WorldWideScience

Sample records for children lost lawful

  1. Lost in translation: the unintended consequences of advance directive law on clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Lesley S; Williams, Brie A; Hooper, Sarah M; Sabatino, Charles P; Weithorn, Lois A; Sudore, Rebecca L

    2011-01-18

    Advance directive law may compromise the clinical effectiveness of advance directives. To identify unintended legal consequences of advance directive law that may prevent patients from communicating end-of-life preferences. Advance directive legal statutes for all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia and English-language searches of LexisNexis, Westlaw, and MEDLINE from 1966 to August 2010. Two independent reviewers selected 51 advance directive statutes and 20 articles. Three independent legal reviewers selected 105 legal proceedings. Two reviewers independently assessed data sources and used critical content analysis to determine legal barriers to the clinical effectiveness of advance directives. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Legal and content-related barriers included poor readability (that is, laws in all states were written above a 12th-grade reading level), health care agent or surrogate restrictions (for example, 40 states did not include same-sex or domestic partners as default surrogates), and execution requirements needed to make forms legally valid (for example, 35 states did not allow oral advance directives, and 48 states required witness signatures, a notary public, or both). Vulnerable populations most likely to be affected by these barriers included patients with limited literacy, limited English proficiency, or both who cannot read or execute advance directives; same-sex or domestic partners who may be without legally valid and trusted surrogates; and unbefriended, institutionalized, or homeless patients who may be without witnesses and suitable surrogates. Only appellate-level legal cases were available, which may have excluded relevant cases. Unintended negative consequences of advance directive legal restrictions may prevent all patients, and particularly vulnerable patients, from making and communicating their end-of-life wishes and having them honored. These restrictions have rendered advance directives less clinically

  2. Legal Protection Reform for Children Conflicted with Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emy Rosna Wati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The government has long been giving protection to children. Protection is reflected in the issuance of various Law. One of them is the Law No. 23 of 2003 on Child Protection. The legal protection of children in conflicted with law and child as victims of crime are regulatedin articlenumber 64. Issuance of Law No. 3 of 1997 on Juvenile Court actually originates from a passion for protecting the rights of children in conflicted with the law. However, due to inadequate understanding and mindset of Juvenile Court, which is do not have the children’s perspective, what comes up is that the substance of Law on Juvenile Court is not to protect children but to prosecute children. However, after the release of Law No. 11 of 2012 onThe Criminal Justice System of Children, legal protection of children in conflict with the law was encouragingly reformed. How To Cite: Rosna Wati, E. (2014. Legal Protection Reform for Children Conflicted with Law. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 59-70. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.101

  3. General Health Among Parents Who Lost Their Children in the Bam Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidinejad, Masoumeh; Dehghan, Mahlagha; Tirgari, Batool; Rafiei, Hossein; Iranmanesh, Sedigheh

    2015-03-18

    Bam earthquake and its profound tragedy of thousands killed has caused emotional and psychological trauma for tens of thousands of people who have survived. This study aimed to investigate general health of parents who lose their children in Bam earthquake 10 years after the earthquake. General health of 166 parents who lost their children in Bam earthquake was assessed using a translated version of General Health Questionnarie-28 items. The mean score of GHQ was 25.63±15.28. Among all domains, the higher mean score belonged to the category of "anxiety/insomnia" and the lower one belonged to the category of "severe depression". The results revealed significant correlation between total GHQ mean score and gender as well as educational level (0.003). Providing reflective narrative environments in which survivors can express their own experiences and feelings about earthquake, their loss and how they cope with it seems to be as an effective approach to identify their psychosocial situation and its influential factors. In such narrative environments special attention should be given to older participants, females and those who are single.

  4. Estimating 'lost heart beats' rather than reductions in heart rate during the intubation of critically-ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter; Ovenden, Nick; Dauger, Stéphane; Peters, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in heart rate occur frequently in children during critical care intubation and are currently considered the gold standard for haemodynamic instability. Our objective was to estimate loss of heart beats during intubation and compare this to reduction in heart rate alone whilst testing the impact of atropine pre-medication. Data were extracted from a prospective 2-year cohort study of intubation ECGs from critically ill children in PICU/Paediatric Transport. A three step algorithm was established to exclude variation in pre-intubation heart rate (using a 95%CI limit derived from pre-intubation heart rate variation of the children included), measure the heart rate over time and finally the estimate the numbers of lost beats. 333 intubations in children were eligible for inclusion of which 245 were available for analysis (74%). Intubations where the fall in heart rate was less than 50 bpm were accompanied almost exclusively by less than 25 lost beats (n = 175, median 0 [0-1]). When there was a reduction of >50 bpm there was a poor correlation with numbers of lost beats (n = 70, median 42 [15-83]). During intubation the median number of lost beats was 8 [1]-[32] when atropine was not used compared to 0 [0-0] when atropine was used (pheart rate during intubation of heart rate was >50 bpm the heart rate was poorly predictive of lost beats. A study looking at the relationship between lost beats and cardiac output needs to be performed. Atropine reduces both fall in heart rate and loss of beats. Similar area-under-the-curve methodology may be useful for estimating risk when biological parameters deviate outside normal range.

  5. Mechanisms of state terror in the case of lost children of the Francoist regime: history and the new historical novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judyta Wachowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to uncover the mechanisms used by the Francoist regime to seize the children of its political opponents, as well as to discuss the problem as depicted in contemporary historical novels. In order to achieve these goals, the paper begins with an inquiry into eugenics, as interpreted by the infamous Spanish psychiatrist Antonio Vallejo Nágera. Further, the author reviews the processes through which biological parents (and/or family lost the legal control over their children, many of whom had their identities changed. Consequently, the analysis focuses on three new historical novels (La voz dormida by Dulce Chacón, Mala gente que camina by Benjamin Prado, and Si a los tres años no he vuelto by Any R. Cañil, which use the mediation of historical memory to recover the remembrance of the lost children of the Francoist regime.

  6. Children, Status and the Law in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Organization of African Unity (OAU), now African Union (AU) in 1990 complemented or reinforced it. Also ..... Pentagon Buildings in the United States of America on September 11 2001, which claimed more than 5000 .... indicated that more than 1 percent of children under the age of 15 years in. Nigeria were orphans who ...

  7. Children, Status and the Law in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    The Tsunami Flood Disaster, the Hurricane Catherina and the Haiti. Earthquake, are just some of the examples of such events that usually lead to the loss of many human lives. The chances for a better quality of life for most children of the world, therefore, are circumscribed by lack of access to basic education, clean water ...

  8. Children, Status and the Law in Nigeria | Onyemachi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper calls on the National Assembly to shun procrastination by showing some serious commitment towards the ratification of these Conventions and Charters as part of Nigeria's municipal laws.It also undertakes a painstaking approach in explaining and highlighting the enviable position that children occupy in the ...

  9. UNEQUAL BRAINS: DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION LAWS AND CHILDREN WITH CHALLENGING BEHAVIOUR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Karen

    2016-01-01

    At a time when brain-based explanations of behaviour are proliferating, how will law respond to the badly behaved child? In Australia, children and youth with challenging behaviours such as aggression, swearing, or impulsivity are increasingly understood as having a behavioural disability and so may be afforded the protections of discrimination law. A brain-based approach to challenging behaviour also offers a seemingly neutral framework that de-stigmatises a child's 'bad' behaviour, making it a biological or medical issue rather than a failure of discipline or temperament. Yet this 'brain-based' framework is not as neutral as it appears. How law regulates the brain-based subject in the form of the badly behaved child depends on how law conceptualises the brain. This article examines two competing approaches to the brain in law: a structural, deterministic model and a 'plastic', flexible model. Each of these impacts differently on disabled and abled identity and consequently on discrimination law and equality rights. Using examples from Australian discrimination law, this article argues that as new brain-based models of identity develop, existing inequalities based on race, gender, and disability are imported, and new forms of stigma emerge. In the neurological age, not all brains are created equal. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Experiences of women who have lost young children to AIDS in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demmer Craig

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AIDS continues to be the leading cause of death in South Africa. Little is known about the experiences of mothers who have lost a young child to AIDS. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the attitudes and experiences of women who had lost a young child to HIV/AIDS in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 women who had lost a child to AIDS. The average age of the deceased children was six years. Interviews were also conducted with 12 key informants to obtain their perspectives on working with women who had lost a child to AIDS. A thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed. Results In addition to the pain of losing a child, the women in this study had to endure multiple stresses within a harsh and sometimes hostile environment. Confronted with pervasive stigma and extreme poverty, they had few people they could rely on during their child's sickness and death. They were forced to keep their emotions to themselves since they were not likely to obtain much support from family members or people in the community. Throughout the period of caring for a sick child and watching the child die, they were essentially alone. The demands of caring for their child and subsequent grief, together with daily subsistence worries, took its toll. Key informants struggled to address the needs of these women due to several factors, including scarce resources, lack of training around bereavement issues, reluctance by people in the community to seek help with emotional issues, and poverty. Conclusions The present study offers one of the first perspectives on the experiences of mothers who have lost a young child to AIDS. Interventions that are tailored to the local context and address bereavement issues, as well as other issues that affect the daily lives of these mothers, are urgently needed. Further studies are needed to identify factors that promote resilience among these

  11. Public Law 94-142: The Education for All Handicapped Children Act. An Overview of the Federal Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettel, Jeffrey J.

    Provided is an overview of the Education for all Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142), including a report of the history of federal involvement in the education of the handicapped. Sections cover ten critical issues dealt with in the new law, such as the concepts of zero reject, appropriate education, and least restrictive alternative, and…

  12. Refugee children in education in Europe. : How to prevent a lost generation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Already for decades, European countries have ample experience receiving refugee children. The last peak was in the 1990s due to the civil war in former Yugoslavia, the war in Iraq and the political situation in Iran. Because of the most recent conflicts in the Middle East and Africa, between 2013

  13. Refugee children in education in Europe : How to prevent a lost generation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Already for decades, European countries have ample experience receiving refugee children. The last peak was in the 1990s due to the civil war in former Yugoslavia, the war in Iraq and the political situation in Iran. Because of the most recent conflicts in the Middle East and Africa, between 2013

  14. Lost parcel

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2009-01-01

    A parcel containing 20 boxes of DECAdry business cards, weighing about 5.5 kg, has been lost. It had been placed on the red file shelves in the Library. Anyone finding this parcel is urgently requested to call 16 06 02. Thank you for your assistance. FP Department

  15. Reexamining the association between child access prevention gun laws and unintentional shooting deaths of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, D W; Starnes, M

    2000-12-01

    A previous study estimated that child access prevention (CAP) laws, which hold adults criminally liable for unsafe firearm storage in the environment of children, were associated with a 23% decline in unintentional firearm mortality rates among children. To reassess the effects of CAP laws and more fully examine the consistency of the estimated law effects across states. A pooled time-series study of unintentional firearm mortality among children from 1979 through 1997. Setting. The 50 states and the District of Columbia. All children laws enacted before 1998 were aggregated, the laws were associated with a 17% decline unintentional firearm death rates among children. The laws' effects were not equal across states. Florida's CAP law was associated with a 51% decline; however, there were no statistically significant aggregate or state-specific law effects in the other 14 states with CAP laws. Florida's CAP law-1 of only 3 such laws allowing felony prosecution of violators-appears to have significantly reduced unintentional firearm deaths to children. However, there is no evidence of effects in the other 14 states with CAP laws.

  16. LOST CHILDREN OF MODERNISM MODERNİZMİN KAYIP ÇOCUKLARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkan GÖZÜTOK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Modernism and modernity is comprised of social transformation which is desired by western society through enlightenment philosophy. Western society has gained a new individual and society through scientific and technological developments in Enlightenment (18th century and improvement (19th century ages. This innovative thought has an intense effect on 20th century people and matters of postmodern people have started to become the main theme of aesthetic. J. D. Salinger, in this novel written after the World War II, criticizes modernism. He narrates depression of modern people who gained scientific development and money but lost innocence and austerity on Holden Cauldfield who is a young high school boy. According to Salinger modern people is unhappy. The reason of this unhappiness is replacement of moral values with corrupted values emerged by education, science and knowledge and loss of people’s soul versus material. Therefore, Houlden Cauldfield can not get on with society, alienates and suffers. Modernizm ve modernite kavramlarının temelinde Batı toplumunun Aydınlanma felsefesiyle ulaşmayı istediği toplumsal dönüşüm vardır. Batı toplumu, Aydınlanma (18.yüzyıl ve ilerleme (19.yy çağlarında bilimsel ve teknolojik gelişmelerle beraber yeni bir birey ve toplum düşünüşüne kavuşmuştur. B düşünüş biçimi özellikle 20.yüzyıl insanında yoğunlukla kendini hissettirmiş ve modernizm sonrası insanın sorunları estetiğin de başlıca teması olmaya başlamıştır. J. D. Salinger de II. Dünya Savaşı’nın hemen arkasından yazdığı bu romanında modernizmin eleştirisini yapar. Her türlü bilimsel gelişmeye, paraya kavuşan fakat sadeliği ve masumiyeti bozulan modern insanın yaşadığı bunalımı liseli bir genç olan Holden Cauldfield’ın gözünden aktarır. Salinger’a göre modern insan mutsuzdur. Bu mutsuzluğunun nedeni ise, moral değerlerini eğitim, bilim ve bilgiyle gelen yozlaşmış de

  17. The Return of the Lost Bees: Wild Children in the Limits of the Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Alonso, María

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild children are a category of persons that has in common to have passed the first years of their lives in isolation state, understanding by isolation a situation in which the individual remains without human company, although can coexist with another type of social animals like wolves or monkeys. This article explores the main interpretative models on their existence, that have been followed one another throughout the time, to transform these creatures in privileged objects of the experimentation on the limits of the human nature and on the dangers of culture.

    Los niños salvajes son una categoría de personas que tiene en común el haber pasado los primeros años de su vida en estado de aislamiento, entendiendo por aislamiento una situación en la que el individuo permanece sin compañía humana, aunque pueda convivir con otro tipo de animales sociales como lobos o monos. Este artículo plantea los principales modelos interpretativos sobre su existencia, que se han ido sucediendo a lo largo del tiempo, y que han convertido a estas criaturas en objetos privilegiados de la experimentación sobre los límites de la naturaleza humana y sobre los peligros de la cultura.

  18. State-level school competitive food and beverage laws are associated with children's weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; Oh, April; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Chriqui, Jamie F; Mâsse, Louise C; Moser, Richard P; Perna, Frank

    2014-09-01

    This study attempted to determine whether state laws regulating low nutrient, high energy-dense foods and beverages sold outside of the reimbursable school meals program (referred to as "competitive foods") are associated with children's weight status. We use the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) database of state codified law(s) relevant to school nutrition. States were classified as having strong, weak, or no competitive food laws in 2005 based on strength and comprehensiveness. Parent-reported height and weight along with demographic, behavioral, family, and household characteristics were obtained from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses estimated the association between states' competitive food laws and children's overweight and obesity status (body mass index [BMI]-for-age ≥85th percentile). Children (N = 16,271) between the ages of 11-14 years with a BMI for age ≥5th percentile who attended public school were included. Children living in states with weak competitive food laws for middle schools had over a 20% higher odds of being overweight or obese than children living in states with either no or strong school competitive food laws. State-level school competitive food and beverage laws merit attention with efforts to address the childhood obesity epidemic. Attention to the specificity and requirements of these laws should also be considered. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. The right to counsel of children in conflict with the law: case study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The right to counse is the cornerstone for all other human rights of accused persons. The eminence of the right is even more acute in the case of children in conflict with the law. This necessitated state's duty to deliver legal assistance to children in conflict with the law under international instruments. In Ethiopia, even though ...

  20. Protection of the Children in Armed Conflicts (Approaches of International Law and Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Mirmohammadi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The inauspicious phenomenon of war violates and threatens all rights of the children including right to life, right to live in the family, right to health, right to progress and right to education. According to the recent reports of the international organizations, forced conscription and direct involvement of the children in the conflicts, killing and disabling them, attack on the schools and hospitals, kidnapping, child sexual exploitation, and depriving them of access to humanitarian reliefs are six cases of violence which are committed against the children in armed conflicts. The present article is an attempt to comparatively study the Islamic approach and international approach to protection of children in armed conflicts in the light of the recent reports. The Islamic law and the international law both have general and special provisions for the protection of children. Children’s interests are protected in the reduction of big and small weapons. پدیده نامیمون جنگ همه حقوق کودکان از جمله حق حیات، حق زندگی در کنار خانواده، حق بهداشت، حق پیشرفت و تحصیل کودکان را نقض و تهدید می‌کند. مطابق گزارش‌های جدید مجامع بین‌المللی، سربازگیری اجباری و مشارکت دادن مستقیم کودکان در درگیری‌ها، کشتن و نقص عضو ، هجوم به مدارس و بیمارستان‌ها، ربودن، تجاوز و خشونت جنسی و محروم کردن از دسترسی به کمک‌های انسان دوستانه، شش مورد از خشونت‌هایی است که در درگیری‌های مسلحانه علیه کودکان اعمال می‌شود. مقاله حاضر با ملاحظه گزارش‌های جدید و در یک مطالعه تطبیقی طی سه گفتار، رهیافت‌های بین‌المللی و اسلامی حمایت از

  1. Use of PET/CT instead of CT-only when planning for radiation therapy does not notably increase life years lost in children being treated for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Josefine S.; Brodin, Nils Patrik; Christensen, Charlotte Birk

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: PET/CT may be more helpful than CT alone for radiation therapy planning, but the added risk due to higher doses of ionizing radiation is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of cancer induction and mortality attributable to the [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET and CT scans...... used for radiation therapy planning in children with cancer, and compare to the risks attributable to the cancer treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Organ doses and effective doses were estimated for 40 children (2-18 years old) who had been scanned using PET/CT as part of radiation therapy planning....... Multivariate linear regression was performed to find predictors for a high contribution to life years lost from the radiation therapy planning diagnostics. RESULTS: The mean contribution from PET to the effective dose from one PET/CT scan was 24% (range: 7-64%). The average proportion of life years lost...

  2. Participation in Family Law Proceedings for Children Whose Father Is Violent to Their Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Maria; Nasman, Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the opportunities and obstacles for vulnerable and victimized children's participation in family law proceedings. With the help of a set of interviews with children, a framework for the analysis of vulnerable and victimized children's participation is outlined with reference to, on the one hand, the childhood studies debates…

  3. Reasons and Causes: Children's Understanding of Conformity to Social Rules and Physical Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Examined 3- to 5-year olds' justifications for conformity to physical laws and social rules. Found that children's justifications for social rule conformity involved consequences and permission/obligation, and for physical laws involved physical limitations or impossibility. Older preschoolers, but not 3-year olds, appreciated that social…

  4. Children with Autism in Ethiopia: Diagnosis, Laws, and Educational and Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleke, Waganesh

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, the law, education, and intervention regarding childhood developmental disorders in Ethiopia have experienced significant reforms and development. However, education and intervention for children with severe developmental disabilities, especially children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), still suffer the greatest…

  5. Foundational facts, relative truths : a comparative law study on children's right to know their genetic origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blauwhoff, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this comparative law study the scope of children's right to know their genetic parentage is assessed in the framework of the UN Children's Rights Convention, the European Convention on Human Rights and four continental European jurisdictions: France, Germany, The Netherlands and Portugal. A legal

  6. Unmeasured costs of a child's death: perceived financial burden, work disruptions, and economic coping strategies used by American and Australian families who lost children to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussel, Veronica; Bona, Kira; Heath, John A; Hilden, Joanne M; Weeks, Jane C; Wolfe, Joanne

    2011-03-10

    Financial concerns represent a major stressor for families of children with cancer but remain poorly understood among those with terminally ill children. We describe the financial hardship, work disruptions, income loss, and coping strategies of families who lost children to cancer. Retrospective cross-sectional survey of 141 American and 89 Australian bereaved parents whose children died between 1990 and 1999 and 1996 to 2004, respectively, at three tertiary-care pediatric hospitals (two American, one Australian). Response rate: 63%. Thirty-four (24%) of 141 families from US centers and 34 (39%) of 88 families from the Australian center reported a great deal of financial hardship resulting from their children's illness. Work disruptions were substantial (84% in the United States, 88% in Australia). Australian families were more likely to report quitting a job (49% in Australia v 35% in the United States; P = .037). Sixty percent of families lost more than 10% of their annual income as a result of work disruptions. Australians were more likely to lose more than 40% of their income (34% in Australia v 19% in the United States; P = .035). Poor families experienced the greatest income loss. After accounting for income loss, 16% of American and 22% of Australian families dropped below the poverty line. Financial hardship was associated with poverty and income loss in all centers. Fundraising was the most common financial coping strategy (52% in the United States v 33% in Australia), followed by reduced spending. In these US and Australian centers, significant household-level financial effects of a child's death as a result of cancer were observed, especially for poor families. Interventions aimed at reducing the effects of income loss may ease financial distress.

  7. The effect of the Swedish bicycle helmet law for children: an interrupted time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonander, Carl; Nilson, Finn; Andersson, Ragnar

    2014-12-01

    Previous population-based research has shown that bicycle helmet laws can reduce head injury rates among cyclists. According to deterrence theory, such laws are mainly effective if there is a high likelihood of being apprehended. In this study, we investigated the effect of the Swedish helmet law for children under the age of 15, a population that cannot be fined. An interrupted time series design was used. Monthly inpatient data on injured cyclists from 1998-2012, stratified by age (0-14, 15+), sex, and injury diagnosis, was obtained from the National Patient Register. The main outcome measure was the proportion of head injury admissions per month. Intervention effect estimates were obtained using generalized autoregressive moving average (GARMA) models. Pre-legislation trend and seasonality was adjusted for, and differences-in-differences estimation was obtained using adults as a non-equivalent control group. There was a statistically significant intervention effect among male children, where the proportion of head injuries dropped by 7.8 percentage points. There was no evidence of an intervention effect on the proportion of head injuries among female children. According to hospital admission data, the bicycle helmet law appears to have had an effect only on male children. This study, while quasi-experimental and thus not strictly generalizable, can contribute to increased knowledge regarding the effects of bicycle helmet laws. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Children of lesbian and gay parents: psychology, law, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Charlotte J

    2009-11-01

    Legal and policy questions relevant to the lives of lesbian and gay parents and their children have recently been subjects of vigorous debate. Among the issues for which psychological research has been seen as particularly relevant are questions regarding child custody after divorce, same-sex marriage, adoption, and foster care. This article provides an overview of the current legal terrain for lesbian and gay parents and their children in the United States today, an overview of relevant social science research, and some commentary on the interface between the two. It is concluded that research findings on lesbian and gay parents and their children provide no warrant for legal discrimination against these families. Copyright 2009 by the American Psychological Association

  9. Right to Manage Children's Property in Iranian Positive Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfehanian, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Due to body and mind weakness and inability, children are prohibited from managing their own property and have been under tutelage and guardianship for comprehensive care and support so that all matters and issues related to them (maintenance, training, education and management of property) have been assigned to their supervisor and protector;…

  10. The Ones the Law Forgot: Children Working in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shelley; Leonard, James B.

    Contrary to popular perception, the agricultural workplace presents many hazards. Yet children are allowed to work on farms at an age when they are likely to lack the training, skill, or maturity to handle these functions safely. This study of child labor in agriculture is divided into seven parts. Following an introductory section, part 2…

  11. State firearm laws, firearm ownership, and safety practices among families of preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prickett, Kate C; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-06-01

    We investigated how state-level firearms legislation is associated with firearm ownership and storage among families with preschool-aged children. Using 2005 nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n = 8100), we conducted multinomial regression models to examine the associations between state-level firearms legislation generally, child access prevention (CAP) firearms legislation specifically, and parental firearm ownership and storage safety practices. Overall, 8% of families with children aged 4 years living in states with stronger firearm laws and CAP laws owned firearms compared with 24% of families in states with weaker firearm laws and no CAP laws. Storage behaviors of firearm owners differed minimally across legislative contexts. When we controlled for family- and state-level characteristics, we found that firearm legislation and CAP laws interacted to predict ownership and storage behaviors, with unsafe storage least likely among families in states with both CAP laws and stronger firearm legislation. Broader firearm legislation is linked with the efficacy of child-specific legislation in promoting responsible firearm ownership.

  12. Protection against diarrhea associated with Giardia intestinalis is lost with Multi-Nutrient Supplementation: A Study in Tanzanian Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenemans, J.; Mank, T.; Ottenhof, M.; Baidjoe, A.Y.; Mbugi, E.V.; Demir, A.Y.; Wielders, J.P.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Verhoef, J.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background - Asymptomatic carriage of Giardia intestinalis is highly prevalent among children in developing countries, and evidence regarding its role as a diarrhea-causing agent in these settings is controversial. Impaired linear growth and cognition have been associated with giardiasis, presumably

  13. No-Fault Divorce Laws and the Labor Supply of Women with and without Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genadek, Katie R.; Stock, Wendy A.; Stoddard, Christiana

    2007-01-01

    We use a difference-in-difference-in-difference estimator to compare changes in labor force participation, weeks, and hours of work associated with no-fault divorce laws, allowing for differential responses for married women with and without children. Although other research has found that the labor supply of women in general does not respond to…

  14. Crisis in Family Law: Children as Victims of Divorce. Report #R101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council for Children's Rights, Washington, DC.

    Emphasizing the shortcomings of family law and their impact on divorced families and children, this report discusses a variety of topics related to divorce. Topics covered in the report include the following: (1) divorce statistics; (2) methods of resolving family disputes; (3) the marital contract; (4) the public's image of divorced fathers; (5)…

  15. Legal and criminal law protection of children from sexual violence: Proposals de Lege Ferenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Nikola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal and criminal law protection of children from sexual violence is a major element of the combat against this complex form of crime. Well-designed laws, consistency in their implementation, evaluation of effects and effectiveness of the measures envisaged by the laws are only some steps that must be made if the positive results are expected in opposing any crime, and therefore to sexual violence. Moreover, if we consider the consequences of attempted and/or committed sexual violence for the victim, which, if they reach the public evoke strong reaction, it is clear why the parts of the relevant legislation that regulate this matter are worthy of special attention to scientific and professional public. However, the mission of finding a fair legislative solution is not simple. In this sense, the United States of America have the richest experience, and we shall just try to point out the importance and complexity of the regulation of criminal law protection of children from sexual violence through critical analysis of their proposals and already adopted solutions, as well as through analysis of certain elements of domestic legislation. The aim of this study is review and critical analysis of selected proposals and existing solutions in the sphere of legal and criminal law protection of children from sexual violence: the U.S. law that regulates formation of the registry of sex offenders which is available to the public ('Megan's law', legal solutions that provide chemical castration of 'pedophiles', as well as those related to the question of establishing the age limit that determines possibility of entering into consensual sexual relations with a minor.

  16. Kosher dietary laws and children's food preferences: guide to a camp menu plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitelson, M; Fiedler, K

    1982-10-01

    Assessment of the food preferences of Jewish children and experience with the kosher dietary laws facilitated the planning of a summer camp menu. A lengthy list of foods was developed that satisfied the tastes of the campers. Recipes were modified to achieve greater value in the kosher menu. Both the children and the camp administration appreciated seeing the survey results implemented as an eight-week cycle menu. Dietitians have a responsibility to understand the cultural needs and food preferences of those whom they serve. An appreciation of ethnic and religious dietary patterns is essential in menu planning. Knowledge of the laws of kashruth and familiarity with kosher products, traditional Jewish foods, and taste preferences of Jewish children and adults are necessary to the dietitian wishing to please Jewish clientele.

  17. Criminal Justice System of Children in The Law Number 11 of 2012 (Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansori Ansori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of the children will determine the future of the nation. The increasing problem of juvenile delinquency in this globalization and information technology era, requires the state to give more attention to the child's future. Application of the criminal justice system for children in Indonesia is as stipulated in Law Number 3 of 1997 potentially detrimental to the child's interests. In practice, the judicial system had many problems, among them is a violation of the rights of children, such as: physical and psychological violence, as well as deprivation of the right to education and welfare. It happened because the juvenile justice system is against to national and international regulations on the protection of children’s rights. Besides that, theory of punishment for the juvenile delinquency still refers to the concept of retribution for the crimes. This concept is not very useful for the development of the child, so the concept need to be repaired with the concept of restorative justice. With this concept, the criminal justice system for the juvenile delinquency, leads to the restoration of the state and the settlement pattern, involving the perpetrator, the victim, their families and engage with the community. This is done with consideration for the protection of children against the law. Whereas in line with this spirit of the restorative justice, it gives birth to the Law No. 11 of 2012 on The Criminal Justice System of Children. How To Cite: Ansori, A. (2014. Criminal Justice System of Children in The Law Number 11 of 2012 (Restorative Justice. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 11-26. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.95

  18. Warranties of Albanian criminal law for children protection from “pornography”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Menkshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on the Analysis of current Albanian Criminal Law regarding criminal acts of pornography. This paper will analyze Albanian Criminal Law, under the perspective of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, to reflect the alignment of criminal law with Convention, as a minimum guarantee to be provided by the States. Another element of this paper is the approach of criminal law in the context of the defence of children from pornography with judicial practice. In this way the effectiveness of Criminal Law, on prevention and protection of society, family and especially children, from pornography will be identified. This paper considers the judicial practice in other European countries, but also from the United States and other countries on other continents, as a source of the definition of pornography and its application. This analysis is conducted through the prism of Criminological and criminal policy, to identify the current state of the Albanian legislation to protect minors from pornography, challenges and its prospects, both in legislative and practical terms.

  19. Law in Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Law-Related Education Advisory Council, Cheyenne.

    This document is intended to give students an overview of laws in Wyoming. Subjects covered include civil and criminal law; courts in Wyoming; juvenile law, juvenile court procedure; rights of children; family law; employment law; automobile-related law; laws affecting the schools; and citizenship rights and responsibilities. The laws and courts…

  20. Children are safer in states with strict firearm laws: a National Inpatient Sample study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Arash; Rhee, Peter; Pandit, Viraj; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Tang, Andrew; Aziz, Hassan; Green, Donald; O'Keeffe, Terence; Vercruysse, Gary; Friese, Randall S; Joseph, Bellal

    2014-01-01

    Firearm control laws vary across the United States and remain state specific. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between variation in states' firearm control laws and the risk of firearm-related injuries in pediatric population. We hypothesized that strict firearm control laws impact the incidence of pediatric firearm injury. All patients with trauma Ecodes and those 18 years or younger were identified from the 2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Individual states' firearm control laws were evaluated and scored based on background checks on firearm sales, permit requirements, assault weapon and large-capacity magazine ban, mandatory child safety lock requirements, and regulations regarding firearms in college and workplaces. States were then dichotomized into strict firearm laws (SFLs) and non-strict firearm laws (non-SFLs) state based on median total score. The primary outcome measure was incidence of firearm injury. Data were compared between the two groups using simple linear regression analysis. A total of 60,224 pediatric patients with trauma-related injuries across 44 states were included. Thirty-three states were categorized as non-SFL and 11 as SFL. Two hundred eighty-six (0.5%) had firearm injuries, of which 31 were self-inflicted. Mean firearm injury rates per 1,000 trauma patients was higher in the non-SFL states (mean [SD]: SFL, 2.2 [1.6]; non-SFL, 5.9 [5.6]; p = 0. 001). Being in a non-SFL state increased the mean firearm injury rate by 3.75 (β coefficient, 3.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-7.25; p = 0.036). Children living in states with strict firearm legislation are safer. Efforts to improve and standardize national firearm control laws are warranted. Prognostic study, level III.

  1. State-Level School Competitive Food and Beverage Laws Are Associated with Children's Weight Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; Oh, April; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Mâsse, Louise C.; Moser, Richard P.; Perna, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study attempted to determine whether state laws regulating low nutrient, high energy-dense foods and beverages sold outside of the reimbursable school meals program (referred to as "competitive foods") are associated with children's weight status. Methods: We use the Classification of Laws Associated with School…

  2. New Education for Underprivileged Children: The Codification of Children's Rights in Japanese Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toshiko

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the educational concepts that were pursued for the benefit of underprivileged children in the era of the New Education Movement. Children's rights in Japanese modernity, as represented by the struggle to apply New Education principles to underprivileged children, are contrasted with the conventional view of childhood in the…

  3. From Blackstone's Common Law Duty of Parents to Educate Their Children to a Constitutional Right of Parents to Control the Education of Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedler, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Blackstone's Commentaries stated that the common law imposed a duty on parents to provide for the maintenance, protection, and education of their children, and of these, the duty to provide an education was "of far the greatest importance." Early on American courts cited Blackstone for the proposition of the common law duty of parents…

  4. Sociodemographic characteristics and aggression quotient among children in conflict with the law in India: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Archit; Biddala, Ooha Susmita; Dwivedi, Mandavi; Variar, Prathyaksha; Singh, Aparna; Sen, Soham; Bhat, P Shivaram; Kunte, Renuka; Nair, Velu; Shankar, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of juvenile delinquency has increased in the past decade in India and juvenile crimes are increasingly being reported. This has been attributed to many biopsychosocial factors. It is essential to understand these issues in the context of India to determine the response of acts of children in conflict with the law. We aimed to assess the sociodemographic characteristics and the aggression quotient of children in conflict with the law (juvenile delinquents) in observation homes across India and compare them with those who were not. We did a case-control study in five juvenile homes in the cities of Hyderabad, Lucknow and Pune. Ninety inmates (74 boys, 16 girls) were included in the study. Sociodemographic characteristics and aggression quotient of children in conflict with the law were evaluated using two separate questionnaires, i.e. a sociodemographic questionnaire and the modified Buss and Perry aggression questionnaire. These were compared with a control group of similar age, sex and income status. All the children in conflict with the law surveyed belonged to the lower socioeconomic strata, had a significantly higher chance (psociodemographic attributes such as broken homes, addictions and abuse seem to have an important association with juvenile delinquency. Children in conflict with the law are also more likely to be associated with a higher aggression quotient as compared to children who were not. Copyright 2015, NMJI.

  5. [Psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents in family law proceedings. Empirical analyses from psychological expert assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbach, Jelena; Kolbe, Florian; Lübbehüsen, Bärbel; Koglin, Ute

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the frequency and distribution of mental health problems in children and adolescents who had previously been psychologically evaluated in family law proceedings. The data stem from psychological evaluations (N=298) conducted between 2008 and 2012 at an evaluation institute in Bremen, Germany. The reports included were analyzed for indications of mental health problems by means of a content analysis. The total sample consisted of 496 children and adolescents. At least one mental health problem (according to ICD-F) was found in 39.5% of the children and adolescents. The comorbidity rate was 38.7%. Developmental deficits appeared in 12.3%, emotional or conduct problems in 22.8% of the sample. Furthermore, 11.5% were reported as having been victims of violence. Frequency distributions of mental health problems with respect to the juridical issues in question are given. These results provide a first empirical overview of mental health problems in psychologically evaluated children and adolescents. Our findings highlight the need for future studies to further examine mental health problems of children and adolescents in family court proceedings with respect to the juridical issues in question.

  6. Is it lawful to offer HIV self-testing to children in South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Elaine Strode

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Health-facility-based HIV counselling and testing does not capture all children and adolescents who are at risk of HIV infection. Self-testing involves conducting an HIV test at home or in any other convenient space without the involvement of a third party. It is increasingly being argued that it should be incorporated into national HIV-prevention programmes as one of a range of HIV counselling and testing approaches. Although this model of HIV testing is being seen as a new way of reaching under-tested populations, no studies have been conducted on offering it to children. HIV self-tests are now available in South Africa and are sold without the purchaser having to be a certain age. Nevertheless, all HIV testing in children must comply with the norms set out in the Children’s Act (2005. Here we explore whether offering self-testing to children would be lawful, by outlining the four legal norms that must be met and applying them to self-HIV testing. We conclude that, although children above the age of 12 years could consent to such a test, there would be two potential obstacles. Firstly, it would have to be shown that using the test is in their best interests. This may be difficult given the potential negative consequences that could flow from testing without support and the availability of other testing services. Secondly, there would need to be a way for children to access pre- and post-test counselling or they would have to be advised that they will have expressly to waive this right. The tests are more likely to be lawful for a small sub-set of older children if: (i it assists them with HIV-prevention strategies; (ii they will be able to access treatment, care and support, even though they have tested outside of a health facility; and (iii psychosocial support services are made available to them via the internet or cell phones.

  7. Is it lawful to offer HIV self-testing to children in South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Elaine Strode

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Health-facility-based HIV counselling and testing does not capture all children and adolescents who are at risk of HIV infection. Self-testing involves conducting an HIV test at home or in any other convenient space without the involvement of a third party. It is increasingly being argued that it should be incorporated into national HIV-prevention programmes as one of a range of HIV counselling and testing approaches. Although this model of HIV testing is being seen as a new way of reaching under-tested populations, no studies have been conducted on offering it to children. HIV self-tests are now available in South Africa and are sold without the purchaser having to be a certain age. Nevertheless, all HIV testing in children must comply with the norms set out in the Children’s Act (2005. Here we explore whether offering self-testing to children would be lawful, by outlining the four legal norms that must be met and applying them to self-HIV testing. We conclude that, although children above the age of 12 years could consent to such a test, there would be two potential obstacles. Firstly, it would have to be shown that using the test is in their best interests. This may be difficult given the potential negative consequences that could flow from testing without support and the availability of other testing services. Secondly, there would need to be a way for children to access pre- and post-test counselling or they would have to be advised that they will have expressly to waive this right. The tests are more likely to be lawful for a small sub-set of older children if: (i it assists them with HIV-prevention strategies; (ii they will be able to access treatment, care and support, even though they have tested outside of a health facility; and (iii psychosocial support services are made available to them via the internet or cell phones.

  8. Lost spoiler practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürsimsek, Ödül; Drotner, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    The American television network ABC’s serialized drama Lost (2004-10) is a key example of recent media culture where both viewers and producers utilize a range of digital media tools to advance the narrative: producers through transmedia storytelling strategies and the creation of complex...... narratives, and viewers through tracing, dismantling – and sometimes questioning – content in order to create coherent meanings in the maze of narratives. Online audiences, such as spoiler communities, may uncover components of transmedia storytelling, discuss their validity and enhance them with individual...... and collective content production, thus negotiating purposes and interpretive practices with producers and amongst themselves. Through critical discourse analysis of key instances where the Lost community collaborates over resources beyond the official Lost transmedia narratives, this article argues...

