Full Text Available The general research question of the present study was to assess the impact of visually salient online adverts on children's task-oriented internet use. In order to answer this question, an experimental study was constructed in which 9-year-old and 12-year-old Swedish children were asked to solve a number of tasks while interacting with a mockup website. In each trial, web adverts in several saliency conditions were presented. By both measuring children's task accuracy, as well as the visual processing involved in solving these tasks, this study allows us to infer how two types of visual saliency affect children's attentional behavior, and whether such behavioral effects also impacts their task performance. Analyses show that low-level visual features and task relevance in online adverts have different effects on performance measures and process measures respectively. Whereas task performance is stable with regard to several advert saliency conditions, a marked effect is seen on children's gaze behavior. On the other hand, task performance is shown to be more sensitive to individual differences such as age, gender and level of gaze control. The results provide evidence about cognitive and behavioral distraction effects in children's task-oriented internet use caused by visual saliency in online adverts. The experiment suggests that children to some extent are able to compensate for behavioral effects caused by distracting visual stimuli when solving prospective memory tasks. Suggestions are given for further research into the interdiciplinary area between media research and cognitive science.
Holmberg, Nils; Sandberg, Helena; Holmqvist, Kenneth
The general research question of the present study was to assess the impact of visually salient online adverts on children's task-oriented internet use. In order to answer this question, an experimental study was constructed in which 9- and 12-year-old Swedish children were asked to solve a number of tasks while interacting with a mockup website. In each trial, web adverts in several saliency conditions were presented. By both measuring children's task accuracy, as well as the visual processing involved in solving these tasks, this study allows us to infer how two types of visual saliency affect children's attentional behavior, and whether such behavioral effects also impacts their task performance. Analyses show that low-level visual features and task relevance in online adverts have different effects on performance measures and process measures respectively. Whereas task performance is stable with regard to several advert saliency conditions, a marked effect is seen on children's gaze behavior. On the other hand, task performance is shown to be more sensitive to individual differences such as age, gender and level of gaze control. The results provide evidence about cognitive and behavioral distraction effects in children's task-oriented internet use caused by visual saliency in online adverts. The experiment suggests that children to some extent are able to compensate for behavioral effects caused by distracting visual stimuli when solving prospective memory tasks. Suggestions are given for further research into the interdiciplinary area between media research and cognitive science. PMID:24575057
The general research question of the present study was to assess the impact of visually salient online adverts on children's task-oriented internet use. In order to answer this question, an experimental study was constructed in which 9-year-old and 12-year-old Swedish children were asked to solve a number of tasks while interacting with a mockup website. In each trial, web adverts in several saliency conditions were presented. By both measuring children's task accuracy, as well as the visual ...
Giezen, Marcel R.; Escudero, Paola; Baker, Anne E.
This study investigates the role of acoustic salience and hearing impairment in learning phonologically minimal pairs. Picture-matching and object-matching tasks were used to investigate the learning of consonant and vowel minimal pairs in five- to six-year-old deaf children with a cochlear implant (CI), and children of the same age with normal…
Gaither, Sarah E.; Chen, Eva E.; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R.
Children prefer learning from, and affiliating with, their racial in-group but those preferences may vary for biracial children. Monoracial (White, Black, Asian) and biracial (Black/White, Asian/White) children (N = 246, 3-8 years) had their racial identity primed. In a learning preferences task, participants determined the function of a novel…
Mack, Nancy K.
This article describes how research on children's geometric thinking was used in conjunction with the picture book "The Greedy Triangle" to gain valuable insights into children's prior geometric knowledge of polygons. Exercises focused on the names, visual appearance, and properties of polygons, as well as real-world connections for each, are…
Full Text Available Because saliency can be used as the prior knowledge of image content, saliency detection has been an active research area in image segmentation, object detection, image semantic understanding and other relevant image-based applications. In the case of saliency detection from cluster scenes, the salient object/region detected needs to not only be distinguished clearly from the background, but, preferably, to also be informative in terms of complete contour and local texture details to facilitate the successive processing. In this paper, a Local Texture-based Region Sparse Histogram (LTRSH model is proposed for saliency detection from cluster scenes. This model uses a combination of local texture patterns and color distribution as well as contour information to encode the superpixels to characterize the local feature of image for region contrast computing. Combining the region contrast as computed with the global saliency probability, a full-resolution salient map, in which the salient object/region detected adheres more closely to its inherent feature, is obtained on the bases of the corresponding high-level saliency spatial distribution as well as on the pixel-level saliency enhancement. Quantitative comparisons with five state-of-the-art saliency detection methods on benchmark datasets are carried out, and the comparative results show that the method we propose improves the detection performance in terms of corresponding measurements.
Guo, Ying; Piasta, Shayne B.; Bowles, Ryan P.
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to describe children's science content knowledge and examine the early predictors of science content knowledge in a sample of 194 typically developing preschool children. Children's science content knowledge was assessed in the fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) of the preschool year.…
The article explores how children use different types of knowledge of place to make sense of their relations to other children. The participants are children aged 11-12 in a small town in southern Sweden. The methodology used is place mapping with group interviews. A significant outcome is that the children connect emplaced and spatial knowledge…
A level-k model based on a specific salience-pattern is the only model in the literature that accounts for behaviour in hide-and-seek games. This paper presents nine different experiments designed to measure salience. The elicited salience patterns tend to be similar, but none of them is similar to the pattern needed to allow the level-k model explain the hide-and-seek data. When based on any of the empirical salience measures, the salience-based level-k model does not fit the data well. p...
Jones, Elaine; Badger, Terry
Data from 80 deaf children and 190 hearing children, ages 5-15, indicated that there were no intergroup differences on the Draw-a-Person Test; deaf children in successively older age groups knew more internal body parts than younger subjects; and deaf children knew less about internal body parts than hearing children. (Author/JDD)
Ferrari, Lea; Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Santilli, Sara; Nota, Laura; Sgaramella, Teresa Maria; Soresi, Salvatore
We explored the perception and actual occupational knowledge of jobs on career exploration across Holland's categories in 60 elementary and 60 middle school students. Results showed a closer relationship between career exploration and actual knowledge than children's perception of knowledge. We found higher levels of actual knowledge and…
Bordalo, Pedro; Gennaioli, Nicola; Shleifer, Andrei
We present a simple model of asset pricing in which payoff salience drives investors' demand for risky assets. The key implication is that extreme payoffs receive disproportionate weight in the market valuation of assets. The model accounts for several puzzles in finance in an intuitive way, including preference for assets with a chance of very high payoffs, an aggregate equity premium, and countercyclical variation in stock market returns.
Full Text Available Numerous studies have suggested that the deployment of attention is linked to saliency. In contrast, very little is known about how salient objects are perceived. To probe the perception of salient elements, observers compared two horizontally aligned stimuli in an array of eight elements. One of them was salient because of its orientation or direction of motion. We observed that the perceived luminance contrast or color saturation of the salient element increased: the salient stimulus looked even more salient. We explored the possibility that changes in appearance were caused by attention. We chose an event-related potential indexing attentional selection, the N2pc, to answer this question. The absence of an N2pc to the salient object provides preliminary evidence against involuntary attentional capture by the salient element. We suggest that signals from a master saliency map flow back into individual feature maps. These signals boost the perceived feature contrast of salient objects, even on perceptual dimensions different from the one that initially defined saliency.
Venville, Grady J.; Louisell, Robert D.; Wilhelm, Jennifer A.
The purpose of this research was to use a multidimensional theoretical framework to examine young children's knowledge about the Moon. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and the design was a multiple case study of ten children between the ages of three and eight from the USA and Australia. A detailed, semi-structured interview…
Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Bigand, Emmanuel; Poulin-Charronnat, Benedicte; Garnier, Cecilia; Stevens, Catherine
Three experiments examined children's knowledge of harmony in Western music. The children heard a series of chords followed by a final, target chord. In Experiment 1, French 6- and 11-year-olds judged whether the target was sung with the vowel /i/ or /u/. In Experiment 2, Australian 8- and 11-year-olds judged whether the target was played on a…
Lin, Wei; Yang, Hsiao-Chi; Hang, Chi-Ming; Pan, Wen-Harn
The purpose of this study is to understand nutrition knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Taiwanese elementary school children, and the relationship of these various components. The results indicated that children's knowledge was fair in nutrition basics, but poor in 'the physiological function of nutrients', 'relationships between diet/nutrients and disease', and 'the daily serving requirement for different food groups'. Children in general valued the importance of nutrition, but they did not concern the health benefit of foods in food selections. Their dietary quality was not satisfactory, and the diet of most children did not meet the recommended serving requirements for milk, vegetable, fruit, and cereals and grains groups. Positive relationships were found among nutrition knowledge, attitude, caring- about-nutrition behavior and dietary quality score. The restraint or disinhibited eating behavior of 4th to 6th graders was not serious, but a large number of children already performed some self-controlling practices to avoid obesity, but not frequently. One fourth of the students skipped meals, especially breakfast, and one quarter of 4th to 6th graders prepared their own breakfast; which may have some impact on children's diet quality. A gap was found between nutrition knowledge, attitude and eating behavior, especially vegetable and fruit consumption, indicating that the attitude toward eating for health was not strong in this age group. Future nutrition education for school children should not only include food serving requirements of food groups, but also apply appropriate theories to improve the motivation for healthy eating. PMID:17723993
Neuman, Susan B.; Roskos, Kathleen
With the adoption of the Common Core State Standards, curriculum resources are shifting from an emphasis on literary texts to a greater focus on informational texts. Although we need to understand the intention of these new Common Core State Standards, and the important drive toward greater content knowledge for all students, we must be wary of…
Yahaya, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan; Salam, Sobihatun Nur Abdul
This paper presents an example of how usability design strategies for children can be designed into educational material using CD-ROM based multimedia application for assisting parents and teachers to develop children's learning and knowledge in decreasing as well as motivate children aged 7-9 years old to reduce their anxious feelings towards…
Gleaves, Alan; Walker, Caroline
This study examines the effects of formative assessment feedback commentaries utilizing textual and aural media on the quality of knowledge elaboration within the written work of a sample of 104 higher education students. A randomized, mixed methodological approach was adopted that examined changes within the students' work over a period of one…
Junia Maria Serra-Negra; Debora Tirsa-Costa; Flavia H Guimarães; Saul Martins Paiva; Isabela Almeida Pordeus
Background/Aim: Bruxism is the habitual, involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth that affects both children and adults. The aim of the present study was to assess the level of knowledge parents/guardians have about the bruxism of their children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was developed for 221 parents/guardians of patients of the pediatric dentist in the Faculty of Dentistry of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A ...
The results show that there are numerous aspects of children asthma management in Iran which are not consistent with standardized guidelines and recommendations. This survey and the attained information suggest areas for interventions to improve the pediatricians' knowledge about asthma and the disease management.
Recall, knowledge, and preference for masculine and feminine items were tested in 40 American, 5- and 8-year-old white boys and girls from working and professional middle class families. Children recalled, knew, and preferred same-sex items significantly more than opposite-sex items. Girls' scores were less rigidly sex-typed than boys'. Older…
Full Text Available Objective: An attempt to determine the level of knowledge of teachers in the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of psychomotor disorders of schoolchildren. Materials and methods: 174 teachers of physical education and integrated education in primary schools were tested. The study used questionnaire technique. Results: As the most common disorders in the population of school-age children surveyed teachers list ADHD (30% and dyslexia (30%. Only 34% of respondents correctly determined epidemiology of psychomotor disorders and listed their symptoms. Over 80% of respondents claimed that they had never worked with children exhibiting psychomotor disorders. The majority of respondents (98% did not participate in training on working with children with developmental disabilities. Results: The state of knowledge of psychomotor disorders of the surveyed teachers is low. Teachers have difficulty not only in defining the epidemiology of various disorders but also in correct definition of symptoms full spectrum.
Michal Hemmo-Lotem; Jacob Urkin; Liri Endy-Findling; Joav Merrick
The objective of this study was to assess the level of parental car safety knowledge and actual behavior regarding their children under the age of 15 years. This study forms part of the National Center for Child Safety and Health in Israel (Beterem) program to examine awareness on child safety. Seven hundred and five Jewish families with at least one child at home younger than 15 years (a total of 1,345 children) were used as a randomized sample of the Jewish population. A telephone survey wa...
Al-Saleh, Yousef; Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alfawaz, Hanan; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M.; Alokail, Majed S; Chrousos, George P
Background The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia is rising unexpectedly in every age group. Apart from several risk factors, the lack of awareness is posing a serious threat for low vitamin D levels in children as well. The aim of our study was to compare the knowledge and status of vitamin D in Saudi school children. Methods Saudi students, 1188 boys (15.1 ± 2.2 years) and 1038 girls (15.1 ± 2.0 years), were recruited and a pre-designed questionnaire with rega...
Ralf van der Lans; Rik Pieters; Michel Wedel
Brand salience—the extent to which a brand visually stands out from its competitors—is vital in competing on the shelf, yet is not easy to achieve in practice. This study proposes a methodology to determine the competitive salience of brands, based on a model of visual search and eye-movement recordings collected during a brand search experiment. We estimate brand salience at the point of purchase, based on perceptual features (color, luminance, edges) and how these are influenced by consumer...
Jaidev Mangalore; Sharanya Yesudasan; Rashmi,; Sharon Maria; Anil; Pavan
As there are only limited studies on the knowledge and perception about epilepsy, we undertook this study among school teachers with a pilot tested questainnaire 36% had no knowledge and just over half of them (56%) believed that epilepsy can be cured while 40% of them felt that children suffering from epilepsy could be allowed to play without supervision of a responsible adult. A littl e over a quarter of them still believed in placing a key in the child’s palm when ...
Laws, Glynis; Briscoe, Josie; Ang, Su-Yin; Brown, Heather; Hermena, Ehab; Kapikian, Anna
Receptive vocabulary and associated semantic knowledge were compared within and between groups of children with specific language impairment (SLI), children with Down syndrome (DS), and typically developing children. To overcome the potential confounding effects of speech or language difficulties on verbal tests of semantic knowledge, a novel task was devised based on picture-based semantic association tests used to assess adult patients with semantic dementia. Receptive vocabulary, measured by word-picture matching, of children with SLI was weak relative to chronological age and to nonverbal mental age but their semantic knowledge, probed across the same lexical items, did not differ significantly from that of vocabulary-matched typically developing children. By contrast, although receptive vocabulary of children with DS was a relative strength compared to nonverbal cognitive abilities (p vocabulary and depth of semantic knowledge. Overall, these data challenge the integrity of semantic-conceptual development in DS and imply that contemporary theories of semantic cognition should also seek to incorporate evidence from atypical conceptual development. PMID:24830646
Shi, Jianping; Yan, Qiong; Xu, Li; Jia, Jiaya
Complex structures commonly exist in natural images. When an image contains small-scale high-contrast patterns either in the background or foreground, saliency detection could be adversely affected, resulting erroneous and non-uniform saliency assignment. The issue forms a fundamental challenge for prior methods. We tackle it from a scale point of view and propose a multi-layer approach to analyze saliency cues. Different from varying patch sizes or downsizing images, we measure region-based scales. The final saliency values are inferred optimally combining all the saliency cues in different scales using hierarchical inference. Through our inference model, single-scale information is selected to obtain a saliency map. Our method improves detection quality on many images that cannot be handled well traditionally. We also construct an extended Complex Scene Saliency Dataset (ECSSD) to include complex but general natural images. PMID:26959676
Kooiker, Marlou J G; van der Steen, Johannes; Pel, Johan J M
Development of visuospatial attention can be quantified from infancy onward using visually-guided eye movement responses. We investigated the interaction between eye movement response times and salience in target areas of visual stimuli over age in a cohort of typically developing children. A preferential looking (PL) paradigm consisting of stimuli with six different visual modalities (cartoons, contrast, form, local motion, color, global motion) was combined with the automated measurement of reflexive eye movements. Effective salience was defined as visual salience of each target area relative to its background. Three classes of PL stimuli were used: with high- (cartoon, contrast), intermediate- (local motion, form), and low-effective salience (global motion, color). Eye movement response times to the target areas of the six PL stimuli were nonverbally assessed in 220 children aged 1-12 years. The development of response times with age was influenced by effective salience: Response times to targets with high salience reached stable values earlier in development (around 4 years of age) than to targets with low salience (around 9 years of age). Intra-individual response time variability was highest for low-salient stimuli, and stabilized later (around 4 years) than for highly salient stimuli (2 years). The improvement of eye movement response times to visual modalities in PL stimuli occurred earlier in development for highly salient than for low-salient targets. The present age-dependent and salience-related results provide a quantitative and theoretical framework to assess the development of visuospatial attention, and of related visual processing capacities, in children from 1 year of age. PMID:26998802
Junia Maria Serra-Negra
Full Text Available Background/Aim: Bruxism is the habitual, involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth that affects both children and adults. The aim of the present study was to assess the level of knowledge parents/guardians have about the bruxism of their children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was developed for 221 parents/guardians of patients of the pediatric dentist in the Faculty of Dentistry of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A previously tested questionnaire, based on the criteria of the American Association of Sleep Medicine (AASM, was used to collect data from the participants in the waiting room of the clinics involved. Descriptive analysis was elaborated and the chi-squared test was applied (level of significance of 5% using statistical software SPSS 17.0. Results: The majority of the participants were mothers of the patients (84.2%. The mean age of the parents/guardians was 36.6 years. The mean age of children was 7.6 years. In total, 76.6% of the mothers, 40.2% of the fathers, and 48% of the children reported having bruxism. The participants believed that bruxism was associated with emotional factors (63.8% and/or mystical factors (20.4%. The majority reported having sought help from doctors (54.4%, followed by mystics (20.4% and dentists (19.1%. A statistically significant association was found between bruxism and children with restless sleep (P < 0.001 and in cases where both the parents and children were affected by bruxism (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Families require greater clarification regarding the factors that trigger bruxism.
This article considers the implications of the tax salience literature for the United Kingdom. First, the different categories, and definitions, of tax salience that have developed in the literature are reviewed, and some of the prescriptive implications of these terms are introduced. Tax salience refers, essentially, to the capacity of taxpayers to understand legislation. Thus, the potential reasons behind tax complexity and the potential beneficiaries of it are addressed. The article consid...
The technological knowledge the children bring with them into early childhood settings is not well documented or understood. This article discusses the technological knowledge and understanding of the nature of technology present within children's collaborative play in two New Zealand early childhood settings. The children incorporated a wide…
Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo
The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…
Eves, Anita; Bielby, Gill; Egan, Bernadette; Lumbers, Margaret; Raats, Monique; Adams, Martin
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine knowledge of food hygiene amongst young children (5-7 years), and facilitators and barriers to application of knowledge. Few studies exist that explore the knowledge and attitudes of young children towards food hygiene. This is an important age group, as it is a time when attitudes and…
Zhang, Jun; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Shengping; Li, Xuelong; Wu, Xindong
Visual saliency is one of the most noteworthy perceptual abilities of human vision. Recent progress in cognitive psychology suggests that: 1) visual saliency analysis is mainly completed by the bottom-up mechanism consisting of feedforward low-level processing in primary visual cortex (area V1) and 2) color interacts with spatial cues and is influenced by the neighborhood context, and thus it plays an important role in a visual saliency analysis. From a computational perspective, the most existing saliency modeling approaches exploit multiple independent visual cues, irrespective of their interactions (or are not computed explicitly), and ignore contextual influences induced by neighboring colors. In addition, the use of color is often underestimated in the visual saliency analysis. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective color saliency model that considers color as the only visual cue and mimics the color processing in V1. Our approach uses region-/boundary-defined color features with spatiochromatic filtering by considering local color-orientation interactions, therefore captures homogeneous color elements, subtle textures within the object and the overall salient object from the color image. To account for color contextual influences, we present a divisive normalization method for chromatic stimuli through the pooling of contrary/complementary color units. We further define a color perceptual metric over the entire scene to produce saliency maps for color regions and color boundaries individually. These maps are finally globally integrated into a one single saliency map. The final saliency map is produced by Gaussian blurring for robustness. We evaluate the proposed method on both synthetic stimuli and several benchmark saliency data sets from the visual saliency analysis to salient object detection. The experimental results demonstrate that the use of color as a unique visual cue achieves competitive results on par with or better than 12 state
Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Hennessy, Eilis; Dean, Moira; Hollywood, Lynsey
Brand knowledge is a prerequisite of children's requests and choices for branded foods. We explored the development of young children's brand knowledge of foods highly advertised on television – both healthy and less healthy. Participants were 172 children aged 3–5 years in diverse socio-economic settings, from two jurisdictions on the island of Ireland with different regulatory environments. Results indicated that food brand knowledge (i) did not differ across jurisdictions; (ii) increased s...
Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Salehpour, Sousan; Boloursaz, Mohammad Reza; Baghaie, Nooshin; Hassanzad, Maryam; Velayati, Ali Akbar
Background Knowledge and practice about air pollution are essential subjects in special groups such as cardio-pulmonary patients. For children with air pollution-related diseases, knowledge and attitude of parents play a determining role in this respect. Since providing a coherent curriculum needs evidence-based information, this survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and practice of asthmatic children's parents about daily air quality since asthmatic children are among the most vulnera...
Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert
Tax incentives can be more or less salient, i.e. noticeable or cognitively easy to process. Our hypothesis is that taxes on consumers are more salient to consumers than equivalent taxes on sellers because consumers underestimate the extent of tax shifting in the market. We show that tax salience...... biases consumers' voting on tax regimes, and that experience is an effective de-biasing mechanism in the experimental laboratory. Pre-vote deliberation makes initially held opinions more extreme rather than correct and does not eliminate the bias in the typical committee. Yet, if voters can discuss their...... experience with the tax regimes they are less likely to be biased....
Mitchell et al.(1997) developed a framework for assessing the salience of stakeholder groups based on their power, urgency and the legitimacy of their claim. This has been applied to illustrate the complexities of stakeholder interactions in humanitarian supply chains and to provide insights for their management and further research. Keywords: Supply chain management, Humanitarian logistics, Stakeholder salience
Lou, Jing; Ren, Mingwu; Wang, Huan
Saliency detection is widely used in many visual applications like image segmentation, object recognition and classification. In this paper, we will introduce a new method to detect salient objects in natural images. The approach is based on a regional principal color contrast modal, which incorporates low-level and medium-level visual cues. The method allows a simple computation of color features and two categories of spatial relationships to a saliency map, achieving higher F-measure rates. At the same time, we present an interpolation approach to evaluate resulting curves, and analyze parameters selection. Our method enables the effective computation of arbitrary resolution images. Experimental results on a saliency database show that our approach produces high quality saliency maps and performs favorably against ten saliency detection algorithms. PMID:25379960
Block, Stephanie D.; Oran, Howard; Oran, Diane; Baumrind, Nikki; Goodman, Gail S.
Objective: After maltreated children are taken into protective custody, dependency courts determine the children's placements. Many, if not most, maltreated children never attend their dependency court hearings. We had the rare opportunity to interview children in a jurisdiction where children regularly attend their detention hearings in…
Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Brock, Matthew E.; Logan, Jessica A.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.
Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle with reading. An increased focus on emergent literacy skills--particularly print knowledge--might improve later reading outcomes. We analyzed longitudinal measures of print knowledge (i.e., alphabet knowledge and print-concept knowledge) for 35 preschoolers with ASD relative to a sample of…
Ramzan, Sara; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig;
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of instruments which can be used to quantitatively assess school children's knowledge about medicine in different countries. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to validate the Danish translation of a school children's medicine knowledge questionnaire developed in Fi...
Fesel, S.S.; Segers, P.C.J.; Clariana, R.B.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
Children in primary school read digital texts for school purposes while current research has shown that forming a coherent knowledge structure of such texts is challenging. We compared the quality of ninety 6th grade children's knowledge structures after the reading of four different hierarchically
Leighton, Jacqueline P.; Bisanz, Gay L.
Examines children's and adults' knowledge of the ozone layer and its depletion, whether this knowledge increases with age, and how the ozone layer and ozone hole might be structured as scientific concepts. Uses a standardized set of questions to interview children and adults in Canada. Discusses implications of the results for health…
Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R.; Hofer, Kerry G.; Farran, Dale C.
Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An Early Math Trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from age 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math…
Full Text Available We sought to validate the psychometric properties of a recently developed paradigm that aims to measure salience attribution processes proposed to contribute to positive psychotic symptoms, the Salience Attribution Test (SAT. The “aberrant salience” measure from the SAT showed good face validity in previous results, with elevated scores both in high-schizotypy individuals, and in patients with schizophrenia suffering from delusions. Exploring the construct validity of salience attribution variables derived from the SAT is important, since other factors, including latent inhibition/learned irrelevance, attention, probabilistic reward learning, sensitivity to probability, general cognitive ability and working memory could influence these measures. Fifty healthy participants completed schizotypy scales, the SAT, a learned irrelevance task, and a number of other cognitive tasks tapping into potentially confounding processes. Behavioural measures of interest from each task were entered into a principal components analysis, which yielded a five-factor structure accounting for ~75% percent of the variance in behaviour. Implicit aberrant salience was found to load onto its own factor, which was associated with elevated “Introvertive Anhedonia” schizotypy, replicating our previous finding. Learned irrelevance loaded onto a separate factor, which also included implicit adaptive salience, but was not associated with schizotypy. Explicit adaptive and aberrant salience, along with a measure of probabilistic learning, loaded onto a further factor, though this also did not correlate with schizotypy. These results suggest that the measures of learned irrelevance and implicit adaptive salience might be based on similar underlying processes, which are dissociable both from implicit aberrant salience and explicit measures of salience.
Wiedenbauer, Gunnar; Jansen-Osmann, Petra
The spatial knowledge of 18 children with spina bifida and 18 healthy control children (matched according to sex, age, and verbal IQ) was investigated in a computer-simulated environment. All children had to learn a route through a virtual floor system containing 18 landmarks. Controlling for cognitive abilities, the results revealed that children…
Klois, S.S.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
Children in primary and secondary school are asked to go on the Internet for school purposes while research on hypertext has scarcely investigated how children process and learn from hypertext. We therefore examined how hypertext influences children's knowledge acquisition from expository text. A gr
Lopez-Mobilia, Gabriel; Woolley, Jacqueline D.
In 2 studies, we attempted to capture the information-processing abilities underlying children's reality-status judgments. Forty 5- to 6-year-olds and 53 7- to 8-year-olds heard about novel entities (animals) that varied in their fit with children's world knowledge. After hearing about each entity, children could either guess reality status…
Ong Ken K; Sharp Stephen J; Lakshman Rajalakshmi R; Forouhi Nita G
Abstract Background Improving nutrition knowledge among children may help them to make healthier food choices. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel educational intervention to increase nutrition knowledge among primary school children. Methods We developed a card game 'Top Grub' and a 'healthy eating' curriculum for use in primary schools. Thirty-eight state primary schools comprising 2519 children in years 5 and 6 (aged 9-11 years) were recruited...
Treiman, Rebecca; Hompluem, Lana; Gordon, Jessica; Decker, Kristina; Markson, Lori
Two experiments with one hundred and fourteen 3- to 5-year-old children examined whether children understand that a printed word represents a specific spoken word and that it differs in this way from a drawing. When an experimenter read a word to children and then a puppet used a different but related label for it, such as "dog" for the…
Kikas, Eve; Timoštšuk, Inge
Student teachers' knowledge about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression and its relations to reporting experiencing emotions during teaching practice were studied. The participants were 186 teacher education students in Estonia. Student teachers' general knowledge and confidence in knowledge varied a lot.…
Huang, L Q; Pashler, Harold
It is commonly believed that objects viewed in certain contexts may be more or less salient. Measurements of salience have usually relied on asking observers "How much does this object stand out against the background?". In this study, we measured the salience of objects by assessing the distraction they produce for subjects searching for a different, pre-specified target. Distraction was measured through response times, but changes in response times were not assumed to be a linear measure of...
Rukšenas, R.; Curzon, P.; Back, J.; Blandford, A.
Well-designed interfaces use procedural and sensory cues to increase the salience of appropriate actions and intentions. However, empirical studies suggest that cognitive load can influence the strength of procedural and sensory cues. We formalise the relationship between salience and cognitive load revealed by empirical data. We add these rules to our abstract cognitive architecture developed for the verification of usability properties. The interface of a fire engine dispatch task used in t...
Background In nature, sensory stimuli are organized in heterogeneous combinations. Salient items from these combinations 'stand-out' from their surroundings and determine what and how we learn. Yet, the relationship between varying stimulus salience and discrimination learning remains unclear. Presentation of the hypothesis A rigorous formulation of the problem of discrimination learning should account for varying salience effects. We hypothesize that structural variations in the environment ...
Ammar, M.; Mitrea, M.; Hasnaoui, M.
A saliency map provides information about the regions inside some visual content (image, video, ...) at which a human observer will spontaneously look at. For saliency maps computation, current research studies consider the uncompressed (pixel) representation of the visual content and extract various types of information (intensity, color, orientation, motion energy) which are then fusioned. This paper goes one step further and computes the saliency map directly from the MPEG-4 AVC stream syntax elements with minimal decoding operations. In this respect, an a-priori in-depth study on the MPEG-4 AVC syntax elements is first carried out so as to identify the entities appealing the visual attention. Secondly, the MPEG-4 AVC reference software is completed with software tools allowing the parsing of these elements and their subsequent usage in objective benchmarking experiments. This way, it is demonstrated that an MPEG-4 saliency map can be given by a combination of static saliency and motion maps. This saliency map is experimentally validated under a robust watermarking framework. When included in an m-QIM (multiple symbols Quantization Index Modulation) insertion method, PSNR average gains of 2.43 dB, 2.15dB, and 2.37 dB are obtained for data payload of 10, 20 and 30 watermarked blocks per I frame, i.e. about 30, 60, and 90 bits/second, respectively. These quantitative results are obtained out of processing 2 hours of heterogeneous video content.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Children due to their small size and insufficient mental and physical abilities, are not able to defend themselves against accident, therefore childhood is the riskiest period of life. Different factors affect accidents occurrence and damages caused by them. The aim of present study was to assess knowledge and attitudes of parents regarding how to keep children in private cars. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive analytical study with easy sampling method which was performed during summer of 2013 on 170 personnel of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. All participants signed an informed consent form, and then they received two questionnaires regarding demographic information and knowledge & attitude. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16, using descriptive statistical tests, chi square and Mann Whitney tests. Results: Knowledge of parents regarding how to carry children in private cars was in medium level and their attitude was weak. Gender did not affect knowledge and attitude level significantly (p>0.005. Conclusion: Since knowledge level of parents was at medium level and their attitude was weak, researchers recommend performing educational classes to introduce parents with accidents and traffic dangers especially how to carry children in private cars to improve children's safety. Keywords: knowledge, attitude, parents, damages caused by accidents, children How to cite this article: Khademi G, Nazeri N, Hamedi A, Abdollahpour N, Sezavar M, Gholami H. Knowledge and attitudes of educated parents about carrying children in private cars. J Saf Promot Inj Prev. 2015; 3(3:141-6.
Full Text Available Photographic cropping is the act of selecting part of a photograph to enhance its aesthetic appearance or visual impact. It is common practice with both professional (expert and amateur (non-expert photographers. In a psychometric study, McManus et al. (2011b showed that participants cropped photographs confidently and reliably. Experts tended to select details from a wider range of positions than non-experts, but other croppers did not generally prefer details that were selected by experts. It remained unclear, however, on what grounds participants selected particular details from a photograph while avoiding other details. One of the factors contributing to cropping decision may be visual saliency. Indeed, various saliency-based computer algorithms are available for the automatic cropping of photographs. However, careful experimental studies on the relation between saliency and cropping are lacking to date. In the present study, we re-analyzed the data from the studies by McManus et al. (2011a,b, focusing on statistical image properties. We calculated saliency-based measures for details selected and details avoided during cropping. As expected, we found that selected details contain regions of higher saliency than avoided details on average. Moreover, the saliency center-of-mass was closer to the geometrical center in selected details than in avoided details. Results were confirmed in an eye tracking study with the same dataset of images. Interestingly, the observed regularities in cropping behavior were less pronounced for experts than for non-experts. In summary, our results suggest that, during cropping, participants tend to select salient regions and place them in an image composition that is well-balanced with respect to the distribution of saliency. Our study contributes to the knowledge of perceptual bottom-up features that are germane to aesthetic decisions in photography and their variability in non-experts and experts.
Chapter 1 sketches the general background of the study. The study tests the hypothesis that HIV and AIDS not only impairs or modifies farmers’ agroecological knowledge base, but also impairs or modifies their strategies to mobilize knowledge and resources. The research mainly aims to understand agricultural knowledge and practices among children orphaned by AIDS, consecutive to widespread interest in and concern about erosion of agricultural knowledge in AIDS-affected communities. Such a poss...
Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Hennessy, Eilis; Dean, Moira; Hollywood, Lynsey
Brand knowledge is a prerequisite of children's requests and choices for branded foods. We explored the development of young children's brand knowledge of foods highly advertised on television - both healthy and less healthy. Participants were 172 children aged 3-5 years in diverse socio-economic settings, from two jurisdictions on the island of Ireland with different regulatory environments. Results indicated that food brand knowledge (i) did not differ across jurisdictions; (ii) increased significantly between 3 and 4 years; and (iii) children had significantly greater knowledge of unhealthy food brands, compared with similarly advertised healthy brands. In addition, (iv) children's healthy food brand knowledge was not related to their television viewing, their mother's education, or parent or child eating. However, (v) unhealthy brand knowledge was significantly related to all these factors, although only parent eating and children's age were independent predictors. Findings indicate that effects of food marketing for unhealthy foods take place through routes other than television advertising alone, and are present before pre-schoolers develop the concept of healthy eating. Implications are that marketing restrictions of unhealthy foods should extend beyond television advertising; and that family-focused obesity prevention programmes should begin before children are 3 years of age. PMID:24859112
Barnett, James B; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Cuthill, Innes C
Aposematic signals are often characterized by high conspicuousness. Larger and brighter signals reinforce avoidance learning, distinguish defended from palatable prey and are more easily memorized by predators. Conspicuous signalling, however, has costs: encounter rates with naive, specialized or nutritionally stressed predators are likely to increase. It has been suggested that intermediate levels of aposematic conspicuousness can evolve to balance deterrence and detectability, especially for moderately defended species. The effectiveness of such signals, however, has not yet been experimentally tested under field conditions. We used dough caterpillar-like baits to test whether reduced levels of aposematic conspicuousness can have survival benefits when predated by wild birds in natural conditions. Our results suggest that, when controlling for the number and intensity of internal contrast boundaries (stripes), a reduced-conspicuousness aposematic pattern can have a survival advantage over more conspicuous signals, as well as cryptic colours. Furthermore, we find a survival benefit from the addition of internal contrast for both high and low levels of conspicuousness. This adds ecological validity to evolutionary models of aposematic saliency and the evolution of honest signalling. PMID:27484645
Keeler, M L; Swanson, H L
This study investigated the relationship between working memory (WM), declarative strategy knowledge, and math achievement in children with and without mathematical disabilities (MD). Experiment 1 examined the relationship between strategy knowledge, verbal WM, and visual-spatial WM in children with MD as a function of initial, gain, and maintenance conditions. The results showed that after partialing the influence of reading, stable strategy choices rather than specific strategy knowledge was related to verbal and visual-spatial WM span in high demand (maintenance) conditions. Experiment 2 compared children with MD to a group of chronological age-matched children and a group of math ability-matched children on the same conditions as Experiment 1. Age-matched children's verbal and visual-spatial WM performance was superior to that of children with MD, whereas WM performance was statistically comparable between children with MD and younger children matched on math ability. The selection of expert strategies was related to high WM span scores in the initial conditions. After controlling for reading achievement in a regression analysis, verbal and visual-spatial WM, stable verbal strategy choices, and expert strategy choices related to visual-spatial processing all contributed independent variance to math achievement. Overall, these results suggest that WM and math achievement are related to strategy knowledge. PMID:15503591
Zhou, Zheng; Boehm, Ann E.
This study compared the performance of 300 Chinese children on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised (BTBC-R) with that of American children from the standardization sample of the BTBC-R. Subjects were in kindergarten, first, and second grade, and completed the test at the end of the 1996-97 school year. The focus of the comparison was to…
Barraza, Laura; Cuaron, Alfredo D.
In this study we analysed the familiarity and understanding of 10 environmental concepts amongst Mexican and English school children (aged 7 to 9). The investigation considered the impact of the educational system and the school ethos on the formation of environmental concepts. Results reveal that in general, children of this age have a low to…
Coyle, Emily F.; Liben, Lynn S.
Gender schema theory (GST) posits that children approach opportunities perceived as gender appropriate, avoiding those deemed gender inappropriate, in turn affecting gender-differentiated career trajectories. To test the hypothesis that children's gender salience filters (GSF--tendency to attend to gender) moderate these processes, 62 preschool…
Parmar R; Sahu D; Bavdekar S
CONTEXT: Parental anxiety and apprehension is related to inadequate knowledge of fever and febrile convulsion. AIMS: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the parents of children with febrile convulsions. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective questionnaire based study in a tertiary care centre carried over a period of one year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 140 parents of consecutive children presenting with febrile convulsion were enrolled. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square test. RESULTS...
Abraham-Hardee, Sofia E.
A mixed method study pretest and posttest research design was used in this study similar to those used by the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and Women, Infants and Children (WIC). An individual interview method was used to gather the qualitative data. The study was conducted using 26 caretakers and 31 children. No significant change in knowledge in the caretakers was observed across all lessons. A significant gain in knowledge was observed only in the nutrition lesson â...
Lalić Maja; Aleksić Ema; Gajić Mihajlo; Malešević Đoka
Introduction. The family provides the background for developing behaviors, attitudes and knowledge related to oral health of children. The aim of this study was to compare oral health behavior of parents and their children and to asses the impact of parental behavior on children’s oral health. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 99 parent - child pairs (12 to 15 years old). Data on oral health behavior, knowledge and attitudes regarding oral hygiene, fluorides and ...
Holm, Anders; Wang, Camilla; Kousholt, Dorte;
in daycare. The objective is to improve our knowledge about effective means and methods when implementing a new innovative type of early childhood educational efforts aimed at socially disadvantaged children. This is done by a systematic approach on the basis of methods developed in the VIDA programs......Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) can enhance the life chances of all children, and especially socially disadvantaged children. In the Nordic daycare systems, however, it is not clear if ECEC provides equal social and intellectual opportunities for socially disadvantaged children. The VIDA...... intervention program Knowledge-based efforts for socially disadvantaged children in daycare – a model program presented in this report, aims at improving all children’s well-being and cognitive functioning, and specifi cally improving the situation for socially disadvantaged children through inclusive efforts...
Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Brownlee, Joanne; Walker, Sue; Cobb-Moore, Charlotte; Johansson, Eva
The intention of the analysis in this paper was to determine, from interviews with 11 early years' teachers, what informed their knowledge of children's learning and teaching strategies regarding moral development. Overall, the analysis revealed four main categories: definitions of moral behaviour, understanding of children's learning, pedagogy…
Nippold, Marilyn A.
Purpose: This study examined language productivity and syntactic complexity in school-age children in relation to their knowledge of the topic of discussion--the game of chess. Method: Children (N = 32; mean age = 10;11 [years;months]) who played chess volunteered to be interviewed by an adult examiner who had little or no experience playing…
Zand, Debra H.; Pierce, Katherine J.; Bultas, Margaret W.; McMillin, Stephen Edward; Gott, Rolanda Maxim; Wilmott, Jennifer
Parents' involvement in early intervention (EI) services fosters positive developmental trajectories in young children. Although EI research on parenting skills has been abundant, fewer data are available on parents' knowledge of normative child development. Sixty-seven mothers of children participating in a Midwestern city's EI program completed…
Salmon, Karen; Evans, Ian M.; Moskowitz, Sophie; Grouden, Melissa; Parkes, Fiona; Miller, Emily
This research adopted observational and experimental paradigms to investigate the relationships between components of emotion knowledge in three- to four-year-old children. In Study 1, 88 children were assessed on the Emotion Matching Task (Morgan, Izard, & King), and two tasks requiring the generation of emotion labels and causes. Most tasks were…
Bannink, Femke; Stroeken, Koenraad; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert
This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus in four regions of Uganda. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were held with parents of children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus, policy-makers, and service…
Piasta, Shayne B.
Early childhood educators are increasingly asked to support the alphabet knowledge development of children enrolled in their classrooms. Children in the same classroom, however, often show vastly different alphabet learning needs. Moreover, recent research suggests that some letters are more difficult to learn. These facts run counter to…
Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Guo, Ying; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Pentimonti, Jill M.
To contribute to the modest body of work examining the home literacy environment (HLE) and emergent literacy outcomes for children with disabilities, this study addressed two aims: (a) to determine the unique contributions of the HLE on print knowledge of preschool children with language impairment and (b) to identify whether specific child…
Perlman, Susan B.; Camras, Linda A.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.
This study examined relationships among parents' physiological regulation, their emotion socialization behaviors, and their children's emotion knowledge. Parents' resting cardiac vagal tone was measured, and parents provided information regarding their socialization behaviors and family emotional expressiveness. Their 4- or 5-year-old children (N…
Lafta, Riyadh K; Al-Shatari, Sahar A.; Abass, Seba
Background: Accidental injuries are the most common cause of death in children over the age of one. Every year, millions of children are permanently disabled or disfigured because of accidents. Objective: To assess the level of knowledge of women with respect to children's domestic accidents, and to determine its association with some demographic factors. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in both sides of Baghdad City during the period from April through to August 2013. The tar...
Winfield, Evelyn T.
Examines several current nonfiction books that can expand a child's knowledge of a wide variety of subjects, noting that the breadth of a child's knowledge base affects his or her reading development. Subjects discussed include dinosaurs, animal preservation, insects, ecology, history, and drugs and alcohol. (SM)
Nilsen, Elizabeth S.; Glenwright, Melanie; Huyder, Vanessa
Incongruity between a positive statement and a negative context is a cue to verbal irony. Two studies examined whether school-age children and adults recognized that listeners require knowledge of context to detect irony. Specifically, the studies investigated whether participants could inhibit their own context knowledge to appropriately gauge…
von Salisch, Maria; Haenel, Martha; Denham, Susanne Ayers
Research Findings: In order to examine the explanatory power of behavioral self-regulation in the domain of emotion knowledge, especially in a non-U.S. culture, 365 German 4- and 5-year-olds were individually tested on these constructs. Path analyses revealed that children's behavioral self-regulation explained their emotion knowledge in the…
Legendre, Alain; Gómez Herrera, José
The focus of the study is on interindividual differences emerging among six to 11 years-old children in the knowledge and modalities of uses of outdoors public spaces. A survey was conducted with 378 primary-school children in a small town of Paris suburban area. A questionnaire was used to find out which were the children's knowledge, frequency of visits, playful use and independent access to the main outdoor public spaces in their town. Results underscore that in an urban environment, publi...
Various approaches to computational modelling of bottom-up visual attention have been proposed in the past two decades. As part of this trend, researchers have studied ways to characterize the saliency map underlying many of these models. In more recent years, several definitions based on...... probabilistic and information or decision theoretic considerations have been proposed. These provide experimentally successful, appealing, low-level, operational, and elementary definitions of visual saliency (see eg, Bruce, 2005 Neurocomputing 65 125 - 133). Here, I demonstrate that, in fact, all these...
Soley, Gaye; Spelke, Elizabeth S
Adults use cultural markers to discern the structure of the social landscape. Such markers may also influence the social preferences of young children, who tend to conform to their own group and prefer others who do so. However, the forces that propel these preferences are unknown. Here, we use social preferences based on music to investigate these forces in four- and five-year-old children. First, we establish that children prefer other children whose favorite songs are familiar to them. Then we show that this effect depends on shared knowledge: children both prefer others who know songs they themselves know, and avoid others who know songs they do not know, irrespective of the target children's liking of the songs. These results suggest that young children have a remarkably selective sensitivity to shared cultural knowledge. Shared knowledge may be a powerful determinant of children's social preferences, both because it underpins effective communication and because it is conveyed by others through social interactions and therefore can serve as a marker of social group identity. PMID:26773967
Avery, Leanne M.; Kassam, Karim-Aly
This study analyzes videotaped interviews and 407 photographs taken by 20 grade 5 and 6 students in rural New York State to document their science and engineering learning. Aristotle's concept of phronesis or practical wisdom frames the findings and their implications. Key findings indicate that: (1) All 20 children found examples of science and…
Feild-Berner, Natalie; Balgopal, Meena
World Diabetes Day (November 14) offers a wonderful opportunity to educate elementary children about the power they have to control their health. First lady Michelle Obama has urged Americans to educate themselves about childhood obesity, which is often associated with the onset of type II diabetes (Rabin 2010). The authors developed activities to…
Wernholm, Marina; Vigmo, Sylvi
The aim of this article is to address how online tools and digital technologies can influence data collection opportunities. We are still at the early stages of piecing together a more holistic picture of the role of digital media in young people's everyday lives, especially regarding digital gaming among younger children. Digital technologies…
Reynolds, Ruth; Vinterek, Monika
Children's locational knowledge is often used to clarify underlying conceptual understandings of the world in which they live. Although there has been some exploration of how European children view their world there is little recent research on Scandinavian children's knowledge and associated perceptions of the wider world, or about Australian…
Nyasulu, Peter; Kambale, Susan; Chirwa, Tobias; Umanah, Teye; Singini, Isaac; Sikwese, Simon; Banda, Hastings T; Banda, Rhoda P; Chimbali, Henry; Ngwira, Bagrey; Munthali, Alister
Background Knowledge and perceptions about tuberculosis (TB) can influence care-seeking behavior and adherence to treatment. Previous studies in Malawi were conducted to assess knowledge and attitudes regarding TB in adults, with limited data on knowledge in children. Objectives This study assessed knowledge and perceptions about TB in children aged 10–14 years attending primary school in Ntcheu District, Malawi. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in four primary schools in Ntcheu District. Data on knowledge and perception of TB were collected using a structured questionnaire. Pearson chi-square test was used to determine the association between socioeconomic factors and TB knowledge and perception. A P0.05). Conclusion Lack of knowledge regarding TB and gaps identified, may be due to a deficiency in the content of the school curriculum or the availability of information, education, and communication materials. This is the first study to report on knowledge and perceptions of TB among primary school learners in Malawi. These results will inform the development of relevant information, education, and communication materials to enhance awareness about TB among school going children. PMID:27069367
Lv, Qi; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Liming
Many saliency computational models have been proposed to simulate bottom-up visual attention mechanism of human visual system. However, most of them only deal with certain kinds of images or aim at specific applications. In fact, human beings have the ability to correctly select attentive focuses of objects with arbitrary sizes within any scenes. This paper proposes a new bottom-up computational model from the perspective of frequency domain based on the biological discovery of non-Classical Receptive Field (nCRF) in the retina. A saliency map can be obtained according to the idea of Extended Classical Receptive Field. The model is composed of three major steps: firstly decompose the input image into several feature maps representing different frequency bands that cover the whole frequency domain by utilizing Gabor wavelet. Secondly, whiten the feature maps to highlight the embedded saliency information. Thirdly, select some optimal maps, simulating the response of receptive field especially nCRF, to generate the saliency map. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is able to work with stable effect and outstanding performance in a variety of situations as human beings do and is adaptive to both psychological patterns and natural images. Beyond that, biological plausibility of nCRF and Gabor wavelet transform make this approach reliable. PMID:27275381
Trenkic, Danijela; Pongpairoj, Nattama
The effect of referent salience on second language (L2) article production in real time was explored. Thai (-articles) and French (+articles) learners of English described dynamic events involving two referents, one visually cued to be more salient at the point of utterance formulation. Definiteness marking was made communicatively redundant with…
Mørch, Niels J.S.; Kjems, Ulrik; Hansen, Lars Kai;
The saliency map is proposed as a new method for understanding and visualizing the nonlinearities embedded in feedforward neural networks, with emphasis on the ill-posed case, where the dimensionality of the input-field by far exceeds the number of examples. Several levels of approximations are...
