents of children enrolled in the N...

  11. Implementing mentor mothers in family practice to support abused mothers: Study protocol

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    Laurant Miranda GH

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence is highly prevalent and mostly affects women with negative consequences for their physical and mental health. Children often witness the violence which has negative consequences for their well-being too. Care offered by family physicians is often rejected because abused women experience a too high threshold. Mentor mother support, a low threshold intervention for abused mothers in family practice, proved to be feasible and effective in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The primary aim of this study is to investigate which factors facilitate or hinder the implementation of mentor mother support in family practice. Besides we evaluate the effect of mentor mother support in a different region. Methods/Design An observational study with pre- and posttests will be performed. Mothers with home living children or pregnant women who are victims of intimate partner violence will be offered mentor mother support by the participating family physicians. The implementation process evaluation consists of focus groups, interviews and questionnaires. In the effect evaluation intimate partner violence, the general health of the abused mother, the mother-child relationship, social support, and acceptance of professional help will be measured twice (t = 0 and t = 6 months by questionnaires, reporting forms, medical records and interviews with the abused mothers. Qualitative coding will be used to analyze the data from the reporting forms, medical records, focus groups, interviews, and questionnaires. Quantitative data will be analyzed with descriptive statistics, chi square test and t-test matched pairs. Discussion While other intervention studies only evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the intervention, our primary aim is to evaluate the implementation process and thereby investigate which factors facilitate or hinder implementation of mentor mother support in family practice.

  12. Impact of the implementation of electronic guidelines for cardiovascular prevention in primary care: study protocol

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    Eva Comin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The electronic medical records software of the Catalan Institute of Health has recently incorporated an electronic version of clinical practice guidelines (e-CPGs. This study aims to assess the impact of the implementation of e-CPGs on the diagnosis, treatment, control and management of hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus type 2 and hypertension.Methods Eligible study participants are those aged 35–74 years assigned to family practitioners (FPs of the Catalan Institute of Health. Routinely collected data from electronic primary care registries covering 80% of the Catalan population will be analysed using two approaches: (1 a cross-sectional study to describe the characteristics of the sample before e-CPG implementation; (2 a controlled before-and-after study with 1-year follow-up to ascertain the effect of e-CPG implementation. Patients of FPs who regularly use the e-CPGs will constitute the intervention group; the control group will comprise patients assigned to FPs not regularly using the e-CPG. The outcomes are: (1 suspected and confirmed diagnoses, (2 control of clinical variables, (3 requests for tests and (4 proportions of patients with adequate drug prescriptions.Results This protocol should represent a reproducible process to assess the impact of the implementation of e-CPGs. We anticipate reporting results in late 2013.Conclusion This project will assess the effectiveness of e-CPGs to improve clinical decisions and healthcare procedures in the three disorders analysed. The results will shed light on the use of evidence-based medicine to improve clinical practice of FPs.

  13. A Pilot Study Involving the Effect of Two Different Complex Training Protocols on Lower Body Power

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    Smith Chad E.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Complex training (CT involves the coupling of two exercises ostensibly to enhance the effect of the second exercise. Typically, the first exercise is a strength exercise and the second exercise is a power exercise involving similar muscles. In most cases, CT is designed to enhance power. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, this study was designed to determine if lower body power could be enhanced using complex training protocols. Second, this study investigated whether the inclusion of a power exercise instead of a strength exercise as the first exercise in CT would produce differences in lower body power. Methods. Thirty-six recreationally-trained men and women aged 20 to 29 years attending a college physical education course were randomly assigned to one of three groups: squat and countermovement squat jumps (SSJ, kettlebell swings and countermovement squat jumps (KSJ, and a control (CON. Training involving CT lasted 6 weeks. All participants were pre- and posttested for vertical jump performance in order to assess lower body power. Results. Vertical jump scores improved for all groups (p < 0.01. The results also indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between group scores across time (p = 0.215. The statistical power for this analysis was low (0.312, most likely due to the small sample size. However, the results did reveal a trend suggesting that the training improvements were greater for both the SSJ and KSJ groups compared with the CON (by 171% and 107%, respectively although significance was not reached. Conclusions. Due to the observed trend, a replication of this study with a greater number of participants over a longer period of time is warranted.

  14. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Salut Programme: a universal health promotion intervention for parents and children—protocol of a register-based retrospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Inna; Eurenius, Eva; Häggström, Jenny; Sampaio, Filipa; Lindkvist, Marie; Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria; Ivarsson, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is inadequate evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health promotion interventions. The Salut Programme aims to reach all parents and children in the Västerbotten County of Sweden with a combination of health promotion interventions initiated during pregnancy and continued over the childhood period. This study protocol describes an effectiveness study and an economic evaluation study, where the ongoing Salut Programme is compared to care-as-usual over the periods of pregnancy, delivery and the child's first 2 years of life. Methods A register-based retrospective observational study design will be used with existing data sources with respect to exposures and outcomes. Outcomes of interest are clustered at 3 points: around the child's birth, 1 month after the child's birth and 2 years after the child's birth. We will simulate an experiment by retrospectively identifying and comparing children and their parents in the geographical areas where the Salut Programme was implemented since 2006 and onwards, and the areas where the Programme was not implemented before 2009. Outcomes will be analysed and compared for the premeasure period, and the postmeasure period for both groups. Our analysis combines difference-in-difference estimation with matching. A complementary analysis will be carried out on the longitudinal subsample of mothers who gave birth at least once during each of the time periods. The economic evaluation aims to capture the wider societal costs and benefits of the Salut Programme for the first 2 years of the children's lives. Incremental costs will be compared with incremental health gains and the results will be presented as a cost-consequence analysis. Ethics and dissemination The Regional Ethical Review Board in Umeå has given clearance for the Salut Programme research (2010-63-31M). No individual's identity will be revealed when presenting results. This study will provide information that can guide

  15. Intraocular Pressure and Associations in Children. The Gobi Desert Children Eye Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Da Yong; Guo, Kai; Wang, Yan; Guo, Yuan Yuan; Yang, Xian Rong; Jing, Xin Xia; Guo, Hai Ke; Tao, Yong; Zhu, Dan; Jonas, Jost B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the intraocular pressure (IOP) and its association in children in a population living in an oasis in the Gobi Desert. Methods The cross-sectional school-based study included all schools in the Ejina region. The children underwent an ophthalmic examination, non-contact tonometry and measurement of blood pressure and body height and weight. Results Out of eligible 1911 children, 1565 (81.9%) children with a mean age of 11.9±3.5 years (range: 6–21 years) participated. Mean sphe...

  16. [A study of VMMC protocol (vindesine, mitoxantrone, mitomycin C) as a salvage chemotherapy in advanced breast cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degardin, M; Hecquet, B; Bonneterre, J; Adenis, A; Pion, J M; Demaille, A

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and three patients previously treated with chemotherapy including an anthracycline were entered in a VMMC protocol study: vindesine (Eldisine), mitoxantrone (Novantrone) and mitomycin C (Ametycine). Group A consisted of 41 women who received the protocol published by Belpomme: vindesine (2.5 mg/m2 day 1 and 8) and mitoxantrone (12 mg/m2/day) every 4 weeks, and mitomycin C (8 mg/m2) every 8 weeks. Group B consisted of 62 patients who were treated with a modified protocol: vindesine (2.5 mg/m2) and mitoxantrone (12 mg/m2) every 3 weeks on day 1, and mitomycin C (8 mg/m2) every 6 weeks. Tolerance was acceptable with 79% of patients complaining of weakness. There was a 66% incidence of gastro-intestinal toxicity, a 10.7%-incidence of neurotoxicity (reversible dysethesias), and a 5.8% incidence of cardiotoxicity. There was considerable hematotoxicity of grade 2, 3 and 4: neutropenia 16.6%, thrombocytopenia 7.7%, anemia 21.4%. There was a 19.2% overall objective response rate (CR and PR) (95% confidence interval: 12-30) (CR: 3.2%). The median duration of the response was 39 weeks. There was no significant difference in response rates whether or not the patients (19 cases) were undergoing simultaneous hormonal therapy and no difference according to the protocol used. Similarly, neither menopause nor a previous response to anthracyclines had any effect on the response rate. The 19.2% response in this protocol is similar to other breast cancer salvage chemotherapy protocols for patients who have failed to respond to anthracyclines (< 20%). PMID:1392155

  17. Photoanthropometric Study of Dysmorphic Features of the Face in Children with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

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    Katarzyna Ziora

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Childhood autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interactions, verbal and non-verbal communication and by a pattern of stereotypical behaviors and interests. The aim of this study was to estimate the dysmorphic facial features of children with autism and children with Asperger syndrome . Methods: The examination was conducted on 60 children (30 with childhood autism and 30 with Asperger syndrome. The photo anthropometric method used in this study followed the protocol established by Stengel-Rutkowski et al . Results: The performed statistical analysis showed that in patients with childhood autism, the anteriorly rotated ears and the long back of the nose appeared more often. In the group of children with autism, there was a connection between the amount of dysmorphies and the presence of some somatic diseases in the first-degree relatives. There was also a connection between the motor coordination and the age the child began to walk. Discussion: In patients with childhood autism, there were certain dysmorphies (like the anterior rotated ears and the long back of the nose which appeared more often. Although the connection was not statistically significant, it seemed to concur with data from the literature . Conclusion: Formulation of the other conclusions would require broader studies e.g. dealing with a familial analysis of dysmorphic features.

  18. FAO/IAEA/IUR protocol for experimental studies on the uptake of radionuclides from soils by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this protocol is to ensure that studies on the soil to plant transfer of radionuclides provide reliable data, which are suitable for radiological dose assessment calculations. The protocol should be used in combination with ISO Standard 17025 and good laboratory practice. Earlier versions of the protocol were developed by working groups of IUR and ESNA, and a more recent version was developed and used in the FAO/IAEA/IUR coordinated research project 'Transfer of Radionuclides from Air, Soil and Fresh Water to the Food Chain of Man in Tropical and Subtropical Environments'. These studies were focussed on equilibrium transfer parameters. They provided the data for the IUR databank. The protocol should be reviewed and incorporate necessary requirements to meet specific research objectives and to comply with radiation safety considerations. The use of radionuclides for research (i.e. treatment of soil in field lysimeters or pots, soil sampling and analysis) adds a radiation exposure above that normally incurred from background radiation or increase the likelihood of exposure. Thus the principles of radiation protection and safety apply as defined in the IAEA Basic Safety Standards 115. These include: justification, dose limitation and ALARA. Safety requirements are documented in the study plan, including dose control and waste management. These should be commensurate with the use and shall conform to any requirement specified by the relevant national regulatory authority

  19. NeOProM: Neonatal Oxygenation Prospective Meta-analysis Collaboration study protocol

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    Schmidt Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The appropriate level of oxygenation for extremely preterm neonates (90% have been reported to have greater rates of morbidity including retinopathy of prematurity and chronic lung disease. In order to answer this clinical dilemma reliably, large scale trial evidence is needed. Methods/Design To detect a small but important 4% increase in death or severe disability in survivors, over 5000 neonates would need to be recruited. As extreme prematurity affects 1% of births, such a project undertaken by one trial group would be prohibitively lengthy and expensive. Hence, the Neonatal Oxygenation Prospective Meta-analysis (NeOProM Collaboration has been formed. A prospective meta-analysis (PMA is one where studies are identified, evaluated, and determined to be eligible before the results of any included studies are known or published, thereby avoiding some of the potential biases inherent in standard, retrospective meta-analyses. This methodology provides the same strengths as a single large-scale multicentre randomised study whilst allowing greater pragmatic flexibility. The NeOProM Collaboration protocol (NCT01124331 has been agreed prior to the results of individual trials being available. This includes pre-specifying the hypotheses, inclusion criteria and outcome measures to be used. Each trial will first publish their respective results as they become available and the combined meta-analytic results, using individual patient data, will be published when all trials are complete. The primary outcome to be assessed is a composite outcome of death or major disability at 18 months - 2 years corrected age. Secondary outcomes include several measures of neonatal morbidity. The size of the combined dataset will allow the effect of the interventions to be explored more reliably with respect to pre-specified patient- and intervention-level characteristics. Discussion Results should be available by 2014.

