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Sample records for children practiced fundamental

  1. Photovoltaics fundamentals, technology and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mertens, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    Concise introduction to the basic principles of solar energy, photovoltaic systems, photovoltaic cells, photovoltaic measurement techniques, and grid connected systems, overviewing the potential of photovoltaic electricity for students and engineers new to the topic After a brief introduction to the topic of photovoltaics' history and the most important facts, Chapter 1 presents the subject of radiation, covering properties of solar radiation, radiation offer, and world energy consumption. Chapter 2 looks at the fundamentals of semiconductor physics. It discusses the build-up of semiconducto

  2. Fundamentals of Business Economics Practical Exercises

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Practical exercises for the subject Fundamentals of Business Economics. Degree of Business Administration. Faculty of Economics. University of Alicante. En el marco de las ayudas de preparación de materiales docentes en inglés. Se incluyen los ejercicios prácticos, preguntas y problemas de la asignatura Fundamentos de Economía de la Empresa en su version en lengua inglesa.

  3. Fundamentals of Business Economics Practical Exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Mas Marco, José

    2013-01-01

    Practical exercises for the subject Fundamentals of Business Economics. Degree of Business Administration. Faculty of Economics. University of Alicante. En el marco de las ayudas de preparación de materiales docentes en inglés. Se incluyen los ejercicios prácticos, preguntas y problemas de la asignatura Fundamentos de Economía de la Empresa en su version en lengua inglesa.

  4. Plasma Astrophysics, Part I Fundamentals and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Somov, Boris V

    2012-01-01

    This two-part book is devoted to classic fundamentals and current practices and perspectives of modern plasma astrophysics. This first part uniquely covers all the basic principles and practical tools required for understanding and work in plasma astrophysics. More than 25% of the text is updated from the first edition, including new figures, equations and entire sections on topics such as magnetic reconnection and the Grad-Shafranov equation. The book is aimed at professional researchers in astrophysics, but it will also be useful to graduate students in space sciences, geophysics, applied physics and mathematics, especially those seeking a unified view of plasma physics and fluid mechanics.

  5. Plasma Astrophysics, Part I Fundamentals and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Somov, Boris V

    2006-01-01

    This well-illustrated monograph is devoted to classic fundamentals, current practice, and perspectives of modern plasma astrophysics. The first part is unique in covering all the basic principles and practical tools required for understanding and working in plasma astrophysics. The second part presents the physics of magnetic reconnection and flares of electromagnetic origin in space plasmas within the solar system; single and double stars, relativistic objects, accretion disks, and their coronae are also covered. This book is designed mainly for professional researchers in astrophysics. However, it will also be interesting and useful to graduate students in space sciences, geophysics, as well as advanced students in applied physics and mathematics seeking a unified view of plasma physics and fluid mechanics.

  6. Fundamentals of modern mathematics a practical review

    CERN Document Server

    MacNeil, David B

    2013-01-01

    Students and others wishing to know more about the practical side of mathematics will find this volume a highly informative resource. Accessible explanations of important concepts feature worked examples and diagrams. 1963 edition.

  7. Machining dynamics fundamentals, applications and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Kai

    2008-01-01

    Machining dynamics are vital to the performance of machine tools and machining processes in manufacturing. This book discusses the state-of-the-art applications, practices and research in machining dynamics. It presents basic theory, analysis and control methodology. It is useful for manufacturing engineers, supervisors, engineers and designers.

  8. Finnie's notes on fracture mechanics fundamental and practical lessons

    CERN Document Server

    Dharan, C K H; Finnie, Iain

    2016-01-01

    This textbook consists primarily of notes by Iain Finnie who taught a popular course on fracture mechanics at the University of California at Berkeley. It presents a comprehensive and detailed exposition of fracture, the fundamentals of fracture mechanics and procedures for the safe design of engineering components made from metal alloys, brittle materials like glasses and ceramics, and composites. Interesting and practical problems are listed at the end of most chapters to give the student practice in applying the theory. A solutions manual is provided to the instructor. The text presents a unified perspective of fracture with a strong fundamental foundation and practical applications. In addition to its role as a text, this reference would be invaluable for the practicing engineer who is involved in the design and evaluation of components that are fracture critical. This book also: Presents details of derivations of the basic equations of fracture mechanics and the historical context of the development of f...

  9. U.S. Geological Survey Fundamental Science Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The USGS has a long and proud tradition of objective, unbiased science in service to the Nation. A reputation for impartiality and excellence is one of our most important assets. To help preserve this vital asset, in 2004 the Executive Leadership Team (ELT) of the USGS was charged by the Director to develop a set of fundamental science practices, philosophical premises, and operational principles as the foundation for all USGS research and monitoring activities. In a concept document, 'Fundamental Science Practices of the U.S. Geological Survey', the ELT proposed 'a set of fundamental principles to underlie USGS science practices.' The document noted that protecting the reputation of USGS science for quality and objectivity requires the following key elements: - Clearly articulated, Bureau-wide fundamental science practices. - A shared understanding at all levels of the organization that the health and future of the USGS depend on following these practices. - The investment of budget, time, and people to ensure that the USGS reputation and high-quality standards are maintained. The USGS Fundamental Science Practices (FSP) encompass all elements of research investigations, including data collection, experimentation, analysis, writing results, peer review, management review, and Bureau approval and publication of information products. The focus of FSP is on how science is carried out and how products are produced and disseminated. FSP is not designed to address the question of what work the USGS should do; that is addressed in USGS science planning handbooks and other documents. Building from longstanding existing USGS policies and the ELT concept document, in May 2006, FSP policies were developed with input from all parts of the organization and were subsequently incorporated into the Bureau's Survey Manual. In developing an implementation plan for FSP policy, the intent was to recognize and incorporate the best of USGS current practices to obtain the optimum

  10. Heat pipes and solid sorption transformations fundamentals and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vasiliev, LL

    2013-01-01

    Developing clean energy and utilizing waste energy has become increasingly vital. Research targeting the advancement of thermally powered adsorption cooling technologies has progressed in the past few decades, and the awareness of fuel cells and thermally activated (heat pipe heat exchangers) adsorption systems using natural refrigerants and/or alternatives to hydrofluorocarbon-based refrigerants is becoming ever more important. Heat Pipes and Solid Sorption Transformations: Fundamentals and Practical Applications concentrates on state-of-the-art adsorption research and technologies for releva

  11. 13C-based metabolic flux analysis: fundamentals and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Isotope-based metabolic flux analysis is one of the emerging technologies applied to system level metabolic phenotype characterization in metabolic engineering. Among the developed approaches, (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis has been established as a standard tool and has been widely applied to quantitative pathway characterization of diverse biological systems. To implement (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis in practice, comprehending the underlying mathematical and computational modeling fundamentals is of importance along with carefully conducted experiments and analytical measurements. Such knowledge is also crucial when designing (13)C-labeling experiments and properly acquiring key data sets essential for in vivo flux analysis implementation. In this regard, the modeling fundamentals of (13)C-labeling systems and analytical data processing are the main topics we will deal with in this chapter. Along with this, the relevant numerical optimization techniques are addressed to help implementation of the entire computational procedures aiming at (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis in vivo.

  12. Fundamental solutions of linear partial differential operators theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Ortner, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    This monograph provides the theoretical foundations needed for the construction of fundamental solutions and fundamental matrices of (systems of) linear partial differential equations. Many illustrative examples also show techniques for finding such solutions in terms of integrals. Particular attention is given to developing the fundamentals of distribution theory, accompanied by calculations of fundamental solutions. The main part of the book deals with existence theorems and uniqueness criteria, the method of parameter integration, the investigation of quasihyperbolic systems by means of Fourier and Laplace transforms, and the representation of fundamental solutions of homogeneous elliptic operators with the help of Abelian integrals. In addition to rigorous distributional derivations and verifications of fundamental solutions, the book also shows how to construct fundamental solutions (matrices) of many physically relevant operators (systems), in elasticity, thermoelasticity, hexagonal/cubic elastodynamics...

  13. Radiation Belt Storm Probes: Resolving Fundamental Physics with Practical Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Mauk, Barry H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Sibeck, David G.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental processes that energize, transport, and cause the loss of charged particles operate throughout the universe at locations as diverse as magnetized planets, the solar wind, our Sun, and other stars. The same processes operate within our immediate environment, the Earth's radiation belts. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will provide coordinated two-spacecraft observations to obtain understanding of these fundamental processes controlling the dynamic variability of the near-Earth radiation environment. In this paper we discuss some of the profound mysteries of the radiation belt physics that will be addressed by RBSP and briefly describe the mission and its goals.

  14. Practical Application of Fundamental Concepts in Exercise Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsbottom R.; Kinch, R. F. T.; Morris, M. G.; Dennis, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    The collection of primary data in laboratory classes enhances undergraduate practical and critical thinking skills. The present article describes the use of a lecture program, running in parallel with a series of linked practical classes, that emphasizes classical or standard concepts in exercise physiology. The academic and practical program ran…

  15. Developing fundamental principles for teacher education programs and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthagen, F.; Loughran, J.; Russell, T.

    2006-01-01

    Traditional approaches to teacher education are increasingly critiqued for their limited relationship to student teachers’ needs and for their meager impact on practice. Many pleas are heard for a radical new and effective pedagogy of teacher education in which theory and practice are linked effecti

  16. Fundamental Movement Skills among Iranian Primary School Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Aalizadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the relationship between anthropometric indicators, physical activity (PA and socioeconomic status (SES with fundamental movement skills (FMS among Iranian male students.In this descriptive study, based on SES scores, 241 students (7-10 years were randomly selected and classified in high, medium and low groups. All children were measured by 8 morphology anthropometric measures. In order to examine a subset of manipulative skills and to measure physical activity and socioeconomic status, Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD2 and, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used, respectively. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regression.There was a significant positive correlation between SES and body mass index (BMI, while a significant negative correlation existed between PA and BMI. Object control skills were significantly correlated with height, foot length, forearm length, hand length and physical activity.Students with low socioeconomic status were more qualified in movements than other students who were in medium and high socioeconomic status. Therefore, parents need to encourage students to be more active in order to prevent obesity and to facilitate development of object control skills in high socioeconomic status.

  17. Fundamentals of Value Based Management in practice of Quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szczepańska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the practical aspects of using the theory of value management in quality management. Presents the essence of value based management (VBM as a background of reflection on its links with quality management. Coherence of the concept in practice, been reviewed in the author’s own studies. The discovery of absence of sufficient procedural structure of the metrics of an economic – financial, to measure the value of the quality management system, points to a gap between the theoretical and practical considerations in managing the value of the company quality management system.  

  18. Software for people fundamentals, trends and best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Maedche, Alexander; Neer, Ludwig

    2012-01-01

    The highly competitive and globalized software market is creating pressure on software companies. Given the current boundary conditions, it is critical to continuously increase time-to-market and reduce development costs. In parallel, driven by private life experiences with mobile computing devices, the World Wide Web and software-based services, people, general expectations with regards to software are growing. They expect software that is simple and joyful to use. In the light of the changes that have taken place in recent years, software companies need to fundamentally reconsider the way th

  19. Reducing errors benefits the field-based learning of a fundamental movement skill in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, C M; Poolton, J M; Sit, C H P; Holmstrom, M; Masters, R S W

    2013-03-01

    Proficient fundamental movement skills (FMS) are believed to form the basis of more complex movement patterns in sports. This study examined the development of the FMS of overhand throwing in children through either an error-reduced (ER) or error-strewn (ES) training program. Students (n = 216), aged 8-12 years (M = 9.16, SD = 0.96), practiced overhand throwing in either a program that reduced errors during practice (ER) or one that was ES. ER program reduced errors by incrementally raising the task difficulty, while the ES program had an incremental lowering of task difficulty. Process-oriented assessment of throwing movement form (Test of Gross Motor Development-2) and product-oriented assessment of throwing accuracy (absolute error) were performed. Changes in performance were examined among children in the upper and lower quartiles of the pretest throwing accuracy scores. ER training participants showed greater gains in movement form and accuracy, and performed throwing more effectively with a concurrent secondary cognitive task. Movement form improved among girls, while throwing accuracy improved among children with low ability. Reduced performance errors in FMS training resulted in greater learning than a program that did not restrict errors. Reduced cognitive processing costs (effective dual-task performance) associated with such approach suggest its potential benefits for children with developmental conditions.

  20. Fundamental literature and hot topics on rural left-behind children in China: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Wei, Y; Ma, Y; Wang, T

    2016-11-01

    Recently, the literature on rural left-behind children in China has rapidly grown. However, no comprehensive review of the status of knowledge on the issue exists. A co-cited network map of 327 studies (covering 1998 through 2014) drawn from the Chinese Social Studies Citation Index database was analysed. Using visualization software, the results identified three fundamental studies on the issue and four hot topics: interventions, deviant behaviours, mental health and family childrearing strategies. The analysis found that knowledge on this topic could be furthered by (1) focusing on protective factors and (2) integrating disciplines by standardizing concepts and measures. These study's results are an important reference for the development of theories, practices and policies regarding rural left-behind children in China. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. "Fundamental communication skills in medical practice" as minor elective subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalihić, Amra; Černi Obrdalj, Edita

    2014-01-01

    Poor and inadequate communication affects the therapeutic relationship between doctors and patients. Guided by this idea, we organized a minor elective course entitled "communication skills". We wanted to bring closer to the students the holistic approach of the family physician to the patient, the importance of the family, its impact on the patient and vice versa, and the significance of the local community and its influence on an individual's health. The aim of this article is to explain how we organized this elective course. The course was organized in the form of 12 hours of theory (3 lectures and 9 seminars) and 24 hours of practical training. There were 26 students from all years. Through theory, and even more through the practical part the students met with different types of patients. At the end of the course, students in lower years were evaluated by means of an interview, and graduate students through a practical test - a conversation with a patient. The initial results, including the students' grading of this course, were highly encouraging. Both teachers and students were highly satisfied on completion of the course. Content on communication training is rare in teaching. Practicing communication skills will empower the doctor - patient therapeutic relationship. Copyright © 2014 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  2. Practical application of fundamental concepts in exercise physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsbottom, R; Kinch, R F T; Morris, M G; Dennis, A M

    2007-12-01

    The collection of primary data in laboratory classes enhances undergraduate practical and critical thinking skills. The present article describes the use of a lecture program, running in parallel with a series of linked practical classes, that emphasizes classical or standard concepts in exercise physiology. The academic and practical program ran under the title of a particular year II module named Sports Performance: Physiology and Assessment, and results are presented over a 3-yr period (2004-2006), based on an undergraduate population of 31 men and 34 women. The module compared laboratory-based indexes of endurance (e.g., ventilatory threshold and exercise economy) and high-intensity exercise (e.g., anaerobic power), respectively, with measures of human performance (based on 20-m shuttle run tests). The specific experimental protocols reinforced the lecture content to improve student understanding of the physiological and metabolic responses (and later adaptations) to exercise. In the present study, the strongest relationship with endurance performance was the treadmill velocity at maximal aerobic power (r = +0.88, P exercise performance was the mean power output (in W/kg) measured during a 30-s all-out cycle ergometer sprint (r = +0.80, P exercise response between men and women.

  3. Secret Key Agreement: Fundamental Limits and Practical Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2017-02-15

    Despite the tremendous progress made toward establishing PLS as a new paradigm to guarantee security of communication systems at the physical layerthere is a common belief among researchers and industrials that there are many practical challenges that prevent PLS from flourishing at the industrial scale. Most secure message transmission constructions available to date are tied to strong assumptions on CSI, consider simple channel models and undermine eavesdropping capabilities; thus compromising their practical interest to a big extent. Perhaps arguably, the most likely reasonable way to leverage PLS potential in securing modern wireless communication systems is via secret-key agreement. In the latter setting, the legitimate parties try to agree on a key exploiting availability of a public channel with high capacity which is also accessible to the eavesdropper. Once a key is shared by the legitimate parties, they may use it in a one-time pad encryption, for instance. In this article, we investigate two performance limits of secret-key agreement communications; namely, the secret-key diversity-multiplexing trade-off and the effect of transmit correlation on the secretkey capacity. We show via examples how secretkey agreement offers more flexibility than secure message transmissions. Finally, we explore a few challenges of secret-key agreement concept and propose a few guidelines to overturn them.

  4. Fundamental and practical limits of planar tracking solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grede, Alex J; Price, Jared S; Giebink, Noel C

    2016-12-26

    Planar microtracking provides an alternate paradigm for solar concentration that offers the possibility of realizing high-efficiency embedded concentrating photovoltaic systems in the form factor of standard photovoltaic panels. Here, we investigate the thermodynamic limit of planar tracking optical concentrators and establish that they can, in principal, achieve the sine limit of their orientationally-tracked counterparts provided that the receiver translates a minimum distance set by the field of view half-angle. We develop a phase space methodology to optimize practical planar tracking concentrators and apply it to the design of a two surface, catadioptric system that operates with > 90% optical efficiency over a 140° field of view at geometric gains exceeding 1000×. These results provide a reference point for subsequent developments in the field and indicate that planar microtracking can achieve the high optical concentration ratio required in commercial concentrating photovoltaic systems.

  5. Delivering research data management services fundamentals of good practice

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Sarah; Whyte, Angus

    2014-01-01

    The research landscape is changing, with key global research funders now requiring institutions to demonstrate how they will preserve and share research data. However, the practice of structured research data management is very new, and the construction of services remains experimental and in need of models and standards of approach. This groundbreaking guide will lead researchers, institutions and policy makers through the processes needed to set up and run effective institutional research data management services. This book will provide a step-by-step explanation of the components for an institutional service - effectively a 'how to guide'. Case studies from the newly emerging service infrastructures in the UK, USA and Australia will draw out the lessons learnt from working (or near to delivery) exemplars. Different approaches are highlighted and compared, for example, a case study of a researcher-focused strategy from Australia contrasted with a national, top-down approach. A chapter on the redeveloped UK ...

  6. Polymers and electromagnetic radiation fundamentals and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schnabel, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    This first book to cover the interaction of polymers with radiation from the entire electromagnetic spectrum adopts a multidisciplinary approach to bridge polymer chemistry and physics, photochemistry, photophysics and materials science. The text is equally unique in its scope, devoting equal amounts of attention to the three aspects of synthesis, characterization, and applications. The first part deals with the interaction of polymers with non-ionizing radiation in the frequency-range from sub-terahertz via infrared radiation to visible and ultraviolet light, while the second covers interaction with ionizing radiation from the extreme ultraviolet to X-ray photons. The result is a systematic overview of how both types of radiation can be used for different polymerization approaches, spectroscopy methods and lithography techniques. Authored by a world-renowned researcher and teacher with over 40 years of experience in the field, this is a highly practical and authoritative guide.

  7. Fundamental Questions of Practical Cosmology Exploring the Realm of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshev, Yurij

    2012-01-01

    This book guides readers (astronomers, physicists, and university students) through central questions of Practical Cosmology, a term used by the late Allan Sandage to denote the modern scientific endeavor to find the cosmological model best describing the universe of galaxies, its geometry, size, age, and matter composition. The authors draw on their personal experience in astrophysics and cosmology to explain key concepts of cosmology, both observational and theoretical, and to highlight several items which give cosmology its special character. These highlighted items are: - Idiosyncratic features of the “cosmic laboratory” - Malmquist bias in the determination of cosmic distances - Theory of gravitation as a cornerstone of cosmological models - Crucial tests for checking the reality of space expansion - Methods of analyzing the structures of the universe as mapped by galaxies -  Usefulness of fractals as a model to describe the large-scale structure - New cosmological physics inherent in the Frie...

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Evaluating the Measurement Uncertainty: Fundamentals and practical guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Ignacio

    2003-08-01

    on to treat evaluation of expanded uncertainty, joint treatment of several measurands, least-squares adjustment, curve fitting and more. Chapter 6 is devoted to Bayesian inference. Perhaps one can say that Evaluating the Measurement Uncertainty caters to a wider reader-base than the GUM; however, a mathematical or statistical background is still advantageous. Also, this is not a book with a library of worked overall uncertainty evaluations for various measurements; the feel of the book is rather theoretical. The novice will still have some work to do—but this is a good place to start. I think this book is a fitting companion to the GUM because the text complements the GUM, from fundamental principles to more sophisticated measurement situations, and moreover includes intelligent discussion regarding intent and interpretation. Evaluating the Measurement Uncertainty is detailed, and I think most metrologists will really enjoy the detail and care put into this book. Jennifer Decker

  9. Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity among Children with and without Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Masters, Rich S. W.

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency is believed to influence children's physical activity (PA), with those more proficient tending to be more active. Children with cerebral palsy (CP), who represent the largest diagnostic group treated in pediatric rehabilitation, have been found to be less active than typically developing children. This…

  10. POLYGON - A NEW FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS TEST FOR 8 YEAR OLD CHILDREN: CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Zuvela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005. The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97 and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98 and, therefore, confirmed the test's intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the "Test of Gross Motor Development" (TGMD-2. Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice.

  11. Methodological and theoretical fundamentals of the research: Relationships between family educational practices, parents’s family social climate of and development of social skills in children between 2 and 3 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Isaza Valencia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show a reflection on the convenient method to develop a research which has as object the family. It presents an analysis about the different epistemic approaches, starting from the concept of paradigm by Kuhn and several authors that allow establishing the meetings or disagreement points about this research, specifically, about parenting practices, and social - family weather, based on a psychological point of view. The text shows, as conclusion, that the two principal epistemic approaches have a common point of view: the interaction with different environments represents a direct influence to children’s develope processes. These research variables can be supported by the ecologic theory, by Bronfelbrenner and the historical-cultural theory by Vigotsky.

  12. Preschool Children's Fundamental Motor Skills: A Review of Significant Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iivonen, S.; Sääkslahti, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental motor skills (FMS) affect children's physical, social, and cognitive development. To plan successful interventions when promoting the development of children's FMS, the underlying positive determinants for the acquisition of FMS competence during preschool years need to be identified. The purpose of this systematic review was…

  13. Does Weight Status Influence Associations between Children's Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Clare; Okely, Anthony; Bagley, Sarah; Telford, Amanda; Booth, Michael; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether weight status influences the association among children's fundamental movement skills (FMS) and physical activity (PA). Two hundred forty-eight children ages 9-12 years participated. Proficiency in three object-control skills and two locomotor skills was examined. Accelerometers objectively assessed physical…

  14. Measurement-induced two-qubit entanglement in a bad cavity: Fundamental and practical considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julsgaard, Brian; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    An entanglement-generating protocol is described for two qubits coupled to a cavity field in the bad-cavity limit. By measuring the amplitude of a field transmitted through the cavity, an entangled spin-singlet state can be established probabilistically. Both fundamental limitations and practical...

  15. Jogo e letramento: crianças de 6 anos no ensino fundamental Play and literacy: six-year-old children in fundamental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tizuko Morchida Kishimoto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se uma prática curricular em que se alia o jogo ao processo de letramento no primeiro ano do ensino fundamental de nove anos da Escola de Aplicação da USP. A análise do currículo assentado no lúdico como atividade importante para o letramento pode representar a possibilidade de integração de crianças de 6 anos e a superação dos desalinhos curriculares no âmbito da política pública de ampliação do ensino fundamental. A investigação, de caráter qualitativo, pautou-se em dados do acompanhamento das cinco turmas de primeiro ano do ensino fundamental de nove anos do período de 2006 a 2010, com análise do plano de ensino, registros de desempenho das crianças, entrevistas com pais, depoimentos orais de crianças, registros da professora e relatórios da brinquedoteca. Os dados indicam que o currículo implementado, em seus aspectos estruturais e pedagógicos, atende as necessidades das crianças, ajusta-se às concepções de atividade, mediações e uso de jogos imaginários com apoio de signos e artefatos. Constatou-se que as mediações são mais adequadas quando há dois docentes para desenvolver atividades relacionadas à pedagogia de jogos destinados ao letramento. No plano das políticas públicas, a implementação dessa prática exigirá atenção para os aspectos estruturais e pedagógicos.The article discusses a curriculum practice in which playing is associated to the literacy process in the first year of the nine-year fundamental schooling at the School of Application of the University of São Paulo. A curriculum analysis grounded on the ludic as an important activity for literacy can improve the possibility of integration of six-year-olds, and help to overcome the curriculum disarray observed in public policies for the extension of fundamental education. The investigation, of a qualitative nature, was based on information collected with the five first-year classes of the nine-year fundamental education during

  16. Communities of Practice: Literacy and Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Ann-Elise; Simonsen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to discuss young deaf children's access to literacy within a sociocultural perspective. We introduce the concept of communities of practice as an aspect in early literacy development for young deaf children. Preschools are learning communities and thus constitute communities of practice. Our discussion on the use of communities…

  17. POLYGON - A New Fundamental Movement Skills Test for 8 Year Old Children: Construction and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuvela, Frane; Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-01-01

    Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS) in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005). The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97) and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98) and, therefore, confirmed the test's intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the "Test of Gross Motor Development" (TGMD-2). Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice. Key pointsAll 21 newly constructed tasks demonstrated high intra-rater reliability (0.83-0.97) in FMS assessment. High reliability was also noted in the FMS-POLYGON test (0.98).A high correlation was found between the FMS-POLYGON and TGMD-2 which is a confirmation of the new test's concurrent validity.The research resolved the problem of long and detailed FMS assessment by adding a new dimension using quick and effective norm-referenced approach but also covering all the most important movement areas.New and validated test can be of great use

  18. Fundamental movement skill performance of preschool children in relation to family context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Wouter; De Martelaer, Kristine; Samaey, Christiane; Andries, Caroline

    2011-04-01

    Evidence suggests the development of fundamental movement skill (FMS) is a key factor in promoting long-term physical activity. Low levels of activity among preschool children and the relationship between physical activity and the development of fundamental movement skills underline the need to determine the factors associated with children's development of such skills. As parents play an important role in the socialization process, the aim of this study was to examine correlates of family and neighbourhood characteristics as well as parental behaviour and beliefs on FMS performance in 4- to 6-year-old preschool children. Relationships between preschool children's FMS performance and family contextual variables were examined within a sample of 846 preschool children. Results identified positive associations of FMS performance with parental education, father's physical activity, transport to school by bicycle, and the high value placed by parents high on sport-specific aspects of children's physical activity. Variables negatively associated with preschool children's FMS performance included father-child interaction in TV-viewing and reading books, the high importance placed by parents on winning and performance in children's physical activity. Furthermore, the ambiguity of associations between FMS performance and parental beliefs underlined its complexity.

  19. The basics of information security understanding the fundamentals of InfoSec in theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Andress, Jason

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Syngress Basics series, The Basics of Information Security provides you with fundamental knowledge of information security in both theoretical and practical aspects. Author Jason Andress gives you the basic knowledge needed to understand the key concepts of confidentiality, integrity, and availability, and then dives into practical applications of these ideas in the areas of operational, physical, network, application, and operating system security. The Basics of Information Security gives you clear-non-technical explanations of how infosec works and how to apply these princi

  20. Dietary Practices in Saudi Cerebral Palsy Children

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hammad, Nouf S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the dietary practices of Saudi cerebral palsy (CP) children. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the following information from parents of CP children: demographics, main source of dietary information, frequency of main meals, foods/drinks used for main meals and in-between-meals. Results: Parents of 157 CP children participated. Parents were divided into three, while children were divided into two age groups. The main sources of dietary inf...

  1. [Nutrition recommendations for children who practice sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Valverde Visus, F; Moráis López, A; Ibáñez, J; Dalmau Serra, J

    2014-08-01

    Several health benefits have been attributed to sports practice, and an adequate nutrition status helps to maintain an optimal performance. Children most frequently practice non-competitive and non-endurance activities in a school setting. The dietary intake of children who practice sports should be similar to the general population, properly meeting their energy and nutrient requirements. During the activity performance, correct hydration should be aimed for, with water appearing to be an adequate source in most cases. General calorie and micronutrient supplementation should not be commonly recommended in children. Paediatricians must control nutritional status and dietary habits of children who practice sports, especially in those cases when weight-loss is aimed for, as well as take into account the psychological implications of competitive sports practice.

  2. Talking about the elephant in the room: Improving fundamental assessment practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Gill

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an institution-wide strategy to improve first year assessment practices. Assessment is central to the student experience and to informing their developing conceptions of themselves as students. Despite this central importance, much national and international literature raises questions about the fitness-for-purpose of assessment practices in higher education. The reported strategy was developed in response to analysis of student feedback, which suggested, like the literature, substantial opportunity for improvement. Student feedback on their assessment experience was validated by an audit of first session assessment and used to inform the strategy. A significant improvement in quantitative and qualitative measures of student satisfaction across routine data sources is provided to demonstrate impact. This supports a conclusion that the first year student experience can be impacted by the systemic application of a small number of fundamental good practice assessment strategies which are outlined.

  3. Fundamental movement skills training to promote physical activity in children with and without disability:A pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine M. Capio; Cindy H.P. Sit; Kathlynne F. Egui; Bruce Abernethy; Richard S.W. Masters

    2015-01-01

    Background: A positive association between fundamental movement skills (FMS) and physical activity (PA) has been shown in previous research of children with and without disability. This pilot study explored a causal mechanism for such relationship, and hypothesized that when FMS proficiency is improved, enhanced PA uptake will be found in children with and without disability. It was further hypothesized that improving FMS proficiency will have a greater impact on children with disability than those without disability. Methods:Participants include typically developing (TD) children without disability and children with cerebral palsy (CP), who were allocated to FMS training groups (CP-FMS n=12, TD-FMS n=13) and control groups (CP-C n=12, TD-C n=13). Training groups practiced five FMS (run, jump, kick, throw, catch) in weekly 45-min sessions for 4 weeks. Control groups had their regular physiotherapy (CP) or physical education (TD) sessions. FMS were evaluated using process-and product-oriented measures, and PA was measured using accelerometers, before and after training. Results:It was verified that training groups gained improvements in FMS while control groups did not. No significant changes in weekday PA were found. Increased weekend moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was found in the CP-FMS group, while decreased weekend sedentary time was found in the CP-FMS and TD-FMS groups. The percentages of participants who exceeded the minimum detectable change (MDC90) in MVPA and sedentary time were larger in children with CP than in children without disability. Conclusion:The findings suggest that improved FMS proficiency could potentially contribute to heightened PA and decreased sedentary time during weekends for children. Such effect of improved FMS proficiency on PA appears to be greater in those with physical disability than in those without disability. It is recommended that the findings of this pilot study should be further examined in future research.

  4. Practice Parameter for Psychodynamic Psychotherapy with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicus, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This Practice Parameter describes the principles of psychodynamic psychotherapy with children and is based on clinical consensus and available research evidence. It presents guidelines for the practice of child psychodynamic psychotherapy, including indications and contraindications, the setting, verbal and interactive (play) techniques, work with…

  5. Genre and Practice: Shaping Possibilities for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, M. Elizabeth; Marsh, Monica Miller

    1996-01-01

    Examines the dialogic nature of educational practices, by studying how local speech genres in two diverse communities influence teachers' descriptions of their practice and the children with whom they work. Argues that the meanings attached to the way students are viewed are generated within a community and have profound implications for the way…

  6. Fundamental movement skills proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder: does physical self-concept matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Sit, Cindy H P; Capio, Catherine M; Burnett, Angus; Ha, Amy S C; Huang, Wendy Y J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1) examine differences in fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency, physical self-concept, and physical activity in children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and (2) determine the association of FMS proficiency with physical self-concept while considering key confounding factors. Participants included 43 children with DCD and 87 age-matched typically developing (TD) children. FMS proficiency was assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development - second edition. Physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed using self-report questionnaires. A two-way (group by gender) ANCOVA was used to determine whether between-group differences existed in FMS proficiency, physical self-concept, and physical activity after controlling for age and BMI. Partial correlations and hierarchical multiple regression models were used to examine the relationship between FMS proficiency and physical self-concept. Compared with their TD peers, children with DCD displayed less proficiency in various components of FMS and viewed themselves as being less competent in physical coordination, sporting ability, and physical health. Physical coordination was a significant predictor of ability in object control skills. DCD status and gender were significant predictors of FMS proficiency. Future FMS interventions should target children with DCD and girls, and should emphasize improving object control skills proficiency and physical coordination. Children with DCD tend to have not only lower FMS proficiency than age-matched typically developing children but also lower physical self-concept. Self-perceptions of physical coordination by children with DCD are likely to be valuable contributors to development of object control skills. This may then help to develop their confidence in performing motor skills. Children with DCD need supportive programs that facilitate the development of object control skills. Efficacy of training

  7. Examining Relative Age Effects in Fundamental Skill Proficiency in British Children Aged 6-11 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Samantha; Cummings, Laura; Oxford, Samuel W; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Birch, S, Cummings, L, Oxford, SW, and Duncan, MJ. Examining relative age effects in fundamental skill proficiency in British children aged 6-11 years. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2809-2815, 2016-The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that there is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for sports selection in age-grouped sports and that in such circumstances, relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. Few studies have examined this issue in nonselective groups of children, and none have examined whether there is evidence of any RAE in skill performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were differences in fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency within children placed in age groups according to the school year. Six FMS (sprint, side gallop, balance, jump, catch, and throw) were assessed in 539 school children (258 boys and 281 girls) aged 6-11 years (mean age ± SD = 7.7 ± 1.7 years). We examined differences in these FMS between gender groups and children born in different quarters of the year after controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). For balance, chronological age was significant as a covariate (p = 0.0001) with increases in age associated with increases in balance. Boys had significantly higher sprint mastery compared with girls (p = 0.012), and increased BMI was associated with poorer sprint mastery (p = 0.001). Boys had higher catching mastery than girls (p = 0.003), and children born in Q1 had significantly greater catching mastery than those born in Q2 (p = 0.015), Q3 (p = 0.019), and Q4 (p = 0.01). Results for throwing mastery also indicated higher mastery in boys compared with girls (p = 0.013) and that children born in Q1 had higher throwing proficiency than those born in Q4 (p = 0.038). These results are important if coaches are basing sport selection on measures of skilled performance, particularly in object-control skills. Categorizing children

  8. Fundamental constructs in food parenting practices: a content map to guide future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Amber E; Ward, Dianne S; Fisher, Jennifer O; Faith, Myles S; Hughes, Sheryl O; Kremers, Stef P J; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R; O'Connor, Teresia M; Patrick, Heather; Power, Thomas G

    2016-02-01

    Although research shows that "food parenting practices" can impact children's diet and eating habits, current understanding of the impact of specific practices has been limited by inconsistencies in terminology and definitions. This article represents a critical appraisal of food parenting practices, including clear terminology and definitions, by a working group of content experts. The result of this effort was the development of a content map for future research that presents 3 overarching, higher-order food parenting constructs--coercive control, structure, and autonomy support--as well as specific practice subconstructs. Coercive control includes restriction, pressure to eat, threats and bribes, and using food to control negative emotions. Structure includes rules and limits, limited/guided choices, monitoring, meal- and snacktime routines, modeling, food availability and accessibility, food preparation, and unstructured practices. Autonomy support includes nutrition education, child involvement, encouragement, praise, reasoning, and negotiation. Literature on each construct is reviewed, and directions for future research are offered. Clear terminology and definitions should facilitate cross-study comparisons and minimize conflicting findings resulting from previous discrepancies in construct operationalization.

  9. A Method and Its Practice for Teaching the Fundamental Technology of Communication Protocols and Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuji

    The education of information and communication technologies is important for engineering, and it includes terminals, communication media, transmission, switching, software, communication protocols, coding, etc. The proposed teaching method for protocols is based on the HDLC (High-level Data Link Control) procedures using our newly developed software “HDLC trainer” , and includes the extensions for understanding other protocols such as TCP/IP. As for teaching the coding theory that is applied for the error control in protocols, we use both of a mathematical programming language and a general-purpose programming language. We have practiced and evaluated the proposed teaching method in our college, and it is shown that the method has remarkable effects for understanding the fundamental technology of protocols and coding.

  10. Use of electronic games by young children and fundamental movement skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Hinkley, Trina; Okely, Anthony D; Hesketh, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated associations between pre-school children's time spent playing electronic games and their fundamental movement skills. In 2009, 53 children had physical activity (Actigraph accelerometer counts per minute), parent proxy-report of child's time in interactive and non-interactive electronic games (min./week), and movement skill (Test of Gross Motor Development-2) assessed. Hierarchical linear regression, adjusting for age (range = 3-6 years), sex (Step 1), and physical activity (cpm; M=687, SD=175.42; Step 2), examined the relationship between time in (a) non-interactive and (b) interactive electronic games and locomotor and object control skill. More than half (59%, n=31) of the children were female. Adjusted time in interactive game use was associated with object control but not locomotor skill. Adjusted time in non-interactive game use had no association with object control or locomotor skill. Greater time spent playing interactive electronic games is associated with higher object control skill proficiency in these young children. Longitudinal and experimental research is required to determine if playing these games improves object control skills or if children with greater object control skill proficiency prefer and play these games.

  11. Vision screening for children 36 to practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Susan A; Cyert, Lynn A; Miller, Joseph M; Quinn, Graham E

    2015-01-01

    This article provides recommendations for screening children aged 36 to younger than 72 months for eye and visual system disorders. The recommendations were developed by the National Expert Panel to the National Center for Children's Vision and Eye Health, sponsored by Prevent Blindness, and funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration, United States Department of Health and Human Services. The recommendations describe both best and acceptable practice standards. Targeted vision disorders for screening are primarily amblyopia, strabismus, significant refractive error, and associated risk factors. The recommended screening tests are intended for use by lay screeners, nurses, and other personnel who screen children in educational, community, public health, or primary health care settings. Characteristics of children who should be examined by an optometrist or ophthalmologist rather than undergo vision screening are also described. There are two current best practice vision screening methods for children aged 36 to younger than 72 months: (1) monocular visual acuity testing using single HOTV letters or LEA Symbols surrounded by crowding bars at a 5-ft (1.5 m) test distance, with the child responding by either matching or naming, or (2) instrument-based testing using the Retinomax autorefractor or the SureSight Vision Screener with the Vision in Preschoolers Study data software installed (version 2.24 or 2.25 set to minus cylinder form). Using the Plusoptix Photoscreener is acceptable practice, as is adding stereoacuity testing using the PASS (Preschool Assessment of Stereopsis with a Smile) stereotest as a supplemental procedure to visual acuity testing or autorefraction. The National Expert Panel recommends that children aged 36 to younger than 72 months be screened annually (best practice) or at least once (accepted minimum standard) using one of the best practice approaches. Technological updates will be

  12. CHILDREN: KNOWLEDGE, PRACTICES AND PERCEPTION S OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conducted this hospital-based study to investigate knowledge, practices and perceptions among mothers of children ... 9% , 56.5%, 44.0% of mothers in social classes V, IV and III respectively. Infection ... have demonstrated a high prevalence of intestinal parasitic .... this age group are most exposed to infection. This may be ...

  13. Effects of Fundamental Movement Skills Training on Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Sit, Cindy H; Burnett, Angus; Capio, Catherine M; Ha, Amy S; Huang, Wendy Y

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of fundamental movement skills (FMS) training on FMS proficiency, self-perceived physical competence (SPC), physical activity (PA), and sleep disturbance in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) compared with children with typical development (TD). A total of 84 children were allocated into either experimental group (DCD[exp], TD[exp]) who received 6 weeks of FMS training or control groups (DCD[con], TD[con]). FMS were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, whereas PA was monitored using accelerometers. SPC and sleep disturbance were evaluated using questionnaires. Results showed that the DCD[exp] group had significantly higher scores in FMS and SPC compared with the DCD[con] group at posttest. The DCD[exp] group scored lower in sleep disturbance at follow-up when compared with posttest. It is suggested that short-term FMS training is effective in improving FMS and SPC and reducing sleep disturbances for children with DCD.

  14. Proficiency deficiency: mastery of fundamental movement skills and skill components in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Rachel A; Steele, Julie R; Baur, Louise A

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to compare the mastery of 12 fundamental movement skills (FMS) and skill components between a treatment-seeking sample of overweight/obese children and a reference sample from the United States. Mastery of six locomotor and six object-control skills (24 components in each subdomain) were video-assessed by one assessor using the test of gross motor development-2 (TGMD-2). The 153 overweight/obese children (mean ± s.d. age = 8.3 ± 1.1 years, BMI z-score = 2.78 ± 0.69, 58% girls, 77% obese) were categorized into age groups (for the underhand roll and strike: 7-8 years and 9-10 years; all other FMS: 6-7 years and 8-10 years) and mastery prevalence rates were compared with representative US data (N = 876) using χ(2) analysis. For all 12 skills in all age groups, the prevalence of mastery was lower among overweight/obese children compared with the reference sample (all P Physical activity programs designed for overweight and obese children may need to address deficiencies in FMS proficiency to foster the movement capabilities required for participation in health-enhancing physical activity.

  15. Fundamental motor skill proficiency is necessary for children's motor activity inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Angelo Barela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor development is influenced by many factors such as practice and appropriate instruction, provided by teachers, even in preschool and elementary school. The goal of this paper was to discuss the misconception that maturation underlies children's motor skill development and to show that physical education, even in early years of our school system, is critical to promote proficiency and enrolment of children's in later motor activities. Motor skill development, as a curricular focus, has been marginalized in many of our physical education proposal and in doing so, we have not promote motor competence in our children who lack proficiency to engage and to participate in later motor activities such as sport-related or recreational.

  16. MOTHERS PRACTICING PROSTITUTION AND CHILDREN'S RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria MANDIUC

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A large number of women who practice prostitution get pregnant and have the child. When a mother continues practicing prostitution, while at the same time trying to fulfill parental responsibilities, the child’s rights could end up being violated because of the characteristics of the two roles the woman adopts. The present paper presents the case study of a child of schooling age and whose mother practiced prostitution. The child was put in foster care after the mother’s death and the case study follows his evolution from birth until the research started, the focus of the study revolving around the four fundamental rights of the child: the right to be raised by the parents, the right to education, the right to health and the right to protection against abuses.

  17. Practices to enable the geophysical research spectrum: from fundamentals to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S.; Cockett, R.; Heagy, L. J.; Oldenburg, D.

    2016-12-01

    In a geophysical survey, a source injects energy into the earth and a response is measured. These physical systems are governed by partial differential equations and their numerical solutions are obtained by discretizing the earth. Geophysical simulations and inversions are tools for understanding physical responses and constructing models of the subsurface given a finite amount of data. SimPEG (http://simpeg.xyz) is our effort to synthesize geophysical forward and inverse methodologies into a consistent framework. The primary focus of our initial development has been on the electromagnetics (EM) package, with recent extensions to magnetotelluric, direct current (DC), and induced polarization. Across these methods, and applied geophysics in general, we require tools to explore and build an understanding of the physics (behaviour of fields, fluxes), and work with data to produce models through reproducible inversions. If we consider DC or EM experiments, with the aim of understanding responses from subsurface conductors, we require resources that provide multiple "entry points" into the geophysical problem. To understand the physical responses and measured data, we must simulate the physical system and visualize electric fields, currents, and charges. Performing an inversion requires that many moving pieces be brought together: simulation, physics, linear algebra, data processing, optimization, etc. Each component must be trusted, accessible to interrogation and manipulation, and readily combined in order to enable investigation into inversion methodologies. To support such research, we not only require "entry points" into the software, but also extensibility to new situations. In our development of SimPEG, we have sought to use leading practices in software development with the aim of supporting and promoting collaborations across a spectrum of geophysical research: from fundamentals to applications. Designing software to enable this spectrum puts unique

  18. Fundamental movement skills in children and adolescents: review of associated health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Cliff, Dylan P; Barnett, Lisa M; Okely, Anthony D

    2010-12-01

    The mastery of fundamental movement skills (FMS) has been purported as contributing to children's physical, cognitive and social development and is thought to provide the foundation for an active lifestyle. Commonly developed in childhood and subsequently refined into context- and sport-specific skills, they include locomotor (e.g. running and hopping), manipulative or object control (e.g. catching and throwing) and stability (e.g. balancing and twisting) skills. The rationale for promoting the development of FMS in childhood relies on the existence of evidence on the current or future benefits associated with the acquisition of FMS proficiency. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between FMS competency and potential health benefits in children and adolescents. Benefits were defined in terms of psychological, physiological and behavioural outcomes that can impact public health. A systematic search of six electronic databases (EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and SportDiscus®) was conducted on 22 June 2009. Included studies were cross-sectional, longitudinal or experimental studies involving healthy children or adolescents (aged 3-18 years) that quantitatively analysed the relationship between FMS competency and potential benefits. The search identified 21 articles examining the relationship between FMS competency and eight potential benefits (i.e. global self-concept, perceived physical competence, cardio-respiratory fitness [CRF], muscular fitness, weight status, flexibility, physical activity and reduced sedentary behaviour). We found strong evidence for a positive association between FMS competency and physical activity in children and adolescents. There was also a positive relationship between FMS competency and CRF and an inverse association between FMS competency and weight status. Due to an inadequate number of studies, the relationship between FMS competency and the remaining benefits was classified as

  19. Fundamentally updating fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gail; Barton, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Recent educational research indicates that the six competencies of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses initiative are best introduced in early prelicensure clinical courses. Content specific to quality and safety has traditionally been covered in senior level courses. This article illustrates an effective approach to using quality and safety as an organizing framework for any prelicensure fundamentals of nursing course. Providing prelicensure students a strong foundation in quality and safety in an introductory clinical course facilitates early adoption of quality and safety competencies as core practice values.

  20. Contributions of After School Programs to the Development of Fundamental Movement Skills in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, E Jean; Keats, Melanie R; Kolen, Angela M

    Fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency or the ability to perform basic skills (e.g., throwing, catching and jumping) has been linked to participation in lifelong physical activity. FMS proficiency amongst children has declined in the previous 15 years, with more children performing FMS at a low-mastery level. These declines may help explain the insufficient levels of participation in health promoting physical activity seen in today's youth. The after school time period (e.g., 3 to 6 p.m.), is increasingly considered an opportune time for physical activity interventions. To date, little research has examined the potential for after school programming to improve FMS proficiency. Participants (n=40, 6-10 years) of two existent physical activity based after school programs, a low-organized games and a sports-based program, were pre- and post-tested for FMS proficiency using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) over an 11-week period. The sports-based program participants showed no improvement in FMS over the 11-week study (p=0.91, eta(2)=0.00) and the games-based program participants significantly improved their proficiency (p=0.00, eta(2)=0.30). No significant (p=0.13, eta(2) = 0.06), differences were found in change in FMS scores between the low-organized games program participants and the sport-based program participants. These results suggest that after school programs with a low-organized games-based focus may support a moderate improvement in FMS proficiency in young children. Better training of after school program leaders on how to teach FMS may be necessary to assist children in acquiring sufficient proficiency in FMS.

  1. Vegetarian diet for children-practical guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Orel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric profession recommends that infants, children and adolescents should have a balanced, mixed diet containing nutrients of plant and animal origin. Paediatricians are sometimes faced with children who are fed a vegetarian diet in which certain types of foods are excluded. The avoidance of all foods of animal origin (meat, fish, eggs, milk and honey in vegans, raw eaters and fruitarians poses a serious risk due to the lack of several nutrients: iron, zinc, calcium, iodine, vitamins B12, B2, A, D, n-3 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22: 6ω-3, proteins and energy. The article provides an overview of critical nutrients in the diet of vegetarians, the list of laboratory investigations that need to be carried out for determination of specific nutrient deficiencies, and practical recommendations for vegetarian diet in children.

  2. Analysis of fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer and vocal intensity in children with phonological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertzner, Haydée F; Schreiber, Solange; Amaro, Luciana

    2005-01-01

    Phonological Disorder is a disturbance of primary manifestation of undefined causes that makes speech become unintelligible. The analysis of vocal parameters becomes important in the process of diagnosis of this disorder, since voice disorders could interfere in the production of speech sounds. The objective of this study was to verify vocal characteristics related to the intensity and fundamental frequency--F0--and their disturbance indexes--jitter and shimmer--in children with phonological disorders. Clinical prospective with transversal cohort. There were 40 children, 20 of them with phonological disorders and 20 with no speech and language disturbances. Phonological exams with the ABFW infantile language test and spontaneous speech were applied. The Computer Speech Lab was used to record and perform acoustic analyses of the vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, through the vocal parameters: fundamental frequency, intensity, jitter and shimmer. F0--vowel /e/ was smaller, on average, in the Phonological Disorder Group and it was 126 Hz in the Control Group. To shimmer and jitter there was no evidence that the means of the Phonological Disorder Group were different from the ones of the Control Group (p= 0.191, p= 0.865, respectively). As for intensity, there was evidence that the average did not differ in the Phonological Disorder Group and the Control Group (p= 0.002). The frequency of the vowel /e/ was smaller in the Phonological Disorder Group. There was difference between the two groups regarding the means of intensity of vowels /a/, /e/ and /i/, smaller in the Phonological Disorder Group. No differences between the groups were found regarding the averages of jitter and shimmer.