Ong Ken K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving nutrition knowledge among children may help them to make healthier food choices. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel educational intervention to increase nutrition knowledge among primary school children. Methods We developed a card game 'Top Grub' and a 'healthy eating' curriculum for use in primary schools. Thirty-eight state primary schools comprising 2519 children in years 5 and 6 (aged 9-11 years were recruited in a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. The main outcome measures were change in nutrition knowledge scores, attitudes to healthy eating and acceptability of the intervention by children and teachers. Results Twelve intervention and 13 control schools (comprising 1133 children completed the trial. The main reason for non-completion was time pressure of the school curriculum. Mean total nutrition knowledge score increased by 1.1 in intervention (baseline to follow-up: 28.3 to 29.2 and 0.3 in control schools (27.3 to 27.6. Total nutrition knowledge score at follow-up, adjusted for baseline score, deprivation, and school size, was higher in intervention than in control schools (mean difference = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.05 to 2.16; p = 0.042. At follow-up, more children in the intervention schools said they 'are currently eating a healthy diet' (39.6% or 'would try to eat a healthy diet' (35.7% than in control schools (34.4% and 31.7% respectively; chi-square test p Conclusions The 'Top Grub' card game facilitated the enjoyable delivery of nutrition education in a sample of UK primary school age children. Further studies should determine whether improvements in nutrition knowledge are sustained and lead to changes in dietary behaviour.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Health education plays a very important role in maintaining health of individuals. Good oral health, as a part of general health, is largely dependent on the level of knowledge, attitudes and habits that children already have. The aim of this study is to examine the level of knowledge and habits in children regarding oral hygiene, diet and bad habits. Methods. The study included 506 school children aged 12 and 15 years in three towns (Foča, Čajniče, Kalinovik, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The survey was conducted in order to assess knowledge, attitudes and habits that children have in relation to their own oral health. Results. Most respondents stated that they began to brush their teeth at the age of 4, while a smaller number linked beginning of tooth brushing to the start of school. The parents more often help the boys during tooth brushing. A total of 54.9% of children brush their teeth after every meal, while 40.1% of them brush teeth only once during the day. Twelve year olds brush their teeth more often, especially after a meal. A total of 92.5% of children had never used fluoride tablets nor are the tablets recommended to them by anyone. More than half of the children (61.7% visited the dentist for the first time before starting school that is on the regular examination that is performed upon enrollment to school. A pain as a reason for dental visits was present in 43.9%, while the preventive check in only 31.4% of the children. Conclusion. Children included in this study, particularly 15-year-olds, are quite well informed about teeth brushing frequency and proper selection of tools for hygiene maintenance, but this knowledge is not applied. Girls are more responsible for their own health, and come regularly to the preventive dental checkups.
Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea
The study investigates the dietary habits of Flemish preschoolers and associations of these habits with both sociodemographic characteristics and the mother's nutritional knowledge and attitudes. A sample of 862 parents of preschoolers from 56 schools completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children's dietary intake, and a nutritional knowledge-and-attitude questionnaire. Regression analysis showed a lower dietary adequacy in children of mothers with low and medium level of education, medium-ranked occupation, and lower levels of both nutritional knowledge and food-related health attitude. The highest excess score (representing items that should be avoided or moderated) was found in children of mothers with low education level, without a job, with three or more children, of age less than 30 years, and possessing lower levels of nutritional knowledge and attitude scores for health and taste. The associations of the dietary adequacy and excess scores with sociodemographic background can help practitioners to develop better-tailored nutrition interventions. The associations with the mothers' nutritional knowledge and attitudes support the inclusion of knowledge and attitudes in dietary interventions. PMID:19751782
Long, Zhiling; AlRegib, Ghassan
Bottom-up spatio-temporal saliency detection identifies perceptually important regions of interest in video sequences. The center-surround model proves to be useful for visual saliency detection. In this work, we explore using 3D FFT local spectra as features for saliency detection within the center-surround framework. We develop a spectral location based decomposition scheme to divide a 3D FFT cube into two components, one related to temporal changes and the other related to spatial changes. Temporal saliency and spatial saliency are detected separately using features derived from each spectral component through a simple center-surround comparison method. The two detection results are then combined to yield a saliency map. We apply the same detection algorithm to different color channels (YIQ) and incorporate the results into the final saliency determination. The proposed technique is tested with the public CRCNS database. Both visual and numerical evaluations verify the promising performance of our technique.
Lin, Guang; Zhao, Jufeng; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi; Chen, Yueting
Image saliency detection is widely applied in many tasks in the field of the computer vision. In this paper, we combine the saliency detection with the Fourier optics to achieve acceleration of saliency detection algorithm. An actual optical saliency detection system is constructed within the framework of incoherent imaging system. Additionally, the application of our system to implement the bottom-up rapid pre-saliency process of primate visual saliency is discussed with dual-resolution camera. A set of experiments over our system are conducted and discussed. We also demonstrate the comparisons between our method and pure computer methods. The results show our system can produce full resolution saliency maps faster and more effective.
Prokop, Pavol; Fancovicova, Jana; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale
Children's knowledge about human anatomy can be examined through several different ways. Making a drawing of the internal features of the human body has been frequently used in recent studies. However, there might be a serious difference in results obtained from a general instruction to students ("What you think is inside your body") and specific…
Mavropoulou, Sophia; Sideridis, Georgios D.
This study aimed to measure the effects of contact with integrated students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on the knowledge, attitudes and empathy of children (n = 224) from grades 4-6. A comparison group of children (n = 251) who had no contact with classmates with ASD was also included. All participants completed self-report instruments.…
This article employs meta-analysis procedures to evaluate whether children with cochlear implants demonstrate lower spoken-language vocabulary knowledge than peers with normal hearing. Of the 754 articles screened and 52 articles coded, 12 articles met predetermined inclusion criteria (with an additional 5 included for one analysis). Effect sizes were calculated for relevant studies and forest plots were used to compare differences between groups of children with normal hearing and children with cochlear implants. Weighted effect size averages for expressive vocabulary measures (g = -11.99; p receptive vocabulary measures (g = -20.33; p vocabulary knowledge than children with normal hearing. Additional analyses confirmed the value of comparing vocabulary knowledge of children with hearing loss to a tightly matched (e.g., socioeconomic status-matched) sample. Age of implantation, duration of implantation, and chronological age at testing were not significantly related to magnitude of weighted effect size. Findings from this analysis represent a first step toward resolving discrepancies in the vocabulary knowledge literature. PMID:26712811
Full Text Available Introduction. The family provides the background for developing behaviors, attitudes and knowledge related to oral health of children. The aim of this study was to compare oral health behavior of parents and their children and to asses the impact of parental behavior on children’s oral health. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 99 parent - child pairs (12 to 15 years old. Data on oral health behavior, knowledge and attitudes regarding oral hygiene, fluorides and nutrition of parents and their children were collected by questionnaires. The parental dental health was assessed according to self-reported data on tooth loss and prosthodontic rehabilitation, while the dental status of children was determined by clinical examination. Results. The parents reported the use of dental floss (p < 0.001 and mouth rinses (p<0.05 more often than their children and they had better knowledge on fluorides. Approximately one third of parents thought they should not control sugar consumption of their child. There was a statistically significant correlation between parental oral hygiene and their habit to control the child in brushing with the child’s oral health status. Conclusion. Oral health education activities directed towards the prevention of risk factors for developing caries should involve both parents and their children, because parental behavior is a significant predictor of children’s oral health.
ABSTRACT Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of school children towards oral health. Settings and design: Descriptive study. Materials and methods: School children (n=700) aged between 10 to 14 years in a Davangere school were recruited into this study. The subjects completed a questionnaire that aimed to evaluate young school children’s behavior, knowledge, and perception of their oral health and dental treatment. Statistical analysis: The results were statistically analysed and percentage was calculated. Results and conclusion: The participant oral hygiene habits (such as tooth brushing) were found to be irregular, and parent role in the oral hygiene habits of their children was limited. The study population showed higher awareness of caries than periodontal conditions. The children in this study also recognized the importance of oral health. The results of this study indicate that Comprehensive oral health educational programs for both children and their parents are required to achieve this goal. How to cite this article: Vishwanathaiah S. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Oral Health Practices of School Children in Davangere. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):172-176. PMID:27365943
Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common child psychiatry disorders. General physicians (GP, as primary care providers, can have an important role in screening and treatment of ADHD. This study aimed to survey GPs' knowledge, attitude, and their views of their role in the screening, diagnosing and managing children with ADHD. Methods Six hundred and sixty five general physicians in Shiraz, Iran, answered a self-reported questionnaire on ADHD. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding socio-demographic characteristics such as age, the duration of practice as a GP, marital status, general knowledge about ADHD, and the management of ADHD. Results Less than half of them believed that they have adequate knowledge and information about this disorder. They usually do not like to be the primary care providers for children with ADHD. The majority of them prefer to refer the children to related specialists, mostly psychiatrists or psychologists. More than one third of them believed that sugar is a cause of ADHD. Only 6.6% of them reported that ADHD persists for the whole life. Their knowledge about methylphenidate is reasonable. Conclusions As many other countries worldwide, the knowledge of GPs about ADHD should be improved. They do not asses and manage children with probable ADHD by themselves without referring to related professionals. They do not opt for the use of methylphenidate.
Njelekela, Marina A.; Alfa Muhihi; Mpembeni, Rose N M; Amani Anaeli; Omary Chillo; Sulende Kubhoja; Benjamin Lujani; Davis Ngarashi; Mwanamkuu Maghembe
Background: Childhood obesity has increased over the past two decades. Child obesity is likely to persist through adulthood and increases the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) later in life. This study assessed knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected primary schools in Dar es Salaam. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and a...
Rae, Helen; McKenzie, Karen; Murray, George
The present study examines the impact of a short training session on the knowledge of teaching staff in Scotland about children with an intellectual disability. Despite the majority of participants reporting that they had a child with an intellectual disability in their classroom, the initial level of knowledge concerning intellectual disability was low. This was partly considered to be due to terminology differences that exist between the health and education sectors and a lack of training s...
Full Text Available Previous research has shown that human infants and young children are sensitive to the boundaries of certain social groups, which supports the idea that the capacity to represent social categories constitutes a fundamental characteristic of the human cognitive system. However, the function this capacity serves is still debated. We propose that during social categorization the human mind aims at mapping out social groups defined by a certain set of shared knowledge. An eye-tracking paradigm was designed to test whether two-year-old children differentially associate conventional versus non-conventional tool use with language-use, reflecting an organization of information that is induced by cues of shared knowledge. Children first watched videos depicting a male model perform goal-directed actions either in a conventional or in a non-conventional way. In the test phase children were presented with photographs taken of the model and of a similarly aged unfamiliar person while listening to a foreign (Experiment 1 or a native language (Experiment 2 text. Upon hearing the foreign utterance children looked at the model first if he had been seen to act in an unconventional way during familiarization. In contrast, children looked at the other person if the model had performed conventional tool use actions. No such differences were found in case of the native language. The results suggest that children take the conventionality of behavior into account in forming representations about a person, and they generalize to other qualities of the person based on this information.
Danko, Amanda S.; Lyu, Siwei
In this work, we present a new model of visual saliency by combing results from existing methods, improving upon their performance and accuracy. By fusing pre-attentive and context-aware methods, we highlight the abilities of state-of-the-art models while compensating for their deficiencies. We put this theory to the test in a series of experiments, comparatively evaluating the visual saliency maps and employing them for content-based image retrieval and thumbnail generation. We find that on average our model yields definitive improvements upon recall and f-measure metrics with comparable precisions. In addition, we find that all image searches using our fused method return more correct images and additionally rank them higher than the searches using the original methods alone.
Roiser, J. P.; Stephan, K E; den Ouden, H. E. M.; Barnes, T. R. E.; Friston, K.J.; Joyce, E. M.
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that some psychotic symptoms reflect ‘aberrant salience’, related to dysfunctional reward learning. To test this hypothesis we investigated whether patients with schizophrenia showed impaired learning of task-relevant stimulusreinforcement associations in the presence of distracting task-irrelevant cues. METHODS: We tested 20 medicated patients with schizophrenia and 17 controls on a reaction time game, the Salience Attribution Test. In this game, ...
Chen, Kepu; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Shan; He, Sheng; Zhou, Wen
Attention is intrinsic to our perceptual representations of sensory inputs. Best characterized in the visual domain, it is typically depicted as a spotlight moving over a saliency map that topographically encodes strengths of visual features and feedback modulations over the visual scene. By introducing smells to two well-established attentional paradigms, the dot-probe and the visual-search paradigms, we find that a smell reflexively directs attention to the congruent visual image and facili...
A salient image region is defined as an image part that is clearly different from its surround in terms of a number of attributes. In bottom-up processing, these attributes are defined as: contrast, color difference, brightness, and orientation. By measuring these attributes, visual saliency algorithms aim to predict the regions in an image that would attract our attention under free viewing conditions, i.e., when the observer is viewing an image without a specific task such as searching for ...
Dye, Ahia G.; Ha`o, Celeste; Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie J.
Not so long ago, astronomers visiting schools in Hawaii tried to build awareness among school children and teachers about how stars move across the sky, the nature of planets orbiting our sun, and the physical processes governing stars and galaxies. While these efforts were undertaken with all good intentions, they were often based on our collective understanding of how Mainland children come to know astronomy topics, and with a Western worldview. Research observations of Hawaiian elementary school children indicate that Hawaiian children understand far more about the skies than could have been predicted from the behavior of Mainland children, or from the body of literature on children’s understanding of astronomy. Analysis of elementary students’ responses to a kumu’s, or teacher’s questions relating to the celestial sphere indicate that these students posses a deep knowledge of the night sky and celestial motions. This knowledge base is fluent across two cultural systems of constellations, and is predictive. In an era of curriculum development based upon learning progressions, it appears that Native Hawaiian students possess unexpected knowledge that is well poised to interfere with conventional educational and public outreach approaches if not taken into account. Further, these findings suggest that further inquiry must be made into the astronomical thinking of minority populations prior to the unilateral implementation of national science education standards.
Kelly, Spencer D.; Singer, Melissa; Hicks, Janna; Goldin-Meadow, Susan
Three experiments tested whether it is possible to teach college students who are not trained investigators to comprehend information regarding knowledge of conservation problems and mathematical equivalence conveyed through children's hand gestures. Findings suggest that instructing adults to attend to gesture enhances their assessment of…
Balat, Gülden Uyanik
Most basic concepts are acquired during preschool period. There are studies indicating that the basic concept knowledge of children is related to language development, cognitive development, academic achievement and intelligence. The relationship between learning behaviors (sometime called learning or cognitive styles) and a child academic success…
Nobes, G.; Moore, D. G.; Martin, A. E.; Clifford, B. R.; Butterworth, G.; Panagiotaki, G.; Siegal, M.
Asian and white British students ages 4-8 (N=167) were asked to select an earth from a set of plastic models and then respond to forced-choice questions. There were no significant differences in performance after accounting for language differences. Evidence suggests that children hold fragmentary knowledge rather than mental models, as suggested by previous researchers.
Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.
The purpose of this study was to concurrently examine the development of written language across different writing tasks and to investigate how writing features develop in preschool children. Emergent written language knowledge of 372 preschoolers was assessed using numerous writing tasks. The findings from this study indicate that children…
Keeler, Marsha L.; Swanson, H. Lee
A study investigated the relationship between working memory (WM), declarative strategy knowledge, and math achievement in 111 children with and without mathematical disabilities (MD). Results found verbal and visual-spatial WM, stable verbal strategy choices, and expert strategy choices related to visual-spatial processing all contributed…
Palmer, Joy A.
Provides a description and discussion of selected aspects of the preliminary findings of an international research project entitled "Emergent Environmentalism." Provides an overview and discussion of one substudy of the project: an investigation into the acquisition of environmental subject knowledge in preschool children. (LZ)
Aguiar, Naomi R.; Stoess, Caryn J.; Taylor, Marjorie
This research investigated children's ability to recognize gaps in their knowledge and seek missing information from appropriate informants. In Experiment 1, forty-five 4- and 5-year-olds were adept in assigning questions from 3 domains (medicine, firefighting, and farming) to corresponding experts (doctor, firefighter, or farmer). However, when…
Kherkheulidze, M; Kavlashvili, N; Kandelaki, E; Manjavidze, T
The aim of the study was assessment of the general nutrition knowledge and physical activity rate among the first grade school age children and evaluation of their diet and nutritional skills based on the parental interviews. Cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected schools of Tbilisi. In each school was selected one group of the second grade children and their parents by cluster selection method. A population of 290 children aged 6-8 years and their parents were interviewed. The statistical analysis was carried out by means of the SPPS 17. Questionnaires, except those with incomplete answers (n=30), were used for the analytical data. The study shows that in general, the level of knowledge related to rich sources of nutrients was poor. The most of the children can't identify the role of calcium (72,6%), proteins (68,1%) and iron (84,6 %). Children prefer to eat and select foods which they like (71,8%), such as sweets and cakes, hamburgers, chips and etc. The study showed that the most of the children (83,3%) have normal weight for age, underweight was revealed in 3,1% of children, more frequent was overweight (12,3%) and obesity (1,4%). There wasn't significant difference of overweight and underweight distribution in boys and girls. The assessment of child dietary intake show, that intake of fruits and vegetables, as well as milk and milk products is quite low, while intake of bread and pastry, and sweets and cakes are quite high. Daily consumption of sweets and snacks was significantly higher in girls (64.2%) than in boys (47.5%) (pbreakfast, in frequent cases children eat very fast (26,1%), 47,8 % of children need to remind to wash hands before eating, most children 60,4% view TV during the meal time or play computer games. The most of the children play the active games approximately 30-60 minutes, quite often children play active games only 20-30 minutes that is much less then WHO recommendations. The parent questionnaires reveal that most
Li, Shuang; Lu, Huchuan; Lin, Zhe; Shen, Xiaohui; Price, Brian
In this paper, we propose a novel adaptive metric learning algorithm (AML) for visual saliency detection. A key observation is that the saliency of a superpixel can be estimated by the distance from the most certain foreground and background seeds. Instead of measuring distance on the Euclidean space, we present a learning method based on two complementary Mahalanobis distance metrics: 1) generic metric learning (GML) and 2) specific metric learning (SML). GML aims at the global distribution of the whole training set, while SML considers the specific structure of a single image. Considering that multiple similarity measures from different views may enhance the relevant information and alleviate the irrelevant one, we try to fuse the GML and SML together and experimentally find the combining result does work well. Different from the most existing methods which are directly based on low-level features, we devise a superpixelwise Fisher vector coding approach to better distinguish salient objects from the background. We also propose an accurate seeds selection mechanism and exploit contextual and multiscale information when constructing the final saliency map. Experimental results on various image sets show that the proposed AML performs favorably against the state-of-the-arts. PMID:26054067
Berzenski, Sara R; Yates, Tuppett M
This study examined the influence of caregiver-reported harsh physical and verbal punishment on children's behavioral and self-system adjustment. Children's emotion knowledge was evaluated as a heretofore unrecognized moderator of these relations. We assessed 250 preschool-aged children (50% female; Mage = 49.06 months) from diverse backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 18% African American, 10.4% Caucasian, 21.6% multiracial/other) using various instruments through teacher, caregiver, self, and observer report in the domains of harsh punishment, conduct problems, self-concept, and emotion knowledge. Emotion knowledge moderated the relation between harsh punishment and child adjustment. Harsh physical punishment was associated with conduct problems for children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for boys. Harsh verbal punishment was associated with self-concept deficits among children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for girls. These relations were also specifically applicable to non-Hispanic children. These results highlight the importance of investigating hypothesis-driven interactive effects and the specificity of experience to understand the psychosocial sequelae of parenting practices broadly, and to clarify the mixed evidence in the punishment literature specifically. Clinical implications point to the salience of emotion processes in parent-child disciplinary interventions for understanding the prevalence and pattern of child behavioral adjustment and self-concept, as well as more broadly to the role of individual differences in children's responses to adversity and subsequent therapeutic needs. PMID:23750528
Marina A Njelekela
Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity has increased over the past two decades. Child obesity is likely to persist through adulthood and increases the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs later in life. This study assessed knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected primary schools in Dar es Salaam. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken using standard procedures. Results: A total of 446 children were included in the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 11.1 ± 2.0 years. The mean body mass index (BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were 16.6 ± 4.0 kg/m 2 , 103.9 ± 10.3 mmHg and 65.6 ± 8.2 mmHg, respectively. Prevalence of obesity (defined as BMI >95 th percentile for age and sex was 5.2%. Half of the children (51.1% had heard about obesity from teachers at school (20%, radio (19.4% and books/newspaper (17.3%. Less than half (45.4% had knowledge about the risk factors for childhood obesity and correctly defined obesity (44.6%. However, a good number of the children (72.1% were aware that they can be affected by obesity. Majority of them had negative attitude towards obesity and various factors leading to or resulting from childhood obesity. Conclusions: Knowledge about childhood obesity among primary school children is moderate and have negative attitude towards obesity. Integrating educational programs early in primary schools may be an effective strategy to impact knowledge about obesity and other non-communicable diseases early in childhood.
Chen, Tianshui; Lin, Liang; Liu, Lingbo; Luo, Xiaonan; Li, Xuelong
Salient object detection increasingly receives attention as an important component or step in several pattern recognition and image processing tasks. Although a variety of powerful saliency models have been intensively proposed, they usually involve heavy feature (or model) engineering based on priors (or assumptions) about the properties of objects and backgrounds. Inspired by the effectiveness of recently developed feature learning, we provide a novel deep image saliency computing (DISC) framework for fine-grained image saliency computing. In particular, we model the image saliency from both the coarse-and fine-level observations, and utilize the deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to learn the saliency representation in a progressive manner. In particular, our saliency model is built upon two stacked CNNs. The first CNN generates a coarse-level saliency map by taking the overall image as the input, roughly identifying saliency regions in the global context. Furthermore, we integrate superpixel-based local context information in the first CNN to refine the coarse-level saliency map. Guided by the coarse saliency map, the second CNN focuses on the local context to produce fine-grained and accurate saliency map while preserving object details. For a testing image, the two CNNs collaboratively conduct the saliency computing in one shot. Our DISC framework is capable of uniformly highlighting the objects of interest from complex background while preserving well object details. Extensive experiments on several standard benchmarks suggest that DISC outperforms other state-of-the-art methods and it also generalizes well across data sets without additional training. The executable version of DISC is available online: http://vision.sysu.edu.cn/projects/DISC. PMID:26742147
Campbell, Wenonah N.; Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth
This preliminary study explored peer conflict resolution knowledge in children with and without language impairment (LI). Specifically, it evaluated the utility of a visual analogue scale (VAS) for measuring nuances in such knowledge. Children aged 9-12 years, 26 with typically developing language (TLD) and 6 with LI, completed a training protocol…
Soltani, Alireza; Koch, Christof
The primate visual system continuously selects spatial proscribed regions, features or objects for further processing. These selection mechanisms--collectively termed selective visual attention--are guided by intrinsic, bottom-up and by task-dependent, top-down signals. While much psychophysical research has shown that overt and covert attention is partially allocated based on saliency-driven exogenous signals, it is unclear how this is accomplished at the neuronal level. Recent electrophysiological experiments in monkeys point to the gradual emergence of saliency signals when ascending the dorsal visual stream and to the influence of top-down attention on these signals. To elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying these observations, we construct a biologically plausible network of spiking neurons to simulate the formation of saliency signals in different cortical areas. We find that saliency signals are rapidly generated through lateral excitation and inhibition in successive layers of neural populations selective to a single feature. These signals can be improved by feedback from a higher cortical area that represents a saliency map. In addition, we show how top-down attention can affect the saliency signals by disrupting this feedback through its action on the saliency map. While we find that saliency computations require dominant slow NMDA currents, the signal rapidly emerges from successive regions of the network. In conclusion, using a detailed spiking network model we find biophysical mechanisms and limitations of saliency computations which can be tested experimentally. PMID:20861387
Zhang, Fan; Shen, Yiping; Chang, Hongxing
This paper presents a novel method based on visual saliency and template matching for detecting vehicle logo from images captured by cross-road cameras. To detect the logo, such method first generates a saliency map based on the modified Itti's saliency model, and then obtains regions of interest (ROI) by thresholding the saliency map, at last performs an edge-based template matching to locate the logo. Experiments on more than 2400 images validate both high accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method, and demonstrates our method suitable for real-time application.