  9. Protecting children: a survey of caregivers’ knowledge of Georgia’s child restraint laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Strasser

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sheryl Strasser1, Laurie Whorton2, Amanda J Walpole3, Sarah Beddington11Institute of Public Health, Partnership for Urban Health Research, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2WellStar Corporate and Community Health, Marietta, GA, USA; 3Cobb and Douglas Public Health, Marietta, GA, USAIntroduction: The leading cause of injury and death among children in the United States is motor vehicle crashes. Even though restraint laws are in place and public awareness campaigns and educational interventions have increased, many children are still improperly restrained or not restrained at all. When correctly used, child restraints significantly reduce risk of injury or death.Methods: The purpose of the study was to elicit caregiver baseline knowledge of car seat installation and regulation before receiving car seat education from certified technicians at Inspection Station events. Inspection Station is a program whereby staff assists parents in correctly positioning car seats in participants’ vehicles. Over an 8-week period, Safe Kids Cobb County Car Seat Technicians distributed a 16-item survey, with 10 knowledge-based questions and six demographic questions to Inspection Station participants. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted to assess relationships between participant age, ethnicity, and gender with overall knowledge scores. Regression analysis was run to determine the association between participant education level and total child restraint knowledge.Results: One hundred sixty-nine surveys were completed. Participant knowledge of vehicular child restraint ranged from 0% to 90% on all items. Only 29.6% of caregivers understood the proper tightness of the harness system. Less than half of the caregivers (43.8% were aware of the Georgia law requiring children aged 6 years and younger to be in some type of child restraint. Only 43.2% of caregivers surveyed knew that children need to ride in a rear-facing child restraint until 1

  10. Protecting children: a survey of caregivers’ knowledge of Georgia’s child restraint laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Sheryl; Whorton, Laurie; Walpole, Amanda J; Beddington, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The leading cause of injury and death among children in the United States is motor vehicle crashes. Even though restraint laws are in place and public awareness campaigns and educational interventions have increased, many children are still improperly restrained or not restrained at all. When correctly used, child restraints significantly reduce risk of injury or death. Methods The purpose of the study was to elicit caregiver baseline knowledge of car seat installation and regulation before receiving car seat education from certified technicians at Inspection Station events. Inspection Station is a program whereby staff assists parents in correctly positioning car seats in participants’ vehicles. Over an 8-week period, Safe Kids Cobb County Car Seat Technicians distributed a 16-item survey, with 10 knowledge-based questions and six demographic questions to Inspection Station participants. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted to assess relationships between participant age, ethnicity, and gender with overall knowledge scores. Regression analysis was run to determine the association between participant education level and total child restraint knowledge. Results One hundred sixty-nine surveys were completed. Participant knowledge of vehicular child restraint ranged from 0% to 90% on all items. Only 29.6% of caregivers understood the proper tightness of the harness system. Less than half of the caregivers (43.8%) were aware of the Georgia law requiring children aged 6 years and younger to be in some type of child restraint. Only 43.2% of caregivers surveyed knew that children need to ride in a rear-facing child restraint until 1 year of age and 20 pounds. No significant correlations between participant knowledge and age were found. Statistically significant associations were found between total knowledge scores and education level, ethnicity, and gender. Discussion The results from this study describe baseline knowledge among a sample of

  11. Reason and Paradox in Medical and Family Law: Shaping Children's Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Brian D; Hendry, Jennifer; Thomson, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Legal outcomes often depend on the adjudication of what may appear to be straightforward distinctions. In this article, we consider two such distinctions that appear in medical and family law deliberations: the distinction between religion and culture and between therapeutic and non-therapeutic. These distinctions can impact what constitutes 'reasonable parenting' or a child's 'best interests' and thus the limitations that may be placed on parental actions. Such distinctions are often imagined to be asocial facts, there for the judge to discover. We challenge this view, however, by examining the controversial case of B and G [2015]. In this case, Sir James Munby stated that the cutting of both male and female children's genitals for non-therapeutic reasons constituted 'significant harm' for the purposes of the Children Act 1989. He went on to conclude, however, that while it can never be reasonable parenting to inflict any form of non-therapeutic genital cutting on a female child, such cutting on male children was currently tolerated. We argue that the distinctions between religion/culture and therapeutic/non-therapeutic upon which Munby LJ relied in making this judgement cannot in fact ground categorically differential legal treatment of female and male children. We analyse these distinctions from a systems theoretical perspective-specifically with reference to local paradoxes-to call into question the current legal position. Our analysis suggests that conventional distinctions drawn between religion/culture and the therapeutic/non-therapeutic in other legal contexts require much greater scrutiny than they are usually afforded. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Lost in Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2009-01-01

    performance, the article examines how the growing locative media industry can learn from the location-aware performative strategies employed by artists who create situated and urban performances for the curious participant. The academic frames employed in the analysis draw on psychogeography, site......-specific performance, social and cultural geography, and aspects of phenomenology....... traversed. While becoming destination aware, the individual loses her location awareness. The article proposes that the reason people get lost when using sat-nav is due to a wrong location-performative paradigm. As an alternative, the article introduces and analyzes two performance-related examples...

  13. The Lost Guidewire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Shah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 44-year-old female called 911 complaining of abdominal pain, but was unresponsive upon arrival by emergency medical services (EMS. She presented to the emergency department (ED as a full cardiac arrest and had return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and epinephrine. The patient had a splenic embolization 1 week prior to presentation. Bedside ultrasound demonstrated free fluid throughout the abdomen. As part of the resuscitation, femoral central venous access was obtained by the Emergency Department (ED physician, and a medical student was allowed to place a Cordis over the guidewire. The attending was next to the student, though became distracted when the patient again lost pulses. The student lost control of the guidewire upon re-initiation of CPR. Another Cordis was placed in the same location by the ED physician after the guidewire was seen on a chest radiograph. The patient was taken to the operating room with massive transfusion protocol, and the guidewire was left in the vena caval system until the patient could be stabilized. Two days later, interventional radiology removed the guidewire via a right internal jugular (IJ approach without complications. The patient had a prolonged and complicated course, but was discharged home two weeks later at her baseline. Significant findings: Initial chest radiograph shows a guidewire in the inferior vena cava (IVC, superior vena cava (SVC, and right IJ veins. Discussion: Central line complications include failure to place the catheter, improper catheter location, hemothorax from vascular injury, infection, arrhythmia, and cardiac arrest1. Complications from lost guidewires include cardiac dysrhythmias, cardiac conduction abnormalities, perforation of vessels/heart chambers, kinking/looping/knotting of the wire, entanglement of previously placed intravascular devices, breakage of the tip of the wire and subsequent embolization and

  14. Impact of Alabama's immigration law on access to health care among Latina immigrants and children: implications for national reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kari; Yeager, Valerie A; Menachemi, Nir; Scarinci, Isabel C

    2014-03-01

    We conducted in-depth interviews in May to July 2012 to evaluate the effect of Alabama's 2011 omnibus immigration law on Latina immigrants and their US- and foreign-born children's access to and use of health services. The predominant effect of the law on access was a reduction in service availability. Affordability and acceptability of care were adversely affected because of economic insecurity and women's increased sense of discrimination. Nonpregnant women and foreign-born children experienced the greatest barriers, but pregnant women and mothers of US-born children also had concerns about accessing care. The implications of restricting access to health services and the potential impact this has on public health should be considered in local and national immigration reform discussions.

  15. Getting Lost in Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Lucas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential for using alternative forms of inscriptive practice to describe the urban space of the Tokyo Subway. I begin with an account of the process of getting lost in Shinjuku Subway Station in the heart of Tokyo. This station represents a limit condition of place, being dense and complex beyond the powers of traditional architectural representation. The station is explored through serial translations, beginning with narrative, moving to a flowchart diagram, Laban dance notation, recurring motifs and archetypes, architectural drawing, photography, and cartography. As Claudia Brodsky Lacour and Tim Ingold describe, the form our inscriptive practices take are crucial to the ways in which we conceptualise those places. How much of the experience of a place is lost in the traditional inscriptive practices of the architect? This description of the urban space of the Tokyo subway forms the basis for an extended study exploring the description of this experience of place, and the power of such description to theorise space. The ultimate aim of this is to shift the focus of urban design away from geometric principles and towards the experiences that might be enjoyed in such places.

  16. Crowdsourcing Lost Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, E. K.; Georgopoulos, A.; Panagiotopoulos, G.; Kaliampakos, D.

    2015-08-01

    Cultural Heritage all over the world is at high risk. Natural and human activities endanger the current state of monuments and sites, whereas many of them have already been destroyed especially during the last years. Preventive actions are of utmost importance for the protection of human memory and the prevention of irreplaceable. These actions may be carried out either in situ or virtually. Very often in situ preventive, or protective or restoration actions are difficult or even impossible, as e.g. in cases of earthquakes, fires or war activity. Digital preservation of cultural heritage is a challenging task within photogrammetry and computer vision communities, as efforts are taken to collect digital data, especially of the monuments that are at high risk. Visit to the field and data acquisition is not always feasible. To overcome the missing data problem, crowdsourced imagery is used to create a visual representation of lost cultural heritage objects. Such digital representations may be 2D or 3D and definitely help preserve the memory and history of the lost heritage. Sometimes they also assist studies for their reconstruction. An initiative to collect imagery data from the public and create a visual 3D representation of a recently destroyed stone bridge almost 150 years old is being discussed in this study. To this end, a crowdsourcing platform has been designed and the first images collected have been processed with the use of SfM algorithms.

  17. Understanding grief in children who have lost a parent with cancer: How do they give meaning to this experience? Results of an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahault, Cécile; Dolbeault, S; Sankey, C; Fasse, L

    2017-11-27

    Though the adjustment of bereaved children is increasingly investigated through quantitative studies, their intimate representations regarding the loss of their parent remain unknown. This qualitative study aims at exploring how they give meaning to this experience. Nondirective interviews with bereaved children were conducted and submitted to an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Fourteen children (8 boys, 6 girls, mean age = 8.5 years) were recruited. Seven major themes depicting their grief experience were identified. The importance of the surviving parent is critically highlighted. Findings suggest that the remaining parent could become a fundamental actor in providing grief support for the bereaved children.

  18. Lost in transformation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlyk, Annelise; Haahr, Anita; Dreyer, Pia

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on our previous empirical research, we provide an exemplary narrative to illustrate how patients have experienced hospital care organized according to evidence-based fast-track programmes. The aim of this paper is to analyse and discuss if and how it is possible to include patients...... rigorously. The other is a course of democratization based on patients’ involvement in care. Referring to the analysis of the narrative we argue that, in the current implementation of evidence-based practice, the proposed involvement of patients resembles empty rhetoric. We argue that the principles...... and values from evidence-based medicine are being lost in the transformation into the current evidence-based hospital culture which potentially leads to a McDonaldization of nursing practice reflected as ‘one best way’. We argue for reviving ethics of care perspectives in today’s evidence practice...

  19. Lost in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  20. Smartphone lost - Privacy gone

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Who doesn't own an iPhone, Android or Blackberry mobile phone today? Lucky you if you don’t! In previous issues (Issue 06/07, 2012 and Issue 32/33/34, 2011) we have pointed out their lack of security. But what happens if you lose your smartphone or it gets stolen?   Today, a smartphone clones your personality into the digital world. Your phone archives all your emails and messaging communications with your family, friends, peers and colleagues; contains photos and videos of the top moments of your life; holds your favourite music and movies and zillions of other bits of personal information stored in the apps of your choice (like GPS information of your jogging paths, a vault of your passwords, access to your Facebook or Twitter profiles, bank access information, flight and hotel bookings). In the future, your phone might also be used for making payments in shops. Have you ever thought of how you would feel if you lost your smartphone or it got stolen? Nak...

  1. Lost in Fathoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondeur, Anaïs; Chomaz, Jean-Marc

    2014-11-01

    In 2012, at the very point where two continents collided, the island of Nuuk disappeared without trace. At the same time, in Brisbane, the 34th International Geological Congress advanced a new era-the Anthropocene: an age where mankind has become a global telluric force. Was the disappearance of Nuuk island a one-off or a direct consequence of the emergence of the Anthropocene? This project was developed during a year of research as an artist-in-residence at LadHyX and has evolved from an expedition of the emergent part of the Mid-Atlantic ridge and the region of deep oceanic water dive. This talk will present Lost In fathoms a narratives composed of installations, drawings and photographs by the means of which we investigate the causes involved in the disappearance of Nuuk island. It challenges the perception of oceanic and geologic time scales and human's impact on the environment. This project is exhibited from October 16th to November 29th 2014, at GV Art Gallery in London, a contemporary art gallery devoted to art and science shows. Acknowledgment: GV Art Gallery London, Chaire DDX École Polytechnique, LaSIPS Université Paris-Saclay.

  2. Implementation and Operational Research: Early Tracing of Children Lost to Follow-Up From Antiretroviral Treatment: True Outcomes and Future Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardura-Garcia, Cristina; Feldacker, Caryl; Tweya, Hannock; Chaweza, Thom; Kalulu, Mike; Phiri, Sam; Wang, Duolao; Weigel, Ralf

    2015-12-15

    Loss to follow-up (LTFU) challenges the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up among pediatric patients. Little is known about children who drop out of care. We aim to analyze risk factors for LTFU among children on ART, find their true outcomes through tracing, and investigate their final outcomes after resuming ART. This is a descriptive, retrospective, cohort study of children on ART between April 2006 and December 2010 in 2 clinics in urban Malawi. Routine data from an electronic data system were used and matched with information obtained through routine tracing procedures. Of 985 children (1999 child-years) on ART, 251 were LTFU: 12.6/100 child-years. At ART initiation, wasting [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.58 and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02 to 2.44] was independently associated with higher risk of LTFU. Of 201 LTFU children traced, 79% were found: 11% died, 25% stopped, 26% transferred-out, and 37% were still on ART. Median time between last visit and first tracing was 84 days (interquartile range: 64-101 days). Tracing reduced risk of LTFU by 38% (AHR 0.62 and 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.91) and decreased LTFU from 23.2% to 8.5%. Additional outcomes of stop, death, and transfer-out increased 4.4-fold, 1.8-fold, and 1.3-fold, respectively. Traced children with gaps in ART intake who resumed ART had higher risk of stopping (AHR 4.92 and 95% CI: 1.67 to 14.5) and transfer out (AHR 2.70 and 95% CI: 1.75 to 4.17) as final outcome. Early tracing substantially reduces LTFU; approximately one-third presumed LTFU was found to be still on ART. Children with wasting at initiation and those traced and found to have irregular ART intake require targeted interventions.

  3. Lost Circulation Technology Development Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowka, David A.; Schafer, Diane M.; Loeppke, Glen E.; Scott, Douglas D.; Wernig, Marcus D.; Wright, Elton K.

    1992-03-24

    Lost circulation is the loss of drilling fluid from the wellbore to fractures or pores in the rock formation. In geothermal drilling, lost circulation is often a serious problem that contributes greatly to the cost of the average geothermal well. The Lost Circulation Technology Development Program is sponsored at Sandia National Laboratories by the U.S. Department of Energy. The goal of the program is to reduce lost circulation costs by 30-50% through the development of mitigation and characterization technology. This paper describes the technical progress made in this program during the period April, 1991-March, 1992.

  4. Lost circulation technology development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowka, D.A.; Schafer, D.M.; Loeppke, G.E.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D.; Wright, E.K.

    1992-07-01

    Lost circulation is the loss of drilling fluid from the wellbore to fractures or pores in the rock formation. In geothermal drilling, lost circulation is often a serious problem that contributes greatly to the cost of the average geothermal well. The Lost Circulation Technology Development Program is sponsored at Sandia National Laboratories by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the program is to reduce lost circulation costs by 30--50% through the development of mitigation and characterization technology. This paper describes the technical progress made in this program during the period April 1991--March 1992. 8 refs.

  5. Lost circulation technology development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowka, D.A.; Schafer, D.M.; Loeppke, G.E.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D.; Wright, E.K.

    1992-01-01

    Lost circulation is the loss of drilling fluid from the wellbore to fractures or pores in the rock formation. In geothermal drilling, lost circulation is often a serious problem that contributes greatly to the cost of the average geothermal well. The Lost Circulation Technology Development Program is sponsored at Sandia National Laboratories by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the program is to reduce lost circulation costs by 30--50% through the development of mitigation and characterization technology. This paper describes the technical progress made in this program during the period April 1991--March 1992. 8 refs.

  6. Community Notification Laws

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Speck, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    .... Furthermore, a false sense of security and reductions in incest reporting continue to victimize children, which results in further sex offender laws passed by legislatures without empirical data supporting such laws...

  7. Prevalence and Years of Life Lost due to Disability from Dental Caries among Children and Adolescents in Western China, 1990-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Deng, Ying; Liu, Shi Wei; He, Jun; Ji, Kui; Zeng, Xin Ying; Yang, Shu Juan; Xu, Xin Yin; Luo, Yu; Zhou, Mai Geng; Zhang, Jian Xin

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence and years lived with disability (YLD) from dental caries among children and adolescents and the time trends over the past two decades in Sichuan province, the largest province in west China. Based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD2015), which systematically assessed the epidemiological characteristics of major diseases and their transitions by country and region from 1990 to 2015, we extracted the estimated results for China. We then used the Bayesian meta-regression method to estimate the sex- and age-specific prevalences and YLDs from dental caries among children and adolescents under 15 years old in Sichuan province and compared them with global and national indicators for the same period. In 2015, there were almost 6 million cases of dental caries in children and adolescents (aged caries was 55.9%, and the YLDs value was 10.8 per 100,000, while it was 24.3% and 5.1 per 100,000 respectively among 5- to 14-year-olds; for those aged 5 to 14 years, the prevalence of permanent caries was 21.5%, and the YLDs value was 11.5 per 100,000. From 1990 to 2015, the prevalence of dental caries for children under 5 years increased substantially, by 16.2%, and the YLDs increased by 8.7%. Among those aged 5 to 14 years, the prevalence increased and the YLDs decreased. Dental caries remains a huge health burden in Western China. In contrast to the global and national data, the trend has increased rapidly over the past 25 years in this region. This work provides suggestions for the prevention and control for oral health in China with the policy of two-child. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  8. Adoption Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Joan Heifetz

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to achieve uniformity in state adoption laws are confronted by a lack of consensus on six major issues: (1) parental consent and interests; (2) children's interests; (3) the nature of the actual adoption transaction; (4) adoptive relationships as substitutes for biological relationships; (5) confidentiality and anonymity; and (6) the…

  9. 8 CFR 324.3 - Women, citizens of the United States at birth, who lost or are believed to have lost citizenship...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARRIAGE AND FORMER CITIZENS WHOSE NATURALIZATION IS AUTHORIZED BY PRlVATE LAW § 324.3 Women, citizens of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Women, citizens of the United States at birth, who lost or are believed to have lost citizenship by marriage and whose marriage has terminated...

  10. 8 CFR 214.15 - Certain spouses and children of lawful permanent residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Port-of-Entry and has a current priority date but does not have a pending immigrant visa abroad or... approval of: (1) A relative visa petition; (2) The availability of an immigrant visa number; or (3) Lawful permanent resident (LPR) status through adjustment of status or an immigrant visa. (b) Aliens already in the...

  11. CHILDREN, CONFLICT AND INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE: EXPLORING THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD DURING ARMED CONFLICT WITH RESPECT TO HUMANITARIAN LAW AND TO HUMAN RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehari Fisseha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between humanitarian law and human rights has become at once more enigmatically ambiguous and more tightly bound during recent years. The ratification of the Optional Protocol on the involvement of children during armed conflicts (hereinafter “Protocol” in February of 2002 is indicative of how inextricably linked international, humanitarian law and human rights have become within the first decade of the twenty-first century.

  12. Lost in a Transmedia Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Smith

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo (previamente publicado como um capítulo de minha tese analisa os mecanismos transmidiáticos de storytelling por trás da narrativa do seriado Lost, da ABC. Por ter sua narrativa sustentada em uma complexa mitologia, Lost faz um grande esforço para suplementar a narrativa de seu programa de TV através de valiosas e distintas extensões narrativas. Em um primeiro momento, eu examino como as técnicas de construção de mundo em Lost encorajam os fãs mais ávidos a “jogar” com o espaço narrativo. Eu então faço avaliações sobre as extensões que Lost oferece como opcionais, através de experiências convincentes em seus textos expandido. Ao  ser muito bem-sucedida ao balancear seus fãs mais ávidos com os casuais espectadores, Lost representa o futuro de muitos programas de televisão que se propõem a colocar os fãs em situações imersivas, usando um vasto universo transmídia, ao mesmo tempo prometendo um programa de televisão coerente em seu interior

  13. The Law of Learning: A Possible Solution for Children and Youth Work Question *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciani Marconi Caetano Martins Sgarbi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper has been to identify and to analyze the social and historical context that led to the drafting of the Learning Law, becoming part of a dissertation presented to the Post-Graduate Master of Regional Development and Environment of Centro Universitário de Araraquara-UNIARA. A literature search allowed us to understand the significance of childhood, adolescence and work, and it has also been demonstrated that in Brazil, child labor has always been and is still directly linked to the socioeconomic condition of the concerned individual's family. As a consequence, the law, that was issued on the basis of public policy, aiming at opening opportunities for adolescents who are born into poor families, if not applied properly, has its scope limited in order to become an instrument of legitimizing the ideology that considers early work normal and encourages the maintenance and reproduction of the current domination.

  14. The effect of gun control laws on hospital admissions for children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Jun; Lane, Rebecca S; Blass, Lawrence W; Perez, Eduardo A; Sola, Juan E

    2016-10-01

    Gun control laws vary greatly between states within the United States. We hypothesized that states with strict gun laws have lower mortality and resource utilization rates from pediatric firearms-related injury admissions. Kids' Inpatient Database (1997-2012) was searched for accidental (E922), self-inflicted (E955), assault (E965), legal intervention-related (E970), or undetermined circumstance (E985) firearm injuries. Patients were younger than 20 years and admitted for their injuries. Case incidence trends were examined for the study period. Propensity score-matched analyses were performed using 38 covariates to compare outcomes between states with strict or lenient gun control laws. Overall, 38,424 cases were identified, with an overall mortality of 7%. Firearm injuries were most commonly assault (64%), followed by accidental (25%), undetermined circumstance (7%), or self-inflicted (3%). A small minority involved military-grade weapons (0.2%). Most cases occurred in lenient gun control states (48%), followed by strict (47%) and neutral (6%).On 1:1 propensity score-matched analysis, in-hospital mortality by case was higher in lenient (7.5%) versus strict (6.5%) states, p = 0.013. Lenient states had a proportionally higher rate of accidental (31%) and self-inflicted injury (4%) versus strict states (17% and 1.6%, respectively), p gun control contributes not only to worse outcomes per case, but also to a more significant and detrimental impact on public health. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  15. Some Aspects of International Children Abduction - Theoretical and Practical Approach from the Perspective of the European Law and Judicial Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lupşan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyday life revealed even in the media by presenting cases of international abduction of minors, on the one hand, and on the other hand, the existence of cases increasingly complex from the national/ EU practice, to which we should add the insufficient analysis in the doctrine of the topic in representing some evidence to support the elaboration of this paper. Through its international and / or European regulations (Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, which is supplemented by Regulation (EC no. 2201/2003 of 27 November 2003 concerning jurisdiction, the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and in matters of parental responsibility, (prevailing the latter and national ones (Law no. 63/2014 amending and supplementing Law no. 369/2004 on the application of the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction which Romania adhered to by the Law no. 100/199, the legislator sought to ensure the prompt return of children abducted in the Member State of origin, the objective being the same: discouraging underage child abduction by a parent or by third parties, usually relatives and, in case of committing an act of international abduction of minors, ensuring the best interests of the child through the cooperation of the competent authorities in the field. The structure includes sections that address theoretical issues (e.g. the notion of international abduction of minors, regulations, procedure for solving the request, the competent authorities and practical aspects, without neglecting the interpretation given by the Court of Justice of the European Union of some texts from the Regulation.

  16. Pluralism Lost: Sustainability's Unfortunate Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberley, Edward T.

    2010-01-01

    "Paradise Lost" explores the themes of human frailty, failure, and redemption following humanity's "original sin," eating of the tree of knowledge in the Garden of Eden. This original sin resulted in human beings being banished from an earthly paradise and compelled to wander eternally a world fraught with danger, despair,…

  17. Detection of lost alpha particle by concealed lost ion probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, A; Isobe, M; Kitajima, S; Sasao, M

    2010-10-01

    Full orbit-following calculation is performed for the final orbit of the lost alpha particles, showing some orbits escaping from the last closed flux surface could be detected by a concealed lost ion probe (CLIP) installed under the shadow of the original first wall surface. While both passing and trapped orbits hit the same wall panel, detecting a trapped orbit by the CLIP is easier than detecting passing orbits. Whether the final orbit is detected or not is determined by the position of the reflection point. The CLIP successfully detects the trapped orbits, which are reflected before they hit to a first wall. Then the pitch angles of the orbits at the CLIP are close to and smaller than 90°. Optimization of the position of the CLIP in terms of broader detection window is investigated.

  18. Federal Privacy Laws That Apply to Children and Education. Safeguarding Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This table identifies and briefly describes the following federal policies that safeguard and protect the confidentiality of personal information: (1) Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA); (2) Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment (PPRA); (3) Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA); (4) Children's Online Privacy…

  19. Law without Law

    OpenAIRE

    Sidharth, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a model for spacetime in which there is an ubiquitous background Dark Energy which is the Zero Point Field. This is further modeled in terms of a Weiner process that leads to a Random or Brownian characterization. Nevertheless we are able to recover meaningful physics, very much in the spirit of Wheeler's Law without Law, that is laws emerging from an underpinning of lawlessness.

  20. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  1. Reclaiming "Lost Prizes": An Interview with Ken McCluskey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bockern, Steve

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Ken McCluskey, Dean and Professor of Education at the University of Winnipeg. He is known internationally for his work in several areas including: (1) mentoring; (2) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; (3) at-risk children and youth (where his "Lost Prizes" and related projects serve as…

  2. Clinical research with children: the European legal framework and its implementation in French and Italian law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altavilla, Annagrazia

    2008-07-01

    According to the International Convention of the Rights of the Child, an improvement of the protection of the rights of children in Europe should be accomplished by inserting the principle of best interests and evolving capacities in the legal framework related to paediatric clinical research. In this article, an overview is given of the European legal framework governing clinical research on minors in a comparative approach. The lack of coordination between different International and European ethical/ legal statements and its impact on national legislations is evaluated by analyzing provisions that have been foreseen in Italy and in France as a result of the ratification/implementation process. A presentation of the perspectives of paediatric research in Europe is provided.

  3. Primary prevention of lead poisoning in children: a cross-sectional study to evaluate state specific lead-based paint risk reduction laws in preventing lead poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Lordo, Robert; Sucosky, Marissa Scalia; Boehm, Rona; Brown, Mary Jean

    2014-11-07

    Children younger than 72 months are most at risk of environmental exposure to lead from ingestion through normal mouthing behavior. Young children are more vulnerable to lead poisoning than adults because lead is absorbed more readily in a child's gastrointestinal tract. Our focus in this study was to determine the extent to which state mandated lead laws have helped decrease the number of new cases of elevated blood-lead levels (EBLL) in homes where an index case had been identified. A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare 682 residential addresses, identified between 2000 and 2009, in two states with and one state without laws to prevent childhood lead poisoning among children younger than 72 months, to determine whether the laws were effective in preventing subsequent cases of lead poisoning detected in residential addresses after the identification of an index case. In this study, childhood lead poisoning was defined as the blood lead level (BLL) that would have triggered an environmental investigation in the residence. The two states with lead laws, Massachusetts (MA) and Ohio (OH), had trigger levels of ≥25 μg/dL and ≥15 μg/dL respectively. In Mississippi (MS), the state without legislation, the trigger level was ≥15 μg/dL. The two states with lead laws, MA and OH, were 79% less likely than the one without legislation, MS, to have residential addresses with subsequent lead poisoning cases among children younger than 72 months, adjusted OR = 0.21, 95% CI (0.08-0.54). For the three states studied, the evidence suggests that lead laws such as those studied herein effectively reduced primary exposure to lead among young children living in residential addresses that may have had lead contaminants.

  4. Evaluating the effectiveness of state specific lead-based paint hazard risk reduction laws in preventing recurring incidences of lead poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Lordo, Robert; Sucosky, Marissa Scalia; Boehm, Rona; Brown, Mary Jean

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant progress made in recent decades in preventing childhood lead poisoning in the United States through the control or elimination of lead sources in the environment, it continues to be an issue in many communities, primarily in low-income communities with a large percentage of deteriorating housing built before the elimination of lead in residential paint. The purpose of this study is to determine whether state laws aimed at preventing childhood lead poisoning are also effective in preventing recurring lead poisoning among children previously poisoned. An evaluation was conducted to determine whether laws in two representative states, Massachusetts and Ohio, have been effective in preventing recurrent lead poisoning among children less than 72 months of age previously poisoned, compared to a representative state (Mississippi) which at the time of the study had yet to develop legislation to prevent childhood lead poisoning. Compared to no legislation, unadjusted estimates showed children less than 72 months old, living in Massachusetts, previously identified as being lead poisoned, were 73% less likely to develop recurrent lead poisoning. However, this statistically significant association did not remain after controlling for other confounding variables. We did not find such a significant association when analyzing data from Ohio. While findings from unadjusted estimates indicated that state lead laws such as those in Massachusetts may be effective at preventing recurrent lead poisoning among young children, small numbers may have attenuated the power to obtain statistical significance during multivariate analysis. Our findings did not provide evidence that state lead laws, such as those in Ohio, were effective in preventing recurrent lead poisoning among young children. Further studies may be needed to confirm these findings. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. In search of symmetry lost

    CERN Multimedia

    Wilczek, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Powerful symmetry principles have guided physicists in their quest for nature's fundamental laws. The successful gauge theory of electroweak interactions postulates a more extensive symmetry for its equations than are manifest in the world (8 pages) Powerful symmetry principles have guided physicists in their quest for nature's fundamental laws. The successful gauge theory of electroweak interactions postulates a more extensive symmetry for its equations than are manifest in the world. The discrepancy is ascribed to a pervasive symmetry-breaking field, which fills all space uniformly, rendering the Universe a sort of exotic superconductor. So far, the evidence for these bold ideas is indirect. But soon the theory will undergo a critical test depending on whether the quanta of this symmetry-breaking field, the so-called Higgs particles, are produced at the Large Hadron Collider (due to begin operation in 2007).

  6. Impact of Alabama’s Immigration Law on Access to Health Care Among Latina Immigrants and Children: Implications for National Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Valerie A.; Menachemi, Nir; Scarinci, Isabel C.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted in-depth interviews in May to July 2012 to evaluate the effect of Alabama’s 2011 omnibus immigration law on Latina immigrants and their US- and foreign-born children’s access to and use of health services. The predominant effect of the law on access was a reduction in service availability. Affordability and acceptability of care were adversely affected because of economic insecurity and women’s increased sense of discrimination. Nonpregnant women and foreign-born children experienced the greatest barriers, but pregnant women and mothers of US-born children also had concerns about accessing care. The implications of restricting access to health services and the potential impact this has on public health should be considered in local and national immigration reform discussions. PMID:24432880

  7. Civil law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is

  8. A gap between the intention of the Swedish law and interactions between nurses and children of patients in the field of palliative oncology - The perspective of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karidar, Hakima; Åkesson, Helene; Glasdam, Stinne

    2016-06-01

    Children who have a parent with incurable cancer are in a vulnerable situation and the Swedish law tries to protect them. This article aims to explore the interactions between nurses and children of patients with incurable cancer from the nurses' perspective. Semi-structured interviews with nine nurses in palliative oncology in Southern Sweden. Latent content analysis was carried out, inspired by Lundmann and Graneheim. Parents are gatekeepers to the children's involvement and meetings with the healthcare professionals. Therefore the nurses were dependent on the parents for contact with their children. Additionally, nurses were subject to the structural frame of their working environment in terms of time, economy, resources and the medical logic ruling the priorities for nursing during their daily working day. The opportunities to pay attention to the children of patients were limited, despite good intentions, willingness and a favourable legal framework. Teenagers were regarded as a challenge, and per se they challenged the nurses' opportunities to gain control of the meetings and situations around the families. Often nurses did not see and acknowledge the children of the palliative patient. They knew that the children were there and that it was important that they were there, but they challenged the order in the working environment in relation to time-allocated tasks and working flow. In the working environment patients were prioritised over relatives. From the perspective of nurses, there is a gap between the intentions of the Swedish law and the interactions between nurses and children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inexpressive Law

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Parisi, Francesco; von Wangenheim, Georg

    2010-01-01

    According to expressive law theories, expression of values is an important function played by the law. Expressive laws affect behavior, not by threatening sanctions or promising rewards, but by changing individual preferences and tastes and, in some cases, by affecting social norms and values. New laws, however, can run against sticky social norms, failing to achieve their expressive effects. By developing a dynamic model, in this paper we show that inexpressive laws (laws whose expressive fu...

  10. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  11. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  12. The "Discrete Trials" of Applied Behavior Analysis for Children with Autism: Outcome-Related Factors in the Case Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choutka, Claire Maher; Doloughty, Patricia T.; Zirkel, Perry A.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of case law concerning applied behavior analysis (ABA) for students with autism to determine outcome-related factors. The authors classified the 68 pertinent hearing/review officer and court decisions published in EHLR ("Education for Handicapped Law Report") and IDELR ("Individuals with Disabilities Education Law…

  13. Transmedia storytelling and Lost path to success

    OpenAIRE

    Matsunaga Sasaki, Daniella

    2012-01-01

    This thesis analyses the transmedia storytelling strategy applied to promote the TV series Lost. As transmedia storytelling one may understand it as a story told throughout different media, with exclusive content pointing back to the main narrative, working as a potential new audience entry-point. “Which transmedia elements of the Lost formula could be transferable to other cases?” is the research question proposed and in order to answer it, all Lost transmedia events and other marketing elem...

  14. Culture versus the law in the decision not to vaccinate children: meanings assigned by middle-class couples in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Carolina Luisa Alves; Couto, Márcia Thereza; Aith, Fernando Mussa Abujamra

    2017-03-09

    This study aimed to learn how middle-class parents in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, interpreted the country's prevailing vaccination requirements, based on their experiences with vaccinating, selectively vaccinating, or not vaccinating their children. A qualitative approach was used with in-depth interviews. The analytical process was guided by content analysis and the theoretical framework of the anthropology of the law and morality. For parents that vaccinated, Brazil's culture of immunization outweighed the feeling of compliance with the law; for selective parents, selection of vaccines was not perceived as deviating from the law. In both, the act of vaccinating their children was a matter of moral status. Meanwhile, the non-vaccinators, counter to the legal perspective, attributed their choice to care for the child on grounds that mandatory vaccination was contrary to their way of life; they experienced a feeling of social coercion and fear of legal impositions. Vaccination is an important practice in public health, but it can reveal tensions and conflicts from normative systems, whether moral, cultural, or legal.

  15. Competition law: private law, public law, regulatory or economic law?

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Lleras, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Let’s imagine that we want to establish a new law school in Colombia. How would we classify competition law within its curricular structure? By attempting to answer this apparently harmless question, this article shows the inherent difficulties in trying to classify competition law as private law, public law, regulation or “economic law”. This is due not only because such categories are very imprecise, but also because they depart significantly form our daily experiences with this field of la...

  16. Law Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Tolstopiatenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the origin of the International Law Department were such eminent scientists, diplomats and teachers as V.N. Durdenevsky, S.B. Krylov and F.I. Kozhevnikov. International law studies in USSR and Russia during the second half of the XX century was largely shaped by the lawyers of MGIMO. They had a large influence on the education in the international law in the whole USSR, and since 1990s in Russia and other CIS countries. The prominence of the research of MGIMO international lawyers was due to the close connections with the international practice, involving international negotiations in the United Nations and other international fora, diplomatic conferences and international scientific conferences. This experience is represented in the MGIMO handbooks on international law, which are still in demand. The Faculty of International Law at MGIMO consists of seven departments: Department of International Law, Department of Private International and Comparative Law; Department of European Law; Department of Comparative Constitutional Law; Department of Administrative and Financial Law; Department of Criminal Law, Department Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics. Many Russian lawyers famous at home and abroad work at the Faculty, contributing to domestic and international law studies. In 1947 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR published "International Law" textbook which was the first textbook on the subject in USSR. S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky were the authors and editors of the textbook. First generations of MGIMO students studied international law according to this textbook. All subsequent books on international law, published in the USSR, were based on the approach to the teaching of international law, developed in the textbook by S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky. The first textbook of international law with the stamp of MGIMO, edited by F.I. Kozhevnikov, was published in 1964. This textbook later went through five editions in 1966, 1972

  17. William Paley's lost "intelligent design".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Adam R

    2009-01-01

    William Paley's Natural Theology has experienced a resurgence in popularity in recent decades with the continuing controversies over the teaching of evolution and the emergence of a new "intelligent design" movement. But while both the movement's supporters and detractors agree that Paley is an intellectual forefather of the present-day movement, this agreement is forged at the expense of historical accuracy. Paley's intelligent design has almost nothing in common with the present day movement and, in fact, suggests theological arguments against the type of reasoning used by the modern movement. Paley wrote in reaction to Hume and in response to the evolutionary theories of Buffon and Erasmus Darwin. In this light, the Natural Theology suggests a different reading than it is usually given. Paley's narrowly-argued theology relies upon the ability to detect the presence of "purpose" in nature without relying upon knowing what those purposes are. His empirically-argued theology leads him to a God who operates through natural law, not in its contravention, and his concern goes far beyond proving the existence of a deity to undertaking the theological project of determining the attributes and characteristics of the deity. Though not himself an evolutionist, Paley put forth a theological worldview consistent with evolution. In fact, given his arguments that the observation of great contrivance increases the testimony of nature to God's power, Paley's philosophy might be more consistent with a theistic Darwinian evolution than with special creation.

  18. Lost and Found Cafe Coleraine Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Lost and Found Cafe

    2017-01-01

    LOST & FOUND IS AN INDEPENDENT CAFE SITUATED ON THE BEAUTIFUL NORTH COAST OF IRELAND. AT THE CORE OF LOST & FOUND IS THE DESIRE TO CELEBRATE THE CRAFT OF SIMPLE, DELICIOUS COFFEE AND FOOD IN AN INSPIRING AND WELCOMING PLACE. WE LOOK FORWARD TO SERVING YOU. http://arrow.dit.ie/menus21c/1383/thumbnail.jpg

  19. 46 CFR Sec. 10 - Lost documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lost documents. Sec. 10 Section 10 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS UNDER AGENCY AGREEMENTS Documents Sec. 10 Lost documents. In the event of the loss of documents...