  3. Frequência fundamental de crianças da cidade de Niterói Fundamental frequency for children in the municipality of Niterói

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina Andrade Schott

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: medir a frequência fundamental de 122 crianças de seis a oito anos de idade, meninos e meninas, sem alterações vocais, avaliadas por meio da escala Rasat. MÉTODOS: a análise perceptivo-auditiva foi realizada através da escala RASAT e para a análise acústica computadorizada foi utilizado o programa de software Vox Metria, analisando-se a média da frequência fundamental de amostras da vogal [ε] sustentada. Participaram deste estudo 122 crianças, 58 meninos e 64 meninas com idade variando de seis a oito anos e 11 meses de idade do ensino fundamental, da Rede Municipal de Niterói-RJ, nascidos e residentes na cidade, pré-selecionadas através de um protocolo de triagem. RESULTADOS: os resultados obtidos neste estudo foram: frequência fundamental média de 239,60 Hz para as meninas e 237,17 Hz para os meninos, obtendo-se uma média geral de 238,44 Hz. CONCLUSÃO: conclui-se que os achados permitiram a comparação com resultados de pesquisas realizadas anteriormente, contribuindo com novos dados para a padronização da frequência fundamental das vozes infantis brasileiras.PURPOSE: to quantify the fundamental frequency in a group of 122 children - boys and girls, whose age varied from six to eight-year-old, who do not have vocal alterations. METHODS: an auditory-perceptive analysis took place by means of the RASAT scale; the computerized acoustic analysis was performed by using a software referred to as Vox Metria, where samples regarding the mean value for the fundamental frequency of the sustained vowel [ε] were analyzed. For this study, in which 122 children took part, 58 boys and 64 girls, with ages ranging from 6 to 8-year and 11 months. They were students from the Elementary Schools of the Municipal Education System of Niteroi-RJ. They were born and reside in this municipality and were pre-selected by means of a choice protocol. RESULTS: the results obtained in this study were 239.60 Hz for the girls and 237.17 Hz for

  4. Translating children's stories - reflections and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muguras Constantinescu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article is concerned with the specificity of translations for children with an emphasis on the cultural dimension to be preserved in the target text. Following a brief historical and theoretical overview on the issue of translating texts for children, we undertake a succint analysis on a corpus made up of tales which display an overtness to the other while treating the identity-alterity issue. Starting from our own translation practice, we will insist upon those strategies and techniques fit to render the cultural dimension of the source text in order to give young readers access to a foreign culture. Translational strategies are analysed along editorial and pedagogical strategies, with a special focus on the paratext which aims at satisfying the readers’ curiosity and contributing to the development of their encyclopedic competence.

  5. Children of Stalingrad: Wartime Food Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryblova Marina Aleksandrovna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article gives analysis of food practices of children in Stalingrad during the War, based on an earlier published memories and also results of 264 interviews of Volgograd and Volgograd region citizens, whose childhood took place during the Great Patriotic War. Based on historical and anthropological approach, this study reveals and characterizes dramatic changes, which took place in those children’ dietary ration, methods of getting food, its processing and consumption during their life in the city ruined by bombardments, sieged and later occupied by enemy forces. The conducted analysis revealed that in most cases children of Stalingrad copied the experience of adults in their attempts to get food for themselves and provide it to their relatives. So, in a wide use there were such deviant practices of survival as marauding and stealing; archaic feeding methods as gathering and natural economy revival; and feeding anomalies as eating for such products that have been never used in the past. At the same time experience of previous generations who lived through wars and hunger and who preserved in their collective memory information about folk traditions of survival in the extreme circumstances, has been preserved and actualized in the life support system of all Stalingrad citizens. At the war time food practices of Stalingrad citizens downgraded were often to the level of simple physical satisfaction, traditions of feats settings were curtailed, and rules and restrictions related to the previous had disappeared. But even in difficult conditions of ruined and sieged city Stalingrad citizens and their children widely used methods and ways of hunger and its effects overcoming, that were formed in the Russian national environment, i.e. neighbours mutual aid traditions, caring attitude towards food, and methods of its search and consumption.

  6. Effectiveness of a Fundamental Motor Skill Intervention for 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-01-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n?=?5, control n?=?4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The…

  7. Branding in children: a barbaric practice still exists in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Pratap Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Branding is an inhuman traditional practice most commonly employed to treat various disorders in neonates and children in certain community in India. Though stringent law exists to prevent such harmful practices, cases of branding is not uncommon in current era.

  8. Central Tendency and Dispersion Measures of the Fundamental Frequencies of Four Vowels as Produced by Two Year-Old and Four-Year Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Roberta Lynn

    The intrinsic fundamental frequency effect among vowels is a vocalic phenomenon of adult speech in which high vowels have higher fundamental frequencies in relation to low vowels. Acoustic investigations of children's speech have shown that variability of the speech signal decreases as children's ages increase. Fundamental frequency measures have been suggested as an indirect metric for the development of laryngeal stability and coordination. Studies of the intrinsic fundamental frequency effect have been conducted among 8- and 9-year old children and in infants. The present study investigated this effect among 2- and 4-year old children. Eight 2-year old and eight 4-year old children produced four vowels, /ae/, /i/, /u/, and /a/, in CVC syllables. Three measures of fundamental frequency were taken. These were mean fundamental frequency, the intra-utterance standard deviation of the fundamental frequency, and the extent to which the cycle-to-cycle pattern of the fundamental frequency was predicted by a linear trend. An analysis of variance was performed to compare the two age groups, the four vowels, and the earlier and later repetitions of the CVC syllables. A significant difference between the two age groups was detected using the intra-utterance standard deviation of the fundamental frequency. Mean fundamental frequencies and linear trend analysis showed that voicing of the preceding consonant determined the statistical significance of the age-group comparisons. Statistically significant differences among the fundamental frequencies of the four vowels were not detected for either age group.

  9. Getting past widgets and digits: the fundamental transformation of the foundations of nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter-O'Grady, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Health reform and transformation now call for the creation of a new landscape for nursing practice based on intentional translation application of value-driven measures of service, quality, and price. Nursing is a central driver in the effective recalibration of health care within the rubric of health transformation under the aegis of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Increasingly relying on a growing digital infrastructure, the nursing profession must now reframe both its practice foundations and patterns of practice to reflect emerging value-driven, health-grounded service requisites. Specific nursing responses are suggested, which position nursing to best coordinate, integrate, and facilitate health delivery in the emerging value-driven service environment.

  10. The Techno-Literacy Practices of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    In many analyses of children's "emergent literacy" (Clay, 1966) practices, there is little acknowledgement of children's engagement in techno-literacy practices. This article discusses findings from a survey undertaken in a working-class community in the north of England which aimed to identify the "emergent techno-literacy"…

  11. Face validity and reliability of a pictorial instrument for assessing fundamental movement skill perceived competence in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Zask, Avigdor; Salmon, Jo

    2015-01-01

    To determine reliability and face validity of an instrument to assess young children's perceived fundamental movement skill competence. Validation and reliability study. A pictorial instrument based on the Test Gross Motor Development-2 assessed perceived locomotor (six skills) and object control (six skills) competence using the format and item structure from the physical competence subscale of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Acceptance for Young Children. Sample 1 completed object control items in May (n=32) and locomotor items in October 2012 (n=23) at two time points seven days apart. Children were asked at the end of the test-retest their understanding of what was happening in each picture to determine face validity. Sample 2 (n=58) completed 12 items in November 2012 on a single occasion to test internal reliability only. Sample 1 children were aged 5-7 years (M=6.0, SD=0.8) at object control assessment and 5-8 years at locomotor assessment (M=6.5, SD=0.9). Sample 2 children were aged 6-8 years (M=7.2, SD=0.73). Intra-class correlations assessed in Sample 1 children were excellent for object control (intra-class correlation=0.78), locomotor (intra-class correlation=0.82) and all 12 skills (intra-class correlations=0.83). Face validity was acceptable. Internal consistency was adequate in both samples for each subscale and all 12 skills (alpha range 0.60-0.81). This study has provided preliminary evidence for instrument reliability and face validity. This enables future alignment between the measurement of perceived and actual fundamental movement skill competence in young children. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fundamentals and practice of metal contacts to wide band gap semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borysiewicz, M.A.; Kaminska, E.; Mysliwiec, M.; Wzorek, M.; Piotrowska, A. [Institute of Electron Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Kuchuk, A. [Institute of Electron Technology, Warsaw (Poland); V.E. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Kyiv (Ukraine); Barcz, A.; Dynowska, E. [Institute of Electron Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Physic PAS, Warsaw (Poland); Di Forte-Poisson, M.A. [Alcatel-Thales III-V Lab, Marcoussis (France); Giesen, C. [AIXTRON SE, Herzogenrath (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Presented are the theoretical and experimental fundamentals of the fabrication of ohmic contacts to n- and p-type wide band gap semiconductors such as SiC and GaN. In particular, the Ni-Si/n-SiC, Al-Ti/p-SiC, Ti-Al/n-GaN and Ni-Au/p-GaN systems are discussed with the focus on the thermally activated chemical reactions taking place at the metal-semiconductor interface, that lead to the appearance of ohmic behaviour in the contact. Examples of reactions at very intimate interfaces are shown, which are irresolvable using even such sophisticated characterisation methods as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and can only be explained using modelling. The issue of thermal stability of the contacts is discussed and the introduction of specifically designed diffusion barriers (eg. Ta-Si-N) into the contact metallisation stack is presented as a solution improving drastically the thermal stability of the contacts without degrading their electrical properties. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Fundamentals of Transcranial Electric and Magnetic Stimulation Dose: Definition, Selection, and Reporting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterchev, Angel V.; Wagner, Timothy A.; Miranda, Pedro C.; Nitsche, Michael A.; Paulus, Walter; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Bikson, Marom

    2011-01-01

    The growing use of transcranial electric and magnetic (EM) brain stimulation in basic research and in clinical applications necessitates a clear understanding of what constitutes the dose of EM stimulation and how it should be reported. The biological effects of EM stimulation are mediated through an electromagnetic field injected (via electric stimulation) or induced (via magnetic stimulation) in the body. Therefore, transcranial EM stimulation dose ought to be defined by all parameters of the stimulation device that affect the electromagnetic field generated in the body, including the stimulation electrode or coil configuration parameters: shape, size, position, and electrical properties, as well as the electrode or coil current (or voltage) waveform parameters: pulse shape, amplitude, width, polarity, and repetition frequency; duration of and interval between bursts or trains of pulses; total number of pulses; and interval between stimulation sessions and total number of sessions. Knowledge of the electromagnetic field generated in the body may not be sufficient but is necessary to understand the biological effects of EM stimulation. We believe that reporting of EM stimulation dose should be guided by the principle of reproducibility: sufficient information about the stimulation parameters should be provided so that the dose can be replicated. This paper provides fundamental definition and principles for reporting of dose that encompass any transcranial EM brain stimulation protocol. PMID:22305345

  14. Rh Nanoparticle Anchoring on Metal Phosphates: Fundamental Aspects and Practical Impacts on Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Masato

    2016-10-01

    Metal phosphates stabilize Rh nanoparticles on their surface via Rh-O-P bonds, in contrast to the Rh-O-M bonds formed on metal oxides (MOx ). The local structure, electronic structure, and redox properties of Rh nanoparticles anchored on metal phosphates, and their practical impacts on catalysis, are reviewed based on recent publications from the author's research group. Because of the covalency of the Rh-O-P bond, Rh oxide is readily reduced to metallic Rh having a higher catalytic activity, whereas Rh oxide on metal oxide supports is more difficult to reduce with an increase of the anchoring strength. Furthermore, Rh metal shows a higher tolerance to reoxidation when supported on metal phosphates because the Rh-O-P bond is preserved under reducing atmospheres. The electron deficiency of Rh metal is another feature that affects its catalytic properties, and the extent of the electron deficiency can be tuned by replacing the metal in the metal phosphate with one of higher basicity. Further impacts on practical performance (thermal stability, poisoning stability, and lean NOx purification) in automobile catalyst applications are also described.

  15. Predicting children's fussiness with vegetables: The role of feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Clare E; Haycraft, Emma; Farrow, Claire

    2017-03-01

    Vegetables are commonly rejected by children, making it is important to consider factors that are associated with children's fussiness with vegetables. The current study aimed to investigate whether fussiness with vegetables is associated with a number of factors including caregiver and child vegetable consumption; caregivers' general feeding practices; and caregivers' vegetable-specific feeding practices. Caregivers (N = 297) of preschool children completed questionnaire measures of their child's fussiness with vegetables, as well as several caregiver and child factors hypothesised to be associated with children's fussiness with vegetables. Findings indicate that children who are fussier with vegetables consume a smaller quantity of vegetables and that almost all have caregivers who eat a smaller quantity of vegetables. Children's fussiness with vegetables was not significantly related to any general feeding practices used by caregivers. However, children's fussiness with vegetables was significantly associated with the use of several vegetable specific feeding practices. Caregivers of fussier children used more encouragement/pressure to eat with vegetables (r = 0.14, p = .01), hid vegetables within other foods more often (r = 0.30, p = feeding vegetables (r = 0.14, p = .01). These findings suggest that rather than caregivers' general feeding practices being related to children's fussiness with vegetables, the specific feeding practices used when vegetables are rejected are more significant. It may therefore be helpful to develop advice for caregivers about which feeding practices to avoid when faced with a child who is fussy about eating vegetables.

  16. Fundamental ecology is fundamental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Real-virtual relational practices among children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    Are violent computer games and movies dangerous for children – perhaps even for our society? Does the reiteration of failure, the competition and the ongoing humiliation that is cultivated as entertainment in the reality shows make our children more cynical and heartless? Do forms of virtual...

  18. HYGIENE PRACTICES AMONG RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN IN PUDUCHERRY”

    OpenAIRE

    Basanta Kumar; Saubhagya Kumar; Shakthipriya; Anugya Aparajita; Soumya

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: AIM: To assess the hygiene practices among rural school children. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This cross - sectional study was conducted at Government higher secondary school in rural ar ea of Puducherry. METHODS AND MATERIAL : Around 214 children studying in standard 6 th to 8 th were randomly selected for the study during June to August 2011. The study was explained to the school children and their assent was taken before the study. They an...

  19. Practical Life for the Older Children in the Casa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soholt, Polli

    2013-01-01

    Polli Soholt writes about advanced practical life and demonstrates that adding more challenge and complexity for older children leads to more social cooperation. Activities such as washing dishes, polishing, sewing, and food preparation take the child beyond the need to refine basic skills. The older primary children find more reality in tasks…

  20. Children's Career Development: Metaphorical Images of Theory, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark; McMahon, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This summative article discusses 5 invited contributions on children's career development. The authors of these articles were asked to consider the status quo of children's career development, issues facing this field, and future directions. Several emergent themes focused on theory, research, and practice and their interactive potential in…

  1. Transgender Children and Youth: A Child Welfare Practice Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Gerald P.; DeCrescenzo, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Using an ecological framework, the existing literature and research, and the authors' combined 60 years of clinical practice with children, youth, and families, this article examines gender variant childhood development from a holistic viewpoint where children, youth, and environments are understood as a unit in the context of their relationship…

  2. Beyond Words: An Enquiry into Children's Home Visual Communication Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada-Rice, Dylan

    2010-01-01

    This research focuses on young children's experiences of the visual mode embedded in new multimodal literacy practices. An enquiry was undertaken into the role of visual and digital images in a group of 11 four-year-olds' out-of-school lives. The children photographed their use of a range of primarily visual-based media at home, to produce a book…

  3. Offshore wind power fundaments. Practical experience from the projects London Array and Dan Tysk; Offshore Windkraft Fundamente. Praxiserfahrung aus den Projekten London Array und DanTysk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Moritz [Bilfinger Berger Ingenieurbau GmbH, Hamburg (Germany). Ingenieurwasserbau

    2012-11-01

    Based on a collection of diagrams and images the authors of the contribution under consideration report on practical experiences resulting from the project London Array and Dan Tysk with respect to the foundations of offshore wind turbines.

  4. High contrast imaging with an arbitrary aperture: active correction of aperture discontinuities: fundamental limits and practical trades offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin Arthur; Soummer, Remi; Perrin, Marshall D.; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Choquet, Elodie

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper we discussed a new method to achieve high-contrast images using segmented and/or on-axis telescopes. Our approach, named Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD) relies on two sequential Deformable Mirrors to compensate for the large amplitude excursions in the telescope aperture due to secondary support structures and/or segment gaps. In this configuration the parameter landscape of Deformable Mirror Surfaces that yield high contrast Point Spread Functions is not linear, and non-linear methods are needed to find the true minimum. In particular we showed that broadband high contrast solutions can be achieved using realistic surface deformations that are accessible using existing technologies for a variety of telescope pupil geometries. In this paper we first focus on the fundamental limits and practical trade-offs associated with ACAD. In a first part we will study the fundamental limits and practical tradeoffs associated with ACAD, regardless of the downstream coronagraphic architecture. The mathematical techniques to finding ACAD DM shapes require to solve a complex differential equation. We will first discuss the scaling laws underlying this non-linear solution and their impact of DM placement and geometry wishing the optical design of an instrument. We will then consider the sensitivity to low order aberrations: in principle an ACAD solution that comprises large strokes will be more sensitive to these aberrations than one with smaller strokes. As a consequence, we will quantify this sensitive both using analytical models and numerical simulations. We will present diffractive end to end simulations and quantify the ultimate contrast and bandwidth achievable with ACAD, which can be reached by superposing using a classical linear wavefront control algorithms on top of the Monge Ampere solution. Finally, recent work has shown that coronagraph designs can also accommodate for secondary support structures and/or segments gaps, at a

  5. Differences between Estimation and Real Performance in School-Age Children: Fundamental Movement Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations in studies of estimation compared to actual performance in motor skills revealed that children are not always accurate and have a tendency to overestimate the maximum distance at which an action can be performed. The relationship between estimated and real motor competences was analyzed for several tasks: standing long jump (SLJ, throwing and kicking, and walking backwards (WB on a balance beam. Children were asked to predict their maximum distance prior to performing those tasks. Participants were 303 children (160 boys, which were between 6 and 10 years of age (M=8.63, SD=1.16. Children’s estimations were compared with their real performance to determine their accuracy. Absolute error (|real performance − estimation| and error tendency, that is, the direction of the error (overestimation, accuracy, and underestimation bias, were calculated. Children had a tendency to overestimate their performance and were more conservative in the WB task, a noncommon action. In general, it is possible to conclude that children, in the studied age span, tend to overestimate their performance, particularly in familiar skills. This fact may be determinant to the development of their motor competences, since they are more likely to engage and persist in motor tasks, but it might also be a problem in terms of child safety because it could increase the occurrence of unintended injuries.

  6. Effects of Nursing Students' Practices Using Smartphone Videos on Fundamental Nursing Skills, Self-Efficacy, and Learning Satisfaction in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, HyeSun

    2017-01-01

    This is a quasi-experimental study with a non-equivalent group pre-test and post-test designed to investigate the effects of learning with smartphone video recordings in fundamental nursing practice. General "intramuscular injection" practice for sophomore nursing students was given to the experimental and control groups for two weeks.…

  7. Listening to Children's Voices on Intercultural Education Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajisoteriou, Christina; Angelides, Panayiotis

    2015-01-01

    The overarching purpose of this research is to investigate native and immigrant children's experiences of intercultural pedagogical practices in Cyprus schools. It also explores their suggestions for the improvement of policies and practices for intercultural education. Last but not least, it examines whether Cypriot and immigrant students share…

  8. Vegetarian diet for children-practical guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Rok Orel; Marjeta Sedmak; Nataša Fidler Mis

    2014-01-01

    Paediatric profession recommends that infants, children and adolescents should have a balanced, mixed diet containing nutrients of plant and animal origin. Paediatricians are sometimes faced with children who are fed a vegetarian diet in which certain types of foods are excluded. The avoidance of all foods of animal origin (meat, fish, eggs, milk and honey in vegans, raw eaters and fruitarians) poses a serious risk due to the lack of several nutrients: iron, zinc, calcium, iodine, vitamins B1...

  9. Nonprogressing HIV-infected children share fundamental immunological features of nonpathogenic SIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Adland, Emily; Karimanzira, Owen

    2016-01-01

    nonprogressors. These children therefore express two cardinal immunological features of nonpathogenic SIV infection in sooty mangabeys-low immune activation despite high viremia and low CCR5 expression on long-lived central memory CD4 T cells-suggesting closer similarities with nonpathogenetic mechanisms evolved......Disease-free infection in HIV-infected adults is associated with human leukocyte antigen-mediated suppression of viremia, whereas in the sooty mangabey and other healthy natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), viral replication continues unabated. To better understand factors...... preventing HIV disease, we investigated pediatric infection, where AIDS typically develops more rapidly than in adults. Among 170 nonprogressing antiretroviral therapy-naïve children aged >5 years maintaining normal-for-Age CD4 T cell counts, immune activation levels were low despite high viremia (median, 26...

  10. Marketing fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  11. Complementary Feeding Practices of Mothers and Their Perceived Impacts on Young Children: Findings from KEEA District of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egyir, Bridget K; Ramsay, Samantha A; Bilderback, Barry; Safaii, SeAnne

    2016-09-01

    Objective Appropriate and timely complementary feeding practices are fundamental to a child's growth, health, and development during the first 2 years of life. This study aimed to understand (1) Ghanaian mother's complementary feeding practices, and (2) their perceived and observed impacts of complementary feeding on their children. Methods Ghanaian mothers with children 4-24 months of age were recruited from four communities in the Komenda Edina Eguafo Abrem district in the Central Region of Ghana (n = 99). A qualitative methodological approach with focus group interview discussions was used. Eleven focus group interviews were conducted, and were audio recorded and transcribed. The audio transcriptions were coded and analyzed into pertinent themes, meta-themes, and theoretical concepts. Results Over 80 % (85) of mothers reported poor knowledge about the effects of complementary feeding on their children and 45 % (45) of the children were undernourished, indicating inappropriate complementary feeding practices. Some mothers held misconceptions about the effect of food on children's health. Four overarching themes were identified: (1) mothers' background knowledge about food, child health and growth outcomes, (2) mothers' motivation in feeding their children, (3) barriers to feeding, (4) foods mothers offered their children. Conclusion for Practice Nutrition education on complementary feeding is needed for Ghanaian mothers. Health facilities and community outreach programs could be a venue to provide education to mothers regarding infant and young child feeding practices in Ghana.

  12. MOTHERS PRACTICING PROSTITUTION AND CHILDREN'S RIGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Maria MANDIUC

    2014-01-01

    A large number of women who practice prostitution get pregnant and have the child. When a mother continues practicing prostitution, while at the same time trying to fulfill parental responsibilities, the child’s rights could end up being violated because of the characteristics of the two roles the woman adopts. The present paper presents the case study of a child of schooling age and whose mother practiced prostitution. The child was put in foster care after the mother’s death and the case st...

  13. FEEDING PRACTICES, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND ANEMIA IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : WHO RECOMMENDS : I nitiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of life, exclusive breast feeding on demand for six months, followed by sequential addition of semi - solid and solid foods to complement breast milk and breast feeding to be continued for 2 years . Most of the time, these recommendations are not followed, due to false beliefs or cultural factors. This has resulted in malnutrition and increasing health hazards in children . 1 This study is being done to know about the feeding practices, nutritional sta tus, anaemia prevalence in children residing in rural areas of Puducherry. OBJECTIVES : 1. To study feeding practices, nutritional status, prevalence of anemia in children from 1 month to 2 years of age. 2. Influence of feeding practices on nutritional stat us and hemoglobin levels. METHODS : This is a hospital based prospective study done for a period of 1yr. The study included 200 children from 1 month to 2 years of age. Patients from rural areas of Puducherry nearing Tamil Nadu border and people from adjoi ning rural areas of Tamil Nadu come to our hospital. A questionnaire is provided to parents/guardians of children asking about feeding practices . Participants weight in kilograms and length in centimeters are measured. Blood samples are drawn from participants for the estimation of hemoglobin levels. Peripheral smear study will be done if hemoglobin level is less than 11 gram/dl. Observations are tabulated. RESULTS : 85 % children under study were initiated feed according to guidelines and 15 % were not initiated. 54% children were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and 46% children were not exclusively breast fed. 54% children were given complementary feeds after the age of 6 months. 70% had normal weight for length, 12% were moderately wasted, 18% children were severely wasted, 86% children were anemic and 14% children were not anemic. CONCLUSION : 1 . The study shows the effect of feeding practices on the

  14. Parenting practices and expectations among Mexican mothers with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Camarar, P; Fox, R A

    1996-12-01

    Parenting practices and developmental expectations were examined in a sample of 221 Mexican mothers with very young children living in Guadalajara, Jalisco. They completed a Spanish version of the Parent Behavior Checklist (PBC), a 100-item rating scale that measures parents' developmental expectations, discipline, and nurturing practices. The psychometric properties of the PBC for Mexican mothers, including test-retest reliabilities, were very similar to those found for mothers of young children in the United States. Younger Mexican mothers used more frequent discipline and less nurturing with their young children than older mothers did. Married mothers nurtured their children more than unmarried mothers; young, unmarried mothers nurtured their children the least. Lower nurturing scores were associated with lower education levels, and higher nurturing scores were associated with higher education levels. Mothers from higher socioeconomic levels held higher developmental expectations for their children, and they used less frequent discipline and more frequent nurturing practices than mothers from lower socioeconomic levels. These findings are consistent with those for mothers of young children in the United States.

  15. Clinical practice - Drug desensitization in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.; Mulder, W.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Immediate type allergic reactions to medication are potentially life threatening and can hamper drug therapy of several medical conditions. Exact incidence and prevalence data for these reactions in children are lacking. If no alternative drug treatment is available, a desensitization procedure may

  16. Clinical practice - Drug desensitization in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. de Groot; W.M.C. Mulder

    2010-01-01

    Immediate type allergic reactions to medication are potentially life threatening and can hamper drug therapy of several medical conditions. Exact incidence and prevalence data for these reactions in children are lacking. If no alternative drug treatment is available, a desensitization procedure may

  17. Nonprogressing HIV-infected children share fundamental immunological features of nonpathogenic SIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Adland, Emily; Karimanzira, Owen; Crowther, Carol; Pace, Matthew; Csala, Anna; Leitman, Ellen; Moonsamy, Angeline; McGregor, Callum; Hurst, Jacob; Groll, Andreas; Mori, Masahiko; Sinmyee, Smruti; Thobakgale, Christina; Tudor-Williams, Gareth; Prendergast, Andrew J; Kloverpris, Henrik; Roider, Julia; Leslie, Alasdair; Shingadia, Delane; Brits, Thea; Daniels, Samantha; Frater, John; Willberg, Christian B; Walker, Bruce D; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Jooste, Pieter; Moore, Penny L; Morris, Lynn; Goulder, Philip

    2016-09-28

    Disease-free infection in HIV-infected adults is associated with human leukocyte antigen-mediated suppression of viremia, whereas in the sooty mangabey and other healthy natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), viral replication continues unabated. To better understand factors preventing HIV disease, we investigated pediatric infection, where AIDS typically develops more rapidly than in adults. Among 170 nonprogressing antiretroviral therapy-naïve children aged >5 years maintaining normal-for-age CD4 T cell counts, immune activation levels were low despite high viremia (median, 26,000 copies/ml). Potent, broadly neutralizing antibody responses in most of the subjects and strong virus-specific T cell activity were present but did not drive pediatric nonprogression. However, reduced CCR5 expression and low HIV infection in long-lived central memory CD4 T cells were observed in pediatric nonprogressors. These children therefore express two cardinal immunological features of nonpathogenic SIV infection in sooty mangabeys-low immune activation despite high viremia and low CCR5 expression on long-lived central memory CD4 T cells-suggesting closer similarities with nonpathogenetic mechanisms evolved over thousands of years in natural SIV hosts than those operating in HIV-infected adults.

  18. Neural sensitivity to statistical regularities as a fundamental biological process that underlies auditory learning: the role of musical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Clément; Schön, Daniele

    2014-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that humans and other nonhuman mammals are sensitive to the statistical structure of auditory input. Indeed, neural sensitivity to statistical regularities seems to be a fundamental biological property underlying auditory learning. In the case of speech, statistical regularities play a crucial role in the acquisition of several linguistic features, from phonotactic to more complex rules such as morphosyntactic rules. Interestingly, a similar sensitivity has been shown with non-speech streams: sequences of sounds changing in frequency or timbre can be segmented on the sole basis of conditional probabilities between adjacent sounds. We recently ran a set of cross-sectional and longitudinal experiments showing that merging music and speech information in song facilitates stream segmentation and, further, that musical practice enhances sensitivity to statistical regularities in speech at both neural and behavioral levels. Based on recent findings showing the involvement of a fronto-temporal network in speech segmentation, we defend the idea that enhanced auditory learning observed in musicians originates via at least three distinct pathways: enhanced low-level auditory processing, enhanced phono-articulatory mapping via the left Inferior Frontal Gyrus and Pre-Motor cortex and increased functional connectivity within the audio-motor network. Finally, we discuss how these data predict a beneficial use of music for optimizing speech acquisition in both normal and impaired populations.

  19. A practical approach to acute hemiparesis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, Sanjay; Ganesan, Vijeya

    2015-08-01

    Acute hemiparesis in children is a common clinical syndrome presenting to a variety of care settings. The recognition and the differential diagnosis is challenging, particularly in young children. Arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS) is the primary diagnosis to be considered as this requires emergency investigations and management; however, there are several conditions collectively described as 'stroke mimics' that need consideration. Accurate diagnosis is essential for appropriate management. Clinical data combined with neuroimaging are important for accurate diagnosis and management. This review and the accompanying illustrative case vignettes suggest a practical approach to differential diagnosis and management of children presenting with acute hemiparesis. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  20. Asthma exacerbation in children: a practical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin-Shien; Tsai, Ming-Chin

    2014-04-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic lower respiratory tract disease in childhood throughout the world. Despite advances in asthma management, acute exacerbations continue to be a major problem in patients and they result in a considerable burden on direct/indirect health care providers. A severe exacerbation occurring within 1 year is an independent risk factor. Respiratory tract viruses have emerged as the most frequent triggers of exacerbations in children. It is becoming increasingly clear that interactions may exist between viruses and other triggers, increasing the likelihood of an exacerbation. In this study, we provide an overview of current knowledge about asthma exacerbations, including its definition, impact on health care providers, and associated factors. Prevention management in intermittent asthma as well as intermittent wheeze in pre-school children and those with persistent asthma are discussed. Our review findings support the importance of controlling persistent asthma, as indicated in current guidelines. In addition, we found that early episodic intervention appeared to be crucial in preventing severe attacks and future exacerbations. Besides the use of medication, timely education after an exacerbation along with a comprehensive plan in follow up is also vitally important.

  1. Respiratory Diseases in Children: studies in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.J.M. Uijen (Hans)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe work presented in this thesis covers various aspects of the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of various respiratory symptoms and diseases in children frequently encountered in general practice. These respiratory tract symptoms and diseases can be categorized into symptoms and d

  2. Socialization of Adolescents: Cultural Practices in Children's Summer Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demakova, Irina D.; Valeeva, Roza A.; Shipova, Alina V.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the relevant aspects of the adolescents' cultural practices in children's summer camp, taking into account their specific characteristics. The summer camp is considered as an educational formation and holistic socio-pedagogical body, designed to create conditions for the development of the person. The criteria for inclusion…

  3. Practice Parameter for Telepsychiatry with Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Parameter for the usage of telepsychiatry to provide services to children and adolescents is developed using clinical consensus and existing scientific evidence. Telepsychiatry is the result of applying telemedicine, a mode of health care delivery that uses telecommunications, to psychiatry. The parameter's use for determining best practices in…

  4. Teacher practices as predictors of children's classroom social preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Reuland, Meg M; Gregory, Anne

    2012-02-01

    Students who do not get along with their peers are at elevated risk for academic disengagement and school failure. Research has predominantly focused on factors within such children that contribute to their peer problems. This study considers whether teacher practices also predict social preference for children in that classroom. Participants were 26 elementary school teachers and 490 students in their classrooms followed for one school year. Results suggested that teachers who favored the most academically talented students in the fall had classrooms where children had lower average social preference in the spring after statistical control of children's fall social preference and externalizing behavior problems. Teachers who demonstrated emotionally supportive relationships with students in the fall had classrooms where children had greater possibility of changing their social preference from fall to spring. Although children with high externalizing behaviors tended to experience declining social preference over the course of the school year, teachers' learner-centered practices attenuated this progression. However, teachers' favoring of the most academically talented accentuated the negative relation between externalizing behaviors and social preference. Implications for school psychology practitioners are discussed.

  5. Asthma in children: gaps between current management and best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haby, M M; Powell, C V E; Oberklaid, F; Waters, E B; Robertson, C F

    2002-06-01

    To determine the extent to which steps three to six of the Australian six-step asthma management plan are being implemented in the community and to identify barriers to the adoption of best practice asthma management. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the Royal Children's Hospital and Sunshine Hospital, Melbourne. Two hundred and thirty-one 2-5-year old children who visited the emergency department for asthma were enrolled in the study. Main outcome measures were frequency of asthma management practices and barriers, as measured by parent-completed questionnaire. Gaps: 51% of parents do not feel they have enough information about asthma triggers, more than 60% of children with persistent or frequent episodic asthma are not using regular preventive medication, 48% do not have a written action plan, 39% have not had their asthma reviewed in the last 6 months, and 38% of parents do not feel that they have enough information about their child's asthma. Areas where current practice was close to best practice: 83% of doctors had talked to parents about what causes or 'triggers' their child's asthma, less than 1% of children are using puffers without a spacer, 83% of parents who had an action plan used it for the current visit to the emergency department. Large gaps still exist between current management and best practice in this group of emergency department attenders. Improvements in asthma management could be achieved if the child's asthma doctor requested review visits for asthma, provided an action plan and followed best practice in relation to asthma medications.

  6. Maternal presence, childrearing practices, and children's response to an injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, M E; Endsley, R C

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of maternal presence or absence and childrearing practices on young children's response to an injection. One hundred thirty-eight mothers and their children, who were attending health screening clinic, were assigned to one of four groups in which mothers were either present or absent during an interview and an immunization. Mothers were asked to fill out a questionnaire about their childrearing practices. Child behavior was observed during both the interview and the immunization. Results indicated that while maternal presence was associated with the children behaving more distressed during the interview, maternal presence had no effect on child behavior during the immunization. Children whose mothers reported high levels of both control and warmth in their relationship (authoritative parents) were found to be significantly less distressed during the immunization than children of either the low-control, high-warmth (permissive), high-control, low-warmth (authoritarian) or low-control, low-warmth (nonresponsive) parent groups.

  7. Regular Football Practice Improves Autonomic Cardiac Function in Male Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luis; Oliveira, Jose; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Rebelo, Antonio; Brito, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the cardiovascular regulation is of primal importance. Since it has been associated with adverse conditions such as cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, sleep disorders, hypertension and obesity. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of recreational football practice on the autonomic cardiac function of male children, as measured by heart rate variability. Patients and Methods: Forty-seven male children aged 9 - 12 years were selected according to their engagement with football oriented practice outside school context. The children were divided into a football group (FG; n = 22) and a control group (CG; n = 25). The FG had regular football practices, with 2 weekly training sessions and occasional weekend matches. The CG was not engaged with any physical activity other than complementary school-based physical education classes. Data from physical activity, physical fitness, and heart rate variability measured in time and frequency domains were obtained. Results: The anthropometric and body composition characteristics were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). The groups were also similar in time spent daily on moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (FG vs. CG: 114 ± 64 vs. 87 ± 55 minutes; P > 0.05). However, the FG performed better (P football practice presented enhanced physical fitness and autonomic function, by increasing vagal tone at rest. PMID:26448848

  8. The Development of Fundamental Motor Skills of Four- to Five-Year-Old Preschool Children and the Effects of a Preschool Physical Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iivonen, S.; Saakslahti, A.; Nissinen, K.

    2011-01-01

    Altogether 38 girls and 46 boys aged four to five years were studied to analyse the linear and non-linear development of fundamental motor skills. The children were grouped into one experimental and one control group to study the effects of an eight-month preschool physical education curriculum. In the course of one year, the balance skills of the…

  9. [Nutritional supplementation in children and adolescents practicing fencing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalcarz, Wojciech; Radzimirska-Graczyk, Monika

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of nutritional supplementation during the days of training and the days free of training in children and adolescents who attend sports schools, Questionnaires on the use of nutritional supplementation were filled in by 141 children and adolescents who practice fencing. The factor gender-age had statistically significant impact only on using mineral supplementation by the studied students. Using ergogenic aids as well as using vitamin and mineral supplements or other kind of supplementation was rare in the studied population, but was more frequent during the days of training. Nutritional supplementation was always used by higher percentage of boys than girls.

  10. Mathematics at home practical activities for parents and children

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, John

    2001-01-01

    How can teachers help parents to get involved with their children's learning? Maths at home is full of activities designed to fit in with the Key Stage 2 Numeracy topics. Teachers can photocopy the appropriate sheet and send it home for parents and children to work on together. Each activity has a set of explanatory notes for teachers and a photocopiable worksheet. Instructions to parents are clearly presented, with resources listed. The activities are practical and enjoyable, covering everyday mathematical tasks, such as calculating shopping bills, estimating quantities and looking at timetab

  11. Reconceptualizing Practice with Multilingual Children with Speech Sound Disorders: People, Practicalities and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; Wong, Sandie

    2015-01-01

    Background: The speech and language therapy profession is required to provide services to increasingly multilingual caseloads. Much international research has focused on the challenges of speech and language therapists' (SLTs) practice with multilingual children. Aims: To draw on the experience and knowledge of experts in the field to: (1)…

  12. Social Work Practice with Pagans, Witches, and Wiccans: Guidelines for Practice with Children and Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Meg

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces social workers to the beliefs and practices associated with Paganism, Witchcraft, and Wicca and describes how social workers can help to create a welcoming environment for children and youths belonging to these religious minority groups. Drawing on social science research, social work literature, and a case example, the…

  13. Reconceptualizing Practice with Multilingual Children with Speech Sound Disorders: People, Practicalities and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; Wong, Sandie

    2015-01-01

    Background: The speech and language therapy profession is required to provide services to increasingly multilingual caseloads. Much international research has focused on the challenges of speech and language therapists' (SLTs) practice with multilingual children. Aims: To draw on the experience and knowledge of experts in the field to: (1)…

  14. Hispanic mothers' beliefs and practices regarding selected children's health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, B I

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the Hispanic mothers' initial sources of advice and help with children's illnesses; beliefs about the etiology and seriousness of certain children's illnesses, namely, fever, cough, diarrhea, vomiting, conjunctivitis, skin rash, minor wounds, and burns; practices for the management of these children's health problems, including the use of home remedies, if any. Interviews were conducted with 100 women of Hispanic origin who had at least one child age 5 years or less and who were attending a community clinic in a rural area of central California. Mothers' beliefs about problem etiologies varied widely and revealed several misconceptions, folk beliefs, and lack of knowledge. The findings also revealed that only 32% of the mothers used or would use health professionals as the initial source of advice or help with children's problems. The majority of the subjects (81%) admitted to using home remedies to manage children's problems; 17% sought the help of a folk healer (mainly for the treatment of empacho). The various types of home remedies used by mothers were described and included the ingestion or application of certain foods, fluids, herbal teas, or other materials as well as methods to eliminate the perceived causes of the problems. It is important to note that 11% of the mothers had used azarcon or greta (substances containing lead) for treating empacho and other stomach problems in children. The need for culturally responsive and sensitive health care is discussed.

  15. "What's Your Name?": Names, Naming Practices, and Contextualized Selves of Young Korean American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Kyunghwa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how young Korean American children and the adults around these children perform naming practices and what these practices mean to the children. As part of a large ethnographic study on Korean American children's peer culture in a heritage language school in the United States, data were collected by observing 11 prekindergarten…

  16. "What's Your Name?": Names, Naming Practices, and Contextualized Selves of Young Korean American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Kyunghwa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how young Korean American children and the adults around these children perform naming practices and what these practices mean to the children. As part of a large ethnographic study on Korean American children's peer culture in a heritage language school in the United States, data were collected by observing 11 prekindergarten…

  17. HYGIENE PRACTICES AMONG RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN IN PUDUCHERRY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanta Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIM: To assess the hygiene practices among rural school children. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This cross - sectional study was conducted at Government higher secondary school in rural ar ea of Puducherry. METHODS AND MATERIAL : Around 214 children studying in standard 6 th to 8 th were randomly selected for the study during June to August 2011. The study was explained to the school children and their assent was taken before the study. They an swered the pre - designed questionnaires. Data was collected by face to face interview. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Statistical analysis was done by using EPI INFO 3. RESULTS: Hygiene practice of hand washing before eating was 95.33%. Only 81.31% students used sli ppers/chappals during use of toilet. Around 58.41% of students went to open field for defecation and 6.07% of students did not wash their hands after defecation. Regarding the frequency of hygiene practice, only 62.15% and 68.22% of students brushed their teeth and bathed every day respectively. The study finding also showed that only 68.69% students washed their face twice daily where as 3.27% students washed their face weekly. As regards to the materials used for hygiene practice, 93.86% of students used tooth brush & paste for brushing of teeth, 85.98% of students used soap while taking bath and 25.70% of students did not use soap for hand wash after defecation. CONCLUSION: Study findings suggest the need for more hygiene practice education in rural schoo ls. Such healthy practices may help to decrease the burden of communicable diseases in rural school settings.

  18. Review of complementary feeding practices in Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja-Mendoza, Itzayana Y; Meléndez, Guillermo; Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Serralde-Zúñiga, Aurora E

    2014-10-19

    The early introduction of food is consistent with a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, particularly in children, partly because of the resulting changes in feeding patterns. The purpose of this study was to describe the complementary feeding practices of Mexican children younger than two years of age. Medline, Lilacs and manual methods were used to search for studies that assessed feeding practices in children younger than two years of age in Mexico. The following terms were used: complementary feeding, supplementary feeding, Mexico and weaning. Data on complementary feeding practices, including the age of initiation, the type of foods eaten, the frequency of food intake and the reasons for starting complementary feeding, were collected. The information gathered was subjected to qualitative analysis, and the data are presented as proportions in the tables. The seven studies included in this evaluation revealed that children were introduced to complementary feeding before the age of 6 months. Although fruits were the foods most commonly provided when complementary feeding began, processed juices, soft drinks and fried snacks were also offered. The intake of these products increased as the children grew older and coincided with a low intake of foods containing high-biological value protein, particularly red meats. The results of the included studies showed that during complementary feeding, infants receive high-energy density foods, whereas the intake of foods that provide animal protein and iron in particular is low. In addition, common conditions associated with complementary feeding include overweight, obesity, malnutrition, and anemia, which may contribute to health problems. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Ischemic Stroke in Infants and Children: Practical Management in Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ciccone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a rare disease in children, with an estimated incidence 13/100000 and a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Clinical presentation and risk factors, present in almost half of pediatric patients, are not the same as in adults. The diagnosis of stroke in children is often delayed because signs and symptoms can be subtle and nonspecific. History and clinical examination should exclude underlying diseases or predisposing factors. Neuroimaging is crucial in defining diagnosis. Other tests might be necessary, according to the clinical picture. We present here the most recent practical directions on how to diagnose and manage arterial stroke in children, according to different international guidelines on the subject.

  20. Cow's milk protein allergy in children: a practical guide

    OpenAIRE

    Calzone Luigi; Baldi Francesco; Bendandi Barbara; Caffarelli Carlo; Marani Miris; Pasquinelli Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A joint study group on cow's milk allergy was convened by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Allergy and by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Gastroenterology to focus best practice for diagnosis, management and follow-up of cow's milk allergy in children and to offer a common approach for allergologists, gastroenterologists, general paediatricians and primary care physicians. The report prepared by the study group was discussed by members of Working Groups...

  1. Hand Washing Practices among School Children in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steiner-Asiedu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of diarrhoeal diseases and other communicable diseases among children due to poor personal hygiene and sanitation remains a concern on the public health agenda in most countries. To address the problem efficiently, an understanding of the knowledge and practices among target populations is needed to plan and design behavioural interventions. It is against this background that the present study was carried out to determine the hand washing practices among children in private and public school in the Metropolis in the Greater-Accra region of Ghana, with both private and public schools. A total of 295 school children were randomly recruited into the study. The study was cross-sectional in design and used qualitative and quantitative methods to collect data. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographics. A check list was used during the observation of hand washing practices and an interview guide was used for the focus group discussions. The results showed that, most school children observed did not practice proper hand washing with soap, both in school and at home due to the unavailability and inaccessibility of hand washing facilities such as soap, towel and clean running water. However, majority (90.2% of those who used the school toilet practiced hand washing with soap after defecation. Private schools were found to be 63% (p = 0.02 less likely to wash their hands after using the toilet, 51% (p = 0.03 less likely to wash their hands before eating and 77% (p<0.001 less likely to wash their hands with soap after eating compared to their public school counterparts. Parents reported the presence of hand washing facilities at home but structured observations during home visits proved otherwise. The need to extend the hand washing campaigns to private schools cannot be overemphasised. It will be useful for the Ghana Education Service to collaborate with all stakeholders; such as Ghana Health Services, National

  2. [AVIATION MEDICINE: THEORETICAL CONCEPTS AND FOCAL FUNDAMENTAL AND PRACTICAL ISSUES (for the 80th anniversary of the Research Test Center of Aerospace Medicine and Military Ergonomics)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanko, I M; Pisarev, A A; Vorona, A A; Lapa, V V; Khomenko, M N

    2015-01-01

    The article discloses postulates of theoretical concepts that make the methodological basis for addressing the real-world aviation medicine challenges of humanizing aviator's environment, labor content and means, and health and performance maintenance. Under consideration are focal fundamental and practical issues arising with the technological progress in aviation and dealt with at the AF CRI Research Test Center of Aerospace Medicine and Military Ergonomics.

  3. Screening for foot problems in children: is this practice justifiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Angela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Podiatry screening of children is a common practice, which occurs largely without adequate data to support the need for such activity. Such programs may be either formalised, or more ad hoc in nature, depending upon the use of guidelines or existing models. Although often not used, the well-established criteria for assessing the merits of screening programs can greatly increase the understanding as to whether such practices are actually worthwhile. This review examines the purpose of community health screening in the Australian context, as occurs for tuberculosis, breast, cervical and prostate cancers, and then examines podiatry screening practices for children with reference to the criteria of the World Health Organisation (WHO. Topically, the issue of paediatric foot posture forms the focus of this review, as it presents with great frequency to a range of clinicians. Comparison is made with developmental dysplasia of the hip, in which instance the WHO criteria are well met. Considering that the burden of the condition being screened for must be demonstrable, and that early identification must be found to be beneficial, in order to justify a screening program, there is no sound support for either continuing or establishing podiatry screenings for children.

  4. Consensus Review of Best Practice of Transanal Irrigation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosiello, Giovanni; Marshall, David; Rolle, Udo; Crétolle, Célia; Santacruz, Bruno G; Frischer, Jason; Benninga, Marc A

    2017-03-01

    Pediatric patients with either functional or organic bowel dysfunction may suffer from constipation and fecal incontinence and represent a complex group in whom management is often difficult. Many noninvasive and invasive treatments have been proposed, with variable efficacy and adverse effects. Transanal irrigation (TAI) is now an accepted alternative, in both children and adults, for bowel dysfunction that has not responded to conservative and medical therapies. There is, however, still some uncertainty about the use of TAI in pediatric populations. Hence, a group of specialists from different nations and pediatric disciplines, all with long-standing experience of bowel management in children, performed a literature search and had round table discussions to determine the best-practice use of TAI in the pediatric patient population. Based on these findings, this article provides best-practice recommendations on indications, patient selection, important considerations before treatment, patient and family training, treatment regimens, troubleshooting, and practical aspects of TAI. We conclude that careful patient selection, a tailored approach, directly supervised training, and sustained follow-up are key to optimize outcomes with TAI in children with functional or organic bowel dysfunction.