The question of how we can define salience, what properties it includes and how we can quantify it have been discussed widely over the past thirty years but we still have more questions than answers about this phenomenon, e. g. not only how salience arises, but also how we can define it. However, despite the lack of a clear definition, salience is often taken into account as an explanatory factor in language change. The scientific discourse on salience has in most cases revolved around phonet...
Pauker, Kristin; Ambady, Nalini; Apfelbaum, Evan P.
The authors explored the emergence and antecedents of racial stereotyping in 89 children ages 3-10 years. Children completed a number of matching and sorting tasks, including a measure designed to assess their knowledge and application of both positive and negative in-group and out-group stereotypes. Results indicate that children start to apply…
Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart
Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…
S T Prashanth; Sudhanshu Bhatnagar; Usha Mohan Das; H Gopu
Introduction: Visually impaired children daily face challenges for bearing their everyday skills. Maintenance of proper oral hygiene is one among them. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the oral health knowledge, practice, oral hygiene status, and dental caries prevalence among visually impaired children in Bangalore. Materials and Methods: A total of 85 children were asked verbally a questionnaire regarding the frequency of brushing, cleaning tools, use of dentifrice, knowledge about t...
Full Text Available Sheryl Strasser1, Laurie Whorton2, Amanda J Walpole3, Sarah Beddington11Institute of Public Health, Partnership for Urban Health Research, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2WellStar Corporate and Community Health, Marietta, GA, USA; 3Cobb and Douglas Public Health, Marietta, GA, USAIntroduction: The leading cause of injury and death among children in the United States is motor vehicle crashes. Even though restraint laws are in place and public awareness campaigns and educational interventions have increased, many children are still improperly restrained or not restrained at all. When correctly used, child restraints significantly reduce risk of injury or death.Methods: The purpose of the study was to elicit caregiver baseline knowledge of car seat installation and regulation before receiving car seat education from certified technicians at Inspection Station events. Inspection Station is a program whereby staff assists parents in correctly positioning car seats in participants’ vehicles. Over an 8-week period, Safe Kids Cobb County Car Seat Technicians distributed a 16-item survey, with 10 knowledge-based questions and six demographic questions to Inspection Station participants. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted to assess relationships between participant age, ethnicity, and gender with overall knowledge scores. Regression analysis was run to determine the association between participant education level and total child restraint knowledge.Results: One hundred sixty-nine surveys were completed. Participant knowledge of vehicular child restraint ranged from 0% to 90% on all items. Only 29.6% of caregivers understood the proper tightness of the harness system. Less than half of the caregivers (43.8% were aware of the Georgia law requiring children aged 6 years and younger to be in some type of child restraint. Only 43.2% of caregivers surveyed knew that children need to ride in a rear-facing child restraint until 1
Channell, Marie Moore; Conners, Frances A; Barth, Joan M
Emotion knowledge was examined in 19 youth with Down syndrome (DS) and compared to typically developing (TD) children of similar developmental levels. This project expanded upon prior research on emotion knowledge in DS by utilizing a measure that minimized the need for linguistic skills, presented emotion expressions dynamically, and included social context cues. In Study 1, participants with DS were as accurate as TD participants when judging emotions from static or dynamic expression stimuli and from facial or contextual cues. In Study 2, participants with DS and TD participants showed similar cross-sectional developmental trajectories of emotion knowledge across mental age. This project highlights the importance of measure selection when examining emotion knowledge in samples with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:25148055
Choi, Eun-Suil; Shin, Na-Ri; Jung, Eun-Im; Park, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Hong-Mie; Song, Kyung-Hee
The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutrition and diet related knowledge, attitude, and behavior of elementary school children in Seoul. The subjects included were 439 (male 236, female 203) elementary school children in the 4th to the 6th grades. The statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 12.0 program. The average obesity index (OI) was 104.98 and 99.82 for male and female subjects, respectively. The average percentage of underweight, normal, overweight and obese of subje...
Legault, Louise M. R.
Developments in the Quebec educational system enabled us to evaluate the impact of a new educational environmental program (EEP) on a group of children enrolled in this program for the first time (i.e., the experimental group). This EEP comprised a formal curriculum and environmental activities. A control group of children was enrolled in schools where environmental issues were confined to the natural sciences subject. The goals of this study were threefold. The first goal was to evaluate the impact of an EEP on children's and parents' ecological knowledge, attitudes, motivation, and behaviors. The second goal was to investigate if a motivational model of ecological behaviors observed in adult populations could be replicated with children. Part of this goal also included the comparison of path analyses results across experimental conditions, independently for children and parents. The third goal was to identify more clearly what specific children's characteristics influenced parents' ecological attitudes and motivation. Included in this goal was the investigation of possible differences in the strength of associations between constructs in paths analyses conducted in the experimental and control groups of parents. Results suggested that children in the experimental group were more likely to ask teachers and parents for ecological information and presented a more self-determined motivational profile. Additional analyses revealed that children enrolled in an EEP performed ecological behaviors less for extrinsic motives. Level of knowledge, other attitudes and behavioral measures did not differ significantly between the two groups. Parents of children in the experimental group reported lower levels of satisfaction towards the environment and were more likely to get information on ecological issues and strategies from children. No other significant differences between groups of parents were found. Path analyses results suggested that parents' perceptions of children
Sanu Oluwatosin O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with special needs (CSN are reported to receive less adequate dental care due to various behavioral problems and barriers created by dental professionals. This study was carried out to determine the knowledge and behaviour of Nigerian dentists concerning the treatment of CSN. Methods Questionnaires consisting of open and closed ended questions requesting socio-demographic information, type of practice, undergraduate and postgraduate training, self-rated knowledge and behaviour concerning care of CSN, were hand delivered to 359 dentists in the 3 geographical zones of Nigeria over a period of 8 weeks. Responses were compared across age groups, gender, type of practice and training received. Result Two hundred and eighty questionnaires were returned completed, constituting 79.9% response rate. Most of the respondents were aged 30 – 39 years (44.3%. There were more males (56.1% and more recent graduates of 10 years and below (78.5%. Over 80% of respondents had treated children with disabilities, those with physical disabilities being most encountered. Only 19.3% of respondents rated their knowledge of management of CSN as adequate, with no significant difference across age groups and gender, but with a significantly higher number of older graduates reporting to have adequate knowledge (p Conclusion From this study, very few dentists reported to have adequate knowledge of management of CSN, irrespective of age, gender and place of practice. A significant number of those with more experience rated their knowledge as adequate. Although most dentists rated the children's behaviour as challenging, they indicated their willingness to treat them in their practices.
Anderson, Donnah L.; Watt, Susan E.; Noble, William; Shanley, Dianne C.
Knowledge of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward teaching children with ADHD are compared across stages of Australian teachers' careers. Relative to pre-service teachers with (n = 218) and without (n = 109) teaching experience, in-service teachers (n = 127) show more overall knowledge of ADHD, more knowledge of…
Full Text Available When children are learning a novel object label, they tend to exclude as possible referents familiar objects for which they already have a name. In the current study, we wanted to know if children would behave in this same way regardless of how well they knew the name of potential referent objects, specifically, whether they could only comprehend it or they could both comprehend and produce it. Sixty-six monolingual German-speaking 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children participated in two experimental sessions. In one session the familiar objects were chosen such that their labels were in the children's productive vocabularies, and in the other session the familiar objects were chosen such that their labels were only in the children's receptive vocabularies. Results indicated that children at all three ages were more likely to exclude a familiar object as the potential referent of the novel word if they could comprehend and produce its name rather than comprehend its name only. Indeed, level of word knowledge as operationalized in this way was a better predictor than was age. These results are discussed in the context of current theories of word learning by exclusion.
Full Text Available The subjects of the research are mentally-retarded children and youth, and their possibilities in overcoming the programme contents from educational-upbringing area-SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT. The research has been conducted in Sremcica-Home for Mentally Disrupted Children and Youth. Results of the research presents approximately 50 percent of the positive accomplishments.The research has indicated to us that knowledge learned from a narrow environment (home, family are much better than ones learned from an expansive environment. By these facts we came to the conclusion that the adequate attention hasn’t been paid in realization of the programme contenses concerning familiarizing the expansive environment, especially in the charter SOCIAL INITIATIVE. We know that two basic goals in rehabilitation is not achieved too. However, the results of the research approve us that socialization has essential influence on the knowledge development of the medium mentally retarded
D. Rojas Vigo; J. van de Weijer; T. Gevers
State of the art methods for image matching, content-based retrieval and recognition use local features. Most of these still exploit only the luminance information for detection. The color saliency boosting algorithm has provided an efficient method to exploit the saliency of color edges based on in
Tolvanen, Mimmi; Anttonen, Vuokko; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Hausen, Hannu; Lahti, Satu
Objective The aim was to compare the changes in parents' oral health-related behaviour, knowledge and attitudes in 2001-2003 and 2003-2005, during a 3.4-year-intervention in Pori and in the reference area Rauma, Finland. Materials and methods The study population consisted of parents of children who participated in the oral health promotion programme in Pori (all 5th and 6th graders who started the 2001-2002 school year in the town of Pori, n = 1691) and the parents of same-aged children in a reference town (n = 807). In 2001-2003, the promotion was targeted only to the children in Pori. In 2003-2005, the promotion was targeted also to parents, for example via local mass media. The statistical significances of the differences in parents' self-reported behaviour, knowledge and attitudes, and changes in these, were evaluated using Mann-Whitney U-tests and confidence intervals. Results In 2001-2003, the trend in changing behaviours was in favour of parents in Pori. Mothers in Pori also improved their knowledge and the attitude 'importance of brushing for health and appearance'. In 2003-2005, the trend in changing behaviours was rather similar in both towns, which may be due to diffusion of the oral health intervention to Rauma via the media. Conclusions The results suggest that health promotion targeted to children, which in previous studies has been shown to be successful in improving children's behaviours, also helped their parents in mending their habits. PMID:26651375
Tiziana Metitieri; Carmen Barba; Simona Pellacani; Maria Pia Viggiano; Renzo Guerrini
There are few reports about the effects of perinatal acquired brain lesions on the development of visual perception. These studies demonstrate nonseverely impaired visual-spatial abilities and preserved visual memory. Longitudinal data analyzing the effects of compromised perceptions on long-term visual knowledge in agnosics are limited to lesions having occurred in adulthood. The study of children with focal lesions of the visual pathways provides a unique opportunity to assess the developme...
Murshid, Ebtissam Z.
Objectives: To evaluate dental knowledge and attitudes toward oral health care among healthcare providers and educators working with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in central Saudi Arabia. Methods: There were 305 questionnaires distributed to 7 special-needs centers between September and November 2014. A total of 217 questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 71.1%. The study took place in the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabi...
Yanulevskaya, Victoria; Uijlings, Jasper; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark; Sebe, Nicu; Smeulders, Arnold
State-of-the-art bottom-up saliency models often assign high saliency values at or near high-contrast edges, whereas people tend to look within the regions delineated by those edges, namely the objects. To resolve this inconsistency, in this work we estimate saliency at the level of coherent image regions. According to object-based attention theory, the human brain groups similar pixels into coherent regions, which are called proto-objects. The saliency of these proto-objects is estimated and incorporated together. As usual, attention is given to the most salient image regions. In this paper we employ state-of-the-art computer vision techniques to implement a proto-object-based model for visual attention. Particularly, a hierarchical image segmentation algorithm is used to extract proto-objects. The two most powerful ways to estimate saliency, rarity-based and contrast-based saliency, are generalized to assess the saliency at the proto-object level. The rarity-based saliency assesses if the proto-object contains rare or outstanding details. The contrast-based saliency estimates how much the proto-object differs from the surroundings. However, not all image regions with high contrast to the surroundings attract human attention. We take this into account by distinguishing between external and internal contrast-based saliency. Where the external contrast-based saliency estimates the difference between the proto-object and the rest of the image, the internal contrast-based saliency estimates the complexity of the proto-object itself. We evaluate the performance of the proposed method and its components on two challenging eye-fixation datasets (Judd, Ehinger, Durand, & Torralba, 2009; Subramanian, Katti, Sebe, Kankanhalli, & Chua, 2010). The results show the importance of rarity-based and both external and internal contrast-based saliency in fixation prediction. Moreover, the comparison with state-of-the-art computational models for visual saliency demonstrates the
Samland, Jana; Josephs, Marina; Waldmann, Michael R; Rakoczy, Hannes
A widely discussed discovery has been the influence of norms on causal selection. Confronted with scenarios in which 2 agents contribute equally to an effect, adult participants tend to choose the agent who is violating a norm over an agent who is conforming to a norm as the cause of the outcome. To date, this effect has been established only in adult populations, so its developmental course is unknown. In 2 experiments, we investigated the influence of norm violations on causal selection in both 5-year-old children and adults. In particular, we focused on the role of mental state ascription and blame evaluation as potential mediating factors in this process. To this end, the knowledge status of the agent in question was varied such that she either was or was not aware of her norm transgression. Results revealed that children and adults assigned blame differently: Only adults were sensitive to the knowledge of the agent about norms as a mitigating factor. Crucially, however, despite its different sensitivity to knowledge ascription in children and adults, blame assignment in both age groups affected causal selection in the same ways. The relevance of these findings for alternative theories of causal selection is discussed. PMID:26726914
There is growing interest in studying the Human Visual System (HVS) to supplement and improve the performance of computer vision tasks. A major challenge for current visual saliency models is predicting saliency in cluttered scenes (i.e. high false positive rate). In this paper, we propose a fixation patch detector that predicts image patches that contain human fixations with high probability. Our proposed model detects sparse fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % and eliminates non-fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % demonstrating that low-level image features can indeed be used to short-list and identify human fixation patches. We then show how these detected fixation patches can be used as saliency priors for popular saliency models, thus, reducing false positives while maintaining true positives. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed approach allows state-of-the-art saliency methods to achieve better prediction performance on benchmark datasets.
Neural mechanisms mediating motivational salience attribution are, therefore, very important for individual and species survival and for well-being. However, these neural mechanisms could be implicated in attribution of abnormal motivational salience to different stimuli leading to maladaptive compulsive seeking or avoidance. We have offered the first evidence that prefrontal cortical norepinephrine transmission is a necessary condition for motivational salience attribution to highly salient stimuli, through modulation of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, a brain area involved in all motivated behaviors. Moreover, we have shown that prefrontal-accumbal catecholamine system determines approach or avoidance responses to both reward- and aversion-related stimuli only when the salience of the unconditioned stimulus is high enough to induce sustained catecholamine activation, thus affirming that this system processes motivational salience attribution selectively to highly salient events.
Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Abu-Akel, Ahmad
Oxytocin is a nonapeptide that also serves as a neuromodulator in the human central nervous system. Over the last decade, a sizeable body of literature has examined its effects on social behavior in humans. These studies show that oxytocin modulates various aspects of social behaviors such as empathy, trust, in-group preference, and memory of socially relevant cues. Several theoretical formulations have attempted to explain the effects of oxytocin. The prosocial account argues that oxytocin mainly enhances affiliative prosocial behaviors; the fear/stress theory suggests that oxytocin affects social performance by attenuating stress; and the in-/out-group approach proposes that oxytocin regulates cooperation and conflict among humans in the context of intergroup relations. Nonetheless, accumulating evidence reveals that the effects of oxytocin are dependent on a variety of contextual aspects and the individual's characteristics and can induce antisocial effects including aggression and envy. In an attempt to reconcile these accounts, we suggest a theoretical framework that focuses on the overarching role of oxytocin in regulating the salience of social cues through its interaction with the dopaminergic system. Crucially, the salience effect modulates attention orienting responses to external contextual social cues (e.g., competitive vs. cooperative environment) but is dependent on baseline individual differences such as gender, personality traits, and degree of psychopathology. This view could have important implications for the therapeutic applications of oxytocin in conditions characterized with aberrant social behavior. PMID:26321019
Full Text Available Background: Transient bacteremia in dentistry is discussed as an important causative factor in bacterial endocarditis. The aim of this study was evaluate the knowledge of importance of dental caries prevention in parents whose children had heart disease. Materials and Method: In this descriptive cross sectional study a simple consecutive sampling was used and 320 parents (125 fathers, 195 mothers referred to the heart clinics of Zahedan were evaluated by a questionnaire. Questions were about the demographic information and their knowledge about oral health and it's relation to heart diseases. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests.Results: The results showed that the mean of their knowledge was 21.3±10.1 of 100. The father's knowledge (24.4±8.7 was higher compared to the mothers (19.23±10.3. The knowledge rural families were more than the urban families (22.5±9.8 and 14.51±9.1 respectively. Conclusion: Our findings showed limited knowledge of the parents about the interactions between oral hygiene and the risk bacterial endocarditis
Chu, Felicia W; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C
One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted
Full Text Available Abstract Consuming wild foods is part of the food ways of people in many societies, including farming populations throughout the world. Knowledge of non-domesticated food resources is part of traditional and tacit ecological knowledge, and is largely transmitted through socialization within cultural and household contexts. The context of this study, a small village in Northeast Thailand, is one where the community has experienced changes due to the migration of the parental generation, with the children being left behind in the village to be raised by their grandparents. A case study approach was used in order to gain holistic in-depth insight into children's traditional ecological knowledge as well as patterns of how children acquire their knowledge regarding wild food resources. Techniques used during field data collection are free-listing conducted with 30 village children and the use of a sub-sample of children for more in-depth research. For the sub-sample part of the study, wild food items consisted of a selection of 20 wild food species consisting of 10 species of plants and 10 species of animals. Semi-structured interviews with photo identification, informal interviews and participatory observation were utilized, and both theoretical and practical knowledge scored. The sub-sample covers eight households with boys and girls aged between 10–12 years old from both migrant families and non-migrant families. The knowledge of children was compared and the transmission process was observed. The result of our study shows that there is no observable difference among children who are being raised by grandparents and those being raised by their parents, as there are different channels of knowledge transmission to be taken into consideration, particularly grandparents and peers. The basic ability (knowledge for naming wild food species remains among village children. However, the practical in-depth knowledge, especially about wild food plants
Full Text Available Affective knowledge, the ability to understand others’ emotional states, is considered to be a fundamental part in efficient social interaction. Affective knowledge can be seen as related to cognitive empathy, and in the framework of Theory of Mind (ToM as affective ToM. Previous studies found that cognitive empathy and ToM are heritable, yet little is known regarding the specific genes involved in individual variability in affective knowledge. Investigating the genetic basis of affective knowledge is important for understanding brain mechanisms underlying socio-cognitive abilities. The 7-repeat (7R allele within the third exon of the Dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4-III has been a focus of interest, due to accumulated knowledge regarding its relevance to individual differences in prosocial behavior. A recent study suggests that an interaction between the DRD4-III polymorphism and sex is associated with cognitive empathy among adults. We aimed to examine the same association in two childhood age groups. Children (N = 280, age 3.5 years, N = 283, age 5 years participated as part of the Longitudinal Israel Study of Twins (LIST. Affective knowledge was assessed through children’s responses to an illustrated story describing different emotional situations, told in a laboratory setting. The findings suggest a significant interaction between sex and the DRD4-III polymorphism, replicated in both age groups. Boy carriers of the 7R allele had higher affective knowledge scores than girls, whereas in the absence of the 7R there was no significant sex effect on affective knowledge. The results support the importance of DRD4-III polymorphism and sex differences to social development. Possible explanations for differences from adult findings are discussed, as are pathways for future studies.
Full Text Available The question of how we can define salience, what properties it includes and how we can quantify it have been discussed widely over the past thirty years but we still have more questions than answers about this phenomenon, e. g. not only how salience arises, but also how we can define it. However, despite the lack of a clear definition, salience is often taken into account as an explanatory factor in language change. The scientific discourse on salience has in most cases revolved around phonetic features, while hardly any variables on other linguistic levels have been investigated in terms of their salience. Hence, one goal of this paper is to argue for an expanded view of salience in the sociolinguistic context. This article investigates the variation and change of two groups of variables in Carlisle, an urban speech community in the north west of England. I analyse the variable (th and in particular the replacement of /θ/ with [f] which is widely known as th-fronting. The use of three discourse markers is also examined. Both groups of features will then be discussed in the light of sociolinguistic salience.
Ozmen, Suna Kaymak; Ocal, Tugba; Ozmen, Ahmet
Recently, children's rights issue has taken attention. In this study, main purpose was to investigate the utilisation and knowledge level of 4th and 5th grade primary school students after children's rights training. The participants of this survey study were selected randomly from 10 schools. Results indicated that students had the…
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally and there is an alarming trend in the rise in childhood obesity. In the majority it is caused by an unhealthy diet and lack of exercise in children. With more fast-food restaurants appearing on every street corner it gives children an easy way to eat more unhealthy food. Children are also happier when they sit for hours in front of television or play on their play station. Studies show that in India, nearly 15 to 20% of children are overweight and 30% are in the risk of falling in this category. Although much importance has been given to under-nutrition in our country, obesity is slowly emerging as the future-killer. Hence this study is a small endeavour to know the knowledge and attitude of school children studying in government and private schools in Khammam regarding dietary habits. MATERIALS & METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out to study the Knowledge, attitude and dietary practices of secondary school students in Khammam town over a period of two months. List of schools was obtained from Secondary Education Board. Among the total available schools 128 (includes 38 Government, 90 Private schools, 12 schools were included in the study (6 schools from Government &6 schools from Private strata were selected conveniently. Pre tested, pre designed questionnaire was given to Students that included questions on their eating habits and physical activity and their body mass index (BMI was calculated using Quetelets index. Body mass index (BMI was used to assess students' weight status. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (SPSS version 21.0. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a randomly selected government and private urban schools in Khammam. To assess the Knowledge, attitude regarding dietary practices of secondary school students of Khammam town. RESULTS: Among total number of students
JENNIFER U. DOTADO-MADERAZO
Full Text Available Dental caries among Filipino children ranked second worst among 21 World Health Organization Western Pacific countries. A recent National Oral Health Survey showed that 97 percent of Grade 1 students and 82 percent of Grade 2 students surveyed suffered from tooth decay. WHO (2007 urges governments to “ promote oral health in schools, aiming at developing healthy lifestyles and self care practices in children”. The study assessed the dental health education of public school children in Batangas City to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices of the respondents on oral health; to determine the significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and their assessment on the dental health education and propose a program to improve the project. This study used a descriptive type of research and distributed a standardized questionnaire to 279 public school children of Ilijan, Sta. Rita Kalsada and Julian Pastor Memorial Elementary School. The participants were selected randomly. The findings of the study showed that there is an observed significant to highly significant relationship between the school and the assessment on oral health in terms of knowledge, attitude and practices. This means that their assessment is affected by the school where they belong.
Berling, Trine Villumsen
Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works as...... a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism and...... reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus on...
Pauker, Kristin; Ambady, Nalini; Apfelbaum, Evan P.
The authors explored the emergence and antecedents of racial stereotyping in 89 children ages 3–10 years. Children completed a number of matching and sorting tasks, including a measure designed to assess their knowledge and application of both positive and negative in-group and out-group stereotypes. Results indicate that children start to apply stereotypes to the out-group starting around 6 years of age. Controlling for a number of factors, two predictors contributed significantly towards un...
Turner, Erin E.; Drake, Corey
Researchers have studied the preparation of elementary teachers to teach mathematics to students from diverse racial, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds by focusing either on teachers' learning about children's mathematical thinking (CMT) or, less frequently, about children's cultural funds of knowledge (CFoK) related to mathematics. Despite this…
Roberts, Lindsay S.; Sharma, Sushma; Hudes, Mark L.; Fleming, Sharon E.