  20. Born in Bradford, a cohort study of babies born in Bradford, and their parents: Protocol for the recruitment phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynor Pauline

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bradford, one of the most deprived cities in the United Kingdom, has a wide range of public health problems associated with socioeconomic deprivation, including an infant mortality rate almost double that for England and Wales. Infant mortality is highest for babies of Pakistani origin, who comprise almost half the babies born in Bradford. The Born in Bradford cohort study aims to examine environmental, psychological and genetic factors that impact on health and development perinatally, during childhood and subsequent adult life, and those that influence their parents' health and wellbeing. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. Methods Most Bradford women attend for antenatal care and give birth at the Bradford Royal Infirmary, which has approximately 5,800 births per year. Women are eligible for recruitment if they plan to give birth here. Babies born from March 2007 are eligible to participate, recruitment is planned to continue until 2010. Fathers of babies recruited are invited to participate. Women are usually recruited when they attend for a routine oral glucose tolerance test at 26–28 weeks gestation. Recruitment of babies is at birth. Fathers are recruited whenever possible during the antenatal period, or soon after the birth. The aim is to recruit 10,000 women, their babies, and the babies' fathers. At recruitment women have blood samples taken, are interviewed to complete a semi-structured questionnaire, weighed, and have height, arm circumference and triceps skinfold measured. Umbilical cord blood is collected at birth. Within two weeks of birth babies have their head, arm and abdominal circumference measured, along with subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness. Fathers self-complete a questionnaire at recruitment, have height and weight measured, and provide a saliva sample. Participants are allocated a unique study number. NHS numbers will be used to facilitate record linkage

  1. Children's Questions: A Study of Questions Children Ask While Learning to Use a Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Donna Gail; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study conducted at a Texas elementary school which examined the types of questions second-grade children ask as they are taught to use microcomputers. A classification of questions into eight categories indicates children asked most about keyboard, data entry, and meaning of program instructions. (MBR)

  2. Occupational Therapy and Sensory Integration for Children with Autism: A Feasibility, Safety, Acceptability and Fidelity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Roseann C.; Benevides, Teal W.; Kelly, Donna; Mailloux-Maggio, Zoe

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the feasibility, safety, and acceptability of a manualized protocol of occupational therapy using sensory integration principles for children with autism. Methods: Ten children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder ages 4-8 years received intensive occupational therapy intervention using sensory integration principles…

  3. Children's advertising exposure and materialistic orientations: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opree, S.J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Buijzen, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    As many as nine out of 10 parents worry that children's frequent exposure to advertising makes them materialistic. In this study we not only aim to investigate if children's advertising exposure indeed affects their materialism, but also how it affects their materialism (i.e., by studying the mediat

  4. Forces exerted by jumping children: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, C.C.M.; Bakker, H.E.

    1998-01-01

    This article reports on a pilot study of the loads exerted vertically by children when jumping. The subjects of the study were 17 children, aged from two to twelve years. Measurements were made using video recordings and a force-plate. The influence of the stiffness of the base and of jumping with a

  5. Comparative Study of AODV and DSR Routing Protocols for MANET: Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Goyal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An ad hoc network is an assortment of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a transitory network lacking the use of any presented network communications or centralized management. A number of routing protocols like Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Ad Hoc on-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV and Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA have been projected. In this work an attempt has been ended to evaluate the performance of two outstanding on demand reactive routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks: DSR and AODV. Although DSR and AODV share comparable on-demand behavior, the differences in the protocol mechanics can lead to significant performance differentials. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying time, packet delivery ratio, throughput and end-to-end delay. These simulations are carried out using the ns-2 network simulator, which is used to run ad hoc simulations.

  6. Sydney epilepsy incidence study to measure illness consequences: the SESIMIC observational epilepsy study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epilepsy affects an estimated 50 million people and accounts for approximately 1% of days lost to ill health globally, making it one of the most common, serious neurological disorders. While there are abundant global data on epilepsy incidence, prevalence and treatment, there is a paucity of Australian incidence data. There is also a general lack of information on the psychosocial impact and socioeconomic consequences of a new diagnosis of epilepsy on an individual, their family, household, and community which are often specific to the health and social system of each country. Methods/Design The Sydney Epilepsy Incidence Study to Measure Illness Consequences (SEISMIC is an Australian population-based epilepsy incidence and outcome study that will recruit every newly diagnosed case of epilepsy in the Sydney South West Area Health Service to an epilepsy register. Multiple and overlapping sources of notification will be used to identify all new cases of epilepsy over a 24 month period in the Eastern Zone of the Sydney South West Area Health Service (SSWAHS and follow up will occur over 12 months. SEISMIC will use the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE definitions and classifications for epidemiologic studies of epilepsy. The study will examine outcomes including mood, quality of life, employment, education performance, driving status, marital and social problems, medication use, health care usage, costs and stigma. Discussion This study is designed to examine how clinical, psychological factors, socioeconomic circumstances, and healthcare delivery influence the experience of epilepsy for individuals and families allowing better targeting of specific services and informing policy makers and practitioners. In addition, the study will provide the basis for a longitudinal population-based cohort study and potentially inform qualitative sub-studies and randomised controlled trials of intervention strategies. The study has

  7. The study to understand mortality and morbidity in COPD (SUMMIT) study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Anderson, Julie; Brook, Robert D;

    2013-01-01

    medications on CVD in patients with both diseases.The "Study to Understand Mortality and MorbidITy in COPD" (SUMMIT) aims at determining the impact of Fluticasone Furoate/Vilanterol combination (FF/VI), and the individual components on the survival of patients with moderate COPD and either a history of CVD or......; mortality is the primary endpoint. The study is an event-driven trial powered on the comparison of FF/VI vs. placebo. Secondary endpoints are decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and effect on a composite cardiovascular endpoint. This manuscript describes the design of the SUMMIT study....

  8. Affective factors and strategy use in a distance language context: a pilot study using think-aloud verbal protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Hurd, Stella

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale ethnographic pilot study using think-aloud verbal protocols (TAPs), which was carried out with novice distance learners of French. The study aimed to extend knowledge of the distance language learner experience through allowing learners to talk freely about the positive and negative emotions they were experiencing as they tackled two designated language tasks, and the strategies they used to manage these emotions. The study was prompted by the lack of resea...

  9. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of...

  10. Adoption of Children With Disabilities: A Study With Adoptive Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele De Mozzi; Adriano Henrique Nuernberg

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Taking into consideration the supremacy of a child's profile often chosen by adoptive parents, this study aimed to understand the adoption of children with disabilities from the perspective of adoptive parents who have experienced this practice. The participants were eleven adoptive families of disabled children, all of whom had knowledge about the health conditions of the adoptive children at the time of adoption. The instruments used were a semi-structured interview and a sociodemo...

  11. Epilepsy in Children With ADHD: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Shanlee M.; Katusic, Slavica K.; Barbaresi, William J.; Killian, Jill; Weaver, Amy L.; Ottman, Ruth; Wirrell, Elaine C.

    2010-01-01

    Prior studies suggest a higher incidence of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children with epilepsy, but few have investigated epilepsy in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Our objective was to compare the incidence and characteristics of epilepsy among population-based, research identified cohorts of children with (N=358) and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (N=728), based on medical record review to age 20. Data abstracted include...

  12. Study on tobacco use and awareness among marginalized children

    OpenAIRE

    Raval, S.; S Maudgal; More, N.

    2010-01-01

    Background : The current study entailed a survey of children from the lower socioeconomic strata of rural and urban regions of the states of Maharashtra and Assam who are vulnerable to tobacco usage. More than 1700 children were checked for precancerous lesions and 1004 were surveyed for tobacco habits and awareness. Aims: The objective of the survey was to determine and report on all the variant factors affecting the use of tobacco among the underprivileged children population. The aim of t...

  13. A study of food buying behavior among Chinese children

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y.; Li, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports a study on food buying behaviour among Chinese children aged between 10-13 years old. There are two important findings. Firstly, the growing influence of commercial environment. During the learning of consumer behaviour by Chinese children, the parental role of guidance remains prominent, and their recommendations have a decisive impact on children’s food choices. Secondly, the perceived importance of product attributes. Chinese children tend to pay more attention to nutr...

  14. Interpreting writing of children with intellectual disabilities: A comparative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira de Figueiredo, R.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the results of developmental test analyses on literacy conducted with children with intellectual disabilities in Quebec and Brazil. Grounded on studies carried out in Argentina by Ferreiro and Teberosky (1986), with children without intellectual disabilities, we deal, comparatively, with three aspects in the development of literacy in children with intellectual disabilities: their interpretation of fragments of writing, the connection they establish between letters and nu...

  15. Comparative Study of Hidden Node Problem and Solution Using Different Techniques and Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Kapadia, Viral V; Jhaveri, Rutvij H

    2010-01-01

    Hidden nodes in a wireless network refer to nodes that are out of range of other nodes or a collection of nodes. We will discuss a few problems introduced by the RTS/CTS mechanism of collision avoidance and focus on the virtual jamming problem, which allows a malicious node to effectively jam a large fragment of a wireless network at minimum expense of power. We have also discussed WiCCP (Wireless Central Coordinated Protocol) which is a protocol booster that also provides good solution to hidden nodes.

  16. Optimal scanning protocols of 64-slice CT angiography in coronary artery stents: An in vitro phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the optimal scanning protocol of 64-slice CT angiography for assessment of coronary artery stents based on a phantom study. Materials and methods: Coronary stents with a diameter of 2.5 mm was implanted in thin plastic tubes with an inner diameter of 3.0 mm to simulate a coronary artery. The tubes were filled with iodinated contrast medium diluted to 178 HU, closed at both ends and positioned in a plastic container filled with vegetable oil (-70 to -100 HU). A series of scans were performed with a 64-slice CT scanner with the following protocols: section thickness: 0.67 mm, 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 2.0 mm, pitch value: 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and reconstruction interval of 50% overlap of the section thickness. 2D axial and multiplanar reformatted images were generated to assess the visibility of stent lumen, while virtual intravascular endoscopy (VIE) was reconstructed to evaluate the artery wall and stent surface. Results: Our results showed that a scanning protocol of 1.0 mm slice thickness with a pitch of 0.3 produced acceptable images with best demonstration of the intrastent lumen and stent surface with minimal image noise or artifacts. In contrast, submillimeter scans with 0.67 mm resulted in moderate artifacts which affected visualization of the coronary lumen, in addition to the increased noise. When the section thickness increased to 1.5 mm and 2.0 mm, visualization of the artery wall and stent surface was compromised, although the intrastent lumen was still visible. Conclusion: Our in vitro study suggested that a scanning protocol of 1.0 mm section thickness with pitch of 0.3 is the optimal protocol for evaluation of coronary artery stents as it allows generation of acceptable images with better visualization of stent lumen, stent surface and coronary artery wall.

  17. Optimal scanning protocols of 64-slice CT angiography in coronary artery stents: An in vitro phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almutairi, Abdulrahman Marzouq [Discipline of Medical Imaging, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Sun Zhonghua [Discipline of Medical Imaging, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)], E-mail: z.sun@curtin.edu.au; Ng, Curtise [Discipline of Medical Imaging, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Al-Safran, Zakariya A.; Al-Mulla, Abeer A.; Al-Jamaan, Abdulaziz I. [Department of Medical Imaging, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the optimal scanning protocol of 64-slice CT angiography for assessment of coronary artery stents based on a phantom study. Materials and methods: Coronary stents with a diameter of 2.5 mm was implanted in thin plastic tubes with an inner diameter of 3.0 mm to simulate a coronary artery. The tubes were filled with iodinated contrast medium diluted to 178 HU, closed at both ends and positioned in a plastic container filled with vegetable oil (-70 to -100 HU). A series of scans were performed with a 64-slice CT scanner with the following protocols: section thickness: 0.67 mm, 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 2.0 mm, pitch value: 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and reconstruction interval of 50% overlap of the section thickness. 2D axial and multiplanar reformatted images were generated to assess the visibility of stent lumen, while virtual intravascular endoscopy (VIE) was reconstructed to evaluate the artery wall and stent surface. Results: Our results showed that a scanning protocol of 1.0 mm slice thickness with a pitch of 0.3 produced acceptable images with best demonstration of the intrastent lumen and stent surface with minimal image noise or artifacts. In contrast, submillimeter scans with 0.67 mm resulted in moderate artifacts which affected visualization of the coronary lumen, in addition to the increased noise. When the section thickness increased to 1.5 mm and 2.0 mm, visualization of the artery wall and stent surface was compromised, although the intrastent lumen was still visible. Conclusion: Our in vitro study suggested that a scanning protocol of 1.0 mm section thickness with pitch of 0.3 is the optimal protocol for evaluation of coronary artery stents as it allows generation of acceptable images with better visualization of stent lumen, stent surface and coronary artery wall.