  20. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  1. Secondhand smoke exposure of children at home and prevalence of parental smoking following implementation of the new tobacco control law in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z L; Deng, H Y; Wu, C P; Lam, W L; Kuok, W S; Liang, W J; Wang, H L

    2017-03-01

    To investigate secondhand smoke exposure (SHS) of children at home and the prevalence of parental smoking after implementation of the new tobacco control law in Macao. This study explored whether the smoking ban in public places in Macao has decreased the prevalence of smoking or led to increased SHS exposure of children at home. As smokers cannot smoke in public places any more, they may smoke at home more frequently; a displacement effect of smoke-free legislation. Cross-sectional survey. This study surveyed 337 fathers and 538 mothers. Questions from a subset of key questions from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (2nd edition) were applied to assess the SHS exposure of children and the prevalence of parental smoking since the smoking ban. A classification tree analysis was used to analyse the factors increasing SHS exposure of children. The prevalence of SHS exposure in children at home was 41.3%. The prevalence rates of paternal and maternal smoking were 43.7% and 3.8%, respectively. Compared with data reported by the Health Bureau of Macao SAR in 2011, the prevalence of parental smoking and the prevalence of SHS exposure of children at home have not decreased since the smoking ban. Analysis of the factors increasing the prevalence of SHS exposure of children indicated that fathers with an education level below high school were more likely to contribute to this increase, compared with fathers with a high school education or more (48.2% vs 32.4%, respectively). In addition, fathers represented the majority of smokers at home, accounting for 92.0% of 415 smoking parents. The prevalence of paternal smoking (82.0%) in the group of children with SHS exposure was much higher than that in the unexposed group (16.7%, Chi-squared test = 367.199, P = 0.000). The SHS exposure of children increased consistently with the decrease in paternal education level. This was consistent with the increasing prevalence of paternal smoking as paternal education level decreased. SHS

  2. Family function over family form in the law on parentage? The legal position of children born in informal relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, Wendy M.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch legal system is primarily based on formal family and partner relationships. There is, due to a number of social trends, a growing divergence between family form and family function. In this article the laws on parentage will be analysed with respect to the relationship between fathers and

  3. Return of the Lost Boys to South Sudan: A Strategy to Building a Stronger South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    malnutrition or diseases.”3 The Lost Boys started arriving in Ethiopia in 1987 and settled in Panyidu refugee camp. Here, they were organized into...Human Rights Watch/Africa, “The Lost Boys: Child Soldiers and Unaccompanied Boys in Southern Sudan,” Human Rights Watch Children’s Rights Project, Vol...19 Richard Black, Khalid Koser and Karen Mung, “Understanding the Decision to Return,” Home Office; Research , Development and Statistics

  4. Lindy's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-11-01

    Aging means that as things grow old their remaining expected lifetimes lessen. Either faster or slower, most of the things we encounter in our everyday lives age with time. However, there are things that do quite the opposite - they anti-age: as they grow old their remaining expected lifetimes increase rather than decrease. A quantitative formulation of anti-aging is given by the so-called ;Lindy's Law;. In this paper we explore Lindy's Law and its connections to Pareto's Law, to Zipf's Law, and to socioeconomic inequality.

  5. Law 302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  6. Sound and emotion in Milton's Paradise lost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissell, Cynthia

    2011-08-01

    This research was designed to test the hypothesis that Milton's poem Paradise Lost is meaningfully patterned with respect to sound. Thirty-six segments from 12 Books of Paradise Lost were scored (Whissell, 2000) in terms of their proportional use of Pleasant, Cheerful, Active, Nasty, Unpleasant, Sad, Passive, and Soft sounds. Paradise Lost includes more Active, Nasty, and Unpleasant sounds and fewer Pleasant, Passive, Soft, and Sad sounds than a representative sample of anthologized poetry. The way in which emotional sounds are patterned (e.g., the rise and fall in the proportion of Pleasant sounds across Books) suggests the presence of three narratives within the work: Sin and Salvation-Foreseen in Heaven (Books I-II), The Fall of Man (Books IV-IX), and Sin and Salvation-Foretold on Earth (Books X-XI). The poem analyzed had updated spelling, and the author's exact intentions when creating it are not accessible to direct investigation, for this among other reasons.

  7. [Adolescents and violence. Impact of African traditions and customs on the signification of the law to children in familial, social, educative and judicial practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbassa Menick, D

    2003-01-01

    Youth-related violence is a frequent topic of press reports and editorial comment. The most disturbing aspects of the phenomenon are the younger and younger age of delinquents and the greater and greater availability of firearms. While the advocates of an American-style approach of absolute repression clash with those of the educative approach to change aggressive attitudes and young people benefit from their "minor" status, the compelling reality is that all preventive programs have failed flatly. This purpose of this study was twofold. The first aim was to highlight the important contribution of tradition and custom to channeling youthful behavior in African society today and yesterday through signification and transmission of law in familial, social, educative and juridical practices. The second goal was to identify and define the psycho-relational elements that can be considered as factors promoting violent and self-destructive tendencies in minors of African origin tempted by migration in a society in which social representations inhibit parents and prevent them from conveying the limits of the law in their children.

  8. Environment and health within the OECD-region: lost health, lost money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse JM; Hollander AEM de; LBM; MNV

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the environmental health impact within the OECD region, both in terms of lost health and lost money. 2-5% of the total Burden of Disease (BoD) was attributed to environmental factors. Environmental health loss in the OECD high income subregion was monetary valued at US$45-140

  9. Children’s Rights as Living Rights : The Case of Street Children and a new Law in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daalen, E.; Hanson, K.; Nieuwenhuys, O.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we propose the notion of living rights to highlight that children, whilst making use of notions of rights, shape what these rights are, and become, in the social world. Emphasising children’s agency in living with and through their rights facilitates empirical enquiry, and moves the

  10. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from consequ...

  11. Private law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...

  12. Concern about Lost Talent: Support Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Joanna; Saha, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report "Lost talent? The occupational ambitions and attainments of young Australians", and is an added resource for further information. The purpose of this supplement is to provide greater detail about the background of research into the topic of human talent in…

  13. A Physicist Who Never Lost Her Humanity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 3. Lise Meitner (1878–1968): A Physicist Who Never Lost Her Humanity. Vandana Nanal. Article-in-a-Box Volume 22 Issue 3 March 2017 pp 193-197. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Broken arrow: America's first lost nuclear weapon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leach, Norman

    2008-01-01

    .... Did an atomic bomb lie undetected for years in coastal British Columbia? Or was the nuclear weapon jettisoned and destroyed only miles from Canadian shores, becoming the world's first dirty bomb? Was this America's first lost nuclear weapon? Finally, and most baffling, did one of the missing crewmembers, the last man aboard, attempt to pilot the doomed aircraft back to its Alaskan base?"

  15. Modeling Being "Lost": Imperfect Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Victor E.

    2011-01-01

    Being "lost" is an exemplar of imperfect Situation Awareness/Situation Understanding (SA/SU) -- information/knowledge that is uncertain, incomplete, and/or just wrong. Being "lost" may be a geo-spatial condition - not knowing/being wrong about where to go or how to get there. More broadly, being "lost" can serve as a metaphor for uncertainty and/or inaccuracy - not knowing/being wrong about how one fits into a larger world view, what one wants to do, or how to do it. This paper discusses using agent based modeling (ABM) to explore imperfect SA/SU, simulating geo-spatially "lost" intelligent agents trying to navigate in a virtual world. Each agent has a unique "mental map" -- its idiosyncratic view of its geo-spatial environment. Its decisions are based on this idiosyncratic view, but behavior outcomes are based on ground truth. Consequently, the rate and degree to which an agent's expectations diverge from ground truth provide measures of that agent's SA/SU.

  16. Lost-sales inventory theory : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijvank, Marco; Vis, Iris F. A.

    2011-01-01

    In classic inventory models it is common to assume that excess demand is backordered. However, studies analyzing customer behavior in practice show that most unfulfilled demand is lost or an alternative item/location is looked for in many retail environments. Inventory systems that include this

  17. Clubbed fingers: the claws we lost?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, A.A.M.; Vermeij-Keers, C.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Gooren, L.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Clubbed digits resemble the human embryonic fingers and toes, which took like the digits of a claw. Clubbed digits, thus, may represent the return of the embryonic claw and may even represent the claws man has lost during evolution, if ontogenesis realty recapitulates phylogenesis. We put forward

  18. 'Lost' Ladybugs Found Again in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this article is to give a first-person account of involvement in research directly related to the NSF-sponsored Lost Ladybug Project. I have summarized research findings in in which three previously common kinds of lady beetles have become difficult to detect in eastern states, but c...

  19. Warranties of Albanian criminal law for children protection from “indecency offences” and the Albanian judicial practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Menkshi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on criminal acts of child sexual abuse (sexual offenses. In particular, will be analyzed the category of obscenity as a crime (lat. luksuri. This work will be analyzed under the perspective of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, to reflect the alignment of Albanian criminal law with the Convention, as a minimum guarantee to be provided by the States. Special attention will be paid to the analysis of the criminal legislation, particularly to the offense luksuri, to see its adaptation in the Albanian transition period. There will be special attention to Albanian judicial practice in relation to sexual harassment/obscenity. These will be used to identify the needs of the Albanian legislation, because legislation must not only be written, but must above all be applied.

  20. Children and Youth Experiencing Homelessness: An Introduction to the Issues. McKinney-Vento Law into Practice Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The word "homeless" typically does not bring to mind images of children and youth, but the reality is many homeless people are under the age of 18. Some of them are a part of families experiencing homelessness, while others are on their own, despite their young age. The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. § 11431 et seq.)…

  1. Hearing children's voices? Including children's perspectives on their experiences of domestic violence in welfare reports prepared for the English courts in private family law proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Gillian S

    2017-03-01

    This research examined Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service (Cafcass) reports prepared for private family court proceedings in domestic violence cases in England. The research found that in cases where children's accounts identified them as victims of violence, these disclosures regularly disappeared from report recommendations. Particular discourses regarding 'child welfare' and 'contact' were identified, which routinely impacted on the ways in which children's voices were taken into account. Whilst culturally there has undoubtedly been an influential move towards including children's perspectives in decision-making that affects them, how these views are interpreted and represented is subject to adult 'gate-keeping' and powerful cultural and professional ideologies regarding 'child welfare' and 'post-separation family relationships'. This research found that the unrelenting influence of deeply embedded beliefs regarding the preservation or promotion of relationships with fathers continues to have the effect of marginalising issues of safeguarding, including children's voiced experiences of violence, in all but the most exceptional of cases. Rather, safeguarding concerns in respect of domestic violence and child abuse were persistently overshadowed by a dominant presumption of the overall benefits of contact with fathers. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Delinquencies of Juvenile Law: A Natural Law Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Washington

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a substantive analysis tracing the legal, philosophical, social, historical, jurisprudence and political backgrounds of juvenile law, which is an outgrowth of the so-calledProgressive movement - a popular social and political movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. I also trace how this socio-political cause célèbre became a fixture in Americanculture and society due to existential child labor abuses which progressive intellectuals used as a pretext to codify juvenile law in federal law and in statutory law in all 50 states by 1925. Moreover the dubious social science and Machiavellian political efforts that created the juvenile justice system out of whole cloth has done much more harm to the Constitution and to the children it was mandated to protect than any of the Progressive ideas initially envisioned rooted in Positive Law (separation of law and morals. Finally, I present am impassioned argument for congressional repeal of all juvenile case law and statutes because they are rooted in Positive Law, contrary to Natural Law (integration of law and morals, the original intent of the constitutional Framers and are therefore patently unconstitutional.

  3. Internet-facilitated commercial sexual exploitation of children: findings from a nationally representative sample of law enforcement agencies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Jones, Lisa M; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2011-03-01

    This article explores the variety of ways in which the Internet is used to facilitate the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and provides national incidence estimates for the number of arrests involving such technology-facilitated crimes in 2006. The National Juvenile Online Victimization Study is a nationally representative longitudinal study of more than 2,500 local, county, state, and federal law enforcement agencies across the United States. The current article utilizes Wave 2 data, which surveyed arrests in 2006 for Internet-related sex crimes against minors. Detailed data were collected via telephone interviews with investigators about 1,051 individual arrest cases. Findings show that an estimated 569 arrests for Internet-facilitated commercial sexual exploitation of children (IF-CSEC) occurred in the United States in 2006. Offenders in IF-CSEC cases fell into two main categories: (1) those who used the Internet to purchase or sell access to identified children for sexual purposes including child pornography (CP) production (36% of cases), and (2) those who used the Internet to purchase or sell CP images they possessed but did not produce (64% of cases). Offenders attempting to profit from child sexual exploitation were more likely than those who were purchasing to have (a) prior arrests for sexual and nonsexual offenses, (b) a history of violence, (c) produced CP, (d) joined forces with other offenders, and (e) involved female offenders. Although the number of arrests for IF-CSEC crimes is relatively small, the victims of these crimes are a high-risk subgroup of youth, and the offenders who try to profit from these crimes are particularly concerning from a child welfare perspective.

  4. Lost Near-Earth Object Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Peter; Farnocchia, Davide; Williams, Gareth; Keys, Sonia; Boardman, Ian; Holman, Matthew J.; Payne, Matthew J.

    2017-10-01

    The number of discovered Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) increases rapidly, currently exceeding 16,000 NEOs. 2016 was the most productive year ever with 1,888 NEO discoveries. The NEO discovery process typically begins with three to five detections of a previously unidentified object that are reported to the Minor Planet Center (MPC). According to the plane-of-sky motion, the MPC ranks all of the new candidate discoveries for the likelihood of being NEOs using the so-called digest score. If the digest score is greater than 65 the observations appear on the publicly accessible NEO Confirmation Page (NEOCP). Objects on the NEOCP are followed up in subsequent hours and days. When enough observations are collected to ensure that the object is real and that the orbit is determined, the NEO is officially announced with its new designation by a Minor Planet Electronic Circular. However, 14% of NEO candidates never get confirmed and are therefore lost due to the lack of follow-up observations. We analyzed the lost NEO candidates that appeared on NEOCP in 2013-2016 and investigated the reasons why they were not confirmed. In particular, we studied the properties of the lost NEO candidates with a digest score of 100 that were reported by the two most prolific discovery sites - Pan-STARRS1 (F51) and Mt. Lemmon Survey (G96). We derived their plane-of-sky positions and rates, brightness, and ephemeris uncertainties, and assessed correlations with the phase of the moon and seasonal effects apparent in the given observatory’s data. We concluded that lost NEO candidates typically have a larger rate of motion and larger uncertainties than those of confirmed objects. However, many of the lost candidates could be recovered. In fact, the 1-sigma plane-of-sky uncertainty was still within ±0.5 deg in 79% (F51) and 69% (G96) of the cases 24 hours after discovery and in 31% (F51) and 30% (G96) of the cases 48 hours after discovery. If all of the NEO candidates with a digest score of 100 had

  5. Community perspectives on the use of regulation and law for obesity prevention in children: A citizens' jury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Jackie M; Sisnowski, Jana; Tooher, Rebecca; Farrell, Lucy C; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J

    2017-05-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant challenge for public health internationally. Regulatory and fiscal measures propagated by governments offer a potentially effective response to this issue. Fearing public criticism, governments are often reluctant to use such measures. In this study we asked a descriptively representative and informed group of Australians their views on the use of legislation and fiscal measures by governments to address childhood obesity. A citizens' jury, held in South Australia in April 2015, was asked to consider the question: What laws, if any, should we have in Australia to address childhood obesity? The jury agreed that prevention of obesity was complex requiring multifaceted government intervention. Recommendations fell into the areas of health promotion and education (n=4), regulation of food marketing (n=3), taxation/subsidies (n=2) and a parliamentary enquiry. School-based nutrition education and health promotion and mandatory front-of-pack interpretive labelling of food and drink were ranked 1 and 2 with taxation of high fat, high sugar food and drink third. The recommendations were similar to findings from other citizens' juries held in Australia suggesting that the reticence of decision makers in Australia, and potentially elsewhere, to use legislative and fiscal measures to address childhood obesity is misguided. Supporting relevant informed public discussion could facilitate a politically acceptable legislative approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. LEGAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL FATHER: The Analysis of Constitutional Court Decree No. 46/PUU-VIII/2010 in the Perspective of Civil and Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilang Marilang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, children born out of wedlock only have legal relationship or family lineage relationship with their mother and mother’s family, not with their biological father and biological father’s family. This provisions of law are arranged in Article 43 paragraph (1 of Marriage Law No. 1 of 1974 which is highly influenced by Shafi’ite School of Islamic jurisprudence. Through judicial review of Aisyah (Machica Mochtar and her son named M. Iqbal Ramadhan, Constitutional Court has agreed to waive the provisions by means of the Decree Number 46/PUU-VIII/2010 with legal consideration that the concerned article contravenes the Constitution, then it creates new legal norm which states those children have legal relationship and family lineage with their mother and mother’s family and also the man who is their father. The Decree sparks controversies concerning the term ‘children born out of wedlock’ and ‘legal relationship’ in the decree. Contrary to many law experts, the article argues that the term ‘children born out of wedlock’ simply means children born from zina (adultery or fornication. Thus, ‘legal relationship’ only refer to limited relationship between both parties.

  7. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology; Wike, L.D. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Dietsch, B.M. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  8. The lost art of finding our way

    CERN Document Server

    Huth, Edward John

    2013-01-01

    Long before GPS, Google Earth, and global transit, humans traveled vast distances using only environmental clues and simple instruments. John Huth asks what is lost when modern technology substitutes for our innate capacity to find our way. Encyclopedic in breadth, weaving together astronomy, meteorology, oceanography, and ethnography, The Lost Art of Finding Our Way puts us in the shoes, ships, and sleds of early navigators for whom paying close attention to the environment around them was, quite literally, a matter of life and death. Haunted by the fate of two young kayakers lost in a fogbank off Nantucket, Huth shows us how to navigate using natural phenomena—the way the Vikings used the sunstone to detect polarization of sunlight, and Arab traders learned to sail into the wind, and Pacific Islanders used underwater lightning and “read” waves to guide their explorations. Huth reminds us that we are all navigators capable of learning techniques ranging from the simplest to the most sophisticated skil...

  9. The foundations of autism: the law concerning psychotic, schizophrenic, and autistic children in 1950s and 1960s britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    While the origins of child psychiatry in Britain can be traced to the interwar period, contemporary concepts and methodological approaches to pathological mental development in children were not created until the 1950s and 1960s. It was at this time that one of the most salient and lasting diagnoses in child psychiatry, autism, was established through a network of intellectual, institutional, and legal changes in Britain. This article argues that the work of child psychiatrists at the Maudsley Hospital was central in driving these changes and uses archival sources from this hospital, along with other legal and intellectual sources, to explore attempts to conceptualize pathological thought in infants in the 1950s and 1960s. When the first epidemiological study of autism was published in 1966, this finally established the autistic child as a scientific, demographic, and social reality in Britain.

  10. Secrets Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Guamanzara Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the book The Law of Secrets, of the author Juan Carlos Martínez-Villalba Riofrío studying the secrets and how law does protect. To this end, the author has analyzed the general theory of secrecy, secrets and methodology, its overall rating, essential elements and their different legal dimensions, the secret as a subjective right. It also establishes that professional secrecy is protected by constitutional principles such as the right to privacy.

  11. Nuclear Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Admissibility of the action to set aside - possible violation of basic rights - preclusion - forfeiture of action - substantial modification of an installation - effects on the safety level - involvement of the public - violation of procedural rules - omitted interpretation. Guiding principles: It is a matter of substantial modification subject to authorization as defined by the Atomic Energy Law if and when this modification affects the safety level of the installation, unless it is obvious that these effects are insignificant. It cannot make any difference whether these modifications may have a positive or negative effect on the safety level. The provisions governing sect. 4 para. 1 and sect. 6 para. 1 of the AtVfV confer on a third party affected a right under public law to be involved in the licensing procedure as laid down in the Atomic Energy Law, with the result that its violation concedes the party affected a right to claim the annulment of the (partial) licence granted. The issue of licensing capacity under substantive law does not matter. An interpretation omitted by way of action can only be reproved successfully if the substantial modifications may negatively affect the rights of the complaining party, not if the operator takes protective measures which obviously improve the safety level. Arnsberg Administrative Court - 7 K 74/79 - Decision of January 27, 1981.

  12. School Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitt, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The United States Supreme Court upheld a California state law requiring employers to allow a pregnant woman up to four months of unpaid maternity leave if she claims pregnancy as a disability. A bill before Congress addresses parental leave and job protection for parents caring for a new baby or a sick child. (MLH)

  13. Rose: an island of stereotypes on Lost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of research made on Geifec and has as a goal to analyze the modes of representation of the character Rose Nadler, from the American series Lost. Woman, African-American, close to 60s, overweight, Rose is in the intersection of a series of minority groups and her presence occurs as an overlapping of unusual stereotypes in the series. The theoretical references use the contributions of Mazzara (1998 and Mittell (2010 and the methodology takes the apparitions of the character in the first three seasons of the series, with images and dialogues transcriptions.

  14. America’s Lost Innocence and Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Patrycja Włodek

    2015-01-01

    In my paper America’s Lost Innocence I intend to focus on American cinema of the ’50s, part of ’60s, and contemporary throwbacks to those decades. The ’50s have been called “the last decade of American innocence”, “the happiest decade in America’s history – when things were going on – that everybody misses” (by Jean Baudrillard). That era symbolically ceased on 22 November 1963; however, many scholars and publicists undermine the belief in its very existence. Michael Wood calls the ’50s a tim...

  15. Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

  16. Lost Talent? The Occupational Ambitions and Attainments of Young Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Joanna; Saha, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    Given ongoing interest in increasing productivity and participation in the workforce, understanding when talent is lost is a useful exercise. The term "lost talent" describes the underutilisation or wastage of human potential. Focusing on young people, Sikora and Saha define lost talent as occurring when students in the top 50% of…

  17. 50 CFR 25.22 - Lost and found articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lost and found articles. 25.22 Section 25.22 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Lost and found articles. Lost articles or money found on a national wildlife refuge are to be...

  18. Tracking an Exodus: Lost Children of the Dwarf Planet Haumea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Steven; Ragozzine, Darin

    2017-10-01

    The orbital properties of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) refine our understanding of the formation of the solar system. One object of particular interest is the dwarf planet Haumea which experienced a collision in the early stages of our solar system that ejected shards form its surface and spread them over a localized part of the Kuiper Belt. Detailed orbital integrations are required to determine the dynamical distances between family members, in the form of "Delta v" as measured from conserved proper orbital elements (Ragozzine & Brown 2007). In the past 10 years, the number of known KBOs has tripled; here, we perform dynamical integrations to triple the number of candidate Haumea family members. The resulting improved understanding of Haumea's family will bring us closer to understanding its formation. In order to place more secure estimates on the dynamical classification of Haumea family members (and KBOs generally), we use OpenOrb to perform rigorous Bayesian uncertainty propagation from observational uncertainty into orbital elements and then into dynamical classifications. We will discuss our methodology, the new Haumea family members, and some implications for the Haumea family.

  19. Lost in translation: impact of language barriers on children's healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenka, Pratichi K

    2016-10-01

    As the cultural and linguistic diversity of the United States grows, a greater number of patients with limited English proficiency will enter the healthcare system. Best practices for the care of these individuals include identification of their language assistance needs and prompt provision of interpreter services. This review will summarize the legal basis for providing language access in the healthcare setting, discuss the impact of interpretation services on clinical care, and explore the effects of language barriers on health outcomes. There has been greater awareness of language as an important and independent determinant in the racial and ethnic disparities that exist in healthcare. Studies have shown that there is suboptimal identification of patients who require linguistic assistance and, as such, there are missed opportunities to bridge language gaps with many of our patients. The lack of interpretation, or use of informal, untrained interpreters, has significant effects on patient safety, quality of care, and patient satisfaction. Though federal and regulatory guidelines mandate meaningful access to language services, such processes are still a work in progress in many healthcare settings. Further research and quality improvement initiatives are needed to provide clinicians the knowledge and skills needed to effectively communicate with their limited English proficient patients.

  20. COMERCIAL LAW: EXCEPCIONAL OR SPECIAL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Arcila Salazar, Carlos Andrés; Megabanco Eje Cafetero del Banco de Bogotá S.A.

    2007-01-01

    For those who assert that Commercial Law is an exceptional law, because of the gaps within the commercial law, there is a need to refer to the Civil Law to strictly apply its exceptional elements. For those who understand the commercial law as a special law, legal gaps need to be integrated in first place with the system of formal sources that compose the Commercial Law and the referral to the Civil Law should constitute the ultimate ratio; the former cannot be understood as a source of the l...

  1. Sociology: a lost connection in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Kesebir, Selin; Snyder, Benjamin H

    2009-11-01

    For the first half of the 20th century, sociology was one of the closest allies of social psychology. Over the past four decades, however, the connection with sociology has weakened, whereas new connections with neighboring disciplines (e.g., biology, economics, political science) have formed. Along the way, the sociological perspective has been largely lost in mainstream social psychology in the United States. Most social psychologists today are not concerned with collective phenomena and do not investigate social structural factors (e.g., residential mobility, socioeconomic status, dominant religion, political systems). Even when the social structural factors are included in the analysis, psychologists typically treat them as individual difference variables. Sociologist C. Wright Mills famously promoted sociological imagination, or the ability to see distal yet important social forces operating in a larger societal context. By comparing sociological perspectives to psychological perspectives, this article highlights the insights that the sociological perspective and sociological imagination can bring to social psychology.

  2. Lost Causes in and Beyond Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Streater, R F

    2007-01-01

    Lost Causes in and Beyond Physics deals with a selection of research topics mostly from theoretical physics that have been shown to be a dead-end or continue at least to be highly controversial. Nevertheless, whether it is about Bohmian mechanics, physics from Fisher information or the quantum theory of the brain, small but dedicated research communities continue to work on these issues. R.F. Streater, renowned mathematical physicist and co-author of the famous book "PCT, Spin and Statistics, and all that", in a series of essays describes the work and struggle of these research commnities, as well as the chances of any breakthrough in these areas. This book is written as both an entertainment and serious study and should be accessible to anyone with a background in theoretical physics and mathematics.

  3. Advanced lost foam from casting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C. E.; Littleton, H. E.; Askeland, D.; Griffin, J.; Miller, B. A.; Sheldon, D. S.

    1996-05-01

    Previous research made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional research was needed to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. The current project focused on five areas listed as follows: Task 1: Precision Pattern Production Task 2: Pattern Coating Consistency Task 3: Sand Fill and Compaction Effects Task 4: Pattern Gating Task 5: Mechanical Properties of Castings. This report summarizes the work done under the current contract in all five areas in the period of October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995. Twenty-eight (28) companies jointly participate in the project. These companies represent a variety of disciplines, including pattern designers, pattern producers, coating manufacturers, plant design companies, compaction equipment manufacturers, casting producers, and casting buyers.

  4. Calibration of the TFTR lost alpha diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, R. L.; Lin, Z.; Roquemore, A. L.; Zweben, S. J.

    1992-10-01

    We present various aspects of the calibration of the TFTR lost alpha diagnostic. The diagnostic consists of four detectors, forming a poloidal array at the bottom of TFTR inside the vacuum vessel. The detector is composed of a ZnS(Ag) scintillator and a pair of collimating apertures which permit pitch angle, energy, and time resolution of the escaping flux of high-energy ions (MeV range). The first goal of this study was to establish the absolute calibration of the diagnostic for different particle types and energies. This enables us to compare for the first time, measured losses with loss calculations based on a first-orbit model. However, the factor of 2 uncertainty in the final calibration is still too large for full, quantitative comparisons of the data with the theory based on absolute flux measurements alone. We also present some of the aspects related to the detector's resolution capabilities, its temperature dependence, and its time response.

  5. Labour's law?

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, Elke J.; Wagner, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A cross section analysis of 23 OECD members shows that there is an 'antagonistic' relationship between the legal protection of investor interests on the one hand and labour interests on the other: the stronger the legal protection of investor rights in a country, the less developed are the individual and collective rights of labour and vice versa. A main cause for a country's position with respect to this trade off is its type of legal system, specifically whether it belongs to the common law...

  6. Are There Other Lost Cities Out There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. S.

    2005-12-01

    For over two decades volcanically driven black smoker hydrothermal systems have been assumed to typify hot-spring systems on the seafloor. However, the serendipitous discovery of the Lost City hydrothermal field (LCHF) in 2000 may require re-examination of this belief. Sitting on 1-2 my old serpentinite crust, the LCHF hosts numerous active carbonate pinnacles that tower up to 60 m above the surrounding seafloor. Subsurface exothermic mineral-fluid reactions and lithospheric cooling in the underlying mantle host rocks produce >90 ° C, hydrogen- and methane-rich, high-pH fluids, which support novel microbial and macrofaunal communities. These peridotite-hosted biotopes differ significantly from axial, magmatically driven vent systems in which carbon dioxide is a dominant volatile species. The range and complexity of environments hosting peridotites and other ultramafic rocks is vast. Under appropriate conditions, any of these might support hydrothermal systems similar to the LCHF. From ancient komatiitic rocks of the Early Archaean to ophicalcite deposits within the Apennine ophiolites comes evidence that hydrothermal systems have indeed been operative within ultramafic environments for much of Earth's history. Within contemporary oceanic crust, there is a diverse array of submarine environments affected by on-going serpentinization reactions, which include systems such as the Mariana forearc, the Arctic, Antarctic, Southwest Indian and Mid-Atlantic Ridge spreading networks, major transform faults, and highly extended rifted margins. Any of these tectonic settings could host LCHF-type ecosystems. Yet, only recently has the potential importance of these peridotite-hosted environments been recognized with respect to the origin and evolution of life on this planet and perhaps elsewhere. Just as with the initial discovery of black smoker systems, a major driving force for continued exploration of LCHF environments will be the role that peridotite-hosted systems may

  7. The lost honour of Henrietta Leavitt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Puerto, C.

    2011-11-01

    The first scene opens with the music of Shirley Bassey. The astronomer Henrietta Swan Leavitt is writing a diary when visited by the famous CBS reporter Edward Roscoe Murrow. Henrietta is surprised that this American television channel should want to pay such a tribute to her, but she agrees to be interviewed. Annie Jump Cannon, her friend and colleague from Harvard College Observatory, accompanies her during most of the sessions. Everything goes so well that the journalist tries to touch on certain issues that Henrietta seems to want to keep secret, such as her relationship with Edward Charles Pickering, Director of the Observatory, and the reason why she failed to get the recognition for her work that she deserved.This is the argument of the play The Lost Honor of Henrietta Leavitt, a project of the Museo de la Ciencia y el Cosmos (Museum of Science and the Cosmos), run by the Organismo Autonomo de Museos y Centros of Cabildo de Tenerife (Autonomous Organism of Museums and Centres of the island government, Cabildo of Tenerife), with funding from the Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology (FECYT) and designed for the International Year of Astronomy 2009. The play, written and directed by the author, Carmen del Puerto, has been staged eight times in Tenerife and Pamplona. The poster values this experience as a resource for scientific popularization.

  8. Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology - Phase V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanliang Sun; Harry E. Littleton; Charles E. Bates

    2004-04-29

    Previous research, conducted under DOE Contracts DE-FC07-89ID12869, DE-FC07-93ID12230 and DE-FC07-95ID113358 made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional developments were needed to improve the process and make it more functional in industrial environments. The current project focused on eight tasks listed as follows: Task 1--Computational Model for the Process and Data Base to Support the Model; Task 2--Casting Dimensional Accuracy; Task 3--Pattern Production; Task 4--Improved Pattern Materials; Task 5--Coating Control; Task 6--In-Plant Case Studies; Task 7--Energy and the Environmental Data; and Task 8--Technology Transfer. This report summarizes the work done on all tasks in the period of October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2004. The results obtained in each task and subtask are summarized in this Executive Summary and details are provided in subsequent sections of the report.

  9. A case of a 'lost' nasogastric tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, V; Shakeel, M; Keh, S; Ah-See, K W

    2012-12-01

    To present the case of a 'lost' nasogastric tube and to highlight the importance of imaging and/or chest X-ray after nasogastric tube insertion, especially in unreliable patients. A 50-year-old man, undergoing radiotherapy treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base, was admitted for pain control and nasogastric tube feeding. This patient required multiple nasogastric tubes over a two-week period. The patient repeatedly denied pulling the nasogastric tube out and we were unable to establish the exact mode of nasogastric tube removal. On one such occasion another tube was inserted and a check X-ray showed two feeding tubes; the latest one was lying in the left main bronchus and the old nasogastric tube was observed in the oesophagus, with its upper end jutting above the hypopharynx. It was apparent that the patient had somehow cut the tube and swallowed it. This case not only illustrates the importance of flexible nasendoscopy and/or chest X-ray for checking the position of the nasogastric tube, but also highlights that some patients are not tolerant of nasogastric tubes. The use of nasogastric tubes should be avoided in these patients to prevent any self-inflicted injury.

  10. Eliminating the Lost Time Interval of Law Enforcement to Active Shooter Events in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    friend sexually abused him and he became suicidal.135 Williams had threatened to shoot a teacher to his friends, and they encouraged him. Together...stringent and recurrent , and include drills with all participating responders, political entities, and representatives. Based upon the research, a... recurrent , and include drills with all participating responders, political entities, and representatives. Based upon the research, a multilayered

  11. The integrity of science - lost in translation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents some selected issues currently discussed about the integrity of science, and it argues that there exist serious challenges to integrity in the various sciences. Due to the involved conceptual complexities, even core definitions of scientific integrity have been disputed, and core cases of scientific misconduct influenced the public discussion about them. It is claimed that ethics and law may not always go well together in matters of scientific integrity. Explanations of the causes of scientific misconduct vary, and defining good scientific practices is not a straightforward task. Even though the efficacy of ethics courses to improve scientific integrity can be doubted, and universities probably need to come up with more innovative formats to improve ethics in scientific training, ethics talk may be the only practical remedy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of Iowa's anti-bullying law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Ten Eyck, Patrick; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Onwuachi-Willig, Angela; Cavanaugh, Joseph E

    2016-12-01

    Bullying is the most common form of youth aggression. Although 49 of all 50 states in the U.S. have an anti-bullying law in place to prevent bullying, little is known about the effectiveness of these laws. Our objective was to measure the effectiveness of Iowa's anti-bullying law in preventing bullying and improving teacher response to bullying. Sixth, 8th, and 11th grade children who completed the 2005, 2008 and 2010 Iowa Youth Survey were included in this study (n = 253,000). Students were coded according to exposure to the law: pre-law for 2005 survey data, one year post-law for 2008 data, and three years post-law for 2010 data. The outcome variables were: 1) being bullied (relational, verbal, physical, and cyber) in the last month and 2) extent to which teachers/adults on campus intervened with bullying. Generalized linear mixed models were constructed with random effects. The odds of being bullied increased from pre-law to one year post-law periods, and then decreased from one year to three years post-law but not below 2005 pre-law levels. This pattern was consistent across all bullying types except cyberbullying. The odds of teacher intervention decreased 11 % (OR = 0.89, 95 % CL = 0.88, 0.90) from 2005 (pre-law) to 2010 (post-law). Bullying increased immediately after Iowa's anti-bullying law was passed, possibly due to improved reporting. Reductions in bullying occurred as the law matured. Teacher response did not improve after the passage of the law.

  13. America’s Lost Innocence and Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Włodek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In my paper America’s Lost Innocence I intend to focus on American cinema of the ’50s, part of ’60s, and contemporary throwbacks to those decades. The ’50s have been called “the last decade of American innocence”, “the happiest decade in America’s history – when things were going on – that everybody misses” (by Jean Baudrillard. That era symbolically ceased on 22 November 1963; however, many scholars and publicists undermine the belief in its very existence. Michael Wood calls the ’50s a time of “self-deception”; therefore, the question raised is – has America ever been innocent? By concentrating on the message conveyed by mostly genre (e.g. drama, melodrama, musical, romantic comedy and mainstream movies made in the ’50s and early ’60s (e.g. A Place In the Sun, Cat on the Hot, Tin Roof, Home From the Hill, I intend to analyze the portrait of American society of that time, it’s rules and expectations towards individuals and system as a whole. In the second part of my paper I will focus on contemporary throwbacks to those times depicted mostly in movies made in the 21st century, although not exclusively (e.g. Far From Heaven, The Hours, Revolutionary Road, the TV series Mad Men [2007–], Pleasantville. Using those and other movies as examples, I intend to prove the thesis that the phenomenon of retro and contemporary retromania are not always and not by definition conservative, and can serve as a means to a critical approach towards society.

  14. The girl child and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  15. The orphaning experience: descriptions from Ugandan youth who have lost parents to HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssebunnya Joshua

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The HIV/AIDS epidemic has continued to pose significant challenges to countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Millions of African children and youth have lost parents to HIV/AIDS leaving a generation of orphans to be cared for within extended family systems and communities. The experiences of youth who have lost parents to the HIV/AIDS epidemic provide an important ingress into this complex, evolving, multi-dimensional phenomenon. A fundamental qualitative descriptive study was conducted to develop a culturally relevant and comprehensive description of the experiences of orphanhood from the perspectives of Ugandan youth. A purposeful sample of 13 youth who had lost one or both parents to HIV/AIDS and who were affiliated with a non-governmental organization providing support to orphans were interviewed. Youth orphaned by HIV/AIDS described the experience of orphanhood beginning with parental illness, not death. Several losses were associated with the death of a parent including lost social capitol, educational opportunities and monetary assets. Unique findings revealed that youth experienced culturally specific stigma and conflict which was distinctly related to their HIV/AIDS orphan status. Exploitation within extended cultural family systems was also reported. Results from this study suggest that there is a pressing need to identify and provide culturally appropriate services for these Ugandan youth prior to and after the loss of a parent(s.

  16. Losing the Forest for the Trees: Environmental Reductionism in the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Bosselmann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental laws and policies have saved some “trees”, but the “forest” is being lost as critical global issues including climate change, biodiversity loss, and our ecological footprint continue to worsen. Existing laws and policies mitigate the ecological damage inflicted by industrial economies and western lifestyles. The article essentially makes the case for a sustainability approach to law that aims for transformation rather than environmental mitigation. Relevant trends in international law and domestic law reflective of a sustainability approach are discussed, and the article describes some contours of “law for sustainability” or “sustainability law”.

  17. 36 CFR 327.16 - Lost and found articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lost and found articles. 327... CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.16 Lost and found articles. All articles found shall be deposited by the finder at the Manager's office or with a ranger. All such articles shall be disposed of in accordance with...

  18. 21 CFR 1305.26 - Lost electronic orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lost electronic orders. 1305.26 Section 1305.26 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORDERS FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.26 Lost electronic orders. (a) If a purchaser determines that...