Background: African-American and Latino children living in neighborhoods with a low-socioeconomic index are more at risk of obesity-associated metabolic disease than their higher socioeconomic index and/or white peers. Currently, consistent and reliable questionnaires to evaluate nutrition and physical activity knowledge in these children are…
Su, Yi; Su, Lin-Yan
This study investigated the interpretation of the logical words "some" and "every…or…" in 4-15-year-old high-functioning Mandarin-speaking children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD performed similarly to typical controls in demonstrating semantic knowledge of simple sentences with "some", and…
Nash, Hannah; Snowling, Margaret
Background: Children who have poor vocabulary knowledge are at risk of wider language weaknesses and reading comprehension difficulties, which will impact upon their educational achievement. The central question addressed in this paper is how best to teach new vocabulary items to these children. Aims: To investigate the effects of two different…
Plester, Beverly; Wood, Clare; Bell, Victoria
This paper reports on two studies which investigated the relationship between children's texting behaviour, their knowledge of text abbreviations and their school attainment in written language skills. In Study One, 11-12-year-old children provided information on their texting behaviour. They were also asked to translate a standard English…
Doan, Stacey N.; Wang, Qi
This study examined in a cross-cultural context mothers' discussions of mental states and external behaviors in a story-telling task with their 3-year-old children and the relations of such discussions to children's emotion situation knowledge (ESK). The participants were 71 European American and 60 Chinese immigrant mother-child pairs in the…
In the current literature, there is a lively debate about whether a level-k model can be based on salience to explain behaviour in games with distinctive action labels such as hide-and-seek or discoordination games. This study presents six different experiments designed to measure salience. When based on any of these empirical salience measures, the standard level-k model does not explain hide-and-seek behaviour. Modifying the model such that players followsalience when payoffs are equal, the...
Taquet, Maxime; De Vleeschouwer, Christophe; Macq, Benoit
Image hashing is the process of associating a short vector of bits to an image. The resulting summaries are useful in many applications including image indexing, image authentication and pattern recognition. These hashes need to be invariant under transformations of the image that result in similar visual content, but should drastically differ for conceptually distinct contents. This paper proposes an image hashing method that is invariant under rotation, scaling and translation of the image. The gist of our approach relies on the geometric characterization of salient point distribution in the image. This is achieved by the definition of a "saliency graph" connecting these points jointly with an image intensity function on the graph nodes. An invariant hash is then obtained by considering the spectrum of this function in the eigenvector basis of the Laplacian graph, that is, its graph Fourier transform. Interestingly, this spectrum is invariant under any relabeling of the graph nodes. The graph reveals geomet...
Towal, R. Blythe; Mormann, Milica; Koch, Christof
Many decisions we make require visually identifying and evaluating numerous alternatives quickly. These usually vary in reward, or value, and in low-level visual properties, such as saliency. Both saliency and value influence the final decision. In particular, saliency affects fixation locations and durations, which are predictive of choices. However, it is unknown how saliency propagates to the final decision. Moreover, the relative influence of saliency and value is unclear. Here we address...
Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Levine, Susan C.
Before they enter preschool, children vary greatly in their numerical and mathematical knowledge, and this knowledge predicts their achievement throughout elementary school (e.g. Duncan et al., 2007; Ginsburg & Russell, 1981). Therefore, it is critical that we look to the home environment for parental inputs that may lead to these early…
Lee, Sang Ah; Sovrano, Valeria A.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.
Geometry is one of the highest achievements of our species, but its foundations are obscure. Consistent with longstanding suggestions that geometrical knowledge is rooted in processes guiding navigation, the present study examines potential sources of geometrical knowledge in the navigation processes by which young children establish their sense…
Di Gennaro, Menina; And Others
Fifty-three elementary school children were tested on Incidental Science Knowledge, i.e., knowledge acquired by chance outside school, and the results obtained were correlated with intellectual development and cognitive style as measured by interviews and group testing, respectively. Indicates that cognitive style and misconception play a…
Rae, Helen; Murray, George; McKenzie, Karen
The present study examined Scottish teaching staff knowledge about the definition and management of challenging behaviour displayed by children with an intellectual disability. Knowledge levels were relatively low, and participants were most likely to define challenging behaviour by function or topography. Teaching staff were largely unaware of…
Smith, Amy M.
The first purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand the process of social construction of physical knowledge of shadows among preoperational thinkers by examining collaborative behaviors that may lead to new knowledge. The second purpose was to understand children's perspectives concerning the connection between social interaction and learning. The study focused on group collaboration and physical knowledge building as they relate to preoperational thought, a phase of cognitive development in early childhood. The case study consisted of five kindergarten children enrolled in a private, laboratory school at a southern, urban university. Across the eight-week data collection period, the children explored shadows through planned activities on 10 occasions and were interviewed three times in a focus group context. Primary methods for collecting data included videotaping the interviews and participant observations. Data were transcribed and coded inductively to discover emerging patterns while relating these patterns to existing constructivist theories. In addition, field notes, artifacts, and interviews with the children's teacher served to verify the findings. The findings revealed four major themes. Firstly, in terms of collaborative learning, children, while exhibiting a focus on the self, were attracted to learning with each other. Secondly, interactions seldom involved dialogic complexity, revealing minimal rationale, even during conflict. Thirdly, negative behaviors, such as tattling and exclusion, and prosocial behaviors, such as helping, were perceived as integral to the success of social construction of knowledge. The children considered each of these moral behaviors from the personal standpoint of how it affected them emotionally and in accomplishing a learning-related task. Fourthly, in terms of knowledge building, the findings indicated children's knowledge of shadows evolved over time as they participated in a developing scientific community
Pruden, Shannon M.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hennon, Elizabeth A.
A core task in language acquisition is mapping words onto objects, actions, and events. Two studies investigated how children learn to map novel labels onto novel objects. Study 1 investigated whether 10-month-olds use both perceptual and social cues to learn a word. Study 2, a control study, tested whether infants paired the label with a particular spatial location rather than to an object. Results show that 10-month-olds can learn new labels and do so by relying on the perceptual salience o...
Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Zhang, Jiahe; Mantini, Dante; Vanduffel, Wim; Dickerson, Bradford C; Barrett, Lisa Feldman
Successful navigation of the environment requires attending and responding efficiently to objects and conspecifics with the potential to benefit or harm (i.e., that have value). In humans, this function is subserved by a distributed large-scale neural network called the "salience network". We have recently demonstrated that there are two anatomically and functionally dissociable salience networks anchored in the dorsal and ventral portions of the human anterior insula (Touroutoglou et al., 2012). In this paper, we test the hypothesis that these two subnetworks exist in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We provide evidence that a homologous ventral salience network exists in macaques, but that the connectivity of the dorsal anterior insula in macaques is not sufficiently developed as a dorsal salience network. The evolutionary implications of these finding are considered. PMID:26899785
Muratov, Oleg; Boato, Giulia; De Natale, Franesco G. B.
Diversification of retrieval results allows for better and faster search. Recently there has been proposed different methods for diversification of image retrieval results mainly utilizing text information and techniques imported from natural language processing domain. However, images contain visual information that is impossible to describe in text and the use of visual features is inevitable. Visual saliency is information about the main object of an image implicitly included by humans while creating visual content. For this reason it is naturally to exploit this information for the task of diversification of the content. In this work we study whether visual saliency can be used for the task of diversification and propose a method for re-ranking image retrieval results using saliency. The evaluation has shown that the use of saliency information results in higher diversity of retrieval results.
Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André; Stahlberg, Dagmar
Research on terror management theory found evidence that people under mortality salience strive to live up to salient cultural norms and values, like egalitarianism, pacifism, or helpfulness. A basic, strongly internalized norm in most human societies is the norm of reciprocity: people should support those who supported them (i.e., positive reciprocity), and people should injure those who injured them (i.e., negative reciprocity), respectively. In an experiment (N = 98; 47 women, 51 men), mortality salience overall significantly increased personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity (M = 4.45, SD = 0.65) compared to a control condition (M = 4.19, SD = 0.59). Specifically, under mortality salience there was higher motivation to punish those who treated them unfavourably (negative norm of reciprocity). Unexpectedly, relevance of the norm of positive reciprocity remained unaffected by mortality salience. Implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:23234099
Shao-Ping Lu; Song-Hai Zhang
In this paper, we present a video coding scheme which applies the technique of visual saliency computation to adjust image fidelity before compression. To extract visually salient features, we construct a spatio-temporal saliency map by analyzing the video using a combined bottom-up and top-down visual saliency model. We then use an extended bilateral filter, in which the local intensity and spatial scales are adjusted according to visual saliency, to adaptively alter the image fidelity. Our implementation is based on the H.264 video encoder JM12.0. Besides evaluating our scheme with the H.264 reference software, we also compare it to a more traditional foreground-background segmentation-based method and a foveation-based approach which employs Gaussian blurring. Our results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the compression ratio significantly while effectively preserving perceptual visual quality.
Full Text Available This research was prepared in order to determine the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors about nutrition of the families of disabled children. This research population constitute Elazig city and the samples constitute 3 special education schools in the province of Elazig. For the data acquisition was used the questionnaire which consists of four sections. The perso nal information for families consist of 11 items in the first part, the personal information of the children who are incorporated the research consist of 5 items in the second part, the information for the daily diet consist of 3 items in the third part an d for the details related to the child's feeding behavior consist of 11 questions in the fourth part. 250 questionnaireswere sent to familiesfor research, but 122 of them were returned.SPSS 15 statistical program was used for the analysis of research data , the level of significance was taken as 0.05.As statistical analysis was shown the personal information’s of families and children who are involved in research and the frequencies and percentage distributionsrelated to the daily nutrition information. For the detection of the differences between the scores which are obtained from the scale and the other factors were applied "T test" and"one - way variance analysis"(anova test. Finally, it was observed that the average of the scores which obtained from the s calefor the information’s about feeding behaviors of the children who participated in the research is near to the lowest average which is obtained generally from the scale. This case suggests that the attitudes towards nutritionof the families and children who included in the research are low. Forming our research group of this particular group of healthy nutrition with nutritional information both in terms of their own health as well as future generations will be important.
Carden, Marcus A; Newlin, Jennifer; Smith, Wally; Sisler, India
This study was conducted to measure the health literacy (HL) and disease-specific knowledge (DSK) of caregivers for children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and relate them to their child's health care utilization. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of caregiver-child dyads attending an urban pediatric sickle cell clinic. Caregivers were administered the Shortened Test of Functional Health Literacy (S-TOFHLA) and a locally developed DSK questionnaire. Retrospective review of the child's electronic medical record (EMR) was performed to determine annual emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. A total of 142 caregiver-child dyads were recruited for the study. Less than 5% of caregivers had limited HL, with less education (P =.03) and primary language other than English (P =.04) being the only risk factors. Although caregiver HL was not associated with ED visits or hospitalizations, surprisingly DSK was. Caregivers with higher DSK scores had children with higher annual rates of ED utilization (P =.002) and hospitalizations (P =.001), and these children were also more likely to be classified as high ED utilizers (≥4 visits per year; P =.01). Further, caregiver adherence to medication and clinic visits was associated with their child's age (P =.01). Although HL and DSK are both constructs that measure basic health understanding, they differently affect caregivers' ability to navigate and understand the health care system of children with chronic illnesses. This study suggests that the DSK/health care utilization relationship may be a more important measure than HL for programs following children with sickle cell disease and could also have applications in other pediatric chronic diseases. PMID:26934177
Slepoy, Alexander; Campisi, Anthony; Backer, Alejandro
Saliency detection in images is an important outstanding problem both in machine vision design and the understanding of human vision mechanisms. Recently, seminal work by Itti and Koch resulted in an effective saliency-detection algorithm. We reproduce the original algorithm in a software application Vision and explore its limitations. We propose extensions to the algorithm that promise to improve performance in the case of difficult-to-detect objects.
Engelke, Ulrich; Barkowsky, Marcus; Callet, Patrick Le; Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
Existing video quality metrics do usually not take into consideration that spatial regions in video frames are of varying saliency and thus, differently attract the viewer's attention. This paper proposes a model of saliency awareness to complement existing video quality metrics, with the aim to improve the agreement of objectively predicted quality with subjectively rated quality. For this purpose, we conducted a subjective experiment in which human observers rated the annoyance of vide...
Zehetleitner, Michael; Hegenloh, Michael; Müller, Hermann J
Visual salience maps are assumed to mediate target selection decisions in a motor-unspecific manner; accordingly, modulations of salience influence yes/no target detection or left/right localization responses in manual key-press search tasks, as well as ocular or skeletal movements to the target. Although widely accepted, this core assumption is based on little psychophysical evidence. At least four modulations of salience are known to influence the speed of visual search for feature singletons: (i) feature contrast, (ii) cross-trial dimension sequence and (iii) semantic pre-cueing of the target dimension, and (iv) dimensional target redundancy. If salience guides also manual pointing movements, their initiation latencies (and durations) should be affected by the same four manipulations of salience. Four experiments, each examining one of these manipulations, revealed this to be the case. Thus, these effects are seen independently of the motor response required to signal the perceptual decision (e.g., directed manual pointing as well as simple yes/no detection responses). This supports the notion of a motor-unspecific salience map, which guides covert attention as well as overt eye and hand movements. PMID:21282341
Wang, Xiaodong; Dai, Jialun; Zhu, Yafei; Zheng, Haiyong; Qiao, Xiaoyan
Suppressing nonsalient patterns by smoothing the amplitude spectrum at an appropriate scale has been shown to effectively detect the visual saliency in the frequency domain. Different filter scales are required for different types of salient objects. We observe that the optimal scale for smoothing amplitude spectrum shares a specific relation with the size of the salient region. Based on this observation and the bottom-up saliency detection characterized by spectrum scale-space analysis for natural images, we propose to detect visual saliency, especially with salient objects of different sizes and locations via automatic adaptive amplitude spectrum analysis. We not only provide a new criterion for automatic optimal scale selection but also reserve the saliency maps corresponding to different salient objects with meaningful saliency information by adaptive weighted combination. The performance of quantitative and qualitative comparisons is evaluated by three different kinds of metrics on the four most widely used datasets and one up-to-date large-scale dataset. The experimental results validate that our method outperforms the existing state-of-the-art saliency models for predicting human eye fixations in terms of accuracy and robustness.
Kelley, Nicholas J; Crowell, Adrienne L; Tang, David; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J
Disgust protects the physical self. The present authors suggest that disgust also contributes to the protection of the psychological self by fostering stronger defensive reactions to existential concerns. To test this idea, 3 studies examined the link between disgust sensitivity and defensive responses to mortality salience or "terror management" processes (Greenberg, Solomon, & Pyszczynski, 1997). Each study included an individual difference measure of disgust sensitivity, a manipulation of mortality salience, and a dependent measure of defensive responding. In Study 1, disgust sensitivity predicted increases in worldview defense in the mortality salience condition but not in the control condition. In Study 2, disgust sensitivity predicted increases in optimistic perceptions of the future in the mortality salience condition but not in the control condition. In Study 3, disgust sensitivity predicted reductions in delay discounting for those in the mortality salience condition such that those higher in disgust sensitivity discounted the future less. This pattern did not occur in the control condition. These findings highlight disgust sensitivity as a key to understanding reactions to mortality salience, and they support the view that disgust-related responses protect against both physical (e.g., noxious substances) and psychological threats. PMID:25775230
Frede, Valerie; Nobes, Gavin; Frappart, Soren; Panagiotaki, Georgia; Troadec, Bertrand; Martin, Alan
Studies of children's knowledge of the Earth have led to very different conclusions: some appear to show that children construct their own, non-scientific "theories" (mental models) of the flat, hollow or dual Earth. Others indicate that many young children have some understanding of the spherical (scientific) Earth, and that their knowledge lacks…
Bhasin S. K
Full Text Available Research questions: 1. What is the level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS amongst school children in East Delhi? 2. What is the impact of IEC intervention on the level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS in these children? Objective: To find out the impact of IEC intervention on awareness regarding HIV/AIDS amongst senior secondary boys and girls in schools of East Delhi. Study design: Pre and post IEC interventional study. Settings: In four randomly selected senior secondary schools in East Delhi. Participants: 294 boys and 333 girls of class XI and XII in pre IEC group and 239 boys and 203 girls in post IEC group. Intervention: An IEC package of exhibition of posters, videotapes and intra group open discussion. Outcome variables: Proportion (prevalence of school children having correct knowledge of various aspects of HIV/AIDS after IEC intervention. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test. Results: IEC intervention significantly generated an enhancing effect on most aspects of their awareness towards HIV/AIDS among both boys and girls. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to impart health education for dispelling misconceptions regarding this disease.
Full Text Available There are few reports about the effects of perinatal acquired brain lesions on the development of visual perception. These studies demonstrate nonseverely impaired visual-spatial abilities and preserved visual memory. Longitudinal data analyzing the effects of compromised perceptions on long-term visual knowledge in agnosics are limited to lesions having occurred in adulthood. The study of children with focal lesions of the visual pathways provides a unique opportunity to assess the development of visual memory when perceptual input is degraded. We assessed visual recognition and visual memory in three children with lesions to the visual cortex having occurred in early infancy. We then explored the time course of visual memory impairment in two of them at 2 years and 3.7 years from the initial assessment. All children exhibited apperceptive visual agnosia and visual memory impairment. We observed a longitudinal improvement of visual memory modulated by the structural properties of objects. Our findings indicate that processing of degraded perceptions from birth results in impoverished memories. The dynamic interaction between perception and memory during development might modulate the long-term construction of visual representations, resulting in less severe impairment.
Ahmed, I S; Eltom, A R; Karrar, Z A; Gibril, A R
A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers in the rural communities of two villages in Sudan regarding diarrhoeal diseases in children was conducted using a focus group research technique. Seven groups of literate mothers (87 mothers) and 13 groups of illiterate mothers (152 mothers) interviewed comprised 85% of mothers with children under 5 years of age in that community. The study showed that mothers can define and describe diarrhoea, however awareness about the aetiology and the importance of germs in its causation was low. The majority of mothers attributed diarrhoea to teething, milk of pregnant women, hot food and salty water. Less than 40% of mothers identify symptoms and signs of "dehydration" and the need for consultation. Only 10% could relate danger signs to severe dehydration. The ORS use rate was very low (2.1-4.3%). Although awareness about ORS was high (100%), only 25% prepared and used it correctly. However, home made fluids including rice water, custard, pap and tabaladi juice were used by 45% of the mothers. 45% of illiterate mothers stop breast feeding and food during diarrhoea compared to 30% of literate mothers. Harmful practices used in caring for children with diarrhoea included: fumigation (50%), cauterization and removal of teeth buds (45% illiterate mothers, 10% literate), withholding of breast feeding and indiscriminate use of drugs and herbs in 30%. PMID:7859655
Full Text Available Many books for young children present animals in fantastical and unrealistic ways, as wearing clothes, talking and engaging in human-like activities. This research examined whether anthropomorphism in children’s books affects children’s learning and conceptions of animals, by specifically assessing the impact of depictions (a bird wearing clothes and reading a book and language (bird described as talking and as having human intentions. In Study 1, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children saw picture books featuring realistic drawings of a novel animal. Half of the children also heard factual, realistic language, while the other half heard anthropomorphized language. In Study 2, we replicated the first study using anthropomorphic illustrations of real animals. The results show that the language used to describe animals in books has an effect on children’s tendency to attribute human-like traits to animals, and that anthropomorphic storybooks affect younger children’s learning of novel facts about animals. These results indicate that anthropomorphized animals in books may not only lead to less learning but also influence children’s conceptual knowledge of animals.
Finnegan, Deborah A; Rainchuso, Lori; Jenkins, Susan; Kierce, Erin; Rothman, Andrew
The incidence of early childhood caries (ECC) is a global public health concern. The oral health knowledge of a caregiver can affect a child's risk for developing ECC. An exploratory study of the oral health knowledge and behaviors among caregivers of children 6 years of age and younger was conducted with a convenience sample of adults (n = 114) enrolled in English language or high school equivalency examination courses. The majority of study participants were born in Asia (47 %). Other birth regions included South America (16 %), Caribbean (16 %), Africa (10 %), and Central America (6 %). Study findings showed caregivers with low oral health knowledge were more likely to engage in behaviors that increase a child's risk for developing ECC. A statistically significant relationship was found between participants' rating of their child's dental health as poor and the belief that children should not be weaned from the nursing bottle by 12 months of age (P = 0.002), brushing should not begin upon tooth eruption (P = 0.01), and fluoride does not strengthen teeth and prevent dental caries (P = 0.005). Subjects who pre-chewed their child's food also exhibited behaviors including sharing eating utensils or a toothbrush with their child (P < 0.001). Additional caregiver behaviors included providing their child with a bottle containing cariogenic liquids in a crib (P < 0.001). As a result of this research, it is pertinent that culturally sensitive oral health promotion programs are developed and implemented to raise awareness and reduce the risk of dental disease among immigrant populations. PMID:26370378
Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge and practice of handwashing after critical moments among mothers of under five children and to recommend measures for improvement of handwashing practices based on the study findings Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was undertaken during February 2010 covering 28 villages around coastal South India. The EPI 30-cluster sampling method was used and 1898 mothers of under five children were interviewed about their knowledge and practice regarding handwashing after critical moments. Results: 83.41% mothers stated handwashing was important for prevention of communicable diseases. 77.82% opined that washing hands with only water was sufficient. 38.88% and 24.92% stated handwashing could prevent diarrhoea and ARI respectively. 80.08% mothers thought handwashing was crucial before eating meals; 56.90%, 41.73% and 40.73% respectively felt that it was important to wash hands after defeacation, before preparing food and feeding child. 73.18% mothers washed hands with soap and water after defeacation and 63.91% after cleaning the child who had defeacated. Majority wash their hands with only water before preparing food (71.86% and feeding the child (67.39%. Mothers with per capita monthly family income of Rs.1001-2000 and more, education of 5-7 standard and above, belonging to a joint family and Christian background had better handwashing practices. However, daily labourer mothers were at highest risk of not washing hands at all critical moments. Conclusion: Knowledge and practice of handwashing is low among rural mothers. Hence there is a need to spread importance of proper and regular handwashing in rural areas through available evidence based BCC strategies and multiple dissemination channels.
Ahmad Nadeem; Athira; Ankitha K .; Athira V; Asha,; Bency; Anas; Ahemmed
BACKGROUND : Immunization is the most cost effective public health intervention to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality. Thousands of children can be saved from vaccine preventable diseases each year by immunization. The knowledge of mothers’ is an important factor for better immunization coverage. Less knowledge affects decision making regarding immunization. OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge about immunization of under five children among mothers a ...
Varga, Nicole L; Stewart, Rebekah A; Bauer, Patricia J
Semantic memory, defined as our store of knowledge about the world, provides representational support for all of our higher order cognitive functions. As such, it is crucial that the contents of semantic memory remain accessible over time. Although memory for knowledge learned through direct observation has been investigated previously, we know very little about the retention of knowledge derived through integration of information acquired across separate learning episodes. The current research investigated cross-episode integration in 4-year-old children. Participants were presented with novel facts via distinct story episodes and tested for knowledge extension through cross-episode integration as well as for retention of the information over a 1-week delay. In Experiment 1, children retained the self-derived knowledge over the delay, although performance was primarily evidenced in a forced-choice format. In Experiment 2, we sought to facilitate the accessibility and robustness of self-derived knowledge by providing a verbal reminder after the delay. The accessibility of self-derived knowledge increased irrespective of whether participants successfully demonstrated knowledge of the integration facts during the first visit. The results suggest that knowledge extended through integration remains accessible after delays even in a population where this learning process is less robust. The findings also demonstrate the facilitative effect of reminders on the accessibility and further extension of knowledge over extended time periods. PMID:26774259
According to Terror Management Theory (TMT), many human behaviors, attitudes, and thoughts are the result of an attempt to reduce the uncomfortable feelings associated with the knowledge that human life is finite. Although many of TMT’s postulates have been supported by research, the assumption that an underlying desire for literal or symbolic immortality is partly responsible for mortality salience responses has received less research attention. Additionally, there has been little research i...
Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; de Chambrier, Anne-Françoise
Our study investigated if phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge were predictors of reading progress in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) with unspecified etiology. An academic achievement test was administered to 129 children with mild or moderate ID when they were 6-8 years old, as well as one and two school years later. Findings indicated that phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age predicted progress in word and non-word reading after one school year and two school years after controlling for IQ, age, expressive vocabulary, spoken language, and type of placement. Phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age also predicted progress in reading comprehension after one school year and two school years. These findings suggest that training phonological awareness skills combined with explicit phonics instruction is important to foster reading progress in children with mild and moderate ID with unspecified etiology. PMID:25965277
This paper reports the findings of a small-scale research project, which investigated the levels of awareness and knowledge of written standard English of 10- and 11-year-old children in two English primary schools over a six-year period, coinciding with the implementation in the schools of the National Literacy Strategy (NLS). A questionnaire was used to provide quantitative and qualitative data relating to: features of writing which were recognised as standard or non-standard; children's un...