  18. Prospective study of Outcomes in Sporadic versus Hereditary breast cancer (POSH: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennis Sarah

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young women presenting with breast cancer are more likely to have a genetic predisposition to the disease than breast cancer patients in general. A genetic predisposition is known to increase the risk of new primary breast (and other cancers. It is unclear from the literature whether genetic status should be taken into consideration when planning adjuvant treatment in a young woman presenting with a first primary breast cancer. The primary aim of the POSH study is to establish whether genetic status influences the prognosis of primary breast cancer independently of known prognostic factors. Methods/design The study is a prospective cohort study recruiting 3,000 women aged 40 years or younger at breast cancer diagnosis; the recruiting period covers 1st June 2001 to 31st December 2007. Written informed consent is obtained at study entry. Family history and known epidemiological risk data are collected by questionnaire. Clinical information about diagnosis, treatment and clinical course is collected and blood is stored. Follow up data are collected annually after the first year. An additional recruitment category includes women aged 41 to 50 years who are found to be BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene carriers and were diagnosed with their first breast cancer during the study recruiting period. Discussion Power estimates were based on 10% of the cohort carrying a BRCA1 gene mutation. Preliminary BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation analysis in a pilot set of study participants confirms we should have 97% power to detect a difference of 10% in event rates between gene carriers and sporadic young onset cases. Most of the recruited patients (>80% receive an anthracycline containing adjuvant chemotherapy regimen making planned analyses more straightforward.

  19. Outcomes of usual chiropractic, harm & efficacy, the ouch study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Bruce F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that adverse events occur during chiropractic treatment. However, because of these studies design we do not know the frequency and extent of these events when compared to sham treatment. The principal aims of this study are to establish the frequency and severity of adverse effects from short term usual chiropractic treatment of the spine when compared to a sham treatment group. The secondary aim of this study is to establish the efficacy of usual short term chiropractic care for spinal pain when compared to a sham intervention. Methods One hundred and eighty participants will be randomly allocated to either usual chiropractic care or a sham intervention group. To be considered for inclusion the participants must have experienced non-specific spinal pain for at least one week. The study will be conducted at the clinics of registered chiropractors in Western Australia. Participants in each group will receive two treatments at intervals no less than one week. For the usual chiropractic care group, the selection of therapeutic techniques will be left to the chiropractors' discretion. For the sham intervention group, de-tuned ultrasound and de-tuned activator treatment will be applied by the chiropractors to the regions where spinal pain is experienced. Adverse events will be assessed two days after each appointment using a questionnaire developed for this study. The efficacy of short term chiropractic care for spinal pain will be examined at two week follow-up by assessing pain, physical function, minimum acceptable outcome, and satisfaction with care, with the use of the following outcome measures: Numerical Rating Scale, Functional Rating Index, Neck Disability Index, Minimum Acceptable Outcome Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index, and a global measure of treatment satisfaction. The statistician, outcome assessor, and participants will be blinded to treatment allocation. Trial

  20. Prospective study of Outcomes in Sporadic versus Hereditary breast cancer (POSH): study protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young women presenting with breast cancer are more likely to have a genetic predisposition to the disease than breast cancer patients in general. A genetic predisposition is known to increase the risk of new primary breast (and other) cancers. It is unclear from the literature whether genetic status should be taken into consideration when planning adjuvant treatment in a young woman presenting with a first primary breast cancer. The primary aim of the POSH study is to establish whether genetic status influences the prognosis of primary breast cancer independently of known prognostic factors. The study is a prospective cohort study recruiting 3,000 women aged 40 years or younger at breast cancer diagnosis; the recruiting period covers 1st June 2001 to 31st December 2007. Written informed consent is obtained at study entry. Family history and known epidemiological risk data are collected by questionnaire. Clinical information about diagnosis, treatment and clinical course is collected and blood is stored. Follow up data are collected annually after the first year. An additional recruitment category includes women aged 41 to 50 years who are found to be BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene carriers and were diagnosed with their first breast cancer during the study recruiting period. Power estimates were based on 10% of the cohort carrying a BRCA1 gene mutation. Preliminary BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation analysis in a pilot set of study participants confirms we should have 97% power to detect a difference of 10% in event rates between gene carriers and sporadic young onset cases. Most of the recruited patients (>80%) receive an anthracycline containing adjuvant chemotherapy regimen making planned analyses more straightforward

  1. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of transport mode to school; (2) examine the interaction between the transport choices, built environment, physical activity and weight status in adolescents; and (3) identify policies that promote or hinder ATS in adolescents. Methods and analysis The study will use a mixed-method approach incorporating both quantitative (surveys, anthropometry, accelerometers, Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, mapping) and qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews) to gather data from students, parents, teachers and school principals. The core data will include accelerometer-measured physical activity, anthropometry, GIS measures of the built environment and the use of maps indicating route to school (students)/work (parents) and perceived safe/unsafe areas along the route. To provide comprehensive data for understanding how to change the infrastructure to support ATS, the study will also examine complementary variables such as individual, family and social factors, including student and parental perceptions of walking and cycling to school, parental perceptions of different modes of transport to school, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, route to school (students)/work (parents), perceptions of driving, use of information communication technology, reasons for choosing a particular school and student and parental physical activity habits, screen time and weight status. The study has achieved a 100% school recruitment rate (12 secondary schools). Ethics and

  2. Protocol of the COSMIN study: COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick DL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choosing an adequate measurement instrument depends on the proposed use of the instrument, the concept to be measured, the measurement properties (e.g. internal consistency, reproducibility, content and construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability, the requirements, the burden for subjects, and costs of the available instruments. As far as measurement properties are concerned, there are no sufficiently specific standards for the evaluation of measurement properties of instruments to measure health status, and also no explicit criteria for what constitutes good measurement properties. In this paper we describe the protocol for the COSMIN study, the objective of which is to develop a checklist that contains COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments, including explicit criteria for satisfying these standards. We will focus on evaluative health related patient-reported outcomes (HR-PROs, i.e. patient-reported health measurement instruments used in a longitudinal design as an outcome measure, excluding health care related PROs, such as satisfaction with care or adherence. The COSMIN standards will be made available in the form of an easily applicable checklist. Method An international Delphi study will be performed to reach consensus on which and how measurement properties should be assessed, and on criteria for good measurement properties. Two sources of input will be used for the Delphi study: (1 a systematic review of properties, standards and criteria of measurement properties found in systematic reviews of measurement instruments, and (2 an additional literature search of methodological articles presenting a comprehensive checklist of standards and criteria. The Delphi study will consist of four (written Delphi rounds, with approximately 30 expert panel members with different backgrounds in clinical medicine, biostatistics, psychology, and epidemiology. The final checklist will

  3. Train High Eat Low for Osteoarthritis study (THE LO study: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yareni Guerrero

    2015-10-01

    Discussion: THE LO study will provide the first direct comparison of the long-term benefits of gait retraining, progressive resistance training and a high-protein/low-glycaemic-index energy-restricted diet, separately and in combination, on joint load, radiographic progression, symptoms, and associated co-morbidities in overweight/obese adults with OA of the knee.

  4. Onychomycosis and Children – A Multicenter Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zisova L.; Chokoeva A.; Sotiriou E.; Valtchev V.; Gospodinov D.

    2015-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a chronic disease caused by dermatophytes, yeasts and molds, which leads to destruction of the nail plate of the fingernails and toenails. The incidence of onychomycosis in children is considerably smaller compared with that in adults. Onychomycosis in children under 6 years of age is particularly unusual. The trauma and the hyperhidrosis after puberty are the major predisposing factor for fungal nail infection in childhood. Some systemic diseases and congenital syndromes hav...

  5. Study protocol: The registrar clinical encounters in training (ReCEnT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Simon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient encounters are the core learning activity of Australian general practice (family practice training. Exposure to patient demographics and presentations may vary from one general practice registrar (vocational trainee to another. This can affect comprehensiveness of training. Currently, there is no mechanism to systematically capture the content of GP registrar consultations. The aim of the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT study is to document longitudinally the nature and associations of consultation-based clinical and educational experiences of general practice registrars. Methods/design This is an ongoing prospective multi-site cohort study of general practice registrars’ consultations, entailing paper-based recording of consultation data. The study setting is general practices affiliated with three geographically-based Australian general practice regional training providers. Registrars record details of 60 consecutive consultations. Data collected includes registrar demographics, details of the consultation, patient demographics, reasons for encounter and problems managed. Problems managed are coded with the International Classification of Primary Care (second edition classification system. Additionally, registrars record educational factors related to the encounter. The study will follow the clinical exposure of each registrar six-monthly over the 18 months to two years (full-time equivalent of their general practice training program. Conclusions The study will provide data on a range of factors (patient, registrar and consultation factors. This data will be used to inform a range of educational decisions as well as being used to answer educational research questions. We plan to use ReCEnT as a formative assessment tool for registrars and help identify and address educational needs. The study will facilitate program evaluation by the participating training providers and thus improve articulation

  6. The study comparing parenting style of children with ADHD and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddam, Mahboobeh Firouzkouhi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is one of the most often diagnosed psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents based on hyperactivity, attention deficit and impulsivity criteria. This disorder causes a lot of problems at home, school and social situations. Considering the family and parenting factors in growth and development of ADHD children, the parenting interventions are consider as a primary intervention programs for this children. Parenting management training, based on social learning models, is an effective and practical way for treatment of children with incongruent behavior. In this study, we evaluate parenting styles of ADHD children and normal children. Methods. This study was conducted in Zahedan in 2012. Subjects aged 7 to 12. They were divided into patient and normal groups. Parenting styles were evaluated with Baumrind’s questionnaire. The data were analyzed with SPSS ver.18. Results. The findings showed that the parents of ADHD children have lower permissive score than the normal group, but authoritarian score was lower in the normal group. The authoritative score has no significant difference between the two groups. In addition, age, gender, and parent’s education affected the parenting styles. Discussion. The present study indicates that parents with ADHD children have different parenting styles; and factors like gender and parents education are influential in parenting methods. This finding were also present in some past surveys. Many studies have shown that teaching-parenting styles to parents with ADHD children improves the inner family relationship. Conclusion . The results indicated that parents of children with ADHD are less permissive but more authoritarian in their parenting.

  7. Age and gender leucocytes variances and references values generated using the standardized ONE-Study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kverneland, Anders H; Streitz, Mathias; Geissler, Edward; Hutchinson, James; Vogt, Katrin; Boës, David; Niemann, Nadja; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Schlickeiser, Stephan; Sawitzki, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    Flow cytometry is now accepted as an ideal technology to reveal changes in immune cell composition and function. However, it is also an error-prone and variable technology, which makes it difficult to reproduce findings across laboratories. We have recently developed a strategy to standardize whole blood flow cytometry. The performance of our protocols was challenged here by profiling samples from healthy volunteers to reveal age- and gender-dependent differences and to establish a standardized reference cohort for use in clinical trials. Whole blood samples from two different cohorts were analyzed (first cohort: n = 52, second cohort: n = 46, both 20-84 years with equal gender distribution). The second cohort was run as a validation cohort by a different operator. The "ONE Study" panels were applied to analyze expression of >30 different surface markers to enumerate proportional and absolute numbers of >50 leucocyte subsets. Indeed, analysis of the first cohort revealed significant age-dependent changes in subsets e.g. increased activated and differentiated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets, acquisition of a memory phenotype for Tregs as well as decreased MDC2 and Marginal Zone B cells. Males and females showed different dynamics in age-dependent T cell activation and differentiation, indicating faster immunosenescence in males. Importantly, although both cohorts consisted of a small sample size, our standardized approach enabled validation of age-dependent changes with the second cohort. Thus, we have proven the utility of our strategy and generated reproducible reference ranges accounting for age- and gender-dependent differences, which are crucial for a better patient monitoring and individualized therapy. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:27144459

  8. Tailoring International Pressure Ulcer Prevention Guidelines for Nigeria: A Knowledge Translation Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Ekama Ilesanmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 2014 International Pressure Ulcer Prevention (PUP Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG provides the most current evidence based strategies to prevent Pressure Ulcer (PU. The evidence upon which these guidelines have been developed has predominantly been generated from research conducted in developed countries. Some of these guidelines may not be feasible in developing countries due to structural and resource issues; therefore there is a need to adapt these guidelines to the context thus making it culturally acceptable. Aim: To present a protocol detailing the tailoring of international PUPCPG into a care bundle for the Nigerian context. Methods: Guided by the Knowledge to Action (KTA framework, a two phased study will be undertaken. In Phase 1, the Delphi technique with stakeholder leaders will be used to review the current PUPCPG, identifying core strategies that are feasible to be adopted in Nigeria. These core strategies will become components of a PUP care bundle. In Phase 2, key stakeholder interviews will be used to identify the barriers, facilitators and potential implementation strategies to promote uptake of the PUP care bundle. Results: A PUP care bundle, with three to eight components is expected to be developed from Phase 1. Implementation strategies to promote adoption of the PUP care bundle into clinical practice in selected Nigerian hospitals, is expected to result from Phase 2. Engagement of key stakeholders and consumers in the project should promote successful implementation and translate into better patient care. Conclusion: Using KTA, a knowledge translation framework, to guide the implementation of PUPCPG will enhance the likelihood of successful adoption in clinical practice. In implementing a PUP care bundle, developing countries face a number of challenges such as the feasibility of its components and the required resources.