  5. Korean Clinical Practice Guidelines: Otitis Media in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Park, Su-Kyoung; Choi, Kyu Young; Park, Su Eun; Chun, Young Myung; Kim, Kyu-Sung; Park, Shi-Nae; Cho, Yang-Sun; Kim, Young-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME) are common infections in children, and their diagnosis and treatment have significant impacts on the health of children and the costs of providing national medical care. In 2009, the Korean Otologic Society organized a committee composed of experts in the field of otolaryngology, pediatrics, and family medicine to develop Korean clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for otitis media in children with the goal of meeting regional medical and social needs in Korea. For this purpose, the committee adapted existing guidelines. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2004 to 2009 using medical search engines including data from Korea. A draft was written after a national questionnaire survey and several public audits, and it was editorially supervised by senior advisors before publication of the final report. These evidence-based guidelines for the management of otitis media in children provide recommendations to primary practitioners for the diagnosis and treatment of children younger than 15 yr old with uncomplicated AOM and OME. The guidelines include recommendations regarding diagnosis, treatment options, prevention and parent education, medical records, referral, and complementary/alternative medicine for treating pediatric otitis media. PMID:22876048

  6. Korean clinical practice guidelines: otitis media in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Park, Su-Kyoung; Choi, Kyu Young; Park, Su Eun; Chun, Young Myung; Kim, Kyu-Sung; Park, Shi-Nae; Cho, Yang-Sun; Kim, Young-Jae; Kim, Hyung-Jong; Korean Otologic Society

    2012-08-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME) are common infections in children, and their diagnosis and treatment have significant impacts on the health of children and the costs of providing national medical care. In 2009, the Korean Otologic Society organized a committee composed of experts in the field of otolaryngology, pediatrics, and family medicine to develop Korean clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for otitis media in children with the goal of meeting regional medical and social needs in Korea. For this purpose, the committee adapted existing guidelines. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2004 to 2009 using medical search engines including data from Korea. A draft was written after a national questionnaire survey and several public audits, and it was editorially supervised by senior advisors before publication of the final report. These evidence-based guidelines for the management of otitis media in children provide recommendations to primary practitioners for the diagnosis and treatment of children younger than 15 yr old with uncomplicated AOM and OME. The guidelines include recommendations regarding diagnosis, treatment options, prevention and parent education, medical records, referral, and complementary/alternative medicine for treating pediatric otitis media.

  7. Vygotsky's ideas about the content of children's practical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Dubrovina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the fundamental provisions of L.S. Vygotsky's theory of psychological development of a child and the psycho-pedagogical conditions of this development, which are crucial for the improvement of the psychological service of modern education system. It is shown that in the modern educational psychology, insufficient attention is paid to the humanitarian education and training – the development of the emotional sphere, moral needs, development of concepts not only about the world, but also about themselves, about their place in this world. We prove that the work of L.S. Vygotsky helps to understand the acute and controversial issues of modern education, on the solution of which researchers, practicing psychologists and teachers are struggling. Particular attention is paid to improving the psychological literacy of pupils as a prerequisite for their normal development. It is emphasized that the works of L.S. Vygotsky are the fundamental source for practical familiarizing students to the world of cultural values.

  8. Features of the Treatment for the Syndrome of Dehydration in Infants and Older Children, Newborns: Fundamentals of Parenteral Rehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Snisar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In pediatric practice, the syndrome of dehydration is quite common. In children, the most likely cause of the fluid loss is gastroenteritis syndrome and diarrhea of various origins. These causes are often associated with diarrhea and vomiting that results in the loss of water and electrolytes in various proportions. In contrast to the treatment of critical conditions, such as hypovolemic and septic shock, there is no standardized approach to the correction of mild to moderate syndrome of dehydration. The role of oral rehydration in the prehospital and hospital stage is significantly underestimated. This article is a sign of interest in the unification of approaches to the treatment of such conditions, makes it possible to get acquainted with a generalized view of the treatment and prevention of a variety of adverse reactions on the background of oral and/or parenteral rehydration. Our survey reminds the practitioner about the features of dehydration syndrome in children of different age groups, the importance of taking into account the pathogenesis of various types of dehydration during the diagnosis, de­monstrates the importance of knowledge in the field of infusion media in the context of the therapy balanced in terms of the volume and components, as well as considers the target fluid spaces of the body under pathological losses. We investigate the concept of physiological infusion solution on the basis of evidence-based medicine. This review is advisory, it is based both on the national experience in the treatment of the syndrome of dehydration and foreign resources analysis.

  9. Fundamentals of gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, V

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition isa comprehensively updated new edition and now includes a chapter on the gas dynamics of steam. It covers the fundamental concepts and governing equations of different flows, and includes end of chapter exercises based on the practical applications. A number of useful tables on the thermodynamic properties of steam are also included.Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition begins with an introduction to compressible and incompressible flows before covering the fundamentals of one dimensional flows and normal shock wav

  10. [General anaesthesia in children: a French survey of practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, I; Louvet, N; Guye, M-L; Sabourdin, N

    2012-09-01

    The practice of pediatric anesthesia requires a regular update of scientific knowledge and technical skills. To provide the most adequate Continuing Medical Education programs, it is necessary to assess the practices of pediatric anesthesiologists. Thus, the objective of this survey was to draw a picture of the current clinical practices of general anesthesia in children, in France. One thousand one hundred and fifty questionnaires were given to anesthesiologists involved in pediatric cases. These questionnaires collected information on various aspects of clinical practice relative to induction, maintenance, recovery from general anaesthesia and also classical debated points such as children with Upper Respiratory Infection (URI), emergence agitation, epileptoid signs or anaesthetic management of adenoidectomy. Differences in practices between CHG (general hospital), CHU (teaching hospital), LIBERAL (private) and PSPH (semi-private) hospitals were investigated. There were 1025 questionnaires completed. Fifty-five percent of responders worked in public hospitals (CHG and CHU); 77% had a practice that was 25% or less of pediatric cases. In children from 3 to 10 years: 72% of respondents used always premedication and two thirds performed inhalation induction in more than 50% of cases. For induction, 53% used sevoflurane (SEVO) at 7 or 8%. Respondents from LIBERAL used higher SEVO concentrations. Tracheal intubation was performed with SEVO alone (37%), SEVO and propofol (55%) and SEVO with myorelaxant (8%), 93% of respondents used a bolus of opioid. For maintenance, the majority of respondents used SEVO associated with sufentanil; desflurane and remifentanil were more frequently used in CHU. Two thirds of respondents used N(2)O. Depth of anesthesia was commonly assessed by hemodynamic changes (52%), end tidal concentration of halogenated (38%) or automated devices based on EEG (7%). In children with URI, 98% of respondents used SEVO for anesthesia. To control the

  11. Family Digital Literacy Practices and Children's Mobile Phone Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terras, Melody M; Ramsay, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Smart phones are ubiquitous in everyday life and are having a major impact on work, education, social relationships and modes of communication. Children are the fastest growing population of smart phone users, with use often focusing around internet access, e.g., 1 in 3 internet users in the UK are under 18 years of age. Despite their widespread use, relatively little is known about the factors that underpin children's use. The home is a significant ecological context of development and recent research has highlighted the importance of the home environment in promoting and supporting the development of both safe and unsafe online behavior. Yet the importance of these influences currently remains relatively unrecognized. Therefore, in this paper we present a narrative review of evidence examining parental practices concerning digital communication technologies and applications, with a particular focus on smartphones, and how they relate to the use of technology by their children. Emerging evidence to date indicates that two important factors are at play. Firstly, parental technology use is closely related to that of their child. Secondly, that despite parents frequently voiced concerns about the nature and extent of their child's mobile phone use, parents themselves often engage in a number of unsafe internet behaviors and excessive phone use in the home environment. Our review identifies two crucial lines of enquiry that have yet to be comprehensively pursued by researchers in the field: firstly, the adoption of a psychological perspective on children's emergent behaviors with mobile devices and secondly, the influential role of context. Given parental concerns about the possible negative impact of technologies, parental awareness should be raised about the influence of their behavior in the context of internet safety along with the adoption of good digital literacy practices. It is anticipated that a comprehensive characterization of the associated contextual

  12. Movement Imagery in Young and Congenitally Blind Children: Mental Practice without Visuo-spatial Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Susanna; Ittyerah, Miriam

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments examined the question of whether blindfolded young children and congenitally blind children show mental practice effects for blind movements that cross the body midline. Results suggested that young children with sight can show mental practice effects in the absence of visual cues. (GLR)

  13. Regular Football Practice Improves Autonomic Cardiac Function in Male Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS in the cardiovascular regulation is of primal importance. Since it has been associated with adverse conditions such as cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, sleep disorders, hypertension and obesity. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the impact of recreational football practice on the autonomic cardiac function of male children, as measured by heart rate variability. Patients and Methods Forty-seven male children aged 9 - 12 years were selected according to their engagement with football oriented practice outside school context. The children were divided into a football group (FG; n = 22 and a control group (CG; n = 25. The FG had regular football practices, with 2 weekly training sessions and occasional weekend matches. The CG was not engaged with any physical activity other than complementary school-based physical education classes. Data from physical activity, physical fitness, and heart rate variability measured in time and frequency domains were obtained. Results The anthropometric and body composition characteristics were similar in both groups (P > 0.05. The groups were also similar in time spent daily on moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (FG vs. CG: 114 ± 64 vs. 87 ± 55 minutes; P > 0.05. However, the FG performed better (P < 0.05 in Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (1394 ± 558 vs. 778 ± 408 m and 15-m sprint test (3.06 ± 0.17 vs. 3.20 ± 0.23 s. Also, the FG presented enhanced autonomic function. Significant differences were detected (P < 0.05 between groups for low frequency normalized units (38.0 ± 15.2 vs. 47.3 ± 14.2 n.u (normalized units, high frequency normalized units (62.1 ± 15.2 vs. 52.8 ± 14.2 n.u., and LF:HF ratio (0.7 ± 0.4 vs. 1.1 ± 0.6 ms2. Conclusions Children engaged with regular football practice presented enhanced physical fitness and autonomic function, by increasing vagal tone at rest.

  14. Women who abuse their children: implications for pediatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, B; Stein, M T

    1980-10-01

    Parents who abuse their children may not accept traditional therapy but may be influenced by the child's primary care physician. A comparative study of abusive and nonabusive mothers showed abusers to have lower self-concept and higher self-concept incongruence and inconsistency than nonabusers. They were also found to value authority over others more, and conformity and benevolence less, than nonabusers. Practically applied, the data lead the pediatrician to an educative and supportive role in which he or she may enhance self-esteem and lower unrealistic expectations in the course of treating the child. In addition, there seems to be a need to develop access to support groups, day care, and other avenues for the mother's personal growth. This may be done either within a pediatric practice or through liaison with community resources.

  15. Associations between Family Environment, Parenting Practices, and Executive Functioning of Children with and without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Valarie M.; Kelley, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationships between executive functioning, family environment, and parenting practices in children diagnosed with ADHD as compared to children without ADHD. Participants were parents (N = 134) of 6- to 12-year-old ADHD and non-ADHD-diagnosed children. Compared to the control group, parents of children diagnosed with ADHD reported…

  16. Corrective shoes for children: a survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staheli, L T; Giffin, L

    1980-01-01

    A survey of shoe-prescribing practices for children was taken among pediatricians, orthopaedists, pediatric orthopaedists, and podiatrists. Opinions differed significantly regarding the usefulness of shoe modifications for common pediatric lower limb and foot problems. Parents' attitudes toward children's shoes were also surveyed. Pediatricians and pediatric orthopaedists tended to prescribe corrective shoes less often than did orthopaedists and podiatrists. High topped shoes are not necessary to promote normal foot development, in the opinion of 85% of those surveyed; however, high topped shoes were often recommended for infants because they slip off less easily. Preferences for Thomas heels, scaphoid pads, reverse lasts, straight lasts, wedges, torque heels, and shoe lifts for problems including flexible flat feet, metatarsus adductus, intoeing, bow legs, knock knees, and leg length inequalities were delineated among the four groups treating children's feet. The authors conclude that whereas studies show that shoe modifications are of questionable value in the problems discussed, corrective shoes are often prescribed when regular shoes would be more appropriate and economical.

  17. Socialization Values and Parenting Practices as Predictors of Parental Involvement in Their Children's Educational Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikas, Eve; Tulviste, Tiia; Peets, Kätlin

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental socialization values (including inconsistency in values), parenting practices, and parental involvement in their children's education. Altogether 242 Estonian mothers and fathers of first-grade children partici

  18. Socialization Values and Parenting Practices as Predictors of Parental Involvement in Their Children's Educational Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikas, Eve; Tulviste, Tiia; Peets, Kätlin

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental socialization values (including inconsistency in values), parenting practices, and parental involvement in their children's education. Altogether 242 Estonian mothers and fathers of first-grade children

  19. Domestic Violence and Its Effects on Children: Fundamental Concepts, Safety Planning and Examples of Alternative Treatment Models

    OpenAIRE

    Melis Sedef Kahraman; Gokce Cokamay

    2016-01-01

    Domestic violence is defined as coercive and controlling behaviors that family members show toward each other. These behaviors are frequently seen as repetitive behavior patterns. Research indicates that many domestic violence incidents happen in the presence of children. Being exposed to domestic violence or witnessing domestic violence has similar emotional-behavioral problems in children. In this article, we emphasized different reactions of children to domestic violence within different a...

  20. High contrast imaging with an arbitrary aperture: active correction of aperture discontinuities: fundamental limits and practical trade- offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin; Soummer, Rémi; Perrin, Marshall; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Choquet, Élodie; Hoffmann, Jordan; Carlotti, Alexis; Mawet, Dimitri

    2014-08-01

    We present a new method to achieve high-contrast images using segmented and/or on-axis telescopes. Our approach relies on using two sequential Deformable Mirrors to compensate for the large amplitude excursions in the telescope aperture due to secondary support structures and / or segment gaps. We solve the highly non-linear Monge-Ampere equation that is the fundamental equation describing the physics of phase induced amplitude modulation. We determine the optimum configuration for our two sequential Deformable Mirror system and show that high-throughput and high contrast solutions can be achieved using realistic surface deformations that are accessible using existing technologies. We name this process Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD). We show that for geometries similar to JWST, ACAD can attain at least 10-7 in contrast and an order of magnitude higher for future Extremely Large Telescopes, even when the pupil features a "missing segment" . Because the converging non-linear mappings resulting from our Deformable Mirror shapes damps near-field diffraction artifacts in the vicinity of the discontinuities this solution is particularly appealing in terms of spectral bandwidth. We present preliminary results that illustrate the performances of ACAD in the presence of diffraction for apertures for with secondary support structures of varying width and argue that the ultimate contrast achieved can by combining ACAD with modern wavefront control algorithms.

  1. Promoting reading in children: do reading practices differ in children with developmental problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, Arlene M; Crocetti, Michael; Thompson, Richard E; Lipkin, Paul H

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe and compare reading practices in caregivers of children with developmental/behavioral problems (DEV) to caregivers of children without developmental problems attending a general pediatric clinic (GEN). Cross-sectional, convenience samples of 321 caregivers of DEV and GEN children self-report reading practices including amount of daytime and nighttime reading, TV viewing, and number of books in the house. Reading 4 or more days per week is the primary outcome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to compare reading 4 or more days per week with specific predictors. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were reported. Three hundred and twenty-one caregivers participated in the study (DEV 204, GEN 117). Mean number of books in home (51.1+/-49.9), TV viewing hours per day (2.6+/-2.0), and days or nights read per week (days, 4.9+/-2.1; nights, 4.0+/-2.4) did not differ by group. Caregivers reporting incomes at 200% above the federal poverty level (FPL) were more likely to engage in reading more than 4 days per week (odds ratio 5.32; 95% confidence intervals, 1.19, 23.81) after controlling for developmental status, caregiver education and age, and frequency of television viewing. Positive home reading practices were predicted by FPL in children with and without developmental or behavioral problems and while controlling for child group status (DEV or GEN), caregiver education and age, and amount of TV viewing. Reading promotion programs should focus on children from low socioeconomic environments regardless of disability risk status.

  2. Developing Inclusive Educational Practices for Refugee Children in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacakova, Marketa

    2011-01-01

    All children in the Czech Republic have the legal right to primary education, regardless of nationality and legal status. This article is based on a study of refugee children and their educational situation. The study reveals that refugee students in the Czech Republic are not benefiting fully from this fundamental right and that their educational…

  3. Developing Inclusive Educational Practices for Refugee Children in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacakova, Marketa

    2011-01-01

    All children in the Czech Republic have the legal right to primary education, regardless of nationality and legal status. This article is based on a study of refugee children and their educational situation. The study reveals that refugee students in the Czech Republic are not benefiting fully from this fundamental right and that their educational…

  4. Do parental feeding practices moderate the relationships between impulsivity and eating in children?

    OpenAIRE

    Farrow, Claire V.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between children's impulsivity, their eating behaviours, and their perceptions of their parent's feeding practices. 153 10-13. year old children completed questionnaires assessing their eating behaviours, their impulsiveness and their perception of their parent's feeding practices. Children's reports of dysfunctional eating behaviours were significantly correlated with their perceptions of their parents feeding practices and with their levels of impulsivi...

  5. Fundamentals of structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Roy R

    2006-01-01

    From theory and fundamentals to the latest advances in computational and experimental modal analysis, this is the definitive, updated reference on structural dynamics.This edition updates Professor Craig's classic introduction to structural dynamics, which has been an invaluable resource for practicing engineers and a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in vibrations and/or structural dynamics. Along with comprehensive coverage of structural dynamics fundamentals, finite-element-based computational methods, and dynamic testing methods, this Second Edition includes new and e

  6. Radiology fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Harjit

    2011-01-01

    ""Radiology Fundamentals"" is a concise introduction to the dynamic field of radiology for medical students, non-radiology house staff, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, radiology assistants, and other allied health professionals. The goal of the book is to provide readers with general examples and brief discussions of basic radiographic principles and to serve as a curriculum guide, supplementing a radiology education and providing a solid foundation for further learning. Introductory chapters provide readers with the fundamental scientific concepts underlying the medical use of imag

  7. A survey of immunization practices in children with cancer in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep S. Arora

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: There is variation in the immunization practices in India in relation to children with cancer. Development and dissemination of immunisation guidelines specific to India would be useful in standardizing practice.

  8. Sex Differences in Fundamental Movement Skills of a Selected Group of 6-Year-Old South African Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Anita E.; van Reenen, Irma; Weber, Angelique M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Motor competence is emerging as an important marker of health, while adequate basic movement patterns, body control and body awareness are important building blocks of more specialized body movements and scholastic adjustment during early childhood. This study examined fundamental movement skill competency and explored sex differences…

  9. [Survey of fMRI results regarding a phonological deficit in children and adults with dyslexia: fundamental deficit or indication of compensation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligges, Carolin; Blanz, Bernhard

    2007-03-01

    Early neuroimaging studies exploring the neurobiological correlates of the phonological deficit in dyslexia were restricted to adult probands with dyslexia due to the exposure to radioactivity in the course of PET measurements. The differences in activation between normal adult readers and adults with dyslexia recorded in these studies left open the issue of whether or not these are indeed fundamental activation deficits or only a reflection of lifelong experience with poor reading and writing skills and thus should be interpreted as a sign of compensation. Development of fMRI in recent years has enabled the investigation of children with dyslexia in order to explore the neurobiological activation patterns that underlie dyslexia. On the whole, the imaging findings in children and adults with dyslexia indicate that the left-hemisphere inferior frontal differences in activation, as well as the dorsal and ventral temporal differences in activation observed in all age groups during the processing of phonological language tasks are to be regarded as a fundamental biological deficit in dyslexia. Right-hemisphere differences in activation, which in German-speaking areas are observable in adults but only rarely in children with dyslexia, might, on the other hand, be regarded as a sign of developmental compensation.

  10. Practice and nap schedules modulate children's motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Guo, Wei; Yan, Jin H; Liu, Guanmin; Jia, Fujun

    2016-01-01

    Night- or day-time sleep enhances motor skill acquisition. However, prominent issues remained about the circadian (time-of-day) and homeostatic (time since last sleep) effects of sleep on developmental motor learning. Therefore, we examined the effects of nap schedules and nap-test-intervals (NTIs) on the learning of finger tapping sequences on computer keyboards. Children aged 6-7, 8-9, and 10-11 years explicitly acquired the short and long tapping orders that share the same movement strings (4-2-3-1-4, 4-2-3-1-4-2-3-1-4). Following a constant 8- or 10-hr post-learning period in one of the four NTIs (2, 4, 5, 7 hr), children in the morning napping groups, the afternoon napping groups, or the waking group performed the original long sequence in retention test (4-2-3-1-4-2-3-1-4) and the mirrored-order sequence in transfer test (1-3-2-4-1-3-2-4-1). Age and treatment differences in the movement time (MT, ms) and sequence accuracy (SA, %) were compared during skill learning and in retrieval tests. Results suggest that practice or nap affects MT and SA in a greater extent for the younger learners than for the older learners. The circadian effects might not change nap-based skill learning. Importantly, the longer NTIs resulted in superior retention performance than the shorter ones, suggesting that children require a relatively longer post-nap period to form motor memory. Finally, nap-based motor learning was more marked in skill retention than in skill transfer. Brain development may play an important role in motor learning. Our discussion centers on memory consolidation and its relevance for skill acquisition from early to late childhood.

  11. Rufinamide in children and adults in routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaraba, S; Santamarina, E; Miró, J; Toledo, M; Molins, A; Burcet, J; Becerra, J L; Raspall, M; Pico, G; Miravet, E; Cano, A; Fossas, P; Fernández, S; Falip, M

    2017-01-01

    To explore the long-term effectiveness of rufinamide in managing Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS), other epileptic encephalopathies, and intractable focal epilepsies in adults and children in routine clinical practice. A multicentre, retrospective chart review of patients prescribed adjunctive rufinamide at seven Spanish epilepsy centres, with assessments at six and 12 months. We evaluated data from 58 patients (40 male, age range 7-57 years), 25 of whom were diagnosed with LGS, 12 with other epileptic encephalopathies and 21 of whom were diagnosed with focal epilepsies, mainly frontal lobe. The mean daily rufinamide dose was 32.0 mg/kg (range 12.5-66.7 mg/kg) in children and 24.7 mg/kg (range 5.0-47.0 mg/kg) in adults, and the most commonly used concomitant antiepileptic drugs were levetiracetam and valproate. Rufinamide was discontinued in 25 patients (43.1%) during the 1-year follow-up, and the most common reason was lack of effectiveness (n = 12, 20.7% of total). The frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures was significantly reduced from baseline at 6 and 12 months (P = 0.001), both in patients with generalized epilepsies and in patients with focal epilepsies. Significant seizure frequency reduction from baseline was observed at 12 months (P = 0.01) for tonic/atonic seizures and at 6 months (P = 0.001) for focal seizures. Side effects were reported in 21 patients (36.2%): nausea, vomiting and weight loss were most frequent. Rufinamide was well tolerated and was effective in reducing frequency of generalized tonic-clonic, tonic/atonic and focal seizures in both children and adults with severe refractory epilepsies, primarily LGS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cow's milk protein allergy in children: a practical guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calzone Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A joint study group on cow's milk allergy was convened by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Allergy and by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Gastroenterology to focus best practice for diagnosis, management and follow-up of cow's milk allergy in children and to offer a common approach for allergologists, gastroenterologists, general paediatricians and primary care physicians. The report prepared by the study group was discussed by members of Working Groups who met three times in Italy. This guide is the result of a consensus reached in the following areas. Cow's milk allergy should be suspected in children who have immediate symptoms such as acute urticaria/angioedema, wheezing, rhinitis, dry cough, vomiting, laryngeal edema, acute asthma with severe respiratory distress, anaphylaxis. Late reactions due to cow's milk allergy are atopic dermatitis, chronic diarrhoea, blood in the stools, iron deficiency anaemia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, constipation, chronic vomiting, colic, poor growth (food refusal, enterocolitis syndrome, protein-losing enteropathy with hypoalbuminemia, eosinophilic oesophagogastroenteropathy. An overview of acceptable means for diagnosis is included. According to symptoms and infant diet, three different algorithms for diagnosis and follow-up have been suggested.

  13. Fundamental Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, Hannu; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl Johan

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental Astronomy gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The fifth edition of this successful undergraduate textbook has been extensively modernized and extended in the parts dealing with the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology as well as with extrasolar planets and the solar system (as a consequence of recent results from satellite missions and the new definition by the International Astronomical Union of planets, dwarf planets and small solar-system bodies). Furthermore a new chapter on astrobiology has been added. Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entrée for dedicated amateur astronomers.

  14. Evaluation of selected postural parameters in children who practice kyokushin karate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzał-Grabiec Justyna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: martial arts can be traced back thousands of years. Karate is one of the most common martial arts, and both children and adults practice it. The aim of the study was to evaluate selected body posture parameters in children aged 7–10 years who regularly practice karate.

  15. Pre-Kindergarten Teachers' Use of Transition Practices and Children's Adjustment to Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Downer, Jason T.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes pre-kindergarten teachers' use of kindergarten transition practices and examined the extent to which these practices were associated with kindergarten teachers' judgments of children's social, self-regulatory, and academic skills upon their entry into kindergarten. Participants were 722 children from 214 pre-kindergarten…

  16. The Impact of Family Socialization Practices on Children's Socialization in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aimin; Stevens, Brenda; Chen, Ping; Qian, Mingyi

    1999-01-01

    Examined impact of Chinese family socialization practices on children's socialization over 4 years. Found that parental reasoning, intellectual stimulation, and encouragement of independence were significant indicators of overall family socialization practices. Children's self-control, and positive attitudes toward others and toward work were…

  17. Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices with Children Self-Efficacy Scale: Development and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeel, Lorri S.; Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews existing measures related to evidence-based practices with children and self-efficacy and describes the development and psychometric properties of the Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices With Children Efficacy Scale. This scale was developed to assess students' and clinicians' self-efficacy in their abilities to use…

  18. Examining Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to School Social Work Practice with Homeless Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, James P.

    2014-01-01

    School social workers are at the forefront of serving homeless children and youths as they pursue education. Because of the negative impact homelessness can have on academic outcomes for children, understanding what factors are perceived to either hinder or facilitate practice and what factors might influence perceptions of practice with this…

  19. The Developmental Dynamics of Children's Academic Performance and Mothers' Homework-Related Affect and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal associations between children's academic performance and their mothers' affect, practices, and perceptions of their children in homework situations. The children's (n = 2,261) performance in reading and math was tested in Grade 1 and Grade 4, and the mothers (n = 1,476) filled out questionnaires on their…

  20. Young Children's Initiation into Family Literacy Practices in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jackie; Hannon, Peter; Lewis, Margaret; Ritchie, Louise

    2017-01-01

    This article reports a study that explored young children's digital literacy in the home. The aim of the study was to identify the range of digital literacy practices in which children are engaged in the home and to explore how these are embedded into family life and involve family members. Four children, two girls and two boys aged between 2 and…

  1. Fundamental movement skills training to promote physical activity in children with and without disability: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Capio

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The findings suggest that improved FMS proficiency could potentially contribute to heightened PA and decreased sedentary time during weekends for children. Such effect of improved FMS proficiency on PA appears to be greater in those with physical disability than in those without disability. It is recommended that the findings of this pilot study should be further examined in future research.

  2. Homeschooling and Religious Fundamentalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to…

  3. Fundamental Movement Skills Development under the Influence of a Gymnastics Program and Everyday Physical Activity in Seven-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culjak, Zoran; Miletic, Durdica; Kalinski, Suncica Delas; Kezic, Ana; Zuvela, Frane

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were: a) to examine the influence of an 18-week basic artistic gymnastics program on fundamental movement skills (FMS) development in seven-year-old children; b) to determine correlations between children's daily activities and successful performance of FMS and basic artistic gymnastics skills. Seventy five first grade primary school children took part in this study. A physical education teacher specialized in artistic gymnastics conducted a gymnastics program for 18 weeks, three times a week. The level of gymnastics skills and FMS were identified at the beginning and at the end of the program. The level of gymnastics skills was evaluated by performance of eight artistic gymnastics skills, while FMS were evaluated by the use of FMS-polygon. Physical activity and inactivity was evaluated by using a proxy-questionnaire "Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire˝ (NPAQ). According to the dependent samples t test, significant differences were found in the FMS-polygon and all gymnastics skills before and after the 18-week gymnastics program. Increasing correlations were established over time between gymnastics skills and the FMS-polygon. Unorganized daily activity of children significantly correlated with their mastering of gymnastics skills and FMS. The presented findings confirm: (1) the thesis that basic artistic gymnastics skills and FMS could be developed simultaneously, (2) the theory of positive transfer of similar skills between FMS and artistic gymnastic skills. Mastering basic artistic gymnastics skills will provoke improvement of FMS and finally become a prerequisite for successful introduction of learning more complex gymnastics skills. The obtained results imply that an increase of children's unorganized daily activities can improve the mastering of basic gymnastics skills and simultaneously the development of FMS.

  4. Authenticity in the Language Classroom and Beyond: Children and Adolescent Learners. TESOL Classroom Practice Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Whitney, Maria, Ed.; Rilling, Sarah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume in the TESOL Classroom Practice Series presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with children and adolescent language learners. These practices take into account the unique needs and characteristics of these age groups and reflect a wide range of educational contexts, goals, and challenges from classrooms in…

  5. Análise da freqüência fundamental, jitter, shimmer e intensidade vocal em crianças com transtorno fonológico Analysis of fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer and vocal intensity in children with phonological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydée F. Wertzner

    2005-10-01

    could interfere in the production of speech sounds. AIM: The objective of this study was to verify vocal characteristics related to the intensity and fundamental frequency -F0- and their disturbance indexes - jitter and shimmer - in children with phonological disorders. STUDY DESIGN: clinical prospective with transversal cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: There were 40 children, 20 of them with phonological disorders and 20 with no speech and language disturbances. Phonological exams with the ABFW infantile language test and spontaneous speech were applied. The Computer Speech Lab was used to record and perform acoustic analyses of the vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, through the vocal parameters: fundamental frequency, intensity, jitter and shimmer. RESULTS: F0 - vowel /e/ was smaller, on average, in the Phonological Disorder Group and it was 126 Hz in the Control Group. To shimmer and jitter there was no evidence that the means of the Phonological Disorder Group were different from the ones of the Control Group (p= 0.191, p=0.865, respectively. As for intensity, there was evidence that the average did not differ in the Phonological Disorder Group and the Control Group (p= 0.002. CONCLUSION: The frequency of the vowel /e/ was smaller in the Phonological Disorder Group. There was difference between the two groups regarding the means of intensity of vowels /a/, /e/ and /i/, smaller in the Phonological Disorder Group. No differences between the groups were found regarding the averages of jitter and shimmer.

  6. Infosec management fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Infosec Management Fundamentals is a concise overview of the Information Security management concepts and techniques, providing a foundational template for both experienced professionals and those new to the industry. This brief volume will also appeal to business executives and managers outside of infosec who want to understand the fundamental concepts of Information Security and how it impacts their business decisions and daily activities. Teaches ISO/IEC 27000 best practices on information security management Discusses risks and controls within the context of an overall information securi

  7. Homeschooling and religious fundamentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert KUNZMAN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith and academics. It is important to recognize, however, that fundamentalism exists on a continuum; conservative religious homeschoolers resist liberal democratic values to varying degrees, and efforts to foster dialogue and accommodation with religious homeschoolers can ultimately helpstrengthen the broader civic fabric.

  8. Pragmatic electrical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2011-01-01

    Pragmatic Electrical Engineering: Fundamentals introduces the fundamentals of the energy-delivery part of electrical systems. It begins with a study of basic electrical circuits and then focuses on electrical power. Three-phase power systems, transformers, induction motors, and magnetics are the major topics.All of the material in the text is illustrated with completely-worked examples to guide the student to a better understanding of the topics. This short lecture book will be of use at any level of engineering, not just electrical. Its goal is to provide the practicing engineer with a practi

  9. Fundamentals of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    Peter Powers's rigorous but simple description of a difficult field keeps the reader's attention throughout. … All chapters contain a list of references and large numbers of practice examples to be worked through. … By carefully working through the proposed problems, students will develop a sound understanding of the fundamental principles and applications. … the book serves perfectly for an introductory-level course for second- and third-order nonlinear optical phenomena. The author's writing style is refreshing and original. I expect that Fundamentals of Nonlinear Optics will fast become pop

  10. Practical Strategies for Helping Children of Divorce in Today's Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul A.; Ryan, Patti; Morrison, William

    1999-01-01

    Considers how to provide a supportive, secure environment to children of divorce through opportunities to exercise personal control, being tolerant of variable academic performance, and expressing faith in children's character and capacity for growth. Provides suggestions for creating safe channels for communication and teaching children coping…

  11. Children without Permanent Parents: Research, Practice, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Bos, Karen; Bunkers, Kelley McCreery; Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; Engle, Patrice L.; Fox, Nathan A.; Gamer, Gary N.; Goldman, Philip; Groark, Christina J.; Greenberg, Aaron; Grotevant, Harold D.; Groza, Victor K.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Johnson, Dana E.; Juffer, Femmie; Kreppner, Jana M.; Le Mare, Lucy; McCall, Robert B.; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Palacios, Jesus; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Steele, Howard; Steele, Miriam; Tieman, Wendy; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vorria, Panayiota; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph reviews literature pertaining to children without permanent parents. Chapters review (1) the development of children while institutional residents; (2) the development of postinstitutionalized children transitioned to family environments (i.e., adoption); the effects of institutionalization on (3) attachment behaviors, (4) physical…

  12. Rethinking Children: Power, Pedagogy, and Contemporary Art Education Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashkevich, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Within the modern institution of schooling, educators portray children as lacking in knowledge and maturity and try to restrict their access to the issues that undermine this assumed innocence. Such renditions of children produce hierarchical power relationships in which children's ways of knowing are seen as what Foucault (1980) called…

  13. Symptomatic Management of Fever in Children: A National Survey of Healthcare Professionals' Practices in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertille, Nathalie; Pons, Gerard; Khoshnood, Babak; Fournier-Charrière, Elisabeth; Chalumeau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the production and dissemination of recommendations related to managing fever in children, this symptom saturates the practices of primary healthcare professionals (HPs). Data on parent practices related to fever are available, but data on HPs' practices are limited. We studied HPs' practices, determinants of practices and concordance with recommendations in France. We conducted a national cross-sectional observational study between 2007 and 2008 among French general practitioners, primary care pediatricians and pharmacists. HPs were asked to include 5 consecutive patients aged 1 month to 12 years with acute fever. HPs completed a questionnaire about their practices for the current fever episode. We used a multilevel logistic regression model to assess the joint effects of patient- and HP-level variables associated with this behavior. In all, 1,534 HPs (participation rate 13%) included 6,596 children (mean age 3.7 ± 2.7 years). Physicians measured the temperature of 40% of children. Primary HPs recommended drug treatment for 84% of children (including monotherapy for 92%) and physical treatment for 62% (including all recommended physical treatments for 7%). HPs gave written advice or a pamphlet for 13% of children. Significant practice variations were associated with characteristics of the child (age, fever level and diagnosis) and HP (profession and experience). In France, despite the production and dissemination of national recommendations for managing fever in children, primary HPs' observed practices differed greatly from current recommendations, which suggests potential targets for continuing medical education.

  14. Symptomatic Management of Fever in Children: A National Survey of Healthcare Professionals' Practices in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Bertille

    Full Text Available Despite the production and dissemination of recommendations related to managing fever in children, this symptom saturates the practices of primary healthcare professionals (HPs. Data on parent practices related to fever are available, but data on HPs' practices are limited. We studied HPs' practices, determinants of practices and concordance with recommendations in France. We conducted a national cross-sectional observational study between 2007 and 2008 among French general practitioners, primary care pediatricians and pharmacists. HPs were asked to include 5 consecutive patients aged 1 month to 12 years with acute fever. HPs completed a questionnaire about their practices for the current fever episode. We used a multilevel logistic regression model to assess the joint effects of patient- and HP-level variables associated with this behavior. In all, 1,534 HPs (participation rate 13% included 6,596 children (mean age 3.7 ± 2.7 years. Physicians measured the temperature of 40% of children. Primary HPs recommended drug treatment for 84% of children (including monotherapy for 92% and physical treatment for 62% (including all recommended physical treatments for 7%. HPs gave written advice or a pamphlet for 13% of children. Significant practice variations were associated with characteristics of the child (age, fever level and diagnosis and HP (profession and experience. In France, despite the production and dissemination of national recommendations for managing fever in children, primary HPs' observed practices differed greatly from current recommendations, which suggests potential targets for continuing medical education.

  15. Retrieval-Based Learning: Positive Effects of Retrieval Practice in Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Karpicke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A wealth of research has demonstrated that practicing retrieval is a powerful way to enhance learning. However, nearly all prior research has examined retrieval practice with college students. Little is known about retrieval practice in children, and even less is known about possible individual differences in retrieval practice. In three experiments, 88 children (mean age 10 years studied a list of words and either restudied the items or practiced retrieving them. They then took a final free recall test (Experiments 1 and 2 or recognition test (Experiment 3. In all experiments, children showed robust retrieval practice effects. Although a range of individual differences in reading comprehension and processing speed were observed among these children, the benefits of retrieval practice were independent of these factors. The results contribute to the growing body of research supporting the mnemonic benefits of retrieval practice and provide preliminary evidence that practicing retrieval may be an effective learning strategy for children with varying levels of reading comprehension and processing speed.

  16. Fundamentals of algebraic topology

    CERN Document Server

    Weintraub, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    This rapid and concise presentation of the essential ideas and results of algebraic topology follows the axiomatic foundations pioneered by Eilenberg and Steenrod. The approach of the book is pragmatic: while most proofs are given, those that are particularly long or technical are omitted, and results are stated in a form that emphasizes practical use over maximal generality. Moreover, to better reveal the logical structure of the subject, the separate roles of algebra and topology are illuminated. Assuming a background in point-set topology, Fundamentals of Algebraic Topology covers the canon of a first-year graduate course in algebraic topology: the fundamental group and covering spaces, homology and cohomology, CW complexes and manifolds, and a short introduction to homotopy theory. Readers wishing to deepen their knowledge of algebraic topology beyond the fundamentals are guided by a short but carefully annotated bibliography.

  17. Fundamentals of turbomachines

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This book explores the working principles of all kinds of turbomachines. The same theoretical framework is used to analyse the different machine types. Fundamentals are first presented and theoretical concepts are then elaborated for particular machine types, starting with the simplest ones.For each machine type, the author strikes a balance between building basic understanding and exploring knowledge of practical aspects. Readers are invited through challenging exercises to consider how the theory applies to particular cases and how it can be generalised.   The book is primarily meant as a course book. It teaches fundamentals and explores applications. It will appeal to senior undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical engineering and to professional engineers seeking to understand the operation of turbomachines. Readers will gain a fundamental understanding of turbomachines. They will also be able to make a reasoned choice of turbomachine for a particular application and to understand its operation...

  18. Monte Carlo fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, F.B.; Sutton, T.M.

    1996-02-01

    This report is composed of the lecture notes from the first half of a 32-hour graduate-level course on Monte Carlo methods offered at KAPL. These notes, prepared by two of the principle developers of KAPL`s RACER Monte Carlo code, cover the fundamental theory, concepts, and practices for Monte Carlo analysis. In particular, a thorough grounding in the basic fundamentals of Monte Carlo methods is presented, including random number generation, random sampling, the Monte Carlo approach to solving transport problems, computational geometry, collision physics, tallies, and eigenvalue calculations. Furthermore, modern computational algorithms for vector and parallel approaches to Monte Carlo calculations are covered in detail, including fundamental parallel and vector concepts, the event-based algorithm, master/slave schemes, parallel scaling laws, and portability issues.

  19. The role of family communication and parents' feeding practices in children's food preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Siril; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Honkanen, Pirjo

    2015-06-01

    This study used Family Communication Patterns Theory (FCPT) to explore how family-dinner-related communication takes place and how parents' feeding practices may be associated with children's preferences for dinner meals. The sample consisted of 12 dyads with seven- and eight-year-old Norwegian children and their parents. In-depth photo interviews were used for collecting data. Interview transcripts and photographs were examined through content analysis. Results indicated that most families were conversation oriented, and communication tended to shift from consensual during weekdays to pluralistic at weekends. On weekdays, the dinner menu was often a compromise between children's preferences and parents' intentions to provide quick, healthy dinner options for the family. To a greater extent at weekends, children were allowed to choose dinner alternatives for the entire family. Restriction of unhealthy dinner alternatives was the practice most used to control children's diets and, in fact, might explain children's high preferences for unhealthy dinner alternatives. Results underline the importance of giving children control of what they eat and being responsive to children's preferences while guiding them towards healthy dinner alternatives rather than using force and restriction. From a more theoretical perspective, this study explored how FCPT could be combined with theories about parents' feeding practices to understand meal preferences and choices among young children and their families, and how time and situation (context) influence families' communication patterns and feeding practices in their homes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Embracing international children's rights: from principles to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Charles N

    2012-07-01

    As clinicians, pediatricians need to be cognizant of the how the principles of equity, social justice, and children's rights help to inform and guide us as we strive for the health and well being of all children. Children of the world are frequently the most vulnerable global citizens facing poverty, displacement, and lack of life's basic necessities. An awareness of international children's rights can serve as a catalyst for working toward the ultimate dream that all children have the right to be raised in a warm and loving family as part of the global community where health and well-being is realized. To that end, the American Academy of Pediatrics has a number of valuable resources designed to promote a better understanding of international children's rights. These include the Community Pediatric Section's Children's Rights Curriculum dedicated to increasing awareness of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Children and the relationship between public policy, advocacy, and children's health. In addition, the American Academy of Pediatrics' Section on International Child Health is committed to improving the health and well-being of the world's children through education, advocacy, research, and the delivery of health services and the creation of effective global partnerships.

  1. The 'Food Polymer Science' Approach to the Practice of Industrial R&D, Leading to Patent Estates Based on Fundamental Starch Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Louise; Levine, Harry

    2016-09-22

    This paper reviews the application of the 'Food Polymer Science' approach to the practice of industrial R&D, leading to patent estates based on fundamental starch science and technology . The areas of patents and patented technologies reviewed here include: a) soft-from-the-freezer ice creams and freezer-storage-stable frozen bread dough products, based on 'cryostabilization technology' of frozen foods, utilizing commercial starch hydrolysis products (SHPs); b) glassy-matrix encapsulation technology for flavors and other volatiles, based on structure-function relationships for commercial SHPs; c) production of stabilized whole-grain wheat flours for biscuit products, based on the application of 'solvent retention capacity' technology to develop flours with reduced damaged starch; d) production of improved-quality, low-moisture cookies and crackers, based on pentosanase enzyme technology; e) production of 'baked-not-fried', chip-like, starch-based snack products, based on the use of commercial modified-starch ingredients with selected functionality; f) accelerated staling of a starch-based food product from baked bread crumb, based on the kinetics of starch retrogradation, treated as a crystallization process for a partially crystalline glassy polymer system; g) a process for producing an enzyme-resistant starch, for use as a reduced-calorie flour replacer in a wide range of grain-based food products, including cookies, extruded expanded snacks, and breakfast cereals.

  2. Parenting practice and children's well-being in rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mengtong; 陈孟彤.

    2016-01-01

    Parental absence is generally linked to poorer child well-being. In China, over 61 million rural children are left behind with other caregivers when one or both parents have to migrate to urban areas to work. A meta-analysis of 106 empirical studies reveals that left-behind children in rural China are generally more disadvantaged compared with non-left-behind children, in regard to psychological adjustment, behavioral health, school-related outcomes, child safety, and other protective outcome...

  3. Breast feeding practices of mothers with children (aged 0-36 months ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast feeding practices of mothers with children (aged 0-36 months) in a rural area of South Africa. A qualitative approach ... BREAST IS BEST (Kibel & Wagstaff, 1995:84; Wells,. 1995; Lipsky ... QUALITATIVE METHODOLOGY. The data were ...

  4. Fundamentals of Stochastic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ibe, Oliver C

    2011-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to understanding queueing and graphical networks In today's era of interdisciplinary studies and research activities, network models are becoming increasingly important in various areas where they have not regularly been used. Combining techniques from stochastic processes and graph theory to analyze the behavior of networks, Fundamentals of Stochastic Networks provides an interdisciplinary approach by including practical applications of these stochastic networks in various fields of study, from engineering and operations management to communications and the physi

  5. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  6. Fundamentals of Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Duane Knudson

    2007-01-01

    DESCRIPTION This book provides a broad and in-depth theoretical and practical description of the fundamental concepts in understanding biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of human movement. PURPOSE The aim is to bring together up-to-date biomechanical knowledge with expert application knowledge. Extensive referencing for students is also provided. FEATURES This textbook is divided into 12 chapters within four parts, including a lab activities section at the end. The division is as follow...

  7. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, James; La Via, Maria C

    2015-05-01

    This Practice Parameter reviews evidence-based practices for the evaluation and treatment of eating disorders in children and adolescents. Where empirical support is limited, clinical consensus opinion is used to supplement systematic data review. The Parameter focuses on the phenomenology of eating disorders, comorbidity of eating disorders with other psychiatric and medical disorders, and treatment in children and adolescents. Because the database related to eating disorders in younger patients is limited, relevant literature drawn from adult studies is included in the discussion.

  8. [Sensitivity to antibiotics monitoring of oral microflora in practically sound children and patients with chronic gastroduodenitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, O A; Davydov, B N; Chervinets, Iu V; Chervinets, V M

    2009-01-01

    Characteristic of oral microflora in practically sound children and patients with chronic gastroduodenitis was offered. Microflora singled out from ill persons differed by pathogenicity in previously opportunistic pathogenic forms. Monitoring of sensitivity and resistivity to antibiotics of the singled out microflora in practically sound children and ill with chronic gastroduodenitis was presented. When treating oral diseases one should take into account the high resistivity to antibiotics (especially to benzilpenicillin) of opportunistic pathogenic forms.

  9. Maternal feeding practices predict weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in young children: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers Rachel F; Paxton Susan J; Massey Robin; Campbell Karen J; Wertheim Eleanor H; Skouteris Helen; Gibbons Kay

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal feeding practices have been proposed to play an important role in early child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors. However, to date longitudinal investigations in young children exploring these relationships have been lacking. The aim of the present study was to explore prospective relationships between maternal feeding practices, child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in 2-year-old children. The competing hypothesis that child eating behaviors ...

  10. Food addiction in children: Associations with obesity, parental food addiction and feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, T; Skinner, J; Joyner, M A; Palmieri, J; Vaughan, K; Gearhardt, A N

    2017-08-01

    Food addiction research in children is limited, and to date addictive-like eating behaviors within families have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to understand factors associated with addictive-like eating in children. The association between food addiction in children with obesity, parental food addiction, and parental feeding practices (i.e., restriction, pressure to eat, monitoring) was investigated. Parents/primary caregivers (aged≥18years) of children aged 5-12years, recruited and completed an online cross-sectional survey including demographics, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Parents, reporting on themselves and one of their children, were given a food addiction diagnosis and symptom score according to the YFAS predefined criteria. The total sample consisted of 150 parents/primary caregivers (48% male) and 150 children (51% male). Food addiction was found to be 12.0% in parents and 22.7% in children. In children, food addiction was significantly associated with higher child BMI z-scores. Children with higher food addiction symptoms had parents with higher food addiction scores. Parents of FA children reported significantly higher levels of Restriction and Pressure to eat feeding practices, but not Monitoring. Children with elevated YFAS-C scores may be at greater risk for eating-related issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  12. Postural Control in Children: Implications for Pediatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Sarah L.; Burtner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Based on a systems theory of motor control, reactive postural control (RPA) and anticipatory postural control (APA) in children are reviewed from several perspectives in order to develop an evidence-based intervention strategy for improving postural control in children with limitations in motor function. Research on development of postural…

  13. Selective Mutism: Practice and Intervention Strategies for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shu-Lan; Spencer, Michael S.; Dronamraju, Rani

    2012-01-01

    The onset of selective mutism (SM) is usually between the ages of three and five years, when the children first go to preschool. However, these children are most commonly referred for treatment between the ages of six and 11, when they are entering the elementary school system. Early detection and early intervention is suggested for effective SM…

  14. Children and Exercise: Appropriate Practices for Grades K-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Growth and development have a profound effect on physical fitness, response to exercise, and exercise programming in children. This article reviews the essential pediatric exercise physiology concepts relevant to physical education programs for K-6 children. Indices of physical fitness such as cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, and…

  15. The Influence of Art on children´s art expression in school practice

    OpenAIRE

    Váňová, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Diploma Thesis ?The Influence of Art on Children´s Art Expression in School Practice? Deals with Evaluation of Possibilities Arttherapeutic Elements of Roznov Art Therapy and the Ways of Use Receptive Art Therapy in Art Lessons at Secondary School. There is Described Children´s Art Expression in the Age between 12 and 15 and Possible Impact of Art Form on Shaping Children´s Art Expression. It Evaluates the Importance of Methodical Intervention of Roznov Art Therapy Elements.