Alkon, A; Crowley, AA; Neelon, SE; Hill, S.; Pan, Y.; Nguyen, V.; Rose, R.; Savage, E; Forestieri, N; Shipman, L; Kotch, JB
BACKGROUND: To address the public health crisis of overweight and obese preschool-age children, the Nutrition And Physical Activity Self Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) intervention was delivered by nurse child care health consultants with the objective of improving child care provider and parent nutrition and physical activity knowledge, center-level nutrition and physical activity policies and practices, and children's body mass index (BMI). METHODS: A seven-month randomized control tr...
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Parental anxiety and apprehension is related to inadequate knowledge of fever and febrile convulsion. AIMS: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the parents of children with febrile convulsions. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective questionnaire based study in a tertiary care centre carried over a period of one year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 140 parents of consecutive children presenting with febrile convulsion were enrolled. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square test. RESULTS: 83 parents (59.3% could not recognise the convulsion; 90.7% (127 did not carry out any intervention prior to getting the child to the hospital. The commonest immediate effect of the convulsion on the parents was fear of death (n= 126, 90% followed by insomnia (n= 48, 34.3%, anorexia (n= 46, 32.9%, crying (n= 28, 20% and fear of epilepsy (n= 28, 20%. Fear of brain damage, fear of recurrence and dyspepsia were voiced by the fathers alone (n= 20, cumulative incidence 14.3%. 109 (77.9% parents did not know the fact that the convulsion can occur due to fever. The long-term concerns included fear of epilepsy (n= 64, 45.7% and future recurrence (n= 27, 19.3% in the affected child. For 56 (40% of the parents every subsequent episode of fever was like a nightmare. Only 21 parents (15% had thermometer at home and 28 (20% knew the normal range of body temperature. Correct preventive measures were known only to 41 (29.2%. Awareness of febrile convulsion and the preventive measures was higher in socio-economic grade (P< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The parental fear of fever and febrile convulsion is a major problem with serious negative consequences affecting daily familial life.
Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A
Fast food restaurants spend millions of dollars annually on child-targeted marketing, a substantial portion of which is allocated to toy premiums for kids' meals. The objectives of this study were to describe fast food toy premiums, and examine whether young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums was associated with their fast food consumption. Parents of 3- to 5-year old children were recruited from pediatric and WIC clinics in Southern New Hampshire, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April 2013-March 2014. Parents reported whether their children usually knew what toys were being offered at fast food restaurants, and whether children had eaten at any of four restaurants that offer toy premiums with kids' meals (McDonald's, Burger King, Subway, Wendy's) during the 7 days preceding the survey. Seventy-one percent of eligible parents participated (N = 583); 48.4% did not receive any education beyond high school, and 27.1% of children were non-white. Half (49.7%) the children had eaten at one or more of the four fast food restaurants in the past week; one-third (33.9%) had eaten at McDonald's. The four restaurants released 49 unique toy premiums during the survey period; McDonald's released half of these. Even after controlling for parent fast food consumption and sociodemographics, children were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.82) times more likely to have consumed McDonald's if they usually knew what toys were offered by fast food restaurants. We did not detect a relationship between children's toy knowledge and their intake of fast food from the other restaurants. In this community-based sample, young children's knowledge of fast food toys was associated with a greater frequency of eating at McDonald's, providing evidence in support of regulating child-directed marketing of unhealthy foods using toys. PMID:26471803
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is an extremely common sign in paediatric patients and the most common cause for a child to be taken to the doctor. The literature indicates that physicians and parents have too many misconceptions and conflicting results about fever management. In this study we aim to identify knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in April-May 2010 involving primary care physicians (n=80. The physicians were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used. Results In our study only 10% of the physicians knew that a body temperature of above 37.2°C according to an auxiliary measurement is defined as fever. Only 26.2% of the physicians took into consideration signs and symptoms other than fever to prescribe antipyretics. 85% of the physicians prescribed antipyretics to control fever or prevent complications of fever especially febrile seizures. Most of the physicians (76.3% in this study reported that the height of fever may be used as an indicator for severe bacterial infection. A great majority of physicians (91.3% stated that they advised parents to alternate the use of ibuprofen and paracetamol. Conclusions There were misconceptions about the management and complications of fever. There is a perceived need to improve the recognition, assessment, and management of fever with regards to underlying illnesses in children.
Goodrich, J Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J; Kleuver, Cherie G; Farver, Joann M
In this study we evaluated the predictive validity of conceptual scoring. Two independent samples of Spanish-speaking language minority preschoolers (Sample 1: N = 96, mean age = 54·51 months, 54·3% male; Sample 2: N = 116, mean age = 60·70 months, 56·0% male) completed measures of receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages at two time points approximately 9-12 months apart. We examined whether unique L1 and L2 vocabulary at time 1 predicted later L2 and L1 vocabulary, respectively. Results indicated that unique L1 vocabulary did not predict later L2 vocabulary after controlling for initial L2 vocabulary. An identical pattern of results emerged for L1 vocabulary outcomes. We also examined whether children acquired translational equivalents for words known in one language but not the other. Results indicated that children acquired translational equivalents, providing partial support for the transfer of vocabulary knowledge across languages. PMID:26235695
Wang, Jingwei; Borji, Ali; Jay Kuo, C-C; Itti, Laurent
A large number of saliency models, each based on a different hypothesis, have been proposed over the past 20 years. In practice, while subscribing to one hypothesis or computational principle makes a model that performs well on some types of images, it hinders the general performance of a model on arbitrary images and large-scale data sets. One natural approach to improve overall saliency detection accuracy would then be fusing different types of models. In this paper, inspired by the success of late-fusion strategies in semantic analysis and multi-modal biometrics, we propose to fuse the state-of-the-art saliency models at the score level in a para-boosting learning fashion. First, saliency maps generated by several models are used as confidence scores. Then, these scores are fed into our para-boosting learner (i.e., support vector machine, adaptive boosting, or probability density estimator) to generate the final saliency map. In order to explore the strength of para-boosting learners, traditional transformation-based fusion strategies, such as Sum, Min, and Max, are also explored and compared in this paper. To further reduce the computation cost of fusing too many models, only a few of them are considered in the next step. Experimental results show that score-level fusion outperforms each individual model and can further reduce the performance gap between the current models and the human inter-observer model. PMID:26829792
Ammar, M.; Mitrea, M.; Hasnaoui, M.; Le Callet, P.
Visual saliency maps already proved their efficiency in a large variety of image/video communication application fields, covering from selective compression and channel coding to watermarking. Such saliency maps are generally based on different visual characteristics (like color, intensity, orientation, motion,…) computed from the pixel representation of the visual content. This paper resumes and extends our previous work devoted to the definition of a saliency map solely extracted from the MPEG-4 AVC stream syntax elements. The MPEG-4 AVC saliency map thus defined is a fusion of static and dynamic map. The static saliency map is in its turn a combination of intensity, color and orientation features maps. Despite the particular way in which all these elementary maps are computed, the fusion techniques allowing their combination plays a critical role in the final result and makes the object of the proposed study. A total of 48 fusion formulas (6 for combining static features and, for each of them, 8 to combine static to dynamic features) are investigated. The performances of the obtained maps are evaluated on a public database organized at IRCCyN, by computing two objective metrics: the Kullback-Leibler divergence and the area under curve.
Rae, Helen; Murray, George; McKenzie, Karen
The present study examined Scottish teaching staff knowledge about the definition and management of challenging behaviour displayed by children with an intellectual disability. Knowledge levels were relatively low, and participants were most likely to define challenging behaviour by function or topography. Teaching staff were largely unaware of positive programming strategies, suggesting that they may not be properly equipped to manage challenging behaviour effectively in the longer term. The...
Ben-Bassat, Tamar; Avnieli, Shani
Road safety education for children is one of the most important means for raising awareness of road safety and for educating children to behave safely as pedestrians, bicycle riders, and vehicle passengers. The current research presents a novel attempt to examine the effect of a unique road safety educational program for kindergarten children on a secondary target group-the parents. The program, named the "Zahav Bagan" program (ZBP), is presented at kindergartens once a week during the entire academic year. It is conducted by senior citizen volunteers and is part of the formal education of the children. The main purpose of the current study was to compare the behavior, awareness, and knowledge about child road safety, of two groups of parents-those whose children participated in the ZBP group, and those whose children did not; this latter group was the control group. A telephone-based survey was conducted using a sample of 76 ZBP parents and 59 control group parents. Results of the survey showed no effect of ZBP on parents' knowledge of child road safety law and recommendations, but more importantly, the results did show a significant effect in terms of parents' observance of safe behavior and in their awareness of road safety in everyday life. These results confirm the importance of educational programs on road safety, especially as triggers and reminders to children and to their parents, to act as cautious road users. PMID:27410175
Krüger, Alexander; Tünnermann, Jan; Scharlau, Ingrid
Particular differences between an object and its surrounding cause salience, guide attention, and improve performance in various tasks. While much research has been dedicated to identifying which feature dimensions contribute to salience, much less regard has been paid to the quantitative strength of the salience caused by feature differences. Only a few studies systematically related salience effects to a common salience measure, and they are partly outdated in the light of new findings on the time course of salience effects. We propose Bundesen’s Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) as a theoretical basis for measuring salience and introduce an empirical and modeling approach to link this theory to data retrieved from temporal-order judgments. With this procedure, TVA becomes applicable to a broad range of salience-related stimulus material. Three experiments with orientation pop-out displays demonstrate the feasibility of the method. A 4th experiment substantiates its applicability to the luminance dimension. PMID:27168868
Hatice Yildirim Sari
Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: The purpose of this research is to determine the knowledge of nurses and midwives who are working at primary health care services. METHODS: The information regarding the research has been given to the nurses and midwives working at primary health centers of Manisa, and 70 nurses and midwives have accepted to attend the research. In collecting the data, two questionnaire forms prepared by the researchers have been used and these forms are composed of two parts. In the first part of the questionnaire, there are questions about the sociodemografhic characteristics of midwives and nurses; in the second one the questions are related to the symptoms and causes of mental-handicap and the attempts regarding the mentally-handicapped child and his family. RESULTS: The nurses and midwives have stated that the most important cause of mental handicap is marriages among relatives (92.9%. and that in a situation of not being able to fullfill mental motor skills in relation to age, they suspect mental handicap (90%. They have also stated that they mostly have or can have difficulty in communucating with the mentally-handicapped child (64%. CONCLUSION: As a result, the nurses and midwives have adequate knowledge about the causes and symptoms of mental handicap. On the other hand, their knowledge regarding the services to be planned in care of mentally-handicapped children is limited. At the primary health care services, educational studies can be planned in order to give better health service for mentally-handicapped individuals. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 127-132
Hatice Yildirim Sari
Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: The purpose of this research is to determine the knowledge of nurses and midwives who are working at primary health care services. METHODS: The information regarding the research has been given to the nurses and midwives working at primary health centers of Manisa, and 70 nurses and midwives have accepted to attend the research. In collecting the data, two questionnaire forms prepared by the researchers have been used and these forms are composed of two parts. In the first part of the questionnaire, there are questions about the sociodemografhic characteristics of midwives and nurses; in the second one the questions are related to the symptoms and causes of mental-handicap and the attempts regarding the mentally-handicapped child and his family. RESULTS: The nurses and midwives have stated that the most important cause of mental handicap is marriages among relatives (92.9%. and that in a situation of not being able to fullfill mental motor skills in relation to age, they suspect mental handicap (90%. They have also stated that they mostly have or can have difficulty in communucating with the mentally-handicapped child (64%. CONCLUSION: As a result, the nurses and midwives have adequate knowledge about the causes and symptoms of mental handicap. On the other hand, their knowledge regarding the services to be planned in care of mentally-handicapped children is limited. At the primary health care services, educational studies can be planned in order to give better health service for mentally-handicapped individuals. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 127-132
Kirkpatrick, S M; Cobb, A K
training of CHWs. A host of new questions related to respiratory problems such as health beliefs, causative factors, course of disease, traditional treatments, mortality rate, etc. need to be investigated. When transcultural nurses plan health care programs for women and children in other cultures, it is important to recognize the concerns mothers have for their children, and their intense desire to nature and care for them. In this study, mothers willingly participated and demonstrated active interest in learning to use methods to improve the health and well being of their children. It is well documented (Lieban, 1977) that established health beliefs are not automatically discarded when new knowledge is made available, but that exploration and incorporation of new information when presented in a culturally relevant framework does occur. An understanding of local beliefs surrounding health is fundamental to the development of appropriate transcultural nursing interventions. PMID:2363859
Full Text Available Detection of moving foreground in video is very important for many applications, such as visual surveillance, object-based video coding, etc. When objects move with different speeds and under illumination changes, the robustness of moving object detection methods proposed so far is still not satisfactory. In this paper, we use the semantic information to adjust the pixel-wise learning rate adaptively for more robust detection performance, which are obtained by spatial saliency map based on Gaussian mixture model (GMM in luma space and temporal saliency map obtained by background subtraction. In addition, we design a two-pass background estimation framework, in which the initial estimation is used for temporal saliency estimation, and the other is to detect foreground and update model parameters. The experimental results show that our method can achieve better moving object extraction performance than the existing background subtraction method based on GMM.
Moessnang, Carolin; Habel, Ute; Schneider, Frank; Siegel, Steven J.
According to the aberrant-salience hypothesis, attribution of motivational salience is severely disrupted in patients with schizophrenia. To provide a translational approach for investigating underlying mechanisms, neural correlates of salience attribution were examined in normal mice and in a MK-801 model of schizophrenia. Electrophysiological responses to standard and deviant tones were assessed in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) using an auditory oddball paradigm. Motivational salience...
Full Text Available Introduction: Children spend most of the time in school where they are exposed to various types of minor injuries, which influence their present and future state of health. First aid is the treatment of any injury or illness before availability of professional medical aid. Teacher is the key person who can attend the children for minor injuries in school through complete knowledge regarding first aid management. This study was done among primary school teachers to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching program on knowledge and practice regarding first aid management of selected minor injuries in children. Materials and Methods: A Quasi-experimental study with one group pre- and post-test research design was conducted among the primary school teachers of Dehradun district of Uttarakhand. Fifty primary school teachers were selected by nonprobability convenient sampling. Data were collected by knowledge questionnaire (maximum possible score 42 and self-reporting checklist (maximum possible score 23. Result: Majority (94% of the teachers were female. Paired sample t-test revealed that the mean posttest knowledge score regarding first aid management of selected minor injuries was significantly higher (34.76 ± 4.35 than that of mean pretest knowledge score (27.32 ± 5.73 (P < 0.005; mean posttest practice score was significantly higher (18.52 ± 2.63 then mean pretest practice score (14.52 ± 2.39 (P < 0.005. There was a significant positive correlation between knowledge score and practice score of participants (r = 0.9; P < 0.001. Conclusion: This concludes that the training program was effective in significant improvement of knowledge and practice score regarding first aid management of selected minor injuries among study participants. Findings stress the need for such training programs, which in turn may enhance the overall health standard of the children.
This paper describes the expressed models that children aged 7, 11, and 14 years have about micro-organisms and microbial activity. These were elicited using a variety of data collection techniques that complemented each other, resulting in a rich dataset, and provided information about the level of knowledge and progression of ideas across the…
Wells, Nancy M.; Myers, Beth M.; Todd, Lauren E.; Barale, Karen; Gaolach, Brad; Ferenz, Gretchen; Aitken, Martha; Henderson, Charles R.; Tse, Caroline; Pattison, Karen Ostlie; Taylor, Cayla; Connerly, Laura; Carson, Janet B.; Gensemer, Alexandra Z.; Franz, Nancy K.; Falk, Elizabeth
This randomized controlled trial or "true experiment" examines the effects of a school garden intervention on the science knowledge of elementary school children. Schools were randomly assigned to a group that received the garden intervention (n?=?25) or to a waitlist control group that received the garden intervention at the end of the…
Burgess, Stephen R.; Sargent, Stephan; Smith, Melinda; Hill, Nancy; Morrison, Susan
Several authors have suggested that a teacher's ability to encourage a disposition to read may be linked to their personal reading habits and views of literacy. This study examined the relationship between elementary school teachers' reading habits, knowledge of children's literature, and their use of literacy best practices in the classroom. One…
Brock, Jon; Jarrold, Christopher; Farran, Emily K.; Laws, Glynis; Riby, Deborah M.
The comparison of cognitive and linguistic skills in individuals with developmental disorders is fraught with methodological and psychometric difficulties. In this paper, we illustrate some of these issues by comparing the receptive vocabulary knowledge and non-verbal reasoning abilities of 41 children with Williams syndrome, a genetic disorder in…
Zhang, Haopeng; Jiang, Zhiguo; Cheng, Yan
How to obtain accurate difference map remains an open challenge in change detection. To tackle this problem, we propose a change detection method based on saliency detection and wavelet transformation. We do frequency-tuned saliency detection in initial difference image (IDI) obtained by logarithm ratio to get a salient difference image (SDI). Then, we calculate local entropy of SDI to obtain an entropic salient difference image (ESDI). The final difference image (FDI) is the wavelet fusion of IDI and ESDI, and Otsu thresholding is used to extract difference map from FDI. Experimental results validate the effectiveness and feasibility.
Full Text Available Maintaining appropriate oral cavity hygiene in a young child is closely related to the health awareness and health-promoting behaviours of their parents/guardians, and especially that of the child’s mother. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of pregnant women regarding best practice oral hygiene procedures in young children. The survey involved 327 pregnant women aged 16-49 years, and the tool utilized was an anonymous questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included seven one-choice questions concerning basic information on proper oral hygiene procedures as should be practiced by young children. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica PROGRAM 10 (StatSoft. The results of the survey reveal 60.55% of all surveyed had correct knowledge with regard to appropriate cleaning practices for the toothless oral cavity of an infant, that concerning the beginning of tooth brushing - 70.03%, tooth cleaning after night feeding - 39.76%, the duration of tooth brushing (at least 3-4 minutes - 43.12%. What is more, the result of the survey demonstrate that slightly more than a half of the surveyed mothers (53.82% would encourage their children to brush their teeth on their own from the first year of age, while 18.35% believe that children should be assisted in tooth brushing at least to their eighth year of age, and 59.63% would use fluoride toothpaste to brush their child’s teeth before he or she is one year old. Of the participants in this survey, pregnant women with university education, those living in large cities, or who are older, and those who had had previous pregnancies, show greater knowledge regarding suitable oral hygiene practices among young children. Our results reveal that extensive application of modern information technologies can be a means of preventing early childhood caries by facilitating the transmission of knowledge on proper nutrition and oral hygiene practices among young children.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for the management of fever in children have been recently published, however “fever phobia” is still spreading. To provide information which may sustain educational interventions tailored to our population we investigated the parental and medical knowledge and management of fever in preschool children. Methods A questionnaire was administered to a convenient sample of Italian parents and paediatricians. The questionnaire elicited information about definition and cause of fever, concerns about fever, method of temperature measurement, and treatment modalities. Results Overall, 388 parents and 480 paediatricians were interviewed. All the parents believed that fever could cause at least one harmful effect and 89.9% (n = 349 believed that, if left untreated, it can cause brain damage or seizures. Parents used multiple resources to obtain information about fever but 67.8% (n = 264 considered paediatricians as their primary resource. Several wrong behaviours were found in the same proportions among parents and paediatricians: 78.5% of paediatricians (n = 377 and 77.8% of parents (n = 302 used physical method to reduce fever (P = 0.867; 27.0% of paediatricians (n = 103 and 21.4% (n = 83 of parents declared to alternate ibuprofen and acetaminophen (P = 0.953. Differently, 73.1% (n = 351 of paediatricians preferred oral to rectal administration of antipyretics compared to 48.7% (n = 190 of parents (P Conclusions Paediatricians’ attitudes greatly influence the parental behaviours and beliefs. Implementation of educational programs regarding the management of the febrile child are needed in our setting.
Wang, Rui; Yang, Yingying; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong; Wu, Jinyi; Wang, Keran; Maddock, Jay E; Lu, Yuanan
To assess the status of, and factors associated with, residents' knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to air pollution and respiratory health of children in Shanghai, we conducted a cross-sectional survey. Demographic factors associated with residents' knowledge were identified by multiple logistic regressions. The questionnaires were completed by 972 participants, half from the Shanghai Children Hospital and the other half from the Jiading communities. Half of the participants' scores of knowledge and attitudes were equal or greater than 8.0 on a 9-point scale, over 75% of respondents' practice scores were equal to or less than 4.0. Our studies demonstrated a significant difference of average knowledge scores between the two groups (t = 1.27, p air quality and their perception of the government's efforts to alleviate it. The hospital and community groups also showed significant differences in practices geared towards protecting their children's health. Nearly 90% of the respondents agreed that improving air quality is the responsibility of every citizen, and the joint action of governments and all citizens should be utilized for enhanced control. In addition, more resources should be allocated towards providing citizens with appropriate practices to help lessen the effects of poor air quality. PMID:25664694
Jin, Yichen; Chen, Jingqi; Yu, Buyi
To examine the level of child sexual abuse prevention knowledge and skills in a sample of school-aged children, a total of 559 children from first to fifth grade were recruited from one primary school in Beijing, China. Participants were asked to finish a questionnaire surveying their knowledge and skills of child sexual abuse prevention. Results showed that accurate rate of knowledge on child sexual abuse prevention were between 44.0% and 80.0%. Percentage of participants having applied the self-protection skills of "saying 'no,'" "going away," and "telling adults" properly in hypothetical situations was 57.4%, 28.3%, and 48.3%, respectively. Third-to-fifth graders had a better performance than first-to-second graders, and girls performed better than boys. Findings suggest that Chinese school-aged children are in need of knowledge and skills related to child sexual abuse prevention, and education programs should be developed as soon as possible. PMID:27561123
Ayodeji M. Adebayo
Full Text Available Introduction. The morbidity and mortality from malaria are still unacceptably high in the developing countries, especially among the vulnerable groups like pregnant women and under-five children, despite all control efforts. The knowledge about the preventive measures of malaria is an important preceding factor for the acceptance and use of malaria preventive measures like Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN by community members. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge of malaria prevention among caregivers of under-five children and pregnant women in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria. Methodology. This is part of a larger malaria prevention study in rural Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women and caregivers of under-five children in Igbo-Ora, a rural town in Southwest Nigeria using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information was obtained on knowledge of malaria prevention, and overall composite scores were computed for knowledge of malaria prevention and ITN use. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square with the level of statistical significance set at 5%. Results. Of the 631 respondents, 84.9% were caregivers of under-five children and 67.7% were married. Mean age was 27.7 ± 6.3 years with 53.4% aged between 20 and 29 years. Majority (91.1% had at least primary school education and 60.2% were traders. Overall, 57.7% had poor knowledge of malaria prevention. A good proportion (83.5% were aware of the use of ITN for malaria prevention while 30.6% had poor knowledge of its use. Respondents who were younger (<30 years, had at least primary education and earn <10,000/per month had significantly poor knowledge of ITN use in malaria prevention. Majority (60.0% respondents had poor attitude regarding use of ITNs. Conclusion. This study showed that the knowledge of malaria prevention is still low among
Adebayo, Ayodeji M; Akinyemi, Oluwaseun O; Cadmus, Eniola O
Introduction. The morbidity and mortality from malaria are still unacceptably high in the developing countries, especially among the vulnerable groups like pregnant women and under-five children, despite all control efforts. The knowledge about the preventive measures of malaria is an important preceding factor for the acceptance and use of malaria preventive measures like Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN) by community members. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge of malaria prevention among caregivers of under-five children and pregnant women in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria. Methodology. This is part of a larger malaria prevention study in rural Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women and caregivers of under-five children in Igbo-Ora, a rural town in Southwest Nigeria using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information was obtained on knowledge of malaria prevention, and overall composite scores were computed for knowledge of malaria prevention and ITN use. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square with the level of statistical significance set at 5%. Results. Of the 631 respondents, 84.9% were caregivers of under-five children and 67.7% were married. Mean age was 27.7 ± 6.3 years with 53.4% aged between 20 and 29 years. Majority (91.1%) had at least primary school education and 60.2% were traders. Overall, 57.7% had poor knowledge of malaria prevention. A good proportion (83.5%) were aware of the use of ITN for malaria prevention while 30.6% had poor knowledge of its use. Respondents who were younger (<30 years), had at least primary education and earn <10,000/per month had significantly poor knowledge of ITN use in malaria prevention. Majority (60.0%) respondents had poor attitude regarding use of ITNs. Conclusion. This study showed that the knowledge of malaria prevention is still low among under
Full Text Available Objective: This study sought to explore the knowledge and attitudes of parents on the use of antibiotics among children that could serve as baseline data and provide further insight in planning and developing strategies for local health education purposes. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 500 parents who attended community pharmacies in Tetovo, Republic of Macedonia, was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire from October 2013 to January 2014. The questionnaire included demographics, knowledge and attitude statements of parents towards antibiotics. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS program, version 19.0. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the data. In all statistical analyses, a p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Nearly 40% of the parents demonstrated a moderate level of knowledge. The highest correct response in the knowledge part was the awareness of parents in using antibiotics to treat a bacterial infection (61.2%. However, most of the parents did not know that antibiotics cannot cure viral infections (59.6%. About 48.2% of the parents were aware of the antibiotic resistance as s result of the overuse. Concerning attitudes, 60.8% reported keeping any leftover antibiotics, 77.0% agreed that taking antibiotics when having cold symptoms could help their children recover faster, while, 74.6% wrongly agreed with the statement of appropriate use of antibiotics for prophylaxis’ measure. Conclusions: This study has documented the main areas that merit attention when parental knowledge on antibiotic use for their children is the concern, reflecting in some inappropriate attitudes as well. The findings highlight the need to devise effective interventions to decrease misconceptions regarding antibiotic use and to increase parents’ awareness for the risks of inappropriate use of antibiotics in children specifically and in the community at large.