  9. Study Protocol: The Behaviour and Pain in Dementia Study (BePAID)

    OpenAIRE

    Sampson Elizabeth L; Blanchard Martin R; Jones Louise; Scott Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background People with dementia admitted to the acute hospital often receive poor quality care particularly with regards to management of behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and of pain. There have been no UK studies on the prevalence and type of pain or BPSD in people with dementia in this setting, or on how these may impact on patients, carers, staff and costs of care. Methods/Design We shall recruit older people with dementia who have unplanned acute medical ad...

  10. Review of recent studies and issues regarding the P300-based complex trial protocol for detection of concealed information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, J Peter; Hu, Xiaoqing; Labkovsky, Elena; Meixner, John; Winograd, Michael R

    2013-11-01

    In this review, the evolution of new P300-based protocols for detection of concealed information is summarized. The P300-based complex trial protocol (CTP) is described as one such countermeasure (CM)-resistant protocol. Recent lapses in diagnostic accuracy (from 90% to 75%) with CTPs applied to mock crime protocols are summarized, as well as recent enhancements to the CTP which have restored accuracy. These enhancements include 1) use of performance feedback during testing, 2) use of other ERP components such as N200 in diagnosis, 3) use of auxiliary tests, including the autobiographical implicit association test, as leading to restored diagnostic accuracy, and 4) a study of the mechanisms underlying CMs. A novel, doubly efficient version of the CTP involving presentation of two probes in one trial is described as a new way to improve accuracy to levels above 90% in mock crime situations. Finally, a thorough analysis of the legal issues surrounding use of the CTP in U.S. is given. PMID:24012907

  11. Cell phone-supported cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders: a protocol for effectiveness studies in frontline settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröberg Anders

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT for anxiety disorders have reported large pre- to post-treatment within-group effect sizes on measures of anxiety when supplied in therapist consultations and in technology-supported settings. However, the stringent experimental control of RCTs results in a lack of external validity, which limits the generalizability of findings to real-world frontline clinical practice. We set out to examine the specification of a protocol for study of the effectiveness of cell phone-supported CBT for in situ management of anxiety disorders. Methods and design Nominal group methods were used for requirements analysis and protocol design. Making a distinction between different forms of technology-supported therapy, examination of therapists' role, and implementing trials in existing organizational and community contexts were found to be the central requirements in the protocol. Discussion The resulting protocol (NCT01205191 at clinicaltrials.gov for use in frontline clinical practice in which effectiveness, adherence, and the role of the therapists are analyzed, provides evidence for what are truly valuable cell phone-supported CBT treatments and guidance for the broader introduction of CBT in health services.

  12. SALGOT - Stroke Arm Longitudinal study at the University of Gothenburg, prospective cohort study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundgren-Nilsson Åsa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recovery patterns of upper extremity motor function have been described in several longitudinal studies, but most of these studies have had selected samples, short follow up times or insufficient outcomes on motor function. The general understanding is that improvements in upper extremity occur mainly during the first month after the stroke incident and little if any, significant recovery can be gained after 3-6 months. The purpose of this study is to describe the recovery of upper extremity function longitudinally in a non-selected sample initially admitted to a stroke unit with first ever stroke, living in Gothenburg urban area. Methods/Design A sample of 120 participants with a first-ever stroke and impaired upper extremity function will be consecutively included from an acute stroke unit and followed longitudinally for one year. Assessments are performed at eight occasions: at day 3 and 10, week 3, 4 and 6, month 3, 6 and 12 after onset of stroke. The primary clinical outcome measures are Action Research Arm Test and Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity. As additional measures, two new computer based objective methods with kinematic analysis of arm movements are used. The ABILHAND questionnaire of manual ability, Stroke Impact Scale, grip strength, spasticity, pain, passive range of motion and cognitive function will be assessed as well. At one year follow up, two patient reported outcomes, Impact on Participation and Autonomy and EuroQol Quality of Life Scale, will be added to cover the status of participation and aspects of health related quality of life. Discussion This study comprises a non-selected population with first ever stroke and impaired arm function. Measurements are performed both using traditional clinical assessments as well as computer based measurement systems providing objective kinematic data. The ICF classification of functioning, disability and health is used as framework for the selection of

  13. Peer Group Status of Gender Dysphoric Children: A Sociometric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wallien, Madeleine S. C.; Veenstra, Rene; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.

    2010-01-01

    In this sociometric study, we aimed to investigate the social position of gender-referred children in a naturalistic environment. We used a peer nomination technique to examine their social position in the class and we specifically examined bullying and victimization of gender dysphoric children. A total of 28 children (14 boys and 14 girls), referred to a gender identity clinic, and their classmates (n = 495) were included (M age, 10.5 years). Results showed that the gender-referred children...

  14. A simulation study of TaMAC protocol using network simulator 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-10-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is expected to play a significant role in future healthcare system. It interconnects low-cost and intelligent sensor nodes in, on, or around a human body to serve a variety of medical applications. It can be used to diagnose and treat patients with chronic diseases such as hypertensions, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. The lightweight sensor nodes integrated in WBAN require low-power operation, which can be achieved using different optimization techniques. We introduce a Traffic-adaptive MAC protocol (TaMAC) for WBAN that supports dual wakeup mechanisms for normal, emergency, and on-demand traffic. In this letter, the TaMAC protocol is simulated using a well-known Network Simulator 2 (NS-2). The problem of multiple emergency nodes is solved using both wakeup radio and CSMA/CA protocol. The power consumption, delay, and throughput performance are closely compared with beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol using extensive simulations. PMID:21863319

  15. Protocol for Bone Augmentation with Simultaneous Early Implant Placement: A Retrospective Multicenter Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fairbairn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To present a novel protocol for alveolar bone regeneration in parallel to early implant placement. Methods. 497 patients in need of extraction and early implant placement with simultaneous bone augmentation were treated in a period of 10 years. In all patients the same specific method was followed and grafting was performed utilizing in situ hardening fully resorbable alloplastic grafting materials consisting of β-tricalcium phosphate and calcium sulfate. The protocol involved atraumatic extraction, implant placement after 4 weeks with simultaneous bone augmentation, and loading of the implant 12 weeks after placement and grafting. Follow-up periods ranged from 6 months to 10 years (mean of 4 years. Results. A total of 601 postextraction sites were rehabilitated in 497 patients utilizing the novel protocol. Three implants failed before loading and three implants failed one year after loading, leaving an overall survival rate of 99.0%. Conclusions. This standardized protocol allows successful long-term functional results regarding alveolar bone regeneration and implant rehabilitation. The concept of placing the implant 4 weeks after extraction, augmenting the bone around the implant utilizing fully resorbable, biomechanically stable, alloplastic materials, and loading the implant at 12 weeks seems to offer advantages when compared with traditional treatment modalities.

  16. Assessing function in patients undergoing joint replacement: a study protocol for a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wylde Vikki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint replacement is an effective intervention for people with advanced arthritis, although there is an important minority of patients who do not improve post-operatively. There is a need for robust evidence on outcomes after surgery, but there are a number of measures that assess function after joint replacement, many of which lack any clear theoretical basis. The World Health Organisation has introduced the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, which divides function into three separate domains: Impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions. The aim of this study is to compare the properties and responsiveness of a selection of commonly used outcome tools that assess function, examine how well they relate to the ICF concepts, and to explore the changes in the measures over time. Methods/design Two hundred and sixty three patients listed for lower limb joint replacement at an elective orthopaedic centre have been recruited into this study. Participants attend the hospital for a research appointment prior to surgery and then at 3-months and 1-year after surgery. At each assessment time, function is assessed using a range of measures. Self-report function is assessed using the WOMAC, Aberdeen Impairment, Activity Limitation and Participation Restriction Measure, SF-12 and Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile 2. Clinician-administered measures of function include the American Knee Society Score for knee patients and the Harris Hip Score for hip patients. Performance tests include the timed 20-metre walk, timed get up and go, sit-to-stand-to-sit, step tests and single stance balance test. During the performance tests, participants wear an inertial sensor and data from motion analysis are collected. Statistical analysis will include exploring the relationship between measures describing the same ICF concepts, assessing responsiveness, and studying changes in measures over

  17. Nucleic Acid Research Group 2013–2014 Study: Evaluating Library Synthesis Protocols for Sub-Nanogram ChIPSeq samples

    OpenAIRE

    Carmical, J. Russ; Lytle, Christian H; Nadella, Vijayanand; Beckloff, Nicholas; Perera, Anoja; Tighe, Scott; Chittur, Sridar V.; Herbert, Zach; Auer, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing the precipitated DNA (ChIP-Seq) is the state-of-the-art method to study protein-DNA interactions. ChIP-Seq allows identification of binding sites of proteins across the entire genome in an unbiased manner. One of the major limitations of currently available ChIP-Seq protocols is the necessity to isolate sufficient amounts of immune precipitated DNA for subsequent sequencing. The NARG 2013/14 study evaluated library preparation alternatives ...

  18. Postoperative Delirium after elective and emergency surgery: analysis and checking of risk factors. A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi Stefano

    2005-05-01

    Scale (GCS, Cognitive state (SPMSQ, Functional state (ADL and IADL, Psychological Distress (HADS, Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS, Hypotension (classified in: light; moderate and severe and duration, Blood loss (classified in: 2 lt, Blood transfusions ( 2 lt, Quantity of red cells and plasma transfusions, Visual VAS / SVS (timing: I-II-III post-operative day, Red cells and Plasma transfusions, Blood count evaluation and Saturation (O2%, Postoperative analgesia (Emilia-Romagna protocol, Presence of malignant tumoral disease, APACHE Score II. Moreover the presence of some relevant genetic polymorphisms will be studied in different genes such as IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 cluster.