  16. The Influence of Art on children´s art expression in school practice

    OpenAIRE

    Váňová, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Diploma Thesis ?The Influence of Art on Children´s Art Expression in School Practice? Deals with Evaluation of Possibilities Arttherapeutic Elements of Roznov Art Therapy and the Ways of Use Receptive Art Therapy in Art Lessons at Secondary School. There is Described Children´s Art Expression in the Age between 12 and 15 and Possible Impact of Art Form on Shaping Children´s Art Expression. It Evaluates the Importance of Methodical Intervention of Roznov Art Therapy Elements.

  17. Relationship-Focused Child Care Practices: Quality of Care and Child Outcomes for Children in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Klausli, Julia F.; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: Child care delivery practices promoting continuous, primary caregiver-child relationships (relationship-focused child care) were evaluated for 223 preschool-age children (45% African American, 55% Latino) attending child care centers serving low-income children. Both relationship-focused and non-relationship-focused centers were…

  18. The Effect of "Origami" Practice on Size Comparison Strategy among Young Japanese and American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzawa, Masamichi; Bart, William M.; Kinne, Lenore J.; Sukemune, Seisoh; Kataoka, Minako

    1999-01-01

    Explored the effect of folding traditional origami forms on size comparison strategies among 4- to 6-year-old Japanese and American children. Found that girls in particular improved superimposition skills through practice, and children's use of superimposition strategies rather than less effective strategies also increased. (JPB)

  19. Community Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practices towards Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Femke; Stroeken, Koenraad; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus in four regions of Uganda. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were held with parents of children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus, policy-makers, and service…

  20. Sector-Led Improvement in Children's Services: A Lever for Evidence-Informed Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dez; Brookes, Carole

    2014-01-01

    The drive for sector-led improvement within children's services has a more prominent place in improving outcomes for children and young people than ever before. Concurrently, the imperative to access and utilise evidence to inform practice has become increasingly important, enabling scarce resources to be allocated according to "what…

  1. Community Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practices towards Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Femke; Stroeken, Koenraad; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus in four regions of Uganda. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were held with parents of children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus, policy-makers, and service…

  2. Children's Literacy Interest and Its Relation to Parents' Literacy-Promoting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Laura E.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; McQueen, Jessica D.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how children's literacy interests related to parent literacy-promoting practices across time. Using a sample of 909 preschool-age children and the newly developed Child Activities Preference Checklist, literacy interest appeared to be a complex construct, not easily captured by a single measure. In a subsample of 230 children…

  3. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Research in etiology, neurobiology, genetics, clinical correlates, and evidence-based treatments in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder indicate a need for the revision of the Practice Parameters for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder first published a decade ago. The…

  4. Low-Income Mothers' Food Practices with Young Children: A Qualitative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jeni; Dickson, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Young children living in socioeconomically deprived areas of Scotland have an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese. To enhance understanding of the wider contexts within which family food practices are developed, this study examined the experiences of low-income mothers with young children. Design: Qualitative longitudinal…

  5. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This practice parameter reviews the literature on the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. The parameter focuses primarily on bipolar 1 disorder because that is the type most often studied in juveniles. The presentation of bipolar disorder in youth, especially children, is often considered atypical compared…

  6. Children's Meaning-Making of Nature in an Outdoor-Oriented and Democratic Swedish Preschool Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaar, Susanne; Öhman, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the Swedish preschool educational tradition is characterised by outdoor-oriented and democratic approaches. The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate what consequences these approaches have for preschool children's meaning-making of nature, when studied in practice, in children's spontaneous outdoor…

  7. Effects of children's self-regulation of eating on parental feeding practices and child weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-regulation of eating in minority preschool-aged children mediates the relationship between parent feeding practices and child weight. Participants low-income African American and Hispanic parents and their preschool-aged children who participat...

  8. Parents' Perceptions of Children's Literacy Motivation and Their Home-Literacy Practices: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saçkes, Mesut; Isitan, Sonnur; Avci, Kerem; Justice, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which parental beliefs about children's literacy motivation is associated with their literacy practices at home. A sample of 315 parents of preschool-aged children participated in the study, and completed a newly developed questionnaire pursuant to the aims of this work. Thus, the construct of…

  9. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior: Interacting sources of influence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Hermans, R.C.J.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Fisher, J.O.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children'

  10. Parents' Perceptions of Children's Literacy Motivation and Their Home-Literacy Practices: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saçkes, Mesut; Isitan, Sonnur; Avci, Kerem; Justice, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which parental beliefs about children's literacy motivation is associated with their literacy practices at home. A sample of 315 parents of preschool-aged children participated in the study, and completed a newly developed questionnaire pursuant to the aims of this work. Thus, the construct of…

  11. Outcomes of a pilot obesity prevention plus intervention targeting children and parenting practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevention-Plus interventions for primary care offer a venue to intervene with both children and parents for child obesity treatment. Such interventions can promote effective parenting practices that encourage healthy eating, physical activity (PA), and lower TV use among children. Test for feasibil...

  12. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Research in etiology, neurobiology, genetics, clinical correlates, and evidence-based treatments in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder indicate a need for the revision of the Practice Parameters for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder first published a decade ago. The…

  13. Using practice development methodology to develop children's centre teams: ideas for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Ann; Cowdell, Fiona

    2009-09-01

    The Children's Centre Programme is a recent development in the UK and brings together multi-agency teams to work with disadvantaged families. Practice development methods enable teams to work together in new ways. Although the term practice development remains relatively poorly defined, its key properties suggest that it embraces engagement, empowerment, evaluation and evolution. This paper introduces the Children's Centre Programme and practice development methods and aims to discuss the relevance of using this method to develop teams in children's centres through considering the findings from an evaluation of a two-year project to develop inter-agency public health teams. The evaluation showed that practice development methods can enable successful team development and showed that through effective facilitation, teams can change their practice to focus on areas of local need. The team came up with their own process to develop a strategy for their locality.

  14. Fundamentals of electronic image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Weeks, Arthur R

    1996-01-01

    This book is directed to practicing engineers and scientists who need to understand the fundamentals of image processing theory and algorithms to perform their technical tasks. It is intended to fill the gap between existing high-level texts dedicated to specialists in the field and the need for a more practical, fundamental text on image processing. A variety of example images are used to enhance reader understanding of how particular image processing algorithms work.

  15. De crianças a alunos: transformações sociais na passagem da educação infantil para o ensino fundamental From children to pupils: social transformations in the passage from early childhood Education to Fundamental Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Miller Naethe Motta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este texto discute alguns achados de uma pesquisa de doutorado em Educação conduzida no município de Três Rios, Rio de Janeiro, numa turma de uma escola pública municipal, cujo objeto foi a passagem das crianças da educação infantil para o ensino fundamental e a ação da cultura escolar sobre as culturas infantis transformando os agentes sociais de crianças em alunos. Os fundamentos teórico-metodológicos foram tecidos em diálogos com os conceitos elaborados especialmente por Bakhtin, Vigotski, Foucault, Certeau e Sacristán. Os conceitos operaram em três planos: de um lado, tivemos a concepção de linguagem de Bakhtin, principal categoria de análise dos dados do campo, e Vigotski, fornecendo subsídios para um pensamento dialético em torno das culturas infantil e escolar tomadas como textos. Em outro plano, consideramos Foucault e Certeau na análise das estratégias de poder e das táticas de resistência encontradas nas práticas observadas e suas influências na subjetivação dos sujeitos. Por fim, a sociologia da infância e o conceito de cultura escolar explicitaram os elementos do campo, colocando-os num contexto. Para abordar as transições e as rupturas entre a educação infantil e o ensino fundamental, contribuíram Moss e Corsaro e Molinari.The text discusses some of the findings of a doctorate research in Education conducted in the municipality of Três Rios, Rio de Janeiro, with a class from a municipal public school. The research focused on the children's transition from early childhood education to fundamental education, and on the impact of the school culture upon child culture in the transformation of these social agents from children into pupils. The theoretical-methodological groundings were constructed in dialogue with the concepts created mainly by Bakhtin, Vygotsky, Foucault, Certeau and Sacristán. The concepts operated here at three levels: on one side we had Bakhtin's concept of language, the main

  16. Teachers' language practices and academic outcomes of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David K

    2011-08-19

    Early childhood programs have long been known to be beneficial to children from low-income backgrounds, but recent studies have cast doubt on their ability to substantially increase the rate of children's academic achievement. This Review examines research on the role of language in later reading, describes home and classroom factors that foster early language growth, and reviews research on preschool interventions. It argues that one reason interventions are not having as great an impact as desired is because they fail to substantially change the capacity of teachers to support children's language and associated conceptual knowledge.

  17. Cooperative coparenting moderates the association between parenting practices and children's prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, Meghan B; Blandon, Alysia Y; Stifter, Cynthia A; Buss, Kristin A

    2013-06-01

    This study examined how aspects of the parenting and coparenting relationships relate to children's prosocial behavior in early childhood. Fifty-eight 2-parent families from a larger ongoing longitudinal study participated in this study. Mothers completed questionnaires that measured their use of inductive reasoning, as well as their children's prosocial behavior. Furthermore, parents and their children participated in 3 triadic interaction tasks that were coded to assess cooperative coparenting behavior. Results revealed that cooperative coparenting was positively associated with children's prosocial behavior. A significant interaction also emerged between maternal inductive reasoning and cooperative coparenting behavior. These findings underscore the important role of a cooperative coparenting subsystem in influencing children's emerging prosocial behavior, as well as highlight the association between positive parenting practices and children's prosocial development within the context of cooperative coparenting behaviors. This study demonstrates the utility of understanding family-level processes that contribute to children's prosocial development during early childhood.

  18. Breastfeeding practices of mothers of young children in Lagos, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-06-23

    Jun 23, 2013 ... Breastfeeding has many benefits both to mother and the child. It confers both ... of the disease burden in children younger than five years ... Appropriate sample size was determined using the formula for ... cant difference.

  19. Parenting Styles and Practices among Chinese Immigrant Mothers with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennifer Jun-Li; Chen, Tianying; Zheng, Xiao Xian

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how Chinese immigrant mothers in the USA make meaning of their parenting styles and practices in rearing their young children (aged two to six). Twelve Chinese immigrant mothers were interviewed. A key finding reveals that the Chinese immigrant mothers' parenting practices reflected the indigenous concept of jiaoyang in the…

  20. Neuroscience and "real world" practice: music as a therapeutic resource for children in zones of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Nigel

    2012-04-01

    Recent developments in music neuroscience are considered a source for reflection on, and evaluation and development of, musical therapeutic practice in the field, in particular, in relation to traumatized children and postconflict societies. Music neuroscience research is related to practice within a broad biopsychosocial framework. Here, examples are detailed of work from North Uganda, Palestine, and South Thailand.

  1. A Practical Approach to Children with Recurrent Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korula, Sophy; Titmuss, Angela T; Biggin, Andrew; Munns, Craig F

    2015-01-01

    As many as 50% of children will sustain a fracture before 18 years of age, and up to 20% will have two or more fractures. A small proportion of children who experience multiple fractures have osteoporosis, either from a genetic bone disorder (primary osteoporosis) or secondary to another underlying medical condition (secondary osteoporosis). Fracture history, together with bone mineral density assessment and vertebral radiographs, help clinicians to identify children with osteoporosis. Its aetiology can usually be determined through the combination of a detailed medical history and physical examination, laboratory investigations to assess mineral homeostasis, evaluation of secondary causes of osteoporosis and genetic studies to identify the underlying cause of the disorder. Transiliac bone biopsy with histology and histomorphometry should not be overlooked as valuable tools for the investigation of a child with osteoporosis of uncertain aetiology. Optimal management of osteoporosis requires a multidisciplinary team to address physical activity, nutrition, pubertal progression, the management of any underlying medical condition, pharmacotherapy (bisphosphonates) and orthopaedic surgery. This chapter outlines an approach to the evaluation and treatment of children with recurrent fractures and describes three common scenarios involving infants, children with chronic illness and children without chronic illness. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. A survey of nutritional practices for children with cancer in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessing nutritional status and delivering optimal nutritional care is a part of modern day treatment of children with cancer. The nutritional practices in India for these children have not been previously described. Aims: To describe the existing nutrition assessment and management practices for children with cancer in India. Methods: Attendees of the First International Society of Pediatric Oncology-Pediatric Oncology in Developing Countries workshop on nutrition in children with cancer organized in September 2014 at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire related to three domains: nutritional assessment, intervention, and education. Results: Hundred and eight respondents from 42 health institutions and background in the health sector participated in the survey. There was variability in nutritional assessment, practice and education. Lack of resources and time are contributory. Conclusions: This assessment of nutritional services in India provided useful information to plan development of national guidelines, policy, and delivery of services.

  3. Eliciting maltreated and nonmaltreated children's transgression disclosures: narrative practice rapport building and a putative confession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Thomas D; Wandrey, Lindsay; Ahern, Elizabeth; Licht, Robyn; Sim, Megan P Y; Quas, Jodi A

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effects of narrative practice rapport building (asking open-ended questions about a neutral event) and a putative confession (telling the child an adult "told me everything that happened and he wants you to tell the truth") on 4- to 9-year-old maltreated and nonmaltreated children's reports of an interaction with a stranger who asked them to keep toy breakage a secret (n = 264). Only one third of children who received no interview manipulations disclosed breakage; in response to a putative confession, one half disclosed. Narrative practice rapport building did not affect the likelihood of disclosure. Maltreated children and nonmaltreated children responded similarly to the manipulations. Neither narrative practice rapport building nor a putative confession increased false reports.

  4. Dosage individualization in children:integration of pharmacometrics in clinical practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhao; Stéphanie Leroux; Evelyne Jacqz-Aigrain

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children are in a continuous and dynamically changing state of growth and development. A thorough understanding of developmental pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) is required to optimize drug therapy in children. Data sources: Based on recent publications and the experience of our group, we present an outline on integrating pharmacometrics in pediatric clinical practice to develop evidence-based personalized pharmacotherapy. Results: Antibiotics in septic neonates and immunosuppressants in pediatric transplant recipients are provided as proof-of-concept to demonstrate the utility of pharmacometrics in clinical practice. Dosage individualization based on developmental PK-PD model has potential benefits of improving the efficacy and safety of drug therapy in children. Conclusion: The pharmacometric technique should be better developed and used in clinical practice to personalize drug therapy in children in order to decrease variability of drug exposure and associated risks of overdose or underdose.

  5. Interviewing children in custody cases: implications of research and policy for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda B; Romanoff, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Research on child interviewing has burgeoned over the past 25 years as expectations about children's agency, competence, and participation in society have changed. This article identifies recent trends in research, policy, and theory with implications for the practice of interviewing children in cases of contested divorce and for the weight to be given the information children provide. A number of fields of relevant research are identified, including studies of families who have participated in the family law system, studies of child witnesses in the field, experimental studies of the effects of interview techniques on children's memory and suggestibility, and ethnographic methods that elicit children's views of their own experiences. Finally, a set of 10 principles for practice are delineated based on the best available science.

  6. Quality of life in children with cerebral palsy: implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Kim-Michelle; Davis, Elise; Reddihough, Dinah; Graham, Kerr; Waters, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    The ability to assess the quality of life of children with cerebral palsy to inform and evaluate individual care plans, service planning, interventions, and policies is crucial. In this article, the recent evidence on quality of life in children with cerebral palsy is reviewed, with attention to the determinants of quality of life and role of this construct as a practical outcome indicator in clinical trials. Quality of life measurement advances for children with cerebral palsy are discussed with a focus on condition-specific quality of life measures, particularly, the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life-Child, which is the first condition-specific quality of life measure for children with cerebral palsy. The article presents an overview for clinicians and researchers intending to use quality of life measures on children with cerebral palsy and provides recommendations for future research that will better inform practice in the field.

  7. Image, measure, figure: a critical discourse analysis of nursing practices that develop children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einboden, Rochelle; Rudge, Trudy; Varcoe, Colleen

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by discourses that link early child development and health, nurses engage in seemingly benign surveillance of children. These practices are based on knowledge claims and technologies of developmental science, which remain anchored in assumptions of the child body as an incomplete form with a universal developmental trajectory and inherent potentiality. This paper engages in a critical discursive analysis, drawing on Donna Haraway's conceptualizations of technoscience and figuration. Using a contemporary developmental screening tool from nursing practice, this analysis traces the effects of this tool through production, transformation, distribution, and consumption. It reveals how the techniques of imaging, abstraction, and measurement collide to fix the open, transformative child body in a figuration of the developing child. This analysis also demonstrates how technobiopower infuses nurses' understandings of children and structures developmentally appropriate expectations for children, parents, and nurses. Furthermore, it describes how practices that claim to facilitate healthy child development may inversely deprive children of agency and foster the production of normal or ideal children. An alternative ontological perspective is offered as a challenge to the individualism of developmental models and other dominant ideologies of development, as well as practices associated with these ideologies. In summary, this analysis argues that nurses must pay closer attention to how technobiopower infuses practices that monitor and promote child development. Fostering a critical understanding of the harmful implications of these practices is warranted and offers the space to conceive of human development in alternate and exciting ways.

  8. Hygiene practices and faecal contamination of the hands of children attending primary school in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padaruth, S K; Biranjia-Hurdoyal, S D

    2015-07-01

    An increasing prevalence of paediatric infections have been associated with poor levels of hygienic practices. This study aimed at investigating the level of hygiene practices among 200 school children aged 6-10 years. Their hands were swabbed and the bacteria were identified by Gram staining and conventional biochemical tests. Of the 200 samples, 91.0% (182) showed bacterial growth. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus was the most common bacterium isolated from 76.9% (140) of the samples followed by Micrococcus, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Proteus and Escherichia coli. Children aged 9-10 years were more likely to wash their hands before eating than those aged 6-8 years (OR=2.0; phygiene practices. Furthermore, children should be often reminded of the importance of hygienic practices. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Parenting practices, interpretive biases, and anxiety in Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, R Enrique; Niditch, Laura A; Hensley-Maloney, Lauren; Moore, Kathryn W; Creveling, C Christiane

    2013-03-01

    A number of factors are believed to confer risk for anxiety development in children; however, cultural variation of purported risk factors remains unclear. We examined relations between controlling and rejecting parenting styles, parental modeling of anxious behaviors, child interpretive biases, and child anxiety in a mixed clinically anxious (n=27) and non-clinical (n=20) sample of Latino children and at least one of their parents. Families completed discussion-based tasks and questionnaires in a lab setting. Results indicated that child anxiety was: linked with parental control and child interpretative biases, associated with parental modeling of anxious behaviors at a trend level, and not associated with low parental acceptance. Findings that controlling parenting and child interpretive biases were associated with anxiety extend current theories of anxiety development to the Latino population. We speculate that strong family ties may buffer Latino children from detrimental effects of perceived low parental acceptance.

  10. Assessing Hydration in Children: From Science to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelinckx, I; Frémont-Marquis, A S; Eon, E; Kavouras, S A; Armstrong, L E

    2015-01-01

    Raising children's awareness about their hydration status could be done through a noninvasive biomarker. Urine color (UC) has been validated as a biomarker of hydration in adults and children aged 8-14 years. The aim of this survey was to design and to evaluate the level of understanding and attractiveness of a self-assessment, UC-based hydration tool for children aged 6-11 years. The first phase of the survey consisted of face-to-face interviews during which 84 children identified those graphical elements necessary to understand the hydration message from 6 illustration-based designs containing the UC chart. The graphic elements selected were the basis to create 3 new designs. During the 2nd phase, the level of understanding and attractiveness of these 3 new designs was then evaluated via an online questionnaire by a total of 1,231 children in 3 countries. The design with the highest level of understanding was totally or partially understood by 76% of the participants, independent of age and gender. The levels of understanding, however, differed in the countries. In Indonesia, the levels of understanding of the 3 designs were comparable; whereas in both France (74%) and Mexico (78%), significantly more participants totally and partially understood one of the 3 designs. The levels of attractiveness of the 3 designs were comparable, independent of country, age, and gender. On average, 80% of all participants liked the 3 designs a bit or a lot. Only 14% did not like the designs, and 5% of participants had no opinion regarding attractiveness. These results indicated that three out of four children like and understand the correct hydration message from a strictly illustration-based tool containing the eight-point UC scale. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Maternal representations of their children in relation to feeding beliefs and practices among low-income mothers of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Christy Y Y; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko A; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2015-12-01

    Identifying maternal characteristics in relation to child feeding is important for addressing the current childhood obesity epidemic. The present study examines whether maternal representations of their children are associated with feeding beliefs and practices. Maternal representations refer to mothers' affective and cognitive perspectives regarding their children and their subjective experiences of their relationships with their children. This key maternal characteristic has not been examined in association with maternal feeding. Thus the purpose of the current study was to examine whether maternal representations of their children, reflected by Working Model of the Child Interview typologies (Balanced, Disengaged, or Distorted), were associated with maternal feeding beliefs (Authority, Confidence, and Investment) and practices (Pressure to Eat, Restriction, and Monitoring) among low-income mothers of young children, with maternal education examined as a covariate. Results showed that Balanced mothers were most likely to demonstrate high authority, Distorted mothers were least likely to demonstrate confidence, and Disengaged mothers were least likely to demonstrate investment in child feeding. Moreover, Balanced mothers were least likely to pressure their children to eat. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for the study of childhood obesity and for applied preventions.

  12. Calorimetry fundamentals, instrumentation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarge, Stefan M; Hemminger, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Clearly divided into three parts, this practical book begins by dealing with all fundamental aspects of calorimetry. The second part looks at the equipment used and new developments. The third and final section provides measurement guidelines in order to obtain the best results. The result is optimized knowledge for users of this technique, supplemented with practical tips and tricks.

  13. Practical use and implementation of PET in children in a hospital PET centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgwardt, Lise; Larsen, Helle Jung; Pedersen, Kate; Hoejgaard, Liselotte [Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2003-10-01

    Children are not just small adults - they differ in their psychology, normal physiology and pathophysiology, and various aspects should be considered when planning a positron emission tomography (PET) scan in a child. PET in children is a growing area, and this article describes the practical use and implementation of PET in children in a hospital PET centre. It is intended to be of use to nuclear medicine departments implementing or starting to implement PET scans in children. Topics covered are: dealing with children, dosimetry, organisation within the department and relations with other departments, preparation of the child (provision of information to the child and parents and the fasting procedure), the imaging procedure (resting, tracer injection, positioning, sedation and bladder emptying) and pitfalls in the interpretation of PET scans in children, including experiences with telemedicine. (orig.)

  14. Practical use and implementation of PET in children in a hospital PET centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Lise; Larsen, Helle Jung; Pedersen, Kate

    2003-01-01

    Children are not just small adults-they differ in their psychology, normal physiology and pathophysiology, and various aspects should be considered when planning a positron emission tomography (PET) scan in a child. PET in children is a growing area, and this article describes the practical use...... and implementation of PET in children in a hospital PET centre. It is intended to be of use to nuclear medicine departments implementing or starting to implement PET scans in children. Topics covered are: dealing with children, dosimetry, organisation within the department and relations with other departments......, preparation of the child (provision of information to the child and parents and the fasting procedure), the imaging procedure (resting, tracer injection, positioning, sedation and bladder emptying) and pitfalls in the interpretation of PET scans in children, including experiences with telemedicine....

  15. Influence of maternal feeding goals and practices on children's eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Debra A; Marx, Jenna M; Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2016-12-01

    Parents are highly influential in shaping their children's dietary habits. This study examined whether negative feeding practices mediated the relationship between feeding goals (health and convenience) and children's eating behaviors. One hundred ninety-two mothers (mean age = 34.2; mean BMI = 27.0) of 7-11 year old children participated via Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Results showed that negative feeding practices fully mediated the relationship between convenience feeding goals and children's eating behaviors (goals to healthy/unhealthy eating behaviors: β = -0.08/.09, n.s.; goals to feeding practices: β = 0.27, p unhealthy eating behaviors: β = -0.57/.48, p eating behaviors (goals to healthy/unhealthy eating behaviors: β = 0.66/-0.29, p unhealthy eating behaviors: β = -0.26/.44, p unhealthy food, above and beyond the use of negative feeding practices. Because parents are on the front lines of shaping children's eating habits, understanding the best point of intervention for parents (e.g., shaping parents' goals, changing parents' feeding practices) might be especially fruitful, considering that childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis and energy intake is one of the key factors contributing to this problem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Associations between general parenting styles and specific food-related parenting practices and children's food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Carine; Legiest, Erwin; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Maes, Lea

    2009-01-01

    Explore the impact of general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices on children's dietary habits. Cross-sectional study of sixth graders and their parents. Data were gathered (in 2003) in 69 of 100 randomly selected elementary schools in Belgium. All sixth graders (N = 1957) were invited to participate; 82.4% of their parents gave consent and completed questionnaires, resulting in 1614 parent-child pairs. Children's consumption of breakfast, fruit, vegetables, soft drinks, and sweets was assessed by self-administered food frequency questionnaires. Parents completed questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics, general parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, or neglecting) and specific food-related parenting practices (pressure, reward, encouragement through negotiation, catering on children's demands, permissiveness, avoiding negative modeling, and praise). Logistic regression analyses were performed, with general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices as predictors and dietary habits as dependent variables, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and children's weight status. General parenting style did not show any significant impact on dietary habits. In contrast, the food-related parenting practice "encouragement through negotiation" showed a significant positive impact, whereas "pressure," "catering on demand," and "permissiveness" were practices with an unhealthy impact. Nutrition education programs that guide parents in firm but not coercive food parenting skills are likely to have a positive impact upon children's dietary habits.

  17. Complementary feeding practices and nutritional status of children 6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-01-30

    Jan 30, 2015 ... This study aimed to determine the factors contributing to the complementary feeding practices ... Nutrition education on appropriate Infant and Young Child Feeding among ...... Determinants of Dietary Diversity, Africa Crop.

  18. Maternal attitudes and child-feeding practices: relationship with the BMI of Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uauy Ricardo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile has experienced the nutritional transition due to both social and economic progress. As a consequence, higher rates of overweight and obesity have been observed in children. In western countries, researchers have tried to determine pathways by which parents influence their children's eating behavior; up to now findings have been inconsistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional and retrospective relationship between maternal attitudes and child-feeding practices and children's weight status in children who had been subject of an obesity prevention intervention for two years. Methods In 2006, for a cross-sectional study, a random sample of 232 children (125 girls, mean age 11.91 ± 1.56 y and 107 boys mean age 11.98 ± 1.51 y was selected from three primary schools from a small city called Casablanca. Weight and height were determined to assess their nutritional status, using body mass index (BMI z scores. Child-feeding practices and attitudes were determined cross-sectionally in 2006, using the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ. To analyze the relationship between trends in weight change and child-feeding practices and attitudes, BMI z scores of all the 232 children in 2003 were used. Results Cross-sectionally, mothers of overweight children were significantly more concerned (P z score was positively correlated with concern for child's weight (r = 0.28, P z score between age 9 and 12 was positively correlated with concern for child's weight, but only in boys (r = 0.21, P z score at age 12. Conclusion Mothers of overweight children were more concerned with their children's weight; this indicated the Western negative attitude towards childhood overweight. None of the child-feeding practices were significantly correlated with a change in BMI z score.

  19. Literacy and Children's Literature: Evidence from Actual Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Darwish, Salwa

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study aims at detecting areas that requires to be developed in the EFL reading program in elementary stages in Kuwaiti public schools by using children's literature. It also examines the reading program in the public elementary curriculum. The participants were six English language major students from the College of Basic…

  20. Language Delays among Foster Children: Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Carol D.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    This article highlights the centrality of language in early childhood development and the potential for language delays to negatively affect long-term outcomes in educational and social domains. Given the high rate of language delays in the foster care population, an emphasis should be placed on assessing language skills among children ages 6 and…

  1. Developing Young Children's Emergent Inferential Practices in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Informal statistical inference has now been researched at all levels of schooling and initial tertiary study. Work in informal statistical inference is least understood in the early years, where children have had little if any exposure to data handling. A qualitative study in Australia was carried out through a series of teaching experiments with…

  2. Multilingual Children Increase Language Differentiation by Indexing Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shannessy, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    An area in need of study in child language acquisition is that of complex multilingual contexts in which there is little language separation by interlocutor or domain. Little is known about how multilingual children use language to construct their identities in each language or in both languages. Identity construction in monolingual contexts has…

  3. Feeding Challenges in Young Children: Toward a Best Practices Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Deborah A.; Thompson, Stacy D.

    2010-01-01

    Young children often encounter feeding challenges, such as food refusal, an inability to meet nutritional needs, and limited skills to self-feed. Further, overall development can be adversely affected when an infant or a toddler has difficulties with intake of fluid and solid foods. A variety of strategies are available to address these challenges…

  4. Screening Young Children for Autism Spectrum Disorders in Primary Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Marianne L.; Dumont-Mathieu, Thyde; Fein, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of autism spectrum disorders as well as emerging evidence of the efficacy of early intervention has focused attention on the need for early identification of young children suspected of having an ASSD. Several studies have suggested that while parents report concerns early in development, it may be months before children…

  5. Developing School Provision for Children with Dyspraxia. A Practical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nichola, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    With a much greater awareness in schools of conditions like dyslexia, dyspraxia and autism, and the effects they have in the context of the educational curriculum, schools are becoming better placed to help children access a curriculum that takes account of the diverse needs of its learners. It has been predicted that as people move through the…

  6. Children Who Help Victims of Bullying: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, James R.; Smith-Adcock, Sondra

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, literature on the phenomenon of bullying has evolved from treating bullying as an individual behavior to understanding it as a group process. Other than those of the bully and the victim, researchers have identified several roles children assume in bullying situations, with some assuming a pro-social role, often called the…

  7. Multilingual Children Increase Language Differentiation by Indexing Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shannessy, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    An area in need of study in child language acquisition is that of complex multilingual contexts in which there is little language separation by interlocutor or domain. Little is known about how multilingual children use language to construct their identities in each language or in both languages. Identity construction in monolingual contexts has…

  8. Mothers' child-feeding practices are associated with children's sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Li, Ruowei; Birch, Leann

    2015-04-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake is a substantial source of energy in the diet of US children. We examined the associations between mothers' child-feeding practices and SSB intake among 6-y-old children. We analyzed data from the Year 6 Follow-up of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II in 1350 US children aged 6 y. The outcome variable was child's SSB intake. The exposure variables were 4 child-feeding practices of mothers: setting limits on sweets or junk foods, regulating their child's favorite food intake to prevent overconsumption, pressuring their child to eat enough, and pressuring their child to "clean the plate." We used multinomial logistic regression and controlled for child and maternal characteristics. Analyses were stratified on child weight status. The consumption of SSBs ≥1 time/d was observed among 17.1% of underweight/normal-weight children and in 23.2% of overweight/obese children. Adjusted ORs (aORs) of consuming SSBs ≥1 time/d (vs. no SSB consumption) were significantly lower in children whose mothers reported setting limits on sweets/junk foods (aOR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.58 for underweight/normal-weight children; aOR: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.79 for overweight/obese children). SSB intake was higher among underweight/normal-weight children whose mothers reported trying to keep the child from eating too much of their favorite foods (aOR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.25, 3.29). Mothers' tendency to pressure their children to consume more food or to "clean the plate" was not associated with child's SSB intake. SSBs were commonly consumed by young children. The odds of daily SSB intake were lower among children whose mothers set limits on sweets/junk foods regardless of child's weight but were higher among underweight/normal-weight children whose mothers restricted the child's favorite food intake. Future studies can investigate the impact of alternatives to restrictive feeding practices that could reduce children's SSB intake. © 2015 American Society

  9. Infant feeding practices among mildly wasted children: a retrospective study on Nias Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inayati Dyah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the infant feeding practices of participating mothers who were recruited into a research project aimed at improving the nutritional status of mildly wasted children (-scores aged ≥ 6 to Methods Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers of the index children (n = 215 who were admitted to the community program for mildly wasted children in the study area. Four focus groups and twenty in-depth interviews were conducted to explore further information on infant feeding practices in the study area. Results Retrospective results indicated that 6% of the mothers never breastfed. Fifty two percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding within six hours of birth, but 17% discarded colostrum. Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age was practiced by 12%. Seventy-four percent of the mothers offered supplementary liquids besides breast milk within the first 7 days of life, and 14% of infants received these supplementary liquids from 7 days onwards until 6 months of age. Moreover, 79% of the infants were given complementary foods (solid, semi-solid, or soft foods before 6 months of age. About 9% of the children were breastfed at least two years. Less than one in five of the mildly wasted children (19% were breastfed on admission to the community program. Qualitative assessments found that inappropriate infant feeding practices were strongly influenced by traditional beliefs of the mothers and paternal grandmothers in the study areas. Conclusion Generally, suboptimal infant feeding was widely practiced among mothers of mildly wasted children in the study area on Nias Island, Indonesia. To promote breastfeeding practices among mothers on Nias Island, appropriate nutrition training for community workers and health-nutrition officers is needed to improve relevant counseling skills. In addition, encouraging public nutrition education that promotes breastfeeding, taking into account social

  10. Service Delivery to Children With Mild Hearing Loss: Current Practice Patterns and Parent Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Elizabeth A; Spratford, Meredith; Ambrose, Sophie E; Holte, Lenore; Oleson, Jacob

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates clinical practice patterns and parent perception of intervention for children with mild hearing loss (HL). Ages at and delays between service delivery steps (first diagnostic evaluation, confirmation of HL, hearing aid [HA] fitting, entry into early intervention) were investigated for 113 children with mild HL. Comparisons were made to children with moderate-to-severe HL. Parents of children with mild HL reported reasons for delays and their perceptions of intervention and amplification for their children. Seventy-four percent of children with mild HL were identified through the newborn hearing screen; 26% were identified later due to passing or not receiving a newborn hearing screen. Ninety-four percent of children with mild HL were fit with HAs, albeit at significantly later ages than children with moderate-to-severe HL. Most parents indicated that their children benefited from HA use, but some parents expressed ambivalence toward the amount of benefit. Audiologists appear to be moving toward regularly providing amplification for children with mild HL. However, delays in HA fittings indicate that further educating professionals and parents about the benefits of early amplification and intervention is warranted to encourage timely fitting and consistent use of HAs.

  11. Vaccine knowledge and practices of primary care providers of exempt vs. vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Daniel A; Pan, William K Y; Omer, Saad B; Navar, Ann Marie; Orenstein, Walter; Marcuse, Edgar K; Taylor, James; deHart, M Patricia; Stokley, Shannon; Carter, Terrell; Halsey, Neal A

    2008-01-01

    Compare vaccine knowledge, attitudes and practices of primary care providers for fully vaccinated children and children who are exempt from school immunization requirements. We conducted a mailed survey of parent-identified primary care providers from four states to measure perceived risks and benefits of vaccination and other key immunization beliefs. Frequencies of responses were stratified by type of provider, identified by exempt versus vaccinated children. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for responses by provider type. 551 surveys were completed (84.3% response rate). Providers for exempt children had similar attitudes to providers for non-exempt children. However, there were statistically significant increased concerns among providers for exempt children regarding vaccine safety and lack of perceived individual and community benefits for vaccines compared to other providers. The great majority of providers for exempt children had similar attitudes about vaccine safety, effectiveness and benefits as providers of non-exempt children. Although providers for exempt children were more likely to believe that multiple vaccines weaken a child's immune system and were concerned about vaccine safety and less likely to consider vaccines were beneficial, a substantial proportion of providers of both exempt and vaccinated children have concerns about vaccine safety and believe that CDC underestimates the frequency of vaccine side effects. Effective continuing education of providers about the risks and benefits of immunization and including in vaccine recommendations more information on pre and post licensing vaccine safety evaluations may help address these concerns.

  12. Malnourished Under-Five Children Feeding Practices in Cipacing Village 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta Tresna Fujianti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal parenting, especially feeding practices, is very important in childhood period and may affect the child’s nutritional state. Proper nutrition affects the growth and development of children. The aim of this study is to describe parenting feeding practices in malnourished under-five children. Methods: A descriptive study on 43 mothers with malnourished under-five children aged 12−59 months was performed in Cipacing Village, Jatinangor, Sumedang during the periode of October−November 2012. Results: The composition of children based on their malnutrition status and description on good and poor parenting were presented in the result. Twenty two children (51.2% were severely under nourished, 18 children (41.9% were under nourished, and 3 children (7% experienced overweight. Good maternal parenting was identified in child nurturing (86%, feeding frequency (93%, feeding style (62.8%, and situation of feeding (74.4% while poor maternal parenting was observed in feeding time (55.8% and types of food given (51.2%. Conclusions: Maternal parenting plays an important role in children nutrition status.

  13. Fundamentals of attosecond optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zenghu

    2011-01-01

    Attosecond optical pulse generation, along with the related process of high-order harmonic generation, is redefining ultrafast physics and chemistry. A practical understanding of attosecond optics requires significant background information and foundational theory to make full use of these cutting-edge lasers and advance the technology toward the next generation of ultrafast lasers. Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics provides the first focused introduction to the field. The author presents the underlying concepts and techniques required to enter the field, as well as recent research advances th

  14. Dietary practices of children and adolescents with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magenis, Marina Lummertz; Machado, Alessandra Gonçalves; Bongiolo, Angela Martinha; da Silva, Marco Antonio; Castro, Kamila; Perry, Ingrid Dalira Schweigert

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess dietary intake, breastfeeding history, weight at birth and current weight in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Therefore, a cross-sectional, controlled study with 19 DS participants and 19 controls without DS matched by gender and age was performed. Except for vitamin D, a lower or the same frequency of insufficient intake in other micronutrients was noted in participants compared with controls. The DS group had a reduced exclusive breastfeeding duration and increased carbohydrate and caloric intake. The consumption of micronutrients in both groups reinforced the current trend of excessive sodium consumption and insufficient intake of calcium, some B complex vitamins and water by children and adolescents.

  15. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions.

  16. Atopic children and use of prescribed medication: A comprehensive study in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pols, David H J; Nielen, Mark M J; Bohnen, Arthur M; Korevaar, Joke C; Bindels, Patrick J E

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive and representative nationwide general practice database was explored to study associations between atopic disorders and prescribed medication in children. All children aged 0-18 years listed in the NIVEL Primary Care Database in 2014 were selected. Atopic children with atopic eczema, asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) were matched with controls (not diagnosed with any of these disorders) within the same general practice on age and gender. Logistic regression analyses were performed to study the differences in prescribed medication between both groups by calculating odds ratios (OR); 93 different medication groups were studied. A total of 45,964 children with at least one atopic disorder were identified and matched with controls. Disorder-specific prescriptions seem to reflect evidence-based medicine guidelines for atopic eczema, asthma and AR. However, these disorder-specific prescriptions were also prescribed for children who were not registered as having that specific disorder. For eczema-related medication, about 3.7-8.4% of the children with non-eczematous atopic morbidity received these prescriptions, compared to 1.4-3.5% of the non-atopic children. The same pattern was observed for anti-asthmatics (having non-asthmatic atopic morbidity: 0.8-6.2% vs. controls: 0.3-2.1%) and AR-related medication (having non-AR atopic morbidity: 4.7-12.5% vs. controls: 2.8-3.1%). Also, non-atopic related medication, such as laxatives and antibiotics were more frequently prescribed for atopic children. The present study shows that atopic children received more prescriptions, compared to non-atopic children. Non-atopic controls frequently received specific prescriptions for atopic disorders. This indicates that children with atopic disorders need better monitoring by their GP.

  17. Children and Parent's Attitude and Preferences of Dentist's Attire in Pediatric Dental Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamavaram Ellore, Vijaya Prasad; Mohammed, Mudasser; Taranath, Mahanthesh; Ramagoni, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Gunjalli, Gururaj

    2015-01-01

    Before arrival into doctor's clinic, child might have acquired an impression of a clinical environment and doctor's appearance. Different kind of doctor's attire may evoke different reactions. By understanding children and parent's perception and preferences about dentist's attire, a suitable dress code could be adopted to establish good rapport with children. To evaluate children and parental perceptions and preferences towards dentist attire. A questionnaire designed with series of photographs of male and female dental students in different attires was responded by 150 parents aged 29 to 63 years and 150 children aged 9 to 13 years. Seventy percent of children participants (n = 104) and 42% of parents participants (n = 63) favored the traditional white coat attire. However, 58% parents (n = 87) significantly preferred non-white coat attires in comparison to 30% of children (n = 46) (χ(2) = 21.61, p 0.05), no-significant association was found between parents and children response to white coat (χ(2) = 0.39, p = 0.53). A highly significant difference was found between the male participants, who favored the male dentist and female participants preferring the female dentist (χ(2) = 47.16, p < 0.001). Our study attempted to rule out the stereotyped concept of 'white coat fear' among children, both children and parents favored traditional white coat attire, contrary to popular misconception 'white coat syndrome'. However, use of child friendly attires could be useful in anxious children for better practice management. How to cite this article: Ellore VPK, Mohammed M, Taranath M, Ramagoni NK, Kumar V, Gunjalli G. Children and Parent's Attitude and Preferences of Dentist's Attire in Pediatric Dental Practice. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):102-107.

  18. Personalized Approach to Nutrition of Children Athletes: Practical Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Makarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrition is the most important factor of children’s health, affecting not only his/her state of health, but also physical activity indicators. Children athletes, for compensating the energy cost, anabolic processes activation, and operability recovery, need an optimum diet with adequate protein, fats, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins to cover the development and growth needs, as well as to recover from the physical and neuro-psychological stress. There are also certain requirements to food and drinking regime, especially during periods of intense training and competitions. Recommendations for the composition of diets for children athletes are developed and presented in a number of guidelines; however, studies show that the actual nutrition of almost half of the specialized children and youth Olympic reserve schools’ students does not meet the recommended standards. The article presents an overview of modern approaches to young athletes’ nutrition organization, and gives recommendations for personified diet correction and nutritive support depending on sports specialization, nature of physical activity, stage of training process, and individual features of a child.

  19. Children's Stress Behaviors and Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Family Child Care Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chih-Ying

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated and qualitatively compared differences in children's stress reactions across two levels of developmentally appropriate practice in family child care homes. Data were collected through observations. Six children, five boys and one girl from six different family child care homes, between the ages of 36 and 60 months, were observed for the type and frequency of stress behaviors. The six family child care homes were divided into two groups based on more or less use of a...

  20. Prevalence of nursing caries and its relationship with feeding practices among preschool children of Lucknow City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridhi Narang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the prevalence of nursing caries and its relationship with feeding practices in preschool children of Lucknow city. Materials & Method: A sample of 512 preschool going children was selected through multistage cluster random sampling. Mothers provided information regarding demographic data and feeding practices. Dental caries experience was recorded using Dentition status and treatment needs (WHO Basic Oral Health Survey 1997. Association between 2 variables was obtained using chi square test. One way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons. Results: The prevalence of nursing caries was 33.1%. Children having mixed type of feeding practices had statistically highly significant (p<0.001 caries experience than those children solely fed on bottle or breast. Also, children who were breast fed at night had a highly significant (p<0.001 caries experience than those who were not breast fed. Conclusions: The prevalence of nursing caries was high and was significantly associated with mixed type of feeding practices and who were breastfed or bottlefed at night. nursing caries, bottle feeding, breast feeding, preschool

  1. Managing fever in children: a national survey of parents' knowledge and practices in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertille, Nathalie; Fournier-Charrière, Elisabeth; Pons, Gérard; Chalumeau, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Identifying targets to improve parental practices for managing fever in children is the first step to reducing the overloaded healthcare system related to this common symptom. We aimed to study parents' knowledge and practices and their determinants in managing fever symptoms in children in France as compared with current recommendations. We conducted an observational national study between 2007 and 2008 of French general practitioners, primary care pediatricians and pharmacists. These healthcare professionals (HPs) were asked to include 5 consecutive patients from 1 month to 12 years old with fever for up to 48 hr who were accompanied by a family member. Parents completed a questionnaire about their knowledge of fever in children and their attitudes about the current fever episode. We used a multilevel logistic regression model to assess the joint effects of patient- and HP-level variables. In all, 1,534 HPs (participation rate 13%) included 6,596 children. Parental concordance with current recommendations for temperature measurement methods, the threshold for defining fever, and physical (oral hydration, undressing, room temperature) and drug treatment was 89%, 61%, 15%, and 23%, respectively. Multivariate multi-level analyses revealed a significant HP effect. In general, high concordance with recommendations was associated with high educational level of parents and the HP consulted being a pediatrician. In France, parents' knowledge and practices related to managing fever symptoms in children frequently differ from recommendations. Targeted health education interventions are needed to effectively manage fever symptoms in children.

  2. Patterns of Food Parenting Practices and Children's Intake of Energy-Dense Snack Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus W M; Kremers, Stef P J; de Vries, Nanne K; van Assema, Patricia

    2015-05-27

    Most previous studies of parental influences on children's diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 was recruited by a research agency to fill out an online questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis (n = 888) was performed, followed by k-means clustering. ANOVAs, ANCOVAs and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations between cluster membership, parental and child background characteristics, as well as children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. Four distinct patterns were discovered: "high covert control and rewarding", "low covert control and non-rewarding", "high involvement and supportive" and "low involvement and indulgent". The "high involvement and supportive" cluster was found to be most favorable in terms of children's intake. Several background factors characterized cluster membership. This study expands the current knowledge about parental influences on children's diets. Interventions should focus on increasing parental involvement in food parenting.

  3. Improving Clinical Practices for Children with Language and Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhi, Alan G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This lead article of the Clinical Forum addresses some of the gaps that exist between clinical practice and current knowledge about instructional factors that influence learning and language development. Method: Topics reviewed and discussed include principles of learning, generalization, treatment intensity, processing interventions,…

  4. Children's Development as Participation in Everyday Practices across Different Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleer, Marilyn; Hedegaard, Mariane

    2010-01-01

    by societal conditions. In drawing upon Vygotsky's (1998) theory of the social situation of development and Hedegaard's (2009) theory of development conceptualised as the child's participation within and across several institutions at the same time, it has been possible to examine how school practices...

  5. Evidence into practice; upper respiratory tract infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonacker, C.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Transfer of evidence into practice is often slow and therefore remains an important challenge. Factors influencing this process include awareness and agreement with available evidence, feelings about the applicability of the evidence to one’s own patients and pressure from patients to start or refra

  6. Attributes of advanced practice registered nurse care coordination for children with medical complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Rhonda G; Kelly, Anne M; Finkelstein, Stanley M; Looman, Wendy S; Garwick, Ann W

    2014-01-01

    Care coordination is an essential component of the pediatric health care home. This study investigated the attributes of relationship-based advanced practice registered nurse care coordination for children with medical complexity enrolled in a tertiary hospital-based health care home. Retrospective review of 2,628 care coordination episodes conducted by telehealth over a consecutive 3-year time period for 27 children indicated that parents initiated the majority of episodes and the most frequent reason was acute and chronic condition management. During this period, care coordination episodes tripled, with a significant increase (p care coordination model has potential for changing the health management processes for children with medical complexity.

  7. A study of indoor soccer practice by small children (“category fraldinha”: na ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Adriano Tagliari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Futsal practice in the Fraldinha Category (7 and 8 years old in the Athletic Association of Banco do Brasil (AABB, in Maringa, based on ecological approach. The study is characterized as a descriptive research. The sample, of an intentional kind, was constituted of 10 children. The research was conducted by means of filming, files for observation and a semi-structured interview. Based on the results one can conclude that: the activities that accounted both for significance and temporal persistency were kicking, penalty and collective game. The intepersonal relationships have been basically presented about the children's observations in relation to the coach's explanations, which were not always understood by de children. Besides children had no opportunity to experience different roles during the trainings. There are evidences that the trainings have not given priority to factors that are essential for the development of children at this age.

  8. School travel mode, parenting practices and physical activity among UK Year 5 and 6 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Sebire, Simon J; Edwards, Mark J; Davies, Ben; Banfield, Kathryn; Fox, Kenneth R; Thompson, Janice L; Cooper, Ashley R; Montgomery, Alan A

    2014-04-16

    School travel mode and parenting practices have been associated with children's physical activity (PA). The current study sought to examine whether PA parenting practices differ by school travel mode and whether school travel mode and PA parenting practices are associated with PA. 469 children (aged 9-11) wore accelerometers from which mean weekday and after-school (3.30 to 8.30 pm) minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and counts per minute (CPM) were derived. Mode of travel to and from school (passive vs. active) and PA parenting practices (maternal and paternal logistic support and modelling behaviour) were child-reported. Children engaged in an average of 59.7 minutes of MVPA per weekday. Active travel to school by girls was associated with 5.9 more minutes of MVPA per day compared with those who travelled to school passively (p = 0.004). After-school CPM and MVPA did not differ by school travel mode. There was no evidence that physical activity parenting practices were associated with school travel mode. For girls, encouraging active travel to school is likely to be important for overall PA. Further formative research may be warranted to understand how both parental logistic support and active travel decisions are operationalized in families as a means of understanding how to promote increased PA among pre-adolescent children.