  19. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  20. Calculation of Additional Lost Green Time at Closely Spaced Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available At closely spaced signalized intersections or interchanges, additional lost green time can occur at upstream intersections when there is a queue spillback. For an accurate estimation of capacities and delays at closely spaced intersections, it is necessary to account such additional lost time. The Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2010 provides a model for the estimation of the additional lost time due to the presence of a downstream queue. However, case studies indicate that the HCM model does not provide a very accurate estimation when the distance to the downstream queue is short. In this paper, a new model is developed for the estimation of additional lost time considering queue discharge patterns and traffic flow patterns. Simulation results show that the proposed model provides a more accurate estimation of additional lost time compared with the HCM model when the distance to the downstream queue is limited.

  1. Tenancy Law Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml......Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml...

  2. European Law: Ending Discrimination against Girls in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendel, Margherita

    1992-01-01

    Examines how the European Convention on Human Rights and its case law could combat sexist education and develop concepts of philosophical convictions, the European Community's duty, and children's rights. Considers feminist strategies for improving girls' education, English and European procedural laws, and difficulties of using English law. (RLC)

  3. Do Data Breach Disclosure Laws Reduce Identity Theft?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanosky, Sasha; Telang, Rahul; Acquisti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, identity theft resulted in corporate and consumer losses of $56 billion dollars in 2005, with up to 35 percent of known identity thefts caused by corporate data breaches. Many states have responded by adopting data breach disclosure laws that require firms to notify consumers if their personal information has been lost or…

  4. Graham's law of diffusion: Quantum analogy and non-ideality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. We focus attention on two equivalent forms of Graham's law of diffusion that is valid for an ideal gas mixture. This equivalence is shown to be lost by the empirical equations of state in presence of an attractive nonideality. The modified forms are noted. We then construct a simple quantum mechanical model to ...

  5. Paradise Lost Dressed in the Costume of History: John Martin’s Rendition of Paradise Lost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Atashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The story of the loss of paradise has been read and interpreted in different ages. Commentary on Milton's Paradise Lost is not limited to verbal texts; painters and illustrators have contributed greatly to the poem by presenting their own time-bound readings and interpretations of the poem through their illustrations that are far beyond mere decorations. John Martin, in the aftermath of the Industrial Revolution, deletes the Father and the Son from his illustrations. Only angels such as Raphael are the representations of deity and are as powerless and tiny as Adam and Eve. Adam and Eve, after the Fall seem as small, powerless and as subjugated to the natural surrounding as they were before the Fall. Satan is the only powerful figure in his elegant palace. Through a new historical outlook, the researchers aim at exposing the workings of ideology and dominant discourses that informed John Martin's pictorial reading of Milton's poem in the early 19th century

  6. In search for the lost identity: a post-modern look at Lost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Gomes Thimóteo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the American television show Lost, in order to establish a relationship among technological advances, media and configuration of the contemporary subject, based on phenomenon of convergence as a possibility that integrates and modifies the subject. The analysis focuses on two moments. The first characterizes its structure as a transmedia narrative, resulting in a format called convergence culture, that emerges nowadays with the mass of content and media that surround us. In the second moment, some elements are observed in the series that are correlated to themes addressed by postmodernity. Thus we intend to demonstrate how the narrative presented portrays situations of reality in fiction, providing an identification of the post-modern subject with the show.

  7. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  8. Maryland Law and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubel, Robert Y.

    This document analyzes the major elements of Maryland school and college law pertaining to governance. While recognizing differences between school and college law in Maryland, this study shows that there are many elements in common between the two. This study will be primarily concerned with civil law rather than criminal law. School personnel or…

  9. Innovations in Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at historical and recent innovations in law. The first article examines the code of laws developed by the ancient Hebrews which influenced Roman law, English law, and the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The second article explores Thomas Jefferson's writing of the…

  10. [Teaching about Family Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of "Focus on Law Studies""contains a special emphasis on teaching about law and the family", in the form of the following three articles: "Teaching Family Law: Growing Pains and All" (Susan Frelich Appleton); "The Family Goes to Court: Including Law in a Sociological Perspective on the Family"…

  11. UNCLOS and International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Romera, Beatriz; Coelho, Nelson F.

    2018-01-01

    here is that of unilateral state practice and that practice has been relying, at least to some extent, on general public international law. This chapter explains how it is important to revisit international law to better understand the relative relevance of the UNCLOS in oceans governance today. Indeed......, treaty law is only one of many sources of the law that governs international relations, the others being customary international law and principles of law. The main conclusion of this chapter is that states may have to wake up to the limitations of the UNCLOS and that this will require understanding...... the relative role of this treaty among other sources of international law....

  12. Law across nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of participants keen to work together to promote research and policy development in such a lively forum." - Professor Steve Saxby PhD, Cert Ed., MBCS Professor of IT Law and Public Policy, Solicitor, Deputy Head of School (Research), Faculty of Business and Law, University of Southampton, Editor...... not only the original themes of Legal, Security and Privacy Issues in IT Law and International Law and Trade but more recently two new conferences on International Public and Private Law. The papers in this volume then represent the contributions to all these fields and reflect the strong desire......-in-Chief, The Computer Law & Security Review - The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice (Elsevier), www.elsevier.com/locate/clsr, Editor, The Encyclopedia of Information Technology Law (Sweet & Maxwell), Director ILAWS - Institute for Law and the Web - School of Law, Southampton University, www...

  13. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  14. Environmental Assessment of hunting on Lost Trail National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to evaluate the feasibility of establishing a hunting program on Lost Trail National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge)....

  15. 5 CFR 293.309 - Reconstruction of lost OPFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... necessary precautions to safeguard all OPFs. In the event of a lost or destroyed OPF, the current (or last... reconstruct the essential portions of the OPF as specified in the Guide to Personnel Recordkeeping or other...

  16. Dylan and Jamie and the Lost Ladybug Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    A narrated coloring book has been developed to emphasize the citizen science aspects of the Lost Ladybug Project. The text focuses on the various common lady beetles that might be found, as well as how to identify less common species....

  17. [The psychotic, laws and the Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haumonté, M T

    1986-02-01

    We relate some clinical examples of patients who went to hospital as offenders (murders). They were not condemned because they were mentally ill; we tried to demonstrate that article 64 of the French law is inadequate in reference to modern psychological, phenomenological and psycho-analytical discoveries. We relate cases of patients who harshly punished themselves because they were not convicted by the Law. The last observation induces the transition between the Law, as Lacan says, (the fundamental taboo of incest) and the laws put up by our societies.

  18. Idiopathic focal epilepsies: the "lost tribe".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Deb K; Ferrie, Colin; Addis, Laura; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Caraballo, Roberto; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Fejerman, Natalio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Helbig, Ingo; Ioannides, Andreas A; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Lal, Dennis; Lesca, Gaetan; Muhle, Hiltrud; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pisano, Tiziana; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Shibata, Takashi; Smith, Anna; Striano, Pasquale; Strug, Lisa J; Szepetowski, Pierre; Valeta, Thalia; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Koutroumanidis, Michalis

    2016-09-01

    The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community. Most neurologists would recognise the core syndromes of IFE to comprise: benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes or Rolandic epilepsy (BECTS/RE); Panayiotopoulos syndrome; and the idiopathic occipital epilepsies (Gastaut and photosensitive types). The Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the related (idiopathic) epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves in sleep (CSWS or ESES) are also often included, both as a consequence of the shared morphology of the interictal discharges and their potential evolution from core syndromes, for example, CSWS from BECTS. Atypical benign focal epilepsy of childhood also has shared electro-clinical features warranting inclusion. In addition, a number of less well-defined syndromes of IFE have been proposed, including benign childhood seizures with affective symptoms, benign childhood epilepsy with parietal spikes, benign childhood seizures with frontal or midline spikes, and benign focal seizures of adolescence. The

  19. Sex Trafficking, Law Enforcement and Perpetrator Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Burkhalter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In theory, everyone – except for criminals involved in their exploitation - agrees that children must not be in the sex industry and further, that those who prey on them must be prosecuted and punished. Virtually every country in the world has adopted national laws prohibiting the commercial sexual exploitation of children. International law is clear on this point, as well. Yet, when governments – and NGOs working with them – take action to extract children from commercial sex venues, common ground on protecting children from abuse can quickly erode with concerns about the efficacy of police intervention, the possibility of collateral harm to consenting adult sex workers or a decrease in access to HIV-prevention and related health services. The author argues that healing this divide must come through the reform of local police – and that, without the participation of law enforcement, there can be no long-term protection for children vulnerable to trafficking and related exploitation. In this article, human rights practitioner Holly Burkhalter argues that healing this divide must be accomplished through the reform of local police – and that human rights advocates, local governments and others seeking to combat trafficking cannot achieve long-term, sustainable protection for children without the involvement of law enforcement.

  20. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    Electoral Commission s 181(1)(f). 2 Section 181 of the Constitution. 3 Section 181(1)(b) of the Constitution. LAW. OCRACY. ELOPMENT. LAW. DEMOCRACY. & DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME 20 (2016) ...... Despite its decisions not being binding, and bearing the disparaging term “soft mechanism”, the SAHRC through its ...

  1. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    4 Corder H et al Report on Parliamentary Oversight and Accountability Faculty of Law, University of Cape. Town (1999) ... Development Agency Bill; Ad Hoc Committee on Criminal Law (Forensic Procedures) ...... Limited; Governing Body Foundation; Governors' Alliance; Gun Free Society; Health Systems Trust; Heart and.

  2. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    LAW. OCRACY. ELOPMENT. LAW. DEMOCRACY. & DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME 21 (2017). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ldd.v21i1.5. ISSN: 2077-4907 ... Furthermore, tourism development often involves training of personnel in a variety of ... a detrimental impact on local communities including, among others, their culture,.

  3. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    Chair in Customary Law, Human Rights and. Indigenous Values, Faculty of Law, University of. Cape Town. The research presented in this article was in part supported by the South. African Research Chairs Initiative of the. Department of Science and Technology and the. National Research Foundation of South Africa.

  4. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  5. A protocol to recover needles lost during minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayadevan, Rajiv; Stensland, Kristian; Small, Alexander; Hall, Simon; Palese, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The loss of an instrument during a surgical procedure is a potentially dangerous medical event. Retained surgical needles are reported to cause chronic pain, chronic irritation, and organ injury. Surgical needles lost during minimally invasive surgery are particularly difficult to retrieve because of their diminutive size and the camera's limited visual field, often prompting protracted recovery attempts that can add to surgical costs. Few detailed recommendations exist for the recovery of a misplaced needle. A survey was administered to minimally invasive surgeons across the United States to glean observations on the incidence of lost surgical needles and recovery techniques. Survey results were incorporated into an evidence-based protocol designed to expedite the recovery of lost surgical needles. Three hundred five minimally invasive surgeons from 11 surgical subspecialties completed the survey. Sixty-four percent of participants reported having experienced a lost surgical needle, with a minimum of 112 needles lost during the past 1 year alone. Urologists, pediatric surgeons, and bariatric surgeons reported higher rates of needle loss than surgeons practicing other subspecialties (P = .001). Removal of a needle through a minimally invasive port and laparoscopic suturing were the 2 most common situations resulting in lost needles. A systematic visual search, abdominal radiography, fluoroscopy, and the use of a magnetic retriever were reported as the most successful strategies for needle recovery. On the basis of survey results and current literature, our protocol incorporates a camera survey of the abdomen, intraoperative fluoroscopic radiography, port inspection, and a quadrant-based systematic visual search for the recovery of needles lost during minimally invasive surgery.

  6. Safe haven laws as crime control theater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Michelle; Miller, Monica K; Griffin, Timothy

    2010-07-01

    . Longitudinal studies and a nationwide database to better determine the effectiveness of safe haven laws are suggested. It is also crucial that agencies implementing SHLs closely monitor the reasons parents abandon their children, and adopt policies that re-focus the attention safe haven laws receive to address more frequent causes of harm to infants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowledge about childhood autism and opinion among healthcare workers on availability of facilities and law caring for the needs and rights of children with childhood autism and other developmental disorders in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igwe Monday N

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In designing programs to raise the community level of awareness about childhood autism in sub-Saharan Africa, it is logical to use the primary healthcare workers as contact point for education of the general public. Tertiary healthcare workers could play the role of trainers on childhood autism at primary healthcare level. Assessing their baseline knowledge about childhood autism to detect areas of knowledge gap is an essential ingredient in starting off such programs that would be aimed at early diagnosis and interventions. Knowledge of the healthcare workers on availability of facilities and law that would promote the required interventions is also important. This study assessed the baseline knowledge about childhood autism and opinion among Nigerian healthcare workers on availability of facilities and law caring for the needs and rights of children with childhood autism and other developmental disorders. Method A total of one hundred and thirty four (134 consented healthcare workers working in tertiary healthcare facilities located in south east and south-south regions of Nigeria were interviewed with Socio-demographic, Knowledge about Childhood Autism among Health Workers (KCAHW and Opinion on availability of Facilities and Law caring for the needs and rights of children with Childhood Autism and other developmental disorders (OFLCA questionnaires. Results The total mean score of participated healthcare workers on KCAHW questionnaire was 12.35 ± 4.40 out of a total score of 19 possible. Knowledge gap was found to be higher in domain 3 (symptoms of obsessive and repetitive pattern of behavior, followed by domains 1 (symptoms of impairments in social interaction, 4 (type of disorder autism is and associated co-morbidity and 2 (symptoms of communication impairments of KCAHW respectively among the healthcare workers. Knowledge about childhood autism (KCA as measured by scores on KCAHW questionnaire was significantly

  8. How Can State Law Support School Continuity and Success for Students in Foster Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    First Focus, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This brief is authored by The Legal Center for Foster Care and Education, a collaboration between the American Bar Association Center on Children and the Law, Education Law Center (PA), and Juvenile Law Center. The federal Fostering Connections Act of 2008 and the McKinney-Vento Act both provide education stability for children in foster care,…

  9. Recent Case Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petz, Thomas; Sagaert, Vincent; Østergaard, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In this section authors from various European countries report the recent case law in their country on the field of private patrimonial law, that is decisions on the law of property, juridical acts, the law of obligations, contract law and prescription. The European Review of Private Law (ERPL......) started this section in 2003. The section aims to give our readers an overview of what is happening in the most recent European case law. We have asked the national reporters to report the juridical essence of the decisions given by the highest courts in their country. These national reports...... not relate the facts of the decision, nor the personal opinion of the reporter. One can find discussions on the most important decisions of European courts in ERPL’s case note section. The recent case law section gives overviews of decisions published in periods of four months. The period of January...

  10. Harmonizing Tort Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a review of the literature on comparative tort law and economics. It pays special attention to the economics arguments against and in favour of harmonization of tort law in Europe.

  11. Administrative Law Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws.

  12. By Law Established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017......An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017...

  13. Net lost revenue from DSM: State policies that work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1995-07-01

    A key utility regulatory reform undertaken since 1989 allows utilities to recover the lost revenue incurred through successful operation of demand-side management (DSM) programs. Net lost revenue adjustment (NLRA) mechanisms are states preferred approach to lost revenue recovery from DSM programs. This paper examines the experiences states and utilities are having with the NLRA approach. The paper has three objectives: (1) determine whether NLRA is a feasible and effective approach to the lost-revenue disincentive for utility DSM programs, (2) identify the conditions linked to effective implementation of NLRA mechanisms and assess whether NLRA has changed utility investment behavior, and (3) suggest improvements to NLRA mechanisms. Contrary to the concerns raised by some industry analysts, our results indicate NLRA is a feasible approach. Seven of the ten states we studied report no substantial problems with their approach. We observe several conditions linked to effective NLRA implementation. Observed changes in utility investment behavior occur after implementation of DSM rate reforms, which include deployment of NLRA mechanisms. Utilities in states with lost revenue recovery invest more than twice as much in DSM as do utilities in other states.

  14. Production lost due to cervical cancer in Poland in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dubas-Jakóbczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poland has one of the highest cervical cancer mortality rates in Europe. It is related to the problem of late diagnosis and low attendance rate in screening programs. The objective of the study has been to assess the annual production loss due to the cervical cancer morbidity and mortality in Poland in 2012. The outcomes have been to provide comprehensive information on cervical cancer’s influence on population’s ability to work and its overall economic burden for the society. The study has also provided the methodological framework for disease-related production losses in Polish settings. Material and Methods: The human capital method was used. The production losses were calculated in both monetary and quantitative terms (working days lost due to 4 following reasons: 1 temporary disability to work, 2 permanent disability, 3 informal care, and 4 mortality. Results: Cervical cancer resulted in approx. 702 964 working days lost in 2012 due to absence at work for both patients and care givers and a total number of 957 678 working days lost due to patients’ mortality. The total value of production lost was assessed at 111.4 million euros. More than 66% of this value was attributed to women’s mortality. Conclusions: The calculation of production lost due to cervical cancer burden provides strong evidence to support adequate health promotion and disease prevention actions. Actions promoting cervical cancer screening should be intensified including workplace health promotion activities. Med Pr 2016;67(3:289–299

  15. Liability in Employment Law

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Roman

    2006-01-01

    97 Liability in labour law Summary This diploma paper analyzes liability in labour law with focus on liability for damage. At first the diploma paper introduces conception of liability in general and idea of liability in labour law considering different position of employee and employer in labour relations. The diploma paper then enumerates the types of labour-law liability. The next chapter concentrates on liability for damage. This chapter describes characteristic features of liability for ...

  16. Behavioral Law and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Jolls

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral economics has been a growing force in many fields of applied economics, including public economics, labor economics, health economics, and law and economics. This paper describes and assesses the current state of behavioral law and economics. Law and economics had a critical (though underrecognized) early point of contact with behavioral economics through the foundational debate in both fields over the Coase theorem and the endowment effect. In law and economics today, both the end...

  17. Sociological Aesthetics of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer-Lescano, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Aesthetic theory has the potential to develop a sensorium for the rational and arational forces of law. But the aesthetic knowledge of law is underdeveloped. That is why this article proposes a self-reflective sociological aesthetics of law that is capable of acknowledging human and social forces. The article unfolds its argument in three steps: first, it outlines the main approaches in the field of “law and aesthetics”; second, it connects these approaches in legal aesthetics with sociologic...

  18. Responsibility in Labour Law

    OpenAIRE

    Mandíková, Irena

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with responsibility in labour-law relationships. At the beginning, the thesis focuses on defining responsibility in labour law from a general perspective, in particular in the light of its characteristics. This part is followed by a classification of responsibility in terms of individual branches of law. A prevalent part of this thesis examines the most common type of labour-law responsibility, i.e. responsibility for damage. This part describes in detail the individual type...

  19. The tort law industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortmann, J.

    2009-01-01

    Tort law is fast becoming ‘big business’. Hardly a week goes by without some lawyer or other launching a mass claim to redress a perceived injustice. Investors, too, are starting to recognize the commercial potential of tort law. Coinciding with the increasing commercialization of tort law, is

  20. On Teaching Natural Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, David F.

    1978-01-01

    A brief look at Columbia, Harvard, and Notre Dame law schools shows that the American tradition in teaching natural law has not been strong. The value of teaching natural law is discussed, a separate course or seminar is seen as the most effective option, and a selection of available sources for such a course is appended. (JMD)

  1. Environmental law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    Modern Danish environmental law has a strong international dimension due to membership of EU and participation in global and regional agreements. The concept of transnational law that includes EU environmental law that has vertical as well as horizontal effects across jurisdictions binding national...

  2. Education on Environmental Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Guillermo J.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that environmental law, as part of legal science, should be taught at universities; discusses the development of environmental law and its relationship to other sciences; and proposes a framework for studying environmental law as a university course for study. (DC)

  3. LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    LAW, DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT/ VOL 21 (2017) ratified may apply in Kenya. The general rules of international law apply if a norm has achieved the status of jus cogens or erga omnes.2 The Kenyan courts have cautiously created inroads into the application of international customary law so as to uphold. Article 2(6) ...

  4. On Kepler's First Law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This article is about Kepler's first law or the law of ellipses, named after its discoverer and shown by Newton to follow from an inverse square law of force: A planet revolving about the sun moves in an elliptical orbit with the sun at one focus of the ellipse. We present two proofs of this classical result: Newton's proof, from the ...

  5. Preventing customer defection and stimulating return of the lost customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senić Radoslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Customers represent company's most valuable asset. Company can assure its survival, further growth and development by retaining existing, attracting new and returning lost customers. Retaining existing, loyal customers is the most profitable business activity, attracting new ones is the most expensive, while returning lost and frequently forgotten customers is a type of business activity that still generates modest interest among researchers and practitioners. So far, marketing strategies have been mainly directed towards the first two categories of customers. The objective of this paper is dedicated to customer defection and returning lost customers. Paper discusses customer relationship life-cycle and the significance of managing customer return within it, types of customer defections, the process of managing return, as well as, the reasons that led to customer defection.

  6. Chemical Grouting Lost-Circulation Zones with Polyurethane Foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansure, A.J.; Westmoreland, J.J.

    1999-07-12

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing polyurethane foam as a chemical grout for lost circulation zones. In past work polyurethane foam was tried with limited success in laboratory tests and GDO sponsored field tests. Goals were that the foam expanded significantly and harden to a chillable firmness quickly. Since that earlier work there have been improvements in polyurethane chemistry and the causes of the failures of previous tests have been identified. Recent success in applying pure solution grouts (proper classification of polyurethane--Naudts) in boreholes encourages reevaluating its use to control lost circulation. These successes include conformance control in the oil patch (e.g. Ng) and darn remediation projects (Bruce et al.). In civil engineering, polyurethane is becoming the material of choice for sealing boreholes with large voids and high inflows, conditions associated with the worst lost circulation problems. Demonstration of a delivery mechanism is yet to be done in a geothermal borehole.

  7. Adoção de crianças por casais homoafetivos: um estudo comparativo entre universitários de Direito e de Psicologia Children adoption by homosexual couples: a comparative study between law and psychology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludgleydson Fernandes de Araújo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa objetivou analisar e comparar as Representações Sociais (RS de estudantes em fase final do curso de psicologia e de direito acerca da adoção de crianças por casais homossexuais. Para tanto a amostra foi não-probabilística e intencional constituída de 104 universitários, de ambos os sexos (56% feminino e 44% masculino, sendo 51 concluintes do curso de Direito e 53 concluintes do curso de Psicologia. Utilizaram-se questionários com perguntas fechadas. Posteriormente foi categorizada pela análise de conteúdo temática de Bardin (1977/2000. Perceberam-se posicionamentos contrários dos universitários acerca da adoção de crianças por casais homossexuais. No que diz respeito às conseqüências para a criança emergiram conteúdos tais como: influência na orientação sexual, preconceito e ausência de referencial materno/paterno. Os universitários de Psicologia mencionaram que tal fato poderia desenvolver distúrbios psicológicos, ao passo que os universitários de Direito ancoraram suas RS nos problemas morais. Evidenciou-se a necessidade do fomento de mecanismos psicossociais e jurídicos que contribuam na elucidação desta temática complexa e dinâmica na sociedade contemporânea.The objective of this research was to analyze and to compare the Social Representations of last year's undergraduate law and psychology students regarding the adoption of children by homosexual couples. For this purpose, the sample was non-probabilistic and intentional and it was composed of 104 students of both genders (56% female and 44% male; 51 students were graduating in Law, and 53 were graduating in Psychology. Closed questioned questionnaires were used. The data was categorized by Bardin's (1977/2000 thematic content analysis. Contrary attitudes were perceived from the students regarding the adoption of children adoption by homosexual couples. Concerning the consequences to the child, contents such as influence on sexual

  8. Ethics and the law: the law and assisted human conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1990-07-01

    This article aims to provide no more than a brief summary and overview of some of the principal legal questions which arise in connection with assisted human conception. There is no requirement of legal suitability for natural parenthood, though a child may be removed from parental care at birth if its welfare is considered to be at risk. Where medical or other assistance is required, however, the law and social judgments may impinge on the freedom of individuals to procreate. Commercial surrogacy has recently been criminalized, but private surrogacy arrangements without reward are not illegal--although any contract would probably be unenforceable through the courts. If medical intervention is required to achieve assisted conception, the availability of resources for NHS treatment, the physical and mental health of the prospective mother and father, and the welfare (or lack of it) of any prospective child, may be factors in deciding whether an infertility unit will offer treatment. Such practices must not operate unfairly and must not discriminate on racial grounds. If treatment is provided, and a woman becomes pregnant, the ordinary abortion laws will apply and, it is thought, will extend to the selective reduction of a multiple pregnancy--there is no claim in English law for 'wrongful birth'. AID does not constitute adultery, and the law has recently been reformed to recognize children born following AID as legitimate to their social parents. A child may be regarded as the legitimate child of a surrogate mother's marriage, but where the baby is genetically distinct from the surrogate mother, the law, and is uncertain and as yet could be conflicting claims of parenthood without legislation. The storage and disposal of human gametes and embryos may raise problems of 'ownership'.

  9. Water, law, science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryIn a world with water resources severely impacted by technology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end, this paper is an earth scientist's attempt to comprehend essential elements of water law, and to examine their connections to science. Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with a priori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science, observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while in law, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law in Europe and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago by Roman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason. Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the sea were governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that these elements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as private property. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jus gentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast, jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jus gentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in which science plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all. This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, follows their evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit of science inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving water and environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In a technological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of water law. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophical understanding of the relationships between science and law will contribute to their constructively coming together in the service of society.

  10. Human law and computer law comparative perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrandt, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    This book probes the epistemological and hermeneutic implications of data science and artificial intelligence for democracy and the Rule of Law, and the challenges posed by computing technologies traditional legal thinking and the regulation of human affairs.

  11. Approximation of Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-03-01

    Approximation of laws is an important theme in the philosophy of science. If we can make sense of the idea that two scientific laws are "close" to each other, then we can also analyze such methodological notions as approximate explanation of laws, approximate reduction of theories, approximate empirical success of theories, and approximate truth of laws. Proposals for measuring the distance between quantitative scientific laws were given in Niiniluoto (1982, 1987). In this paper, these definitions are reconsidered as a response to the interesting critical remarks by Liu (1999).

  12. A common law agenda for labour law

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Barry; Spowart-Taylor, Ann

    1999-01-01

    This article assesses the purposes of a re-contractualisation of the employment relationship. It examines in particular the implied duty to act in good faith, and argues that in developing this and other implied terms the judiciary only extends employment protection to further wealth maximisation. It is argued that the common law sees its contribution to labour law as a device for maximising the efficiency of the enterprise and promoting the creation of wealth for the benefit of the national ...

  13. Toward an Integral View of the Right of Children: Powers and Duties of the Non-Custodial Parent in Chilean Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barcia Lehmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study makes a comprehensive implementation of the Reform to rights of Chilean children, on the basis of Act 20.680 of 2013, establishing the budgets for a scheme of allocation of rights of filiation to one of the parents, by means of judicial resolution, according principles of the best interests of the child and co-responsibility of the parents. To this effect it is argued that the non-custodial father has joint faculties of filiation with the custodial father and his own faculties of filiation. In short, personal custody in Chile allow out a system –which is assigned only to one parent as in many countries– of joint custody regime, which allows both fathers –custodial and non-custodial parents– to participate in the upbringing and education of their children.

  14. The Debate on Immigration in Spain: an Opportunity Twice Lost?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Campuzano

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the passage in 1985 of the Constitutional Law on the Rights and Freedoms of Foreigners in Spain, commonly known as the Law on the Status of Foreigners, Spain has experienced a process of immigration policy development that has suggested the need to reform the law. A reform begins to take shape starting in 1996 with the first PartidoPopular (PP government. The author focuses on the law of April 2000, which was passed with the support of all the parties represented in the Spanish Parliament, and the subsequent reform of the reform, the law of August 2000, much more restrictive and passed only with the support of the PP’s absolute majority in the new legislative period. These developments occurred in a context in which the European Union plans to go much further on immigration issues. In this context, the article makes reference to such topics as Schengen, the AmsterdamTreaty, and the Tampere summit.

  15. 27 CFR 479.141 - Stolen or lost firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stolen or lost firearms. 479.141 Section 479.141 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  16. Multiple origins of methane at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Alexander S.; Summons, Roger E.

    2010-08-01

    The high concentrations of methane in the vent fluids of the Lost City Hydrothermal Field represent the sum of abiotic and biological sources and sinks. Stable isotopes of carbon are of limited value in discriminating between the various sources of methane because the isotope effects associated with the multiple processes forming and consuming methane are each poorly constrained, and the products of these processes are pooled. Furthermore, reservoir effects complicate interpretation: the near quantitative reduction of inorganic carbon to methane under highly reducing conditions limits the isotope effects associated with methanogenesis. However, the carbon isotope compositions of lipids derived from anaerobic methanotrophs suggest that more than one isotopically distinct pool of methane exists at Lost City. In this analysis we integrate multiple lines of evidence to constrain the relative contribution of various processes at Lost City. The processes that we consider here include i) Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) abiotic synthesis of methane and other hydrocarbons, ii) the Sabatier process for the abiotic synthesis of methane alone, iii) biological methane production by Methanosarcinales, and iv) biological methane consumption by anaerobic and aerobic methanotrophs. This analysis suggests that abiotic processes, particularly the Sabatier reaction, are likely to be the dominant source of methane at Lost City. Biological methane is present in the vent fluids, but does not compose a high fraction of the total methane pool. These observations imply that ultramafic systems could have supplied abundant reduced carbon to the early Earth, even without biological catalysis.

  17. Case Report: The story of a lost guidewire | Bagaria | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seldinger's technique is widely used to place central venous and arterial catheters, and is generally considered to be safe. The technique does, however, have multiple potential risks. Guidewire-related complications are rare but potentially serious. We describe a case of a lost guidewire during central venous catheter ...

  18. The experiences of mothers who lost a baby during pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of mothers who lost a baby during pregnancy and care given by doctors and midwives during this period. To realise this goal the researcher followed a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual approach. Data were collected by using in-depth ...

  19. Societal impact pitch for 'Lost building traditions' project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Daniël

    2016-01-01

    In de video vertelt Daniël over zijn onderzoeksproject 'Lost building traditions: turf construction and early medieval architecture in the southern North Sea area'. Voor dit project bouwde hij samen met tientallen vrijwilligers de eerste reconstructie van een vroegmiddeleeuws zodenhuis. Rondom de

  20. Freud's 'lost' dream and the schism with Wilhelm Fliess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautner, B

    1994-04-01

    Although there was only one specimen dream in the first draft of 'The Interpretation of Dreams' that Freud would describe as fully analysed, he removed his dream from the text on the insistence of his friend, Wilhelm Fliess. The content of this 'lost dream' has been one of the great mysteries in psychoanalytic history. In this paper the author, working from clues in Freud's letters to Fliess and elsewhere, demonstrates that Freud's submission to Fliess caused him great anguish. The author contends that rather than discarding the lost dream as it has been assumed he did, Freud dismembered, disguised and resurrected it, along with the entire dream analysis, in the essay 'Screen memories'. A reconstruction of the lost dream and Freud's analysis as it appeared in the first draft of 'The Interpretation of Dreams', is attempted. The fate of the lost dream was the catalysing element in the dissolution of Freud's relationship with Fliess, it is maintained. Along with the transferential aspects of his relationship with Fliess, Freud's personal circumstances and the realities of the historical moment in Vienna are considered as contributing to his state of mind at the time.

  1. Lost in localization: A solution with neuroinformatics 2.0?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2009-01-01

    The commentary by Derrfuss and Mar (Derrfuss, J., Mar, R.A., 2009. Lost in localization: The need for a universal coordinate database. NeuroImage, doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.01.053.) discusses some of the limitations of the present databases and calls for a universal coordinate database. Here I...

  2. Cinema and Choric Connection: "Lost in Translation" as Sensual Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Brian L.; Keeling, Diane Marie

    2011-01-01

    The rise of the new information technologies, and corresponding proliferation of signs, images, and information, has contributed to a growing sense of alienation and dislocation. For many, the contemporary moment is an unending and disorienting sea of sensory-symbolic excesses. "Lost in Translation" is a film addressed to these anxieties. Engaging…

  3. Environmental law. Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepfer, M. (Trier Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Umwelt- und Technikrecht)

    1989-01-01

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST).

  4. Water, law, science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  5. Depression symptoms and lost productivity in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Adam P; Phillips, Katie M; Hoehle, Lloyd P; Feng, Allen L; Bergmark, Regan W; Caradonna, David S; Gray, Stacey T; Sedaghat, Ahmad R

    2017-03-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is associated with significant losses of patient productivity that cost billions of dollars every year. The causative factors for decreases in productivity in patients with CRS have yet to be determined. To determine which patterns of CRS symptoms drive lost productivity. Prospective, cross-sectional cohort study of 107 patients with CRS. Sinonasal symptom severity was measured using the 22-item Sinonasal Outcomes Test, from which sleep, nasal, otologic or facial pain, and emotional function subdomain scores were calculated using principal component analysis. Depression risk was assessed with the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), whereas nasal obstruction was assessed with the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) instrument. Lost productivity was assessed by asking participants how many days of work and/or school they missed in the last 3 months because of CRS. Associations were sought between lost productivity and CRS symptoms. A total of 107 patients were recruited. Patients missed a mean (SD) of 3.1 (12.9) days of work or school because of CRS. Lost productivity was most strongly associated with the emotional function subdomain (β = 7.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.71-9.25; P productivity was associated with PHQ-2 score (β = 4.72; 95% CI, 2.62-6.83; P productivity was less strongly associated with the nasal symptom subdomain score (β = 2.65; 95% CI, 0.77-4.52; P = .007), and there was no association between lost productivity and NOSE score (β = 0.01; 95% CI, -0.12 to 0.13; P = .91). Symptoms associated with depression are most strongly associated with missed days of work or school because of CRS. Further treatment focusing on depression-associated symptoms in patients with CRS may reduce losses in productivity. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Production lost due to cervical cancer in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubas-Jakóbczyk, Katarzyna; Kocot, Ewa; Seweryn, Michał; Koperny, Magdalena

    Poland has one of the highest cervical cancer mortality rates in Europe. It is related to the problem of late diagnosis and low attendance rate in screening programs. The objective of the study has been to assess the annual production loss due to the cervical cancer morbidity and mortality in Poland in 2012. The outcomes have been to provide comprehensive information on cervical cancer's influence on population's ability to work and its overall economic burden for the society. The study has also provided the methodological framework for disease-related production losses in Polish settings. The human capital method was used. The production losses were calculated in both monetary and quantitative terms (working days lost) due to 4 following reasons: 1) temporary disability to work, 2) permanent disability, 3) informal care, and 4) mortality. Cervical cancer resulted in approx. 702 964 working days lost in 2012 due to absence at work for both patients and care givers and a total number of 957 678 working days lost due to patients' mortality. The total value of production lost was assessed at 111.4 million euros. More than 66% of this value was attributed to women's mortality. The calculation of production lost due to cervical cancer burden provides strong evidence to support adequate health promotion and disease prevention actions. Actions promoting cervical cancer screening should be intensified including workplace health promotion activities. Med Pr 2016;67(3):289-299. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. Using Cichlids for Illustrating Mendel's Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Eugene D.; Winters, Charlotte M.

    1978-01-01

    A classroom experiment is proposed in which students can mate a banded or spotted convict cichlid with a pink convict cichlid and observe the markings of their "children" and "grandchildren" as a way of illustrating Mendel's Laws of Dominance and Segregation. (MN)

  8. Family law matters - a guide for GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnery, Sarah

    2011-12-01

    General practitioners are regularly called upon to assist their patients in family law disputes. They are often served with a subpoena to produce their patient's file, or that of their children, and can be called upon to provide short reports regarding various health conditions of their patients. Doctors can also sometimes become witnesses in family law litigation and the time needed to participate is rarely compensated. OBJECTIVE This article aims to provide GPs with key information in relation to responding to a subpoena and the preparation of reports in family law matters. Careful preparation of subpoenas and reports by GPs who find themselves embroiled in the family law disputes of their patients can save significant time and costs to all involved.

  9. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  10. Dentistry and criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, B S; Khoury, J N

    2017-09-01

    Criminal law in dentistry, as shaped and moulded by the prevailing views of society, defines what is or is not socially acceptable. It applies in both personal and professional contexts with the intended consequence of protecting the public from unacceptable conduct and potential imbalances of power. At its centre, a patient's consent plays a pivotal role in transforming unlawful conduct into lawful conduct. This literature review considers the current law and the trend of utilizing criminal law in addition to non-criminal law alternatives of reprimanding clinicians for failure to achieve consent in the course of dental practice. Dentists must appreciate this change and the prosecuting authority's increasing willingness to resort to criminal law. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  11. The Main Law Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The internal law of a State is the expression of the sovereign will of that Sate; however, thereare some features common to all law systems. The evolution of the society as a whole gave rise tointernational bodies (such as the European Union, through which the signatory countries haveassimilated certain unitary regulations in the internal law system. The origin of this law system is thelaw book of Justinian, during whose time the Roman law was codified. Thus, in the year 528 a. d.Justinian arranged the legal rules of those times in a unitary whole, adapted to the realities of those days.In our country, as per the fundamental law - the Constitution, the treaties and conventions ratified byRomania prevail in case of a conflict between them and the internal legislation regarding the humanrights.

  12. On Hack's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon, Riccardo; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Maritan, Amos; Giacometti, Achille; Tarboton, David G.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    1996-11-01

    Hack's law is reviewed, emphasizing its implications for the elongation of river basins as well as its connections with their fractal characteristics. The relation between Hack's law and the internal structure of river basins is investigated experimentally through digital elevation models. It is found that Hack's exponent, elongation, and some relevant fractal characters are closely related. The self-affine character of basin boundaries is shown to be connected to the power law decay of the probability of total contributing areas at any link and to Hack's law. An explanation for Hack's law is derived from scaling arguments. From the results we suggest that a statistical framework referring to the scaling invariance of the entire basin structure should be used in the interpretation of Hack's law.

  13. 5 CFR 839.1003 - How will OPM compute the amount of lost earnings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ERRONEOUS RETIREMENT COVERAGE CORRECTIONS ACT Lost Earnings for Certain Make-up Contributions to the TSP § 839.1003 How will OPM compute the amount of lost earnings? (a) Lost earnings will generally be computed in accordance with the Board's lost earnings regulations (5 CFR 1606 of chapter VI). However, the...

  14. 28 CFR 301.204 - Continuation of lost-time wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continuation of lost-time wages. 301.204... ACCIDENT COMPENSATION Lost-Time Wages § 301.204 Continuation of lost-time wages. (a) Once approved, the inmate shall receive lost-time wages until the inmate: (1) Is released; (2) Is transferred to another...

  15. 28 CFR 301.203 - Payment of lost-time wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of lost-time wages. 301.203... ACCIDENT COMPENSATION Lost-Time Wages § 301.203 Payment of lost-time wages. (a) An inmate worker may receive lost-time wages for the number of regular work hours absent from work due to injury sustained in...