  19. Brief intervention to reduce risky drinking in pregnancy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Graeme B

    2012-09-01

    delivery, and retention in the study population, to inform power calculations for a definitive trial. The health-economics component will establish how cost-effectiveness will be assessed, and examine which data on health service resource use should be collected in a main trial. Participants’ views on instruments and procedures will be sought to confirm their acceptability. Discussion The study will produce a full trial protocol with robust sample-size calculations to extend evidence on effectiveness of screening and brief intervention. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN43218782

  20. Sentinel node in ovarian cancer: study protocol for a phase 1 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleppe Marjolein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of sentinel lymph node surgery is to determine whether the cancer has spread to the very first lymph node or sentinel node. If the sentinel node does not contain cancer, then there is a high likelihood that the cancer has not spread to other lymph nodes. The sentinel node technique has been proven to be effective in different types of cancer. In this study we want to determine whether a sentinel node procedure in patients with ovarian cancer is feasible when the tracers are injected into the ovarian ligaments. Methods/Design Patients with a high likelihood of having an ovarian malignancy in whom a median laparotomy and a frozen section analysis is planned and patients with endometrial cancer in whom a staging laparotomy is planned will be included. Before starting the surgical staging procedure, blue dye and radioactive colloid will be injected into the ligamentum ovarii proprium and the ligamentum infundibulo-pelvicum. In the analysis we calculate the percentage of patients in whom it is feasible to identify sentinel nodes. Other study parameters are the anatomical localization of the sentinel node(s and the incidence of false negative lymph nodes. Trial registration Approval number: NL40323.068.12 Name: Medical Ethical Committee Maastricht University Hospital, University of Maastricht Affiliation: Maastricht University Hospital Board Chair Name: Medisch Ethische Commissie azM/UM

  1. Study Protocol: The Behaviour and Pain in Dementia Study (BePAID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampson Elizabeth L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with dementia admitted to the acute hospital often receive poor quality care particularly with regards to management of behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD and of pain. There have been no UK studies on the prevalence and type of pain or BPSD in people with dementia in this setting, or on how these may impact on patients, carers, staff and costs of care. Methods/Design We shall recruit older people with dementia who have unplanned acute medical admissions and measure the prevalence of BPSD using the Behave-AD (Behaviour in Alzheimer's Disease and the CMAI (Cohen Mansfield Agitation Inventory. Pain prevalence and severity will be assessed by the PAINAD (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia and the FACES pain scale. We will then analyse how these impact on a variety of outcomes and test the hypothesis that poor management of pain is associated with worsening of BPSD. Discussion By demonstrating the costs of BPSD to individuals with dementia and the health service this study will provide important evidence to drive improvements in care. We can then develop effective training for acute hospital staff and alternative treatment strategies for BPSD in this setting.

  2. A Comparative Study of the Spontaneous Social Interactions of Children with High-Functioning Autism and Children with Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Kathleen; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    A comparative observational study was undertaken of the spontaneous social interactions of children with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder. The sample comprised 20 children with high-functioning autism, 19 children with Asperger's disorder and 17 typically developing children matched on chronological age and overall mental age. A…

  3. Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis – Study protocol of a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillon Bertil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA is one of the frequent and functionally impairing disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In the literature, a number of occupational risk factors are discussed as being related to the development and progress of knee joint diseases, e.g. working in kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying of heavy weights. The importance of the single risk factors and the possibility of prevention are currently under discussion. Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important, too. The distinction between work-related factors and individual factors is crucial in assessing the risk and in deriving preventive measures in occupational health. In existing studies, the occupational stress is determined mainly by surveys in employees and/or by making assumptions about individual occupations. Direct evaluation of occupational exposure has been performed only exceptionally. The aim of the research project ArGon is the assessment of different occupational factors in relation to individual factors (e.g. constitutional factors, leisure time activities, sports, which might influence the development and/or progression of knee (OA. The project is designed as a case control study. Methods/Design To raise valid data about the physical stress associated with occupational and leisure time activities, patients with and without knee OA are questioned by means of a standardised questionnaire and an interview. The required sample size was estimated to 800 cases and an equal number of controls. The degree and localisation of the knee cartilage or joint damages in the cases are documented on the basis of radiological, arthroscopic and/or operative findings in a patient record. Furthermore, occupational exposure is analysed at selected workplaces. To evaluate the answers provided in the questionnaire, work analysis is performed. Discussion In this research project, specific information on the

  4. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Goal-Directed Reaching in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M. G. Salowitz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An unanswered question concerning the neural basis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD is how sensorimotor deficits in individuals with ASD are related to abnormalities of brain function. We previously described a robotic joystick and video game system that allows us to record functional magnetic resonance images (FMRI while adult humans make goal-directed wrist motions. We anticipated several challenges in extending this approach to studying goal-directed behaviors in children with ASD and in typically developing (TYP children. In particular we were concerned that children with autism may express increased levels of anxiety as compared to typically developing children due to the loud sounds and small enclosed space of the MRI scanner. We also were concerned that both groups of children might become restless during testing, leading to an unacceptable amount of head movement. Here we performed a pilot study evaluating the extent to which autistic and typically developing children exhibit anxiety during our experimental protocol as well as their ability to comply with task instructions. Our experimental controls were successful in minimizing group differences in drop-out due to anxiety. Kinematic performance and head motion also were similar across groups. Both groups of children engaged cortical regions (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital while making goal-directed movements. In addition, the ASD group exhibited task-related correlations in subcortical regions (cerebellum, thalamus, whereas correlations in the TYP group did not reach statistical significance in subcortical regions. Four distinct regions in frontal cortex showed a significant group difference such that TYP children exhibited positive correlations between the hemodynamic response and movement, whereas children with ASD exhibited negative correlations. These findings demonstrate feasibility of simultaneous application of robotic manipulation and functional imaging to study goal

  5. Children's Family Drawings: A Study of Attachment, Personality, and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Limor; Scharf, Miri

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between children's attachment security, as manifested in their family drawings, and their personality and adjustment. Family drawings were collected from 222 Israeli children, as well as data regarding their personality and adjustment. Each drawing was coded and classified into 1 of 4 attachment categories…

  6. Peer Group Status of Gender Dysphoric Children : A Sociometric Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallien, Madeleine S. C.; Veenstra, Rene; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.

    2010-01-01

    In this sociometric study, we aimed to investigate the social position of gender-referred children in a naturalistic environment. We used a peer nomination technique to examine their social position in the class and we specifically examined bullying and victimization of gender dysphoric children. A

  7. Improving Fine Motor Skills in Young Children: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carol G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Primary Movement programme on the fine motor skills of children in an early years setting in an area of high social disadvantage. Primary Movement is a programme which can be used as an early intervention technique to help children inhibit persistent primary reflexes that have been shown to…

  8. Improving Children's Formal Word Definitions: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinellie, Sally A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to define a word with accuracy and precision is an important skill that has been associated with academic achievement. This study investigated the feasibility of conducting a lesson on formal word definitions to improve children's definitional production. The participants were 18 children in grade 4 (mean age: 9 years; 8 months) who…

  9. Prednisolone and acupuncture in Bell's palsy: study protocol for a randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kangjun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are a variety of treatment options for Bell's palsy. Evidence from randomized controlled trials indicates corticosteroids can be used as a proven therapy for Bell's palsy. Acupuncture is one of the most commonly used methods to treat Bell's palsy in China. Recent studies suggest that staging treatment is more suitable for Bell's palsy, according to different path-stages of this disease. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of prednisolone and staging acupuncture in the recovery of the affected facial nerve, and to verify whether prednisolone in combination with staging acupuncture is more effective than prednisolone alone for Bell's palsy in a large number of patients. Methods/Design In this article, we report the design and protocol of a large sample multi-center randomized controlled trial to treat Bell's palsy with prednisolone and/or acupuncture. In total, 1200 patients aged 18 to 75 years within 72 h of onset of acute, unilateral, peripheral facial palsy will be assessed. There are six treatment groups, with four treated according to different path-stages and two not. These patients are randomly assigned to be in one of the following six treatment groups, i.e. 1 placebo prednisolone group, 2 prednisolone group, 3 placebo prednisolone plus acute stage acupuncture group, 4 prednisolone plus acute stage acupuncture group, 5 placebo prednisolone plus resting stage acupuncture group, 6 prednisolone plus resting stage acupuncture group. The primary outcome is the time to complete recovery of facial function, assessed by Sunnybrook system and House-Brackmann scale. The secondary outcomes include the incidence of ipsilateral pain in the early stage of palsy (and the duration of this pain, the proportion of patients with severe pain, the occurrence of synkinesis, facial spasm or contracture, and the severity of residual facial symptoms during the study period. Discussion The result of this trial will assess the

  10. Study Questions Use of Antidepressants for Children, Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159262.html Study Questions Use of Antidepressants for Children, Teens They ... interpersonal therapy -- as the first-line treatment," said study author Dr. Andrea Cipriani. He is an associate ...

  11. The Strathclyde Evaluation of Children's Active Travel (SE-CAT: study rationale and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMinn David

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The school commute is a prime opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. However, active commuting has decreased over the past 40 years. Strategies that increase walking to school are therefore needed. Travelling Green (TG is a school-based active travel resource aimed at increasing children's walking to school. The resource consists of a curriculum-based program of lessons and goal setting activities. A previous study found that children who received the TG intervention increased self-reported distance travelled to school by active modes and reduced the distance travelled by inactive modes. This study was limited by self-reported outcome measures, a small sample, and no follow-up measures. A more robust evaluation of TG is required to address these limitations. This paper describes the rationale and methods for such an evaluation of Travelling Green, and describes the piloting of various active commuting measures in primary school children. Methods/Design Measures of active commuting were piloted in a sample of 26 children (aged 8-9 years over one school week. These measures were subsequently used in an 18-month quasi-experimental design to evaluate the effect of TG on commuting behaviour. Participants were 166 children (60% male aged 8-9 years from 5 primary schools. Two schools (n = 79 children received TG in September/October 2009. Three schools (n = 87 children acted as a comparison group, and subsequently received TG at a later date. Physical activity was measured using Actigraph GT1M accelerometers. Personal and environmental determinants of active commuting were measured via parent and child questionnaires, as were factors related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the construct of habit. Measures were taken pre- and post-intervention and at 5 and 12 months follow-up. Discussion The piloted protocol was practical and feasible and piloted measures were reliable and valid. All study data, including

  12. MAVIDOS Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. The MAVIDOS Study Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Nicholas C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MAVIDOS is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ISRCTN82927713, registered 2008 Apr 11, funded by Arthritis Research UK, MRC, Bupa Foundation and NIHR. Background Osteoporosis is a major public health problem as a result of associated fragility fractures. Skeletal strength increases from birth to a peak in early adulthood. This peak predicts osteoporosis risk in later life. Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnancy is common (31% in a recent Southampton cohort and predicts reduced bone mass in the offspring. In this study we aim to test whether offspring of mothers supplemented with vitamin D in pregnancy have higher bone mass at birth than those whose mothers were not supplemented. Methods/Design Women have their vitamin D status assessed after ultrasound scanning in the twelfth week of pregnancy at 3 trial centres (Southampton, Sheffield, Oxford. Women with circulating 25(OH-vitamin D levels 25-100 nmol/l are randomised in a double-blind design to either oral vitamin D supplement (1000 IU cholecalciferol/day, n = 477 or placebo at 14 weeks (n = 477. Questionnaire data include parity, sunlight exposure, dietary information, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. At 19 and 34 weeks maternal anthropometry is assessed and blood samples taken to measure 25(OH-vitamin D, PTH and biochemistry. At delivery venous umbilical cord blood is collected, together with umbilical cord and placental tissue. The babies undergo DXA assessment of bone mass within the first 14 days after birth, with the primary outcome being whole body bone mineral content adjusted for gestational age and age. Children are then followed up with yearly assessment of health, diet, physical activity and anthropometric measures, with repeat assessment of bone mass by DXA at age 4 years. Discussion As far as we are aware, this randomised trial is one of the first ever tests of the early life origins hypothesis in human participants and has the potential to inform

  13. The randomized shortened dental arch study (RaSDA: design and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kern Matthias

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various treatment options for the prosthetic treatment of jaws where all molars are lost are under discussion. Besides the placement of implants, two main treatment types can be distinguished: replacement of the missing molars with removable dental prostheses and non-replacement of the molars, i.e. preservation of the shortened dental arch. Evidence is lacking regarding the long-term outcome and the clinical performance of these approaches. High treatment costs and the long time required for the treatment impede respective clinical trials. Methods/design This 14-center randomized controlled investigator-initiated trial is ongoing. Last patient out will be in 2010. Patients over 35 years of age with all molars missing in one jaw and with at least both canines and one premolar left on each side were eligible. One group received a treatment with removable dental prostheses for molar replacement (treatment A. The other group received a treatment limited to the replacement of all missing anterior and premolar teeth using fixed bridges (treatment B. A pilot trial with 32 patients was carried out. Two hundred and fifteen patients were enrolled in the main trial where 109 patients were randomized for treatment A and 106 for treatment B. The primary outcome measure is further tooth loss during the 5-year follow-up. The secondary outcome measures encompassed clinical, technical and subjective variables. The study is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, DFG WA 831/2-1, 2-2, 2-3, 2-4, 2-5. Discussion The particular value of this trial is the adaptation of common design components to the very specific features of complex dental prosthetic treatments. The pilot trial proved to be indispensable because it led to a number of adjustments in the study protocol that considerably improved the practicability. The expected results are of high clinical relevance and will show the efficacy of two common

  14. Study protocol: the sleeping sound with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder project

    OpenAIRE

    Oberklaid Frank; Mensah Fiona; Davey Margot; Gerner Bibi; Efron Daryl; Sciberras Emma; Hiscock Harriet

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Up to 70% of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) experience sleep problems including difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep. Sleep problems in children with ADHD can result in poorer child functioning, impacting on school attendance, daily functioning and behaviour, as well as parental mental health and work attendance. The Sleeping Sound with ADHD trial aims to investigate the efficacy of a behavioural sleep program in treating sleep probl...