  9. Fundamental principles of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Stephen

    1977-01-01

    Fundamental Principles of Heat Transfer introduces the fundamental concepts of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. It presents theoretical developments and example and design problems and illustrates the practical applications of fundamental principles. The chapters in this book cover various topics such as one-dimensional and transient heat conduction, energy and turbulent transport, forced convection, thermal radiation, and radiant energy exchange. There are example problems and solutions at the end of every chapter dealing with design problems. This book is a valuable int

  10. Fundamentals of technology project management

    CERN Document Server

    Garton, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Designed to provide software engineers, students, and IT professionals with an understanding of the fundamentals of project management in the technology/IT field, this book serves as a practical introduction to the subject. Updated with information on how Fundamentals of Project Management integrates with and complements Project Management Institute''s Project Management Body of Knowledge, this collection explains fundamental methodologies and techniques while also discussing new technology, tools, and virtual work environments. Examples and case studies are based on technology projects, and t

  11. Clinical practice: the diagnosis of imported malaria in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltha, Jessica; Jacobs, Jan

    2011-07-01

    The present paper reviews the diagnosis of imported malaria in children. Malaria is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium and occurs in over 100 countries worldwide. Children account for 10-15% of all patients with imported malaria and are at risk to develop severe and life-threatening complications especially when infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Case-fatality ratios vary between 0.2% and 0.4%. Children visiting friends and relatives in malaria endemic areas and immigrants and refugees account for the vast majority of cases. Symptoms are non-specific and delayed infections (more than 3 months after return from an endemic country) may occur. Microscopic analysis of the thick blood film is the cornerstone of laboratory diagnosis. For pragmatic reasons, EDTA-anticoagulated blood is accepted, provided that slides are prepared within 1 h after collection. Information about the Plasmodium species (in particular P. falciparum versus the non-falciparum species) and the parasite density is essential for patient management. Molecular methods in reference settings are an adjunct for species differentiation. Signals generated by automated hematology analyzers may trigger the diagnosis of malaria in non-suspected cases. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests are reliable in the diagnosis of P. falciparum but not for the detection of the non-falciparum species. They do not provide information about parasite density and should be used as an adjunct (and not a substitute) to microscopy. In case of persistent suspicion and negative microscopy results, repeat testing every 8-12 h for at least three consecutive samplings is recommended. A high index of suspicion and a close interaction with the laboratory may assure timely diagnosis of imported malaria.

  12. Feeding problems in healthy young children: prevalence, related factors and feeding practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banchaun Benjasuwantep

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and factors related to feeding problems among normal children, and the differences in feeding practices between those with and without feeding problems. Caregivers of 402 healthy children aged between one and four years of age were interviewed by pediatricians involved in the research. Data included the child’s medical history, food intake within a day, and feeding behaviors and practices. Parental socio-economic and demographic information, as well as information on parental education and occupation, and their concerns about feeding their children, was collected. Physical examination and anthropometric measurements were taken. The percentage of children identified as having feeding problems was 26.9%. The first child of a family had an increased risk of having feeding problems [P=0.032, odds ratio 1.68, 95% confidence interval (95%CI 1.04-2.71]. Children with feeding problems were fed less frequently, were less likely to be fed at their own table or at the family table, and had mealtimes longer than 30 min when compared with children without feeding problems (P=0.015, 0.004 and 0.025, respectively. The results highlight that feeding problems in normally developing children are common. During consultations about feeding issues, pediatricians should focus on families with a first child. Topics such as frequency of meals per day, duration of meal-times, and appropriate places for feeding should be discussed.

  13. [Children's oppositional behaviour, practice of parental authority and temporal anomie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeau, L

    2014-02-01

    This article examines the relationship between children's oppositional behaviour and the exercise of parental authority. It seeks to explore the value of a heuristic approach to psychic temporality in exercising parental authority. The study aims to better understand the role of psychic temporality in operations producing symbolic law. It goes on to describe a disorder of temporality, known as temporal anomie, which may be involved in a child's oppositional disorders. Psychiatric or psychological consultations motivated by oppositional disorders in children have increased steadily in the past fifteen years in France. The primary reason for consultation is in the form of difficulties for children in accepting the social rules or constraints, but also the difficulties of parenting while coping with the opposition of their children. This increase is made in connection with the works analysing the social and psychological effects imposed by modernity and its acceleration. Correspondingly, we find that some parents do not prioritize their educational requirements, do not know when or how to frustrate their child, or even if it is legitimate to expect from him/her a certain type of behaviour. They seem more preoccupied with the fear of not being loved by their child more than their duty to educate. A general trend suggests an alteration of psychological time, characterized by: a) a disinvestment of links between present and past for the enjoyment of the moment and its extension in the immediate future ; b) a difficulty in supporting educational responses causing frustration for the child ; c) a lack of continuity and constancy in educational requirements. The author proposes to define temporal anomie as the psychical time that weakens the consistency of educational responses. A link between psychological temporality and the symbolic law is discussed. Specifically, the study notes that: in intersubjective relations, mastery of psychological time by parents is an

  14. Diagnosis and treatmendt of non-organic cenuresis in children: Clínical Practice Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Meave Cueva Luis Guillermo; Díaz García Luisa; Garza Elizondo Rosalía

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bedwetting is an involuntary urination during sleep at the age of 5 years or older. Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) have been developed to improve decision-making strategies and standardize medical practice. The Ministry of health in Mexico developed the CPG diagnosis and treatment of non- organic enuresis at the first level of prevention in children. Its evidence is evaluated with the USPSTF (United States Preventive Services Task Force). Material and methods: Original arti...

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of nonorganic enuresis in children: Clinical practice guideline

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Guillermo Meave-Cueva; Rosalía Garza-Elizondo; Luisa Díaz-García

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bedwetting is an involuntary urination during sleep at the age of 5 years or older. Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) have been developed to improve decision-making strategies and standardize medical practice. The Ministry of health in Mexico developed the CPG diagnosis and treatment of non-organic enuresis at the first level of prevention in children. Its evidence is evaluated with the USPSTF (United States Preventive Services Task Force). Material and methods: Original articles...

  16. Optimal dental age estimation practice in United Arab Emirates' children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altalie, Salem; Thevissen, Patrick; Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to detect whether the Willems model, developed on a Belgian reference sample, can be used for age estimations in United Arab Emirates (UAE) children. Furthermore, it was verified that if added third molars development information in children provided more accurate age predictions. On 1900 panoramic radiographs, the development of left mandibular permanent teeth (PT) and third molars (TM) was registered according the Demirjian and the Kohler technique, respectively. The PT data were used to verify the Willems model and to develop a UAE model and to verify it. Multiple regression models with PT, TM, and PT + TM scores as independent and age as dependent factor were developed. Comparing the verified Willems- and the UAE model revealed differences in mean error of -0.01 year, mean absolute error of 0.01 year and root mean squared error of 0.90 year. Neglectable overall decrease in RMSE was detected combining PM and TM developmental information.

  17. Children or athletes? Best practice for safeguarding elite young athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Brackenridge, CH

    2008-01-01

    This address explores the status confusion between “child” and “athlete” that arises in elite sport for young people and discuss some of the challenges that this presents to sport providers. It reviews the evidence about breaches of child welfare in sport around the world and considers how the sport community can respond positively to this evidence in both policy and practice.

  18. Maternal child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durão, Catarina; Andreozzi, Valeska; Oliveira, Andreia; Moreira, Pedro; Guerra, António; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children. We studied 4122 mothers and children enrolled in the population-based birth cohort - Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Mothers self-completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and a scale on covert and overt control, and answered to a food frequency questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Using dietary guidelines for preschool children, adequacy intervals were defined: fruit and vegetables (F&V) 4-7 times/day; dairy 3-5 times/day; meat and eggs 5-10 times/week; fish 2-4 times/week. Inadequacy was considered as below or above these cut-points. For energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDF), a tolerable limit was defined (feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, overt and covert control) and children's diet were examined by logistic regression models. After adjustment for maternal BMI, education, and diet, and children's characteristics (sex, BMI z-scores), restriction, monitoring, overt and covert control were associated with 11-18% lower odds of F&V consumption below the interval defined as adequate. Overt control was also associated with 24% higher odds of their consumption above it. Higher perceived responsibility was associated with higher odds of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations. Pressure to eat was positively associated with consumption of dairy above the adequate interval. Except for pressure to eat, maternal practices were associated with 14-27% lower odds of inadequate consumption of EDF. In conclusion, children whose mothers had higher levels of covert control, monitoring, and restriction were less likely to consume F&V below recommendations and EDF above tolerable limits. Higher overt control and pressure to eat were associated, respectively, with higher possibility of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations.

  19. 'Kids need to talk too': inclusive practices for children's healthcare education and participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Donna

    2017-09-01

    To examine how children with chronic medical conditions view healthcare education and decision-making and to propose the application of the universal design for learning in paediatric settings. Children and adolescents with chronic medical conditions tend to be excluded from healthcare decision-making. In schools, the universal design for learning promotes access to education and participation in school communities for all children, regardless of their disabilities or medical needs, rendering it an appropriate model for children's participation in healthcare decision-making. This article presents findings from a qualitative study with 26 children and adolescents with chronic medical conditions about their views and experiences with healthcare education and decision-making. Twenty-six children and adolescents with chronic medical conditions were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Findings provide evidence that clinical practices often fail to provide equal opportunities for paediatric patients to understand their condition, share their views and/or participate in decisions regarding their care. In response to ongoing concerns about paediatric decision-making, we propose that the universal design for learning be adapted in paediatrics. The model presents exemplary programmes as inclusive, accounting for the needs of all children through multiple means of engagement and expression. A discussion of how the principles of universal design for learning could be applied in paediatric settings is offered for the purpose of advancing ethical and psychosocial care for all children regardless of their age, developmental capacity or condition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Dietary practices among overweight and obese Chinese children in Kota Bharu, Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, K L; Wan, Abdul Manan W M; Abdul, Manaf H; Lee, Y Y

    2011-04-01

    INTRDUCTION: Obesity and chronic diseases have been increasing since the last few decades alongside rapid economic development in developed and developing countries. The alarming increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity had been shown by many epidemiological studies worldwide. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese school children in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, and to map the association between dietary practices and their nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 278 school children aged 10 to 12 years old (144 boys and 134 girls) studying in a Chinese primary school in Kota Bharu. The survey revealed that while only 1.4% (n=4) were overweight, 23.4% (n=65) of the children were obese. A total of 67.7% (n=44) of the obese children were boys. The overweight and obese children (n=70) were compared with a randomly selected group of normal weight children (n=70). Dietary assessment showed that protein, fat and total calorie intake were significantly higher among the overweight group (p<0.05). A significantly higher proportion of the normal weight children (85.7%) took breakfast daily or at least 4 days per week compared to the overweight groups (59.4%) (p<0.05). The prevalence of obesity among school children in the study is a matter of concern. These findings may be useful in targeting programmes and strategies for prevention and intervention of childhood obesity.

  1. Maternal feeding practices predict weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in young children: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers Rachel F

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal feeding practices have been proposed to play an important role in early child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors. However, to date longitudinal investigations in young children exploring these relationships have been lacking. The aim of the present study was to explore prospective relationships between maternal feeding practices, child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in 2-year-old children. The competing hypothesis that child eating behaviors predict changes in maternal feeding practices was also examined. Methods A sample of 323 mother (mean age = 35 years, ± 0.37 and child dyads (mean age = 2.03 years, ± 0.37 at recruitment were participants. Mothers completed a questionnaire assessing parental feeding practices and child eating behaviors at baseline and again one year later. Child BMI (predominantly objectively measured was obtained at both time points. Results Increases in child BMI z-scores over the follow-up period were predicted by maternal instrumental feeding practices. Furthermore, restriction, emotional feeding, encouragement to eat, weight-based restriction and fat restriction were associated prospectively with the development of obesogenic eating behaviors in children including emotional eating, tendency to overeat and food approach behaviors (such as enjoyment of food and good appetite. Maternal monitoring, however, predicted decreases in food approach eating behaviors. Partial support was also observed for child eating behaviors predicting maternal feeding practices. Conclusions Maternal feeding practices play an important role in the development of weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in young children and are potential targets for effective prevention interventions aiming to decrease child obesity.

  2. Infant feeding practices among mildly wasted children: a retrospective study on Nias Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background This study investigated the infant feeding practices of participating mothers who were recruited into a research project aimed at improving the nutritional status of mildly wasted children (practices in the study area. Results Retrospective results indicated that 6% of the mothers never breastfed. Fifty two percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding within six hours of birth, but 17% discarded colostrum. Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age was practiced by 12%. Seventy-four percent of the mothers offered supplementary liquids besides breast milk within the first 7 days of life, and 14% of infants received these supplementary liquids from 7 days onwards until 6 months of age. Moreover, 79% of the infants were given complementary foods (solid, semi-solid, or soft foods) before 6 months of age. About 9% of the children were breastfed at least two years. Less than one in five of the mildly wasted children (19%) were breastfed on admission to the community program. Qualitative assessments found that inappropriate infant feeding practices were strongly influenced by traditional beliefs of the mothers and paternal grandmothers in the study areas. Conclusion Generally, suboptimal infant feeding was widely practiced among mothers of mildly wasted children in the study area on Nias Island, Indonesia. To promote breastfeeding practices among mothers on Nias Island, appropriate nutrition training for community workers and health-nutrition officers is needed to improve relevant counseling skills. In addition, encouraging public nutrition education that promotes breastfeeding, taking into account social-cultural factors such as the influence of paternal grandmothers on infant feeding practice, is needed. PMID:22436662

  3. Pakistani Pre-Primary Teachers' Perceptions and Practices Related to Gender in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardhan, Almina; Pelletier, Janette

    2017-01-01

    A key area of interest is the way in which early years educators' perceptions about the concept of gender may influence their practice in relation to how children's ideas about gender might be supported and reinforced. However, this area has received little attention in the highly gender-segregated context of Pakistan. Understanding evidence-based…

  4. The course of mental health problems in children presenting with abdominal pain in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieteling, Marieke J.; Lisman-Van Leeuwen, Yvone; Passchier, Jan; Koes, Bart W.; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Leuwen, Y.L.V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the course of mental health problems in children presenting to general practice with abdominal pain and to evaluate the extent to which abdominal pain characteristics during follow-up predict the presence of mental health problems at 12 months' follow-up. Design. A prospect

  5. The Influence of Developmentally Appropriate Practice on Children's Cognitive Development: A Qualitative Metasynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher P.; Lan, Yi-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Background: As policymakers and advocates across the United States look to early childhood educators to improve children's cognitive development so they enter elementary school ready to learn, debates have emerged over what types of practices these educators should be engaged in to achieve this goal. Historically, the field of early childhood…

  6. The Influence of Developmentally Appropriate Practice on Children's Cognitive Development: A Qualitative Metasynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher P.; Lan, Yi-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Background: As policymakers and advocates across the United States look to early childhood educators to improve children's cognitive development so they enter elementary school ready to learn, debates have emerged over what types of practices these educators should be engaged in to achieve this goal. Historically, the field of early childhood…

  7. Informing Our Practice: Modernist, Transactional, and Critical Perspectives on Children's Literature and Reading Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that many of the current instructional practices that use children's literature in the elementary classroom derive from "modernist" theories of meaning, readers, texts, and contexts which do not reflect the transactional nature of reading, perspectives from reader response, or various critical theories. Describes three theoretical…

  8. Relations of Perceived Maternal Parenting Style, Practices, and Learning Motivation to Academic Competence in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Cecilia S.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    A measure of academic parenting practices was developed through parent and teacher interviews and subsequently administered to 91 Hong Kong Chinese fifth graders, who also rated their mothers' restrictiveness and concern, school motivation, and self-perceived academic competence. Children's actual school grades were obtained from school records.…

  9. Relations of Perceived Maternal Parenting Style, Practices, and Learning Motivation to Academic Competence in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Cecilia S.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    A measure of academic parenting practices was developed through parent and teacher interviews and subsequently administered to 91 Hong Kong Chinese fifth graders, who also rated their mothers' restrictiveness and concern, school motivation, and self-perceived academic competence. Children's actual school grades were obtained from school records.…

  10. Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through Age 8. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copple, Carol, Ed.; Bredekamp, Sue, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Since the first edition in 1987, National Association for the Education of Young Children's book "Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs" has been an essential resource for the early child care field. Now fully revised and expanded, the 2009 version comes with a supplementary CD containing readings on key topics, plus…

  11. I'm "Only" Bleeding: Education as the Practice of Violence against Children. Counterpoints Volume 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Alan A.

    This book explores the construction of the idea of the child as a product of adult needs and school as a place where children may be confined until they are considered socially useful. Drawing parallels with folk singer Bob Dylan's song, "It's All Right, Ma, I'm Only Bleeding," the book argues that the United States' educational system practices a…

  12. Predictors of Harsh Parenting Practices in Parents of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlin, David; Axberg, Ulf; Broberg, Malin

    2014-01-01

    International research indicates that children with disabilities are more exposed to negative parenting than their non-disabled peers. The mechanisms behind this increased risk are likely operating at the levels of the individual child, the family and the broader social context. The present study investigated harsh parenting practices using…

  13. Predictors of Harsh Parenting Practices in Parents of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlin, David; Axberg, Ulf; Broberg, Malin

    2014-01-01

    International research indicates that children with disabilities are more exposed to negative parenting than their non-disabled peers. The mechanisms behind this increased risk are likely operating at the levels of the individual child, the family and the broader social context. The present study investigated harsh parenting practices using…

  14. Interaction of Socioeconomic Status and Provider Practices as Predictors of Immunization Coverage in Virginia Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ian T.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Found that beginning the immunization schedule at the recommended age was crucial to appropriate vaccination later in life, and that health provider practices (such as failure to administer vaccinations simultaneously) were important predictors of underimmunization. Serious delays in vaccine administration were observed for poor children in all…

  15. Bridging Social Justice and Children's Rights to Enhance School Psychology Scholarship and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, David; Desai, Poonam

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the overlap between the common goals of social justice and children's rights advocates as applied to scholarship and practice in school psychology. We argue that these frameworks overlap a great deal, with a primary distinction being the roots of each approach. Specifically, the origins of social justice movements in…

  16. Revisioning Assessment through a Children's Rights Approach: Implications for Policy, Process and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Jannette; Lundy, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The linkage between the impact of assessment and compliance with children's rights is a connection, which although seemingly obvious, is nonetheless rarely made, particularly by governments, which, as signatories to the relevant human rights treaties, have the primary responsibility for ensuring that educational practice is compatible with…

  17. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior: Interacting sources of influence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Hermans, R.C.J.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Fisher, J.O.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on

  18. The Tie that Binds: Evidence-Based Practice, Implementation Science, and Outcomes for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Samuel L.

    2009-01-01

    A primary effort in early intervention and early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) is to use science to discover the most effective approaches for promoting positive outcomes for infants and young children with disabilities and their families. Syntheses of the literature are identifying practices having empirical support, but a gap still…

  19. Best Practices for Young Children's Music Education: Guidance from Brain Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, John W.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews best practices for young children's music experiences in light of developments in brain research. The first section reviews research music and brain topics including neuromyths, effect of music on structural brain changes and general intelligence, plasticity, critical and optimal periods, and at-risk student populations. The…

  20. Saudi parent′s attitude and practice about self-medicating their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S Eldalo

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The current study revealed the fact that parental self-medication among public in Saudi Arabia is a routine practice. The researchers suggested introduction of parental educational interventions throughout the Saudi Arabia to ensure that children will receive best pharmaceutical care.

  1. Leading Schools with Migrant Children in Shanghai: Understanding Policies and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Haiyan; Walker, Allan David

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is threefold: to sketch the current policy context that frames the education of migrant children in Shanghai; to explore the work lives of school leaders in the privately owned but government-supported schools; and to understand the socio-cultural and educational factors that shape the leadership practices in…

  2. Working with Homeless School-Aged Children: Barriers to School Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groton, Danielle; Teasley, Martell L.; Canfield, James P.

    2013-01-01

    With the needs and challenges of adolescent homelessness on the rise, the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) was crafted as a public policy initiative aimed at facilitating access to schools for this population. While school social workers are the designated personnel for practice with homeless school-aged children, we know little about…

  3. Reading Jihad: The Identity Enactment and Literacy Practices of Muslim Immigrant Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayan, Rohany

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation manuscript reports on a study that explored the ways in which the focal children in three Muslim immigrant families enacted identity by way of literacy practice. This study set out to construct a better understanding of Muslim American immigrant families by providing a "thick description" of their identity performance…

  4. Predictors of Paternal and Maternal Controlling Feeding Practices with 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to identify predictors of controlling feeding practices in both mothers and fathers of young children. Design: Cross-sectional, questionnaire design. Setting: Nursery schools within the United Kingdom recruited participants. Participants: Ninety-six mothers and fathers comprising 48 mother-father pairs of male and…

  5. Food consumption by young children: a function of parental feeding goals and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison E; Hoffmann, Debra A; Meers, Molly R; Koball, Afton M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2014-03-01

    Staggering health implications are associated with poor child diet. Given the importance of parents in impacting children's eating outcomes, the current study examined a theoretical framework in which both parental feeding goals and practices impact specific healthy and unhealthy child eating behaviors. Participants were 171 mothers of 3-6year old children who were diverse both socioeconomically and with regard to BMI. Mothers completed questionnaires via Mechanical Turk, an online workforce through Amazon.com. Structural Equation Modeling showed an adequate model fit in which Negative Feeding Practices (e.g., using food as a reward) mediated the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals (i.e., feeding children with health-oriented goals in mind) and Negative Eating Behaviors (e.g., consumption of candy and snacks). However, Negative Feeding Practices did not mediate the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals and Positive Eating Behaviors (i.e., fruits and vegetables). These findings suggest the important role of habitual food parenting practices in children's eating and have implications for parental health education programs.

  6. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  7. Australian Chinese Parents' Language Attitudes and Practices Relating to Their Children's Bilingual Development Prior to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangbo; Torr, Jane; Whiteman, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a deep investigation of five Australian Chinese families regarding their preschool-aged children's bilingual experiences and development. Each family was visited 3 to 5 times by the first author. The mothers were interviewed about their attitudes toward their child's bilingualism and their practices to promote it. A…

  8. Children of Color and Parental Incarceration: Implications for Research, Theory, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James A.; Harris, Yvette R.

    2013-01-01

    Practical information about culturally appropriate interventions with children of incarcerated parents (CIPs) of color and their families is notably sparse. This study uses a cultural-ecological perspective to contextualize individual, family, and legal issues inherent in many intervention programs for CIPs of color. The authors highlight…

  9. Australian Chinese Parents' Language Attitudes and Practices Relating to Their Children's Bilingual Development Prior to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangbo; Torr, Jane; Whiteman, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a deep investigation of five Australian Chinese families regarding their preschool-aged children's bilingual experiences and development. Each family was visited 3 to 5 times by the first author. The mothers were interviewed about their attitudes toward their child's bilingualism and their practices to promote it. A…

  10. Revisioning Assessment through a Children's Rights Approach: Implications for Policy, Process and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Jannette; Lundy, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The linkage between the impact of assessment and compliance with children's rights is a connection, which although seemingly obvious, is nonetheless rarely made, particularly by governments, which, as signatories to the relevant human rights treaties, have the primary responsibility for ensuring that educational practice is compatible with…

  11. Best Practices for Young Children's Music Education: Guidance from Brain Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, John W.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews best practices for young children's music experiences in light of developments in brain research. The first section reviews research music and brain topics including neuromyths, effect of music on structural brain changes and general intelligence, plasticity, critical and optimal periods, and at-risk student populations. The…

  12. How should periods without social interaction be scheduled? Children's preference for practical schedules of positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynski, Kevin C; Hanley, Gregory P

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown that children prefer contingent reinforcement (CR) rather than yoked noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) when continuous reinforcement is programmed in the CR schedule. Preference has not, however, been evaluated for practical schedules that involve CR. In Study 1, we assessed 5 children's preference for obtaining social interaction via a multiple schedule (periods of fixed-ratio 1 reinforcement alternating with periods of extinction), a briefly signaled delayed reinforcement schedule, and an NCR schedule. The multiple schedule promoted the most efficient level of responding. In general, children chose to experience the multiple schedule and avoided the delay and NCR schedules, indicating that they preferred multiple schedules as the means to arrange practical schedules of social interaction. In Study 2, we evaluated potential controlling variables that influenced 1 child's preference for the multiple schedule and found that the strong positive contingency was the primary variable.

  13. Perceptions of communication style and influences on intervention practices for young children with AAC needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Erinn H; Quinn, Emily

    2012-06-01

    The current study was designed to determine whether SLP perceptions of communication style (passive or active) affect their intervention planning and decision making for young children who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). A second goal was to determine whether SLPs who work with young children who use AAC target goals in intervention that promote and/or maintain an active communication style. An original survey was designed for the study. The SLP participants were asked to provide information about the design of AAC systems and the communicative opportunities made available to young children with AAC needs. Participants were recruited through email and were asked to respond to a Web-based survey. Eighty-nine preschool SLPs practicing in 20 states across the United States responded to the survey. Results indicated that many of the SLPs classified young children with AAC needs they have worked with as passive communicators. Furthermore, the SLPs reported differences in their intervention practices for children with AAC needs whom they considered active and passive communicators. The return rate for participants was small, and it is difficult to generalize the results. However, it appears that more emphasis needs to be placed on providing interventions that target communication skills that young children who use AAC need in order to be active communicators and to participate fully in their natural contexts.

  14. Association between self-reported household practices and body mass index of US children and adolescents, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mâsse, Louise C; Blanck, Heidi M; Valente, Maria; Atienza, Audie A; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Weber, Deanne; Yaroch, Amy L

    2012-01-01

    Parents can set household practices that influence children's behaviors. The objective of this study was to determine whether children (children and adolescents aged 9-18 y) who live in a household that has healthful practices related to behaviors associated with obesity have a lower body mass index (BMI). We analyzed data from the 2005 Styles mail panel survey (N = 1,685 parents and children). We used multiple logistic regression to assess associations between 4 household practices and 3 children's behaviors: watching television, participating in vigorous physical activity, and purchasing sodas and snacks at school. Children watched more television if they had a television in their bedrooms, were less active as a family, and had no junk food restrictions at home. Children in less active families participated in about half as much VPA as children in more active families. Children purchased more sodas and snacks at school if they had a television in their bedrooms and their family consumed more meals at fast-food restaurants. Children whose families were less active were more likely to have a self-reported BMI at or above the 85th percentile. In addition, children who watched more television were more likely to have a self-reported BMI at or above the 85th percentile. Household practices were associated with children's behaviors and self-reported BMI. A household profile that includes being active as a family may counteract the increase in childhood obesity.

  15. Differential Influences of Parental Home Literacy Practices and Anxiety in English as a Foreign Language on Chinese Children's English Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Chui, Barbie Hiu-Tung; Lai, Michael Wei-Chun; Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. L.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the differential influences of maternal and paternal factors on Chinese children's English as a foreign language development. It took into account both behavioral (i.e. parental home literacy practices, HLP; and children's vocabulary knowledge) and emotional (i.e. parental and children's foreign language reading anxiety,…

  16. Nature of feeding practices among children with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Goyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the nature of feeding practices among children with cleft lip and palate. Materials and Methods: A total of 155 subjects of less than 2 years of age with cleft lip and palate were chosen and divided into three groups according to their chronological age. Group I included 47 subjects (M=35, F=12 who were <6 months old, Group II included 56 subjects (M=36, F=20 aged between 6 months and 1 year, and Group III included 52 subjects (M=28, F=24 of age between 1 and 2 years. Both the parents of the subjects with cleft lip and palate were interviewed and the details of the existing feeding practice were recorded on a standard proforma. Chi-square test was applied to find out any significant difference in the feeding method between males and females. Results: Spoon feeding was found as the most common feeding practice method. Breast feeding was the second most common feeding practice method among Group I subjects, whereas bottle feeding was the second most common feeding practice method among Group II and III subjects. The difference in the feeding practice between male and female subjects in all the three groups was very negligible and statistically not significant. Conclusion: Spoon feeding was found as the most common feeding method practiced by the parents of children with cleft lip and palate.

  17. Maternal and paternal controlling feeding practices with male and female children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Jacqueline; Meyer, Caroline; Haycraft, Emma

    2006-09-01

    This study aimed to compare maternal and paternal feeding practices with male and female children and examine the influence of the gender of both the parent and child on the relationship between parental unhealthy eating attitudes and controlling feeding practices. One hundred and eighty-eight participants (94 co-habiting mother-father dyads, mean age 36.4 years, SD=4.9), who were the parents of 46 male and 48 female children (mean age 37.7 months, SD=12.7) completed measures of unhealthy eating attitudes and feeding practices. Mothers and fathers differed significantly in their reports of unhealthy eating attitudes but not in their restrictive or pressurising feeding practices. Mothers reported greater perceived feeding responsibility and greater monitoring of their children's food intake than fathers. Bulimia scores were correlated with controlling feeding practices in mothers of girls but not boys. Fathers' body dissatisfaction was correlated with monitoring of sons' but not daughters' food intake. These findings suggest that parental extrapolation of weight concerns may be more likely to occur within mother-daughter and father-son relationships.

  18. Assessment of pain in children with brain injury: moving to best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Sally; Dunford, Carolyn

    Nurses are guided to use pain tools for assessing pain. Appropriate tools exist for all ages of children, as well as accounting for diverse communicative abilities and impairments such as brain injury. Use of pain tools, and good documentation of pain management, is part of providing best practice, high-quality care. Clinical audit, based on compliance with the Royal College of Nursing guideline for pain assessment, measured current and changing practice at a 70-bed national specialist centre for children with brain injury. Compliance was initially poor. Changes in practice were supported by evidence-based measures, including a written guideline, classroom teaching, visits to practice areas, sharing of audit results, reminders and a special interest group. Over 3 years, the audits showed an increase of child-specific pain tools available in children's care files from 9% to 83%; assessment of pain using a pain tool, when indicated, increased from 0 to 30%. Documentation of interventions to relieve pain increased from 51% to 80% and reassessment of pain following an intervention increased from 15% to 63%. This article will resonate with any organisation trying to embed systematic pain assessment into routine practice.

  19. Controlling parental feeding practices and child body composition in ethnically and economically diverse preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrly, Sarah E; Bonilla, Chantal; Perez, Marisol; Liew, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Controlling parental feeding practices may be associated with childhood overweight, because coercive or intrusive feeding practices may negatively impact children's development of self-regulation of eating. This study examined pressuring or forcing a child (healthy or unhealthy foods) and restricting child from unhealthy or snack foods as two types of controlling feeding practices that explain unique variances in measures of child body composition (BMI, percent body fat, and parental perception of child weight). In an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 243 children aged 4-6years old and their biological parents (89% biological mothers, 8% biological fathers, and 3% step or grand-parent), descriptive statistics indicate ethnic and family income differences in measures of feeding practices and child body composition. Additionally, the two "objective" indices of body composition (BMI and percent body fat) were related to low pressure to eat, whereas the "subjective" index (perceived child weight) was related to restriction. Regression analyses accounting for ethnic and family income influences indicate that pressure to eat and restriction both explained unique variances in the two "objective" indices of body composition, whereas only restriction explained variance in perceived child weight. Findings have implications for helping parents learn about feeding practices that promote children's self-regulation of eating that simultaneously serves as an obesity prevention strategy.

  20. As crianças de 0 a 6 anos nas políticas educacionais no Brasil: educação infantil e/é fundamental Children under 7 in educational policies in brazil: primary and basic education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Kramer

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a educação infantil no contexto das políticas educacionais no Brasil. Inicialmente, situa a educação infantil no cenário político nacional e apresenta desafios deste campo. Focaliza, em seguida, a formação de profissionais de educação infantil, um dos maiores desafios das políticas educacionais, e trata da importância das mudanças curriculares do curso de pedagogia. No terceiro item, analisa educação infantil e ensino fundamental (agora com nove anos como instâncias indissociáveis do processo de democratização da educação brasileira e destaca a relevância desta articulação no que se refere às crianças e ao trabalho pedagógico nas creches, pré-escolas e escolas.This paper discusses childhood education in the context of Brazilian educational policies. In a first moment, childhood education is situated in the political panorama and the challenges of this field are presented. The paper then focuses on teacher education, one of the most expressive challenges of Brazilian educational policies and analyses the importance of the changes in the Pedagogy Course curriculum. In a third moment, it explores childhood education and basic school (now 9 year long as inseparable levels of the democratization process of Brazilian education and points out the relevance of this articulation for children and pedagogic practice in nursery, primary and basic schools.

  1. Food safety knowledge and practice by the stages of change model in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam-E; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Young Soon; Ha, Ae Wha

    2010-12-01

    In this study, 342 grade 4-6 elementary school students in Gyeonggi-do were recruited to determine their readiness to change food safety behavior and to compare their food safety knowledge and practices by the stages of change. The subjects were divided into three stages of change; the percentage of stage 1 (precontemplation) was 10.1%, the percentage of stage 2 (contemplation and preparation) was 62.4%, and that of stage 3 (action and maintenance) was 27.5%. Food safety knowledge scores in stage 3 (4.55) or stage 2 (4.50) children were significantly higher than those in stage 1 children (4.17) (P food safety behavior items "hand washing practice" and "avoidance of harmful food" were significantly different among the three groups (P food safety knowledge and practice. Age was significantly and negatively correlated with the total food safety behavior score (r = -0.142, P food safety (P < 0.01).

  2. Knowledge Translation from Research to Clinical Practice: Measuring Participation of Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yunwha; Law, Mary; DeMatteo, Carol; Stratford, Paul; Kim, Hwan

    2016-10-01

    This knowledge translation project was conducted to increase occupational therapy practitioners' awareness of the importance of measuring participation of children with disabilities. The Knowledge to Action process framework (KTA framework) guided knowledge translation via a web-based seminar (webinar) to practitioners working with children and educators teaching in occupational therapy programs in South Korea. Two hundred and seventy six views of the webinar were recorded within a month and 15 practitioners and 13 educators completed the online evaluation survey. The participants indicated that the webinar helped them understand the participation concept and its associated measures and raised awareness of practitioners' current use of measurement and intervention that do not focus on participation of children with disabilities. This project led practitioners and educators to realize the importance of measuring participation of children with disabilities and contributes to inform the importance of knowledge translation science to facilitate the evidence-based practice.

  3. Feeding and dietary practices of nursing caries children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyne, A H; Chohan, A N; al-Begomi, R

    2002-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the feeding and dietary practices of Saudi nursing caries children in Riyadh. A sample of nursing caries children attending the dental clinics of three health care facilities in Riyadh was selected for the study. The information about the feeding and dietary practices was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 74 nursing caries children, 34 (45.9%) male and 40 (54.1%) female with a mean age of 55.0 (SD 20.0) months participated in the study and, their mothers completed the questionnaire. About two-thirds of the children (65.0%) were breast-fed before sleep and a similar percentage (60.8%) was breast-fed during sleep. More than two-thirds (68.9%) were bottle-fed with liquids such as fresh fruit juices (51.4%), packed juices (43.2%) and soft drinks (81.1%). The mean age of starting to drink in a cup was 25.1 (SD 10.4) months. The most popular (71.6%) drinks in a cup were fruit juices. More than two-thirds (71.6%) of the children were taking soft drinks directly from a container and, about two-thirds (60.0%) of the children started drinking directly from a container at or before the age of 24 months. Almost all the children (93.2%) were taking sweets; about half (45.9%) of them taking sweets twice or more daily. It was concluded that the study children have feeding and dietary characteristics (typical of nursing caries) such as breast-feeding before/during sleep, nocturnal/nap-time bottle-feeding, excessive consumption of fruit juices/soft drinks from a container and a high frequency of sweet intake.

  4. Feeding practices for infants and young children during and after common illness. Evidence from South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Global evidence shows that children's growth deteriorates rapidly during/after illness if foods and feeding practices do not meet the additional nutrient requirements associated with illness/convalescence. To inform policies and programmes, we conducted a review of the literature published from 1990 to 2014 to document how children 0–23 months old are fed during/after common childhood illnesses. The review indicates that infant and young child feeding (IYCF) during common childhood illnesses is far from optimal. When sick, most children continue to be breastfed, but few are breastfed more frequently, as recommended. Restriction/withdrawal of complementary foods during illness is frequent because of children's anorexia (perceived/real), poor awareness of caregivers' about the feeding needs of sick children, traditional beliefs/behaviours and/or suboptimal counselling and support by health workers. As a result, many children are fed lower quantities of complementary foods and/or are fed less frequently when they are sick. Mothers/caregivers often turn to family/community elders and traditional/non‐qualified practitioners to seek advice on how to feed their sick children. Thus, traditional beliefs and behaviours guide the use of ‘special’ feeding practices, foods and diets for sick children. A significant proportion of mothers/caregivers turn to the primary health care system for support but receive little or no advice. Building the knowledge, skills and capacity of community health workers and primary health care practitioners to provide mothers/caregivers with accurate and timely information, counselling and support on IYCF during and after common childhood illnesses, combined with large‐scale communication programmes to address traditional beliefs and norms that may be harmful, is an urgent priority to reduce the high burden of child stunting in South Asia. PMID:26840205

  5. FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOMECHANICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Knudson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book provides a broad and in-depth theoretical and practical description of the fundamental concepts in understanding biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of human movement. PURPOSE The aim is to bring together up-to-date biomechanical knowledge with expert application knowledge. Extensive referencing for students is also provided. FEATURES This textbook is divided into 12 chapters within four parts, including a lab activities section at the end. The division is as follows: Part 1 Introduction: 1.Introduction to biomechanics of human movement; 2.Fundamentals of biomechanics and qualitative analysis; Part 2 Biological/Structural Bases: 3.Anatomical description and its limitations; 4.Mechanics of the musculoskeletal system; Part 3 Mechanical Bases: 5.Linear and angular kinematics; 6.Linear kinetics; 7.Angular kinetics; 8.Fluid mechanics; Part 4 Application of Biomechanics in Qualitative Analysis :9.Applying biomechanics in physical education; 10.Applying biomechanics in coaching; 11.Applying biomechanics in strength and conditioning; 12.Applying biomechanics in sports medicine and rehabilitation. AUDIENCE This is an important reading for both student and educators in the medicine, sport and exercise-related fields. For the researcher and lecturer it would be a helpful guide to plan and prepare more detailed experimental designs or lecture and/or laboratory classes in exercise and sport biomechanics. ASSESSMENT The text provides a constructive fundamental resource for biomechanics, exercise and sport-related students, teachers and researchers as well as anyone interested in understanding motion. It is also very useful since being clearly written and presenting several ways of examples of the application of biomechanics to help teach and apply biomechanical variables and concepts, including sport-related ones

  6. Determinants of inadequate complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Burns, Penelope; Page, Andrew; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    To explore complementary feeding practices and identify potential risk factors associated with inadequate complementary feeding practices in Ghana by using the newly developed WHO infant feeding indicators and data from the nationally representative 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The source of data for the analysis was the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Analysis of the factors associated with inadequate complementary feeding, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants, was done by performing multiple logistic regression modelling. Ghana. Children (n 822) aged 6-23 months. The prevalence of the introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 6-8 months was 72.6 % (95 % CI 64.6 %, 79.3 %). The proportion of children aged 6-23 months who met the minimum meal frequency and dietary diversity for breast-fed and non-breast-fed children was 46.0 % (95 % CI 42.3 %, 49.9 %) and 51.4 % (95 % CI 47.4 %, 55.3 %) respectively and the prevalence of minimum acceptable diet for breast-fed children was 29.9 % (95 % CI 26.1 %, 34.1 %). Multivariate analysis revealed that children from the other administrative regions were less likely to meet minimum dietary diversity, meal frequency and acceptable diet than those from the Volta region. Household poverty, children whose mothers perceived their size to be smaller than average and children who were delivered at home were significantly less likely to meet the minimum dietary diversity requirement; and children whose mothers did not have any postnatal check-ups were significantly less likely to meet the requirement for minimum acceptable diet. Complementary feeding was significantly lower in infants from illiterate mothers (adjusted OR=3.55; 95 % CI 1.05, 12.02). The prevalence of complementary feeding among children in Ghana is still below the WHO-recommended standard of 90 % coverage. Non-attendance of postnatal check-up by mothers, cultural beliefs and habits, household

  7. Fundamentals of Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisacane, Vincent L.

    2005-06-01

    Fundamentals of Space Systems was developed to satisfy two objectives: the first is to provide a text suitable for use in an advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate course in both space systems engineering and space system design. The second is to be a primer and reference book for space professionals wishing to broaden their capabilities to develop, manage the development, or operate space systems. The authors of the individual chapters are practicing engineers that have had extensive experience in developing sophisticated experimental and operational spacecraft systems in addition to having experience teaching the subject material. The text presents the fundamentals of all the subsystems of a spacecraft missions and includes illustrative examples drawn from actual experience to enhance the learning experience. It included a chapter on each of the relevant major disciplines and subsystems including space systems engineering, space environment, astrodynamics, propulsion and flight mechanics, attitude determination and control, power systems, thermal control, configuration management and structures, communications, command and telemetry, data processing, embedded flight software, survuvability and reliability, integration and test, mission operations, and the initial conceptual design of a typical small spacecraft mission.

  8. Digital Fourier analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kido, Ken'iti

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to digital Fourier analysis for undergraduate students in the sciences. Beginning with the principles of sine/cosine decomposition, the reader walks through the principles of discrete Fourier analysis before reaching the cornerstone of signal processing: the Fast Fourier Transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Fundamentals" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices for the advanced reader. As a special feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations.  These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. For example, a real sine signal can be treated as a sum of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating vectors. The applet illustration included with the book animates the rotating vectors and the resulting sine signal. By changing parameters such as amplitude and frequency, the reader ca...

  9. Lasers Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Thyagarajan, K

    2010-01-01

    Lasers: Fundamentals and Applications, serves as a vital textbook to accompany undergraduate and graduate courses on lasers and their applications. Ever since their invention in 1960, lasers have assumed tremendous importance in the fields of science, engineering and technology because of their diverse uses in basic research and countless technological applications. This book provides a coherent presentation of the basic physics behind the way lasers work, and presents some of their most important applications in vivid detail. After reading this book, students will understand how to apply the concepts found within to practical, tangible situations. This textbook includes worked-out examples and exercises to enhance understanding, and the preface shows lecturers how to most beneficially match the textbook with their course curricula. The book includes several recent Nobel Lectures, which will further expose students to the emerging applications and excitement of working with lasers. Students who study lasers, ...

  10. Fundamentals of sustainable neighbourhoods

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avi

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces architects, engineers, builders, and urban planners to a range of design principles of sustainable communities and illustrates them with outstanding case studies. Drawing on the author’s experience as well as local and international case studies, Fundamentals of Sustainable Neighbourhoods presents planning concepts that minimize developments' carbon footprint through compact communities, adaptable and expandable dwellings, adaptable landscapes, and smaller-sized yet quality-designed housing. This book also: Examines in-depth global strategies for minimizing the residential carbon footprint, including district heating, passive solar gain, net-zero residences, as well as preserving the communities' natural assets Reconsiders conceptual approaches in building design and urban planning to promote a better connection between communities and nature Demonstrates practical applications of green architecture Focuses on innovative living spaces in urban environments

  11. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  12. Energy informatics: Fundamentals and standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biyao Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on international standardization and power utility practices, this paper presents a preliminary and systematic study on the field of energy informatics and analyzes boundary expansion of information and energy system, and the convergence of energy system and ICT. A comprehensive introduction of the fundamentals and standardization of energy informatics is provided, and several key open issues are identified.

  13. [Effects of computer-assisted practice on reading and spelling in children with learning disabilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E; Muñetón, Mercedes A

    2010-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of computer-assisted practice on reading and spelling in children with learning disabilities (LD). We compared three practice conditions, one with reading and two with spelling, in order to test whether computer-based reading and spelling practice has an influence on the development of reading and spelling ability in children with LD. A sample was selected of 85 children with LD, with age range between 8 years and 10 years (age, M=111.02, SD=9.6), whose spelling performance was two years below grade level. The participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: 1) Copy the target word from the computer screen (n=22), 2) Memorize the target word and write it from memory (n=21), 3) Word reading (n=21), and 4) the untrained control group (n=21). We administered measures of pseudoword reading, phonological awareness, phonological word decoding and orthographical word decoding tasks. We examined the learning effects and transfer effects on words classified as a function of length, consistency, and complexity of syllable structure. Overall, the results showed that reading training did not improve spelling; however, the children who participated in the copy training condition improved their spelling skills.

  14. Dietary practices and nutritional status of 0-24-month-old children from Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, T G; Baraldi, L G; Muniz, P T; Cardoso, M A

    2009-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status and dietary practices of 0-24-month-old children living in Brazilian Amazonia. Cross-sectional study. Information on children's dietary intakes was obtained from diet history data. Weight and length were measured for anthropometric evaluation. Fe status was assessed using fasting venous blood samples; Hb, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations were measured. The towns of Assis Brasil and Acrelândia in the state of Acre, north-west Brazil. A total of sixty-nine randomly selected 0-24-month-old children. Of these children, 40.3 % were anaemic, 63.1 % were Fe-deficient, 28.1 % had Fe-deficiency anaemia and 11.6 % were stunted. Breast-feeding was initiated by 97.1 % of mothers, followed by early feeding with complementary foods. The dietary pattern reflected a high intake of carbohydrate-rich foods and cow's milk, with irregular intakes of fruit, vegetables and meat. All infants and 92.3 % of toddlers were at risk of inadequate Fe intakes. Fe from animal foods contributed on average 0.5 % and 14.3 % to total dietary Fe intake among infants and toddlers, respectively. Poor nutritional status and inadequate feeding practices in this study population reinforce the importance of exclusive breast-feeding during the first 6 months of life. Greater emphasis is required to improve the bioavailability of dietary Fe during complementary feeding practices.

  15. Integrating Planetarium and Classroom Instruction to Engage Children in the Practices of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, J. D.; Small, K. J.

    2014-07-01

    Children should be learning how to engage in science practices in ways that reflect the domain-specific nature of learning to “do science.” Our work explores methods for engaging children in science practices in astronomy, such as developing representations and models, using evidence, and organizing observations into patterns. We used research literature on learning in formal and informal environments to develop learning environment design principles that integrate classroom and planetarium instruction. These were used to develop an intervention for first-grade students. Children first participated in an anticipatory lesson in their classroom. They next visited the planetarium, where they were engaged in a modular planetarium design program that mixed live interaction with video sequences. Finally, children applied what they learned as they engaged in activities in their classroom. Initial analysis of interviews conducted with children before and after instruction suggest the intervention was successful in improving students' reasoning about the Moon and illustrates successful methods of integrating a field trip with a classroom-based lesson.

  16. Parenting Styles and Practices in Children's Obesogenic Behaviors: Scientific Gaps and Future Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; McSpadden, Kate; Oh, April

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Given the emerging global childhood obesity epidemic and the specter of a generation of children who will have a shorter life expectancy than that of their parents, recent research has focused on factors that influence children's weight status and obesogenic behaviors (i.e., eating, physical activity, and screen media use). Parents act as primary socializing agents for children, and thus growing evidence supports the role of parenting styles and practices in children's obesity-related behaviors and weight. Studying these processes in children and adolescents is important for several reasons. First, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status track from childhood and adolescence into adulthood. Furthermore, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status confer significant risk for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to describe the scientific gaps that need to be addressed to develop a more informed literature on parenting styles and practices in the domains of weight status and obesogenic behaviors, as identified by an expert panel assembled by the National Cancer Institute. PMID:23944926

  17. Between school, family and media: do the children carry energy-saving messages and practices?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartiaux, Francoise (Inst. of Demography, Univ. Catholique de Louvain (Belgium)). e.mail: francoise.bartiaux@uclouvain.be

    2009-07-01

    Today, children are the focus of communication and sensitisation measures to increase their environmental concern and their energy saving behaviours. This paper aims at exploring whether, with whom and how children may be actors relative to these environment and energy issues. In particular, this paper identifies the sources of information and influence of the children and shows whether the children influence other actors, especially their family, to save energy in their daily life. This paper is based on a qualitative research that has been realised in French-speaking Belgium in 2007-2008; data were gathered in 13 families whose elder child is 10 or 11 years old. In-depth interviews were realised with at least this child (and sometimes with younger brother(s) and/or sister(s) too) and one parent. Topics covered included energy-related practices and knowledge of the children as well as the network of actors surrounding them. Results indicate that the child is neither powerful nor passive, nor a trustful carrier of energy-related 'good' practices. The necessary conditions for the child being such a good carrier are shed into light and depend on the relations within and between the different organisations the child belongs to (family, school, pairs) or has access to (media, Internet).