  16. Lignite zone as an indicator to lost circulation belt: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen (18) water boreholes were studied for lost circulation. When locations of the boreholes associated with lost circulation were plotted on the map of Anambra State a lost circulation belt was observed around the River Niger – Onitsha – Oba – Nnewi axis. Lost circulation intervals range between 20-50m and 75-90m ...

  17. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  18. Rhetoric in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jonas

    The bond between law and rhetoric is as old as the subjects themselves. Especially the ancient works on legal rhetoric afford, however, a too narrow depiction of the interaction between law and rhetoric as a purely instrumental discipline of communication in court. In this paper I challenge...... this narrow understanding of legal rhetoric and outline three distinct frames of understanding the relation between law and rhetoric...

  19. Borders, Violence, Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER DE LUCAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between violence, law and borders by analyzing both the violence at the borders and the violence of the borders. In both cases, the author states that violence exerted by means of law, as well as migratory and asylum policies, threaten the universal human rights of the most vulnerable people and cannot be seen as exercising the legitimate monopoly of force, resulting in the destruction of the Rule of Law.

  20. Ocean, Technology, Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OCEANS, *LEGISLATION, USSR, NATURAL RESOURCES, CONTINENTAL SHELVES, PROTECTION, TRANSLATIONS, PRESERVATION, FISHERIES, REGULATIONS, POLLUTION, OCEAN BOTTOM, INTERNATIONAL LAW , WATERWAYS, CANALS, NORTH SEA, STRAITS, BALTIC SEA.

  1. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds...... resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study...... of comparative criminal law....

  2. Seeking Deliberation on the Unborn in International Law | de Freitas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... law as also serving to protect fundamental rights and the interests of the individual. ... If the protection of being human serves as the common denominator in human ... has been accomplished regarding women, children, animals and cloning.

  3. Association between state school nutrition laws and subsequent child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakshappa, Deepak; Fiks, Alexander G; Faerber, Jennifer A; Feudtner, Chris

    2016-09-01

    Many states have enacted laws to improve school nutrition. We tested whether stronger state nutrition laws are associated with subsequently decreased obesity. We conducted a retrospective national multi-year panel data study (analyzed 2014-2016 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia). The predictors were 2010 laws regarding 9 nutrition categories from the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students, which grades the strength of state laws (none, weak, or strong). The outcome was weight status (healthy weight, overweight, or obese) in elementary, middle, and high school from the 2011/2012 National Survey of Children's Health. We tested the association between the strength of laws and weight using multinomial logistic regression. To further evaluate our main results, we conducted state-level longitudinal analyses testing the association between competitive food and beverage laws on the change in obesity from 2003-2011. In main analyses of 40,177 children ages 10-17years, we found strong state laws restricting the sale of competitive food and beverages in elementary school (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.96) and strong advertising laws across all grades (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86) were associated with reduced odds of obesity. In longitudinal analyses, states with strong competitive food and beverage laws from 2003-2010 had small but significant decreases in obesity, compared to states with no laws. Although further research is needed to determine the causal effect of these laws, this study suggests that strong state laws limiting the sale and advertising of unhealthy foods and beverages in schools are associated with decreased obesity rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Examining the Crossroads of Law, Ethics, and Education Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Educational leaders are bound by legal and ethical imperatives to make certain that all children have access to an education and the opportunity to learn. To better understand how law and ethics intersect, this article adopted the cultural study perspective to analyze U.S. Supreme Court opinions for language revealing the intersection of law and…

  5. Supreme Court Strikes Down Law on Internet Indecency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemiller, Lawrence; Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court has struck down parts of the Communications Decency Act as violating the First Amendment. The law was predicted to wreak havoc on the Internet and connected campus computer networks. The 1996 law was aimed at protecting children from pornography but threatened the availability of a wide range of materials,…

  6. Evaluation of New York state's mandatory occupant restraint law : fatalities and injuries among motor vehicle occupants covered by the law

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    The report focuses on the ultimate measure of the effectiveness of New York State's Mandatory Occupant Restraint Law: reductions in fatalities and serious injuries among vehicle occupants. All front seat occupants and children under the age of ten, r...

  7. Do Schooling Laws Matter? Evidence from the Introduction of Compulsory Attendance Laws in the United States. NBER Working Paper No. 18477

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Karen; Lingwall, Jeff; Stephens, Melvin, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of introducing compulsory attendance laws on the schooling of U.S. children for three overlapping time periods: 1880-1927, 1890-1927, and 1898-1927. The previous literature finds little effect of the laws, which is somewhat surprising given that the passage of these laws coincided with rising attendance. Using…

  8. MILTON’S PARADISE LOST AND A POSTCOLONIAL FALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ FERNANDO FERREIRA DE SÁ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In John Milton’s Paradise Lost epic and empire are dissociated. Contrary to many misreadings, this all-important work of the English Renaissance intersects postcolonial thinking in a number of ways. By using Gayatri Spivak’s circuit of postcolonial theory and practice, this paper enacts a counterpointal (misreading of Milton’s text: Paradise Lost may at last free its (post-colonial (discontent. Since every reading is a misreading, my (misreading of Milton’s paradise is amo(vement of resistance against and intervention in a so-called grand narrative of power (Milton’s epic with a view to proposing a postcolonial conversation with this text.

  9. Polymer grouts for plugging lost circulation in geothermal wells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbreath, D. (Green Mountain International, Waynesvile, NC); Mansure, Arthur James; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2004-12-01

    We have concluded a laboratory study to evaluate the survival potential of polymeric materials used for lost circulation plugs in geothermal wells. We learned early in the study that these materials were susceptible to hydrolysis. Through a systematic program in which many potential chemical combinations were evaluated, polymers were developed which tolerated hydrolysis for eight weeks at 500 F. The polymers also met material, handling, cost, and emplacement criteria. This screening process identified the most promising materials. A benefit of this work is that the components of the polymers developed can be mixed at the surface and pumped downhole through a single hose. Further strength testing is required to determine precisely the maximum temperature at which extrusion through fractures or voids causes failure of the lost circulation plug.

  10. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    mineworkers' legal representation imbroglio in Madigiwana. *. This article is based on the research supported in part by the National Research Foundation of South ... circumstances are the principles of separation of powers and the rule of law whereby ..... See Gauteng Gambling Board v MEC for Economic Development,.

  11. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    Revisiting the participation of traditional leaders in municipal councils in South. Africa. MBUZENI MATHENJWA. Associate Professor of Law, University of .... control and management of the affairs of Black people. In terms of ... was that traditional leaders were no longer empowered solely on the basis of their hereditary right,.

  12. Mental illness and lost income among adult South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Crick; Myer, Landon; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R; Flisher, Alan J

    2013-05-01

    Little is known regarding the links between mental disorder and lost income in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between mental disorder and lost income in the first nationally representative psychiatric epidemiology survey in South Africa. A probability sample of South African adults was administered the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview schedule to assess the presence of mental disorders as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version IV. The presence of severe depression or anxiety disorders was associated with a significant reduction in earnings in the previous 12 months among both employed and unemployed South African adults (p = 0.0043). In simulations of costs to individuals, the mean estimated lost income associated with severe depression and anxiety disorders was $4,798 per adult per year, after adjustment for age, gender, substance abuse, education, marital status, and household size. Projections of total annual cost to South Africans living with these disorders in lost earnings, extrapolated from the sample, were $3.6 billion. These data indicate either that mental illness has a major economic impact, through the effect of disability and stigma on earnings, or that people in lower income groups are at increased risk of mental illness. The indirect costs of severe depression and anxiety disorders stand in stark contrast with the direct costs of treatment in South Africa, as illustrated by annual government spending on mental health services, amounting to an estimated $59 million for adults. The findings of this study support the economic argument for investing in mental health care as a means of mitigating indirect costs of mental illness.

  13. Is Ecotourism Just Another Story of Paradise Lost?

    OpenAIRE

    English, Brian J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses Milton’s epic Paradise Lost as a metaphor to highlight the pitfalls of the label “ecotourism”. Critics of ecotourism view the label as a misnomer and an advertising ploy. Therefore, in order to provide a balanced perspective of ecotourism, this paper will review the definition of ecotourism, discuss the challenges of implementing successful ecotourism projects and provide some examples of ecotourism-gone-wrong. Since seeking economic benefits of increased tourism is contradict...

  14. Lost bits: particle shedding with polyvinyl chloride intravenous administration sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Peter; Ainsworth, Paul; Cassey, John; Phelan, David

    2002-12-01

    Silicone particles have been demonstrated in the effluent from silicone intravenous (IV) tubing. It has been widely suspected that polyvinyl chloride (PVC) particles are also lost. We sought to clarify the situation in a carefully controlled laboratory setting using the apparatus and flow rates common in a paediatric setting, using scanning electron microscope techniques (SEM), we found that particles were indeed shed from IV tubing during use, but they were not PVC.

  15. Recovery of lost color and depth frames in multiview videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Lan; Wang, Chuan-Jia; Ding, Tsai-Ling; Huang, Gui-Xiang; Tsai, Wei-Lin; Chang, Tsung-En; Yang, Neng-Chieh

    2017-08-29

    In this paper, we consider an integrated error concealment system for lost color frames and lost depth frames in multiview videos with depths. We first proposed a pixel-based color error-concealment method with the use of depth information. Instead of assuming that the same moving object in consecutive frames has minimal depth difference, as is done in a state-of-the-art method, a more realistic situation in which the same moving object in consecutive frames can be in different depths is considered. In the derived motion vector candidate set, we consider all the candidate motion vectors in the set, and weight the reference pixels by the depth differences to obtain the final recovered pixel. Compared to two state-of-the-art methods, the proposed method has average PSNR gains of up to 8.73 dB and 3.98 dB respectively. Second, we proposed an iterative depth frame error-concealment method. The initial recovered depth frame is obtained by DIBR (depth-image-based rendering) from another available view. The holes in the recovered depth frame are then filled in the proposed priority order. Preprocessing methods (depth difference compensation and inconsistent pixel removal) are performed to improve the performance. Compared with a method that uses the available motion vector in a color frame to recover the lost depth pixels, the HMVE (hybrid motion vector extrapolation) method, the inpainting method and the proposed method have gains of up to 4.31 dB, 10.29 dB and 6.04 dB, respectively. Finally, for the situation in which the color and the depth frames are lost at the same time, our two methods jointly perform better with a gain of up to 7.79 dB.

  16. Restoration of lost connectivity of partitioned wireless sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virender Ranga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The lost connectivity due to failure of large scale nodes plays major role to degrade the system performance by generating unnecessary overhead or sometimes totally collapse the active network. There are many issues and challenges to restore the lost connectivity in an unattended scenario, i.e. how many recovery nodes will be sufficient and on which locations these recovery nodes have to be placed. A very few centralized and distributed approaches have been proposed till now. The centralized approaches are good for a scenario where information about the disjoint network, i.e. number of disjoint segments and their locations are well known in advance. However, for a scenario where such information is unknown due to the unattended harsh environment, a distributed approach is a better solution to restore the partitioned network. In this paper, we have proposed and implemented a semi-distributed approach called Relay node Placement using Fermat Point (RPFP. The proposed approach is capable of restoring lost connectivity with small number of recovery relay nodes and it works for any number of disjoint segments. The simulation experiment results show effectiveness of our approach as compared to existing benchmark approaches.

  17. Years of potential life lost and life expectancy in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Stürup, Anne Emilie; McGrath, John J

    2017-01-01

    lost and life expectancy in schizophrenia, which are more direct, absolute measures of increased mortality. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, Cinahl, and Web of Science for published studies on years of potential life lost and life expectancy in schizophrenia. Data from individual studies...... was least in the Asian study and greatest in Africa. The overall weighted average life expectancy was 64·7 years (95% CI 61·1-71·3), and was lower for men than women (59·9 years, 95% CI 55·5-64·3 vs 67·6 years, 63·1-72·1). Life expectancy was lowest in Asia and Africa. Timing of publication and risk of bias...... had little effect on results. INTERPRETATION: The effects of schizophrenia on years potential life lost and life expectancy seem to be substantial and not to have lessened over time. Development and implementation of interventions and initiatives to reduce this mortality gap are urgently needed...

  18. Use of cement as lost-circulation material : best practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidan, E. [Halliburton, Calgary, AB (Canada); Babadagli, T.; Kuru, E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    One of the challenges facing oil well drilling operations is lost circulation, which refers to the partial or complete loss of drilling fluid or cement during drilling, circulation, running casing, or cementing operations. This problem can result in increased cost, loss of time, plugging of productive zones, blowouts, excessive water influx, and excessive formation caving. Lost circulation occurs in high-permeability zones such as highly fractured, vuggy or cavernous reservoirs when the hydrostatic pressure of drilling fluids is greater than the breaking strength of the formation. Cement is one of the common lost-circulation materials (LCMs). The use of proper cement composition and cementing techniques is important for successful cementing jobs. This paper presents solutions for 3 field cases from the Canada Western Sedimentary Basin where cement or drilling fluid loss has been a problem. Cement loss was minimized in two cases by using proper cement type and using optimum design during casing cementing. In another case, cement was used to cure drilling fluid loss. The various LCM applications described in this paper were: thixotropic and ultrathixotropic cement slurries; slurries containing cello flakes, mica and calcium carbonate for mechanical bridging; unique spacers and surfactant packages; and, foamed cement for controlling loss. 28 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  19. Development of environmental friendly lost circulation material from banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauki, Arina; Hasan, Nur â.€˜Izzati; Naimi, Fardelen Binti Md; Othman, Nur Hidayati

    2017-12-01

    Loss of expensive mud could lead to major financial problem in executing a drilling project and is one of the biggest problems that need to be tackled during drilling. Synthetic Based Mud (SBM) is the most stable state of the art drilling mud used in current drilling technologies. However, the problem with lost circulation is still inevitable. The focus of this project is to develop a new potential waste material from banana peel in order to combat lost circulation in SBM. Standard industrial Lost Circulation Material (LCM) is used to compare the performance of banana peel as LCM in SBM. The effects of different sizing of banana peels (600 micron, 300 micron and 100 micron) were studied on the rheological and filtration properties of SBM and the bridging performance of banana peel as LCM additive. The tests were conducted using viscometer, HTHP filter press and sand bed tester. Thermal analysis of banana peel was also studied using TGA. According to the results obtained, 300 and 100 micron size of banana peel LCM exhibited an improved bridging performance by 65% as compared to industrial LCM. However, banana peel LCM with the size of 600 micron failed to act as LCM due to the total invasion of mud into the sand bed.

  20. SPACE LAW BIBLIOGRAPHY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Only since the end of World War II has there been a serious interest in the problems of law and activities in the upper atmosphere. Scholarly... law reviews which apply--either directly or by analogy--to man’s activities above the surface of the earth. The immediate problem is State sovereignty

  1. Climate Change Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farber, D.A.; Peeters, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together over seventy fifty authors for a comprehensive examination of the emerging global regime of climate change law. Despite the relative youth of climate change law, we can already begin to see the outlines of legal regimes addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation

  2. Haramaya Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Haramaya Law Review (HLR) publishes original scholarly works on any topic relevant to the legal community, including analysis of domestic or international laws and cases, the African Union and other international organizations, challenges and lessons from domestic practice, and original field research.

  3. Haramaya Law Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The Haramaya Law Review (HLR) publishes original scholarly works on any topic relevant to the legal community, including analysis of domestic or international laws and cases, the African Union and other international organizations, challenges and lessons from domestic practice, and original field ...

  4. Pop Goes the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Law School Admission Council recently reported that applications were heading toward a 30-year low, reflecting, as a "New York Times" article put it, "increased concern over soaring tuition, crushing student debt, and diminishing prospects of lucrative employment upon graduation." Since 2004 the number of law-school…

  5. On Kepler's First Law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 5. On Kepler's First Law - The Law of Ellipses. Shailesh A Shirali. General Article Volume 3 Issue 5 May 1998 pp 30-42. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/05/0030-0042 ...

  6. Laws of Network Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M.C. Larrosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The valuation of a social network is an issue that has been addressed based on simplifying approaches. Various value laws have been stipulated, which are largely atheoretical but have been effectively used to estimate the potential economic value of social network-based firms. This review highlights the various contributions used in the recent literature on networks valuation laws.

  7. Revising China's Environmental Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Zhang, L.; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.; Liu, Wenling; Liu, J.

    2013-01-01

    China's Environmental Protection Law (EPL) is the main national environmental legislative framework. Yet the environmental legal system is incomplete, and implementation and enforcement of environmental laws have shown major shortcomings (1–3). A controversial attempt to revise the EPL could have

  8. Law, Democracy & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evolution and implementation of democracy, good governance practices, human rights and socio-economic development are critical issues facing South Africa and Africa as a whole. Law interacts with this process in ways that may promote or inhibit it. Law, Democracy & Development addresses this interaction. Our aim ...

  9. Business Law, Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex; Werlauff, Erik

    be the book within your reach. We call it “Our Corporate Bible”. In an easily comprehendible way we address some of the most essential issues of business law, and provide guidelines and clarity for understanding and proper application of the legal provisions that govern business law in Europe....

  10. Teaching Information Technology Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  11. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and

  12. Benford's Law in Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Benford's law predicts the occurrence of the -th digit of numbers in datasets originating from various sources all over the world, ranging from financial data to atomic spectra. It is intriguing that although many features of Benford's law have been proven, it is still not fully understood mathematically. In this paper we ...

  13. Oromia Law Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Oromia Law Journal covers articles, book reviews, legislative and case comments related to legal, economic, political and social issues arising in relation to Oromia, Ethiopian, and other related International Laws. As such, the journal has two audiences-primary and secondary. The primary ones are legal professionals ...

  14. Model(ing) Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin

    The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was the first and most celebrated of a wave of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) built in the 1990s designed to advance liberalism through international criminal law. Model(ing) Justice examines the case law of the ICTY...

  15. Archives: Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 20 of 20 ... Archives: Mizan Law Review. Journal Home > Archives: Mizan Law Review. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 20 of 20 Items. 2017. Vol 11, No 1 ...

  16. Social Studies: Law Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  17. [Law 6/84: "an inappropriate law"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroco, L E

    1994-01-01

    The intervention of Dr. Luis Elmano Barroco was evaluated at a meeting on March 19, 1994, on the topic of the state of abortion after 10 years of the new abortion law. Some aspects of the law of 1984 are characterized as inappropriate and inadequate because of the experience of the maternity ward of Dr. Alfredo da Costa. It was expected that in the wake of the publication of the law, official health care institutions would provide services for termination of pregnancy in accordance with legal indications. However, a survey carried out by the Association for Family Planning in July 1993 revealed that more than 50% of hospitals did not perform abortions because of the inexistence of specialized services or lack of resources or on grounds of conscientious objection. Even a revision of the abortion law does not take into consideration the fact that before 12 weeks of gestation it is difficult to precisely confirm grave lesions or the physical and psychological state of health of the pregnant woman which could be potentially life threatening. It was not taken into account either that it is impossible to diagnose definitively chromosomal aberrations, severe diseases, and fetal malformation before the 16th week. The law did not contemplate the prevailing socioeconomical conditions either that lead to clandestine abortion with high morbidity and mortality from cervical lesions, uterine perforation, infections, sepsis, and salpingitis. Prenatal diagnosis for eugenic abortion can be carried out by cytogenetic analysis of the amniotic fluid and ecography, but such diagnosis probably amounts to only 30-40% of risk cases in the whole country. A recent study by the Johns Hopkins University indicated that the chance of survival of a child born before 24 weeks is nil, therefore the limit of induced abortion should be extended to the 24th week to facilitate diagnosis of possible genetic abnormalities.

  18. The incorporation of public international law into municipal law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monism and dualism represent two different approaches towards the relationship between public international law and municipal law. While the former views public international law and municipal law as a single legal system, the latter regards these two areas of law as separate and distinct legal systems that exist ...

  19. Placebo and criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerden, Jan C

    2004-01-01

    This article considers issues concerning cases where the use of placebo is lawful or is not lawful under aspects of German criminal law. It will differentiate between cases of individual therapy and cases of supervised experiments within the scope of medical tests. Thereby, it reveals that a medication of placebo with regard to an individual patient seems to be lawful if there is no alternative possibility of a better treatment using a chemically effective medicine and if the limits of presumed consent are complied with. On the other hand, in the context of the supervised experiment, the assignment of a patient to a group treated with placebo is only lawful if the patient has been fully informed about the possibilities of a treatment and if the patient has given consent to it.

  20. Mobile Applications Improve Quality of Life on Citizens with Disorientation: The 'NeverLost App' Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiou, Sotirios; Vlamos, Panayiotis

    2017-01-01

    Mobile technology has been evolved as an important tool in healthcare. Mobile applications are being designed in order to assist patients in their everyday life and also to play a vital role on the improvement of their everyday activities and quality of life. Meanwhile students use advanced techniques in order to design and implement high quality applications that aim to introduce them to the advantages of the mobile technology. In this paper we present the steps for the creation of the application NeverLost that was inspired, designed, created and tested by students of the Secondary Education. NeverLost is an Android application that helps individuals (mainly children) with disabilities, as well as older patients with lack of orientation manage their day-to-day activities. A research of the general benefits that students using this app is presented, as well as their future proposals for the evolution of the app in other aspects of healthcare and quality of life of senior citizens or patients with neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Nasopharynx- The Secret Vault for Lost Foreign Bodies of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Jotdar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foreign bodies in the upper aerodigestive tract often get lost following inappropriate attempts at removal. Children may present late with localized infection, posing a challenge to the otolaryngologists in a referral set-up in diagnosing and retrieving such foreign bodies.   Case Report: A two-year-old boy presented with refractory purulent rhinorrhea and intermittent low-grade fever. The symptoms suggested rhinosinusitis; however, following a high index of suspicion, he was referred for further evaluation, with the possibility of any hidden foreign object in the upper aerodigestive tract. His soft palate appeared bulged, and his mother informed that he had ingested the cap of a plastic bottle about a month back which could not be retrieved despite several attempts by her. X-ray of soft tissue nasopharynx revealed a radiolucent shadow of a round object resulting in palatal bulging. It was eventually removed by combined endoscopic/transoral approach.   Conclusion: In a child with a lost foreign body, the nasopharynx should be meticulously explored. This is less common for ingested objects compared to inhaled ones. The diagnosis becomes furthermore challenging when it is not radio-opaque. Naïve manipulations must be avoided and prompt referral should be made to the otolaryngologists for guided removal and minimizing complications.

  2. Law, Democracy & Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Julia Sloth-Nielsen (Professor and Dean of Law, University of the Western Cape) Nico Steytler (Professor of Law and Director, Community Law Centre, University of the Western Cape) Tobias van Reenen (Professor of Law, University of the Western Cape) Riekie Wandrag (Associate Professor of Law, University of the ...

  3. The Practice of Transnational Law

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Contents :"The new law merchant and the global market place" by Klaus Peter Berger, "The CENTRAL enquiry on the use of transnational law in international contract law and arbitration", "The UNIDROIT principles and transnational law" by Michael Joachim Bonell, "Examples for the practical application of transnational law", "The questionnaire and results of the CENTRAL enquiry"

  4. New Evidence on the Casual Effect of Traffic safety Laws on Drunk Driving and Traffic Fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Nicholas Anthony; Lee, La-troy

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, about 28 lives are lost daily in motor vehicle accidents that involve an alcohol-impaired driver. The conventional wisdom is that these accidents can be prevented through the use of strict traffic laws that are robustly enforced, though no consensus exists on the causal impact of these laws in reducing motor vehicle-related fatalities. This paper exploits quasi-random variation in state-level driving and road safety restrictions to estimate the causal effect of select ...

  5. Teaching American Law to French Law Students--in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Allen

    1978-01-01

    Described is the history and academic activity of the program, offered in English, to French law students, at the Center for the Study of English and American Law. The program includes instruction in law, along with English language instruction. (JMD)

  6. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross......-border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law....

  7. Law and Politics, an Emerging Epidemic: A Call for Evidence-Based Public Health Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    As Jacobson v. Massachusetts recognized in 1905, the basis of public health law, and its ability to limit constitutional rights, is the use of scientific data and empirical evidence. Far too often, this important fact is lost. Fear, misinformation, and politics frequently take center stage and drive the implementation of public health law. In the recent Ebola scare, political leaders passed unnecessary and unconstitutional quarantine measures that defied scientific understanding of the disease and caused many to have their rights needlessly constrained. Looking at HIV criminalization and exemptions to childhood vaccine requirements, it becomes clear that the blame cannot be placed on the hysteria that accompanies emergencies. Indeed, these examples merely illustrate an unfortunate array of examples where empirical evidence is ignored in the hopes of quelling paranoia. These policy approaches are not only constitutionally questionable, they generate their own risk to public health. The ability of the law to jeopardize public health approaches to infectious disease control can, and should, be limited through a renewed emphasis on science as the foundation of public health, coordination through all levels and branches of government, and through a serious commitment by the judiciary to provide oversight. Infectious disease creates public anxiety, but this cannot justify unwarranted dogmatic approaches as a response. If we as a society hope to ensure efficient, constitutional control over the spread of disease, it is imperative that science take its rightful place at the forefront of governmental decision-making and judicial review. Otherwise, the law becomes its own public health threat.

  8. Russian Law and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fishman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Faculty of Law of the University of Helsinki is committed to diverse and internationally collaborative approaches to studying various legal systems in the context of comparative law, and UHLS and the Law Faculty of the National Research University, Higher School of Economics have developed an ongoing program to undertake this effort. The original annual conference series on the Development of Russian Law was launched in 2008 as an initiative to further knowledge and critical thinking about Russian law during its period of transition and modernization. The conference is held annually and brings together legal practitioners and scholars from Russia, Finland and elsewhere to discuss important matters of Russian law, legal reform, and legal practice. Prior years’ Conference themes have included discussions of legal reforms, the justice system, the Russian legal profession, human rights, civil and business law, legal policy, rule-of-law and market economy.This year’s program was designed to attract law faculty, scholars from different disciplines, and also practicing lawyers, to address a wide range of topics grouped around the general theme of how the phenomenon and challenges of globalization affect Russian legal system development. The call for papers included: (i Relationships between Russian domestic and international law, (ii The impacts of international legal institutions on the development of Russian law(s, (iii Globalization in the field of business law, (iv Global law & Russian legal theory, (v Regional models of legal cooperation and Russia’s participation, (vi Transnational legal problems in areas such as constitutionalism and rule-of-law, (vii Theoretical and applied implications of the concept of global transplants, and (viii A global human rights agenda, including Russia’s place in this agenda.This was a very ambitious and multi-faceted undertaking. Through a process of careful evaluation, the Conference organizers produced

  9. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  10. DELIBERATING THE RULE OF LAW AND CONSTITUTIONAL SUPREMACY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE FACTUAL DIMENSION OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koos Malan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Positive law is two-dimensional: it has a justice (or ideal dimension (and requisite and a factual (or real dimension (and requisite. Both are essential. Hence positive law lapses when either of the two is absent. In terms of the factual requisite, law remains in place as actual norms of law (unlike mere norm-formulations, provided that a minimum degree of effectiveness is maintained; that is to say, only as long as the subjects of the law consistently and voluntarily act in accordance with such norm/s, and provided further that deviant conduct is remedied by effective coercive measures. "Norm/s" that lose the factual dimension lapse into mere norm-formulations and no longer qualify as positive law. Thus viewed, a realistic grasp of the content of law is co-dependent on actual conduct, regardless of what the norm-formulations purport positive law to entail, because the norm-formulations may have lost track of the actual state of the law. Grasping the actual content of law, including constitutional law, therefore requires not only analysing the norm-formulations of the formally recognised sources of the law, but more specifically social and political observation which may reveal the following: (1\tactual behaviour that closely corresponds with a legal norm-formulation, in which case the formulations reliably happen to reflect (and by implication to describe the actual state of law; or (2\tconduct that regularly deviates from the norm-formulations (usus by the deviators who deem themselves legally bound to act as they are acting (opinio iuris, in which case new (substituting law has in fact come into being, without such substituting law being reflected in a new (amended norm-formulation; or (3\tlarge-scale but inconsistent and irregular deviant conduct where the deviators do not consider themselves legally bound to act in the various deviant ways, combined with haphazard enforcement, thus allowing deviators to get away with their transgressions

  11. Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

    2010-05-01

    Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

  12. Years of life lost due to infectious diseases in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bryla

    Full Text Available An evaluation of mortality due to infectious diseases in Poland in 1999-2012 and an analysis of standard expected years of life lost due to the above diseases.The study material included a database created on the basis of 5,219,205 death certificates of Polish inhabitants, gathered between 1999 and 2012 and provided by the Central Statistical Office. Crude Death Rates (CDR, Standardized Death Rates (SDR and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost (SEYLL due to infectious and parasitic diseases were also evaluated in the study period as well as Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person (SEYLLp and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per dead person (SEYLLd. Time trends were evaluated with the application of joinpoint models and an annual percentage change in their values.Death certificates report that 38,261 people died due to infectious diseases in Poland in the period 1999-2012, which made up 0.73% of the total number of deaths. SDR caused by these diseases decreased, particularly in the male group: Annual Percentage Change (APC = -1.05; 95% CI:-2.0 to -0.2; p<0.05. The most positive trends were observed in mortality caused by tuberculosis (A15-A19 (APC = -5.40; 95% CI:-6.3 to -4.5; p<0.05 and also meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and encephalomyelitis (G03-G04 (APC = -3.42; 95% CI:-4.7 to -2.1; p<0.05. The most negative mortality trends were observed for intestinal infectious diseases (A00-A09 Annual Average Percentage Change (AAPC = 7.3; 95% CI:3.1 to 11.7; p<0.05. SDR substantially decreased in the first half of the study period, but then significantly increased in the second half. Infectious and parasitic diseases contributed to a loss of around 37,000 standard expected years of life in 1999 and more than 28,000 in 2012. During the study period, the SEYLLp index decreased from 9.59 to 7.39 per 10,000 population and the SEYLLd index decreased from 14.26 to 10.34 years (AAPC = 2.3; 95% CI:-2,9 to -1.7; p<0.05.Despite smaller

  13. The experiences of mothers who lost a baby during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A GW Nolte

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of mothers who lost a baby during pregnancy and care given by doctors and midwives during this period. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die ervaring van moeders met betrekking tot die dood van ‘n baba tydens swangerskap te verken en te beskryf, asook die versorging wat hulle van vroedvroue en dokters gedurende die periode ontvang het. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  14. Considering lost sale in inventory routing problems for perishable goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Samira; Seifi, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    to optimality for small instances and is used to obtain lower bounds for larger instances. We have also devised an efficient meta-heuristic algorithm to find good solutions for this class of problems based on Simulated Annealing (SA) and Tabu Search (TS). Computational results indicate that, for small problems......, the average optimality gaps are less than 10.9% and 13.4% using linear and exponential lost sale functions, respectively. Furthermore, we show that the optimality gaps found by CPLEX grow exponentially with the problem size while those obtained by the proposed meta-heuristic algorithm increase linearly....

  15. Remittances in the Republic of Moldova:Lost opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel CHISTRUGA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the problem of the relationship between remittances and economic growth as well as the use of remittances for productive investment in order to contribute to long-run development. Also, there are given some stylized facts of remittances in the Republic of Moldova and their impact over the national economy. Because of its business and investment climate, because of its financial system and macroeconomic policies that were conducted, Moldova has lost almost all opportunities to benefit from remittances.

  16. Feynman's lost lecture the motion of planet's around the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Goodstein, David L

    1997-01-01

    On 14 March 1964 Richard Feynman, one of the greatest scientific thinkers of the 20th Century, delivered a lecture entitled 'The Motion of the Planets Around the Sun'. For thirty years this remarkable lecture was believed to be lost. But now Feynman's work has been reconstructed and explained in meticulous, accessible detail, together with a history of ideas of the planets' motions. The result is a vital and absorbing account of one of the fundamental puzzles of science, and an invaluable insight into Feynman's charismatic brilliance.

  17. The Psychopaths in Caroline Roberts’ Novel the Lost Girl

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Mia Pratiwi

    2015-01-01

    The Lost Girl novel is a true story that tells about the author, Caroline Roberts’ experiences when she accepted a job at 25 Cromwell Street, the infamous address of Fred and Rose West, she was only 16. She realized that there was something very malevolent about the couple, so she left their employment soon after, glad to be rid of them. The story should have ended there, but a month, later she was abducted by the West and suffered violent sexual abuse at their hands before being told that sh...

  18. Gauging Newton's law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wheeler, James T

    2007-01-01

    .... Applying this principle to Newton's law with the simplest measurement theory leads to Lagrangian mechanics, while use of conformal measurement theory leads to Hamiltonian mechanics.PACS Nos.: 45.20.Jj, 11.25.Hf, 45.10...

  19. Teaching Criminal Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sandy

    1989-01-01

    Presents learning activities and resources for teaching senior level criminal law courses. Topics covered include arrest, search and seizure, bail, trial procedures, sentencing, and prisons. Objective is to encourage students to address societal issues. (LS)

  20. Environmental and energy law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makuch, Karen E; Pereira, Ricardo, Dr

    2012-01-01

    "Environmental & Energy Law attempts to bridge the knowledge gap between legal developments designed to achieve environmental and/or energy-related objectives and the practical, scientific and technical...

  1. The "Natural Law Tradition."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnis, John

    1986-01-01

    A discussion of natural law outlines some of the theory and tradition surrounding it and examines its relationship to the social science and legal curriculum and to the teaching of jurisprudence. (MSE)

  2. European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Teichmann, Christoph

    This fully updated new edition provides the best-known practical overview of the law regarding companies, business activities, and capital markets in Europe, at both the European Union (EU) and Member State levels. It incorporates analysis of recent developments including the impact of global......; - a company’s freedom to incorporate in a jurisdiction not its own; - competition among the legal forms of different Member States; and - safeguarding of employee involvement in cross-border transactions. With respect to national law, the laws of Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain...... initiatives in such aspects of the corporate environment as regulation of financial institutions and non-financial reporting obligations with a view to sustainability and other social responsibility concerns. The authors, all leading experts in European corporate law, describe current and emerging trends...

  3. Euthanasia and criminal law

    OpenAIRE

    Pletková, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    71 8. Summary- Euthanasia and criminal law Euthanasia is often regarded as a controversial topic that is being discussed all around the world. The legislative rules differ among the countries to various extent. The scope of this work is to offer a summary of legal regulations in euthanasia, particulary in the area of criminal law and a several examples of these regulations in Europe, USA and Australia. In the first chapter, the term of euthanasia is defined which is necessary for the purpose ...

  4. Constitutionalization of Peruvian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Landa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutionalizaton of Law’s different areas is a phenomenon gradually more ingrained in our cultural and legal framework. Maybe the best demonstration is the increasingly prominent role of the Constitutional Court (TC – Constitution’s Supreme Interpreter – in defining and redefining concepts, rights and legal principles touching a range of subjects, from TaxLaw to Human Rights. This is relevant to understand the Law and its current effects whether it is valued positively or negatively.

  5. UAV guidance control laws for autonomous coordinated tracking of a moving ground target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Richard

    This research develops the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) control guidance laws for two UAVs to track a moving ground target in a constant wind while maintaining position coordination with each other. The guidance control is intended to aid an independently controlled camera carried onboard the UAV that gathers data for visual position estimation. Two guidance law command sets are pursued. The performance of the coordination guidance laws are shown to be poor when communication is lost. Observers are formulated that significantly increase guidance law robustness due to communication loss and rate variability. The guidance laws are demonstrated to be viable using real-time, hardware-quality simulation and flight testing. To accommodate more advanced constraints, a tracking guidance law using evolutionary computation is developed from an existing strategic path planning algorithm. To demonstrate its capabilities, the UAV is required to avoid radar detection while tracking.

  6. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  7. Colorado's Voucher Law:Examining the Claim of Fiscal Neutrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G. Welner

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Colorado's voucher law was declared unconstitutional by the Colorado Supreme Court on June 28, 2004. Voucher supporters have begun drafting revised legislation designed to address the legal problem. This article calls into question the key financial claim of revenue neutrality'a claim that was central to the promotion and passage of the departing voucher law. The author concludes that the voucher law was not revenue neutral, even though it attempts to exclude from eligibility those children already enrolled in private schools. In fact, this law, as well as any revised law with similar eligibility provisions, would actually cost taxpayers an additional $10 million per year once fully implemented because the eligibility provision provides little more than a short-term damper on the law's long-term fiscal impact.

  8. 32 CFR 635.31 - Lost, abandoned, or unclaimed property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or unclaimed property. This is personal property that comes into the possession, custody, or control... immediately notify their chain-of-command. The commander will appoint a board to rule on the disposition of the property. If a law enforcement agency takes custody of the property it will be tagged and a record...

  9. Ecological aspects of the use of lost foam patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Żółkiewicz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some aspects of ecology in the use of lost foam patterns for piece production of large castings poured from ferrousalloys under the conditions of Metalodlew SA. Foundry. The technological processes used in the manufacture of castings are related with numerous hazards. Numerous problems requiring prompt solution occur also during the process of foundry mould pouring, to mention only various contaminants, air pollution, noise and other factors harmful to the human health and natural environment. Varioustechnological processes cause strenuous work conditions in foundry shops. Many of the publications that have appeared so far dealing withthe problems of environmental protection and hard work conditions in foundries [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9] discuss in both general anddetailed way problems related with various pollutants, noise and other factors harmful to the human health and natural environment,responsible for hazards faced by foundry workers. Studies carried out by various R&D centres are mainly focussed on the problem of howto reduce the harmful effect of technological processes on the environment through modification of the already existing or development of new ecological and energy-saving materials and technologies. This paper shows the opportunities and threats resulting from the application of the Lost Foam Process in a foundry, which up to now has been using a more traditional technology.

  10. INDIGENOUS COMMUNITY, CUSTOMARY LAW AND MULTICULTURALISME IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenuddin Hudi Prasojo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of awakening and efforts in reviving the customary law of indigenous communities in Indonesia has been going on for a long time, at least since the end of the reign of the New Order Regime. Customary law as one of the authentic capital of indigenous communities is a reflection of the existence of multicultural principles that have actually existed and been part of the Indonesian society. This work explores the case of cutomary law in West Kalimantan on Katab Kebahan’s practices in Melawi which is potential to be included to the National law. The role of customary law in the life of the multicultural society, like West Kalimantan society, in the modern era should be aligned with the history of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia which was founded by the best children of the nations that agreed to establish a state based on the supremacy of law. Customary law is part of the state law. Therefore, there is s need to think of a proper format for the position and the role of customary law in the Indonesian legal system for the prosperity of society based on equality before the law and justice in accordance with the ideals of the nation. This paper suggests that, as an alternative as to where we might put the position of customary law in a multicultural nation today, we can take the example from patterns made by several countries that have adopted Restorative Justice systems with the main principles that the law is a device to resolve the problems in a just and fair way and with the awareness to return all the problems to the perspective of the law for the common good. Key words: cutomary law, mulitcultural society, restorative, justice

  11. 21 CFR 1305.16 - Lost and stolen DEA Forms 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lost and stolen DEA Forms 222. 1305.16 Section... II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.16 Lost and stolen DEA Forms 222. (a) If a purchaser ascertains that an unfilled DEA Form 222 has been lost, he or she must execute another in triplicate and...