Wells, Nancy M.; Myers, Beth M.; Todd, Lauren E.; Barale, Karen; Gaolach, Brad; Ferenz, Gretchen; Aitken, Martha; Henderson, Charles R., , Jr.; Tse, Caroline; Pattison, Karen Ostlie; Taylor, Cayla; Connerly, Laura; Carson, Janet B.; Gensemer, Alexandra Z.; Franz, Nancy K.; Falk, Elizabeth
This randomized controlled trial or 'true experiment' examines the effects of a school garden intervention on the science knowledge of elementary school children. Schools were randomly assigned to a group that received the garden intervention (n = 25) or to a waitlist control group that received the garden intervention at the end of the study (n = 24). The garden intervention consisted of both raised-bed garden kits and a series of 19 lessons. Schools, located in the US states of Arkansas, Iowa, Washington, and New York, were all low-income as defined by having 50% or more children qualifying for the federal school lunch program. Participants were students in second, fourth, and fifth grade (ages 6-12) at baseline (n = 3,061). Science knowledge was measured using a 7-item questionnaire focused on nutritional science and plant science. The survey was administered at baseline (Fall 2011) and at three time points during the intervention (Spring 2012, Fall 2012, and Spring 2013). Garden intervention fidelity (GIF) captured the robustness or fidelity of the intervention delivered in each classroom based on both lessons delivered and garden activities. Analyses were conducted using general linear mixed models. Survey data indicated that among children in the garden intervention, science knowledge increased from baseline to follow-up more than among control group children. However, science knowledge scores were uniformly poor and gains were very modest. GIF, which takes into account the robustness of the intervention, revealed a dose-response relation with science knowledge: more robust or substantial intervention implementations corresponded to stronger treatment effects.
Van Tubbergen, Marie; Omichinski, Donna; Warschausky, Seth
Communication can be difficult for children with conditions such as cerebral palsy because of speech and physical impairments. For this group of children, choice-making is often limited to choices of personal preferences; however, preferences do not reveal intellectual abilities. Therefore, choice-making should be presented to these children in…
Holm, Anders; Wang, Camilla; Kousholt, Dorte; Ravn, Ib; Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Rasmussen, Ove Steiner; Berliner, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Yung; Brandi, Ulrik
Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) can enhance the life chances of all children, and especially socially disadvantaged children. In the Nordic daycare systems, however, it is not clear if ECEC provides equal social and intellectual opportunities for socially disadvantaged children. The VIDA intervention program Knowledge-based efforts for socially disadvantaged children in daycare – a model program presented in this report, aims at improving all children’s well-being and cognitive func...
Folayan, Morenike O; Kolawole, Kikelomo A; Oyedele, Titus; Chukumah, Nneka M; Onyejaka, Nneka; Agbaje, Hakeem; Oziegbe, Elizabeth O; Osho, Olusegun V
Background The objectives of this study were to assess the association between children and parents’ knowledge of caries preventive practices, the parents’ caries preventive oral health behaviours and children’s caries preventive oral health behaviour and caries experience. Method Three hundred and twenty four participants aged 8–12 years, 308 fathers and 318 mothers were recruited through a household survey conducted in Suburban Nigeria. A questionnaire was administered to generate informati...
Hui-Chin Koo; Poh B. K; Ruzita A. T
Introduction: The potential contribution of knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) studies towards whole grains on childhood obesity research and control has not received much attention in Malaysia. This study aimed to evaluate KAP towards whole grains among children aged 10 and 11 years in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods: A cross sectional study was undertaken in six randomly selected primary schools in Kuala Lumpur. A validated questionnaire encompassing socio-demography (2...
Negen, J; Sarnecka, BW
© 2014 The British Psychological Society. Although everyone perceives approximate numerosities, some people make more accurate estimates than others. The accuracy of this estimation is called approximate number system (ANS) acuity. Recently, several studies have reported that individual differences in young children's ANS acuity are correlated with their knowledge of exact numbers such as the word 'six' (Mussolin et al., 2012, Trends Neurosci. Educ., 1, 21; Shusterman et al., 2011, Connecting...
Szalewska Magdalena; Boryczko Monika; Kapica Anna; Lemejda Justyna; Lukasik Marta; Pietryka-Michalowska Elzbieta; Szymanska Jolanta
Maintaining appropriate oral cavity hygiene in a young child is closely related to the health awareness and health-promoting behaviours of their parents/guardians, and especially that of the child’s mother. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of pregnant women regarding best practice oral hygiene procedures in young children. The survey involved 327 pregnant women aged 16-49 years, and the tool utilized was an anonymous questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included seven one...
Reisch, Lucia A; Gwozdz, Wencke; Barba, Gianvincenzo; De Henauw, Stefaan; Lascorz, Natalia; Pigeot, Iris
To understand the rising prevalence of childhood obesity in affluent societies, it is necessary to take into account the growing obesity infrastructure, which over past decades has developed into an obesogenic environment. This study examines the effects of one of the constituent factors of consumer societies and a potential contributory factor to childhood obesity: commercial food communication targeted to children. Specifically, it investigates the impact of TV advertising on children's food knowledge and food preferences and correlates these findings with their weight status. Evaluations of traditional information- and education-based interventions suggest that they may not sustainably change food patterns. Based on prior consumer research, we propose five hypotheses, which we then test using a subsample from the IDEFICS study, a large-scale pan-European intervention study on childhood obesity. The results indicate that advertising has divergent effects on children's food knowledge and preferences and that food knowledge is unrelated to food preferences. This finding has important implications for both future research and public policy. PMID:23691285
Leonardo dos Santos ANTUNES
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose was to evaluate the level of perception and knowledge on buccal health, diet and hygiene in children and educators of a public school of Niterói-Rio de Janeiro. Method: The sample constituted by 60 children (4 7 years subdivided in two groups of analysis (G1- 4 to 5 years and G2- 6 to 7 years and 25 teachers. For collection of the data two forms had been used (F1- children and F2- educators; F1 contain figures of the food and hygiene resources, while F2 presented questions regarding buccal health, diet and hygiene. The data had been tabulated and analyzed (SPSS 11.0. Results: It was identified that only 24% of the educators presented knowledge necessary on hygienic cleaning to guide parents and children. Although 76% know the importance of foods for teeth, 47.36% didn´t know what kind of food were more healthful (p < 0.05. About the children, 83.3% of G1 and 93.3% of G2 had perceived the importance of the hygiene for teeth, and only 13.3% of G1 and 16.7% of G2 had even so recognized the diet as a representative factor for the buccal health. Conclusion: The authors concluded that even so the majority of the children perceives the importance of the buccal hygiene, these do not recognize the paper of the diet for the maintenance of the health, what it comes to the meeting of the lack of preparation of the educators to guide them, having the necessity of bigger integration school-dentist through lectures and instructions.
Full Text Available Background: The school oral health education program is believed to be a cost-effective method for promoting oral health. The KAP (knowledge–attitude–practice model of oral health education is often the foundation of most health education programs. Objectives: To assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and oral health care practices among 11- to 13-year-old children and the association of knowledge with attitude, oral health care practices, and dental caries prevalence. Design: Cross-sectional design, involving 858 children studying in class seven at various schools in the city of Mangalore, India. The children were selected using stratified random sampling method. Prevalence of dental caries was determined using decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT index. A self-administered questionnaire on self-care practices in oral health, knowledge, and attitude toward oral health care was filled by children. The association of different variables with knowledge was analyzed using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: The dental caries prevalence was 59.4%, and 54.5% had low knowledge. They lacked knowledge regarding use of fluoridated toothpaste and did not use them. Children with low knowledge had significantly higher odds of having DMFT ≥ 1, not using fluoridated toothpaste, and being afraid of going to the dentist due to possible pain. There was no association of other oral health care practices and attitudes with knowledge. Conclusion: Oral health care practices and attitudes are not fully explained by knowledge, and other models of health education need to be considered.
Kasser, T; Sheldon, K M
Theoretical work suggests that feelings of insecurity produce materialistic behavior, but most empirical evidence is correlational in nature. We therefore experimentally activated feelings of insecurity by having some subjects write short essays about death (mortality-salience condition). In Study 1, subjects in the mortality-salience condition, compared with subjects who wrote about a neutral topic, had higher financial expectations for themselves 15 years in the future, in terms of both their overall worth and the amount they would be spending on pleasurable items such as clothing and entertainment. Study 2 extended these findings by demonstrating that subjects exposed to death became more greedy and consumed more resources in a forest-management game. Results are discussed with regard to humanistic and terror-management theories of materialism. PMID:11273398
Zhang, Jianming; Sclaroff, Stan
We demonstrate the usefulness of surroundedness for eye fixation prediction by proposing a Boolean Map based Saliency model (BMS). In our formulation, an image is characterized by a set of binary images, which are generated by randomly thresholding the image's feature maps in a whitened feature space. Based on a Gestalt principle of figure-ground segregation, BMS computes a saliency map by discovering surrounded regions via topological analysis of Boolean maps. Furthermore, we draw a connection between BMS and the Minimum Barrier Distance to provide insight into why and how BMS can properly captures the surroundedness cue via Boolean maps. The strength of BMS is verified by its simplicity, efficiency and superior performance compared with 10 state-of-the-art methods on seven eye tracking benchmark datasets. PMID:26336114
Kalliatakis, Grigorios; Triantafyllidis, Georgios
This article presents an image-based application aiming at simple image classification of well-known monuments in the area of Heraklion, Crete, Greece. This classification takes place by utilizing Graph Based Visual Saliency (GBVS) and employing Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) or Speeded...... images have been previously processed according to the Graph Based Visual Saliency model in order to keep either SIFT or SURF features corresponding to the actual monuments while the background “noise” is minimized. The application is then able to classify these images, helping the user to better...... Up Robust Features (SURF). For this purpose, images taken at various places of interest are being compared to an existing database containing images of these places at different angles and zoom. The time required for the matching progress in such application is an important element. To this goal, the...
Costa, L F
The unmatched versatility of vision in mammals is totally dependent on purposive eye movements and selective attention guided by saliencies in the presented images. The current article shows how concepts and tools from the areas of random walks, Markov chains, complex networks and artificial image analysis can be naturally combined in order to provide a unified and biologically plausible model for saliency detection and visual attention, which become indistinguishable in the process. Images are converted into complex networks by considering pixels as nodes while connections are established in terms of fields of influence defined by visual features such as tangent fields induced by luminance contrasts, distance, and size. Random walks are performed on such networks in order to emulate attentional shifts and even eye movements in the case of large shapes, and the frequency of visits to each node is conveniently obtained from the eigenequation defined by the stochastic matrix associated to the respectively drive...
Humans inspect the environment around them by selecting a sequence of locations to fixate which will provide information about the scene. How are these locations chosen? The saliency map model suggests that points in the scene are represented topographically and that the likelihood of them being fixated depends on low-level feature contrast. This model makes specific predictions about the way people will move their eyes when looking at natural scenes, although there are few experimental te...
Dmitrović, Tanja; Vida, Irena
In light of increasing market complexities resulting from globalization of consumer products/brands in both mature and transitional markets, this study examines the saliency of information related to the national origin of products in consumer choice behavior. Specifically, effects of consumer ethnocentrism and the type of product/service category on perceived importance of product origin information are investigated. Analysis of data collected on a sample of adult consumers suggests that sal...
Chevallier, Sylvain; Tarroux, Philippe; Paugam-Moisy, Hélène
We present a distributed spiking neuron network (SNN) for handling low-level visual perception in order to extract salient locations in robot camera images. We describe a new method which reduce the computional load of the whole system, stemming from our choices of architecture. We also describe a modeling of post-synaptic potential, which allows to quickly compute the contribution of a sum of incoming spikes to a neuron's membrane potential. The interests of this saliency extraction method, ...
Soltani, Alireza; Koch, Christof
The primate visual system continuously selects spatial proscribed regions, features or objects for further processing. These selection mechanisms—collectively termed selective visual attention—are guided by intrinsic, bottom-up and by task-dependent, top-down signals. While much psychophysical research has shown that overt and covert attention is partially allocated based on saliency-driven exogenous signals, it is unclear how this is accomplished at the neuronal level. Recent electrophysiolo...
Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Falkenberg, Irina; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Atakan, Zerrin; Crippa, Jose A; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Mick; McGuire, Philip
There is now considerable evidence to support the hypothesis that psychotic symptoms are the result of abnormal salience attribution, and that the attribution of salience is largely mediated through the prefrontal cortex, the striatum, and the hippocampus. Although these areas show differential activation under the influence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), the two major derivatives of cannabis sativa, little is known about the effects of these cannabinoids on the functional connectivity between these regions. We investigated this in healthy occasional cannabis users by employing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) following oral administration of delta-9-THC, CBD, or a placebo capsule. Employing a seed cluster-based functional connectivity analysis that involved using the average time series from each seed cluster for a whole-brain correlational analysis, we investigated the effect of drug condition on functional connectivity between the seed clusters and the rest of the brain during an oddball salience processing task. Relative to the placebo condition, delta-9-THC and CBD had opposite effects on the functional connectivity between the dorsal striatum, the prefrontal cortex, and the hippocampus. Delta-9-THC reduced fronto-striatal connectivity, which was related to its effect on task performance, whereas this connection was enhanced by CBD. Conversely, mediotemporal-prefrontal connectivity was enhanced by delta-9-THC and reduced by CBD. Our results suggest that the functional integration of brain regions involved in salience processing is differentially modulated by single doses of delta-9-THC and CBD and that this relates to the processing of salient stimuli. PMID:25249057
Irena Colić Barić
Full Text Available Besides traditional nutrients, milk and dairy products contain some health promoting components. The aim of this study was to detect the frequency and preferences among dairy products in school children according to age and gender. The subjects were 234 healthy children at age 10-11 years and 14-15 years from two primary schools in Zagreb. Number of participants was well balanced according to age and gender. Dietary data were collected using specially designed food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. By additional questionnaire some anthropometric parameters as well as food preferences, attitudes and nutrition knowledge on milk and dairy products were collected. According to the results the intake of milk is significantly different (p< 0.05 to gender but not to age. 91 % children consume milk, 2.3 cups/day in average. Soft drinks, fruit juices, beverages and similar drinks are consumed more often than milk. Pudding and ice cream had the highest frequency among dairy products consumed. Milk and dairy frequency intake according to age and gender are still not significantly different. Children mostly consume fresh milk (68.7%. Girls at age 14-15 years consume light milk ( ≤1.6 % fat more than younger children and boys at the same age. 86 % of children is well informed about nutritional facts linked to milk and dairy products and they are mostly educate by parents. Among anthropometric parameters a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 was observed in height with regard to gender, only among older children, and for both height and, weight and body mass indeks (BMI with regard to age.
The Internet is a highly complex and newly emerged artifact. Building upon and going beyond two previous studies [Yan, Z. (2005). Age differences in children's understanding of complexity of the Internet. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 385-396.; Yan, Z. (2006). What influences children's and adolescents' understanding of the…
This article draws on data from a project on children's playground games and rhymes in the new media age. One objective of the project was to examine the relationship between traditional playground games and children's media cultures. As part of the project, two ethnographic studies of primary playgrounds took place in two schools, one in the…
This article argues that street children studies (SCS) has reduced its central concept to a discursive construct, and the young street people themselves to capable ‘agents’. One consequence is that street children are not recognized as distinct intergenerational groupings in society. The traditional
This article examines multilingual interactions in the complementary school classroom for ethnic Chinese children in the UK. Through a detailed analysis of classroom exchanges amongst the children and their teachers, the study aims to demonstrate how they alternate between different varieties of Chinese and English and different modes of…
Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang
This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…
Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Alibali, Martha W.; Ryan, Kristin; Evans, Julia L.
Purpose: This study investigated understanding of mathematical equivalence in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: A total of 34 children (ages 8;1 [years;months] to 11;7), including 9 with expressive SLI (E-SLI), 8 with expressive and receptive SLI (ER-SLI), and 17 age-matched typically developing (TD) children…
Sprung, Manuel; Harris, Paul L.
Background: "Hurricane Katrina" devastated the Mississippi Gulf Coast in August 2005. Intrusive re-experiencing is a common posttraumatic stress symptom. However, young children with limited introspection skills might have difficulties identifying their intrusive thoughts. Method: A sample of 165 5- to 9-year-old children were surveyed about their…
Hansen, Andrew R.; Alfonso, Moya L.; Hackney, Amy A.; Luque, John S.
Background: Fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) is associated with a reduced risk of diabetes, obesity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Only one third of children aged 4-8?years consume the recommended 5 servings a day. Studies involving school-aged children (6-11?years) demonstrate that positive outcome expectancies can mediate FVC. There…
Abstract The purpose of my study is to examine the experiences and opportunities to support teachers in preschool to help children in vulnerable environments, a good self-esteem. Hindberg (1999) writes that of all children today are growing up in Sweden, so ten percent live in families where there is abuse. According Pousette (2011) as the National Public Health Institute has a new appreciation for families where there is hazardous and this means that drinking or abused so much that it can be...
Shi, Yanjiao; Yi, Yugen; Zhang, Ke; Kong, Jun; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Jianzhong
As an important problem in computer vision, saliency detection is essential for image segmentation, super-resolution, object recognition, and so on. We propose a saliency detection method for images. Instead of using contrast between salient regions and their surrounding areas, both cues from salient and nonsalient regions are considered in our study. Based on these cues, an improved multimanifold ranking algorithm is proposed. In our algorithm, features from multiple views are utilized and the different contributions of these multiview features are taken into account. Moreover, an iterative updating optimization scheme is explored to solve the objective function, during which the feature fusion is performed. After two-stage ranking by the improved multimanifold ranking algorithm, each image patch can be assigned a ranking score, which determines the final saliency. The proposed method is evaluated on four public datasets and is compared with the state-of-the-art methods. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method outperforms existing schemes both in qualitative and quantitative comparisons.
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an online key object discovery and tracking system based on visual saliency. We formulate the problem as a temporally consistent binary labelling task on a conditional random field and solve it by using a particle filter. We also propose a context‐aware saliency measurement, which can be used to improve the accuracy of any static or dynamic saliency maps. Our refined saliency maps provide clearer indications as to where the key object lies. Based on good saliency cues, we can further segment the key object inside the resulting bounding box, considering the spatial and temporal context. We tested our system extensively on different video clips. The results show that our method has significantly improved the saliency maps and tracks the key object accurately.
Full Text Available A low-complexity saliency detection algorithm for perceptual video coding is proposed; low-level encoding information is adopted as the characteristics of visual perception analysis. Firstly, this algorithm employs motion vector (MV to extract temporal saliency region through fast MV noise filtering and translational MV checking procedure. Secondly, spatial saliency region is detected based on optimal prediction mode distributions in I-frame and P-frame. Then, it combines the spatiotemporal saliency detection results to define the video region of interest (VROI. The simulation results validate that the proposed algorithm can avoid a large amount of computation work in the visual perception characteristics analysis processing compared with other existing algorithms; it also has better performance in saliency detection for videos and can realize fast saliency detection. It can be used as a part of the video standard codec at medium-to-low bit-rates or combined with other algorithms in fast video coding.
Person, Bobbie; Ali, Said M.; A’Kadir, Faiza M.; Ali, Jamal N.; Mohammed, Ulfat A.; Mohammed, Khalfan A.; Rollinson, David; Knopp, Stefanie
Background On the Zanzibar islands, United Republic of Tanzania, elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis is strived for in the coming years. This qualitative study aimed to better understand community knowledge, perceptions, and practices associated with schistosomiasis among school-aged children on Unguja and Pemba islands, in order to inform the development of behavior change interventions contributing to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis. Methodology In 2011, we conducted 35 children’s discussion groups, 41 in-depth interviews with parents and teachers, and 5 focus group discussions with community members in Zanzibar. Using a modified-grounded theory approach, we transcribed and coded the narrative data followed by thematic analysis of the emergent themes. Principal Findings Urogenital schistosomiasis is a common experience among children in Zanzibar and typically considered a boys’ disease. Children engage in multiple high-risk behaviors for acquiring schistosomiasis because of poor knowledge on disease transmission, lack of understanding on severity of disease-associated consequences, and lack of alternative options for water related activities of daily living and recreational play. Local primary school teachers had little to no training about the disease and no teaching tools or materials for students. Conclusions/Significance Conducting activities in open natural freshwater contaminated by S. haematobium larvae compromises the health of school-aged children in Zanzibar. The perception of urogenital schistosomiasis as a minor illness rather than a serious threat to a child’s well-being contributes to the spread of disease. Understanding community perceptions of disease along with the barriers and facilitators to risk reduction behaviors among children can inform health promotion activities, campaigns, and programs for the prevention, control, and elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis in Zanzibar. PMID:27399310
Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Price, Darren; Palaniyappan, Lena; Brookes, Matthew J.; Robson, Siân E.; Hall, Emma L.; Morris, Peter G; Liddle, Peter F.
Aberrant salience attribution and cerebral dysconnectivity both have strong evidential support as core dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Aberrant salience arising from an excess of dopamine activity has been implicated in delusions and hallucinations, exaggerating the significance of everyday occurrences and thus leading to perceptual distortions and delusional causal inferences. Meanwhile, abnormalities in key nodes of a salience brain network have been implicated in other characteristic sympto...
Suman Saurabh, Umakant G Shidam, Manjula Sinnakirouchenan, Mohsina Subair, Loo Guo Hou, Gautam Roy
Background: Diarrhoea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among under-five children. Correct knowledge regarding Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) helps prevent morbidity and mortality due to diarrhoea. Our objective was to assess the awareness, knowledge and practice of mothers of under-five children regarding ORT and home management of diarrhoea. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out during September 2012. A structured and pre-tested questionnaire was administered to all ...