  15. Determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among children and adolescents: a review of the literature. Part I: Quantitative studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Krølner, Rikke; Klepp, Knut-Inge;

    2006-01-01

    and review process was conducted according to a four-step protocol resulting in information on country, population, design, methodology, theoretical basis, instrument used for measuring intake, statistical analysis, included independent variables, and effect sizes. RESULTS: Ninety-eight papers were......BACKGROUND: In order to more effectively promote fruit and vegetable intake among children and adolescents, insight into determinants of intake is necessary. We conducted a review of the literature for potential determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in children and adolescents. METHODS: Papers...... included. A large number of potential determinants have been studied among children and adolescents. However, for many presumed determinants convincing evidence is lacking, mostly because of paucity of studies. The determinants best supported by evidence are: age, gender, socio-economic position...

  16. A Tribolium castaneum whole-embryo culture protocol for studying the molecular mechanisms and morphogenetic movements involved in insect development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaya, Constanza C; Saavedra, Patricio E; Cepeda, Rodrigo E; Nuñez, Viviana A; Sarrazin, Andres F

    2016-01-01

    The development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is more representative of arthropods than the evolutionarily derived fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Thus, Tribolium is becoming an emerging organism model for studying the evolution of the mechanisms that control embryonic development in arthropods. In this regard, diverse genetic and molecular tools are currently available for Tribolium, as well as imaging and embryonic techniques. Recently, we developed a method for culturing embryos in order to study specific stages during Tribolium development. In this report, we present a detailed and "easy-to-follow" protocol for embryo handling and dissection, extending the use of whole-embryo culture to functional analysis by performing in vivo pharmacological manipulations. This experimental accessibility allowed us to study the relevance of microtubules in axis elongation, using nocodazole and taxol drugs to interfere with microtubule networks, followed by length measurement analysis. Additionally, we demonstrated that embryo handling had no effect on the development of Tribolium embryos, and we checked viability after dissection and bisection and during incubation using propidium iodide. The embryo culture protocol we describe here can be applied to study diverse developmental processes in Tribolium. We expect that this protocol can be adapted and applied to other arthropods. PMID:26739999

  17. Assessing change in patient-reported quality of life after elective surgery: protocol for an observational comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronzer, Vanessa L.; Jerry, Michelle R.; Avidan, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their widespread use, the two main methods of assessing quality of life after surgery have never been directly compared. To support patient decision-making and study design, we aim to compare these two methods. The first of these methods is to assess quality of life before surgery and again after surgery using the same validated scale. The second is simply to ask patients whether or not they think their post-operative quality of life is better, worse, or the same. Our primary objective is to assess agreement between the two measures. Secondary objectives are to calculate the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) and to describe the variation across surgical specialties. To accomplish these aims, we will administer surveys to patients undergoing elective surgery, both before surgery and again 30 days after surgery. This protocol follows detailed guidelines for observational study protocols.

  18. Nonbacterial osteitis. A clinical, histopathological, and imaging study with a proposal for protocol-based management of patients with this diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonbacterial osteitis (NBO), a term referring to sterile bone lesions with nonspecific histopathological features of inflammation, may be either unifocal or multifocal, acute (≤6 months) or chronic, and recurrent. Only when the condition is chronic, recurrent, and multifocal is it appropriate to use the term chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO). We present our clinical experience as the largest reported series of children with NBO to date. We report a retrospective clinical, histopathological, and radiological study of 41 children with nonbacterial osteitis. Of 41 children (2-16 years of age) diagnosed with NBO in our institution over the last 6 years, 21 (51%) had recurrent disease and 18 (44%) had multifocal disease. The most common bones affected were the clavicle, femur, and tibia (in order of decreasing prevalence) accounting for 44 (63%) of a total of 70 lesions. Only one individual had synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis) and no other patients had evidence of bowel or skin disease. In the absence of evidence for an infective etiology, we recommend nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents as the first-line therapy and bisphosphonates only in cases of resistant disease. On the basis of our findings, we propose using a patient questionnaire and protocol for investigating and managing patients who present with NBO to orthopedic surgeons. We predict that this will benefit patients with this disorder by improving our knowledge of the presenting signs and symptoms and related disorders, rationalizing the therapeutic approach, and allowing us to learn about the natural history of the disease. (author)

  19. A Comparative Study On The Action Potential Simulation (APS Therapy And The Routine Physiotherapy Protocol In Knee Osteoarthritisin Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Rahimi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Knee osteoarthritis is the most common cause for which the elderly people refere to physiotherapy outpatient clinics. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the Action Potential Stimulation (APS Therapy and the routine physiotherapy (PT protocol on relieving pain and swelling as well as the duration of the relief period in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods: 69 patients (62 females & 7 males with knee osteoarthritis were recruited in this study. The subjects were divided into two groups including APS Therapy (n=37, mean age: 55±13 years old and the routine PT protocol (n=32, mean age: 61±14 years old groups. A 10-session treatment period was carried out for each group; and their pain and swelling were measured at the first, fifth and tenth sessions and also one-month after the last session (follow up. The swelling was measured using measuring the circumference of the knee on the patella, 5 Cm above and 5 Cm below the patella. The routine PT protocol consisted of hot pack, ultrasound, TENS and exercise; and the APS therapy protocol included hot pack, APS Therapy and the same exercise. During the follow up, 50 out of 61 subjects were called on the phone and any pain changes were recorded.Results: In terms of swelling, the results showed significant reduction just on the patella only in the APS Therapy group (P<0.05. Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAPS indicated a significant pain reduction in both groups. However, the APS Therapy group showed significantly pain reduction at the end of sessions five, ten and the follow up session (P<0.05. It was also revealed that while routine PT subjects showed no significant pain changes between the tenth and the follow up session, a gradual pain reduction was seen in the APS therapy group during this period (P<0.05. A gradual dosage reduction was recorded only in the APS therapy group, indicating a slight correlation with pain reduction (r=0.4.Conclusion: The

  20. Study on tobacco use and awareness among marginalized children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Raval

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The current study entailed a survey of children from the lower socioeconomic strata of rural and urban regions of the states of Maharashtra and Assam who are vulnerable to tobacco usage. More than 1700 children were checked for precancerous lesions and 1004 were surveyed for tobacco habits and awareness. Aims: The objective of the survey was to determine and report on all the variant factors affecting the use of tobacco among the underprivileged children population. The aim of the clinical check-up was to detect precancerous lesions in the tobacco-using children at an early treatable stage. Materials and Methods : Awareness lectures and ENT camps were conducted at 12 organizations/community centers. A cross-section of children were interviewed to understand tobacco use among them. All the children were screened for precancerous lesions. Children with suspicious oral lesions were sent for further evaluation at a nearby diagnostic cancer facility. The survey was conducted by trained social workers. Results : The percentage of tobacco users in urban Mumbai was quite low at 4.8% compared with rural Kasara (36% and Assam (76%; and 74.6% of the children were aware that tobacco use was dangerous and harmful to health. The average age of initiation was 9 years. Out of the 1004 children surveyed, 253 were tobacco users and 79% were males. Of the 1700 children screened, 23.5% presented with precancerous oral lesions. Conclusion : This study addresses the tobacco habits of a typical sample of marginalized children in India and the need for effective interventions aiming at reducing the burden of tobacco-related cancers by controlling at the point of initiation.

  1. A study on computerized analysis of verbal protocol during problem solving process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A basic cognitive experiment has been conducted to observe physiological characteristics of on-line human cognitive behavior. During the experiment, three different types of data were recorded from the subjects : (1) eye movement data by eye mark recorder (EMR) (2) ECG, EEG, EDA, etc (3) verbal reports. This paper presents the system development for automatic protocol analysis and its applications for the subject's verbal reports during the problem solving process. It was found that automatic protocol analysis system is effective in objective and detailed analysis of the verbal reports from the subjects. And from the analysis thus for conducted, it was concluded that the human error would originate in the method how the subject memorizes during his/her problem solving process. (author)

  2. Cactus and Visapult: A case study of ultra-high performance distributed visualization using connectionless protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalf, John; Bethel, E. Wes

    2002-05-07

    This past decade has seen rapid growth in the size, resolution, and complexity of Grand Challenge simulation codes. Many such problems still require interactive visualization tools to make sense of multi-terabyte data stores. Visapult is a parallel volume rendering tool that employs distributed components, latency tolerant algorithms, and high performance network I/O for effective remote visualization of massive datasets. In this paper we discuss using connectionless protocols to accelerate Visapult network I/O and interfacing Visapult to the Cactus General Relativity code to enable scalable remote monitoring and steering capabilities. With these modifications, network utilization has moved from 25 percent of line-rate using tuned multi-streamed TCP to sustaining 88 percent of line rate using the new UDP-based transport protocol.

  3. Computational Protocol for Modeling Thermochromic Molecular Crystals: Salicylidene Aniline As a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Davide; Labat, Fréderic; Pedone, Alfonso; Frisch, Michael J; Hratchian, Hrant P; Ciofini, Ilaria; Menziani, Maria Cristina; Adamo, Carlo

    2014-12-01

    A computational protocol that combines periodic and QM/QM' calculations has been applied to investigate the structural (geometrical and electronic) and photophysical absorption properties of the salicylidene aniline (SA) thermochromic molecular crystal. The protocol consists of three different steps, namely (i) the description of the molecular crystal using a periodic approach taking into account dispersion interactions, (ii) the identification of reliable finite models (clusters), and (iii) the calculation of vertical transition energies including environmental effects through the use of an electronic embedding model (QM/QM' ONIOM approach). The encouraging results obtained in this work for the β polymorph of SA, both in terms of accuracy and computational cost, open the way to the simulation and the prediction of the photophysical behavior of other molecular crystals, especially those much less well characterized experimentally. PMID:26583240

  4. Cactus and Visapult: A case study of ultra-high performance distributed visualization using connectionless protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This past decade has seen rapid growth in the size, resolution, and complexity of Grand Challenge simulation codes. Many such problems still require interactive visualization tools to make sense of multi-terabyte data stores. Visapult is a parallel volume rendering tool that employs distributed components, latency tolerant algorithms, and high performance network I/O for effective remote visualization of massive datasets. In this paper we discuss using connectionless protocols to accelerate Visapult network I/O and interfacing Visapult to the Cactus General Relativity code to enable scalable remote monitoring and steering capabilities. With these modifications, network utilization has moved from 25 percent of line-rate using tuned multi-streamed TCP to sustaining 88 percent of line rate using the new UDP-based transport protocol

  5. Declarative Specification of Fault Tolerant Auction Protocols: The English Auction Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragoni, Nicola; Gaspari, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Auction mechanisms are nowadays widely used in electronic commerce Web sites for buying and selling items among different users. The increasing importance of auction protocols in the negotiation phase is not limited to online marketplaces. In fact, the wide applicability of auctions as resource......‐allocation and negotiation mechanisms have also led to a great deal of interest in auctions within the agent community. A challenging issue for agents operating in open Multiagent Systems (such as the emerging semantic Web infrastructure) concerns the specification of declarative communication rules which could...... be published and shared allowing agents to dynamically engage well‐known and trusted negotiation protocols. To cope with real‐world applications, these rules should also specify fault tolerant patterns of interaction, enabling negotiating agents to interact with each other tolerating failures, for...

  6. Integrating addiction treatment into primary care using mobile health technology: protocol for an implementation research study

    OpenAIRE

    Quanbeck, Andrew R.; Gustafson, David H.; Marsch, Lisa A.; McTavish, Fiona; Brown, Randall T.; Mares, Marie-Louise; Johnson, Roberta; Glass, Joseph E.; Atwood, Amy K.; McDowell, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare reform in the United States is encouraging Federally Qualified Health Centers and other primary-care practices to integrate treatment for addiction and other behavioral health conditions into their practices. The potential of mobile health technologies to manage addiction and comorbidities such as HIV in these settings is substantial but largely untested. This paper describes a protocol to evaluate the implementation of an E-Health integrated communication technology del...