  12. Natural Law And Civil Law in John Locke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hessmann Dalaqua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the relationship between natural law and civil law in John Locke’s philosophy. Although renowned scholars have claimed that such a relationship is deductive, this paper will try to show a different interpretation and argue that the relationship between civil law and natural law is one of determination. Far from being a mere deduction of an immutable natural law, civil law plays a determinative role in natural law. As we shall see, this interpretation highlights something that Locke held in high regard: the deliberative character of natural law. Citizens’ deliberation in the legislature to some extent creates natural law. Citizens are thus free to determine the law, and participating in such a determination is crucial to their political liberty. In this sense, as we shall explain, Locke’s political liberty is akin to republicanism.

  13. Newspaper media reporting of motor vehicle crashes in Singapore: an opportunity lost for injury prevention education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Kenneth W J; Vasu, Alicia

    2010-06-01

    Newspaper media advocacy can help steer public attention away from motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries as a personal problem to that of a social and public health issue. If used properly, newspaper media is potentially a powerful mass educator on MVC prevention. However, there is often a conflict of interest in which newspapers, in an attempt to boost readership and revenue, may over-emphasize and sensationalize the human-interest aspect of an MVC story. The aim of this study is to examine newspaper articles of MVCs in Singapore to assess how our newspaper media coverage portray MVCs and identify factors that mitigate injury and educate the public on injury prevention measures. Details of the MVC were extracted from 12 months of newspaper coverage in Singapore. Two independent coders were used to establish inter-rater reliability. From 1 January to 31 December 2007, 201 articles about MVCs were published. About 74.1% of articles assigned blame to a particular road user, negligence on either road user was implied in 56.7% of articles, and road safety messages were mentioned in 8% of the articles. The mainstream communication tone used was positive for law enforcement (71.1%) and neutral towards injury prevention or road safety messages (89.1%). Newspaper media reporting of MVCs in Singapore generally does not include injury prevention messages or highlight injury-mitigating measures. This is a lost opportunity for public education. Collaboration between public health practitioners and newspaper media is required to address this issue.

  14. Ethics and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Katherine; Jiwani, Bashir; Steele, Duncan

    2017-12-01

    Health care providers' interpretation of law can have intended and unintended effects on health care delivery in Canada. At times, health care providers encounter situations where they perceive the law to conflict with their sense of what is most ethically justified. In many cases, these health care providers feel especially torn because they assume that the legal requirements must dictate the decision, and cannot be explored or questioned. We challenge this assumption: the law is not as cut-and-dried as some assume; therefore, its significance to health care decisions should be carefully considered. Within a systematic ethics process, legal considerations can be a source of values and information and can create opportunities for further dialogue. This approach is justified because it appropriately reflects the relationship of the law to ethics. This way of thinking about the law and ethics also avoids potentially harmful consequences of legalistic approaches to decision-making, such as breakdowns in communication, adversarial relationships, and a reduction of ethically complex decisions to simple rule following.

  15. International Space Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lits

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the modern day technologies that drive our global society are highly dependent on the use of outer space. For example, daily activities such as sending emails, making phone calls and carrying out bank transactions cannot be done unless satellite technologies are involved. When you catch a plane, the air traffic control is dependent on GPS. Even natural disaster management is dependent on satellite imaging. Taking into account the importance of this, it becomes increasingly necessary to be knowledgeable in the field of international law as it is the only sphere of law that reaches beyond the physical boundaries of the Earth, goes deep into space and provides protection for today’s society. With new steps being taken to exploit further the potentials of outer space, and with increasing talk of new space missions and new discoveries, current international space law is being placed under scrutiny, for it should be remembered that the major international legal documents in this field were adopted in the middle of the 20th century, and thus there are fears that the law may have become obsolete, irrelevant in the face of new challenges in the use of outer space. This paper delivers an analysis of existing international space law and attempts to raise several crucial issues pertinent in the area.

  16. Children of Divorce--A Forgotten Constituency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Eugene T.

    1981-01-01

    Explores the negative effects of divorce on children and suggests that a restructuring of marriage and divorce laws (which would prohibit divorce in marriages with dependent children) might be justified in addressing this injustice against children. (DB)

  17. Towards a European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII.

  18. Labour Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ole

    9. Inventions by Employees Chapter 10. Settlement of Disputes Part II. Collective Labour Relations Chapter 1. Trade Union Freedom Chapter 2. Trade Unions and Employers’ Associations Chapter 3. Institutionalised Relations between Employers and Employees Chapter 4. Collective Bargaining Chapter 5......Table of Contents: The Author List of Abbreviations General Introduction Chapter 1. General Background Chapter 2. Definitions and Notions Chapter 3. Historical Background Chapter 4. Role of Government Institutions in the Shaping and Administration of Labour and Industrial Relations Policy Chapter 5....... Sources of Labour Law Chapter 6. International Private Labour Law – Conflicts of Law Selected Bibliography Part I. The Individual Employment Relation Chapter 1. Definitions and Concepts Chapter 2. Rights and Duties of the Parties during Employment Chapter 3. Working Time, Annual Holidays, Public Holidays...

  19. Advanced lost foam casting technology. 1995 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C.E.; Littleton, H.E.; Askeland, D.; Griffin, J.; Miller, B.A.; Sheldon, D.S.

    1996-05-01

    Previous research made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional research was needed to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. The current project focused on five areas listed as follows: Task 1: Precision Pattern Production; Task 2: Pattern Coating Consistency; Task 3: Sand Fill and Compaction Effects; Task 4: Pattern Gating; and Task 5: Mechanical Properties of Castings. This report summarizes the work done under the current contract in all five areas. Twenty-eight (28) companies jointly participate in the project. These companies represent a variety of disciplines, including pattern designers, pattern producers, coating manufacturers, plant design companies, compaction equipment manufacturers, casting producers, and casting buyers. This report summarizes the work done in the past two years and the conclusions drawn from the work.

  20. The Ethics of Gender in Milton's Paradise Lost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra S. F. Erickson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Existe uma acirrada discussao entre os estudiosos do classico ingles Paradise Lost (John Milton, 1674 sobre o suposto misogenismo do autor. A maioria dos estudiosos, inclusive mulheres sustentam que náo. A analise da Eva Miltoniana apresentada abaixo deixa claro que náo so Milton de é fato misogenista, mas seu misogenismo vai alem da opiniáo comum de uma epoca que via a mulher como encarnaçáo do mal. Milton, atraves de sua Eva, justifica esta visáo da mulher, aprofundando e perpetuando com sua mitopoetica a visáo etica-teologica da mulher. Sua visáo, longe de ser "moderna ", representa a reafirmaçáo do ethos paternalistico da tradicáo judaico-cristá.

  1. Advanced Lost Foam Casting technology: 1997 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Previous research made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional research was needed to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. The current project focused on eight tasks listed as follows: Task 1--pyrolysis defects and sand distortion; Task 2--bronze casting technology; Task 3--steel casting technology; Task 4--sand filling and compaction; Task 5--coating technology; Task 6--precision pattern production; Task 7--computational modeling; and Task 8--project management and technology transfer. This report summarizes the work done under the current contract in all eight tasks in the period of October 1, 1995 through December 31, 1997.

  2. In search of lost insolence: Ferdydurke and cynicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Franczak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to interpret Witold Gombrowicz’s first novel in the context of cynicism, which is first conceptualized within the Foucauldian tradition as a practice of “frank speech” (parrhesia, and then, according to Peter Sloterdijk’s critical philosophy, as a form of modern consciousness based on inverted idealism. The opposition between an ancient subversive cynicism and its modern schizoid form allows one to analyze the complexity of Ferdydurke. In the course of interpretation it turns out that there are some intersecting planes: the protagonist searches in vain for lost insolence, but it is the author who manages to find it at the end of the novel.

  3. Psychological distress in Ghana: associations with employment and lost productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, Maureen E; Sipsma, Heather L; Adhvaryu, Achyuta; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Jack, Helen; Udry, Christopher; Osei-Akoto, Isaac; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2013-03-07

    Mental health disorders account for 13% of the global burden of disease, a burden that low-income countries are generally ill-equipped to handle. Research evaluating the association between mental health and employment in low-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, is limited. We address this gap by examining the association between employment and psychological distress. We analyzed data from the Ghana Socioeconomic Panel Survey using logistic regression (N = 5,391 adults). In multivariable analysis, we estimated the association between employment status and psychological distress, adjusted for covariates. We calculated lost productivity from unemployment and from excess absence from work that respondents reported was because of their feelings of psychological distress. Approximately 21% of adults surveyed had moderate or severe psychological distress. Increased psychological distress was associated with increased odds of being unemployed. Men and women with moderate versus mild or no psychological distress had more than twice the odds of being unemployed. The association of severe versus mild or no distress with unemployment differed significantly by sex (P-value for interaction 0.004). Among men, the adjusted OR was 12.4 (95% CI: 7.2, 21.3), whereas the association was much smaller for women (adjusted OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.5, 6.0). Extrapolating these figures to the country, the lost productivity associated with moderate or severe distress translates to approximately 7% of the gross domestic product of Ghana. Psychological distress is strongly associated with unemployment in Ghana. The findings underscore the importance of addressing mental health issues, particularly in low-income countries.

  4. Pacific salmon extinctions: quantifying lost and remaining diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Richard G; Waples, Robin S; Myers, James M; Weitkamp, Laurie A; Bryant, Gregory J; Johnson, Orlay W; Hard, Jeffrey J

    2007-08-01

    Widespread population extirpations and the consequent loss of ecological, genetic, and life-history diversity can lead to extinction of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) and species. We attempted to systematically enumerate extinct Pacific salmon populations and characterize lost ecological, life history, and genetic diversity types among six species of Pacific salmon (Chinook [Oncorhynchus tshawytscha], sockeye [O. nerka], coho [O. kisutch], chum [O. keta], and pink salmon [O. gorbuscha] and steelhead trout [O. mykiss]) from the western contiguous United States. We estimated that, collectively, 29% of nearly 1400 historical populations of these six species have been lost from the Pacific Northwest and California since Euro-American contact. Across all species there was a highly significant difference in the proportion of population extinctions between coastal (0.14 extinct) and interior (0.55 extinct) regions. Sockeye salmon (which typically rely on lacustrine habitats for rearing) and stream-maturing Chinook salmon (which stay in freshwater for many months prior to spawning) had significantly higher proportional population losses than other species and maturation types. Aggregate losses of major ecological, life-history, and genetic biodiversity components across all species were estimated at 33%, 15%, and 27%, respectively. Collectively, we believe these population extirpations represent a loss of between 16% and 30% of all historical ESUs in the study area. On the other hand, over two-thirds of historical Pacific salmon populations in this area persist, and considerable diversity remains at all scales. Because over one-third of the remaining populations belong to threatened or endangered species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, it is apparent that a critical juncture has been reached in efforts to preserve what remains of Pacific salmon diversity. It is also evident that persistence of existing, and evolution of future, diversity will depend

  5. Review: Jacobsen, Trudy: Lost Goddesses. The Denial of Female Power in Cambodian History (2008 Buchbesprechung: Jacobsen, Trudy: Lost Goddesses. The Denial of Female Power in Cambodian History (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maraile Görgen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Jacobsen, Trudy (2008, Lost Goddesses. The Denial of Female Power in Cambodian History, Copenhagen: NIAS Press ISBN 13-978-7694-001-0, 327 pages Besprechung der Monographie: Jacobsen, Trudy (2008, Lost Goddesses. The Denial of Female Power in Cambodian History, Copenhagen: NIAS Press ISBN 13-978-7694-001-0, 327 Seiten

  6. The trespasses of property law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify a limit to the appropriate application of property law to the use and storage of bodily material. I argue here that property law ought to be limited to protecting 'contingent rights' and that recent cases where property rights have been recognised in semen represent the application of property law beyond this limit. I also suggest how the law ought to develop in order to avoid the overextensive use of property law.

  7. Hardship in Bulgarian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya TSONEVA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the legal treatment of hardship(change of circumstances in Bulgarian law trying to show where it stands in comparison with other legislations (Germany, England, USA and international legal instruments (Unidroit Principles on International Commercial Contracts and Principles of European Contract Law. An overall picture of the different approaches to hardship is concisely presented. Hardship prerequisites and effects are analyzed with a stress on specific problems identified in some recent Bulgarian court decisions. Attention is drawn to certain. concepts and reasoning in other legal systems that may be helpful to Bulgarian theory and practice when dealing with hardship cases.

  8. Regulating Listed Companies: Between Company Law and Financial Market Law in Danish Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nis Jul

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses different elements and aspects of the regulation of listed companies in particular whether such regulation should be placed in company law or in financial marked law.......The article discusses different elements and aspects of the regulation of listed companies in particular whether such regulation should be placed in company law or in financial marked law....

  9. Free movement of companies under company law, tax law and EU law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neville, Mette; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2001-01-01

    Free movement of companies whereby they either transfers their de facto head office or their registered office from one member state to another is regulated by both company law, tax law and EU law. The interplay between these areas of law are analysed to determine whether such transfers are posible....

  10. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...

  11. Setting the Law Straight:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enabulele_&_ Bazuaye

    other State or international organisation can claim protection over such a national for events that occurred within the territory of the State.1 Indeed it is now a rule of practical relevance, following the notable case of Jurisdiction of the Courts of Danzig,. 2 that a State could confer international law benefits on individuals by ...

  12. Panarchy and the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Ruhl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Panarchy theory focuses on improving theories of change in natural and social systems to improve the design of policy responses. Its central thesis is that successfully working with the dynamic forces of complex adaptive natural and social systems demands an active adaptive management regime that eschews optimization approaches that seek stability. This is a new approach to resources management, and yet no new theory of how to do things in environmental and natural resources management, particularly one challenging entrenched ways of doing things and the interests aligned around them, is likely to gain traction in practice if it cannot gain traction in the form of endorsement and implementation through specific laws and regulations. At some point, that bridge must be crossed or the enterprise of putting panarchy theory into panarchy practice will stall. Any effort to operationalize panarchy theory through law thus comes up against the mission of law to provide social stability and the nature of law itself as a complex adaptive system. To state the problem in another way, putting panarchy theory into practice will require adaptively managing the complex adaptive legal system to adaptively manage other complex adaptive natural and social systems, all in a way that maintains some level of social order. Panarchy theorists have yet to develop an agenda for doing so. It is time for lawyers to join the team.

  13. Family Law Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-11

    void ab initio: those which are knowingly bigamous, and those which are "incestuous" (i.e., within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity and...fourth degree of consanguinity ; marriages between parties having a lawful spouse living. § 42.0101. Also, under Samoan custom, women do not marry men

  14. Confidentiality and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealander, Karen A.; Schwiebert, Valerie L.; Oren, Thomas A.; Weekley, Jean L.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces issues surrounding confidentiality in the schools, and the laws that govern and protect students, teachers, and school counselors. Maintains that although impossible for school counselors to be fully aware of all legal principles affecting their work, it is essential that they continually seek to stay abreast of changes in legal and…

  15. Essentials of WTO law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prévost, Denise; Van den Bossche, Peter

    2016-01-01

    At a time when developments in WTO law have made this field increasingly complex, this concise and non-technical introduction provides a timely and carefully considered overview of the substantive rules and institutional arrangements of the WTO. Illustrative examples clarify important issues of the

  16. | Yilma | Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Likewise, the applicability of patent laws to the digital environment and the patentability of software-related inventions are contentious. This article briefly deals with these issues. Also addressed in this article are issues relating to Ethiopias roles in the global Internet governance ecosystem, and the extent to which Ethiopian ...

  17. Law and Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe; Tamm, Ditlev

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to the field of law and literature in Denmark and a legal and literary reading of one of the Western world’s first crime stories, The Pastor of Vejlbye, written by the Danish writer, Steen Steensen Blicher, in 1829. This is a story that is based on a true case...

  18. Constitutionalization of environmental law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Huerta Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how Environmental Law can take intoconsideration some of fundamental rights study categories, by a constitutional point of view, particularly the right to a balanced and appropriate environment recognized in article 2, paragraph 22 of the 1993 Peruvian Constitution in order to develop policies oriented to implementation of constitutional legal status for environment rights and property.

  19. International institutional law

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  20. Competition Law in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Raj; Cynthia Lian; Wen-Ly Chin

    2015-01-01

    There is still some way for Malaysia to go and the lack of merger control (for the foreseeable future) remains a significant shortcoming in the Malaysian competition law regime at this stage. Anand Raj, Cynthia Lian, & Wen-Ly Chin (Shearn Delamore & Co., Kuala Lumpur)

  1. Reforming Ethiopia's Expropriation Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muradu_Abdo

    The state is trying to meet these rising demands through two main routes. The first is through invoking .... population, and they have registered recent economic growth that has enhanced the demand for land which .... investors.16 For example, the predecessor of the Expropriation Proclamation, that is, the expropriation law ...

  2. Does Divorce Law Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Mariotti, Marco; Manzini, Paola; Fella, Giulio

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we derive an explicit model of negotiations between spouses when utility is (partially) transferable only in case of separation. We show that inefficient separation may occur in equilibrium even under consensual divorce law. This provides theoretical support for the view that changes in social norms rather than in legislation may be responsible for increasing divorce rates.

  3. Charles's Law- -The Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgin, CB

    1989-01-01

    Errors in the teaching of the concepts of Charles's Law are traced back through history to a major French physics text published in 1816. Relevant original sources are quoted and remedies are suggested. Five major criticisms are summarized. (Author/CW)

  4. Laws of emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Laws of Emotion is an accessible new book that reviews much of the insightful new research on emotions conducted over the last ten years. It expands on the theory of emotions introduced in Nico Frijda's earlier work, and addresses a number of unanswered, basic problems on emotion theory. The

  5. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  6. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure...

  7. Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mizan Law Review publishes peer reviewed scholarly articles that identify, examine, explore and analyze legal and related principles, stipulations and concepts based on research findings. Mizan's articles aim at interpretation, description, exploration and diagnosis towards the solution of problems (or legal issues) ...

  8. Reforming Ethiopia's Expropriation Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muradu_Abdo

    Reforming Ethiopia's Expropriation Law. Muradu Abdo ♧. Abstract. Ethiopia is increasingly using expropriation as the single most important device to take land particularly from small landholders to supply it to corporate farmers and industrialists with a declared intention of boosting economic growth. This is happening in the ...

  9. Nanoplasmonics beyond Ohm's law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N. Asger; Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren

    2012-01-01

    -of-motion that goes beyond the common local-response approximation and use of Ohm's law as the central constitutive equation. The electron gas is treated within a semi-classical hydrodynamic model with the emergence of a new intrinsic length scale. We briefly review the new governing wave equations and give examples...

  10. Girl child: her rights and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, S D

    1995-01-01

    This article points out the disparity between India's laws to protect female children and their actual living conditions. It is asserted that the role of women needs to be strengthened and that equal rights are executed to the advantage of children. Equality must come at the very beginning of life. Girl children need access to health, nutrition, education, and other basic services. In India, girls are guaranteed an equal right to education, but fewer girls are enrolled in primary school, and very few girls go on to secondary schools. There is no enforcement of compulsory laws, which particularly disadvantage girls from poor families. Girls marry below the legal minimum age. Early childbearing shortens women's life expectancy and adversely affects their health, nutrition, education, and employment opportunities. Prevention of early child marriage should be strictly enforced. Amniocentesis is performed in order to determine the sex of the child and abort female fetuses. The Juvenile Justice Act of 1986 includes special provisions for the protection, treatment, and rehabilitation of girls under 18 years old and of boys younger than 16. This act protects girls trapped in brothels for child prostitution and protects any person engaged in an immoral, drunken, or depraved life. Juvenile Welfare Boards address the problem of neglected girls and offer special protective homes and supervision by probation officers. The act needs to strengthen noninstitutional services, such as sponsorship, family assistance, foster care, and adoption. Girl children grow to womanhood. Effective social development in childhood reaps rewards in adulthood.

  11. Dark Galaxies and Lost Baryons (IAU S244)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jonathan I.; Disney, Michael J.

    2008-05-01

    Preface; Conference prelims; The HI that barked in the night M. J. Disney; The detection of dark galaxies in blind HI surveys J. I. Davies; Red haloes of galaxies - reservoirs of baryonic dark matter? E. Zackrisson, N. Bergvall, C. Flynn, G. Ostlin, G. Micheva and B. Baldwell; Constraints on dark and visible mass in galaxies from strong gravitational lensing S. Dye and S. Warren; Lost baryons at low redshift S. Mathur, F. Nicastro and R. Williams; Observed properties of dark matter on small spatial scales R. Wyse and G. Gilmore; The mass distribution in spiral galaxies P. Salucci; Connecting lost baryons and dark galaxies via QSO absorption lines T. Tripp; ALFALFA: HI cosmology in the local universe R. Giovanelli; The ALFALFA search for (almost) dark galaxies across the HI mass function M. Haynes; HI clouds detected towards Virgo with the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey B. Kent; Cosmic variance in the HI mass function S. Schneider; The Arecibo Galaxy Environments Survey - potential for finding dark galaxies and results so far R. Minchin et al.; Free-floating HI clouds in the M81 group E. Brinks, F. Walter and E. Skillman; Where are the stars in dark galaxies J. Rosenberg, J. Salzer and J. Cannon; The halo by halo missing baryon problem S. McGaugh; The local void is really empty R. Tully; Voids in the local volume: a limit on appearance of a galaxy in a dark matter halo A. Tikhonov and A. Klypin; Dim baryons in the cosmic web C. Impey; A census of baryons in galaxy clusters and groups A. Gonzalez, D. Zaritsky and A. Zabludo; Statistical properties of the intercluster light from SDSS image stacking S. Zibetti; QSO strong gravitational lensing and the detection of dark halos A. Maccio; Strong gravitational lensing: bright galaxies and lost dark-matter L. Koopmans; Mapping the distribution of luminous and dark matter in strong lensing galaxies I. Ferreras, P. Saha, L. Williams and S. Burles; Tidal debris posing as dark galaxies P. Duc, F. Bournaud and E. Brinks

  12. Outcomes of HIV-positive patients lost to follow-up in African treatment programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Kathrin; Mooser, Anne; Anderegg, Nanina; Tymejczyk, Olga; Couvillon, Margaret J; Nash, Denis; Egger, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    The retention of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is key to achieving global targets in response to the HIV epidemic. Loss to follow-up (LTFU) can be substantial, with unknown outcomes for patients lost to ART programmes. We examined changes in outcomes of patients LTFU over calendar time, assessed associations with other study and programme characteristics and investigated the relative success of different tracing methods. We performed a systematic review and logistic random-effects meta-regression analysis of studies that traced adults or children who started ART and were LTFU in sub-Saharan African treatment programmes. The primary outcome was mortality, and secondary outcomes were undocumented transfer to another programme, treatment interruption and the success of tracing attempts. We included 32 eligible studies from 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: 20 365 patients LTFU were traced, and 15 708 patients (77.1%) were found. Compared to telephone calls, tracing that included home visits increased the probability of success: the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 9.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.85-47.31). The risk of death declined over calendar time (aOR per 1-year increase 0.86, 95% CI 0.78-0.95), whereas undocumented transfers (aOR 1.13, 95% CI 0.96-1.34) and treatment interruptions (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.18-1.45) tended to increase. Mortality was lower in urban than in rural areas (aOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.98), but there was no difference in mortality between adults and children. The CD4 cell count at the start of ART increased over time. Mortality among HIV-positive patients who started ART in sub-Saharan Africa, were lost to programmes and were successfully traced has declined substantially during the scale-up of ART, probably driven by less severe immunodeficiency at the start of therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Implementing insurance market reforms under the federal health reform law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Len M

    2010-06-01

    Lost in the rhetoric about the supposed government takeover of health care is an appreciation of the inherently federalist approach of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. This federalist tradition, particularly with regard to health insurance, has a history that dates back at least to the 1940s. The new legislation broadens federal power and oversight considerably, but it also vests considerable new powers and responsibilities in the states. The precedents and examples it follows will guide federal and state policy makers, stakeholders, and ordinary citizens as they breathe life into the new law. The challenges ahead are formidable, and the greatest ones are likely to be political.

  14. Estimation of diver survival time in a lost bell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipton, M.J.; Franks, C. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom); Meneilly, G.S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Medicine; Mekjavic, I.B. [Simon Fraser University, Vancouver (Canada). Dept. of Kinesiology

    1997-04-01

    Mathematical models of the human thermoregulatory system have been used to make predictions of the likely survival of divers in a ``lost bell`` who can be exposed to very low ambient temperatures. The circumstances considered are not the most extreme but those where, partly by shivering, the individual can re-enter thermal balance. The ability accurately to predict the level and duration of metabolic heat production is critical for the estimation of survival time under these conditions. Limitations on the accuracy of current models arise from the lack of precision in modelling the intensity and duration of the metabolic (shivering) response. A different basis for predicting shivering endurance using the time to hypogylcaemia (blood glucose level less than 2.5 mmol/1) is proposed. This leads to predicted survival times ranging from 10 to over 24 hours for those individuals able to stabilise deep body temperature. This seems to be more consistent with the limited experimental data which exists than the 8-9 hours predicted by other models. In order to help maintain blood sugar levels, and hence metabolic heat production, it is recommended that emergency rations within bells should provide 500g of carbohydrate a day. (59 figures; 221 references). (UK)

  15. Novel technologies for the lost foam casting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenming; Fan, Zitian

    2017-10-01

    Lost foam casting (LFC) is a green precision casting process categorized as a near net forming technology. Yet, despite its popularity, it still suffers from some technological problems, such as poor filling ability of the castings, coarse and non-dense microstructure, low mechanical properties for the Al and Mg LFC processes, and defective carburization for the low carbon steel LFC process. These drawbacks restrict the development and widespread application of the LFC process. To solve these problems, the present study developed several novel LFC technologies, namely, LFC technologies under vacuum and low pressure, vibration solidification, and pressure solidification conditions; expendable shell casting technology; and preparation technology of bimetallic castings based on the LFC process. The results showed that the LFC under vacuum and low pressure evidently improved the filling ability and solved the oxidization problem of the alloys, which is suitable for producing complex and thinwall castings. The vibration and pressure solidifications increased the compactness of the castings and refined the microstructure, significantly improving the mechanical properties of the castings. The expendable shell casting technology could solve the pore, carburization, and inclusion defects of the traditional LFC method, obtaining castings with acceptable surface quality. Moreover, the Al/Mg and Al/Al bimetallic castings with acceptable metallurgical bonding were successfully fabricated using the LFC process. These proposed novel LFC technologies can solve the current technological issues and promote the technological progress of the LFC process.

  16. Big Bang Day : Afternoon Play - Torchwood: Lost Souls

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Martha Jones, ex-time traveller and now working as a doctor for a UN task force, has been called to CERN where they're about to activate the Large Hadron Collider. Once activated, the Collider will fire beams of protons together recreating conditions a billionth of a second after the Big Bang - and potentially allowing the human race a greater insight into what the Universe is made of. But so much could go wrong - it could open a gateway to a parallel dimension, or create a black hole - and now voices from the past are calling out to people and scientists have started to disappear... Where have the missing scientists gone? What is the secret of the glowing man? What is lurking in the underground tunnel? And do the dead ever really stay dead? Lost Souls is a spin-off from the award-winning BBC Wales TV production Torchwood. It stars John Barrowman, Freema Agyeman, Eve Myles, Gareth David-Lloyd, Lucy Montgomery (of Titty Bang Bang) and Stephen Critchlow.

  17. Lost Productivity in Stroke Survivors: An Econometrics Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Manav V; Hackam, Daniel G; Silver, Frank L; Laporte, Audrey; Kapral, Moira K

    2016-01-01

    Stroke leads to a substantial societal economic burden. Loss of productivity among stroke survivors is a significant contributor to the indirect costs associated with stroke. We aimed to characterize productivity and factors associated with employability in stroke survivors. We used the Canadian Community Health Survey 2011-2012 to identify stroke survivors and employment status. We used multivariable logistic models to determine the impact of stroke on employment and on factors associated with employability, and used Heckman models to estimate the effect of stroke on productivity (number of hours worked/week and hourly wages). We included data from 91,633 respondents between 18 and 70 years and identified 923 (1%) stroke survivors. Stroke survivors were less likely to be employed (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.33-0.46) and had hourly wages 17.5% (95% CI 7.7-23.7) lower compared to the general population, although there was no association between work hours and being a stroke survivor. We found that factors like older age, not being married, and having medical comorbidities were associated with lower odds of employment in stroke survivors in our sample. Stroke survivors are less likely to be employed and they earn a lower hourly wage than the general population. Interventions such as dedicated vocational rehabilitation and policies targeting return to work could be considered to address this lost productivity among stroke survivors. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Years of potential life lost due to motorcycle accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Emília Cavalcante Valença Fernandes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traffic accidents represent a serious public health problem, because they kill approximately 1.24 million persons annually, and leave another 20 to 50 million with non-fatal lesions and traumatisms worldwide. In Brazil, in the year 2011, motorcyclists alone were responsible for one third of these deaths. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the years of potential life lost due to motorcycle accidents, according to sex and age group, and analyze the trend of the indicator for the state of Pernambuco in the period from 2005 to 2014. Methods and Results an ecological study based on data from the System of Information about Mortality was used. The indicator and rate were calculated by using the age limit of 70 years. The linear regression model and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used, at the level of significance of 5% and confidence of 95%. The most affected sex and age-range were men between 20-29 years of age. The rates followed a trend of growth in both sexes, in the young population with the exception of those from 10 to 19 years of age. Conclusions: This context points out the magnitude and precociousness of motorcycle accidents in both sexes and the young population.

  19. Index of years of potential life lost in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes Aguilar, L

    1990-01-01

    The index of years of potential life lost (IYPL) is calculated for the states of Mexico in comparison to that of Mexico as a whole. Based on deaths notified in 1985, standardized reasons for mortality and the IYPL were calculated for 5-year cohorts in 32 Mexican states. The IYPL was first calculated for the State of Aguascalientes, a small state in central Mexico, using the formula of Haenszel and Yerushalmy. Columns were generated showing 1) the middle point for each cohort, by calculating the semi-sum of the relative limits in each age category; 2) number of deaths subtracted from an arbitrary life expectancy of 70; 3) population of each cohort; 4) rate of general mortality for each cohort; 5) expected deaths the state had a mortality equal to the Mexican Republic; and 6) IYPL. Results for IYPL for all the Mexican states are tabulated, next to life expectancy, and standardized reason for mortality. The results are also plotted graphically on maps. While at first the 2 figures do not seem consistent, socioeconomic factors such as child mortality, occupational mortality, nutrition, and environmental sanitation can explain some of the discrepancies. Usually mortality rates and life expectancy are used to describe and compare health in different regions. IYPL has it uses, despite its simple calculation, because it can suggest ways to allocate resources according to health needs.

  20. Novel technologies for the lost foam casting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenming; Fan, Zitian

    2018-03-01

    Lost foam casting (LFC) is a green precision casting process categorized as a near net forming technology. Yet, despite its popularity, it still suffers from some technological problems, such as poor filling ability of the castings, coarse and non-dense microstructure, low mechanical properties for the Al and Mg LFC processes, and defective carburization for the low carbon steel LFC process. These drawbacks restrict the development and widespread application of the LFC process. To solve these problems, the present study developed several novel LFC technologies, namely, LFC technologies under vacuum and low pressure, vibration solidification, and pressure solidification conditions; expendable shell casting technology; and preparation technology of bimetallic castings based on the LFC process. The results showed that the LFC under vacuum and low pressure evidently improved the filling ability and solved the oxidization problem of the alloys, which is suitable for producing complex and thinwall castings. The vibration and pressure solidifications increased the compactness of the castings and refined the microstructure, significantly improving the mechanical properties of the castings. The expendable shell casting technology could solve the pore, carburization, and inclusion defects of the traditional LFC method, obtaining castings with acceptable surface quality. Moreover, the Al/Mg and Al/Al bimetallic castings with acceptable metallurgical bonding were successfully fabricated using the LFC process. These proposed novel LFC technologies can solve the current technological issues and promote the technological progress of the LFC process.

  1. No struggle, no strength: how pharmacists lost their monopoly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgall, J M; Almarsdóttir, A B

    1999-05-01

    Research accounts of the struggle of professions to attain and maintain a monopoly, strategies of exclusion and usurpation, make for interesting and often exciting reading. The purpose of this article is to present a less frequently reported phenomenon--the study of a profession that had a monopoly, and then lost it. The authors attempt to answer the question: under what circumstances will a profession support the state in breaking their own monopoly? The study looked at the pharmacy profession in Iceland in the light of the recent change in drug legislation. Interviews with key actors in the pharmacy profession were conducted to gain an understanding of how they interpreted and experienced this change. Three factors contributed to the break in the professional monopoly: (1) political desire to take advantage of new competition and deregulation policy, (2) desire to cut the health budget and (3) internal divisions within the profession. The results of the study revealed at least four internal divisions within the pharmacy profession: (1) urban/rural, (2) employer/employee, (3) lower/higher education and (4) young/old. The article illustrates how a profession weakened by internal strife became prey to the government's cost cutting activities. This study is an example of how internal conflicts not only weakened the profession, but created a climate conducive to losing its monopoly. Our findings raise fundamental questions about the future of professions in society today.

  2. Is Law science? | Roos | Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question this contribution sets out to address is whether or not law can be regarded as a science. This notion is readily accepted by many, yet it is submitted that a proper theoretical justification for such an assumption is usually missing. The traditional primary sources of law, South African case law and legislation, ...

  3. Harmonising the Fragmented Law of Transport Through Soft Law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G.M. Smeele (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis contribution raises the question of whether it is possible to bridge the divide between the various unimodal regimes and to develop a general law of transport. It explores also the role that soft law, such as in the form of a project to draw up Principles of Transport Contract Law,

  4. Vermont Law School's Unique Master of Studies in Environmental Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suagee, Dean B.

    2003-01-01

    Vermont Law School offers a 1-year master of studies in environmental law for which the only prerequisite is a bachelor's degree. A fellowship program waives tuition and provides stipends for American Indians taking the program. Courses on federal Indian law complement the program. The Native community at nearby Dartmouth College provides social…

  5. The Interplay between international law and labour law in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the interplay between labour law and international law in the context of the diplomatic employment relationship. The overriding effect of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 as supreme law to protect the labour rights of employees is weighed against the effect of various binding ...

  6. International health law : an emerging field of public international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This article discusses the nature and scope of international health law as an emerging field of public international law. It is argued that the protection of health reflects a pressing social need that should now be spoken of in the vocabulary of international law. Furthermore, there is an urgent

  7. Psychoanalysis and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Morris N

    The paper discusses Freud's view of the law as the implementation of collective violence on the individual violator. I focus on the implications of the link between the superego (as the source of moral judgment) and the aggressive drive and suggest that we need to be ever vigilant regarding the danger of employing the law as a disguised means of taking pleasure in collective violence. The paper also discusses Freud's conception of personal responsibility, according to which we are responsible for all our behavior, including unconsciously motivated behavior (such as slips and dreams). However, the kind of responsibility Freud has in mind is not the moral responsibility of blameworthiness or praiseworthiness, but rather responsibility in the sense that, whether or not acknowledged, all our behavior reflects our personal desires and motives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    This thesis shows that the distinction between food safety and non-safety issues in Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the General Food Law (GFL), results in a grey area of regulation. This grey area comprises foods that do not pose a food safety risk in a legal sense, but that could pose a threat...... food law does not address the grey area directly. Whereas the responsibility for the prevention or mitigation of food safety risks rests, in principle, with food operators, the main responsibility for the avoidance of non-safety health threats is placed with consumers, who are expected to make informed...... and rational dietary choices on the basis of the food information provided on food labels or generally available in society. In recent years, the EU legislative has shown increased commitment to further empower consumers in pace with the advancement of modern manufacturing and advertising techniques...

  9. Bayes and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Berger, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes' theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods. We argue that Bayesian Networks (BNs), which automatically produce the necessary Bayesian calculations, provide an opportunity to address most concerns about using Bayes in the law.

  10. [Euthanasia in Muslim law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud

    2007-09-01

    If a physician accepts to conduct an act of euthanasia or assisted suicide, would it be possible for him to be charged with homicide or even, is patient consent or motivation of the physician, susceptible to change the nature of the criminal act? Since the 1990s, a transformation has occurred in the way of dealing with these questions and figures from the world of philosophy, ethics and law can now be found in favor of euthanasia and assisted suicide. In certain countries, legislation has even been modified to follow this pattern. In consequence, besides the philosophical and ethical dimensions of this issue, it has become necessary to reexamine, even to revise, the notion of responsibility concerning euthanasia in Muslim law from new bases constituted by the doctrine of the Ulemas.

  11. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU......This thesis shows that the distinction between food safety and non-safety issues in Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the General Food Law (GFL), results in a grey area of regulation. This grey area comprises foods that do not pose a food safety risk in a legal sense, but that could pose a threat...... food law does not address the grey area directly. Whereas the responsibility for the prevention or mitigation of food safety risks rests, in principle, with food operators, the main responsibility for the avoidance of non-safety health threats is placed with consumers, who are expected to make informed...

  12. The Melting Pot: America Is Lost Without It

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    achieved the very opposite effect in that they have kept Latino immigrants ’ children in Spanish-language instruction and denied them the knowledge of...SUBJECT TERMS Melting Pot, Assimilation, Immigration , Multiculturism 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER...Assimilation, Immigration , Multiculturism CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified America has long been known as a great melting pot in which people of

  13. Community Notification Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Defense, or the U.S. Government ABSTRACT Speck, Michael Booth; M.S.; Department of Criminal Justice; College of Arts , Humanities, and Social Sciences...Department of Criminal Justice; College of Arts , Humanities, and Social Sciences; North Dakota State University; December 2007. Community Notification Laws...be applied to pedophiles with a long history of sexual offending and should occur concurrently with other treatment therapies ( psychoanalysis and

  14. Ethics and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilacoba Ramos, Andrés

    2007-04-01

    Ethics are the set of moral rules that govern human conduct. Hegel, for his part, asserted that ethicity implied the full realization of freedom, as well as the suppression of it as arbitrariness. In this paper, we point out that, through the relation between Law and Ethics, we can discover how high are the Ethics of a society, as well as the adherence of its members to it.