  18. Determination of the Pre-Hospital Practices Performed for Children with Burn Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Kavurmaci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the first aid practices performed and, effecting factors in burn injuries in before hospital admission. Material and Method: The study was conducted in burn centers of two hospitals in the Erzurum, between December 2013 and August 2014. The population was consisted of inpatient children aged 0-12 years who were treated in burn centers of related hospitals and their mothers at the date of the study. The study was carried out with a total of 121 children and their mothers who met the research inclusion criteria. Questionnaire data was used to collect data. In data analysis, percentage distributions, means and chi-square test were used. Results: It was found that, children%u2019 mothers applicate the cold water first when the burns ocur (57.9%, secondly only applying cold water (27.3%, then the mothers took off their children to hospital not to any application (75.2%, burn wound on the olive oil riding (10.7%, burn wound yogurt riding (8.3%. Discussion: As a result, it was determined that children%u2019 mothers don%u2019t have an adequate level of first-aid knowledge, and younger mothers with low levels of education living in rural areas perform incorrect first aid practices.

  19. Parenting styles and practices in children's obesogenic behaviors: scientific gaps and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Heather; Hennessy, Erin; McSpadden, Kate; Oh, April

    2013-08-01

    Given the emerging global childhood obesity epidemic and the specter of a generation of children who will have a shorter life expectancy than that of their parents, recent research has focused on factors that influence children's weight status and obesogenic behaviors (i.e., eating, physical activity, and screen media use). Parents act as primary socializing agents for children, and thus growing evidence supports the role of parenting styles and practices in children's obesity-related behaviors and weight. Studying these processes in children and adolescents is important for several reasons. First, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status track from childhood and adolescence into adulthood. Furthermore, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status confer significant risk for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to describe the scientific gaps that need to be addressed to develop a more informed literature on parenting styles and practices in the domains of weight status and obesogenic behaviors, as identified by an expert panel assembled by the National Cancer Institute.

  20. Professional practices and opinions about services available to bilingual children with developmental disabilities: An international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova-Todd, Stefka H; Colozzo, Paola; Mirenda, Pat; Stahl, Hillary; Kay-Raining Bird, Elizabeth; Parkington, Karisa; Cain, Kate; Scherba de Valenzuela, Julia; Segers, Eliane; MacLeod, Andrea A N; Genesee, Fred

    This study aimed to gather information from school- and clinic-based professionals about their practices and opinions pertaining to the provision of bilingual supports to students with developmental disabilities. Using an online survey, data were collected in six socio-culturally and linguistically diverse locations across four countries: the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. In total, 361 surveys were included in the analysis from respondents who were primarily teachers and speech-language pathologists working in schools, daycares/preschools, or community-based clinics. The overall picture that emerged from the data reflected a disconnection between practice and opinion. In general, respondents believed that children with both mild and severe disabilities are capable of learning a second language, although their opinions were more neutral for the latter group. However, children with both mild and severe disabilities who spoke only a minority language at home had less access to services for second language learners than did their typically developing peers, although respondents agreed that such services should be more available. Regardless of clinical group, children who lived in homes where a minority language was spoken were often exposed to, assessed in, and treated in the majority language only; again, respondents generally disagreed with these practices. Finally, second language classes were less available to children in the two disability groups compared to typically developing bilingual children, with general agreement that the opportunity to acquire a second language should be more available, especially to those with mild disabilities. Although the results indicate that there is a considerable gap between current practices and professional opinions, professionals appear to be more supportive of bilingual educational opportunities for these populations than was suggested by previous research.

  1. Poison prevention practices and medically attended poisoning in young children: multicentre case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Denise; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; Benford, Penny; Coupland, Carol; Timblin, Clare; Hayes, Mike; Goodenough, Trudy; Hawkins, Adrian; Reading, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Childhood poisonings are common, placing a substantial burden on health services. Case-control studies have found inconsistent evidence about modifiable risk factors for poisonings among children aged 0-4 years. This study quantifies associations between poison prevention practices and medically attended poisonings in children aged 0-4 years. Multicentre case-control study conducted at hospitals, minor injury units and family practices from four study centres in England between 2010 and 2013. Participants comprised 567 children presenting with unintentional poisoning occurring at home and 2320 community control participants matched on age, sex, date of event and study centre. Parents/caregivers provided data on safety practices, safety equipment use, home hazards and potential confounders by means of self-completion questionnaires. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Compared with community controls, parents of poisoned children were significantly more likely not to store medicines out of reach (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.59; 95% CI 1.21 to 2.09; population attributable fraction (PAF) 15%), not to store medicines safely (locked or out of reach (AOR 1.83; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.42; PAF 16%) and not to have put all medicines (AOR 2.11; 95% CI 1.54 to 2.90; PAF 20%) or household products (AOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.48; PAF 11%) away immediately after use. Not storing medicines out of reach or locked away and not putting medicines and household products away immediately after use increased the odds of secondary care attended poisonings in children aged 0-4 years. If associations are causal, implementing these poison prevention practices could each prevent between 11% and 20% of poisonings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Overweight and obesity among Malay primary school children in Kota Bharu, Kelantan: parental beliefs, attitudes and child feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Abdul Manan W M; Norazawati, A K; Lee, Y Y

    2012-04-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has become a major public health problem in Malaysia. Parents play an important role in child feeding especially among younger children. A study was conducted to evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and practices in child feeding among parents of normal weight, as well as overweight and obese primary school children in Kelantan using the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). This cross-sectional study was carried out on 175 Malay children from three schools in Kota Bharu district in Kelantan. This study showed that 13.1% of the children were overweight and obese. Scores for perceived parent weight (p obese children compared to parents of children with normal body weight. However, the score for pressure to eat among parents of overweight and obese children was significantly lower (p children. The perceived child weight (r = 0.468, p children's body mass index (BMI), whereas pressure to eat factor (r = -0.355, p children's body mass index (BMI). The findings showed that parental feeding practices were linked to children's weight status and childhood obesity. Therefore parents should be given education and guidance on appropriate child feeding practices to maintain their child's nutritional status on a healthy weight range.

  3. Perceptions of Weight and Health Practices in Hispanic Children: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Alexander Foster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perception of weight by parents of obese children may be associated with willingness to engage in behavior change. The relationship between parents’ perception of their child’s weight and their health beliefs and practices is poorly understood, especially among the Hispanic population which experiences disparities in childhood obesity. This study sought to explore the relationship between perceptions of weight and health beliefs and practices in a Hispanic population. Methods. A cross-sectional, mixed-methods approach was used with semistructured interviews conducted with parent-child (2–5 years old dyads in a primarily Hispanic, low-income population. Parents were queried on their perceptions of their child’s health, health practices, activities, behaviors, and beliefs. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze participants’ discussion of health practices and behaviors. Results. Forty parent-child dyads completed the interview. Most (58% of the parents of overweight and obese children misclassified their child’s weight status. The qualitative analysis showed that accurate perception of weight was associated with internal motivation and more concrete ideas of what healthy meant for their child. Conclusions. The qualitative data suggest there may be populations at different stages of readiness for change among parents of overweight and obese children, incorporating this understanding should be considered for interventions.

  4. Oral health knowledge, behaviour and practices among school children in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darwish, Mohammed Sultan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the oral health knowledge behaviour and practices among school children in Qatar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Qatar from October 2011 to April 2012. A total of 2200 school children aged 12–14 years were approached from 16 schools of different areas. The information about oral health knowledge and sources of information was obtained through a self-administrated questionnaire. Data analyses were performed. Results: The overall response rate was (96%). Only (25.8%) of children reported a high level of oral health knowledge. After each meal, tooth brushing was observed by a very low percentage of children (3.7%). About 44.6% of children recognized dental floss as a cleaning device for between the teeth. A large number of children (32.5%) thought incorrectly that one must visit the dentist only in case of pain. A great majority was not aware of cariogenic potential of soft drinks (39%) and sweetened milk (97.8%). Less than half (38.9%) of children actually had heard about fluoride. Only (16.8%) correctly answered the question about sign of tooth decay. Slightly, less than half (48.4%) could not define the meaning of plaque. Parents were the most popular (69.1%), source of oral health information for the children. Conclusion: The oral health knowledge in Qatar is below the satisfactory level. Parents were the most popular source of oral health knowledge for the children followed by dentists, school teachers, and media. PMID:27605993

  5. Breastfeeding Practices, Demographic Variables, and Their Association with Morbidities in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Dipen V. Patel; Bansal, Satvik C.; Nimbalkar, Archana S.; Phatak, Ajay G.; Somashekhar M. Nimbalkar; Desai, Rajendra G.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate feeding practices are the key contributor to reducing morbidities and mortalities in under-five children. A cross-sectional questionnaire based survey of mothers of children aged less than 5years was conducted in 781 mothers. More than half of mothers (57.5%) started feeding within an hour of birth, 55.9% gave exclusive breastfeeding for six months, 89.1% of the mothers stopped breastfeeding before two years of age, 18.2% of the mothers bottle-fed the babies, and 15.6% had problem...

  6. Association between Australian-Indian mothers' controlling feeding practices and children's appetite traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Rati; Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between controlling feeding practices and children's appetite traits. The secondary aim studied the relationship between controlling feeding practices and two proxy indicators of diet quality. Participants were 203 Australian-Indian mothers with children aged 1-5 years. Controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring) and children's appetite traits (food approach traits: food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, desire to drink, emotional overeating; food avoidance traits: satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness and emotional undereating) were measured using self-reported, previously validated scales/questionnaires. Children's daily frequency of consumption of core and non-core foods was estimated using a 49-item list of foods eaten (yes/no) in the previous 24 hours as an indicator of diet quality. Higher pressure to eat was associated with higher scores for satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness and lower score for enjoyment of food. Higher restriction was related to higher scores for food responsiveness and emotional overeating. Higher monitoring was inversely associated with fussiness, slowness in eating, food responsiveness and emotional overeating and positively associated with enjoyment of food. Pressure to eat and monitoring were related to lower number of core and non-core foods consumed in the previous 24 hours, respectively. All associations remained significant after adjusting for maternal and child covariates (n = 152 due to missing data). In conclusion, pressure to eat was associated with higher food avoidance traits and lower consumption of core foods. Restrictive feeding practices were associated with higher food approach traits. In contrast, monitoring practices were related to lower food avoidance and food approach traits and lower non-core food consumption.

  7. [Growth, development, social integration and parenting practices on children living with their mothers in prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejarraga, Horacio; Berardi, Clemente; Ortale, Susana; Contreras, María Magdalena; Sanjurjo, Adriana; Lejarraga, Celina; Martínez Cáceres, María José; Rodríguez, Lilian

    2011-12-01

    Prisons are considered a very high risk environment, but there is very scarce scientific information on the growth and development of children who live there. With the purpose of evaluating growth and development of children living with their mothers in prison, a cross sectional survey was performed in 68 children aged 0-3 years in Unit 31, a prison for mothers with children located at 30 km from Buenos Aires. Weight, supine length, and developmental quotient (Cats Clams) was measured, PRUNAPE, and SQE-SE test were administered (screening tests for detecting developmental and emotional disorders, respectively). Mothers' child rearing practices were assessed with a previously standardized questionnaire. Age range of mothers was 18-46 years, median 23.5 yr. Duration of stay in prison of children was 0.05-35 months. Mean ± standard error of "Z" score for height was -0.30 ± 0.12, weight 0.40 ± 0.12; body mass index 0.91 ± 0.18; head circumference 0.19 ± 0.14; and developmental quotient 92.4 ± 1.7. There were only 7 children out of 67 who failed the PRUNAPE. Mean Cats Clams developmental score was 91.3. ASQ-SE test showed high prevalence (39%) of emotional and social integration problems. Mothers' knowledge about child rearing practices was poorer than that found in a normal urban local population. There were no trends for results to be related to the length of stay in prison. Children are shorter and with higher BMI than reference. Emotional disorders are frequent (39%). Mothers' knowledge about child care was poorer than that found in a near population. A program for longitudinal surveillance for all prisons in the country was proposed to the authorities.

  8. Mother's feeding practices for children 3-10 years of age and their associations with child demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M; Williams, Keith E

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined relationships between mothers' feeding practices and child demographics such as gender, age, weight status, and family income. This cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from 2259 children between 3 and 10 years of age who were sampled for the development of the Parent Mealtime Action Scale. No child gender differences were found in mothers' feeding practices. Older children received more Fat Reduction and Many Food Choices, but less Positive Persuasion, Use of Rewards, Insistence on Eating, and Special Meals, with differences in these feeding practices being most notable from before to after school age. Overweight children received less Insistence on Eating and more Fat Reduction than underweight or normal weight children. Children with the lowest family incomes received less Fat Reduction, less Daily FV Availability, more Use of Rewards. Results suggest that mothers respond to changing conditions, possibly including feedback from school nurses, increases in children's weight status, and availability of financial resources.

  9. Associations of parenting styles, parental feeding practices and child characteristics with young children's fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Carine; Rovner, Alisha; Maes, Lea

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of parent and child characteristics in explaining children's fruit and vegetable intakes. In 2008, parents of preschoolers (mean age 3.5 years) from 56 schools in Belgium-Flanders completed questionnaires including a parent and child fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire, general parenting styles (laxness, overreactivity and positive interactions), specific food parenting practices (child-centered and parent-centered feeding practices) and children's characteristics (children's shyness, emotionality, stubbornness, activity, sociability, and negative reactions to food). Multiple linear regression analyses (n = 755) indicated a significant positive association between children's fruit and vegetable intake and parent's intake and a negative association with children's negative reactions to food. No general parenting style dimension or child personality characteristic explained differences in children's fruit and vegetable intakes. Child-centered feeding practices were positively related to children's fruit and vegetable intakes, while parent-centered feeding practices were negatively related to children's vegetable intakes. In order to try to increase children's fruit and vegetable consumption, parents should be guided to improve their own diet and to use child-centered parenting practices and strategies known to decrease negative reactions to food. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Implications for Practice from "International Review of the Evidence on Best Practice in Educational Provision for Children on the Autism Spectrum"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldberg, Karen; Parsons, Sarah; MacLeod, Andrea; Jones, Glenys; Prunty, Anita; Balfe, Tish

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarises the implications for practice arising from the "International review of the evidence on best practice in educational provision for children on the autism spectrum" and it focuses on key priorities for policy makers, families, practitioners and researchers. Findings highlight that there is little evidence to indicate…

  11. [Wisconsin Administrative Practice Scale: Special Education. A Survey of Selected Administrative Practices Used in the Coordination of Diagnostic Units for Handicapped Children. Test and Manual.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Jeremy Jon

    The Wisconsin Administrative Practice Scale: Special Education (WAPS) is a self-administering survey instrument designed to measure implementation of 162 selected administrative practices and policies used to coordinate diagnostic units for handicapped children. One hundred thirty-five items are grouped into seven subscales each consisting of…

  12. From Theme-Based to Emergent Curriculum: Four Teachers Change and Learn about Themselves, the Children, and Authentic Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashin, Diane

    2011-01-01

    For those who are tired of old images and practices, Malaguzzi suggests that there is time for mistakes to be corrected. New paths of practice can be forged by being willing to consider another way of teaching and learning with young children. And as with any change in professional practice, teachers face cognitive dissonance when they try to…

  13. Use of caries-preventive agents in children: findings from the dental practice-based research network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riley, J L; Richman, Joshua S; Rindal, D Brad;

    2010-01-01

    Scientific evidence supports the application of caries-preventive agents in children and adolescents, and this knowledge must be applied to the practice of dentistry. There are few multi-region data that allow for comparisons of practice patterns between types of dental practices and geographical...

  14. Best Practices for School Nutrition Professionals Serving the Nutritional Needs of Pre-Kindergarten Children in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofton, Kristi L.; Nettles, Mary Frances; Carr, Deborah H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study identifies best practices for school nutrition professionals serving the nutritional needs of Pre-Kindergarten (PreK) children in public schools. Methods: The two-phased study followed a best practices research model (BPRM) utilizing the seven practice categories identified from previous PreK research. In Phase I, an expert…

  15. Psychopathology and Parenting Practices of Parents of Preschool Children with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Elizabeth; Stoessel, Brian; Herbert, Sharonne

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study investigated associations among different types of parental psychopathology and several specific parenting practices. Design Mothers (n = 182) and fathers (n = 126) of preschool-aged children with behavior problems completed questionnaires assessing parental psychopathology and parenting practices, and participated in observed parent-child interactions. Results Maternal depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and several different personality disorder traits were related to maternal negativity, laxness, and lack of warmth. Paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, and borderline personality disorder symptoms predicted mothers’ parenting practices, even when statistically controlling for other types of psychopathology. For fathers, those same symptoms, dependent and avoidant symptoms, and substance abuse symptoms were associated with self-reported lax parenting. Evidence emerged that psychopathology in one parent was associated with less overreactivity in the other parent. Conclusions Many aspects of parents’ psychological functioning play a role in determining specific parenting practices, including personality disorder symptoms. PMID:22737040

  16. ASSOCIATION OF DIARRHOEA WITH PRACTICES OF HAND WASHING AND EXCRETA DISPOSAL IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Kr.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoea is a common and preventable disease, but still it accounts for approximately 11% of all mortality in children under five years of age. Diarrhoeal infections are more common when there is a shortage of adequate sanitation, hygiene and safe water f or drinking, cooking and cleaning. To prevent stool pathogens from gaining access to the domestic environment, efforts should concentrate on hand washing after stool contact, especially after defaecation or after cleaning up a child. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Present study was conducted from Dec - 2014 to Feb - 2015, after selecting a total of 500 children. The association of diarrhoea in these children were studied in relation practices of hand washing and excreta disposal among them. OBSERVATION: It was observed in our study that the incidence of diarrhoea was more in children excreting inside the household premises (32%, in comparison to those excreting outside (11.5%. Incidence of diarrhoea in children having the habits of washing hands was lower (13.6%, tha n the children not having the habit (21.8%. CONCLUSION: Based on the above findings we conclude that human stools in the domestic environment are a source of diarrhoeal infection, and safe disposal of stools should be one of the key measures to prevent di arrhoeal diseases.

  17. Impact of parenting practices on parent-child relationships in children with specific learning disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Karande

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children with specific learning disability (SpLD undergo stress in coping up with their child′s condition. Aims: To document the parenting practices of parents having a child with newly diagnosed SpLD and to analyze their impact on parent-child relationships. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study in our clinic. Materials and Methods: From May 2007 to January 2008, 150 parents (either mother or father of children consecutively diagnosed as having SpLD were enrolled. Parenting practices and parent-child relationships were measured by the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire-Parent Form (APQ-PF and the Parent Child Relationship Questionnaire (PCRQ, respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation coefficients between subscales of APQ-PF and PCRQ were computed. Multiple regression analysis was carried out for statistical significance of the clinical and demographic variables. Results: Parents who were: (i "involved" in parenting had a good "personal relationship and disciplinary warmth," (ii practicing "positive parenting" had good "warmth, personal relationship and disciplinary warmth," (iii "poorly supervising" their child′s activities lacked "warmth and personal relationship," (iv practicing "inconsistent discipline′ had a higher "power assertion" and (v practicing "corporal punishment" lacked "warmth" and had a higher "power assertion and possessiveness" in their relationships with their child. Parent being poorly educated or currently ill and child having all three types of SpLD present concomitantly or a sibling or a sibling with a chronic disability or being in class standard IX to XI were variables that independently predicted a poor parenting or parent-child relationship subscale score. Conclusions: The present study has identified parenting practices that need to be encouraged or excluded for improving parent-child relationships. Initiating these measures would help in the

  18. Parental Feeding Practices among Brazilian School-Aged Children: Associations with Parent and Child Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mais, Laís Amaral; Warkentin, Sarah; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Carnell, Susan; Taddei, José Augusto Aguiar de Carrazedo

    2017-01-01

    Children's eating behavior, food intake, and weight status are highly influenced by parents, who shape their food environment via parental feeding practices. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between sociodemographic, anthropometric, and behavioral/attitudinal characteristics of parents and their 5- to 9-year-old children and a range of positive ("healthy eating guidance," "monitoring") and potentially negative ("restriction for weight control," "restriction for health," "emotion regulation/food as reward," and "pressure") parental feeding practices. Parents completed a questionnaire assessing parental and child characteristics. Parental feeding practices were measured using a Brazilian adaptation of the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. To test associations between parent and child characteristics and parental feeding practices, we ran bivariate logistic regression models with parent and child characteristics as independent variables and high (above median) scores on individual parental feeding practices as outcome variables. We then conducted multivariate logistic regression models containing all parent and child characteristics, controlling for child age and maternal education. Lower parental perceived responsibility for child feeding, higher child use of screen devices, and higher child ultra-processed food intake were associated with lower scores on "healthy eating guidance" and "monitoring." Higher parental perceived responsibility for child feeding and concern about child overweight were associated with higher scores on "restriction for weight control" and "restriction for health." Parental perceptions of low weight and concern about child underweight, and higher perceived responsibility for child feeding, were associated with higher scores on "pressure." Greater intake of ultra-processed foods and lower maternal age were associated with higher scores on "emotion regulation/food as reward." Parental concerns and perceptions

  19. Severe iron-deficiency anaemia and feeding practices in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Patricia C; DeGroot, Julie; Maguire, Jonathon L; Birken, Catherine S; Zlotkin, Stanley

    2016-03-01

    Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA) occurs in 1-2 % of infants in developed countries, peaks at 1-3 years of age and is associated with later cognitive deficits. The objectives of the present study were to describe the characteristics of young children with severe IDA and examine modifiable risk factors in a developed-country setting. Two prospective samples: a national surveillance programme sample and a regional longitudinal study sample. Canada, 2009-2011. Two samples of young children recruited from community-based health-care practices: a national sample with severe anaemia (Hbdeficiency and a regional sample with non-anaemic Fe sufficiency. Children with severe IDA (n 201, mean Hb 55·1 g/l) experienced substantial morbidity (including developmental delay, heart failure, cerebral thrombosis) and health-care utilization (including a 42 % hospitalization rate). Compared with children with Fe sufficiency (n 597, mean Hb 122·4 g/l), children with severe IDA consumed a larger volume of cow's milk daily (median 1065 ml v. 500 ml, P<0·001) and were more likely to be using a bottle during the day (78 % v. 43 %, OR=6·0; 95 % CI 4·0, 8·9) and also in bed (60 % v. 21 %, OR=6·5; 95 % CI 4·4, 9·5). Severe IDA is associated with substantial morbidity and may be preventable. Three potentially modifiable feeding practices are associated with IDA: (i) cow's milk consumption greater than 500 ml/d; (ii) daytime bottle use beyond 12 months of age; and (iii) bottle use in bed. These feeding practices should be highlighted in future recommendations for public health and primary-care practitioners.

  20. Ambulance transport of noncritical children: emergency medical service providers' knowledge, opinions, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Joseph; Steele, Gregory K; Weinstein, Elizabeth; Collins, Robert; Talty, Judith; Bull, Marilyn J

    2014-03-01

    Safe ambulance transport of children presents unique challenges. Our study describes child passenger restraint practices during ambulance transport, Emergency Medical Service (EMS) providers' knowledge, training, and use of child passenger restraint devices (CRD). A child passenger safety technician (CPST) recorded restraint used for pediatric ambulance transport. The CPST assessed and documented type of CRD used, securement, and whether the child was properly restrained. EMS providers' knowledge, training, and CRD use for ambulance transport were assessed. The study period spanned July 2009 to July 2010; 63 EMS personnel were interviewed and 40 children were observed. Approximately 75% of emergency medical technicians surveyed felt their knowledge of pediatric transport was adequate. Fourteen percent allowed a stable patient to be transported via parent's lap. Twelve percent were transported unrestrained. None of the 11 patients, birth to 3 years, were found to be transported correctly. Study findings supports education and training of EMS personnel to improve the safe ambulance transport of children.

  1. Witnessing Interparental Violence, Parenting Practices, and Children´s Long-Term Psychological Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Gámez-Guadix; Carmen Almendros

    2011-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to examine the relationship between witnessing interparental violence and children´s long-term psychological distress, and the extent to which this relation is mediated by deteriorating parenting practices (i.e., harsh discipline, affection/support, interparental and intraparental consistency). The second objective was to analyze the possible gender differences in the relationships specified. The sample comprised 680 Spanish university students (62.4% fem...

  2. The answer is questions: accelerated-nursing students report practice questions are fundamental to first-time NCLEX-RN success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blozen, Barbara B

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of anecdotal reports on demographic characteristics and academic success of accelerated-nursing students; yet few empirical studies have examined accelerated-nursing students NCLEX-RN success. Applying Knowles' adult learning theory as a guiding framework, the purpose of this qualitative study was to explore, from the accelerated-nursing students' perspective, the factors reported as contributing to their success on the NCLEX-RN. The research questions aimed to elicit participants' descriptions of their experiences and factors contributing to their success via individual interviews. The most significant finding the participants identified as the factor that contributed to their success was the practicing of NCLEX-RN questions. The findings of this study have several implications for educational policy and practice for universities and schools of nursing as the information gained from this study applies to recruitment and retention as well as curriculum and educational strategies in an accelerated-nursing program.

  3. Effects of Non-Symbolic Approximate Number Practice on Symbolic Numerical Abilities in Pakistani Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanum, Saeeda; Hanif, Rubina; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Berteletti, Ilaria; Hyde, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Current theories of numerical cognition posit that uniquely human symbolic number abilities connect to an early developing cognitive system for representing approximate numerical magnitudes, the approximate number system (ANS). In support of this proposal, recent laboratory-based training experiments with U.S. children show enhanced performance on symbolic addition after brief practice comparing or adding arrays of dots without counting: tasks that engage the ANS. Here we explore the nature and generality of this effect through two brief training experiments. In Experiment 1, elementary school children in Pakistan practiced either a non-symbolic numerical addition task or a line-length addition task with no numerical content, and then were tested on symbolic addition. After training, children in the numerical training group completed the symbolic addition test faster than children in the line length training group, suggesting a causal role of brief, non-symbolic numerical training on exact, symbolic addition. These findings replicate and extend the core findings of a recent U.S. laboratory-based study to non-Western children tested in a school setting, attesting to the robustness and generalizability of the observed training effects. Experiment 2 tested whether ANS training would also enhance the consistency of performance on a symbolic number line task. Over several analyses of the data there was some evidence that approximate number training enhanced symbolic number line placements relative to control conditions. Together, the findings suggest that engagement of the ANS through brief training procedures enhances children's immediate attention to number and engagement with symbolic number tasks. PMID:27764117

  4. Secondment as a means of practice development for Community Learning Disability Nurses working with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheseldine, Sally; Brown, Marie; Wilkie, Fiona

    2010-10-01

    Many Community Learning Disability Nurses (CLDNs) in Scotland who work with children will have had some child health input during their registered nurse education programme, but often not specific to the needs of children who might be referred to them now as result of population changes, community care policy and improved methods of diagnosis (PHIS, 2004). Community nurses have relatively poor skills in detecting and managing mental health problems and identify training as a means of addressing this (Fox et al., 2003). To address the practice development needs identified by CLDNs through their Personal Development Plans (PDPs), secondments were provided to a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) for children and young people with learning disabilities for 2 days a week for six months. This was taken up by five CLDNs over a period of 3 years. The goals they set in their secondments were evaluated using Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS). This paper aims to discuss the use of GAS within secondments, as a means of identifying learning needs and developing practice in the area of CAMH nursing. The background to the paper, work based learning, health needs of children with LD and GAS are highlighted. Recommendations for future development are made.

  5. What Teachers Can Learn from the Practice of Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article considers how primary teachers can learn from the practice of artists in their own teaching of art. Fundamental to artistic practice is the notion of practising with various materials and tools. In the article I look at some children's images, as well as scrutinising some statements made by the painter Francis Bacon. The practices of…

  6. What Teachers Can Learn from the Practice of Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article considers how primary teachers can learn from the practice of artists in their own teaching of art. Fundamental to artistic practice is the notion of practising with various materials and tools. In the article I look at some children's images, as well as scrutinising some statements made by the painter Francis Bacon. The practices of…

  7. Children's Everyday Learning by Assuming Responsibility for Others: Indigenous Practices as a Cultural Heritage Across Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, David Lorente

    2015-01-01

    This chapter uses a comparative approach to examine the maintenance of Indigenous practices related with Learning by Observing and Pitching In in two generations--parent generation and current child generation--in a Central Mexican Nahua community. In spite of cultural changes and the increase of Western schooling experience, these practices persist, to different degrees, as a Nahua cultural heritage with close historical relations to the key value of cuidado (stewardship). The chapter explores how children learn the value of cuidado in a variety of everyday activities, which include assuming responsibility in many social situations, primarily in cultivating corn, raising and protecting domestic animals, health practices, and participating in family ceremonial life. The chapter focuses on three main points: (1) Cuidado (assuming responsibility for), in the Nahua socio-cultural context, refers to the concepts of protection and "raising" as well as fostering other beings, whether humans, plants, or animals, to reach their potential and fulfill their development. (2) Children learn cuidado by contributing to family endeavors: They develop attention and self-motivation; they are capable of responsible actions; and they are able to transform participation to achieve the status of a competent member of local society. (3) This collaborative participation allows children to continue the cultural tradition and to preserve a Nahua heritage at a deeper level in a community in which Nahuatl language and dress have disappeared, and people do not identify themselves as Indigenous.

  8. Development and clinical trial of a practical vessel imaging system for vessel punctures in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuper, Natasha J.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; de Roode, Rowland; Septer, Erica

    2008-02-01

    Venipunctures to draw blood for diagnostics can be cumbersome. Multiple puncture attempts are distressing, painful and traumatic, especially for small children. Drawing blood from babies, in particular, is a problem, due to the cutaneous baby fat, tiny veins and, worst case, a pigmented skin. We developed a practical vein viewing system based on IR translumination that, contrary to commercial systems available, has the advantage of: a) low cost, b) easily implemented in routine practice, c) normal and IR image simultaneously available, d) small add-on, e) child friendly IR illuminator and f) efficient IR light coupling. Before introducing the vessel viewer for clinical application in the children's department, parameters were measured in 194 patients (age 0-17 yrs): time to draw blood, number of attempts, skin characteristics, discomfort of patient, and experience of nurse. In this control group, time to draw blood increases significantly with decreasing age of the children. The instant feedback from the nurses has been valuable for the improvements of especially the illumination sources. A clinical trial has been performed in 125 patients (age 0-6 yrs) to prove effectivity of the system in the blood withdrawal procedure. There was a significant decrease from 13% to 2% in failure rate. Also time needed to search for a vein was significantly decreased. A practical and accessible vein viewing system has been developed and is being introduced for clinical application. Although the concept of patient friendliness is already accepted, measurements need to show the effectiveness for particular groups of patients.

  9. Obesity determinants in Mexican preschool children: parental perceptions and practices related to feeding and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Oliveros, Guadalupe; Haines, Jess; Ortega-Altamirano, Doris; Power, Elaine; Taveras, Elsie M; González-Unzaga, Marco A; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia

    2011-08-01

    Obesity represents a major public health problem worldwide. In Mexico, overweight and obesity have increased dramatically, affecting 26% of school-aged children. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions and practices of key obesity determinants among parents of preschool children attending child care centers. We conducted five focus groups with 38 parents from six Mexico City child care centers. Inquiry topics were 1) childhood obesity causes and consequences; 2) child feeding practices at the child care center and home; 3) healthful and unhealthful foods for young children; 4) significance of physical activity in childhood; and 5) physical activity-promoting factors and barriers. We analyzed these data using content analysis. We identified a number of barriers to healthful eating, including parental time constraints, permissive feeding styles, unhealthful food preparation practices, lack of knowledge about nutrition, food advertisement, and high availability of unhealthful foods in public places. Facilitators to healthful eating included recognition of childhood overweight prevention and consequences, and healthy food choices. Main barriers to childhood physical activity included influence of young family members to play video games, parental time constraints, street safety, low access to sports facilities, and insufficient communication with child care centers. Understanding parental views and perceptions of the main factors influencing preschoolers' weight-related behavior can inform home-based or environmental interventions that support healthful eating and regular physical activity. Copyright © 2011 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices on Oral Health of Public School Children of Batangas City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JENNIFER U. DOTADO-MADERAZO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries among Filipino children ranked second worst among 21 World Health Organization Western Pacific countries. A recent National Oral Health Survey showed that 97 percent of Grade 1 students and 82 percent of Grade 2 students surveyed suffered from tooth decay. WHO (2007 urges governments to “ promote oral health in schools, aiming at developing healthy lifestyles and self care practices in children”. The study assessed the dental health education of public school children in Batangas City to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices of the respondents on oral health; to determine the significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and their assessment on the dental health education and propose a program to improve the project. This study used a descriptive type of research and distributed a standardized questionnaire to 279 public school children of Ilijan, Sta. Rita Kalsada and Julian Pastor Memorial Elementary School. The participants were selected randomly. The findings of the study showed that there is an observed significant to highly significant relationship between the school and the assessment on oral health in terms of knowledge, attitude and practices. This means that their assessment is affected by the school where they belong.

  11. Determinants of Complementary Feeding Practices among Children Aged 6-23: a Community based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Kamran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundComplementary feeding practices play an important role in growth and development of the children. This study aimed to determine the complementary feeding practices status among children aged 6- 23 months and its association with various socio- demographic factors.Materials and MethodsThis community based cross-sectional study was conducted at field practice area of Urban Health Centers in Khalkhal city, North West of Iran. In the preset study 576 mothers of children aged 6-23 months were selected with multistage random sampling method and interviewed using structured questionnaire for Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF indicators (minimum dietary diversity (MDD, minimum meal frequency (MMF, and minimum acceptable diet (MAD. Data were analyzed with using SPSS-20.0, Chi-square, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression tests.ResultsFindings showed that MDD, MMF and MAD were adequate in 42.3%, 42.7% and 30.9%, respectively. MDD and MAD was significantly associated with gender of child, type of delivery, birth order of child, mothers literacy and health literacy (P

  12. Association Between Self-Reported Household Practices and Body Mass Index of US Children and Adolescents, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanck, Heidi M.; Valente, Maria; Atienza, Audie A.; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Weber, Deanne; Yaroch, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Parents can set household practices that influence children’s behaviors. The objective of this study was to determine whether children (children and adolescents aged 9–18 y) who live in a household that has healthful practices related to behaviors associated with obesity have a lower body mass index (BMI). Methods We analyzed data from the 2005 Styles mail panel survey (N = 1,685 parents and children). We used multiple logistic regression to assess associations between 4 household practices and 3 children’s behaviors: watching television, participating in vigorous physical activity, and purchasing sodas and snacks at school. Results Children watched more television if they had a television in their bedrooms, were less active as a family, and had no junk food restrictions at home. Children in less active families participated in about half as much VPA as children in more active families. Children purchased more sodas and snacks at school if they had a television in their bedrooms and their family consumed more meals at fast-food restaurants. Children whose families were less active were more likely to have a self-reported BMI at or above the 85th percentile. In addition, children who watched more television were more likely to have a self-reported BMI at or above the 85th percentile. Conclusion Household practices were associated with children’s behaviors and self-reported BMI. A household profile that includes being active as a family may counteract the increase in childhood obesity. PMID:23237244

  13. Gun storage patterns in US homes with children. A pediatric practice-based survey. Pediatric Practice Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturia, Y D; Christoffel, K K; Donovan, M

    1996-03-01

    To describe gun storage patterns in gun-owning families with children. Survey of parents attending participating offices. Twenty-nine urban, suburban, and rural pediatric practices in Chicago, Ill; New Jersey; Houston, Tex; Utah; Georgia; Iowa; and South Carolina. Parents of children attending offices for well- or sick-child care. Consecutive sample of families seen during the 1-week study period. MEASUREMENTS AND ANALYSES: Logistic regression models were constructed to identify sociodemographic factors associated with keeping guns loaded. Of 5233 surveys, 1682 (32%) indicated ownership of at least one powder firearm. Of the gun-owning families, 61% reported at least one gun unlocked, and 15% reported at least one gun loaded. Rifles were more often stored unlocked (62% rifles vs 52% handguns, Pvs 27% handguns, Pbest-fit logistic regression model for keeping a gun loaded identified four predictor variables: owning a gun for self-protection, work-related gun ownership, owning a handgun, and no men in the home. Because most gun-owning families store guns loaded, unlocked, or both, anticipatory guidance should address gun storage in all such families. Interventions designed to alter the way work guns are dealt with after work, and to provide safe and effective means of self-protection might affect these storage patterns.

  14. Exchange Rates and Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Charles; West, Kenneth D.

    2005-01-01

    We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near-random walk behavior if fundamentals are I (1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs,…

  15. Practice and perception of parental HIV disclosure to children in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-09-01

    To explore parental disclosure practices and perceptions among HIV-positive parents in urban China, we conducted in-depth interviews with 29 HIV-positive parents in Beijing in 2011. The disclosure rate was low (17%), and unplanned disclosure was common. Most parents chose not to disclose because of concerns regarding their children's young age, concerns about potentially negative psychological impacts on the children, potential secondary disclosure by the children to others, and perceived stigma associated with HIV infection and the causes of such infection (e.g., homosexual behaviors). Parents considered that an appropriate disclosure should be well-planned, cautious, and a gradual process conducted in a comfortable and relaxed environment when both parents and children were calm. We concluded that it was important to (a) provide professional guidance and services about disclosure to children for HIV-positive parents in China, (b) reduce or eliminate HIV-related stigma, (c) set up support groups among HIV-positive parents, and (d) tailor disclosure strategies for different populations of various demographic and socioeconomic characteristics.

  16. Practical utility and reliability of whole-room calorimetry in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Xanne; Cliff, Dylan; Okely, Anthony D; Jones, Rachel A; Batterham, Marijka; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Søren; Reilly, John J

    2013-05-28

    The use of whole-room calorimetry (WRC) in young children can increase our understanding of children's energy balance. However, studies using WRC in young children are rare due to concerns about its feasibility. To assess the feasibility of WRC in young children, forty children, aged 4–6 years, were asked to follow a graded activity protocol while in a WRC. In addition, six children participated in two additional resting protocols to examine the effect of diet-induced thermogenesis on resting energy expenditure (REE) measures and the reliability of REE measurement. Refusals to participate and data loss were quantified as measures of practical utility, and REE measured after an overnight fast and after a 90-min fast were compared. In addition, both were compared to predicted BMR values using the Schofield equation. Our results showed that thirty (78·9 %) participants had acceptable data for all intensities of the activity protocol. The REE values measured after a 90-min fast (5·07 (SD 1·04) MJ/d) and an overnight fast (4·73 (SD 0·61) MJ/d) were not significantly different from each other (P= 0·472). However, both REE after an overnight fast and a 90-min fast were significantly higher than predicted BMR (3·96 (SD 0·18) MJ/d) using the Schofield equation (P= 0·024 and 0·042, respectively). We conclude that, with a developmentally sensitive approach, WRC is feasible and can be standardised adequately even in 4- to 6-year-old children. In addition, the effect of a small standardised breakfast, approximately 90 min before REE measurements, is likely to be small.

  17. Fundamental Movement Skills and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Kerri L.; Reid, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Delays and deficits may both contribute to atypical development of movement skills by children with ASD. Fundamental movement skills of 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (ages 9-12 years) were compared to three typically developing groups using the "Test of Gross Motor Development" ("TGMD-2"). The group matched on chronological age…

  18. Feeding practices among Indonesian children above six months of age: a literature review on their potential determinants (part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, Sonia; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Sukotjo, Sri

    2015-01-01

    Feeding practices among young children are not optimal in Indonesia. Improving these practices is crucial to prevent and reduce malnutrition among young children. A better understanding of the underlying factors to appropriate practices is essential to address barriers and identify opportunities to optimal practices. This paper aims to shed light on potential determinants of feeding practices among children above 6 months of age. A systematic research of several databases using combinations of different search terms: feeding, child, Indonesia, MPASI/complementary food, gizi/nutrition, factor, determinant, praktek/practices was conducted. All documents were reviewed using a three-step procedure to assess content appropriateness and research quality. Data were analyzed using the Hector's framework on behaviour change. Available data on individual factors influencing feeding practices related mainly to mother's attributes, namely knowledge, perceptions, attitudes, beliefs and skills. Some of them are positively linked to good practices. Some environmental-related factors such as health services, home and peer environment were conducive to improved practices. Studies on societal factors were mostly restricted to food systems which do not favour optimal feeding practices. The review provides insights on underlying factors conducive to optimal feeding practices. Yet, relevant and quality research is required to get a better understanding on factors related to the environment and society as well as on how they are related with each other and operate in different contexts. Indonesia has already experimented successful programs which can be used as a reference to strengthen young child feeding practices.

  19. IMPACT OF HAND WASHING PRACTICES ON DIAR-RHOEA!, MORBIDITY AMONG UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN IN JAJMAU AREA OF KANPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Saxena

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to find out the prevalence of diarrhoea among under five children in four randomly selected areas of Jajmau, Kanpur and to know the impact of hand washing practices on the childhood diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality. It was observed that the diarrhoeal prevalence was significantly associated with age of child, highest in the age group of 1-3 years belonging to joint families and was also found significantly higher among economically poor Muslim children (66.48% as compared to Hindu children (43.23% The diarrhoeal prevalence was observed associated with hand washing practices. The children who did not wash their hands after defecation showed higher prevalence. Even the prevalence was observed higher among those children whose parents did not wash their hands after cleaning the child excreta. The diarrhoeal prevalence was also found higher among those children whose mothers did not wash their hands before feeding the child.

  20. Dental caries prevalence, oral health knowledge and practice among indigenous Chepang school children of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai Dixit, Lonim; Shakya, Ajay; Shrestha, Manash; Shrestha, Ayush

    2013-05-14

    Chepang communities are one of the most deprived ethnic communities in Nepal. According to the National Pathfinder Survey, dental caries is a highly prevalent childhood disease in Nepal. There is no data concerning the prevalence of caries along with knowledge, attitude and oral hygiene practices among Chepang schoolchildren. The objectives of this study were to 1) record the prevalence of dental caries 2) report experience of dental pain 3) evaluate knowledge, attitude and preventive practices on oral health of primary Chepang schoolchildren. A cross sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 5 government Primary schools of remote Chandibhanjyang Village Development Committee (VDC) in Chitwan district. Ethical approval was taken from the Institutional Review Board within the Research Department of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Tribhuvan University. Consent was obtained from parents for conducting clinical examination and administrating questionnaire. Permission was taken from the school principal in all schools. Data was collected using a pretested questionnaire on 131 schoolchildren aged 8-16-year- olds attending Grade 3-5. Clinical examination was conducted on 361 school children aged 5-16 -year-olds attending grade 1-5. Criteria set by the World Health Organization (1997) was used for caries diagnosis. The questionnaires, originally constructed in English and translated into Nepali were administered to the schoolchildren by the researchers. SPSS 11software was used for data analysis. Caries prevalence for 5-6 -year-old was above the goals recommended by WHO and Federation of Dentistry international (FDI) of less than 50% caries free children. Caries prevalence in 5-6-year-olds was 52% and 12-13-year-olds was 41%. The mean dmft/DMFT score of 5-6 -year-olds and 12 -13-year -olds was 1.59, 0.31 and 0.52, 0.84 respectively. The DMFT scores increased with age and the d/D component constituted almost the entire dmft/DMFT index. About 31% of 8-16-year

  1. Outcome of children [corrected] with heart murmurs referred from general practice to a paediatrician with expertise in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushu, Abha; Kelsall, Anthony W; Usher-Smith, Juliet A

    2015-01-01

    Heart murmurs are common in children. The majority are detected incidentally, and congenital heart disease is rare. There are no published United Kingdom guidelines for management of children with murmurs in primary care. Common practice is to refer all children for specialist assessment. To review outcomes of children with heart murmurs who were referred by general practitioners to a clinic conducted by a paediatrician with expertise in cardiology. Design and setting A retrospective review of children referred by general practitioners to a paediatrician with expertise in cardiology. Hospital records of all children under 17 years of age who attended the clinic during 2011 were reviewed. We excluded children previously seen by any cardiology service. There were 313 new primary care referrals, with complete records available for 310 children. Of them, 186 (60%) were referred with a murmur: 154 for an asymptomatic murmur alone, and 32 for a murmur plus additional symptoms or family history of congenital heart disease. All underwent echocardiography. Of the patients, 38 (20%) had congenital heart disease. Younger children were more likely to have congenital heart disease. There was no difference between rates of congenital heart disease in children with or without symptoms or a family history. The finding that a large proportion of children referred by general practitioners with asymptomatic heart murmurs have congenital heart disease supports current referral practice on clinical grounds.

  2. A Review about Parenting Style and Parenting Practices and Their Consequences in Disabled and Non Disabled Children

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In order to explain the worst levels of adaptation showed by children with disabilities in relation to non disabled children, this paper aims to carry out a review of the most important advances achieved in recent decades in the study of parenting styles and parenting practices in relation to academic competence and behavior problems of children with and without disabilities. For this, we have carried out an analysis of the main works that show this relationship in the population,...

  3. Sport and Physical Activity in the Lives of Looked-After Children: A "Hidden Group" in Research, Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarmby, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Looked-after children are arguably one of the most disadvantaged groups in society and constitute a "hidden group" in relation to sport and physical activity research, policy and practice. Research on looked-after children has explored the views of caregivers, practitioners and policy-makers who have often been asked to speak for…

  4. Vocabulary Intervention for School-Age Children with Language Impairment: A Review of Evidence and Good Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sara C.; Mills, Monique T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide evidence to support direct vocabulary intervention practices for primary school-age children with language impairment (LI). A rationale for providing direct vocabulary intervention for children with LI is outlined by reviewing typical and atypical vocabulary acquisition, evidence of instructional…

  5. Practices of Early Childhood Development Practitioners for Poor and Vulnerable Children from Birth to Four Years in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Hasina Banu; Killian, Bev; Rule, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the practices undertaken by early childhood development practitioners (ECDPs) to support poor and vulnerable children from birth to four years outside centre-based provision. The article draws on part of a UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Fund) commissioned evaluation on family and community-based ECD (Early…

  6. Attitudes and Practices That Shape Children's Drawing Behaviour in Mainstream and Performing Arts Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Esther; Lowry, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Previous research shows that key parties involved in children's drawing perceive the value and benefits of art and drawing very differently. However such research has been restricted to the examination of children attending mainstream schooling across the UK. The present study therefore compared the views and practices of key parties involved…

  7. "Tuning in to Kids": Improving Emotion Socialization Practices in Parents of Preschool Children--Findings from a Community Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havighurst, Sophie S.; Wilson, Katherine R.; Harley, Ann E.; Prior, Margot R.; Kehoe, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated a new prevention and early intervention parenting program: "Tuning in to Kids." The program aims to improve emotion socialization practices in parents of preschool children and is based on research evidence that parents' responses to, and coaching of, their children's emotions influence emotional and behavioral…

  8. Practices of Early Childhood Development Practitioners for Poor and Vulnerable Children from Birth to Four Years in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Hasina Banu; Killian, Bev; Rule, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the practices undertaken by early childhood development practitioners (ECDPs) to support poor and vulnerable children from birth to four years outside centre-based provision. The article draws on part of a UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Fund) commissioned evaluation on family and community-based ECD (Early…

  9. "Tuning in to Kids": Improving Emotion Socialization Practices in Parents of Preschool Children--Findings from a Community Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havighurst, Sophie S.; Wilson, Katherine R.; Harley, Ann E.; Prior, Margot R.; Kehoe, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated a new prevention and early intervention parenting program: "Tuning in to Kids." The program aims to improve emotion socialization practices in parents of preschool children and is based on research evidence that parents' responses to, and coaching of, their children's emotions influence emotional and behavioral…

  10. A Review about Parenting Style and Parenting Practices and Their Consequences in Disabled and Non Disabled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, Antonio Félix; Ruiz-Olivares, Rosario; Pino, María José; Herruzo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    In order to explain the worst levels of adaptation showed by children with disabilities in relation to non disabled children, this paper aims to carry out a review of the most important advances achieved in recent decades in the study of parenting styles and parenting practices in relation to academic competence and behavior problems of children…

  11. Children's exposure to sustainability practices during the transition from preschool into school and their learning and socioemotional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D; Thornton, Anna; Crosnoe, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Evidence that the learning gains of preschool fade as children transition into elementary school has led to increased efforts to sustain preschool advantages during this key transitional period. This study explores whether the observed benefits of sustainability practices for a range of child outcomes are explained and/or moderated by family and school mechanisms selecting children into experiencing these practices. Analyses of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort revealed that both family and school factors predicted children's exposure to several PK-3 sustainability practices. PK-3 sustainability practices were associated with reading (but not math) gains and better interpersonal skills (but not fewer externalizing behaviors) following the transition into kindergarten. These links were not conditioned by the selection mechanisms. The findings highlight who is more likely to seek out (at the family level) or offer (at the school level) sustainability practices and how relevant they are to fighting preschool fadeout.