  7. Comparative Study of MAC Layer Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lanjewar, Rahul R; D.S.Adane

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is the collection of many small size low cost, battery operated sensor nodes distributed over the targeted region to collect the information of interest. We can say these networks can be a fruitful solution for many applications such as target tracking, intrusion detection etc. Whenever we are talking about MAC layer protocols we need to give stress on energy efficiency factor.

  8. Which dressing do donor site wounds need?: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ubbink Dirk T; Gerbens Louise AA; Brölmann Fleur E; Eskes Anne M; Vermeulen Hester

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Donor site wounds after split-skin grafting are rather 'standard' wounds. At present, lots of dressings and topical agents for donor site wounds are commercially available. This causes large variation in the local care of these wounds, while the optimum 'standard' dressing for local wound care is unclear. This protocol describes a trial in which we investigate the effectiveness of various treatment options for these donor site wounds. Methods A 14-center, six-armed randomi...

  9. Weight-loss intervention using implementation intentions and mental imagery: a randomised control trial study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Hattar, Anne; Hagger, Martin S.; Pal, Sebely

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are major health problems worldwide. This protocol describes the HEALTHI (Healthy Eating and Active LifesTyle Health Intervention) Program, a 12-week randomised-controlled weight-loss intervention that adopts two theory-based intervention techniques, mental imagery and implementation intentions, a behaviour-change technique based on planning that have been shown to be effective in promoting health-behaviour change in previous research. The effectiveness of go...

  10. A Study of Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Sana; Shen, Bin; Islam, S.M. Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2010-01-01

    The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satis...

  11. MObile Technology for Improved Family Planning Services (MOTIF): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, C.; Vannak, U; Sokhey, L; Ngo, TD; Gold, J; Khut, K; Edwards, P.; Rathavy, T; Free, C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Providing women with contraceptive methods following abortion is important to reduce repeat abortion rates, yet evidence for effective post-abortion family planning interventions are limited. This protocol outlines the evaluation of a mobile phone-based intervention using voice messages to support post-abortion family planning in Cambodia. METHODS/DESIGN A single blind randomised controlled trial of 500 participants. Clients aged 18 or over, attending for abortion at four Mari...

  12. Children's environmental knowing: A case study of children's experiences during an environmental education programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sandra Anne

    This study explores children's experiences during WaterWorlds (pseudonym) a field-based environmental education programme at a marine science centre. The study objectives were to investigate how children understand and interpret their experiences, and how these experiences foster their environmental knowing. To address these objectives, I carried out a case study at a marine science centre in British Columbia. I examined children's WaterWorlds experiences and explored their environmental understandings and commitment to environmental action. I analysed the experiences of children in four separate classes and carried out an in-depth examination of four individual children. Data were collected using informal semi-structured interviews, observations, conversations, researcher journal logs, and student documents including their writing and illustrations. My findings indicate that the WaterWorlds programme experience fosters children's environmental knowing. Participation in WaterWorlds activities led to connection, caring, and concern for other species and in some cases, for the marine environment as a whole. During the programme, children chose the ways they interpreted and expressed their environmental knowledge, ethic of care, advocacy, and commitment to action. This development of each child's self-expression resulted in motivational and powerful learning experiences that inspired and nurtured their connections to the earth. This research provides evidence and examples of how educators can foster children's environmental knowing through multi-disciplinary environmental education experiences. It illustrates that activities such as observing and documenting the lives of other animal species, collecting data and conducting research on those species, and working and learning alongside experts in the field of environmental education are powerful experiences that motivate concern and care for the earth among children.

  13. The Dutch ‘Focus on Strength’ intervention study protocol: programme design and production, implementation and evaluation plan

    OpenAIRE

    Ten Hoor, G. A.; Kok, G.; Rutten, G.M.; Ruiter, R. A. C.; Kremers, S. P. J.; Schols, A. M. J. W.; Plasqui, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight youngsters are better in absolute strength exercises than their normal-weight counterparts; a physiological phenomenon with promising psychological impact. In this paper we describe the study protocol of the Dutch, school-based program ‘Focus on Strength’ that aims to improve body composition of 11–13 year old students, and with that to ultimately improve their quality of life. Methods The development of this intervention is based on the Intervention Mapping (IM) protoco...

  14. Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers' sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study

    OpenAIRE

    De Decker, Ellen; De Craemer, Marieke; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verbestel, Vera; Duvinage, Kristin; Iotova, Violeta; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Wildgruber, Andreas; Mouratidou, Theodora; Manios, Yannis; Cardon, Greet

    2014-01-01

    Background: High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing o...

  15. Study protocol for the evaluation of an Infant Simulator based program delivered in schools: a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hart Michael B; Codde James P; Lawrence David; Johnson Sarah E; Brinkman Sally A; Straton Judith AY; Silburn Sven

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a school based program developed to prevent teenage pregnancy. The program includes students taking care of an Infant Simulator; despite growing popularity and an increasing global presence of such programs, there is no published evidence of their long-term impact. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the Virtual Infant Parenting (VIP) program by investigating pre-c...

  16. The effectiveness and safety of plum-blossom needle therapy for Tourette syndrome: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jinna; Ye, Yongming; Li, Shanshan; Liu, Jun; Zhai, Yanbing; Zhang, Min; Liu, Zhishun

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have indicated that acupuncture can alleviate the symptoms of Tourette syndrome (TS), but the evidence is insufficient. So far, there have been no reports on plum-blossom needle therapy for TS. Here we present a protocol for a randomized controlled trial using plum-blossom needle therapy to treat TS. Methods/design Sixty patients will be randomly allocated into either the plum-blossom needle therapy group or the habit reversal training (HRT) group. All patients in ...

  17. The PROblem Gambling RESearch Study (PROGRESS) research protocol: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of psychological interventions for problem gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Shane A; Merkouris, Stephanie S; Browning, Colette J.; Radermacher, Harriet; Feldman, Susan; Enticott, Joanne; Jackson, Alun C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction International prevalence rates for problem gambling are estimated at 2.3%. Problem gambling is a serious global public health concern due to adverse personal and social consequences. Previous research evaluating the effectiveness of psychological interventions for the treatment of problem gambling has been compromised by methodological limitations, including small sample sizes and the use of waitlist control groups. This article describes the study protocol for a pragmatic random...

  18. Perception of Pain Self-efficacy and Fatigue in Greek Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Study Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Paraskevi Theofilou; Vaitsa Giannouli; Stergios Kolias; Magda Tsolaki

    2015-01-01

    The examination of the perception of pain and fatigue in patients with various health problems has received increased research attention in recent years. The aim of the present study protocol is to examine levels of pain self-efficacy and fatigue in a sample of Greek patients suffering from multiple sclerosis. The association of years and severity of diagnosis with the perception of pain self-efficacy and fatigue will be also investigated. Forty patients from the 3nd Neurological Department, ...

  19. The “Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls” randomized controlled trial for girls: study design, protocol, and baseline results

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carolina Barco Leme; Sonia Tucunduva Philippi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the study design, protocol, and baseline results of the “Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls” program. The intervention is being evaluated through a randomized controlled trial in 10 public schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data on the following variables were collected and assessed at baseline and will be reevaluated at 7 and 12 months: body mass index, waist circumference, dietary intake, nutrition, physical activity, social cognitive mediators, ...

  20. Behavioral counseling to prevent childhood obesity – study protocol of a pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care

    OpenAIRE

    Mustila Taina; Keskinen Päivi; Luoto Riitta

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Prevention is considered effective in combating the obesity epidemic. Prenatal environment may increase offspring's risk for obesity. A child starts to adopt food preferences and other behavioral habits affecting weight gain during preschool years. We report the study protocol of a pragmatic lifestyle intervention aiming at primary prevention of childhood obesity. Methods/Design A non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care clinics. The con...

  1. Clean Development Mechanism” projects in the developing countries within the Kyoto protocol: problem analysis of a case study in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Gaglioppa P

    2009-01-01

    An internship period spent in the north of Morocco kingdom (Tetouan) gave a contribute to the organization activity in promoting sustainable development in the rural areas under the Kyoto Protocol. The multitasking project will increase biodiversity planting trees for wood, forage and fruits productions. The paper show a first step study to evaluate the possibility to reach an agreement with the propriety and the manager of these areas in a multifunctional reforestation project. The eligible ...

  2. Efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the prevention of relapse of depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huaning; Xue, Yunyun; Chen, Yunchun; Zhang, Ruiguo; Wang, Huaihai; Zhang, Yahong; Gan, Jingli; Zhang, Liyi; Tan, Qingrong

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a chronic illness that generally requires lifelong therapy. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique with few side effects that has been reported to be useful in the treatment of depression. However, no studies to date have evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) the efficacy of rTMS for maintenance treatment of depression. Methods/design In this article, we report the design and protocol of a randomized, single-blind, pl...

  3. Study protocol: Evaluating the impact of a rural Australian primary health care service on rural health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buykx Penny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural communities throughout Australia are experiencing demographic ageing, increasing burden of chronic diseases, and de-population. Many are struggling to maintain viable health care services due to lack of infrastructure and workforce shortages. Hence, they face significant health disadvantages compared with urban regions. Primary health care yields the best health outcomes in situations characterised by limited resources. However, few rigorous longitudinal evaluations have been conducted to systematise them; assess their transferability; or assess sustainability amidst dynamic health policy environments. This paper describes the study protocol of a comprehensive longitudinal evaluation of a successful primary health care service in a small rural Australian community to assess its performance, sustainability, and responsiveness to changing community needs and health system requirements. Methods/Design The evaluation framework aims to examine the health service over a six-year period in terms of: (a Structural domains (health service performance; sustainability; and quality of care; (b Process domains (health service utilisation and satisfaction; and (c Outcome domains (health behaviours, health outcomes and community viability. Significant international research guided the development of unambiguous reliable indicators for each domain that can be routinely and unobtrusively collected. Data are to be collected and analysed for trends from a range of sources: audits, community surveys, interviews and focus group discussions. Discussion This iterative evaluation framework and methodology aims to ensure the ongoing monitoring of service activity and health outcomes that allows researchers, providers and administrators to assess the extent to which health service objectives are met; the factors that helped or hindered achievements; what worked or did not work well and why; what aspects of the service could be improved and how

  4. Branching Out: Forest Studies with Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argast, Susan; Macdonald, Cheryl

    1996-01-01

    Describes activities which sharpen awareness of trees through the senses in this first of a two-part integrated unit for teaching children about forest ecosystems. Students interact and work in collaborative groups; learn about the impact of forests on daily life; explore the interdependence of plants, animals, soil, water, air, and light; explore…

  5. SCISSOR—Spinal Cord Injury Study on Small molecule-derived Rho inhibition: a clinical study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Marcel A; Liebscher, Thomas; Watzlawick, Ralf; Martus, Peter; Laufer, Stefan; Blex, Christian; Schindler, Ralf; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J; Knüppel, Sven; Kreutzträger, Martin; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Strittmatter, Stephen M; Niedeggen, Andreas; Schwab, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The approved analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs ibuprofen and indometacin block the small GTPase RhoA, a key enzyme that impedes axonal sprouting after axonal damage. Inhibition of the Rho pathway in a central nervous system-effective manner requires higher dosages compared with orthodox cyclooxygenase-blocking effects. Preclinical studies on spinal cord injury (SCI) imply improved motor recovery after ibuprofen/indometacin-mediated Rho inhibition. This has been reassessed by a meta-analysis of the underlying experimental evidence, which indicates an overall effect size of 20.2% regarding motor outcome achieved after ibuprofen/indometacin treatment compared with vehicle controls. In addition, ibuprofen/indometacin may also limit sickness behaviour, non-neurogenic systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), neuropathic pain and heterotopic ossifications after SCI. Consequently, ‘small molecule’-mediated Rho inhibition after acute SCI warrants clinical investigation. Methods and analysis Protocol of an investigator-initiated clinical open-label pilot trial on high-dose ibuprofen treatment after acute traumatic, motor-complete SCI. A sample of n=12 patients will be enrolled in two cohorts treated with 2400 mg/day ibuprofen for 4 or 12 weeks, respectively. The primary safety end point is an occurrence of serious adverse events, primarily gastroduodenal bleedings. Secondary end points are pharmacokinetics, feasibility and preliminary effects on neurological recovery, neuropathic pain and heterotopic ossifications. The primary safety analysis is based on the incidence of severe gastrointestinal bleedings. Additional analyses will be mainly descriptive and casuistic. Ethics and dissemination The clinical trial protocol was approved by the responsible German state Ethics Board, and the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices. The study complies with the Declaration of Helsinki, the principles of Good Clinical Practice and all further