  15. Behavioral Law & Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Nieborak

    2012-01-01

    Issues concerning the regulation aspects of financial markets are not simple. One of the reasons for this is that a great number of detailed factors have an effect, for example, the trust of the consumers of financial services or their behavior. The paper analyses the most important of them, and issues related to them, from a legal point of view, with the main objective of presenting the basic assumptions of the behavioral Law & Economics theorem. Dynamic development of financial markets and ...

  16. Criminal Law Study Guide (Revision)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the Naval Justice School Lawyer Course in Military Criminal Law is to prepare Military attorneys to develop competent legal analyses and Solutions to substantive criminal law problems...

  17. Turning around Newton's Second Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.

  18. 29 CFR 779.251 - Goods that have lost their out-of-State identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goods that have lost their out-of-State identity. 779.251... Coverage Interstate Inflow Test Under Prior Act § 779.251 Goods that have lost their out-of-State identity... been processed or manufactured so as to have lost their identity as out-of-State goods before they are...

  19. Practical Law in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melinda, Ed.

    This book was written for teachers and students as a New Mexico supplement to "Street Law: A Course in Practical Law" (West Publishing Company, 1980), a text used in many high school law classes. The book may also be used as a teacher and student resource for civics, government, and other courses in the high school curriculum, or lay…

  20. Immigration Law & the American Dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrini, Michelle, Ed.; Parins, Claire, Ed.; Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine is designed to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on immigration law and the American Dream. It includes 11 articles: (1) "U.S. Immigration Policy and Globalization" (P. Martin; S. Martin)…

  1. Interzones of Law and Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    and sources of authority. On the basis of a historical-conceptual understanding of law according to which law, social structure and metaphysical presumptions are inescapably intertwined, the dissertation derives from the binding provisions of law certain essential features of social order. More precisely...

  2. Lost in Debate: The Safety of Domestic Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonmin Cho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The United States is poised to integrate commercial unmanned aircraft systems (UAS into the national airspace and enable government entities to use UAS in a more expedient manner. This policy change, mandated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, offers new economic, social and scientific opportunities as well as enhanced law enforcement capacity. However, such benefits will be accompanied by concerns over misuse and abuse of the new technologies by criminals and terrorists. Privacy has been the focus of public debate over the more widespread use of UAS. This paper examines a variety of issues related to allowing broad UAS operations in domestic airspace, and puts forth that safety should be the top priority of policy makers in their effort to integrate UAS into the national airspace system.

  3. Is the `Lost World' really lost? Palaeoecological insights into the origin of the peculiar flora of the Guayana Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull, Valentí

    The peculiar biogeography of the so-called `Lost World', i.e. the summits of sandstone tableaux (tepuis) in the Neotropical Guyana region of Venezuela, has generated a debate regarding the factors that are thought to account for modern vegetation patterns in the region. Some argue that plant communities on these high-elevation summits reflect a long history of evolution in isolation, while others surmise that there has been substantial biotic interchange with the surrounding lowlands during glacial times. Until now, these apparently competing hypotheses have not been tested using palaeoecological methods. I used pollen analysis of Quaternary sediments and documented past vertical migrations of vegetation in response to climate changes, which supports the second hypothesis. Physiographical analysis, however, shows that about half the tableaux summits are too high for their flora to have reached the lowlands during the last glaciation, suggesting that a portion of the tableaux vegetation has always experienced some degree of biotic isolation. Thus, a component of the summit vegetation evolved in isolation, whereas other taxa experienced interchange, as reflected in endemism patterns among the tableaux summits. Biogeographical patterns on the summits are the result of complex evolutionary processes. The two hypotheses invoked to explain the vegetation patterns are not mutually exclusive, but instead complement one another.

  4. Lost-Wax Casting in Ancient China: New Discussion on Old Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weirong; Huang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    The possible use of lost-wax casting in China has long been a matter of controversy. Based on the study of pertinent ancient texts concerning the technical origins of lost-wax casting in China, direct examination of questioned ancient Chinese bronzes as well as definite lost-wax castings from both overseas and China, and modern production of objects using piece-mold casting, the authors point out their own conceptual ideas about ancient lost-wax casting as follows. First, the lost-wax casting technique does not have its earliest origins in ancient China but rather from the Sumerians in Mesopotamia, where it was predominantly used to cast small human and animal figures (statuettes). Next, some essential characteristics of the lost-wax casting technique can be identified from the point of view of a distortable soft starting model. The locally deformed shape of lost-wax castings is found to be variable. Finally, it is improper to consider the ease of extraction from the mold as the criterion for distinguishing lost-wax casting from piece-mold casting. It is therefore incorrect to conclude that the three-dimensional openwork decorations present on Chinese bronzes from the Spring and Autumn Period, and the Warring States Period, are fabricated using lost-wax castings.

  5. Space Radar Image of the Lost City of Ubar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of the region around the site of the lost city of Ubar in southern Oman, on the Arabian Peninsula. The ancient city was discovered in 1992 with the aid of remote sensing data. Archeologists believe Ubar existed from about 2800 B.C. to about 300 A.D. and was a remote desert outpost where caravans were assembled for the transport of frankincense across the desert. This image was acquired on orbit 65 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 13, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The SIR-C image shown is centered at 18.4 degrees north latitude and 53.6 degrees east longitude. The image covers an area about 50 by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The image is constructed from three of the available SIR-C channels and displays L-band, HH (horizontal transmit and receive) data as red, C-band HH as blue, and L-band HV (horizontal transmit, vertical receive) as green. The prominent magenta colored area is a region of large sand dunes, which are bright reflectors at both L-and C-band. The prominent green areas (L-HV) are rough limestone rocks, which form a rocky desert floor. A major wadi, or dry stream bed, runs across the middle of the image and is shown largely in white due to strong radar scattering in all channels displayed (L and C HH, L-HV). The actual site of the fortress of the lost city of Ubar, currently under excavation, is near the Wadi close to the center of the image. The fortress is too small to be detected in this image. However, tracks leading to the site, and surrounding tracks, appear as prominent, but diffuse, reddish streaks. These tracks have been used in modern times, but field investigations show many of these tracks were in use in ancient times as well. Mapping of these tracks on regional remote sensing images was a key to recognizing the site as Ubar in 1992. This image, and ongoing field investigations, will help shed light on a little known early civilization. Spaceborne

  6. Internationalization of law globalization, international law and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dias Varella, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The book provides an overview of how international law is today constructed through diverse macro and microprocesses that expand its traditional subjects and sources, with the attribution of sovereign capacity and power to the international plane (moving the international toward the national). Simultaneously, national laws approximate laws of other nations (moving among nations or moving the national toward the international) and new sources of legal norms emerge, independent of states and international organisations. This expansion occurs in many subject areas, with specific structures: commercial, environmental, human rights, humanitarian, financial, criminal and labor law contribute to the formation of post national law with different modes of functioning, different actors and different sources of law that should be understood as a new complexity of law.

  7. Acromegalic patients lost to follow-up: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuki, Leandro; Marques, Nelma Verônica; Nuez, Maria José Braga La; Leal, Vera Lucia Gomes; Chinen, Renata N; Gadelha, Mônica R

    2013-06-01

    Approximately 50 % of all acromegalic patients will require lifelong medical treatment to normalize mortality rates and reduce morbidity. Thus, adherence to therapy is essential to achieve treatment goals. To date, no study has evaluated the frequency and reasons for loss to follow-up in the acromegalic population. The current study aimed at evaluating the frequency of acromegalic patient loss to follow-up in three reference centers and the reasons responsible for their low compliance with treatment. All of the files for the acromegalic patients in the three centers were reviewed. Those patients, who had not followed up with the hospital for more than a year, were contacted via phone and/or mail and invited to participate. Patients who agreed to participate were interviewed, and blood samples were collected. A total of 239 files were reviewed; from these 42 patients (17.6 %) were identified who were lost to follow-up. It was possible to contact 27 of these patients, 10 of whom did not attend the appointments for more than one time and 17 of whom agreed to participate in the study. Fifteen of these 17 patients had active disease (88.2 %), and all of the patients restarted treatment in the original centers. The main reason for loss to follow-up was an absence of symptoms. High-quality follow-up is important in acromegaly to successfully achieve the aims of the treatment. An active search for patients may allow the resumption of treatment in a significant proportion of these cases, contributing to reduced morbidity and mortality in this patient population.

  8. Medical costs and lost productivity from health conditions at volatile organic compound-contaminated Superfund sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybarger, J.A.; Spengler, R.F.; Brown, D.R. [Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States). Div. of Health Studies; Lee, R.; Vogt, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perhac, R.M. Jr. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This paper estimates the health costs at Superfund sites for conditions associated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water. Health conditions were identified from published literature and registry information as occurring at excess rates in VOC-exposed populations. These health conditions were: (1) some categories of birth defects, (2) urinary tract disorders, (3) diabetes, (4) eczema and skin conditions, (5) anemia, (6) speech and hearing impairments in children under 10 years of age, and (7) stroke. Excess rates were used to estimate the excess number of cases occurring among the total population living within one-half mile of 258 Superfund sites. These sites had evidence of completed human exposure pathways for VOCs in drinking water. For each type of medical condition, an individual`s expected medical costs, long-term care costs, and lost work time due to illness or premature mortality were estimated. Costs were calculated to be approximately $330 million per year, in the absence of any remediation or public health intervention programs. The results indicate the general magnitude of the economic burden associated with a limited number of contaminants at a portion of all Superfund sites, thus suggesting that the burden would be greater than that estimated in this study if all contaminants at all Superfund sites could be taken into account.

  9. Children Who Kill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1999-01-01

    Two recent books, "When Good Kids Kill," by Michael D. Kelleher, and "Lost Boys," by James Garbarino, explore how children become killers and suggest ways to reduce our high-pressure society's epidemic levels of youth violence. Physically or psychologically distant parents and unaffirmative media messages are negative…

  10. Russian Contract Law for Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shirvindt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The book by Maria Efremova, Svetlana Yakovleva and Jane Henderson aims to serve as a short introduction to Russian contract law for a foreign lawyer. Assuming that the target readership are mainly English lawyers the book’s second aim, expressly stated by the authors (pp. i, 1, is to make lawyers from common law countries familiar with codified law, with Russian law being just an example. The book covers most of the general law of obligations as well as some questions of formation and invalidity of contracts that belong to the general part of the Civil Сode, with this preceded by a brief introduction into the Russian law dealing with its history, federal structure and state agencies of Russia, its court system, sources of law and legal profession.

  11. Lost productivity in four European countries among patients with rheumatic disorders: are absenteeism and presenteeism transferable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, Saskia; Candel, Math J J M; Boonen, Annelies; Evers, Silvia M A A; Ament, Andre J H A; Severens, Johan L

    2012-09-01

    When national pharmacoeconomic guidelines are compared, different recommendations are identified on how to identify, measure and value lost productivity, leading to difficulties when comparing lost productivity estimates across countries. From a transferability point of view, the question arises of whether differences between countries regarding lost productivity are the result of using different calculation methods (methodological differences) or of other between-country differences. When lost productivity data differ significantly across countries, the transferability of lost productivity data across countries is hindered. The objective of this study was to investigate whether country of residence has a significant influence on the quantity of lost productivity among patients with rheumatic disorders. Confounding factors that might differ between countries were corrected for, while the methodology used to identify and measure lost productivity was kept the same. This question was investigated by means of an online questionnaire filled out by 200 respondents with a rheumatic disorder per country in four European countries, namely the Netherlands, the UK, Germany and France. In addition to those regarding lost productivity, the questionnaire contained questions about patient characteristics, disability insurance, disease characteristics, quality of life and job characteristics as these variables are expected to influence lost productivity in terms of absenteeism and presenteeism. The data were analysed by regression analyses, in which different components - being absent in last 3 months, number of days absent and presenteeism - of lost productivity were the main outcome measures and other variables, such as gender, impact of disease, shift work, job control, partial disability and overall general health, were corrected for. The results showed that country sometimes has a significant influence on lost productivity and that other variables such as, for example, age

  12. Challenges imposed by International Environmental Law to Classical International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Augusto Cárdenas Castañeda

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of international environmental law has produced important challenges to the very foundations of public international law. Traditional concepts such as state sovereignty, subjects of international law, and the early perspectives of national security are being transformed. The needs of the contemporary international society differ from the ones of the Wesphalian conception, situations which clearly explains the raise of alternative views for the understanding of the current dynamics of international law, where concepts like res communis, common concerns and simply “commons” take a privileged place in the study of international law. The foregoing has been strengthened by the international development of the so called erga ommnes obligations, label which is being used by international environmental law as the perfect explanation of its own existence. This academic article presents and studies the abovementioned concepts trying to compare what international law used to be before the emergence of international environmental law and what it is and what it should be in order to attend the developments and challenges imposed by the contemporary international society, particularly by international environmental law, a new fi eld of the corpus juris of public international law.

  13. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  14. Post Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2016-01-01

    The value of developing hybrid international criminal procedure (ICP) is that it is arguably inclusive (representing two major legal traditions) and distinct from any domestic system, thus creating a separate, sui generis realm for international criminal law (ICL) jurists to meet. Since its...... addresses the practice of hybridity in ICP, drawing examples from the construction and evolution of hybrid procedure at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), to argue that the hybridity practiced by international criminal tribunals renders them ‘post rule of law’ institutions...

  15. Essentials of EU law

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  16. Spatiality of environmental law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse; Hvingel, Line

    2015-01-01

    will determine the interplay between geographic data and technology in the fields of environmental legislation, environmental policy and environmental management. This article examines the legal regulation of spatial information as established by the inspire directive, on one hand, and on the other hand......, examines legal regulation as spatial information. It aims to deepen the understanding of spatiality as a core element of environmental law, and to connect it to the basic concept of representation used in giscience. It concludes that the future path for e-Government demands a shift in legal paradigm, from...

  17. Epilepsy and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Roy G

    2008-05-01

    Epilepsy can define who one is rather than the diagnosis one has. It may be considered under the rubric of disability with legislative protection against discrimination. Those seeking remedy should investigate alternative dispute resolution in preference to litigation. Many areas of the life of a person with epilepsy deserve examination when considering epilepsy and law. Just some of these include: duty of care; informed consent; driving; research; social interactions; insurance; recreational pursuits; employment; and privacy. This article examines the legal implications and ramifications of these selected topics, acknowledging that the limited scope of the article has only exposed the tip of the iceberg to encourage further exploration.

  18. Privatizing Public Interest Law

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Scott L

    2011-01-01

    Financial and legal constraints on nonprofit public interest organizations have focused attention on possibilities for pursuing public interest goals from within market-driven private practice. In this context, the private public interest law firm has been held out as an alternative site for “doing well” and “doing good,” allowing lawyers to take on large-scale social change litigation that nonprofit groups cannot because of resource limits—and big-firm pro bono programs will not because of b...

  19. What is Stang’s law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Kortlandt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stang’s law is an ambiguous concept. On the one hand, it refers to a retraction of the stress from non-acute long vowels to the preceding syllable in Slavic. On the other hand, it refers to the development of acc.sg. Vedic dyā́m ‘sky’, gā́m ‘bull, cow’, Greek Ζῆν(α, βῶν, from *dieum, *gwoum. Stang derived the long vowel from the diphthong before the tautosyllabic nasal consonant. Alternatively, the long vowel can be attributed to monosyllabic lengthening followed by the loss of *‑u‑ before the tautosyllabic nasal.I have proposed that *‑u‑ was lost before word-final *‑m at a stage before the monosyllabic lengthening, yielding *diēm < *diem < *dieum and *gwēH3m < *gweH3m < *gweH3um. Latvian gùovs reflects the acc.sg. form *gwēH3m with loss of the laryngeal after the long vowel. The paradigm with a full grade suffix *‑eH2‑ and the loss of laryngeals before final *‑m were dialectal Indo-European innovations. Nasal vowels in final syllables lost their nasality in East Baltic.The loss of *‑u‑ before *‑m in Vedic gā́m and Greek βῶν, the rise of the long vowel in these forms, the loss of the laryngeal in Latvian gùovs, the generalization of the full grade *‑eH2‑ in the paradigm, the loss of laryngeals before *‑m, and the loss of nasality in East Baltic final syllables are all chronologically distinct developments, none of which can appropriately be called Stang’s law. It is therefore preferable to use this term only in reference to the retraction of the stress from non-acute long vowels in Slavic, which is the basis of modern Slavic accentology.

  20. The Public Law Outline and Family Group Conferences in Childcare Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carly Anne

    2011-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, the Children Act (1989) states that children are best brought up with their families. However, if a child is suffering from or likely to suffer from significant harm, then the local authorities may initiate care proceedings under section 31 of the Children Act (1989). The Public Law Outline is a judicial case management tool…

  1. Quest for the lost siblings of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Ruchti, G.; Feltzing, S.; Martínez-Barbosa, C. A.; Bensby, T.; Brown, A. G. A.; Portegies Zwart, S. F.

    2015-03-01

    Aims: The aim of this paper is to find lost siblings of the Sun by analyzing high resolution spectra. Finding solar siblings will enable us to constrain the parameters of the parental cluster and the birth place of the Sun in the Galaxy. Methods: The solar siblings can be identified by accurate measurements of metallicity, stellar age and elemental abundances for solar neighbourhood stars. The solar siblings candidates were kinematically selected based on their proper motions, parallaxes and colours. Stellar parameters were determined through a purely spectroscopic approach and partly physical method, respectively. Comparing synthetic with observed spectra, elemental abundances were computed based on the stellar parameters obtained using a partly physical method. A chemical tagging technique was used to identify the solar siblings. Results: We present stellar parameters, stellar ages, and detailed elemental abundances for Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, and Ni for 32 solar sibling candidates. Our abundances analysis shows that four stars are chemically homogenous together with the Sun. Technique of chemical tagging gives us a high probability that they might be from the same open cluster. Only one candidate - HIP 40317 - which has solar metallicity and age could be a solar sibling. We performed simulations of the Sun's birth cluster in analytical Galactic model and found that most of the radial velocities of the solar siblings lie in the range -10 ≤ Vr ≤ 10 km s-1, which is smaller than the radial velocity of HIP 40317 (Vr = 34.2 km s-1), under different Galactic parameters and different initial conditions of the Sun's birth cluster. The sibling status for HIP 40317 is not directly supported by our dynamical analysis. Based on observations made with Nordic Optical Telescope at La Palma under programme 44-014. Based on observations made with ESO VLT Kueyen Telescope at the Paranal observatory under program me ID 085.C-0062(A), 087.D-0010(A), and 088.B-0820(A

  2. Tourniquet use at the Boston Marathon bombing: Lost in translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David Richard; Larentzakis, Andreas; Ramly, Elie P

    2015-03-01

    extremity hemorrhage control posture should be translated to all civilian first responders in the United States and should mirror the military's posture toward extremity bleeding control. The prehospital response to extremity exsanguination after the Boston Marathon bombing demonstrates that our current practice is an approach, lost in translation, from the battlefield to the homeland. Epidemiologic study, level V.

  3. Environmental law. 2. rev. ed.; Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyerholt, Ulrich

    2007-07-01

    The author of the book under consideration describes the environment law in a well readable and systematic form. By means of this book the reader is to be able to understand and arrange environmental-legal questions. The book consists of the following sections: (a) Denotation of the environment law; (b) Fundamentals of the legal order and the application of law; (c) Environmental constitutional law; (d) Principles of the environment law; (e) Instruments in the environment law; (f) Environmental private law; (g) Environmental criminal law; (h) Legal protection questions in the public environment law; (i) Environmental European right; (j) Environmental international law; (k) Pollution control law; (l) Water legislation; (m)Soil conservation law; (n) Recycling law and waste management law; (o) Nature conservation law; (p) Law of hazardous materials.

  4. Mexican renewable electricity law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C. [Institute of Engineering of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Edificio 12 Bernardo Quintana, Piso 3, Cubiculo 319, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, CP 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  5. Generalized Kirchhoff law

    CERN Document Server

    Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Brucoli, Giovanni; Sakat, Emilie; Marquier, François

    2016-01-01

    Thermal emission can be conveniently described using Kirchhoff law which states that the emissivity is equal to the absorptivity for isothermal bodies. For a finite size system, absorptivity is replaced by an absorption cross section. Here, we study the link between thermal emission and absorption by a finite size object which is not isothermal. We define a local absorption rate for a given incident plane wave and we prove that it is equal to the local emissivity rate. Hence, Kirchhoff law can be extended to anisothermal media. A practical consequence is the possibility of analysing thermal radiation by a variety of non-equilibrium systems such as microwave radiation in geophysical remote sensing or X-UV radiation by plasmas. This result provides a theoretical framework to analyse thermal emission by hot electrons in quantum wells, tunnel junctions or graphene. It paves the way to the design of a new generation of incandescent emitters made of subwavelength hot emitters coupled to cold antennas. The antennas ...

  6. Lignite Zone as an Indicator to Lost Circulation Belt: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    or even breaking of the bit, drilling fluid may be totally lost, hence increased cost of operation, time wasted in pulling back and/or combating lost circulation, drop in annular level may cause blow out in over-pressured or gas-bearing formations, loss of information from the down-hole, the chances of stuck-pipe and fishing ...

  7. 77 FR 73739 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Lost River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... our current best assessment of the areas that meet the definition of critical habitat for Lost River... under the Act. For more information on the biology and ecology of the Lost River sucker and shortnose... in this location. The area, therefore, does not meet the definition of critical habitat for shortnose...

  8. 38 CFR 12.24 - Operation of lost and found service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... close of business. Individuals claiming found articles will furnish complete identification and satisfy... custodian. VA Form 3771, Record of Lost or Found Article, will be used for recording articles of any... articles and to recover items which have been reported lost. Currency, including readily negotiable...

  9. 29 CFR 779.250 - Goods that have not lost their out-of-State identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goods that have not lost their out-of-State identity. 779...-State identity. Goods which are purchased or received by the enterprise from within the State will be... and have not lost their identity as out-of-State goods before they are purchased or received by the...

  10. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer lost by fire, theft... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by...

  11. Assessment of net lost revenue adjustment mechanisms for utility DSM programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1995-01-01

    Utility shareholders can lose money on demand-side management (DSM) investments between rate cases. Several industry analysts argue that the revenues lost from utility DSM programs are an important financial disincentive to utility DSM investment. A key utility regulatory reform undertaken since 1989 allows utilities to recover the lost revenues incurred through successful operation of DSM programs. Explicitly defined net lost revenue adjustment (NLRA) mechanisms are states` preferred approach to lost revenue recovery from DSM programs. This report examines the experiences states and utilities are having with the NLRA approach. The report has three objectives. First, we determine whether NLRA is a feasible and successful approach to removing the lost-revenue disincentive to utility operation of DSM programs. Second, we identify the conditions linked to successful implementation of NLRA mechanisms in different states and assess whether NLRA has changed utility investment behavior. Third, we suggest improvements to NLRA mechanisms. We first identify states with NLRA mechanisms where utilities are recovering lost revenues from DSM programs. We interview staff at regulatory agencies in all these states and utility staff in four states. These interviews focus on the status of NLRA, implementation issues, DSM measurement issues, and NLRA results. We also analyze regulatory agency orders on NLRA, as well as associated testimony, reports, and utility lost revenue recovery filings. Finally, we use qualitative and quantitative indicators to assess NLRA`s effectiveness. Contrary to the concerns raised by some industry analysts, our results indicate NLRA is a feasible approach to the lost-revenue disincentive.

  12. 19 CFR 111.79 - Employment of broker who has lost license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment of broker who has lost license. 111.79...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Cancellation, Suspension, or Revocation of License or Permit, and Monetary Penalty in Lieu of Suspension or Revocation § 111.79 Employment of broker who has lost license...

  13. Una Nueva IDEA: Una Guia para Padres acerca de los Cambios en la Ley de Educacion Especial para Ninos con Incapacidades (A New IDEA: A Parent's Guide to the Changes in Social Education Law for Children with Disabilities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Tammy

    This guide for parents, in Spanish, explains the changes in the federal special education law resulting from the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Changes related to the parent's role in decisions about the child's education and in how schools can discipline special education students are highlighted. A…

  14. JUDICIAL PRECEDENT, A LAW SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The role awarded to judge varies from one legal system to another. In the Anglo-Saxon legal systems, there is not a self-standing legislative body, so the judge is the one who creates the law; his mission consists in solving a specific case, given the existing judicial precedents; if he cannot find an appropriate rule of law, he has to develop one and to apply it. In the continental system, creation of law is the mission of the legislature, so the creative role of jurisprudence still raises controversy. Evolving under the influence of Roman law, the continental law systems differ from the Anglo-Saxon by: the continuous receiving of Corpus iuris civilis; the tendency to abstraction, leading to the creation of a rational law; the rule of law, with the consequence of blurring the role of jurisprudence. Underlining the creative force of jurisprudence, Vladimir Hanga wrote: "The law remains in its essence abstract, but the appreciation of the jurisprudence makes it alive, as the judge, understanding the law, taking into account the interests of parties and taking inspiration from equity, ensures the ultimate purpose of the law: suum cuique tribuere”.

  15. Law Enforcement Proxies Matter for the Law and Finance Nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Toci; Iraj Hashi

    2013-01-01

    The paper employs various measures of law enforcement to provide new evidence on the importance of legal institutions for different dimensions of financial development in transition economies. It offers a critical assessment of law enforcement measures employed in recent studies by showing that some proxies for law enforcement in the credit market may not be appropriate. Hence, care should be taken in how the quality of institutions is measured and the context which it represents. An original...

  16. Lost Muon Study for the Muon G-2 Experiment at Fermilab*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crnkovic, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morse, W. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-05-19

    The Fermilab Muon g-2 Experiment has a goal of measuring the muon anomalous magnetic moment to a precision of 140 ppb - a fourfold improvement over the 540 ppb precision obtained by the BNL Muon g-2 Experiment. Some muons in the storage ring will interact with material and undergo bremsstrahlung, emitting radiation and loosing energy. These so called lost muons will curl in towards the center of the ring and be lost, but some of them will be detected by the calorimeters. A systematic error will arise if the lost muons have a different average spin phase than the stored muons. Algorithms are being developed to estimate the relative number of lost muons, so as to optimize the stored muon beam. This study presents initial testing of algorithms that can be used to estimate the lost muons by using either double or triple detection coincidences in the calorimeters.

  17. Managing complex child law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Idamarie Leth

    2017-01-01

    The article reports the findings of a qualitative study of Danish legal regulation of the public initial assessment of children and young persons and municipal practitioners’ decision-making under this regulation. The regulation mirrors new and complex relations between families and society and t...

  18. Interdisciplinary Success Of Law And Economy: Economic Analysis Of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Barković

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis of law defines as an application of economic theory and economic methods in studies of forming, structure, process and influence of the law and legal institution. Although many comment that it is the question of a new scientific discipline or contemporary intellectual movement, the economic analysis of law reaches even the classics of economic thought Adam Smith and David Hume but the real recognition of the analysis was the publishing of the famous article of Ronald Coase (1960 “Problem of Public Expense” . Here he discusses how the incentives for damage reduction and various negativities come from the allocation of property rights. The aim of this work is to present an economic analysis of law as an interdisciplinary success of two great fields – law and economy, i.e. to present the way on which economy helps to understand law in a new way. Realizing it, the economy uses mathematically precise theories (e.g. price theory, game theory etc. and empirically firm methods (statistics and econometrically to analyse the impact of prices, i.e. of sanctions on behaviour. The article shows basic economic analyses of law which especially cite the contract law and balance law.

  19. The Influence of Byzantine Law on Serbian Mediaeval Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan Šarkić

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Serbian law had being developed from the early 13th century under the direct influence of Byzantine law. Serbian lawyers adopted the Byzantine law in the form of translation of Byzantine legal compilations. The first of them was Nomokanon of Saint Sava of 1219 which contained ecclesiastical rules together with canonist’s glosses, a translation of part of Justinian’s Novels and the whole of the Procheiron of Basil I. In 1349-1354 Serbian lawyers created a special Codex Tripartitus, codifying both Serbian and Byzantine law. The Russian scholar T. Florinsky noticed this in 1888, pointing out that in the oldest manuscripts Dušan’s Code is always accompanied by two other compilations of Byzantine law: the abbreviated Syntagma of Matheas Blastar and the so-called Justinian’s Law. Beside the translations of Byzantine legal miscellanies, Serbian lawyers adopted a great number of the institutes of Roman law. However, Serbian lawyers were not educated in Bologna, so that Roman law was adopted in an indirect way, i.e. through Greek (Byzantine translations, not from original Latin texts. Dušan’s Code as the most important legal source of mediaeval Serbian law borrowed about 60 articles directly from the Basilica: articles 171 and 172 are the most important of them.

  20. First victims then perpetrators: child soldiers and International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Morini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the issue of the position of child soldiers under International Law. After preliminary remarks on the approach of international human rights and humanitarian law to the protection of children involved in armed conflicts, the article discusses the prohibitions on recruiting children and the individual criminal responsibility of recruiters. Case-law on the child soldiers’ recruitment is considered. In the fourth part the position of the child soldiers as perpetrators is discussed and the retributive approach to the issue is explored. The last section offers an overview of the restorative justice-oriented solution to the dilemma of the criminal responsibility of child soldiers adopted in the context of the post-conflict situation in Sierra Leone.

  1. First victims then perpetrators: child soldiers and International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Morini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the issue of the position of child soldiersunder International Law. After preliminary remarks on the approach ofinternational human rights and humanitarian law to the protection of children involved in armed conflicts, the article discusses the prohibitions on recruiting children and the individual criminal responsibility of recruiters.Case-law on the child soldiers’ recruitment is considered. In thefourth part the position of the child soldiers as perpetrators is discussed and the retributive approach to the issue is explored. The last section offers an overviewof the restorative justice-oriented solution to the dilemma of the criminal responsibility of child soldiers adopted in the context of the post-conflict situation in Sierra Leone.

  2. Adolescents and Social Media: Privacy, Brain Development, and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Caitlin R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents under the age of 18 are not recognized in the law as adults, nor do they have the fully developed capacity of adults. Yet teens regularly enter into contractual arrangements with operators of websites to send and post information about themselves. Their level of development limits their capacity to understand the implications of online communications, yet the risks are real to adolescents' privacy and reputations. This article explores an apparent contradiction in the law: that in areas other than online communications, U.S. legal systems seek to protect minors from the limitations of youth. The Children's Online Privacy Protection Act provides some protection to the privacy of young people, but applies only to children under age 13, leaving minors of ages 13 to 17 with little legal protection in their online activities. In this article, we discuss several strategies to mitigate the risks of adolescent online activity. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  3. Estimation of lost circulation amount occurs during under balanced drilling using drilling data and neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Behnoud far

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lost circulation can cause an increase in time and cost of operation. Pipe sticking, formation damage and uncontrolled flow of oil and gas may be consequences of lost circulation. Dealing with this problem is a key factor to conduct a successful drilling operation. Estimation of lost circulation amount is necessary to find a solution. Lost circulation is influenced by different parameters such as mud weight, pump pressure, depth etc. Mud weight, pump pressure and flow rate of mud should be designed to prevent induced fractures and have the least amount of lost circulation. Artificial neural network is useful to find the relations of parameters with lost circulation. Genetic algorithm is applied on the achieved relations to determine the optimum mud weight, pump pressure, and flow rate. In an Iranian oil field, daily drilling reports of wells which are drilled using UBD technique are studied. Asmari formation is the most important oil reservoir of the studied field and UBD is used only in this interval. Three wells with the most, moderate and without lost circulation are chosen. In this article, the effect of mud weight, depth, pump pressure and flow rate of pump on lost circulation in UBD of Asmari formation in one of the Southwest Iranian fields is studied using drilling data and artificial neural network. In addition, the amount of lost circulation is predicted precisely with respect to two of the studied parameters using the presented correlations and the optimum mud weight, pump pressure and flow rate are calculated to minimize the lost circulation amount.

  4. The Media and Megan's Law: Is Community Notification the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Dayle

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the implications of the media and Megan's Law on humanistic counselors. Argues that our society seems to feel comfortable trading its humanistic values regarding sex offenders for the protection of children. Concludes that it may be only the counseling professional that can advocate for humanistic treatment and rehabilitation of sex…

  5. Student Attitudes toward Sex Offender Policies and Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Beth A.; Siedschlaw, Kurt D.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning with the passage of The Jacob Wetterling Crimes Against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Act in 1994 and Megan's Law in 1996, the federal government and states have passed numerous pieces of legislation to control and restrict those convicted of sex offenses. This study surveyed the attitudes of undergraduate students…

  6. Using Literature to Teach the Rule of Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, James

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at three examples of children's and young adult literature that offer entertaining, accessible, and at times provocative, explorations of the rule of law in very different settings. Lewis Carroll's classic, "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland," finds Alice confronting a host of procedural irregularities and abuses of power within…

  7. LOST to follow-up Information in Trials (LOST-IT: a protocol on the potential impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Arturo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incomplete ascertainment of outcomes in randomized controlled trials (RCTs is likely to bias final study results if reasons for unavailability of patient data are associated with the outcome of interest. The primary objective of this study is to assess the potential impact of loss to follow-up on the estimates of treatment effect. The secondary objectives are to describe, for published RCTs, (1 the reporting of loss to follow-up information, (2 the analytic methods used for handling loss to follow-up information, and (3 the extent of reported loss to follow-up. Methods We will conduct a systematic review of reports of RCTs recently published in five top general medical journals. Eligible RCTs will demonstrate statistically significant effect estimates with respect to primary outcomes that are patient-important and expressed as binary data. Teams of 2 reviewers will independently determine eligibility and extract relevant information from each eligible trial using standardized, pre-piloted forms. To assess the potential impact of loss to follow-up on the estimates of treatment effect we will, for varying assumptions about the outcomes of participants lost to follow-up (LTFU, calculate (1 the percentage of RCTs that lose statistical significance and (2 the mean change in effect estimate across RCTs. The different assumptions we will test are the following: (1 none of the LTFU participants had the event; (2 all LTFU participants had the event; (3 all LTFU participants in the treatment group had the event; none of those in the control group had it (worst case scenario; (4 the event incidence among LTFU participants (relative to observed participants increased, with a higher relative increase in the intervention group; and (5 the event incidence among LTFU participants (relative to observed participants increased in the intervention group and decreased in the control group. Discussion We aim to make our objectives and methods

  8. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Lost Foam Thin Wall - Feasibility of Producing Lost Foam Castings in Aluminum and Magnesium Based Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS; Griffin, John A. [University of Alabama - Birmingham

    2014-03-31

    With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, production of near-net shape components by lost foam casting will make significant inroad into the next-generation of engineering component designs. The lost foam casting process is a cost effective method for producing complex castings using an expandable polystyrene pattern and un-bonded sand. The use of un-bonded molding media in the lost foam process will impose less constraint on the solidifying casting, making hot tearing less prevalent. This is especially true in Al-Mg and Al-Cu alloy systems that are prone to hot tearing when poured in rigid molds partially due to their long freezing range. Some of the unique advantages of using the lost foam casting process are closer dimensional tolerance, higher casting yield, and the elimination of sand cores and binders. Most of the aluminum alloys poured using the lost foam process are based on the Al-Si system. Very limited research work has been performed with Al-Mg and Al-Cu type alloys. With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, and given the high-strength-to-weight-ratio of magnesium, significant weight savings can be achieved by casting thin-wall (≤ 3 mm) engineering components from both aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys.

  9. Supporting Homeless Children and Youth with Disabilities: Legislative Provisions in the McKinney-Vento Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. McKinney-Vento Law into Practice Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Each year, over 1.2 million children and youth identified as homeless in the nation's schools experience educational disruption that is caused by not having a safe and stable place to live (NCHE, 2014). Homeless children and youth face educational challenges that include a lack of basic necessities, such as food, clothing, and medical services;…

  10. Interzones of Law and Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    The dissertation analyzes a contemporary battlefield of law, the field of EU social rights, from a political-philosophical point of view. It is the conviction of the dissertation that law is deeply and inescapably conceptually connected with fundamental features of social order. The interrelations...... between the two do not merely concern the rights and obligations explicitly laid down in the law, but fundamental presumptions regarding the nature of human beings, overall purposes of social order, hierarchical and dynamic features of society and the possibility at all of regulation, its logics...... and sources of authority. On the basis of a historical-conceptual understanding of law according to which law, social structure and metaphysical presumptions are inescapably intertwined, the dissertation derives from the binding provisions of law certain essential features of social order. More precisely...

  11. Globalization, Inequality & International Economic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Garcia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available International law in general, and international economic law in particular, to the extent that either has focused on the issue of inequality, has done so in terms of inequality between states. Largely overlooked has been the topic of inequality within states and how international law has influenced that reality. From the perspective of international economic law, the inequality issue is closely entwined with the topics of colonialism and post-colonialism, the proper meaning of development, and globalization. While international economic law has undoubtedly contributed to the rise of inequality, it is now vital that the subject of international economic law be examined for how it may contribute to the lessening of inequality. To do so will require a shift in the way that we think, in order to address inequality as a problem of an emerging global market society, and how best to regulate that society and its institutions.

  12. Interzones of Law and Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    between the two do not merely concern the rights and obligations explicitly laid down in the law, but fundamental presumptions regarding the nature of human beings, overall purposes of social order, hierarchical and dynamic features of society and the possibility at all of regulation, its logics......The dissertation analyzes a contemporary battlefield of law, the field of EU social rights, from a political-philosophical point of view. It is the conviction of the dissertation that law is deeply and inescapably conceptually connected with fundamental features of social order. The interrelations...... and sources of authority. On the basis of a historical-conceptual understanding of law according to which law, social structure and metaphysical presumptions are inescapably intertwined, the dissertation derives from the binding provisions of law certain essential features of social order. More precisely...

  13. AHP 1: Calling Back the Lost Namuyi Tibetan Soul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libu Lakhi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A na53 mʑi53 person falls accidentally and is panicked. The rə53 hĩ53 'soul' leaves the body and the person becomes lethargic. It is nearly always the patient's mother who calls the soul back, if she knows the correct chant. Five thousand na53 mʑi53 Tibetans live mostly in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, PR China with Han and Nuosu (Yi. The ritual is commonly done for children less than ten years of age, though anyone may lose their soul. The chant is presented along with a brief discussion of na53 mʑi53 cosmology and beliefs concerning the soul.

  14. Feminism, law, and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, K H

    1996-03-01

    Feminist legal theory provides a healthy skepticism toward legal doctrine and insists that we reexamine even formally gender-neutral rules to uncover problematic assumptions behind them. The article first outlines feminist legal theory from the perspectives of liberal, cultural, and radical feminism. Examples of how each theory influences legal practice, case law, and legislation are highlighted. Each perspective is then applied to a contemporary bioethical issue, egg donation. Following a brief discussion of the common themes shared by feminist jurisprudence, the article incorporates a narrative reflecting on the integration of the common feminist themes in the context of the passage of the Maryland Health Care Decisions Act. The article concludes that gender does matter and that an understanding of feminist legal theory and practice will enrich the analysis of contemporary bioethical issues.