  12. The experiences and perspectives of Japanese substitute caregivers and maltreated children: a cultural-developmental approach to child welfare practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Sachiko

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the experiences and perspectives of child welfare workers and maltreated children living in Japanese state care. Japanese adults emphasize supporting children's emotional well-being and empowerment through developmentally and ecologically focused socialization strategies. One developmental goal articulated by caregivers of maltreated children has been for them to create their Ibasho--that is, a place where they feel peace, security, acceptance, and belonging. Adults support children's Ibasho creation, in part, through the socialization practice of mimamori--that is, watching over others as a protective figure. Through mimamori, adults may create an accepting and positive social-emotional context that provides children with opportunities for exploration, self-expression, and peer relationships, which are important for Ibasho creation. Understanding of how maltreated children secure their Ibasho and what facilitates their Ibasho creation can provide insights into possible protective factors that may be incorporated into caregivers' daily practice with maltreated children, therapeutic interventions, and innovation in child welfare services as a whole. Understanding of culturally embedded beliefs and practices that may support the resilience and well-being of maltreated children allows social workers to reflect and step outside of that which they take for granted to consider how differently they may serve maltreated children in their own society.

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers regarding diarrhoea among children in a Sudanese rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, I S; Eltom, A R; Karrar, Z A; Gibril, A R

    1994-11-01

    A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers in the rural communities of two villages in Sudan regarding diarrhoeal diseases in children was conducted using a focus group research technique. Seven groups of literate mothers (87 mothers) and 13 groups of illiterate mothers (152 mothers) interviewed comprised 85% of mothers with children under 5 years of age in that community. The study showed that mothers can define and describe diarrhoea, however awareness about the aetiology and the importance of germs in its causation was low. The majority of mothers attributed diarrhoea to teething, milk of pregnant women, hot food and salty water. Less than 40% of mothers identify symptoms and signs of "dehydration" and the need for consultation. Only 10% could relate danger signs to severe dehydration. The ORS use rate was very low (2.1-4.3%). Although awareness about ORS was high (100%), only 25% prepared and used it correctly. However, home made fluids including rice water, custard, pap and tabaladi juice were used by 45% of the mothers. 45% of illiterate mothers stop breast feeding and food during diarrhoea compared to 30% of literate mothers. Harmful practices used in caring for children with diarrhoea included: fumigation (50%), cauterization and removal of teeth buds (45% illiterate mothers, 10% literate), withholding of breast feeding and indiscriminate use of drugs and herbs in 30%.

  14. Top 10 practical lessons learned from physical activity interventions in overweight and obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberga, Angela S; Medd, Emily R; Adamo, Kristi B; Goldfield, Gary S; Prud'homme, Denis; Kenny, Glen P; Sigal, Ronald J

    2013-03-01

    Physical activity (PA) interventions targeting overweight and obese children and adolescents have shown only modest success, and dropout is an area of concern. Proper design and implementation of a PA intervention is critical for maximizing adherence and thus increasing the overall health benefits from PA participation. We propose practical advice based on our collective clinical trial experience with support from the literature on best practices related to PA interventions in overweight and obese children and adolescents. The top 10 lessons learned are (i) PA setting-context is important; (ii) choice of fitness trainer matters; (iii) physical activities should be varied and fun; (iv) the role of the parent-guardian should be considered; (v) individual physical and psychosocial characteristics should be accounted for; (vi) realistic goals should be set; (vii) regular reminders should be offered; (viii) a multidisciplinary approach should be taken; (ix) barriers should be identified early and a plan to overcome them developed; and (x) the right message should be communicated: specifically, what's in it for them? The recommendations in this paper can be used in other pediatric PA programs, physical education settings, and public health programs, with the hope of decreasing attrition and increasing the benefits of PA participation to promote health in children and adolescents.

  15. Investigation of the Association Between Motor Stereotypy Behavior With Fundamental Movement Skills, Adaptive Functioning, and Autistic Spectrum Disorder Symptomology in Children With Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joanne L; Pringle, Lydia; Greig, Matt

    2017-02-01

    Motor stereotypy behaviors are patterned, coordinated, repetitive behaviors that are particularly evident in those with an autistic spectrum disorder and intellectual disabilities. The extent to which motor stereotypy behavior severity is associated with motor skills and maladaptive behavior, measures of adaptive functioning, along with fundamental movement skills and degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology is assessed in this preliminary report. Twelve participants, aged 7 to 16 years, with a reported motor stereotypy behavior and either mild or severe intellectual disability comprising developmental or global delay took part in the study. Spearman rho correlational analysis showed that severity of motor stereotypy behavior was significantly positively correlated with autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .008) and maladaptive behavior ( P = .008) but not fundamental movement skills ( P > .05). An increase in fundamental movement skills score was associated with a decrease in autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .01) and an increase in motor skills ( P = .002). This study provides evidence showing a significant relationship between motor stereotypy behavior severity with degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology and maladaptive behavior.

  16. Supporting children with disabilities at school: implications for the advocate role in professional practice and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Stella L; Lingard, Lorelei; Hibbert, Kathryn; Regan, Sandra; Phelan, Shanon; Stooke, Rosamund; Meston, Christine; Schryer, Catherine; Manamperi, Madhushani; Friesen, Farah

    2015-01-01

    School settings are a common practice context for rehabilitation professionals; health advocacy is a common and challenging practice role for professionals in this context. This study explored how pediatric practitioners advocate for children with disabilities at school. Specifically, we examined everyday advocacy in the context of school-based support for children with disabilities. Our theoretical framework and methodological approach were informed by institutional ethnography, which maps and makes visible hidden social coordinators of work processes with a view to improving processes and outcomes. We included families, educators, and health/rehabilitation practitioners from Ontario. Of the 37 consented informants, 27 were interviewed and 15 observed. Documents and texts were collected from the micro-level (e.g. clinician reports) and the macro-level (e.g. policies). Pediatric practitioners' advocacy work included two main work processes: spotlighting invisible disabilities and orienteering the special education terrain. Practitioners advocated indirectly, by proxy, with common proxies being documents and parents. Unintended consequences of advocacy by proxy included conflict and inefficiency, which were often unknown to the practitioner. The findings of this study provide practice-based knowledge about advocacy for children with disabilities, which may be used to inform further development of competency frameworks and continuing education for pediatric practitioners. The findings also show how everyday practices are influenced by policies and social discourses and how rehabilitation professionals may enact change. Implications for Rehabilitation Rehabilitation professionals frequently perform advocacy work. They may find it beneficial to perform advocacy work that is informed by overarching professional and ethical guidelines, and a nuanced understanding of local processes and structures. Competency frameworks and education for pediatric rehabilitation

  17. Speech-language pathologists' assessment and intervention practices with multilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Corinne J; McLeod, Sharynne

    2012-06-01

    Within predominantly English-speaking countries such as the US, UK, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia, there are a significant number of people who speak languages other than English. This study aimed to examine Australian speech-language pathologists' (SLPs) perspectives and experiences of multilingualism, including their assessment and intervention practices, and service delivery methods when working with children who speak languages other than English. A questionnaire was completed by 128 SLPs who attended an SLP seminar about cultural and linguistic diversity. Approximately one half of the SLPs (48.4%) reported that they had at least minimal competence in a language(s) other than English; but only 12 (9.4%) reported that they were proficient in another language. The SLPs spoke a total of 28 languages other than English, the most common being French, Italian, German, Spanish, Mandarin, and Auslan (Australian sign language). Participants reported that they had, in the past 12 months, worked with a mean of 59.2 (range 1-100) children from multilingual backgrounds. These children were reported to speak between two and five languages each; the most common being: Vietnamese, Arabic, Cantonese, Mandarin, Australian Indigenous languages, Tagalog, Greek, and other Chinese languages. There was limited overlap between the languages spoken by the SLPs and the children on the SLPs' caseloads. Many of the SLPs assessed children's speech (50.5%) and/or language (34.2%) without assistance from others (including interpreters). English was the primary language used during assessments and intervention. The majority of SLPs always used informal speech (76.7%) and language (78.2%) assessments and, if standardized tests were used, typically they were in English. The SLPs sought additional information about the children's languages and cultural backgrounds, but indicated that they had limited resources to discriminate between speech and language difference vs disorder.

  18. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry: a Fundamental Shift in the Routine Practice of Clinical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew E.; Kaleta, Erin J.; Arora, Amit

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Within the past decade, clinical microbiology laboratories experienced revolutionary changes in the way in which microorganisms are identified, moving away from slow, traditional microbial identification algorithms toward rapid molecular methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Historically, MS was clinically utilized as a high-complexity method adapted for protein-centered analysis of samples in chemistry and hematology laboratories. Today, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS is adapted for use in microbiology laboratories, where it serves as a paradigm-shifting, rapid, and robust method for accurate microbial identification. Multiple instrument platforms, marketed by well-established manufacturers, are beginning to displace automated phenotypic identification instruments and in some cases genetic sequence-based identification practices. This review summarizes the current position of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical research and in diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratories and serves as a primer to examine the “nuts and bolts” of MALDI-TOF MS, highlighting research associated with sample preparation, spectral analysis, and accuracy. Currently available MALDI-TOF MS hardware and software platforms that support the use of MALDI-TOF with direct and precultured specimens and integration of the technology into the laboratory workflow are also discussed. Finally, this review closes with a prospective view of the future of MALDI-TOF MS in the clinical microbiology laboratory to accelerate diagnosis and microbial identification to improve patient care. PMID:23824373

  19. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry: a fundamental shift in the routine practice of clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew E; Kaleta, Erin J; Arora, Amit; Wolk, Donna M

    2013-07-01

    Within the past decade, clinical microbiology laboratories experienced revolutionary changes in the way in which microorganisms are identified, moving away from slow, traditional microbial identification algorithms toward rapid molecular methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Historically, MS was clinically utilized as a high-complexity method adapted for protein-centered analysis of samples in chemistry and hematology laboratories. Today, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS is adapted for use in microbiology laboratories, where it serves as a paradigm-shifting, rapid, and robust method for accurate microbial identification. Multiple instrument platforms, marketed by well-established manufacturers, are beginning to displace automated phenotypic identification instruments and in some cases genetic sequence-based identification practices. This review summarizes the current position of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical research and in diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratories and serves as a primer to examine the "nuts and bolts" of MALDI-TOF MS, highlighting research associated with sample preparation, spectral analysis, and accuracy. Currently available MALDI-TOF MS hardware and software platforms that support the use of MALDI-TOF with direct and precultured specimens and integration of the technology into the laboratory workflow are also discussed. Finally, this review closes with a prospective view of the future of MALDI-TOF MS in the clinical microbiology laboratory to accelerate diagnosis and microbial identification to improve patient care.

  20. Hand-washing practices amongst mothers of under-5 children in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Peace; Alex-Hart, Balafama; Okari, Tamunoiyowuna

    2017-02-01

    Hand-washing with soap and water (HWWS) can prevent a significant proportion of childhood diarrhoea and respiratory infections, the two main global causes of child mortality. However, good hand-washing practices are rare, especially in low-income countries, and findings suggest that hand-washing at critical times such as after defaecation or cleaning an infant's perineum are not common practice. The study explored hand-washing practices among mothers of children under-5 in Port Harcourt. This was a cross-sectional study of self-reported hand-washing practices among mothers of children under-5 presenting to the paediatric clinics of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Using a simple structured questionnaire, the data collected included biodata, perceptions, and self-reported behaviour concerning hand-washing at critical times. 154 mothers participated in the study. Sixty-four (41.6%) mothers usually washed their hands with soapy water in a container, 30 (19.5%) used soap and running water, and 60 (38.9%) used only water, either running or in a container. After cleaning an infant's perineal area, 60 (40.3%) and 39 (25.3%) used soap and running water and soapy water in a container, respectively, to wash their hands while 48 (31.2%) used plain water. Before feeding infants, 47 (30.5%) washed their hands with soap and running water. HWWS at critical times was significantly associated with mothers' level of education (P Hand-washing practices by mothers in Port Harcourt are poor. Extensive education of the public is required to reduce the risks of childhood infections associated with lack of hand-washing.

  1. Knowledge and practice of handwashing among mothers of under five children in rural coastal South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Datta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge and practice of handwashing after critical moments among mothers of under five children and to recommend measures for improvement of handwashing practices based on the study findings Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was undertaken during February 2010 covering 28 villages around coastal South India. The EPI 30-cluster sampling method was used and 1898 mothers of under five children were interviewed about their knowledge and practice regarding handwashing after critical moments. Results: 83.41% mothers stated handwashing was important for prevention of communicable diseases. 77.82% opined that washing hands with only water was sufficient. 38.88% and 24.92% stated handwashing could prevent diarrhoea and ARI respectively. 80.08% mothers thought handwashing was crucial before eating meals; 56.90%, 41.73% and 40.73% respectively felt that it was important to wash hands after defeacation, before preparing food and feeding child. 73.18% mothers washed hands with soap and water after defeacation and 63.91% after cleaning the child who had defeacated. Majority wash their hands with only water before preparing food (71.86% and feeding the child (67.39%. Mothers with per capita monthly family income of Rs.1001-2000 and more, education of 5-7 standard and above, belonging to a joint family and Christian background had better handwashing practices. However, daily labourer mothers were at highest risk of not washing hands at all critical moments. Conclusion: Knowledge and practice of handwashing is low among rural mothers. Hence there is a need to spread importance of proper and regular handwashing in rural areas through available evidence based BCC strategies and multiple dissemination channels.

  2. Retrieval practice as an effective memory strategy in children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Julia H; Borg, Jacquelyn M; DeLuca, John; Glass, Leslie; Sumowski, James F

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether retrieval practice (RP) is a more effective memory strategy than restudy in children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Three × two within-subjects experiment: 3 (learning condition: massed restudy [MR], spaced restudy [SR], retrieval practice [RP]) × 2 (stimulus type: verbal paired associates [VPAs] and face-name pairs [FNPs]). The dependent measure was delayed recall of VPAs and FNPs. Subacute pediatric neurorehabilitation center. Pediatric survivors of TBI (N=15) aged 8 to 16 years with below-average memory. During RP, participants were quizzed on to-be-learned information (VPAs and FNPs) shortly after it was presented, such that they practiced retrieval during the learning phase. MR consisted of repeated restudy (tantamount to cramming). SR consisted of restudy trials separated in time (ie, distributed learning). Delayed recall of 24 VPAs and 24 FNPs after a 25-minute delay. VPAs and FNPs were equally divided across 3 learning conditions (16 per condition). There was a large main effect of learning condition on delayed recall (PMemory problems and related academic learning difficulties are common after pediatric TBI. Herein, we identify RP as a promising and simple strategy to support learning and improve memory in children and adolescents with TBI. Our experimental findings were quite robust and set the stage for subsequent randomized controlled trials of RP in pediatric TBI. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Breastfeeding Practices, Demographic Variables, and Their Association with Morbidities in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipen V. Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate feeding practices are the key contributor to reducing morbidities and mortalities in under-five children. A cross-sectional questionnaire based survey of mothers of children aged less than 5years was conducted in 781 mothers. More than half of mothers (57.5% started feeding within an hour of birth, 55.9% gave exclusive breastfeeding for six months, 89.1% of the mothers stopped breastfeeding before two years of age, 18.2% of the mothers bottle-fed the babies, and 15.6% had problems during breastfeeding in first 6 months. Early initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth promoted exclusive breastfeeding, and breastfeeding for longer duration. Exclusive breastfeeding increased frequency of feeds. Multivariable logistic regression showed that initiation of breastfeeding after an hour of birth (p = 0.035, not providing exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (p < 0.0001, unemployed mothers (p = 0.035, having two or more kids (p = 0.001, and complementary feeds given by person other than mother (p = 0.007 increased hospitalization. Starting breastfeeding after an hour of birth (p = 0.045, severe malnutrition (p = 0.018, and breastfeeding for < two years (p = 0.026 increased rates of diarrhea. Breastfeeding practices were not optimum and interventions to improve these practices need to be strengthened.

  4. Food safety knowledge and practice by the stages of change model in school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam-E; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Young Soon

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 342 grade 4-6 elementary school students in Gyeonggi-do were recruited to determine their readiness to change food safety behavior and to compare their food safety knowledge and practices by the stages of change. The subjects were divided into three stages of change; the percentage of stage 1 (precontemplation) was 10.1%, the percentage of stage 2 (contemplation and preparation) was 62.4%, and that of stage 3 (action and maintenance) was 27.5%. Food safety knowledge scores in stage 3 (4.55) or stage 2 (4.50) children were significantly higher than those in stage 1 children (4.17) (P food safety behavior items "hand washing practice" and "avoidance of harmful food" were significantly different among the three groups (P food safety knowledge and practice. Age was significantly and negatively correlated with the total food safety behavior score (r = -0.142, P food safety (P < 0.01). PMID:21286413

  5. A survey of formal training in the care of children in family practice residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldor, R A; Luckmann, R

    1992-08-01

    Declining hospitalization rates for children and an increased emphasis on ambulatory care may be affecting the way family practice residency programs train their residents in the care of children. We surveyed all US family practice residency program directors to determine the nature of the child care training that programs currently provide to residents. Responses were received from 78% of the programs. Residencies required a mean of 5.2 months of formal pediatric training (range: 1 to 11 months). Thirty percent of programs noted a declining inpatient census on inpatient pediatric teaching services, but since 1978, the mean duration of inpatient pediatric training increased by 0.4 months to a required mean of 2.7 months of general pediatric inpatient training (range: 0 to 6 months). The mean time devoted to structured outpatient pediatric training was only 1.6 months (range: 0 to 6 months). Nine percent of responding programs required no formal pediatric outpatient training other than family health center experience. Despite declining inpatient census and increased emphasis on comprehensive ambulatory care, family practice residencies require more formal inpatient pediatric training than formal outpatient training.

  6. Incidence of Parental Support and Pressure on Their Children's Motivational Processes towards Sport Practice Regarding Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Diana; Sánchez-Oliva, David; González-Ponce, Inmaculada; Pulido-González, Juan José; Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, structural equation modeling (SEM) with the aim of examining how parental support/pressure could influence their children´s motivational processes in sport was conducted, as well as the models´ differences in operability regarding gender. The sample size was 321 children ranging in age from 10 to 16 years old who were athletes from Extremadura, and 321 parents (included only the father or mother more involved with the sport of his or her child). 175 participants were male and 146 were female from individual (n = 130), and team sports (n=191). A questionnaire was conducted to assess parental perception of support/pressure and another questionnaire was conducted to measure satisfaction of basic psychological needs, type of motivation and enjoyment/boredom showed by their children towards sport practice. Results revealed that parental pressure negatively predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs. It also emerged as a strong positive predictor of intrinsic motivation and negative predictor of amotivation. Moreover, intrinsic motivation emerged as positive predictor of enjoyment and a negative predictor of boredom, whereas amotivation positively predicted boredom and negatively predicted enjoyment. Furthermore, results showed there were mean differences by gender: male athletes perceived greater parental pressure. Hence, it is necessary to decrease parental pressure towards their children in sport, with the aim of making them more motivated and enjoy, promoting positive consequences.

  7. Incidence of Parental Support and Pressure on Their Children's Motivational Processes towards Sport Practice Regarding Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Amado

    Full Text Available Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, structural equation modeling (SEM with the aim of examining how parental support/pressure could influence their children´s motivational processes in sport was conducted, as well as the models´ differences in operability regarding gender. The sample size was 321 children ranging in age from 10 to 16 years old who were athletes from Extremadura, and 321 parents (included only the father or mother more involved with the sport of his or her child. 175 participants were male and 146 were female from individual (n = 130, and team sports (n=191. A questionnaire was conducted to assess parental perception of support/pressure and another questionnaire was conducted to measure satisfaction of basic psychological needs, type of motivation and enjoyment/boredom showed by their children towards sport practice. Results revealed that parental pressure negatively predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs. It also emerged as a strong positive predictor of intrinsic motivation and negative predictor of amotivation. Moreover, intrinsic motivation emerged as positive predictor of enjoyment and a negative predictor of boredom, whereas amotivation positively predicted boredom and negatively predicted enjoyment. Furthermore, results showed there were mean differences by gender: male athletes perceived greater parental pressure. Hence, it is necessary to decrease parental pressure towards their children in sport, with the aim of making them more motivated and enjoy, promoting positive consequences.

  8. Feeding practices and non-nutritive sucking habits in children from rural Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Delano Soares Forte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To verify the patterns of breastfeeding and frequency of non-nutritive sucking habits in children at Chã de Areia Family Health Unit (FHU in Mogeiro-PB. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 71 mothers of children aged 0 to 24 months. The instrument was a structured interview, being performed by a single professional. Results: We found that 67 (94.4% children were breast fed, being exclusive until 3months old in 35 (49.3% of these. In relation to artificial feeding, 38 (53.5% did it. Regarding the use of other forms of ingestion, spoons/cups were the most mentioned by 51 (71.8% mothers. About 38 (53.5% interviewers reported that the contents of the bottle mostly used was artificialmilk associated to sugar and farinaceous dough, and 43 (60.2% confirmed the presence of non-nutritive sucking habits. Conclusion: The practice of breastfeeding in the region was reported by many mothers; however we observed an early introduction of bottles and of other foods, especially artificial milk and/or sugar in the diet of children. The prevalence of habits was significant in the sample.

  9. Recurrent lower respiratory tract infections in children: a practical approach to diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patria, Maria Francesca; Esposito, Susanna

    2013-03-01

    Many children are affected by recurrent lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), but the majority of them do not suffer from serious lung or extrapulmonary disease. The challenge for clinicians is to distinguish the recurrent RTIs with self-limiting or minor problems from those with underlying disease. The aim of this review is to describe a practical approach to children with recurrent LRTIs that limits unnecessary, expensive and time-consuming investigations. The children can be divided into three groups on the basis of their personal and family history and clinical findings: 1) otherwise healthy children who do not need further investigations; 2) those with risk factors for respiratory infections for whom a wait-and-see approach can be recommended; and 3) those in whom further investigations are mandatory. However, regardless of the origin of the recurrent LRTIs, it is important to remember that prevention by means of vaccines against respiratory pathogens (i.e. type b Haemophilus influenzae, pertussis, pneumococcal and influenza vaccines) can play a key role.

  10. THE INTEGRATION OF IMMIGRANT CHILDREN IN SLOVENIA: GOOD PRACTICES FROM PRIMARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijanca Ajša VIŽINTIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available European society has always been and still is diverse in many aspects, including language, ethnicity, culture, religion and economics. We may thus speak of diversity both within individual countries and among countries – and also within school classrooms. Immigrant children who enrol in the Slovenian school system come to Slovenia primarily because of the family reunion. This paper sets out four examples of good practices (two urban and two rural schools, where various support systems were developed for the successful integration of immigrant children. The integration of immigrant children has been a success at those schools that are familiar with the possibilities under the law and European guidelines for integration of immigrant children, that seek a variety of ways to cooperate with parents, those schools where teachers take regular and additional training, develop their own intercultural competence and collaborate on a variety of projects. The results are even better if the school has support on the local level, and if intercultural competence is developed among all inhabitants.

  11. A Systematic Review of Speech Assessments for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Recommendations for Best Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Kate; McCabe, Patricia; Docking, Kimberley; Doble, Maree

    2017-08-15

    The purpose of this systematic review was to provide a summary and evaluation of speech assessments used with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A subsequent narrative review was completed to ascertain the core components of an evidence-based pediatric speech assessment, which, together with the results of the systematic review, provide clinical and research guidelines for best practice. A systematic search of eight databases was used to find peer-reviewed research articles published between 1990 and 2014 assessing the speech of children with ASD. Eligible articles were categorized according to the assessment methods used and the speech characteristics described. The review identified 21 articles that met the inclusion criteria, search criteria, and confidence in ASD diagnosis. The speech of prelinguistic participants was assessed in seven articles. Speech assessments with verbal participants were completed in 15 articles with segmental and suprasegmental aspects of speech analyzed. Assessment methods included connected speech samples, single-word naming tasks, speech imitation tasks, and analysis of the production of words and sentences. Clinical and research guidelines for speech assessment of children with ASD are outlined. Future comparisons will be facilitated by the use of consistent reporting methods in research focusing on children with ASD.

  12. Assessment of children's capacity to consent for research: a descriptive qualitative study of researchers' practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Barbara E; Stasiulis, Elaine; Gutfreund, Shawna; McDonald, Maria; Dade, Lauren

    2011-08-01

    In Canadian jurisdictions without specific legislation pertaining to research consent, the onus is placed on researchers to determine whether a child is capable of independently consenting to participate in a research study. Little, however, is known about how child health researchers are approaching consent and capacity assessment in practice. The aim of this study was to explore and describe researchers' current practices. The study used a qualitative descriptive design consisting of 14 face-to-face interviews with child health researchers and research assistants in Southern Ontario. Transcribed interviews were analysed for common themes. Procedures for assessing capacity varied considerably from the use of age cutoffs to in-depth engagement with each child. Three key issues emerged from the accounts: (1) requirements that consent be provided by a single person thwarted researchers' abilities to support family decision-making; (2) little practical distinction was made between assessing if a child was capable, versus determining if study information had been adequately explained by the researcher; and (3) participants' perceived that review boards' requirements may conflict with what they considered ethical consent practices. The results suggest that researchers' consent and capacity knowledge and skills vary considerably. Perceived discrepancies between ethical practice and ethics boards' requirements suggest the need for dialogue, education and possibly ethics board reforms. Furthermore we propose, where appropriate, a 'family decision-making' model that allows parents and their children to consent together, thereby shifting the focus from separate assent and consent procedures to approaches that appropriately engage the child and family.

  13. `Drawing the Leaves Anyway': Teachers Embracing Children's Different Ways of Knowing in Preschool Science Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areljung, Sofie; Ottander, Christina; Due, Karin

    2016-09-01

    This study explores if and how teachers combine practices of science and of preschool (children 1-5 years old) into preschool science practice. Views of knowing may differ between science practices, traditionally associated with masculinity and rationality, and preschool practices, traditionally associated with femininity and caring. Recognising this, we have chosen to focus on how teachers' talk constructs and relates to possible ways of gaining knowledge and reaching explanations of phenomena in preschool science. The analysis builds on two concept pairs often associated with gender as well as knowing: objective-subjective and logical-intuitive. The analysed material consists of 11 group interviews where preschool teachers talk about activities concerning science content. Our results show that several ways of knowing are possible in work with science content in preschool. These include ways of knowing more associated with subjectivity, such as `individual liking' and `whole-body perception', as well as more associated with objectivity, such as `noticing differences and similarities'. Furthermore, the results show that the teachers' talk moves readily between possibilities associated with femininity (subjective and intuitive) and masculinity (objective and logical). This indicates that the teachers in this study have found ways to handle science in preschool that goes against presumed tensions between science and preschool practices. The results contribute to more nuanced ways of describing and thinking about science in preschool and pave the way for further development of science education in early childhood education.

  14. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustina, Rina; Sari, Tirta P; Satroamidjojo, Soemilah; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M J; Feskens, Edith J M; Kok, Frans J

    2013-10-19

    Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian children. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 274 randomly selected children aged 12-59 months in selected low socioeconomic urban areas of East Jakarta. The prevalence of diarrhea was assessed from 7-day records on frequency and consistency of the child's defecation pattern. Food-hygiene practices including mother's and child's hand washing, food preparation, cleanliness of utensils, water source and safe drinking water, habits of buying cooked food, child's bottle feeding hygiene, and housing and environmental condition were collected through home visit interviews and observations by fieldworkers. Thirty-six practices were scored and classified into poor (median and below) and better (above median) food-hygiene practices. Nutritional status of children, defined anthropometrically, was measured through height and weight. Among the individual food-hygiene practices, children living in a house with less dirty sewage had a significantly lower diarrhea prevalence compared to those who did not [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.03-0.73]. The overall food-hygiene practice score was not significantly associated with diarrhea in the total group, but it was in children aged hygiene practices did not contribute to the occurrence of diarrhea in Indonesian children. However, among children < 2 years from low socioeconomic urban areas they were associated with more diarrhea.

  15. Changing Family Practices with Assistive Technology: MOBERO Improves Morning and Bedtime Routines for Children with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Müller, Jörg; Marshall, Paul;

    ’ frustration levels. Additionally, use of MOBERO was associated with a 16.5% reduction in core ADHD symptoms and an 8.3% improvement in the child’s sleep habits, both measured by standardized questionnaires. Our study highlights the potential of assistive technologies to change the everyday practices......Families of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often report morning and bedtime routines to be stressful and frustrating. Through a design process involving domain professionals and families we designed MOBERO, a smartphone-based system that assists families...... in establishing healthy morning and bedtime routines with the aim to assist the child in becoming independent and lowering the parents’ frustration levels. In a two-week intervention with 13 children with ADHD and their families, MOBERO significantly improved children’s independence and reduced parents...

  16. Chronic transfusion practice for children with sickle cell anaemia and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygun, Banu; McMurray, Marsha A; Schultz, William H; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Hilliard, Lee; Alvarez, Ofelia; Heeney, Matthew; Kalinyak, Karen; Lee, Margaret T; Miller, Scott; Helms, Ronald W; Ware, Russell E

    2009-05-01

    Chronic transfusions to maintain haemoglobin S (HbS) < or =30% are the mainstay of treatment for children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) and previous stroke. This HbS target is often hard to maintain, however, and values achieved in current practice are unknown. In preparation for the Phase III Stroke With Transfusions Changing to Hydroxyurea (SWiTCH) trial, we collected data on 295 children with SCA and stroke who received transfusions at 23 institutions. The overall average pre-transfusion %HbS was 35 +/- 11% (institutional range 22-51%). Receiving scheduled transfusions on time was the most predictive variable for maintaining HbS at the < or =30% goal.

  17. Locating Common Ground: An Exploration of Adult Educator Practices that Support Parent Involvement for School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Catherine Dunn

    2013-01-01

    This article explores linkages between adult educator practices and the parent involvement needs of adult students with school-age children. A comparative case study examined the knowledge, experiential, self-efficacy, and social capital dimensions of adult educator practices that inform parent involvement efforts. One English as a Second Language…

  18. Diagnostic virology practices for respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus among children in the hospital setting: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Hasan S; Ramilo, Octavio; Makari, Doris; Charsha-May, Deborah; Romero, José R

    2007-10-01

    A survey was sent to the emergency room and laboratory directors of 400 randomly selected US hospitals to assess the diagnostic testing practices for respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus in children. The results demonstrate that the majority of hospitals routinely perform viral testing for both viruses and use virology testing practices appropriate for the reasons reported for testing.

  19. One Size Does Not Fit All: Improving Clinical Practice in Older Children and Adolescents with Language and Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Cheryl M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In the lead article for this clinical forum, Kamhi (2014) suggests ways that current knowledge on instructional practices in learning and language can be applied to clinical practice in language disorders. I propose that Kamhi's suggestions are in need of fine-tuning for older children and adolescents with language disorders. A…

  20. Disambiguating with Bourdieu: Unravelling Policy from Practice in the Teaching of Children with English as an Additional Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the use of Bourdieusian analysis for examining how policy and practice interact in the teaching of English and therefore in the development of children's language and literacy, in particular how. Bourdieusian analysis uncovers the ways in which teachers' practice has been influenced unconsciously by centralised shaping of the…

  1. Disambiguating with Bourdieu: Unravelling Policy from Practice in the Teaching of Children with English as an Additional Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the use of Bourdieusian analysis for examining how policy and practice interact in the teaching of English and therefore in the development of children's language and literacy, in particular how. Bourdieusian analysis uncovers the ways in which teachers' practice has been influenced unconsciously by centralised shaping of the…

  2. A pilot study using children's books to understand caregiver perceptions of parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nerissa S; Hus, Anna M; Sullivan, Paula D; Szczepaniak, Dorota; Carroll, Aaron E; Downs, Stephen M

    2012-06-01

    To conduct a pilot study to test the feasibility and acceptability of using children's books to understand caregiver perceptions of parenting practices around common behavior challenges. A prospective 1-month pilot study was conducted in 3 community-based pediatric clinics serving lower income families living in central Indianapolis. One hundred caregivers of 4- to 7-year-old children presenting for a well-child visit chose 1 of 3 available children's books that dealt with a behavioral concern the caregiver reported having with the child. The book was read aloud to the child in the caregiver's presence by a trained research assistant and given to the families to take home. Outcomes measured were caregiver intent to change their interaction with their child after the book reading, as well as caregiver reports of changes in caregiver-child interactions at 1 month. Reading the book took an average of 3 minutes. Most (71%) caregivers reported intent to change after the book reading; two-thirds (47/71) were able to identify a specific technique or example illustrated in the story. One month later, all caregivers remembered receiving the book, and 91% reported reading the book to their child and/or sharing it with someone else. Three-fourths of caregivers (60/80) reported a change in caregiver-child interactions. The distribution of children's books with positive parenting content is a feasible and promising tool, and further study is warranted to see whether these books can serve as an effective brief intervention in pediatric primary care practice.

  3. Crystal science fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, V.; Halfpenny, PJ; Roberts, KJ

    2017-01-01

    The fundamentals of crystal science notably crystallography, crystal chemistry, crystal defects, crystal morphology and the surface chemistry of crystals are introduced with particular emphasis on organic crystals.

  4. Dental caries status and oral health practice among 12-15 year old children in Jorpati, Kathmandu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, S; Acharya, J

    2014-09-01

    Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. There has been a decline in dental caries and periodontal disease in developed countries which can be attributed to the implementation of preventive programmes but in developing countries dental diseases are still on the rise. Therefore this cross sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene practices among 12 to 15 years old children. Self administered close ended questionnaires were used to assess the oral hygiene practice. The overall dental caries prevalence was 58.3% and the mean DMFT score was 1.2 (± 1.79) and the deft score was 0.6 (± 1.24). Majority of the children (84.1%) presented with the practice of brushing their teeth once everyday using tooth brush and toothpaste. Regular dental check up was very poor (5.6%) but 77.4% reported that they visited a dentist in case of pain or presence of stains in the teeth. Females (63.4%) and children studying in higher secondary class (74.2%) showed a "good" level of oral hygiene practice than males and children in secondary class respectively. Children having "good" practice presented with "low" dental caries severity. The utilization of dental services was poor in the children, therefore highlighting the necessity to implement preventive programmes is important which would help in reducing the incidence of the dental caries as well as aiding in prompt treatment of dental caries at its initial stages.

  5. Validation of the comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire in parents of preschool children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, Sarah; Mais, Laís Amaral; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Carnell, Susan; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2016-07-19

    Recent national surveys in Brazil have demonstrated a decrease in the consumption of traditional food and a parallel increase in the consumption of ultra-processed food, which has contributed to a rise in obesity prevalence in all age groups. Environmental factors, especially familial factors, have a strong influence on the food intake of preschool children, and this has led to the development of psychometric scales to measure parents' feeding practices. The aim of this study was to test the validity of a translated and adapted Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire in a sample of Brazilian preschool-aged children enrolled in private schools. A transcultural adaptation process was performed in order to develop a modified questionnaire (43 items). After piloting, the questionnaire was sent to parents, along with additional questions about family characteristics. Test-retest reliability was assessed in one of the schools. Factor analysis with oblique rotation was performed. Internal reliability was tested using Cronbach's alpha and correlations between factors, discriminant validity using marker variables of child's food intake, and convergent validity via correlations with parental perceptions of perceived responsibility for feeding and concern about the child's weight were also performed. The final sample consisted of 402 preschool children. Factor analysis resulted in a final questionnaire of 43 items distributed over 6 factors. Cronbach alpha values were adequate (0.74 to 0.88), between-factor correlations were low, and discriminant validity and convergent validity were acceptable. The modified CFPQ demonstrated significant internal reliability in this urban Brazilian sample. Scale validation within different cultures is essential for a more comprehensive understanding of parental feeding practices for preschoolers.

  6. Associations of infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Eun; Kim, Juhee; Mathai, Rose Ann

    2011-09-01

    Picky eating behaviors are prevalent during childhood and are often linked to nutritional problems. However, information on the determinants of picky eating behaviors during infancy, when food acceptance patterns develop, is scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of infant feeding practices on the development of picky eating behaviors during preschool years. Baseline survey data from the Synergistic Theory and Research on Obesity and Nutrition Group Kids (STRONG Kids) program were used for this retrospective data analysis. Primary caregiver-child dyads were recruited from child-care centers in Eastern Illinois between February and July of 2009. A total of 129 self-reported responses from mothers of preschool-aged children were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors. Children who were introduced to complementary foods before 6 months of age had 2.5 times higher odds of developing food neophobia and limited variety of foods (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 5.93 and 1.06 to 5.73, respectively). Children who were breastfed exclusively for 6 months had lower odds of developing a preference for specific food-preparation methods by 78% (95% CI: 19% to 94%), food rejection by 81% (95% CI: 31% to 94%), and food neophobia by 75% (95% CI: 11% to 93%). Breastfeeding and introduction of complementary foods after 6 months of age reduced the odds of picky eating during early childhood. This study documents an association between infant-feeding practices and the development of picky eating behaviors in early childhood.

  7. Some Aspects of International Children Abduction - Theoretical and Practical Approach from the Perspective of the European Law and Judicial Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lupşan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyday life revealed even in the media by presenting cases of international abduction of minors, on the one hand, and on the other hand, the existence of cases increasingly complex from the national/ EU practice, to which we should add the insufficient analysis in the doctrine of the topic in representing some evidence to support the elaboration of this paper. Through its international and / or European regulations (Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, which is supplemented by Regulation (EC no. 2201/2003 of 27 November 2003 concerning jurisdiction, the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and in matters of parental responsibility, (prevailing the latter and national ones (Law no. 63/2014 amending and supplementing Law no. 369/2004 on the application of the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction which Romania adhered to by the Law no. 100/199, the legislator sought to ensure the prompt return of children abducted in the Member State of origin, the objective being the same: discouraging underage child abduction by a parent or by third parties, usually relatives and, in case of committing an act of international abduction of minors, ensuring the best interests of the child through the cooperation of the competent authorities in the field. The structure includes sections that address theoretical issues (e.g. the notion of international abduction of minors, regulations, procedure for solving the request, the competent authorities and practical aspects, without neglecting the interpretation given by the Court of Justice of the European Union of some texts from the Regulation.

  8. Framing children through observation practices: using art theory to re-think ways of looking at children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina MacRae

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at methodological questions that are raised through the practice of observation to consider how researchers ‘keep an eye on the world’, and particularly how early years practitioners keep an eye on children. Drawing on notions of perspective in art history and theory as methodological resources it asks questions about the frames through which children have been conventionally seen in both research and Early Years Settings. In particular I have chosen to focus on the Target Child Observation System, as it was the system that I was first trained to use both as an Early Years Teacher and as a researcher. By referring to perspective as a method to represent what is observed, the paper contrasts two different models of perspective. Alberti’s use of the window and grid to project the observed is contrasted with Brunelleschi’s mirror play. Questions are raised about how observation as procedure acts to limit vision by organising the gaze. Brunelleschi’s demonstration of perspective can be useful in order to remind us of ways in which the objects of our gaze might escape verification through observation.

  9. Infant and child feeding practices and dental caries in 6 to 36 months old children in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prakashni; King, Temalesi

    2003-03-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease. These factors include the presence of cariogenic micro-organisms, fermentable carbohydrates in diet, susceptible tooth and time. Diet appears to strongly affect caries development. The aim of this study was to examine the feeding practices of infants and pre-school children in the Central Division of the Fiji Islands and suggest appropriate preventive dental strategies. A sample of 102 children aged 6-36 months was randomly selected. Information on feeding practices and oral hygiene habits was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire completed by parents from the post-natal clinics. Children were categorized into age groups of 6-12, 13-24 and 25-36 months. Most of the children (55.5%) were bottle fed in the 6-12 months age group and 44.5% were breast-fed. However percentage of children being breast-fed decreased markedly increased with age. Most of them were breast-fed at some stage. The children who were bottle-fed increased in the 13-24 months age group but decreased in 25-36 months group. Snacks were given between meals for most of the children. Sugar was used as the common sweetener among bottle-fed children. Parents are definitely in need of appropriate advice on feeding and oral hygiene practices. An oral health education programme needs to be mounted at post-natal clinics.

  10. A description of children and adolescents in Danish chiropractic practice: results from a nationwide survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Jørgensen, Anette; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe Danish chiropractic patients younger than 18 years. METHODS: Questionnaires were mailed to all chiropractic clinics in Denmark during a randomly assigned month between September 2007 and September 2008. All patients younger than 18 years....... CONCLUSIONS: Babies made up most of the Danish chiropractic patients younger than 18 years. Among the older children and the adolescents, musculoskeletal complaints were most common and mostly of a chronic nature. The large number of pediatric patients in chiropractic practices and the paucity of evidence...

  11. The role of family communication and parents' feeding practices in children's food preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Alm, Siril; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Honkanen, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript version. Published version at http://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2015.02.002 This study used Family Communication Patterns Theory (FCPT) to explore how familydinner-related communication takes place and how parents’ feeding practices may be associated with children’s preferences for dinner meals. The sample consisted of 12 dyads with seven- and eight-year-old Norwegian children and their parents. In-depth photo interviews were used for collecting dat...

  12. Understandings of how Professional Practice and Problem Definitions Influence the Possibilities of Children's Conduct of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn Larsen, Maja

    between professionals across different fields. Children participate in and across a lot of social practices, in which a number of different professionals are dealing with aspects of development, learning etc. The professional’s perspectives vary according to their different positions in the social...... children’s difficulties in different ways according to their specific responsibility, professional interests and structural conditions of action. These are of importance to the way categories of “special needs” are being formed/defined. But when the professional’s different perspectives and their conflicts...

  13. Definitional ceremonies: narrative practices for psychologists to inform interdisciplinary teams' understanding of children's spirituality in pediatric settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria; Moxley-Haegert, Linda

    2015-03-01

    In pediatric settings, parents and children often seek spiritual and religious support from their healthcare provider, as they try to find meaning in their illness. Narrative practices, such as definitional ceremonies, can provide a unique framework for psychologists to explore children's spirituality and its role in the midst of illness. In addition, definitional ceremonies can be used as a means for psychologists to inform interdisciplinary teams' understanding of children's spirituality and its relevance in pediatric treatment settings. In this article, our objectives are to (a) provide a brief overview of the literature on children's spirituality, (b) review some of the literature on childhood cancer patients' spirituality, (c) highlight the importance of whole-person care for diverse pediatric patients, and (d) introduce definitional ceremonies as appropriate narrative practices that psychologists can use to both guide their therapy and inform interdisciplinary teams' understanding of children's spirituality.

  14. 高职高专《护理学基础》实训考核体系的评价与分析%Evaluation on the Practical Training Appraisal System of Fundamental Nursing for Higer Vocational College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊凌; 王海廷; 刘静; 徐莹

    2012-01-01

      目的探讨高职高专《护理学基础》实训考核的方法并进行评价.方法建立高职高专《护理学基础》实训考核体系,通过对学生的问卷调查、考核体系建立前后护生的成绩以及实习单位等对该考核体系进行评价.结果①问卷调查:95.9%的学生对该考核体系持赞成和较赞成的态度;在16项评价内容中,3个年级赞成度最高的项目是“注重护士仪表形象”,达到了94%;赞成度最低的项目是“体现爱伤观念”.②成绩:考核体系建立前的3个年级的操作考核成绩为(73.41±8.61)分,建立后的3个年级学生的考核成绩为(76.73±11.54)分,二者比较有统计学意义(t=7.49,P <0.01).③实习单位:考核体系建立后,学生在“学以致用,重视基本技能的训练”、“团队协作能力”、“人际沟通能力”、“表端庄,谈吐文雅,行为得体”等方面得分高于建立前(P <0.01).结论建立的高职高专《护理学基础》实训考核体系具有较好的应用效果,能促进护生整体素质的提高.%  Objective To explore and evaluate the practical training appraisal system of Fundamental Nursing for higher vocational college students. Methods The practical training appraisal system of Fundamental Nursing for higher vocational college students was established and the evaluation on the system was conducted according to the results of questionnaires, the students’ performance before and after the implementation of the system and the appraisal from the workplace for student nurses. Results According to the questionnaires, about 95.9% of the surveyed students approved of the new appraisal system and 94% of the students from three grades approved the item of “image-conscious”, but very few of them approved of the deep-concern-about-injury idea. The average scores of practical training before and after the implementation of the new appraisal system were (73.41±8.61)and(76.73± 11

  15. Understandings of how Professional Practice and Problem Definitions Influence the Possibilities of Children's Conduct of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn Larsen, Maja

    children’s difficulties in different ways according to their specific responsibility, professional interests and structural conditions of action. These are of importance to the way categories of “special needs” are being formed/defined. But when the professional’s different perspectives and their conflicts...... between professionals across different fields. Children participate in and across a lot of social practices, in which a number of different professionals are dealing with aspects of development, learning etc. The professional’s perspectives vary according to their different positions in the social...... practices (School, institutions family etc.). However the administrative bureaucracy’s call for unambiguous determination of “special needs” undermines the comprehension of plurality of professional perspectives. In this way a gap occurs between a multifaceted understanding of the child’s conduct of life...

  16. Influence of culture on dietary practices of children under five years among Maasai pastoralists in Kajiado, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chege, Peter M; Kimiywe, Judith O; Ndungu, Zipporah W

    2015-10-08

    Globally, children aged under five years are prone to malnutrition. Maasai are a nomadic community in Kenya still upholding traditional and has a high rate of child undernutrition. Consideration of cultural practices is a pre-condition for ensuring appropriate dietary practices. However, information on the influence of culture on dietary practices among Maasai children is minimal. The possible influence of culture on dietary practices among these children was investigated. Six focus group discussions sessions each consisting of 10 mothers were conducted from two randomly selected villages in Sajiloni location, Kajiado County. Results from this study showed that children mainly consume cereals and legumes. Nomadism makes animal products inaccessible to most children. Livestock are considered a sign of wealth, thus mainly slaughtered on special occasions. Additionally, selling of animals or animal products is not encouraged limiting income that would improve the food basket. Some food taboos prohibit consumption of wild animals, chicken and fish limits the household food diversity. Consumption of vegetables is limited since they are perceived to be livestock feed. The belief that land is only for grazing contributes to low crop production and consumption thus the diets lack diversification. Maasai culture encourages introduction of blood, animal's milk and bitter herbs to infants below six months, which affects exclusive breast feeding. The men are prioritized in food serving leading to less and poor quality food to children. The consumption of raw meat, milk and blood is likely to lead to infections. The practice of milk fermentation improves bioavailability of micronutrients and food safety. Socialism ensures sharing of available food while believe in traditional medicine hinder visit to health facilities thus no access to nutrition education. This study concludes that culture influence the dietary practices among children under five years. It recommended

  17. Toward best-practice post-disaster mental health promotion for children: Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commers, Matthew J; Morival, Marc; Devries, Marten W

    2014-03-01

    There is a pressing need for low-cost intervention models to promote mental health among children in the wake of natural disasters. This article describes an evaluation of one such model: the Happy/Sad Letter Box (HSLB) Project, a mental health promotion intervention designed to minimize trauma in children, resulting from the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004. The HSLB Project was implemented in 68 schools in Sri Lanka's Hambantota District from April 2005 forward. Methods included questionnaires (n = 203), interviews, and group consultation with schoolchildren, teachers, teacher counsellors, principals, educational zone directors and parents. The HSLB intervention was seen as relevant and non-stigmatized, cost-effective if implemented after initial recovery steps, anecdotally effective in identifying and helping resolve trauma, accommodating the full range of children's daily stressors and sustainable. Gender, children's age, school size and the level of the tsunami impact for response were found to correlate with response differences. Along four dimensions previously identified in the literature (ability to triage, matching of intervention timing and focus, ability to accommodate a range of stressors and context compatibility), the HSLB Project is a promising intervention model (1) for children; (2) at group-level; (3) relating to natural disasters. The Nairobi Call to Action [WHO (2009) Nairobi Call to Action for Closing the Implementation Gap in Health Promotion. Geneva: World Health Organization] emphasized the importance of mainstreaming health promotion into priority programme areas, specifically including mental health. The HSLB Project represents the integration of health promotion practice into disaster preparedness mental health infrastructure.