  6. The study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a family-centred tobacco control program about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segan Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illness (ARI is the most common cause of acute presentations and hospitalisations of young Indigenous children in Australia and New Zealand (NZ. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS from household smoking is a significant and preventable contributor to childhood ARI. This paper describes the protocol for a study which aims to test the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program about ETS to improve the respiratory health of Indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand. For the purpose of this paper 'Indigenous' refers to Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples when referring to Australian Indigenous populations. In New Zealand, the term 'Indigenous' refers to Māori. Methods/Design This study will be a parallel, randomized, controlled trial. Participants will be Indigenous women and their infants, half of whom will be randomly allocated to an 'intervention' group, who will receive the tobacco control program over three home visits in the first three months of the infant's life and half to a control group receiving 'usual care' (i.e. they will not receive the tobacco control program. Indigenous health workers will deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to reduce or eliminate infant exposure to ETS. Data collection will occur at baseline (shortly after birth and when the infant is four months and one year of age. The primary outcome is a doctor-diagnosed, documented case of respiratory illness in participating infants. Discussion Interventions aimed at reducing exposure of Indigenous children to ETS have the potential for significant benefits for Indigenous communities. There is currently a dearth of evidence for the effect of tobacco control interventions to reduce children's exposure to ETS among Indigenous populations. This study will provide high-quality evidence of the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program on ETS to reduce respiratory illness. Outcomes of

  7. A Study On Parental Anxiety Among Visually Impaired And Normal Children

    OpenAIRE

    Nivedha Lakshmi; Zahida Jabeen

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to find out the parental anxiety among the visually impaired children and normal children. In the present investigation, 120 visually impaired children and normal children and their parents were selected. Equal number of 60 subjects belonged to the group of visually impaired children and normal children. Of which 30 were males and females in each group. Both fathers and mothers of these children were selected for the present study. The results of the present stud...

  8. A Study On Parental Anxiety Among Visually Impaired And Normal Children

    OpenAIRE

    Nivedha Lakshmi and Zahida Jabeen

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to find out the parental anxiety among the visually impaired children and normal children. In the present investigation, 120 visually impaired children and normal children and their parents were selected. Equal number of 60 subjects belonged to the group of visually impaired children and normal children. Of which 30 were males and females in each group. Both fathers and mothers of these children were selected for the present study. The results of the pr...

  9. The FLASSH study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial evaluating falls prevention after stroke and two sub-studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackintosh Shylie F

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are common in stroke survivors returning home after rehabilitation, however there is currently a lack of evidence about preventing falls in this population. This paper describes the study protocol for the FLASSH (FaLls prevention After Stroke Survivors return Home project. Methods and design This randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-factorial falls prevention program for stroke survivors who are at high risk of falling when they return home after rehabilitation. Intervention will consist of a home exercise program as well as individualised falls prevention and injury minimisation strategies based on identified risk factors for falls. Additionally, two sub-studies will be implemented in order to explore other key areas related to falls in this population. The first of these is a longitudinal study evaluating the relationship between fear of falling, falls and function over twelve months, and the second evaluates residual impairment in gait stability and obstacle crossing twelve months after discharge from rehabilitation. Discussion The results of the FLASSH project will inform falls prevention practice for stroke survivors. If the falls prevention program is shown to be effective, low cost strategies to prevent falls can be implemented for those at risk around the time of discharge from rehabilitation, thus improving safety and quality of life for stroke survivors. The two sub-studies will contribute to the overall understanding and management of falls risk in stroke survivors. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN012607000398404.

  10. Case study Early psychomotor development of children from triple pregnancy – case study

    OpenAIRE

    Łucja Bieleninik; Mariola Bidzan; Aneta Koszewska

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the specificity and dynamics of psychomotor development in children from triplet pregnancy. The studied group was composed of siblings from triple pregnancy (T1, T2, T3), including two girls and one boy. This longitudinal study comprised three stages: stage I – children aged 25 months, stage II – children aged 29 months, and stage III – children aged 38 months. At each stage, the psychomotor development of children was examined with the Third Edition ...

  11. Developing experimental protocols for chronic irradiation studies: the application of a good practice guide framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EC-funded FASSET (Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact) project collated information on the transfer, dosimetry, and effects of ionising radiation on wildlife. A major output from the project is the FASSET Radiation Effects Database (FRED). A review of the information contained within FRED highlighted that information on the effects of low-dose, chronic exposure was, at best, fragmentary. However, these data are required to define the dose effect relationships needed to underpin the assessment tools that are being developed. To address this requirement, a series of four Good Practice Guides (GPGs) has been produced as part of a protocol development framework. This framework aims to harmonise experimental approaches, with a view to ensuring that all necessary data on appropriate endpoints are collected, so that dose effect relationships can be determined. The GPGs cover test species selection, endpoint selection, radiation exposure and experimental design considerations. A key is used to guide researchers through the GPGs and the decisions made are recorded on an output pro-forma. The completed pro-forma forms the basis of the experimental protocol. The pro-forma also indicates the information that should be included when presenting the results of the experiment. Standardising approaches ensures that results are comparable between experiments and that they are suitable for determining dose effect relationships. This protocol development framework has been adopted by the UK Environment Agency as a document upon which future Agency-funded experimental work on the effects of chronic, low-level exposure to ionising radiation will be based. It is hoped that the framework will gain acceptance in the wider scientific community and facilitate addressing the knowledge gaps that have been identified in order that successful protection of non-human biota can be demonstrated. (author)

  12. Manualized social skills group training for children and adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder: protocol of a naturalistic multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Choque Olsson, Nora; Tammimies, Kristiina; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    AbstractAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication and interaction, and the presence of stereotyped, repetitive and restricted behavior, interests, and activities. Despite prior studies showing moderate efficacy of social skills group training (SSGT) for children and adolescents with ASD, its effectiveness remains unclear. To investigate the efficacy and effectiveness of SSGT, we have initiated a large randomiz...

  13. Myeloproliferative disease in children: a demographic study.

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, M. M.; Saunders, P. W.; Kernahan, J

    1988-01-01

    Over eight years, eight cases of childhood myeloproliferative disease were recognised in the northern region of England (population 3.1 million). Five were classic chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and the three others, forms of myeloproliferative disease. No case of juvenile CML was recognised. With the exception of CML, "adult" type myeloproliferative disease of children is underrepresented in the literature and its natural history remains unknown.

  14. The market for tradable GHG permits under the Kyoto Protocol: a survey of model studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gathers results from 25 models of the market for tradable greenhouse gas (GHG) emission permits under the Kyoto Protocol. Due to diverging projections of emissions growth and different modeling approaches, the model results differ substantially. The average market volume is approximately 17 and 33 billion USD under global trading and Annex B trading, respectively. Including non-carbon GHG lowers compliance costs and permit prices. In the absence of the US, permit demand roughly equals 'hot air' from the former Soviet Union. These countries can increase their revenues from selling permits by restricting supply, which raises the permit price. (author)

  15. The market for tradable GHG permits under the Kyoto Protocol. A survey of model studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gathers results from 25 models of the market for tradable greenhouse gas (GHG) emission permits under the Kyoto Protocol. Due to diverging projections of emissions growth and different modeling approaches, the model results differ substantially. The average market volume is approximately 17 and 33 billion USD under global trading and Annex B trading, respectively. Including non-carbon GHG lowers compliance costs and permit prices. In the absence of the US, permit demand roughly equals 'hot air' from the former Soviet Union. These countries can increase their revenues from selling permits by restricting supply, which raises the permit price

  16. Kaduna Beggar Children: A Study of Child Abuse and Neglect in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanuga, Durrenda Nash

    1990-01-01

    Pilot study reports on use of children as street beggars in Kaduna, Nigeria. Begging usually occurs because children's parents are poor, disabled. Children may also be handicapped. Other child beggars are poor boys studying with Koranic mallams; children must provide own food and money for lessons by begging. Measures to assist beggar children are…

  17. Study on CT changes in autistic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1979 we have performed CT examinations on 132 autistic children. Neurological diagnosis of the lesion was established by Dr. Segawa's group. On the CT of many autistic children, we found a small low density change located in the anterior wall of the temporal horn, or localized dilatation of the inferior horn near the damaged brain. We reviewed 96 of these patients who all had the obvious low density changes, or localized irregular dilatations in the anterior wall of the temporal horn. By measuring the distance of damage from the midline, we divided the 96 cases into two groups. Group 1 consisted of those with damage located laterally more than 30 mm line from the midline. Group 2 consisted of those with damage medially to the 30 mm line from the midline. Those cases with a large lesion both laterally and medially of the 30 mm line were categorized into group 1. In the adult brain the lateral border of the amygdaloid nucleus was never located laterally more than 30 mm from the midline. Laterally over the 30 mm line there were two marked fiber systems running near the anterior wall of the temporal horn: the fiber of the anterior commissure and the uncinate fascicle. Group 1 consisted of 62 patients and group 2 of 34 patients. The majority of the two group patients were pure autism children. This suggested that the main lesion in autism was in the amygdala. (author)

  18. Early Intervention with a Parent-Delivered Massage Protocol Directed at Tactile Abnormalities Decreases Severity of Autism and Improves Child-to-Parent Interactions: A Replication Study

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Louisa M. T.; Mark Schalock; Gabrielsen, Kristen R.; Budden, Sarojini S.; Martha Buenrostro; Gretchen Horton

    2015-01-01

    Tactile abnormalities are severe and universal in preschool children with autism. They respond well to treatment with a daily massage protocol directed at tactile abnormalities (QST massage for autism). Treatment is based on a model for autism proposing that tactile impairment poses a barrier to development. Two previous randomized controlled trials evaluating five months of massage treatment reported improvement of behavior, social/communication skills, and tactile and other sensory symptoms...

  19. Clean Development Mechanism” projects in the developing countries within the Kyoto protocol: problem analysis of a case study in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaglioppa P

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An internship period spent in the north of Morocco kingdom (Tetouan gave a contribute to the organization activity in promoting sustainable development in the rural areas under the Kyoto Protocol. The multitasking project will increase biodiversity planting trees for wood, forage and fruits productions. The paper show a first step study to evaluate the possibility to reach an agreement with the propriety and the manager of these areas in a multifunctional reforestation project. The eligible site suitable for reforestation in accordance with the CDM international scheme is a large plateau (more than 5000 hectares 600 meters high on the sea level far from the Cannabis crops area. The evaluation of the project costs and of the social benefits for the population consider (using different species the indigenous communities necessity. The evaluation of carbon sequestration show the small scale of the reforestation project on behalf of the Kyoto Protocol, but give also an idea about the people rights and necessities. The normal afforestation and reforestation projects, under the Kyoto Protocol, try to maximize the CO2 sequestration in a short time, than business laws usually require. A small scale project could be self-managing, less expensive (international certification costs and more interesting for local communities.

  20. Developing a comprehensive presurgical functional MRI protocol for patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our aim was to put together and test a comprehensive functional MRI (fMRI) protocol which could compete with the intracarotid amytal (IAT) or Wada test for the localisation of language and memory function in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. The protocol was designed to be performed in under 1 h on a standard 1.5 tesla imager. We used five paradigms to test nine healthy right-handed subjects: complex scene-encoding, picture-naming, reading, word-generation and semantic-decision tasks. The combination of these tasks generated two activation maps related to memory in the mesial temporal lobes, and three language-related maps of activation in a major part of the known language network. The functional maps from the encoding and naming tasks showed typical and symmetrical posterior mesial temporal lobe activation related to memory in all subjects. Only four of nine subjects also showed symmetrical anterior hippocampal activation. Language lateralisation was best with the word generation and reading paradigms and proved possible in all subjects. The reading paradigm enables localisation of language function in the left anterior temporal pole and middle temporal gyrus, areas typically resected during epilepsy surgery. The combined results of this comprehensive f MRI protocol are adequate for a comparative study with the IAT in patients with epilepsy being assessed for surgery. (orig.)