  15. Law and Intergenerational Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Israel; Lowenstein, Ariela; Biggs, Simon

    2017-03-01

    In any aging society, the sociolegal construction of intergenerational relationships is of great importance. This study conducts an international comparison of a specific judicial issue: whether active labor unions have the legal right to strike for the purpose of improving the benefits given to nonactive workers (specifically, pensioners). A comparative case law methodology was used. The texts of three different Supreme Court cases-in the United States, Canada, and Israel-were analyzed and compared. Despite the different legal outcomes, all three court rulings reflect a disregard of known and relevant social gerontology theories of intergenerational relationships. Social gerontological theories can play an important role in both understanding and shaping judicial policies and assisting the courts in choosing their sociojudicial narratives.

  16. International Criminal Law & Its Paradoxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2017-01-01

    This article challenges international criminal tribunals' (ICTs) capacity to perform the socially constitutive work of transitional justice. Highlighting paradigmatic ICT jurisprudence, it shows both the "progress" and "justice" constructs central to the work and legitimacy of international...... criminal law are unrealizable under current ICT practice. This is due to international criminal law's foundational, legitimizing basis in natural law, rather than political liberalism. The article calls for a revision of ICT institutional accountability structures....

  17. International Law and Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    an armed attack or actions pursuant to a Chapter VII, Article 42, mandate. 72. See, e.g., HANS KELSEN , COLLECTIVE SECURITY UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW...88 (1957) (Vol. 49, US Naval War College International Law Studies); see also Hans Kelsen , Collective Secu- rity and Collective Self-Defense under the...championed by such epic figures as Hans Morgenthau and George Kennan, is that international law is "epiphenomenal" ( [that is,] stupid). The classical

  18. Divorce laws and fertility decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Bellido, Héctor; Marcén, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of divorce law reforms on fertility. By modifying the value of marriage, the introduction of divorce law reforms may impact fertility decisions. To identify the effects of those reforms on fertility, we use a quasi-experiment exploiting the legislative history of divorce liberalization across Europe. Results suggest that divorce law reforms have a negative and permanent effect on fertility. Divorce reforms decreased the Total Fertility Rate by about 0.2. The mag...

  19. Corporate Mobility and Company Law

    OpenAIRE

    Ferran, Eilís

    2016-01-01

    Globalisation has given commercial parties more freedom to choose the company law system that best suits their private needs. The growing range of techniques to facilitate choice between systems of company law reshapes the mandatory/enabling debate in countries where corporate mobility is a relatively new business phenomenon and where the past focus has mostly been on degrees of flexibility within domestic law. This article examines relocations, both out of and into the UK, as a source of lea...

  20. Virginia Principals and School Law

    OpenAIRE

    Brabrand, Scott Sorensen

    2003-01-01

    Virginia Principals and School Law Scott S. Brabrand (ABSTRACT) This study sought to determine Virginia Public School principalsâ knowledge of school law as it related to the type, length/quantity, and recency of law preparation they received. Other variables measured included how their level of knowledge was associated with their length of administrative experience and with their description of the school community in which they worked. An on-line survey instrument wa...

  1. Criminal law in the Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikov, G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Old Testament criminal law, especially its moralizing attitude to state and private violence, crime and punishment, can be ranked among the most important sources of Medieval and Modern jurisprudence. The article analyses basic cultural preconditions of the formation and evolution of Judeo-Christian legal theory, peculiarities of criminological thinking in Judaism and Christianity, causes and effects of the fundamental ties between religion and law in traditional societies, and possible convergence of Mosaic and Modern criminal law.

  2. AIDS groups challenge Federal Internet censorship law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-03

    The Communications Decency Act (CDA), a section of the 1996 telecommunications reform law, bans indecent and patently offensive expression from all online systems available to those under the age of 18. AIDS organizations and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) filed suit in U.S. District Court in Philadelphia, PA,to challenge the law. The ACLU contends that the CDA law is unconstitutional because it criminalizes expression that is protected by the First Amendment, and violates constitutional rights to privacy. The CDA also would impede dissemination of HIV prevention information, according to AIDS online services. Operators of these electronic information systems state that providing explicit language about safe sexual practices is essential if teenagers are to understand how to prevent HIV infection. Additionally, content providers argue that it is almost impossible to know what text or images must be censored in order to avoid government prosecution. Expert witnesses testifying for the U.S. Government stated that there are means available to purge Internet sites of materials that might be regarded as indecent. The ACLU recommends utilizing a software package that would enable parents to control their children's Internet access without requiring broad censorship.

  3. Practical concepts in Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan, zarrokh

    2008-01-01

    A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. Contract law is based on the Latin phrase pacta sunt servanda (literally, promises must be kept) [1]. Breach of a contract is recognised by the law and remedies can be provided. Almost everyone makes contracts everyday. Sometimes written contracts are required, e.g., when buying a house [2]. However the vast majority of contracts can be and are made orally, like buying a law text book,...

  4. The law of international organisations

    CERN Document Server

    White, Nigel D

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a concise account of the principles and norms of international law applicable to the main-type of international organisation - the inter-governmental organisation (IGO). That law consists of principles and rules found in the founding documents of IGOs along with applicable principles and rules of international law. The book also identifies and analyses the law produced by IGOs, applied by them and, occasionally, enforced by them. There is a concentration upon the United Nations, as the paradigmatic IGO, not only upon the UN organisation headquartered in New York, but on other IGOs in the UN system (the specialised agencies such as the World Health Organisation).

  5. European Law in the Making:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    the legal service of the High Authority from early on promoted a ‘constitutional’ interpretation of European law, but where the member state, as well as most legal experts, still considered European law a subset of international law. How did the Court of Justice of the ECSC manoeuvre between...... on European law in the making.......Traditionally, the Court of Justice of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) has mainly been considered the somewhat dull predecessor to the more famous Court of Justice of the European Communities, which in 1963-64 ‘constitutionalised’ the Treaties of Rome with the seminal judgments of Van...

  6. Parental Trigger Laws and the Power of Framing in Educational Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Abe

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the discursive strategies employed by advocates of Parent Trigger laws in the United States which allow parents of children in "failing" schools, in some states, to call for interventions in the operation of the schools via petition. The paper reviews the genesis of Parent Trigger laws, the network of conservative…

  7. 34 CFR 300.535 - Referral to and action by law enforcement and judicial authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for... crime committed by a child with a disability to appropriate authorities or prevents State law... Federal and State law to crimes committed by a child with a disability. (b) Transmittal of records. (1) An...

  8. Simulating the Law: Experiential "Teachniques" in the Modern Law Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Yvonne; Higgins, Noelle

    2010-01-01

    The concept of arguing aspects of legal scenarios in order to facilitate student learning within the law curriculum originated in the vocational Inns of Court in fourteenth-century England. Nowadays, simulations of court proceedings, such as moot courts and mock trials, are widely employed as educational tools in law modules in third-level…

  9. MUSLIM PERSONAL LAW AND THE MEANING OF "LAW" IN THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Two percent of the total population of South Africa consists of Muslims2 who follow a practice which may be referred to as Muslim personal law. Although section 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa3 recognises religious freedom and makes provision for the future recognition of other personal law systems, ...

  10. Distinguishing Between Private Law and Social-Security Law in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dmillard

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/pelj.v14i4.9. ISSN 1727-3781. DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN PRIVATE LAW AND SOCIAL-SECURITY LAW IN. DEDUCTING SOCIAL GRANTS FROM CLAIMS FOR LOSS OF SUPPORT. 2011 VOLUME 14 No 4. Author: L Steynberg and D Millard ...

  11. Ohm's Law, Kirchoff's Law and the Drunkard's Walk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. Ohm's Law, Kirchoff's Law and the Drunkard's Walk Related Electrical Networks. Rahul Roy. General Article Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 36-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Ohm's Law, Kirchoff's Law and the Drunkard's Walk The Drunkard's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 12. Ohm's Law, Kirchoff's Law and the Drunkard's Walk The Drunkard's Walk. Rahul Roy. General Article Volume 2 Issue 12 December 1997 pp 33-38. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Distinguishing Between Private Law and Social-Security Law in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dmillard

    relevant, as in the facts of the two conflicting decisions under discussion. With this theoretical background of the applicable principles of private law and social- security law in mind, the next paragraph takes a look at the two conflicting decisions in Makhuvela v Road Accident Fund. 47 and Road Accident Fund v Timis. 48. 3.

  14. Ogba Philosophy of Human Positive Law UA Dike Introduction Laws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    findings were based on them. Introduction. Laws which regulate the society are very important social instruments and as such must be placed in its proper place to fulfill its ends; they must not only have positive foundations but sound ethical ground (Iwe, 1978). Ogba philosophy of law is inspired as such and founded on the ...

  15. Distinguishing Between Private Law and Social-Security Law in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article attempts to highlight the potential danger in applying private-law principles to social-security law in deciding whether or not social grants should be deducted from awards for damages. Typically, this issue comes to the fore where a damage-causing event, such as death, sets into motion a system that provides for ...

  16. Book Review: Aboriginal Customary Law: A Source of Common Law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Aboriginal Customary Law: A Source of Common Law Title to Land. Book Author: U Secher. (2014 Hart Publishing Oxford and Portland Oregon) ISBN 978-1-84946-553-3. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  17. INTERFERENCES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW WITH THE URBAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IFTIME

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the large, complex issue of influences that urbanization can have on the environment, requires first of all, some general considerations on the interferences between the urban law and the environmental law. The urban law investigates and regulates the affecting and planning of the urban space. Therefore, this type of regulations are at the interference with the environmental law , which, inter alia , deals with the protection and conservation of the environment in the urban settlements, in the built space and also the ecological deployment of the activities in this space. The interaction between the two is becoming increasingly important especially when the urban law is increasingly correlated with the environmental protection, the natural space and the ecological activities.

  18. Public health law research: exploring law in public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott; Hays, Scott

    2012-11-01

    The importance of law in the organization and operation of public health systems has long been a matter of interest to public health lawyers and practitioners, but empirical research on law as a factor in health system performance has been limited in quantity and sophistication. The emergence of Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research within a coordinated effort to strengthen public health research and practice has dramatically changed matters. This article introduces Public Health Law Research as an integral part of Public Health Systems and Services Research, discusses the challenges of integrating the 2 fields, and highlights 2 examples of current research that demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach to improve the use of law in public health practice.

  19. Reforming Wildlife Law: The Law Commission Proposals for Wildlife Law and Wildlife Sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Vincent

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article critically examines a an ongoing review commenced in 2012 by the United Kingdom’s Law Commission into new wildlife laws for England and Wales by considering four interlinked elements of the process. First, it outlines the underlying subject matter and regulatory aims of wildlife law.  It then describes the scope of the Law Commission’s Wildlife Law Project, identifying some of the key problem areas it sought to address and referencing its consultation process conducted in the later part of 2012. Next the article summarises the Law Commission’s view for a new wildlife law regime. The fourth element explores the current and potential roles of criminalising and non-criminalising sanctions. With a continued focus on the underlying subject matter and regulatory aims, discussion centres on the greater use of non-criminalising civil sanctions in wildlife law. The paper supports the Law Commission’s argument that the creation of a civil sanctions regime is not tantamount to decriminalisation in its true sense but simply widens the available regulatory enforcement options.

  20. Economics of mining law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  1. Recent Developments Regarding South African Common and Customary Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC Schoeman-Malan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article will concentrate on the development in the common law of succession and administration of estates versus the customary law of succession and inheritance as well as the winding up of estates pursuant to constitutional tendencies, case law, and statutory reform over the last ten years. The principles of customary law of succession and inheritance have become a contentious issue since the commencement of the Constitution and Bill of Rights which provide for a human rights dispensation in South Africa. As a pluralistic legal system was retained, the inevitable conflict between the principles of customary law of succession and the Constitution soon came to the fore. Although the South African Law Reform Commission reported on this issue and submitted their recommendations to the Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development, the report was never formally published. Aspects of intestate succession and the administration of estates of deceased blacks were challenged in court on constitutional grounds. This eventually lead to a number of principles of customary law being declared unconstitutional, and consequently invalid, by the Courts who had no choice but to provide relief until such time as the legislature enacted a lasting solution. As far as the intestate succession is concerned, the Intestate Succession Act 81 of 1987 was extended to all persons in South Africa, including those adhering to a system of customary law. No distinction will, for purposes of succession, be made in future between legitimate and illegitimate children, between a first born son and other siblings or between men and women. Notwithstanding several court judgments in this regard, the Intestate Succession Act has not been amended by the Legislature as yet. As far as the historical discrepancy in the winding up and administration of estates is concerned, all estates, including intestate estates of black persons that have to devolve under customary law, in the

  2. Religion and abortion: Roman Catholicism lost in the pelvic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    The Roman Catholic Church has held the most absolute and extreme position against abortion taken by any religious group. Opposition to abortion by US Catholic bishops has been unflagging since Roe vs. Wade was decided. The current strategy embraced by the bishops is to restrict access to abortion as a prelude to attaining a complete ban on the procedure. The bishops, of course, have a political and constitutional right to champion public policy issues. This ability is limited only by the laws regarding tax-exempt status which make it impossible for the bishops to endorse political candidates. Opponents of the positions of the bishops, in turn, have a right to challenge their positions. The bishops, acting jointly as the United States Catholic Conference (USCC), express their own opinions, not the opinions of the 53 million US Catholics and have been criticized by both conservative and progressive groups in the church. Since women can not become Catholic bishops, or even priests, they are excluded from meetings of the USCC. Catholic lay groups have expressed the view that there is more than one legitimate Catholic position regarding abortion and have even filed briefs in favor of retaining the decision reached in Roe vs. Wade. The bishops, however, are able to draw on a multitude of institutions to further their view and have enhanced the operations of their 28 statewide lobbying offices as the abortion battle has shifted to the states. The Webster decision signaled a return of the bishops to a prominent position in the anti-abortion campaign. Prior to Webster, they kept their distance from the Protestant religious right. With Webster, the bishops felt the time was right to press hard to further restrictions to access to abortion. As they began to apply pressure, a pro-choice backlash developed, with leading Catholic politicians adopting strong pro-choice positions. The bishops reacted by taking such aggressive actions as denouncing certain politicians by name. This

  3. INDONESIAN SALVAGE LAW WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF CONTEMPORARY MARITIME LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiana Puspitawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Located in a strategic position, that is between two great oceans and two land masses have made Indonesia a centre of international trade and shipping. In fact, 90% of international trades are carried out through the ocean. It is therefore crucial to assure that the activities in carrying goods across the ocean are incident free. However, if accident happens, assistance from professionals to preserve items of property is desirable. In such, salvage law emerged. This paper discusses comprehensively Indonesian salvage law within the framework of contemporary maritime law. While Indonesian maritime law is mostly based on its national law on the carriage of goods by the sea, in fact, the development of maritime law is highly affected by international practices which are largely based on international conventions and regulations. This research finds that while Indonesian salvage law can be found in Book II Chapter VII article 545-568k Wetboek Van Koophandel or known as Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Dagang (KUHD, which focused narrowly on the value of salved property as the primary measures of success, yet Indonesian salvage law has not been developed in accordance with current international salvage law, which adopted a broader and more balanced approached in both commercial and environmental aspects. Although it is believed that such approached is “culturally unrecognized” in Indonesia, this research argued that since Indonesian waters are part of international waters, all process by waters including salvage should confirm the relevant international practices and regulations. While Indonesia has taken out salvage law from KUHD and regulates it within Act Number 17/2008 on navigation, however, such act only provides one article for salvage stating that salvage will be regulates further by Ministry Regulation. Untill this paper was written no such government regulation produced yet by Indonesia. Since Indonesian waters is the centre of international

  4. Electicism in Law and Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Arcuri (Alessandra)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAs the popularity of ‘law and economics’ is rapidly increasing, this essay is an invitation to pause and reflect on its methodology. Mainstream law and economics is generally associated with a paradigm that embraces rational choice theory as the theoretical grid that best understands

  5. The Coming Law School Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Michael I.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author explains how forty years of politicized hiring in the law schools has left its destructive mark. The results are potentially catastrophic: Market forces and internal law school policies may be combining to produce a legal education bubble the likes of which the country has never seen. (Contains 11 footnotes.)

  6. Haramaya Law Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Haramaya Law Review (HLR) publishes original scholarly works on any topic relevant to the legal community, including analysis of domestic or international laws and cases, the African Union and other international organizations, challenges and lessons from domestic practice, and original field research.

  7. Twentieth Century Internationalism in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiermann, Ole

    2007-01-01

    , i.e., doubt and insecurity about international law and its basis. Rather than facilitating international law as a practical discipline, a superfi cial understanding of internationalism reinforced fetishisms of the discipline's theoretical past, not least the axiom that states only are proper...

  8. Administrative Law in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Virginia Davis

    1976-01-01

    Noting that in an era of increasing student rights it may be of some value to assess the related legal developments from the view point of administrative law, the following questions are addressed: what is administrative law, how does it apply to education, what are some of its important doctrines, and what significance does it have for student…

  9. Social Change and Criminal Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, C. Ray

    1970-01-01

    The impact of urbanization on criminal law and the extension of law into the area of morality (value systems) are discussed in terms of social control via punishment and deterrence. The impact of the social sciences (psychotherapy, sociology, behavioral science) is covered in terms of social control via rehabilitation and environmental…

  10. Terrorism, Intelligence, and the Law,

    Science.gov (United States)

    stress. Obviously the first line of defense is the law enforcement agencies, and they’re doing a good job. However, the problem of terrorism is so...critical that it cannot be left to the law enforcement agencies alone. Much technology is available, and new technology usually can be developed to deal

  11. Critical Introduction To Natural Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Javier Mosquera Cabrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a comparison between the different editions of the famous work of Hervada, discussed here. The outcome of this analysis arise five new hermeneutical rules that analyze how to interpret positive law or agreement that eventually undermine the natural law. It is also evident that the principles proposed by Hervada are a good basis for general legal hermeneutics.

  12. Interpretation of the Omori Law

    CERN Document Server

    Guglielmi, Anatol V

    2016-01-01

    The known Omori law is presented in the form of differential equation that describes the evolution of the aftershock activity. This equation is derived hypothetically with taking into account deactivation of the faults in epicentral zone of the main shock. A generalization of the Omori law is proposed.

  13. INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN LAW PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriţa FLOREA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We live nowadays a posteriori establishment through institutional treaties and a well-built jurisprudence that set up some of the general treaties. The structure of the European Union as well as the particular nature of the community legal order led to the establishment of some general principles, such as the principle of the institutional balance, the principle of solidarity between member states, the principle of primacy, the principle of the immediate and direct effect of the European law. It is certain that the legal order of the community law has its basis in the legal order of the International public law from which it has continuously delineated. The European communities, as subjects of the International public law are obliged to comply with the general International law, its fundamental principles and its bases, leading to some obligations capable to produce effects in the community legal order. The Court Of Justice of the European Union established as principles applicable in the European law the principles of the International public law, especially when it was called to assert regarding the International relationships of the Community as well as those of the 28 member states, confirming in the matter of the applicability of the treaties, the pacta sunt servanda rule, the principle of the good faith, the legitimate faith or the rebus sic standibus exception, all of them belonging to the custom International law.

  14. Law and Morals. Prolegomena (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae V. DURĂ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the pages of this study we have emphasized the relation between Law and Morals, between what is just and in just, talking thus not only about the nature of the Law and of the Morals, but also about the relation between the juridical norms and the moral principles. An evaluation of the historical process of the emergence of Law and Morals – be it brief – has enabled us to notice that the Law has evolved step by step from the Moral norms and from the customs of a moral nature, hence the conclusion that the positive juridical norms should also express, in their content, values of a moral nature. In fact, from an ontological point of view, between Law and Morals could not be a divorce, since the notions of “righteousness” and of “justice” themselves are categories of Morals. That is why the theory of juridical positivism, according to which the rule of Law can exist in the absence of Morals since the state is the only source of Law, has no credibility both from a historical and philosophical and from a juridical point of view. Finally, the increasingly higher interest of the philosophers and jurists of our time to perceive and express the content of the nature of Law adequately and, ipso facto, the relation between this one and Morals, was also determined by the international and European legislation regarding the human fundamental rights and liberties.

  15. Law and Morals. Prolegomena (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae V. DURĂ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the pages of this study we have emphasized the relation between Law and Morals, between what is just and in just, talking thus not only about the nature of the Law and of the Morals, but also about the relation between the juridical norms and the moral principles. An evaluation of the historical process of the emergence of Law and Morals – be it brief – has enabled us to notice that the Law has evolved step by step from the Moral norms and from the customs of a moral nature, hence the conclusion that the positive juridical norms should also express, in their content, values of a moral nature. In fact, from an ontological point of view, between Law and Morals could not be a divorce, since the notions of “righteousness” and of “justice” themselves are categories of Morals. That is why the theory of juridical positivism, according to which the rule of Law can exist in the absence of Morals since the state is the only source of Law, has no credibility both from a historical and philosophical and from a juridical point of view. Finally, the increasingly higher interest of the philosophers and jurists of our time to perceive and express the content of the nature of Law adequately and, ipso facto, the relation between this one and Morals, was also determined by the international and European legislation regarding the human fundamental rights and liberties.

  16. Law and Protestantism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamm, Ditlev

    2016-01-01

    This contribution deals with the influence of the Reformation on the law in Denmark. The Reformation was basically a reform of the church, but it also affected the concept of law and state in general. In 1536, King Christian III dismissed the catholic bishops and withheld the property of the chur...

  17. International law and communicable diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2002-01-01

    Historically, international law has played a key role in global communicable disease surveillance. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation-states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, communicable diseases have continued to re-shape the boun...

  18. Economic inequality and labour law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zekic, Nuna

    2017-01-01

    This contribution explores the ways in which labour law is related to economic inequality. Its main proposition is that labour law plays a valuable role in the ‘socially corrected’ market economy. The question is whether its role is still influential enough. The declining role of trade unions and

  19. Reflections on international medical law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattad, Mohammed S; Hrevtsova, Radmyla Yu

    2011-12-01

    Does international medical law exist, in the first place, as an independent area of study? If so, is it urgently required in an era of comparative studies? Namely, to what extent, if at all, international studies differ from comparative ones? Besides, what are the particular characteristics of such international discipline? Namely, what are the particular features of this field that elaborate on our legal and scientific understanding in sketching possible definition for this notion of "international medical law?" In addition, how does international medical law correlate with health, ethics and health policies in our globalized world? And finally, what are the challenges that might face the international community, once the concept of "international medical law" is acknowledged? This papers aims at establishing the conceptual grounds for these questions, thus calling for the acknowledgment of a new field of study described as "international medical law".

  20. Scaling Laws in Human Language

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Zipf's law on word frequency is observed in English, French, Spanish, Italian, and so on, yet it does not hold for Chinese, Japanese or Korean characters. A model for writing process is proposed to explain the above difference, which takes into account the effects of finite vocabulary size. Experiments, simulations and analytical solution agree well with each other. The results show that the frequency distribution follows a power law with exponent being equal to 1, at which the corresponding Zipf's exponent diverges. Actually, the distribution obeys exponential form in the Zipf's plot. Deviating from the Heaps' law, the number of distinct words grows with the text length in three stages: It grows linearly in the beginning, then turns to a logarithmical form, and eventually saturates. This work refines previous understanding about Zipf's law and Heaps' law in language systems.

  1. [Society, law and epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Gómez, F; Fernández-Miranda, M C

    2002-09-01

    Epilepsy is an important problem from a medical, social and legal point of view. Proof of this is the fact that it constitutes the second most commonly alleged cause for absolution of responsibility in Spain, according to the jurisprudence from the Supreme Court (1976 1995). Throughout history it has been classified as a magical, supernatural disease and has been studied within psychiatry as an endogenous psychosis. It has therefore been considered a form of madness, which has led to court decisions that have taken this concept into account. The supposed dangerousness of suffers from epilepsy must be the exception, and their supposed epileptic characters and personalities that drive them to commit atrocious murders are no longer of any relevance. The problems stemming from epileptic seizures are to be seen in civil, penal, military, canonical and labour law, very often in an exclusive fashion. We think it is worthwhile reviewing these concepts with a view to their undergoing a later modification, which would lead to the full integration of these patients and to their being considered as suffering from a neurological illness.

  2. State aid in the EU law and national law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to emphasized negative implications, state aid in contemporary law is more and more the subject of legal rules of supra-national and international law, and consequently it is more and more frequently the subject of national laws. The systems of state aid are based on the principle of general non-allowedness of state aid, which is relativised with wide exceptions and the form of allowed and conditionally allowed forms of state aid. In the EU law, a complex and differentiated system of legal regime on state aid is created aimed at preventing the Member States to protect or promote their companies at the expense or harm of competition within the EU. Compared to the regulations that refer to subsidies and that are created at the international level, within the WTO, these regulations are much more detailed and they cover a wide spectrum of different forms of state aid. National laws are accepting the EU concept as a novelty, which is valid in particular for countries in the process of the EU integrations. This has been done in our law as well by enacting of the Law on state aid control. This Law regulates general conditions for granting, granting control, and utilization of state assistance, with the essential objective to establish and provide for competitive market conditions and introduction of order in the field that has not been regulated previously. At the same time, this means a successful fulfillment of the obligations related to pre-accession harmonization of this field, which is a necessary pre-condition for accession of our country into this group of countries since the EU standards and requirements have been fully observed with the above-mentioned Law.

  3. Anomalies of larval and juvenile shortnose and lost river suckers in upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Larval and juvenile shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) and Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) suckers from Upper Klamath Lake, OR, were examined to determine anomaly...

  4. Ship Sensor Observations for Lost City 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown during the "Lost City 2005" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and...

  5. Visibly marked and microchipped lost dogs have a higher chance to find their owners in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Vučinić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the demographic characteristics of lost and found dogs in Belgrade, Serbia. The demographic data concerning the 246 lost and 81 found dogs in the period of 5 consecutive years (January, 2009 to January 2014 was sampled and analysed from the data bases of four organizations for animal protection in Belgrade. The recovery rate of lost dogs and the chance to be reunited again with their owners was 33%. The highest recovery rate was estimated in the category of lost dogs with visible marks such as tags or collars (30%.The chi-square test disclosed that besides dogs with special visible marks, significantly more females, light colour coated, friendly/sociable and neutered dogs were reunited with their owners (P<0.0001.

  6. Divorce by consent in Roman law and contemporary law

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatović Marija; Kitanović Tanja

    2013-01-01

    The subject matter of this paper is divorce by mutual consent in Roman law and contemporary law. In the first part of this article, the authors analyzes the key tenets of consensual divorce in Roman law, with specific reference to the impact of Christian religious teaching on the concepts of marriage and divorce as well as on the Roman rulers' constitutions, which marked the beginning of the process of restricting the right to divorce. In the central part of the paper, the authors examines th...

  7. "A calorie is a calorie" violates the second law of thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Eugene J

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The principle of "a calorie is a calorie," that weight change in hypocaloric diets is independent of macronutrient composition, is widely held in the popular and technical literature, and is frequently justified by appeal to the laws of thermodynamics. We review here some aspects of thermodynamics that bear on weight loss and the effect of macronutrient composition. The focus is the so-called metabolic advantage in low-carbohydrate diets – greater weight loss compared to isocaloric diets of different composition. Two laws of thermodynamics are relevant to the systems considered in nutrition and, whereas the first law is a conservation (of energy law, the second is a dissipation law: something (negative entropy is lost and therefore balance is not to be expected in diet interventions. Here, we propose that a misunderstanding of the second law accounts for the controversy about the role of macronutrient effect on weight loss and we review some aspects of elementary thermodynamics. We use data in the literature to show that thermogenesis is sufficient to predict metabolic advantage. Whereas homeostasis ensures balance under many conditions, as a general principle, "a calorie is a calorie" violates the second law of thermodynamics.

  8. Lost Ecosystem Goods and Services as a Measure of Marine Oil Pollution Damages

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, James

    2010-01-01

    The paper addresses the definition and measurement of liability for marine oil pollution accidents. The economic value of lost or injured ecosystem goods and services is argued to be the most legally, economically, and ecologically defensible measure of damages. This is easier said than done, however. Calculating lost ecological wealth with any precision is an enormous scientific and economic undertaking. The paper proposes practical ways to improve our future ability to calculate such losses.

  9. The significance of presenteeism for the value of lost production: the case of rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Søgaard, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    Rikke Søgaard1, Jan Sørensen1, Louise Linde2, Merete L Hetland2,31CAST – Centre for Applied Health Services Research and Technology Assessment, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark; 2Department of Rheumatology, Hvidovre and Glostrup Hospitals, Denmark; 3The DANBIO registry, Hvidovre and Glostrup Hospitals, DenmarkAbstract: Lost production can be due to individuals’ time lost to work (absenteeism), as well as their time at work with reduced producti...

  10. Ductile cast iron obtaining by Inmold method with use of LOST FOAM process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pacyniak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of manufacturing of ductile cast iron castings by Inmold method with use of LOST FOAM process was presented in this work. The spheroidization was carried out by magnesium master alloy in amounts of 1% casting mass. Nodulizer was located in the reactive chamber in the gating system made of foamed polystyrene. Pretests showed, that there are technical possibilities of manufacturing of casts from ductile cast iron in the LOST FOAM process with use of spheroidization in mould.

  11. Law: protection of the unborn child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, J

    1983-04-20

    Under the provisions of the UK's Congenital Disabilities (Civil Liability) Act 1976 a duty of care is owed to an unborn child via his/her mother, and, although not conclusively settled, a duty of care is probably owed to an unborn child in common law, that is independent of the statute. Thus, it is clear that the law protects the child before birth in the form of an action for damages brought on his/her behalf in respect of disabilities caused during the mother's pregnancy by someone's negligence. In certain cases the law also allows the lives of unborn children to be terminated at some time before birth, or, more precisely, until such time as the unborn child is capable of being born alive. The age at which a child can be born alive is a question of fact and "bona fide" medical evidence in each case. Children who are capable of a live birth are protected under a 1929 Act of Parliament which makes it a serious criminal offense to kill an unborn child who is capable of being born alive. The practice is often either ignored or overlooked, but this vitally important statute should not be forgotten. The offense referred to must be distinguished from the offense of abortion. Staff nurse Karen Smith needs to remember this if she becomes involved in abortions. There are circumstances in which abortion is permitted by law but this is not the same as saying that abortion is lawful. It is necessary to return to 1st principles relating to the law's protection of human life and its provision for the criminal punishment of those who offended against those principles. Subject to certain exceptions, it is murder by a deliberate act to cause or accelerate the death of a person who is "in being." From a legal perspective, this is distinguished as the deliberate ending of the life of someone before their birth. That it is not murder is not because of the fact that the unborn are not "human." Rather it is because they are not yet "in being." In the words of the Infant Life

  12. IN MY OPINION: Farewell Boyle's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    2000-05-01

    A one-time colleague of mine taught English with great success and went on to become a prize-winning author of children's books. Then he went on even further and much more lucratively as a notorious author of adult novels - merely to describe would be infelicitous within the chaste pages of this austere journal. As a party piece, and without too much prompting, he would recite with complete accuracy Boyle's Law. This is all that remained of his exposure to physics during an expensively private education. It is doubtful that this ability represented the tip of an iceberg of solid if not well organized knowledge. It was more like the smile of Lewis Carroll's Cheshire Cat: the final enigmatic vestige of a vanishing abstraction. And like the Cheshire Cat Boyle's Law has now disappeared from the new version of the English and Welsh National Curriculum at GCSE level. However, in the currently obsolescent version Boyle's Law was indeed more like the smile than the cat: it had no hinterland. I remember the difficulty we had in fitting this vestige into a coherent GCSE course. It had no other gas laws to keep it company, or a kinetic theory to provide an environment. In the end we were quietly pleased that we could tack it on to Newtonian physics in the context of vehicle safety as being relevant to airbags and tyres. This isolation was, I guess, one reason for cutting out the Law, although the new version of the National Curriculum made other cuts to the content. There was a feeling perhaps that it is better for students to have a deeper understanding of fewer things than a superficial acquaintance with more. The danger here is that what is left is rather like the body of an overweight person who has used a carving knife as a weight-reducing instrument. Weight loss is assured but the outcome has its drawbacks. I doubt if my friend ever made much practical use of a knowledge of Boyle's Law, and its replacement by Charles' or Ohm's would have made no difference. `No Man is

  13. Laws on Robots, Laws by Robots, Laws in Robots : Regulating Robot Behaviour by Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenes, R.E.; Lucivero, F.

    2015-01-01

    Speculation about robot morality is almost as old as the concept of a robot itself. Asimov’s three laws of robotics provide an early and well-discussed example of moral rules robots should observe. Despite the widespread influence of the three laws of robotics and their role in shaping visions of

  14. The impact of temperature on years of life lost in Brisbane, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunrui; Barnett, Adrian G.; Wang, Xiaoming; Tong, Shilu

    2012-04-01

    Temperature is an important determinant of health. A better knowledge of how temperature affects population health is important not only to the scientific community, but also to the decision-makers who develop and implement early warning systems and intervention strategies to mitigate the health effects of extreme temperatures. The temperature-health relationship is also of growing interest as climate change is projected to shift the overall temperature distribution higher. Previous studies have examined the relative risks of temperature-related mortality, but the absolute measure of years of life lost is also useful as it combines the number of deaths with life expectancy. Here we use years of life lost to provide a novel measure of the impact of temperature on mortality in Brisbane, Australia. We also project the future temperature-related years of life lost attributable to climate change. We show that the association between temperature and years of life lost is U-shaped, with increased years of life lost for cold and hot temperatures. The temperature-related years of life lost will worsen greatly if future climate change goes beyond a 2°C increase and without any adaptation to higher temperatures. This study highlights that public health adaptation to climate change is necessary.

  15. Working with low back pain: workplace and individual psychosocial determinants of limited duty and lost time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, M; Berkowitz, S M; Haufler, A J; Lopez, M S; Huang, G D

    2001-12-01

    Few studies have identified the risk factors associated with lost time in employees working with occupational low back pain (OLBP) despite the presence of pain. Such data could assist in the development of evidenced-based secondary prevention programs. The present investigation was a case-control study (n = 421) of demographic, health behavior, ergonomic, workplace and individual psychosocial factors hypothesized to be associated with lost time in young, full-time employees (i.e., soldiers) with OLBP. Analyses of the burden of OLBP in terms of the number of days on limited duty and lost time status were also computed. Logistic regression analysis indicated that female gender, education beyond HS/GED, longer time working in military, higher levels of daily life worries, no support from others, higher levels of ergonomic exposure, stressful work, increased peer cohesion, and greater perceived effort at work placed a worker at a greater likelihood for OLBP-related lost work time. Lower levels of innovation, involvement, and supervisor support were also associated with lost time. Linear regression indicated that the number of days of lost time and limited duty was associated with lower levels of physical health and higher levels of symptom severity. The results support the potential utility of interventions targeting ergonomic, workplace and individual psychosocial risk factors in secondary prevention. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  16. A 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'? Poor Law, Lunacy Law and Scotland's parochial asylums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    Scotland's parochial asylums are unfamiliar institutional spaces. Representing the concrete manifestation of the collision between two spheres of legislation, the Poor Law and the Lunacy Law, six such asylums were constructed in the latter half of the nineteenth century. These sites expressed the enduring mandate of the Scottish Poor Law 1845 over the domain of 'madness'. They were institutions whose very existence was fashioned at the directive of the local arm of the Poor Law, the parochial board, and they constituted a continuing 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'. Their origins and operation significantly subverted the intentions and objectives of the Lunacy Act 1857, the aim of which had been to institute a public district asylum network with nationwide coverage.

  17. Are Local Laws the Key to Ending Childhood Lead Poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfmacher, Katrina S.; Hanley, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Although lead paint was banned by federal law in 1978, it continues to poison children living in homes built before that time. The lifelong effects of childhood exposure to even small amounts of lead are well established by medical research and include learning and behavior problems, hypertension, osteoporosis, and kidney disease. Federal and state laws have reduced rates of lead poisoning significantly in the past three decades. However, pockets of high rates of lead poisoning remain, primarily in low-income urban neighborhoods with older housing stock. Recently, several municipalities have passed local lead laws in an attempt to reduce lead hazards in these remaining areas. There has been no systematic attempt to compare the design and effectiveness of these local policies. To address this gap, we conducted comparative case studies of eight innovative lead laws promulgated since 2010. The laws used a wide variety of legal structures and tools, although certain elements were common. The impact of the policies was intertwined with local housing, economic, and legal environments. While data do not yet exist to systematically evaluate the impact on lead poisoning rates, our analysis suggests that local laws hold great promise for reducing lead hazards in children’s homes. PMID:23645870

  18. Legal Reform and Women’s Rights in Lebanese Personal Status Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Dabbous, Dima

    2017-01-01

    This report documents and analyzes two recent major reforms in Lebanese law whose purpose is to further gender equality for women in Lebanon: ( I ) the alteration of the Sunni personal status law to allow mothers to keep their children with them for a longer time following divorce and ( II ) the promulgation of Law no. 293 of 2014, which deals with domestic violence. The first reform relates to the religiously based, personal status laws that control major aspects of a woman’s life in Lebanon...

  19. Law Enforcement Proxies Matter for the Law and Finance Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Toci

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper employs various measures of law enforcement to provide new evidence on the importance of legal institutions for different dimensions of financial development in transition economies. It offers a critical assessment of law enforcement measures employed in recent studies by showing that some proxies for law enforcement in the credit market may not be appropriate. Hence, care should be taken in how the quality of institutions is measured and the context which it represents. An original approach to measuring law enforcement in the credit market is developed by embodying the legal theory of dispute resolution and assessing this approach by collecting primary data for Kosovo. The findings suggest that Kosovo compares well with countries in the region and other transition economies in terms of the enforcement of creditor rights.

  20. Divorce by consent in Roman law and contemporary law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is divorce by mutual consent in Roman law and contemporary law. In the first part of this article, the authors analyzes the key tenets of consensual divorce in Roman law, with specific reference to the impact of Christian religious teaching on the concepts of marriage and divorce as well as on the Roman rulers' constitutions, which marked the beginning of the process of restricting the right to divorce. In the central part of the paper, the authors examines the regulation on the consensual divorce in some contemporary legal systems. In addition, the authors provides a substantial analysis of the normative framework on the termination of marriage in the positive Serbian legislation. In the final part of the paper, the authors provides a comparative analysis and underscores the observed similarities and differenced in the regulation of the institute of consensual divorce in Roman law and in the contemporary legislation.