  18. Children with Speech Difficulties: A survey of clinical practice in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pascoe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a study by Joffe and Pring (2008 which investigated assessment and therapy methods used by Speech Language Therapists (SLTs in the United Kingdom for children with phonological difficulties. Joffe and Pring reported SLTs’ most favoured assessments and therapy approaches in that context. Children with speech difficulties are likely to form a considerable part of SLT caseloads in South Africa, but the choice of assessments may not be so clearcut given the linguistic diversity of the region and the fact that few assessments have been developed specifically for the SA population. Linked to difficulties with assessment, selection of intervention approaches may also pose challenges. This study aimed to investigate the methods of assessment and intervention used by SLTs in the Western Cape when working with children with speech difficulties. A questionnaire was sent to SLTs working with pre and/ or primary school- aged children. Twenty-nine clinicians of varying experience responded. The majority of SLTs (89% use informal assessment tools in combination with formal assessment. When using formal assessments, more than 50% of SLTs make modifications to better suit the population. Participants use a variety of intervention approaches, often in combination, and based on a child’s individual profile of difficulties and available resources. Forty-six percent of SLTs felt unsure about the selection of assessments and intervention for bi/multilingual children with speech difficulties. SLTs suggested that guidelines about accepted / typical speech development in the region would be helpful for their clinical practice. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed together with some suggestions for developing knowledge of children’s speech difficulties in the South African context.

  19. The practices, challenges and recommendations of South African audiologists regarding managing children with auditory processing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Fouché-Copley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Audiologists managing children with auditory processing disorders (APD encounter challenges that include conflicting definitions, several classification profiles, problems with differential diagnosis and a lack of standardised guidelines. The heterogeneity of the disorder and its concomitant childhood disorders makes diagnosis difficult. Linguistic and cultural issues are additional challenges faced by South African audiologists. The study aimed to describe the practices, challenges and recommendations of South African audiologists managing children with APD. A quantitative, non-experimental descriptive survey was used to obtain data from 156 audiologists registered with the Health Professions of South Africa. Findings revealed that 67% screened for APD, 42% assessed while 43% provided intervention. A variety of screening and assessment procedures were being administered, with no standard test battery identified. A range of intervention strategies being used are discussed. When the relationship between the number of years of experience and the audiologists’ level of preparedness to practice in the field of APD was compared, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.049 was seen in that participants with more than 10 years of experience were more prepared to practice in this area. Those participants having qualified as speech-language therapists and audiologists were significantly more prepared (p = 0.03 to practice than the audiologists who comprised the sample. Challenges experienced by the participants included the lack of linguistically and culturally appropriate screening and assessment tools and limited normative data. Recommendations included reviewing the undergraduate audiology training programmes, reinstituting the South African APD Taskforce, developing linguistically and culturally appropriate normative data, creating awareness among educators and involving them in the multidisciplinary team.Keywords: Screening; assessment

  20. Fundamentals of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-01-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving.

  1. Dependence and Fundamentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Zylstra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available I argue that dependence is neither necessary nor sufficient for relative fundamentality. I then introduce the notion of 'likeness in nature' and provide an account of relative fundamentality in terms of it and the notion of dependence. Finally, I discuss some puzzles that arise in Aristotle's Categories, to which the theory developed is applied.

  2. Parental feeding practices in relation to low diet quality and obesity among LSES children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entin, Anna; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; Naggan, Lechaim; Vardi, Hillel; Shahar, Danit R

    2014-01-01

    To examine the relationships between parental feeding practices, diet quality, overweight, and obesity among low-socioeconomic status (LSES) preschoolers. A cohort of preschool children (aged 5-6) and their mothers was recruited from November 2009 to December 2009. To overcome seasonal and personal variation in dietary intake, 3 replications of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and a parental Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) were obtained in person at baseline, 3 months from baseline, and 6 months from baseline. Anthropometric measurements were attained at preschool class on the same dates. Scores of the 12 factors of the CFPQ were calculated and related to dietary intake. Correlation coefficients between the mean energy and fat intake and CFPQ factors' scores were calculated. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc analyses was used to compare nutrient intake and anthropometric measures across CFPQ tertiles. Preschoolers (n = 63), aged 64.4 ± 5.0 months (47% boys), were recruited. Unhealthy feeding practices including food as a reward for good behavior and food restriction for promoting health were associated with increased consumption of junk food, sweets, and snacks. Among healthy feeding practices, encouraging balance and food variety and healthy eating modeled by parents were associated with increased vegetable consumption and smaller waist circumference. Weight was negatively associated with factors that reflect parental pressure and food restriction for weight control. Our data showed that certain feeding practices relate to a higher diet quality and lower weight and waist circumference. These practices may be encouraged in order to improve diet quality and prevent overweight and obesity.

  3. The Social Construction of Literacy by Malaysian Chinese Parents: Perceptions of Parents toward the Language and Literacy Practices of Two Teenage Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Koo Yew; Lick, Soo Hoo Pin

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on a qualitative case study on the perceptions of Malaysian Chinese parents towards literacy practices of their two children specifically in relation to the socialization practices they privilege at home. It looks at these literacy practices as choices made by parents for their teenage children at the intersection of home,…

  4. Promising Practices in Early Childhood Mental Health. Systems of Care: Promising Practices in Children's Mental Health, 2001 Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jennifer S.; Jivanjee, Pauline; Koroloff, Nancy; Doerfler, Andrea; Garcia, Maria

    Part of a series designed to provide guidance for communities interested in building systems of care for children with emotional disturbances, this volume addresses mental health services for very young children and their families. A literature review was conducted, and four Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program…

  5. Recognition of depression in children in general hospital-based paediatric units in Kenya: practice and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiso Victoria N

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical disorders are commonly comorbid with depression in children attending general medical facilities. However, the depression component is rarely recognised. Methods A questionnaire on sociodemographics and history of presenting medical conditions was administered together with the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI to all 11-year-old to 17-year-old children attending at nine medical facilities. Results In all, 408 children were recruited from 9 health facilities. Whereas the clinicians diagnosed a mental disorder in only 2.5% of the sample studied, 41.3% had CDI scores that suggested mild to moderate depression. The highest proportion of children with depressive symptomatology was found at the Kenyatta National and Teaching Referral Hospital. Conclusion Although prevalence rate for depression among children is high, detection rates remain low. This finding has clinical practice and policy implications within and outside Kenya.

  6. Witnessing Interparental Violence, Parenting Practices, and Children´s Long-Term Psychological Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gámez-Guadix

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study was to examine the relationship between witnessing interparental violence and children´s long-term psychological distress, and the extent to which this relation is mediated by deteriorating parenting practices (i.e., harsh discipline, affection/support, interparental and intraparental consistency. The second objective was to analyze the possible gender differences in the relationships specified. The sample comprised 680 Spanish university students (62.4% females selected by random, stratified, and proportional sampling (by faculty and sex. Participants retrospectively reported the physical and psychological violence perpetrated by one of his or her parents against the other, the parenting practices when they were preadolescents, and the psychological distress during the past two weeks. Results revealed that harsh discipline and the level of affection and affection/support partially mediated the association between children´s witnessing interparental violence and their long-term psychological distress. These relationships were not significantly different as a function of participants´ sex. Lastly, we discuss the implications of these findings for the planning and development of intervention programs.

  7. [Motor problems in children with ADHD receive too little attention in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliers, Ellen A; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2011-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) do not only display hyperactive motor behaviour, but half of them are also clumsy when executing motor skills. Alongside displaying hyperactivity and poor concentration skills, they have difficulty with writing, tying shoelaces, eating properly using fork and knife, and playing games and sports. This is known as dyspraxia or developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Poor performance in sports and games is, just as ADHD, an important negative predictor of a child's popularity within the peer group. Children with a combination of ADHD and poor motor performance are doubly disadvantaged. A dopamine-induced imbalance in the neuronal circuits of the basal ganglia and the cerebellum is a possible cause of ADHD-DCD. On the basis of family and twin studies, there are also indications that ADHD and DCD have a common genetic background. In daily practice, DCD receives too little attention during diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. Screening for motor problems in children with ADHD, followed by referral to a physiotherapist or occupational therapist if necessary, is useful, because treatment with cognitive-oriented and task-oriented physiotherapy can help.

  8. Methods and Practices of Urban Filipino Parents in Promoting Mabuting Asal among Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Perlita E. de Leon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a portion of an ethnographic study conducted in an urbanizing community in Valenzuela City. The study aimed to investigate and discuss the concepts and practices that parents have in promoting mabuting asal or positive social behavior among their preschool children. The participantswere 15 two-parent families with at least two children, one of whom was between ages 3 and 6 years. Seven of the participating families were dualearner while the rest were single-earner. They were visited at home for at leastan hour twice a week for a period of six months. Afterwards, face-to-face interviews were conducted with the parents in each family. Results suggested that the methods that parents use to promote mabuting asal among the young ones can be categorized into three – physical, verbal, and cognitivetypes. Mothers in both income groups used the physical and cognitive types, although single-earner families would use physical methods more often than cognitive ones. On the other hand, fathers in both income groups would useverbal methods more, possibly as a result of their compensating behavior for their own experiences of harsh and coercive upbringing as young children. The study recommends comprehensive, integrative, sensitive, and flexible child-rearing seminars for parents as well as health and day care workers in the community. In terms of methodology, conducting the research in several localities, across different social groups, with a larger sample could provideanother perspective to the relationships between variables utilized in this research.

  9. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices have a detrimental impact on a child's growth, health and development in the first two years of life. They lead to child malnutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of stunting (38%) and underweight (28%) reported for children feeding practices in four anglophone West African countries (Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone) using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys. The study covered 12 623 children aged 6-23 months from four anglophone West African countries (Ghana: 822 children: Liberia: 1458 children, Nigeria: 8786 children and Sierra Leone: 1557 children). Four complementary feeding indicators were examined against a set of individual-, household- and community-level factors, using multiple regression analysis. Multivariate analyses found that lack of post-natal contacts with health workers, maternal illiteracy and geographical region were common determinants of delayed introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods across all four countries. Predictors for minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet included children aged 6-11 months, administrative/geographical region, poorer household income and limited access to media. The authors recommend that the four anglophone West African countries studied should prioritise efforts to improve complementary feeding practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality. Interventional studies on complementary feeding should target those from poor and illiterate households.

  10. Fundamentals of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    This book, Electronic Devices and Circuit Application, is the first of four books of a larger work, Fundamentals of Electronics. It is comprised of four chapters describing the basic operation of each of the four fundamental building blocks of modern electronics: operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field effect transistors. Attention is focused on the reader obtaining a clear understanding of each of the devices when it is operated in equilibrium. Ideas fundamental to the study of electronic circuits are also developed in the book at a basic level to

  11. Clinical practice recommendations for allergen-specific immunotherapy in children: the Italian consensus report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajno, Giovanni Battista; Bernardini, Roberto; Peroni, Diego; Arasi, Stefania; Martelli, Alberto; Landi, Massimo; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Muraro, Antonella; La Grutta, Stefania; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Caffarelli, Carlo; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Comberiati, Pasquale; Duse, Marzia

    2017-01-23

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is currently recognized as a clinically effective treatment for allergic diseases, with a unique disease-modifying effect. AIT was introduced in clinical practice one century ago, and performed in the early years with allergenic extracts of poor quality and definition. After the mechanism of allergic reaction were recognized, the practice of AIT was refined, leading to remarkable improvement in the efficacy and safety profile of the treatment. Currently AIT is accepted and routinely prescribed worldwide for respiratory allergies and hymenoptera venom allergy. Both the subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual (SLIT) routes of administration are used in the pediatric population.AIT is recommended in allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis with/without allergic asthma, with an evidence of specific IgE-sensitization towards clinically relevant inhalant allergens. Long-term studies provided evidence that AIT can also prevent the onset of asthma and of new sensitizations. The favorable response to AIT is strictly linked to adherence to treatment, that lasts 3-5 years. Therefore, several factors should be carefully evaluated before starting this intervention, including the severity of symptoms, pharmacotherapy requirements and children and caregivers' preference and compliance.In recent years, there have been increasing interest in the role of AIT for the treatment of IgE-associated food allergy and extrinsic atopic dermatitis. A growing body of evidence shows that oral immunotherapy represents a promising treatment option for IgE-associated food allergy. On the contrary, there are still controversies on the effectiveness of AIT for patients with atopic dermatitis.This consensus document was promoted by the Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (SIAIP) to provide evidence-based recommendations on AIT in order to implement and optimize current prescription practices of this treatment for allergic children.

  12. Springback Compensation: Fundamental Topics and Practical Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lingbeek, R.; Meinders, T.; Ohnimus, S.; Petzoldt, M.; Weiher, J.

    2006-01-01

    Now that the simulation of deep drawing processes has become more reliable the virtual compensation of the forming tools has become reality. In literature, the Displacement Adjustment (DA) algorithm has proved to be most effective. In this article it is shown how the compensation factor, required fo

  13. Magnetic multilayers : fundamental and practical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, R.

    1992-01-01

    After a brief introduction we describe the preparation of the multilayers by evaporation under ultra high vacuum conditions and their characterisation. We then discuss the magnetic and magneto-optical properties of some multilayer systems such as, Ni/Ag, Fe/Ag, Co/Ag and Co/Pt. The last one is quite interesting and is a potential candidate for magneto-optical information storage, particularly capable of working in the shorter wave length of light. We describe particularly the various anisotro...

  14. Human-computer interaction fundamentals and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Gerard Jounghyun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction What HCI Is and Why It Is Important Principles of HCI     ""Know Thy User""      Understand the Task      Reduce Memory Load      Strive for Consistency      Remind Users and Refresh Their Memory      Prevent Errors/Reversal of Action      Naturalness SummaryReferences Specific HCI Guidelines Guideline Categories Examples of HCI Guidelines      Visual Display Layout (General HCI Design)      Information Structuring and Navigation (General HCI Design)      Taking User Input (General H

  15. Fundamentals of electrochemical science

    CERN Document Server

    Oldham, Keith

    1993-01-01

    Key Features* Deals comprehensively with the basic science of electrochemistry* Treats electrochemistry as a discipline in its own right and not as a branch of physical or analytical chemistry* Provides a thorough and quantitative description of electrochemical fundamentals

  16. Fundamentals of crystallography

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Crystallography is a basic tool for scientists in many diverse disciplines. This text offers a clear description of fundamentals and of modern applications. It supports curricula in crystallography at undergraduate level.

  17. Associations between Inadequate Parenting Practices and Behavioral Problems in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Triguero Veloz Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents with ADHD present behaviors such as impulsiveness, inattention, and difficulties with personal organization that represent an overload for parents. Moreover, it also increases their level of stress and leads them to resort to inadequate educational strategies. The present study verifies associations between inadequate parenting practices and behavioral profiles of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample was composed of 22 children with ADHD (age range 6–16 years and their mothers. Spearman correlation analyses were made with the scores of Parenting Style Inventory (PSI and Child Behavior Checklist for ages 6–18 (CBCL/6–18. Results indicate statistically significant associations between behavioral problems and the use of punishment practices and negligence. When assessing a child with ADHD, it is important to verify the predominant types of parenting practices that can influence both immediate interventions and the prognosis of the disorder.

  18. Masses of Fundamental Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Terazawa, Hidezumi

    2011-01-01

    Not only the masses of fundamental particles including the weak bosons, Higgs scalar, quarks, and leptons, but also the mixing angles of quarks and those of neutrinos are all explained and/or predicted in the unified composite model of quarks and leptons successfully. In addition, both of the two anomalies recently found by the CDF Collaboration are suggested to be taken as evidences for the substructure of the fundamental particles.

  19. Information security fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Developing an information security program that adheres to the principle of security as a business enabler must be the first step in an enterprise's effort to build an effective security program. Following in the footsteps of its bestselling predecessor, Information Security Fundamentals, Second Edition provides information security professionals with a clear understanding of the fundamentals of security required to address the range of issues they will experience in the field.The book examines the elements of computer security, employee roles and r

  20. Children and Parent’s Attitude and Preferences of Dentist’s Attire in Pediatric Dental Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamavaram Ellore, Vijaya Prasad; Taranath, Mahanthesh; Ramagoni, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Gunjalli, Gururaj

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Before arrival into doctor’s clinic, child might have acquired an impression of a clinical environment and doctor’s appearance. Different kind of doctor’s attire may evoke different reactions. By understanding children and parent’s perception and preferences about dentist’s attire, a suitable dress code could be adopted to establish good rapport with children. Aim: To evaluate children and parental perceptions and preferences towards dentist attire. Materials and methods: A questionnaire designed with series of photographs of male and female dental students in different attires was responded by 150 parents aged 29 to 63 years and 150 children aged 9 to 13 years. Results: Seventy percent of children participants (n = 104) and 42% of parents participants (n = 63) favored the traditional white coat attire. However, 58% parents (n = 87) significantly preferred non-white coat attires in comparison to 30% of children (n = 46) (χ2 = 21.61, p 0.05), no-significant association was found between parents and children response to white coat (χ2 = 0.39, p = 0.53). A highly significant difference was found between the male participants, who favored the male dentist and female participants preferring the female dentist (χ2 = 47.16, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study attempted to rule out the stereotyped concept of ‘white coat fear’ among children, both children and parents favored traditional white coat attire, contrary to popular misconception ‘white coat syndrome’. However, use of child friendly attires could be useful in anxious children for better practice management. How to cite this article: Ellore VPK, Mohammed M, Taranath M, Ramagoni NK, Kumar V, Gunjalli G. Children and Parent’s Attitude and Preferences of Dentist’s Attire in Pediatric Dental Practice. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):102-107. PMID:26379376

  1. Prevalence of Abdominal Obesity in Spanish Children and Adolescents. Do We Need Waist Circumference Measurements in Pediatric Practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Schröder; Lourdes Ribas; Corinna Koebnick; Anna Funtikova; Gomez, Santiago F; Montserat Fíto; Carmen Perez-Rodrigo; Lluis Serra-Majem

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that central adiposity has increased to a higher degree than general adiposity in children and adolescents in recent decades. However, waist circumference is not a routine measurement in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumferences (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) in Spanish children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. Further, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among nor...

  2. Feeding style differences in food parenting practices associated with fruit and vegetable intake in children from low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Maria A; Cross, Matthew B; Power, Thomas G; Liu, Yan; Qu, Haiyan; Shewchuk, Richard M; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2013-01-01

    To examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable (F & V) intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nominal group technique. Parents completed information on food parenting practices and feeding styles. Three dietary recalls were collected on each child. Parents completed measures in Head Start centers and/or over the telephone. 667 parents of preschool-aged children participated. Food parenting practices and F & V intake. Mean differences in the food parenting practices across the 4 feeding styles were established through multivariate general linear modeling using MANOVA. Moderated multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the moderating role of feeding style on food parenting practices and child F & V intake. The indulgent feeding style moderated the relationship between food parenting practices and child F & V intake. This study indicates that parents' feeding styles have a moderating effect on the relationship between the food parenting practices and children's F & V intake. This finding can facilitate the development of interventions aimed at reducing childhood overweight. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Parental knowledge and perceptions of fever in children and fever management practices: differences between parents of children with and without a history of febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Rie; Niijima, Shinichi; Marui, Eiji

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare maternal knowledge and perceptions of fever, fever management practices, and information sources of mothers of children with and without a history of febrile seizures. A questionnaire was used to survey mothers of children who visited health departments for a routine 18-month-old well baby check-up. A total of 386 responses were analyzed. More mothers of children with a history of febrile seizures than mothers of children without it stated that high fever caused febrile seizures and antipyretics prevented it. Fewer mothers of children with a history of febrile seizures than mothers in the other group thought that high fever caused brain damage and antipyretics prevented the disease from worsening and warmed the child's body during fever episode. Many mothers in both groups stated that they considered physicians to be their primary information source. Spouse and own parents were named as information sources among mothers of children with a history of febrile seizures, whereas books and the Internet were named in the other group. Mothers of children with a history of febrile seizures demonstrated a higher rate of accuracy in their knowledge of fever than those in the other group. Mothers of children with a history of febrile seizures used personal communication, whereas those in the other group relied on mass communication for health information. Providing accurate information to family members is essential to provide mothers with both accurate information and emotional support.

  4. The Correlation Between Dietary Habits and Dental Hygiene Practice with Dental Caries Among School Children at Urban Area in Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omaran Ibrahim Mohammed Ali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a major cause of tooth loss in children and young adults. Dental caries have been linked to the situation of underprivileged families, nutritional imbalance, and poor oral hygiene techniques, including lack of tooth brushing or flossing the teeth, and also have a genetic etiology. Dietary habits and dental hygiene practice can result in high caries in school children. This research aimed to reveal the correlation between dietary habits and dental hygiene practice with dental caries among school children in urban area of Semarang. The subjects of this research are the elementary student 7 – 9 years old enrolled in schools located in at urban area in Semarang in 2016 and the mother of a student who became the study sample. Data were statisically analyzed usingbivariate analysis and multivariate analysis. Based on the research result, it can be concluded that: there was no correlation between total carbohydrate intake, refined carbohydrate intake, fiber intake, dental hygiene practice with dental caries, bottle feeding and duration of bottle feeding were assosiated with dental cariest-score. Overall, def-t score in the study was very bad with high median of dental caries score and many children have dental caries t-score more than 6.How to CiteAli, O. I. M., Muis, F. & O, Oedijani. (2016. The Correlation Between Dietary Habits and Dental Hygiene Practice with Dental Caries Among School Children at Urban Area in Semarang. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 178-184.

  5. Food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs of primary food preparers in families with young children. A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysenburg, Rebecca; Albrecht, Julie A; Litchfield, Ruth; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K

    2014-02-01

    Food preparers in families with young children are responsible for safe food preparation and handling to prevent foodborne illness. To explore the food safety perceptions, beliefs, and practices of primary food preparers in families with children 10 years of age and younger, a mixed methods convergent parallel design and constructs of the Health Belief Model were used. A random sampling of 72 primary food handlers (36.2±8.6 years of age, 88% female) within young families in urban and rural areas of two Midwestern states completed a knowledge survey and participated in ten focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for codes and common themes. Forty-four percent scored less than the average knowledge score of 73%. Participants believe children are susceptible to foodborne illness but perceive its severity to be low with gastrointestinal discomfort as the primary outcome. Using safe food handling practices and avoiding inconveniences were benefits of preventing foodborne illness. Childcare duties, time and knowledge were barriers to practicing food safety. Confidence in preventing foodborne illness was high, especially when personal control over food handling is present. The low knowledge scores and reported practices revealed a false sense of confidence despite parental concern to protect their child from harm. Food safety messages that emphasize the susceptibility and severity of foodborne illness in children are needed to reach this audience for adoption of safe food handling practices.

  6. Association between parenting practices and children's dietary intake, activity behavior and development of body mass index: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries Nanne K; Dagnelie Pieter C; Goldbohm R Alexandra; de Vries Sanne I; Stafleu Annette; Kremers Stef PJ; Gubbels Jessica S; van Buuren Stef; Thijs Carel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Insights into the effects of energy balance-related parenting practices on children's diet and activity behavior at an early age is warranted to determine which practices should be recommended and to whom. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent background correlates of energy balance-related parenting practices at age 5, as well as the associations of these practices with children's diet, activity behavior, and body mass index (BMI) development. Methods ...

  7. What is it that matters most in the practice of nursing children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Coetzee

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of a workshop designed as an action research cycle to ascertain what matters most in the practice of nursing children in South Africa today. The workshop was convened at the University of Cape Town (UCT, in order to guide and direct the newly established post- basic, children’s nursing pathway in the Bachelor of Nursing for Registered nurses [BN(RN] programme. The participants were eight experienced paediatric nurses, currently practising in a variety of settings in the Western Cape. The results show that the participants move from their original task- and procedure - based perspective to a more processive one in which the focus of the learning is relational, emphasising the family and culture of the child.

  8. What is on our children's minds? An analysis of children's writings as reflections of group-specific socialisation practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Hornstra, T.; Bergh, L. van den

    2010-01-01

    In the present study it has been examined how children's creative writing tasks may contribute to teachers' understanding of children's values. Writings of 300 elementary school children about what they would do if they were the boss of The Netherlands were obtained and seemed to reflect different t

  9. Variation of Fundamental Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flambaum, V. V.

    2006-11-01

    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest temporal and spatial variation of the fundamental ``constants'' in expanding Universe. The spatial variation can explain a fine tuning of the fundamental constants which allows humans (and any life) to appear. We appeared in the area of the Universe where the values of the fundamental constants are consistent with our existence. We present a review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant α, strong interaction and fundamental masses. There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra. Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation of the fundamental constants consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transition between accidentally degenerate atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a ``nuclear'' clock based on the ultraviolet transition between very low excited state and ground state in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude! Huge enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feshbach resonance.

  10. Eating Behaviours of Preadolescent Children over Time: Stability, Continuity and the Moderating Role of Perceived Parental Feeding Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Houldcroft; Claire Farrow; Emma Haycraft

    2016-01-01

    The links between childhood eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are well-established in younger children, but there is a lack of research examining these variables in a preadolescent age group, particularly from the child’s perspective, and longitudinally. This study firstly aimed to examine the continuity and stability of preadolescent perceptions of their parents’ controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction) over a 12 month period. The second aim was to explo...

  11. Eating Behaviours of Preadolescent Children over Time: Stability, Continuity and the Moderating Role of Perceived Parental Feeding Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Houldcroft, Laura; Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The links between childhood eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are well-established in younger children, but there is a lack of research examining these variables in a preadolescent age group, particularly from the child's perspective, and longitudinally. This study firstly aimed to examine the continuity and stability of preadolescent perceptions of their parents' controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction) over a 12 month period. The second aim was to explo...

  12. Multiphase flow dynamics 1 fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2004-01-01

    Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. In its third extended edition this monograph contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present first volume the fundamentals of multiphase dynamics are provided. This third edition includes various updates, extensions and improvements in all book chapters.

  13. Multiphase flow dynamics 1 fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2007-01-01

    Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. In its third extended edition this monograph contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present first volume the fundamentals of multiphase dynamics are provided. This third edition includes various updates, extensions and improvements in all book chapters.

  14. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rule, Gordon S

    2006-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful technique to study the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy is a comprehensive textbook that guides the reader from a basic understanding of the phenomenological properties of magnetic resonance to the application and interpretation of modern multi-dimensional NMR experiments on 15N/13C-labeled proteins. Beginning with elementary quantum mechanics, a set of practical rules is presented and used to describe many commonly employed multi-dimensional, multi-nuclear NMR pulse sequences. A modular analysis of NMR pulse sequence building blocks also provides a basis for understanding and developing novel pulse programs. This text not only covers topics from chemical shift assignment to protein structure refinement, as well as the analysis of protein dynamics and chemical kinetics, but also provides a practical guide to many aspects of modern spectrometer hardware, sample preparation, experimental set-up, and data pr...

  15. Treatment of African children with severe malaria - towards evidence-informed clinical practice using GRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English Mike

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe malaria is a major contributor of deaths in African children up to five years of age. One valuable tool to support health workers in the management of diseases is clinical practice guidelines (CPGs developed using robust methods. A critical assessment of the World Health Organization (WHO and Kenyan paediatric malaria treatment guidelines with quinine was undertaken, with a focus on the quality of the evidence and transparency of the shift from evidence to recommendations. Methods Systematic reviews of the literature were conducted using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE tool to appraise included studies. The findings were used to evaluate the WHO and Kenyan recommendations for the management of severe childhood malaria. Results The WHO 2010 malaria guidance on severe malaria in children, which informed the Kenyan guidelines, only evaluated the evidence on one topic on paediatric care using the GRADE tool. Using the GRADE tool, this work explicitly demonstrated that despite the established use of quinine in the management of paediatric cases of severe malaria for decades, low or very low quality evidence of important outcomes, but not critical outcomes such as mortality, have informed national and international guidance on the paediatric quinine dosing, route of administration and adverse effects. Conclusions Despite the foreseeable shift to artesunate as the primary drug for treatment of severe childhood malaria, the findings reported here reflect that the particulars of quinine therapeutics for the management of severe malaria in African children have historically been a neglected research priority. This work supports the application of the GRADE tool to make transparent recommendations and to inform advocacy efforts for a greater research focus in priority areas in paediatric care in Africa and other low-income settings.

  16. North American practice patterns of intravenous magnesium therapy in severe acute asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Suzanne; Macias, Charles; Freedman, Stephen B; Plint, Amy C; Zorc, Joseph J; Bajaj, Lalit; Black, Karen J; Johnson, David W; Boutis, Kathy

    2010-11-01

    Although intravenous (IV) magnesium (Mg) can decrease hospitalizations in children with severe acute asthma, its use is often limited to resistant disease, and disposition may be determined prior to its use. Since knowledge about practice patterns of IV Mg would enhance knowledge translation and guide future research, we surveyed pediatric emergency physicians with interest in clinical research to determine the frequency, indications, adverse events, and barriers to use of IV Mg in children with severe acute asthma. A cross-sectional online survey of two national pediatric emergency physician associations in Canada and the United States was conducted using a modified Dillman technique. Response rates were 124 of 180 (69%) in Canada and 75 of 108 (69%) in the United States. Although 88% of participants report knowing that Mg is effective, only 14 of 199 (7%) give it to prevent hospitalizations and 142 of 199 (71%) give it to prevent admissions to the intensive care unit (ICU). Thirty-eight percent of respondents use Mg in 50% or more of the ICU candidates with concern about impending respiratory failure. Seventy-nine percent of the participants report that therapy, and 2% have witnessed-related apnea. Factors affecting Mg use include concern about side effects expressed by 24% of physicians and a belief that IV therapy is not necessary, expressed by 31%. Intravenous Mg appears to be uncommonly used in stable children with severe acute asthma and does not frequently play a role in reducing hospitalizations. Further research to justify its enhanced use and to better establish its true adverse effect profile is indicated. © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  17. Management of children's fever by parents and caregivers: Practical measurement of functional health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Lynne; Chaw, Xin Yao; Kelly, Fiona; Kairuz, Therese; Marriott, Jennifer; Wheeler, Amanda; Moles, Rebekah

    2014-12-01

    Functional health literacy is founded on general and numerical literacy and practical skills and is required for the appropriate and effective management of health symptoms in children. This study aimed to assess the health literacy skills of parents and caregivers of preschool-aged children, using a progressive scenario describing a child with fever and presenting tasks relating to selection of a medicine and hypothetical dosing of their child. Participants (n = 417) from 33 childcare- and health-related sites in Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne and Auckland completed the study. Participants' responses were largely appropriate regarding actions in response to worsening symptoms, selection of an appropriate product (from a limited range), whereby 84.5% of responses were for a single-ingredient paracetamol product and use of the package directions to state the frequency of dosing (93.1% of frequencies appropriate for paracetamol and 66.7% for ibuprofen). However, in only 50.8% of cases was an appropriate weight-based dose calculated, and doses were not measured to within 10% of the stated dose in 16.7% of cases. Future studies should focus on skill development via educational campaigns for parents and caregivers. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. A speech pronunciation practice system for speech-impaired children: A study to measure its success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Siti Salwah; Mustafa, Mumtaz Begum Binti Peer; Asemi, Adeleh; Ahmad, Azila; Mohamed, Noraini; Ghazali, Kamila Binti

    2016-09-01

    The speech pronunciation practice (SPP) system enables children with speech impairments to practise and improve their speech pronunciation. However, little is known about the surrogate measures of the SPP system. This research aims to measure the success and effectiveness of the SPP system using three surrogate measures: usage (frequency of use), performance (recognition accuracy) and satisfaction (children's subjective reactions), and how these measures are aligned with the success of the SPP system, as well as to each other. We have measured the absolute change in the word error rate (WER) between the pre- and post-training, using the ANOVA test. Correlation co-efficiency (CC) analysis was conducted to test the relation between the surrogate measures, while a Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used to investigate the causal relations between the measures. The CC test results indicate a positive correlation between the surrogate measures. The SEM supports all the proposed gtheses. The ANOVA results indicate that SPP is effective in reducing the WER of impaired speech. The SPP system is an effective assistive tool, especially for high levels of severity. We found that performance is a mediator of the relation between "usage" and "satisfaction". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Insulin pump therapy in children with diabetes mellitus: practice of Krasnoyarsk Krai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tat'yana Evgen'evna Taranushenko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To summarize practical experience of insulin pump therapy (IPT in child population of Krasnoyarsk and to assess its efficacy for treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM in paediatrics.Materials and Methods: We performed a comparative analysis of clinical and laboratory data from 48 children with T1DM prior to and after 6-12 months of IPT.Results: IPT yielded fourfold decrease in complaints of hyperglycemia and labile glycemia without concurrent increase in reports of severe hypoglycemia.  We observed a trend for lowering of mean HbA1c levels, where 65% of patients showed positive dynamics in comparison with the period of multiple daily injection regimen. Interestingly, after 6-12 months of IPT, insulin requirement dropped in most patients.Conclusion: Our data support clinical efficiency and safety of IPT, as well as superiority of this treatment over multiple daily injection regimen. We conclude that IPT is a treatment of choice for children with T1DM.

  20. The knowledge of pregnant women regarding appropriate oral hygiene practices of young children – a questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szalewska Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining appropriate oral cavity hygiene in a young child is closely related to the health awareness and health-promoting behaviours of their parents/guardians, and especially that of the child’s mother. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of pregnant women regarding best practice oral hygiene procedures in young children. The survey involved 327 pregnant women aged 16-49 years, and the tool utilized was an anonymous questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included seven one-choice questions concerning basic information on proper oral hygiene procedures as should be practiced by young children. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica PROGRAM 10 (StatSoft. The results of the survey reveal 60.55% of all surveyed had correct knowledge with regard to appropriate cleaning practices for the toothless oral cavity of an infant, that concerning the beginning of tooth brushing - 70.03%, tooth cleaning after night feeding - 39.76%, the duration of tooth brushing (at least 3-4 minutes - 43.12%. What is more, the result of the survey demonstrate that slightly more than a half of the surveyed mothers (53.82% would encourage their children to brush their teeth on their own from the first year of age, while 18.35% believe that children should be assisted in tooth brushing at least to their eighth year of age, and 59.63% would use fluoride toothpaste to brush their child’s teeth before he or she is one year old. Of the participants in this survey, pregnant women with university education, those living in large cities, or who are older, and those who had had previous pregnancies, show greater knowledge regarding suitable oral hygiene practices among young children. Our results reveal that extensive application of modern information technologies can be a means of preventing early childhood caries by facilitating the transmission of knowledge on proper nutrition and oral hygiene practices among young children.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING PRACTICES AMONG UNDER-3 YEARS CHILDREN IN URBAN SLUMS OF HUBBALLI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana P, Dattatreya D Bant

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition is a serious public health problem affecting the growth and development of children which have detrimental effect in later adolescent and adult life. Although Malnutrition is multifaceted problem, Infant and young child feeding practices by mothers is crucial for optimum growth and development of the children Objectives: 1 To Assess the Infant and Young child feeding practices followed by the Mothers. 2 To study the influence of feeding practices on weight of Under 3 years children. Methodology: Cross-sectional study conducted in an urban slum of Hubli. 110 mother-child pairs recruited , where the child was between 7 months to 3 years of age. Employed a pre-structured questionnaire as tool and Child’s Anthropometry done. Data presented as percentages and proportions. Chi square test is applied to test association between Feeding practices and underweight, P value less than 0.05 considered as significant. Results: 22.7 % mothers had Breast fed within recommended time following delivery, prelacteal feeding practices observed in 47.3 % and 37.3% followed Exclusively Breast Feeding. However Timely Initiation of complementary foods was seen only in 34.5%. Breast feeding continued in 47.3 % beyond 6 months. 53.6 % & 86.4% didn’t satisfy the Minimum meal frequency and dietary diversity respectively. 50.9% of children were Normal, 49.09% were Underweight. Conclusions: Nearly 50% of the children under this study were underweight. Mothers who had not Exclusively Breast fed for 6 months, not continued Breast feeding beyond 6 months and inadequate meal frequency of the child were significantly associated with underweight of the children.

  2. Application of action-oriented teaching in fundamental nursing practice%行动导向教学在基础护理学实验教学中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华伟; 董海静; 孙晓燕; 王爱敏; 王敏; 姜云霞; 张梅; 赵萌

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of action-oriented teaching in fundamental nursing practice. Methods:A total of 112 undergraduate students were divided into experimental group (55) and control group (57) randomly. The experimental group was applied action-oriented teaching while the control group was applied traditional teaching. After that, these students took skill and theory examination of the unit, iflled Watson-Glaser critical thinking appraisal and the self-designed questionnaires to evaluate the effects of the two teaching methods. The data were analyzed by SPSS 15.0, descriptive analysis and t-test were used. Results:The evaluation of action-oriented teaching in students was better than the traditional teaching. The scores of skill examinations, theory examination and the WGCTA of experimental group were much higher than the control group. Conclusion:The action-oriented teaching has more advantages than the traditional teaching in fundamental nursing practice. It has three advantages:improving the effect and quality of practice teaching, promoting the practice skills of nursing students, and enhancing the self-study ability and critical thinking of nursing students.%目的:探讨行动导向教学在基础护理学实验教学中的应用及效果。方法:选取112名本科护生作为研究对象,随机分为实验组55人,对照组57人。在基础护理实验教学中实验组采用行动导向教学,对照组采用传统教学。研究结束后对两组学生进行单元操作技能考核和理论考核,并采用Watson-Glaser批判性思维测试(WGCTA)量表及自行设计的行动导向教学与传统教学的教学效果评价问卷对其进行调查。结果:实验组护生对行动导向教学的评价高于对照组护生对传统教学的评价;实验组护生的单元操作技能考核成绩、理论考核成绩、WGCTA量表得分均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:行动导向教学有利

  3. Fundamentals of fluid lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrock, Bernard J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.

  4. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  5. Fundamentals of continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnicki, John W

    2014-01-01

    A concise introductory course text on continuum mechanics Fundamentals of Continuum Mechanics focuses on the fundamentals of the subject and provides the background for formulation of numerical methods for large deformations and a wide range of material behaviours. It aims to provide the foundations for further study, not just of these subjects, but also the formulations for much more complex material behaviour and their implementation computationally.  This book is divided into 5 parts, covering mathematical preliminaries, stress, motion and deformation, balance of mass, momentum and energ

  6. Antennas fundamentals, design, measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    This comprehensive revision (3rd Edition) is a senior undergraduate or first-year graduate level textbook on antenna fundamentals, design, performance analysis, and measurements. In addition to its use as a formal course textbook, the book's pragmatic style and emphasis on the fundamentals make it especially useful to engineering professionals who need to grasp the essence of the subject quickly but without being mired in unnecessary detail. This new edition was prepared for a first year graduate course at Southern Polytechnic State University in Georgia. It provides broad coverage of antenna

  7. Fundamentals of magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The Fundamentals of Magnetism is a truly unique reference text, that explores the study of magnetism and magnetic behavior with a depth that no other book can provide. It covers the most detailed descriptions of the fundamentals of magnetism providing an emphasis on statistical mechanics which is absolutely critical for understanding magnetic behavior. The books covers the classical areas of basic magnetism, including Landau Theory and magnetic interactions, but features a more concise and easy-to-read style. Perfect for upper-level graduate students and industry researchers, The Fu

  8. Exploration on the Teaching Reform and Practice of C Fundamentals of Programming%《C语言程序设计》教学改革实践与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙淼

    2012-01-01

    《C语言程序设计》是目前各高校信息工程类专业普遍开设的一门课程,它具有内容多、理论与实践结合紧密的特点,是一门难教且难学的基础课程。通过教学现状和学情分析,从教学模式、教学方法、教学手段等方面进行了改革实践,在教学实施过程中收到了良好效果,为C语言教学改革提供了有益经验。%C Fundamentals of Programming is one of the basic courses of Information En- gineering Major for all colleges. The teaching requires a combination of theory study and computer operation. Our reform on its teaching modes, methods and techniques has resulted in good effect. This paper is a summarization of our reform practice which we hope that will be useful for reference.

  9. Making School Happen: Children-Parent-Teacher Collaboration as A Practice of Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Sarmento

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The exercise of citizenship is today understood as a duty and as a right to be enjoyed within any educational context. Within the school, all of its protagonists are invited to exercise practices of citizenship. No one is excluded; even the less important parties have the right to participate in decisions that, for some reason, may have an influence on their academic life. The citizenship of the child is, thus, a challenge to the changing political, social and educational structures, to the transformation of institutions and to cultural renewal. The existence of harmonious relations between the educational community, the school, the children and the family is dependent on everyone’s ability to understand and communicate with each other. Parents and teachers have made a commitment to a fruitful and unison dialogue on behalf of the quality of education. In this article, we set out from an analysis of the new social realities and of the different meanings assigned to education, to afterwards reflect upon the current educational values and upon the practices that are consistent with those purposes. Citizenship, as well as autonomy, rise, thus, as central concepts, in which each educational community finds reasons for Making School Happen.

  10. Prospective Evaluation of a Clinical Practice Guideline for Diagnosis of Appendicitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillanes, Genevieve; Simms, Sonia; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Diament, Michael; Putnam, Brant; Renslo, Richard; Lee, Jumie; Tinger, Elga; Lewis, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective was to assess the performance of a clinical practice guideline for evaluation of possible appendicitis in children. The guideline incorporated risk stratification, staged imaging, and early surgical involvement in high-risk cases. Methods The authors prospectively evaluated the clinical guideline in one pediatric emergency department (ED) in a general teaching hospital. Patients were risk-stratified based on history, physical examination findings, and laboratory results. Imaging was ordered selectively based on risk category, with ultrasound (US) as the initial imaging modality. Computed tomography (CT) was ordered if the US was negative or indeterminate. Surgery was consulted before imaging in high-risk patients. Results A total of 475 patients were enrolled. Of those, 193 (41%) had appendicitis. No low-risk patient had appendicitis. Medium-risk patients had a 19% rate of appendicitis, and 83% of high-risk patients had appendicitis. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of appendicitis included decreased bowel sounds; rebound tenderness; and presence of psoas, obturator, or Rovsing’s signs. Of the 475 patients, 276 (58%) were managed without a CT scan. Seventy-one of the 193 (37%) patients with appendicitis went to the operating room without any imaging. The rate of missed appendicitis was 2%, and the rate of negative appendectomy was 1%. Conclusions The clinical practice guideline performed well in a general teaching hospital. Rates of negative appendectomy and missed appendicitis were low and 58% of patients were managed without a CT scan. PMID:22849662

  11. Complications of untreated and ineffectively treated neurogenic bladder dysfunctions in children: our own practical classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, P; Zachwieja, J

    2016-04-01

    The neurogenic dysfunctions of the detrusor and the sphincter are caused by either a known congenital defect of the nervous system or by acquired damage to the nervous system. In patients with idiopathic bladder dysfunctions neurological examinations fail to reveal any pathology in the nervous system. The treatment strategy for the patient with detrusor-sphincter dysfunction should be based on a comprehensive functional and morphological evaluation. Clean Intermittent Catheterization is mandatory if voiding is ineffective. Reduced bladder capacity related to detrusor overactivity and decreased bladder walls compliance is successfully managed conservatively with oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment prevents complications in the majority of patients. However, despite proper conservative treatment, some patients still develop complications. We propose our own practical classification of complications characteristic for the bladder and sphincter dysfunctions: 1. Urinary tract infections; 2. Urolithiasis; 3. Anatomic changes in the lower urinary tract; 4. Anatomic changes in the upper urinary tract; 5. Functional disturbances of kidneys parenchyma; 6. Urinary incontinence. Proposed practical classification of complications of bladder and sphincter dysfunctions is clear and simple. This classification can be used both in children with neurogenic and non-neurogenic dysfunctions. It is helpful in planning follow-up procedures and evaluation of treatment results.

  12. International aspirations for speech-language pathologists' practice with multilingual children with speech sound disorders: development of a position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Verdon, Sarah; Bowen, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge for the speech-language pathology profession in many cultures is to address the mismatch between the "linguistic homogeneity of the speech-language pathology profession and the linguistic diversity of its clientele" (Caesar & Kohler, 2007, p. 198). This paper outlines the development of the Multilingual Children with Speech Sound Disorders: Position Paper created to guide speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') facilitation of multilingual children's speech. An international expert panel was assembled comprising 57 researchers (SLPs, linguists, phoneticians, and speech scientists) with knowledge about multilingual children's speech, or children with speech sound disorders. Combined, they had worked in 33 countries and used 26 languages in professional practice. Fourteen panel members met for a one-day workshop to identify key points for inclusion in the position paper. Subsequently, 42 additional panel members participated online to contribute to drafts of the position paper. A thematic analysis was undertaken of the major areas of discussion using two data sources: (a) face-to-face workshop transcript (133 pages) and (b) online discussion artifacts (104 pages). Finally, a moderator with international expertise in working with children with speech sound disorders facilitated the incorporation of the panel's recommendations. The following themes were identified: definitions, scope, framework, evidence, challenges, practices, and consideration of a multilingual audience. The resulting position paper contains guidelines for providing services to multilingual children with speech sound disorders (http://www.csu.edu.au/research/multilingual-speech/position-paper). The paper is structured using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Children and Youth Version (World Health Organization, 2007) and incorporates recommendations for (a) children and families, (b) SLPs' assessment and intervention, (c) SLPs' professional

  13. The Importance of SES, Home and School Language and Literacy Practices, and Oral Vocabulary in Bilingual Children's English Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Páez, Mariela M.; August, Diane L.; Barr, Christopher D.; Kenyon, Dorry; Malabonga, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the role that socioeconomic status (SES), home and school language and literacy practices, and oral vocabulary play in the development of English reading skills in Latino English language learners (ELLs) and how these factors contribute differentially to English reading outcomes for children of different ages and in different…

  14. Acquisition of a Complex Basketball-Dribbling Task in School Children as a Function of Bilateral Practice Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockel, Tino; Weigelt, Matthias; Krug, Jurgen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate order-of-practice effects for the acquisition of a complex basketball skill in a bilateral transfer paradigm. The task required participants to dribble as fast as possible in slalom-like movements across six javelins and return to the initial position. Fifty-two right-handed school children (M age =…

  15. The Importance of SES, Home and School Language and Literacy Practices, and Oral Vocabulary in Bilingual Children's English Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Páez, Mariela M.; August, Diane L.; Barr, Christopher D.; Kenyon, Dorry; Malabonga, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the role that socioeconomic status (SES), home and school language and literacy practices, and oral vocabulary play in the development of English reading skills in Latino English language learners (ELLs) and how these factors contribute differentially to English reading outcomes for children of different ages and in different…

  16. The Effect of Helping Early Literacy with Practice Strategies on Reading Fluency for Children with Severe Reading Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouf, Rachel C.; Reisener, Carmen D.; Gadke, Daniel L.; Wimbish, Sarah W.; Frankel, Aimee C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of Helping Early Literacy with Practice Strategies (HELPS) One-on-One Program on increasing the reading fluency of two children identified as having reading difficulties. Reading fluency is characterized by quickness and accuracy of reading. Additionally, fluency is the second stage of the learning hierarch,…

  17. Fertility preservation in children, adolescents, and young adults with cancer : Quality of clinical practice guidelines and variations in recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Font-Gonzalez, Anna; Mulder, Renee L.; Loeffen, Erik A. H.; Byrne, Julianne; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Kenney, Lisa B.; Levine, Jennifer M.; Tissing, Wim J. E.; van de Wetering, Marianne D.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUNDFertility preservation care for children, adolescents, and young adults (CAYAs) with cancer is not uniform among practitioners. To ensure high-quality care, evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are essential. The authors identified existing CPGs for fertility preservation in

  18. Reported incidence and treatment of dermatophytosis in children in general practice: a comparison between 1987 and 2001.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammedamin, R.S.A.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Koning, S.; Schellevis, F.G.; Suijlekom-Smit, L.W.A. van; Koes, B.W.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Dermatophytosis is a common skin infection in children. Although the epidemiology is relatively unknown it is becoming a major health problem in some countries. We determine the incidence and management of dermatophytosis in Dutch general practice in 1987 and 2001. Methods: We used da

  19. Acquisition of a Complex Basketball-Dribbling Task in School Children as a Function of Bilateral Practice Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockel, Tino; Weigelt, Matthias; Krug, Jurgen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate order-of-practice effects for the acquisition of a complex basketball skill in a bilateral transfer paradigm. The task required participants to dribble as fast as possible in slalom-like movements across six javelins and return to the initial position. Fifty-two right-handed school children (M age =…

  20. Remembering Childhood: Do Our Memories and Experiences Influence Our Understanding of Early Childhood and Our Practice with Young Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Karen; Penn, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Students on the Early Childhood Studies degree programme at the University of East London were asked to reflect on their childhood memories and how these have shaped their understandings of early childhood and practices with young children. Students' rich and varied accounts reflect the diversity of largely non-traditional students from countries…