Kishiki, Elizabeth; Hogeweg, Margreet; Dieleman, Marjolein; Lewallen, Susan; Courtright, Paul
Although uncommon, childhood blindness is a major contributor to blind-person years in Africa. Children with vision-related problems need urgent referral, but existing evidence suggests that there is delay in presentation. A pilot study in a random selection of government dispensaries in two districts of Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, was conducted to assess the knowledge and skills of primary healthcare workers regarding eye care needs of children. Questionnaires were administered to 16 healthcare workers, and in-depth interviews were conducted with 9 health workers and 2 key informants. Overall, 88% of workers recognised cataract in a picture, 63% knew that it required surgery but only 50% realised surgery was urgent. Only 38% recognised squint as needing referral and none considered this urgent. Moreover, 38% could correctly suggest a cause of a large corneal scar and 44% of workers believed that children with albinism need to attend schools for the blind. Poor knowledge of referral and treatment guidelines are likely due to a number of factors, including inadequate training and the rarity of childhood blindness. Primary eye care manuals should be reviewed to ensure that information regarding childhood blindness is adequate and appropriate. Referral pathways should also be revised. PMID:24029677
Swati M; Madhavi; Chandrasekhar Reddy; . Phani Madhavi
INTRODUCTION: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally and there is an alarming trend in the rise in childhood obesity. In the majority it is caused by an unhealthy diet and lack of exercise in children. With more fast-food restaurants appearing on every street corner it gives children an easy way to eat more unhealthy food. Children are also happier when they sit for hours in front of television or play on their play station. Studies show that in India, nearly 15 to ...
Zhang, Wei; Borji, Ali; Wang, Zhou; Le Callet, Patrick; Liu, Hantao
Advances in image quality assessment have shown the potential added value of including visual attention aspects in its objective assessment. Numerous models of visual saliency are implemented and integrated in different image quality metrics (IQMs), but the gain in reliability of the resulting IQMs varies to a large extent. The causes and the trends of this variation would be highly beneficial for further improvement of IQMs, but are not fully understood. In this paper, an exhaustive statistical evaluation is conducted to justify the added value of computational saliency in objective image quality assessment, using 20 state-of-the-art saliency models and 12 best-known IQMs. Quantitative results show that the difference in predicting human fixations between saliency models is sufficient to yield a significant difference in performance gain when adding these saliency models to IQMs. However, surprisingly, the extent to which an IQM can profit from adding a saliency model does not appear to have direct relevance to how well this saliency model can predict human fixations. Our statistical analysis provides useful guidance for applying saliency models in IQMs, in terms of the effect of saliency model dependence, IQM dependence, and image distortion dependence. The testbed and software are made publicly available to the research community. PMID:26277009
Full Text Available The aim of the study: Evaluation of oral health condition in 6 and 12 year-old children of Iasi, analysis of the health-promoting habits of children and mothers; demonstrating the relation between the educational level of the mother and children’s health-promoting habits, as well as their influence upon their own health condition; the differences between educators and mothers on their oral health knowledge. Materials and method: The study, performed in 5 schools of Iasi, between 2009-2010, included 345 children (6-7 yeas, class I and 297 children (11-12 years, class VI, being devoted to the establishment of their odontal status, evaluated by the DMFT index, of the oral health level, evaluated with the OHI-S index and of periodontal health, appreciated with the (CPITN index, through a clinical examination performed each year in school medicine consulting rooms, the data collected being included in the WHO files, according to some previously established criteria. Information has been collected from 523 mothers and 125 schoolmasters, by the questionnaire method, the statistical data obtained being analyzed with the SPSS 14.0 program. Results: The results obtained indicate an increased prevalence of the dental caries, of 86% for 6-7 year-old children, and of 76%, respectively, for the 11-12 year-old ones, nevertheless lower than the values registered in previous years. The DMFT value in 6-7 year-old children was 2.9, the DMFT value at ages of 11-12 years being of 2.8. 47% of the mothers indicated that the ”bacteria+sugar ” association represents the main cause of dental caries, 35% incriminated the ”bacteria”, while 27% associate the formation of caries with the consumption of sugar. The causes of gingival bleeding were: incorrect dental brush (49%, bacterial plaque (44%, unhealthy diet (35%, general diseases (30%, heredity (9%, while 9% of the mothers did not know the possible causes of gingival bleeding. It was only 1
Gelman, Susan A.; Croft, William; Fu, Panfang; Clausner, Timothy; Gottfried, Gail
Examined how object shape, taxonomic relatedness, and prior lexical knowledge influenced children's overextensions (e.g., referring to pomegranates as apples). Researchers presented items that disentangled the three factors and used a novel comprehension task where children could indicate negative exemplars. Error patterns differed by task and by…
Mabbott, Donald J.; Bisanz, Jeffrey
Knowledge and skill in multiplication were investigated for late elementary-grade students with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD), typically achieving age-matched peers, low-achieving age-matched peers, and ability-matched peers by examining multiple measures of computational skill, working memory, and conceptual knowledge. Poor…
Chapter 1 sketches the general background of the study. The study tests the hypothesis that HIV and AIDS not only impairs or modifies farmers’ agroecological knowledge base, but also impairs or modifies their strategies to mobilize knowledge and resources. The research mainly aims to understand
Suleiman Ibrahim Sharif; Bara'ah E. M. Masalmeh; Hoda M. A. Awad; Ala Osama; Yousra A. A. Abdulmqasood; Laila M. T. Bugaighis
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics in children. Materials and Methods: This study was based on a prevalidated questionnaire distributed to 205 families in the United Arab Emirates, during the period of January-October 2014, on self-medication of their children with antibiotics. Data were collected and analyzed using Microsoft Excel® and expressed in terms of both counts and percentages. Results: The response rate was 92.7...
Rahimah Abdul Aziz; Suriati Iskandar
In many countries of the world child labour persists despite the existence and implementation of laws and regulations to eliminate the problem. In many instances children are preferred as workforce because they are easier to manipulate, intimidate, abuse and exploit due in part to their inexperience and relative immaturity. There are many reasons why children work. However, their labour participation means that they are denied or deprived of their right to education, which is crucial to their...
Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Danielsen, Oluf; Nielsen, Janni
working with ICT and project-based learning is shown to simultaneously constitute a mixed mode between the school of the industrial and the knowledge society. The research shows that it is possible to tip the balance in the direction of the school of the knowledge society, and thus of the future, by...... learning networks; they are important contributions to the school of the knowledge society. The ICT in New Learning Environments project based on anthropologically inspired methods and social learning theories shows that students bring their informal forms of learning into the school context. This happens...... merely communicators of knowledge, they will have to become knowledge managers and overall leaders of projects, and this entails much more dialogue with the pupils....
Kaushik Sudha Bhagavatheeswaran
Full Text Available Background: Prevention of asthma exacerbations is one of the major challenges of public health. Parents are crucial for exacerbation prevention and management at home. This study was conducted with the objective of assessing asthma knowledge in the parents of asthmatic children and to understand parents′ attitude and practices in dealing with the exacerbation of their children′s asthma. Materials and Methods: A convenient sample of 100 parents of asthmatic children was enrolled. Any parents (mother or/and father with a child aged 8 years and above, diagnosed with bronchial asthma, and attending the Outpatient Department of Paediatrics, Saveetha Medical College and Hospital with his/her child in the study period could be included. Results: In this study, 62% children were male and 38% female, the average age was 12.53 years [standard deviation (SD 2.95], and the average time duration for living with an asthmatic condition was 6 years (SD 3. Of the parents, 80% responded that they did not know what inhaled corticosteroids were and most (86% of them did not know how they worked, while 41% were aware of aerosol therapy. Of the respondents, 87% had never used a Children′s Asthma Control Test questionnaire and 78% said that they did not have any written action plan in case of their child suffering an asthma attack. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for the preparation of parental guidelines for preventing asthma exacerbations among asthmatic children living in India.
Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor; Leikin, Mark
This study focused on the role of bilingual versus monolingual preschool education in the development of lexical knowledge in Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among second-generation Russian-Hebrew speaking immigrants in Israel. The study was designed as a longitudinal and comparative study. The lexical knowledge of children was measured three times…
Esther C Gallegos; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Gómez, Marco Vinicio; Onofre, Dora Julia; Zhou, Yan
This study describes the sexual knowledge and communication of Mexican parents and adolescents. Pre-intervention data was analyzed from 829 high school students (ages 14-17) and one of their parents. Differences were found between parents and adolescents in sexual knowledge (M = 16.16 vs. M = 14.92; t = 7.20; p < 0.001); specifically parents had higher knowledge related to STD’s, HIV/AIDs, and condom use. Parents perceived more general communication (t (787) = 6.33 p < .001), and less discomf...
Baysoy, Gökhan; Aydoğmuş, Tuğba; Akın, Demet; Uyan, Ayten Pamukçu
Aim: To determine the knowledge of mothers about fever and the source of this knowledge attiudes and behavior towards the fever and the extent of lever phobia Moreover in respect to the mothers who received information about fever were compared with those who didn’t The knowledge and attitudes and approach to fever thermometer and antipyretic usage Material and Method: From January to July 2004 285 mothers who were admitted to Abant İzzet Baysal University hospital and primary care clinics in...
Licona, Miguel M.
In this case study, I use an ethnographic-style approach to understand the funds of knowledge of immigrant families living in colonias on both sides of the US/Mexico border. I focus on how these "knowledges" and concomitant experiences impact the ways we perceive and treat immigrant students who have all too often been viewed through deficit lenses that relegate them to the lowest expectations and outcomes in the classroom. I find that Mexican and Mexican-American families hold unusually sophisticated and relevant "knowledges" to mitigate their everyday lives. In this paper, I will refer to citizens of Mexico, whether they reside in Mexico or have crossed to the United States legally or without documentation for purposes of work, as Mexican. People who have crossed the border and are living in the US as legal residents or have gained citizenship are referred to as Mexican-Americans. They live a hybrid identity that is varied and dynamic, an issue that adds to the complexity of the content and contexts of this study. These families know and use these "knowledges" on a daily basis, yet they are not recognized by teachers in the US as a starting point to affirm and support immigrant children. Instead, immigrant children are relegated to the non-gifted and lower track classes where science is taught from an abstract and non-contextual and therefore less engaged basis. The approach I outline here, based on insights from my case study, can greatly improve teachers' abilities to prepare their curricula for diversity in science education and science literacy as well as for broad expectations for student success.
Christian, Aaron K; Marquis, Grace S; Colecraft, Esi K; Lartey, Anna; Sakyi-Dawson, Owuraku; Ahunu, Ben K; Butler, Lorna M
Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes may influence the variety of foods available in the household and the quality of children's diets. To test the link, this study collected data on caregivers' (n 608) nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes as well as the diets of their household and of their 2-5-year-old children in twelve rural communities nested in the three main agro-ecological zones of Ghana. Household foods and children's animal source foods (ASF) consumed in the past 7 d were categorised into one of fourteen and ten groups, respectively. About 28 % of caregivers believed that their children needed to be fed only 2-3 times/d. Reasons for having adult supervision during child meal times, feeding diverse foods, prioritising a child to receive ASF and the perceived child benefits of ASF differed across zones (Pcaregivers belonging to the highest tertile of nutrition knowledge and attitude scores consumed more diverse diets compared with those of caregivers in the lowest tertile group (11·2 (sd 2·2) v. 10·0 (sd 2·4); Pcaregivers' nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes positively predicted household dietary diversity and the frequency and diversity of children's ASF intakes (Pcaregivers also positively predicted household dietary diversity and children's ASF diversity (Pchild nutrition is to understand the context-specific nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes in order to identify relevant interventions. PMID:26560016
Prasai Dixit, Lonim; Shakya, Ajay; Shrestha, Manash; Shrestha, Ayush
Background Chepang communities are one of the most deprived ethnic communities in Nepal. According to the National Pathfinder Survey, dental caries is a highly prevalent childhood disease in Nepal. There is no data concerning the prevalence of caries along with knowledge, attitude and oral hygiene practices among Chepang schoolchildren. The objectives of this study were to 1) record the prevalence of dental caries 2) report experience of dental pain 3) evaluate knowledge, attitude and prevent...
Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; Fraser, Drora; Friger, Michael; Geva, Dikla; Bilenko, Natalya; Vardi, Hillel; Elhadad, Naama; Mor, Karen; Feine, Zvi; Shahar, Danit R.
Early social and economic deprivation, associated with poor nutrition and physical inactivity, may lead to adverse health trajectories. A cluster-randomized controlled-trial examining the effect of a school-based comprehensive intervention on nutrition knowledge, eating habits, and behaviors among low socioeconomic status (LSES) school-aged children was performed. LSES school-aged children (4–7 years) and their mothers were recruited from 11 schools, located in one town. The intervention was implemented on three levels: children, mothers, and teachers. The intervention (IArm) included nutrition classes for children, mothers, and teachers and physical activity (PA) classes for children; the control (CArm) received PA only. Interventions were conducted by professional personnel, who were trained during in a two-day session to deliver the specific program in schools. Family data were obtained by parental interviews. Food knowledge observations, packed lunch records, and anthropometric measurements were obtained in school at baseline, six months, and at the end of the school year. Of 258 children enrolled, 220 (87.6%) completed the six-month program. Only children in the IArm improved their nutrition knowledge and eating-habits and increased food variety and fruit and vegetable consumption, quality score of packed lunches (p water drinking increased (p = 0.02), and decreased sweet-drink consumption (p = 0.05). A school-based comprehensive nutrition intervention targeting LSES population improved eating habits, nutritional knowledge, and healthier packed lunches. PMID:27110817
Full Text Available Early social and economic deprivation, associated with poor nutrition and physical inactivity, may lead to adverse health trajectories. A cluster-randomized controlled-trial examining the effect of a school-based comprehensive intervention on nutrition knowledge, eating habits, and behaviors among low socioeconomic status (LSES school-aged children was performed. LSES school-aged children (4–7 years and their mothers were recruited from 11 schools, located in one town. The intervention was implemented on three levels: children, mothers, and teachers. The intervention (IArm included nutrition classes for children, mothers, and teachers and physical activity (PA classes for children; the control (CArm received PA only. Interventions were conducted by professional personnel, who were trained during in a two-day session to deliver the specific program in schools. Family data were obtained by parental interviews. Food knowledge observations, packed lunch records, and anthropometric measurements were obtained in school at baseline, six months, and at the end of the school year. Of 258 children enrolled, 220 (87.6% completed the six-month program. Only children in the IArm improved their nutrition knowledge and eating-habits and increased food variety and fruit and vegetable consumption, quality score of packed lunches (p < 0.001 for all, habitual water drinking increased (p = 0.02, and decreased sweet-drink consumption (p = 0.05. A school-based comprehensive nutrition intervention targeting LSES population improved eating habits, nutritional knowledge, and healthier packed lunches.
Coyle, Emily F; Liben, Lynn S
Gender schema theory (GST) posits that children approach opportunities perceived as gender appropriate, avoiding those deemed gender inappropriate, in turn affecting gender-differentiated career trajectories. To test the hypothesis that children's gender salience filters (GSF-tendency to attend to gender) moderate these processes, 62 preschool girls (M = 4.5 years) were given GSF measures. Two weeks later, they played a computer game about occupations that manipulated the game-character's femininity (hyperfeminized Barbie vs. less feminized Playmobil Jane). Following game play, girls' interests in feminine activities showed an interaction of game condition and GSF: High-GSF girls showed intensified feminine activity interests only with Barbie; low-GSF girls showed no change with either character. Neither GSF nor game condition affected occupational interests. Implications for GST, individual differences, and occupational interventions are discussed. PMID:26548652
von Suchodoletz, Antje; Gunzenhauser, Catherine
Research Findings: Behavior regulation, including paying attention, remembering instructions, and controlling action, contributes to children's successful adaptation to and functioning in preschool and school settings. This study examined the development of behavior regulation in early childhood and its potential contribution to individual…
Houssart, Jenny; Evens, Hilary
This article explores theoretical and methodological issues associated with task-based interviews conducted with pairs of children. We explore different approaches to interviews from sociological, psychological and subject-based perspectives. Our interviews, concerning mathematical questions and carried out with pairs of 10 and 11-year-olds, are…
Bamford, Christi; Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen
Five- to 10-year-olds (N = 90) listened to 6 illustrated scenarios featuring 2 characters that jointly experience the same positive event (and feel good), negative event (and feel bad), or ambiguous event (and feel okay). Afterward, one character thinks a positive thought and the other thinks a negative thought. Children predicted and explained…
Fox, Jill Englebright; Diffily, Deborah
Explores the visual arts as a means to develop skills and abilities across the curriculum and nurture aesthetic development. Considers benefits of art for socioemotional, psychomotor, and cognitive development; integration of art into the curriculum; and the role of adults, children's books, and the classroom for encouraging art appreciation.…
Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katherine; Lillard, Angeline S
Although popular children's cartoons are replete with fantastical events, we know little about whether children understand that these events are fantastical rather than real. In Study 1, 54 children ages 4 to 6 years and 18 adults were shown 10 real and 10 fantastical events portrayed in 4s video clips from a popular cartoon. After viewing each clip, participants were asked to judge the reality status of the event and to explain their judgments. Results indicated that even 4-year-olds have a fairly good understanding of fantastical events in animated cartoons but that they underestimate the reality status of real events in such cartoons. In Study 2, 35 4- to 6-year-olds and 18 adults watched video clips of 10 real and 10 fantastical events performed by real people from a Chinese television show. Once again, 4-year-olds underestimated the reality status of real events shown on television. However, against the "real" backdrop in this study, 4-year-olds also judged nearly half of the fantastical events to be real. The implications for children's reality-fantasy discrimination and their media viewing are discussed. PMID:26094241
Watchorn, Rebecca P. D.; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Fast, Lisa; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Smith-Chant, Brenda L.
The principle of "inversion," that a + b - b "must" equal a, is a fundamental property of arithmetic, but many children fail to apply it in symbolic contexts through 10 years of age. We explore three hypotheses relating to the use of inversion that stem from a model proposed by Siegler and Araya (2005). Hypothesis 1 is that…
Hachey's (2013) article celebrates a revolution that is taking place in early childhood mathematics education, fueled in part by developmental research demonstrating the mathematical capabilities of young children. At the same time, Hachey notes that the mathematics revolution she describes is not yet complete. In this commentary, the author…
Hahn, A. C; Fisher, C. I.; DeBruine, L. M.; Jones, B. C.
The sex ratio of the local population influences mating-related behaviours in many species. Recent experiments show that male-biased sex ratios increase the amount of financial resources men will invest in potential mates, suggesting that sex ratios influence allocation of mating effort in humans. To investigate this issue further, we tested for effects of cues to the sex ratio of the local population on the motivational salience of attractiveness in own-sex and opposite-sex faces. We did thi...
Ancuti, Codruta O.; Ancuti, Cosmin; Bekaert, Philippe
Color plays a significant role in the scene interpretation in terms of visual perception. Numerous visual substitution systems deal with grayscale images disregarding this information from original image. Visually percept color-based details often fade due to the grayscale conversion and that can mislead the overall comprehension of the considered scene. We present a decolorization method that considers color contrast and preserve color saliency after transformation. We exploit this model to enhance the perception of visually disable persons over the interpreted images by the substitution system. The results demonstrate that our enhance system is capable to improves the overall scene interpretation in comparison with similar substitution system.
Horner, Victoria; Whiten, Andrew
This study explored whether the tendency of chimpanzees and children to use emulation or imitation to solve a tool-using task was a response to the availability of causal information. Young wild-born chimpanzees from an African sanctuary and 3- to 4-year-old children observed a human demonstrator use a tool to retrieve a reward from a puzzle-box. The demonstration involved both causally relevant and irrelevant actions, and the box was presented in each of two conditions: opaque and clear. In the opaque condition, causal information about the effect of the tool inside the box was not available, and hence it was impossible to differentiate between the relevant and irrelevant parts of the demonstration. However, in the clear condition causal information was available, and subjects could potentially determine which actions were necessary. When chimpanzees were presented with the opaque box, they reproduced both the relevant and irrelevant actions, thus imitating the overall structure of the task. When the box was presented in the clear condition they instead ignored the irrelevant actions in favour of a more efficient, emulative technique. These results suggest that emulation is the favoured strategy of chimpanzees when sufficient causal information is available. However, if such information is not available, chimpanzees are prone to employ a more comprehensive copy of an observed action. In contrast to the chimpanzees, children employed imitation to solve the task in both conditions, at the expense of efficiency. We suggest that the difference in performance of chimpanzees and children may be due to a greater susceptibility of children to cultural conventions, perhaps combined with a differential focus on the results, actions and goals of the demonstrator. PMID:15549502
Supriti Mishra; Damodar Suar
Purpose – This study aims to examine whether strategy towards primary stakeholders and their salience influence corporate social responsibility towards the corresponding stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected through a questionnaire from 150 senior level managers including CEOs. The stakeholder management strategy, salience, and corporate social responsibility were assessed in the context of employees, customers, investors, community, natural environment, and supplier...
Tabassum Riaz; Muhammad Ramzan; Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq; Muhammad Umair Akram
The following study examines the relationship between transformational leadership and employees’ career salience. This research is conducted to answer the question that whether employees’ career salience has association with transformational leadership. This study focuses only on banking sector. Transformational leadership is measured using its four dimensions i.e. idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation and individualized considerations, relationship is determ...
Hills, Stacey Barlow; Naegle, Natali; Bartkus, Kenneth R.
Although student evaluations of teaching (SETs) have been the subject of numerous research studies, the salience of SET items to students has not been examined. In the present study, the authors surveyed 484 students from a large public university. The authors suggest that not all items are viewed equally and that measures of item salience can…
Martin, Georgianna L.
This qualitative study explores social class consciousness, salience, and values of White, low-income, first-generation college students. Overall, participants minimized the salience of social class as an aspect of their identity with many of them expressing that they did not want their social class to define them. Although participants largely…
Kurth, Lori Ann
In light of continuing poor performance by American students in school science, feminists and sociocultural researchers have demonstrated that we need to look beyond content to address the science needs of all school children. In this study I examined issues of discourse norms, knowledge, language and subjectivities (meaning personal and social observations and characteristics) in elementary science. Over a two-year period, I used an interpretive methodological approach to investigate science experiences in two first-second and second grade classrooms. I first established some of the norms and characteristics of the discourse communities through case studies of new students attempting to gain entry to whole class conversations. I then examined knowledge, a central focus of science education addressed by a variety of theoretical approaches. In these classrooms students co-constructed and built knowledge in their whole class science conversations sometimes following convergent (similar knowledge) and, at other times, divergent (differing knowledge) paths allowing for broader discourse. In both paths, there was gendered construction of knowledge in which same gender students elaborated the reasoning of previous speakers. In conjunction with these analyses, I examined what knowledge sources the students used in their science conversations. Students drew on a variety of informal and formal knowledge sources including personal experiences, other students, abstract logic and thought experiments, all of which were considered valid. In using sources from both in and out of school, students' knowledge bases were broader than traditional scientific content giving greater access and richness to their conversations. The next analysis focused on students' use of narrative and paradigmatic language forms in the whole class science conversations. Traditionally, only paradigmatic language forms have been used in science classrooms. The students in this study used both narrative and
Liu, Songtao; Jiang, Ning; Liu, Zhenxing
In order to realize fast target detection under complex image scene, a novel method is proposed based on supervised saliency map and efficient subwindow search. Supervised saliency map generation mainly includes: (1) the original image is segmented by different parameters to obtain multi-segmentation results; (2) regional feature is mapped for salient value by random forest regressor; (3) obtain saliency map by fusing multi-level segmentation results. Efficient subwindow search method is implemented by transforming salient target detection as maximum saliency density, and using branch and bound algorithm to localize the maximum saliency density in global optimum. The experimental results show that the new method can not only detect salient region, but also recognize this region in some extent.
Burnett, Delia; Aronson, Jane; Asgary, Ramin
Data on oral health status in Ethiopia are scarce. We assessed the prevalence of dental decay and gum disease and oral health practices and its barriers. We performed a cross-sectional study using comprehensive questionnaires and oral examination of 132 children aged 6-15 years in Addis Ababa. Mean age was 10 years and 50% were females. A significant number of children were HIV positive and orphaned. Forty-eight percent did not brush teeth and 43% brushed only once daily. The majority consumed sugary food despite knowing its relationship with dental decay. Seventy-four percent had between 1 and 13 dental caries and 52% showed evidence of bleeding upon brushing. Seventy-eight percent did not clean between teeth and were more likely to consume sugary food (p resources, improving access to local preventive tools and provision of oral care by training community health workers in the World Health Organization basic oral care package. PMID:25713009
Cheon, Jongpil; Lee, Sangno; Smith, Walter; Song, Jaeki; Kim, Yongjin
The purpose of this study was to use text mining analysis of early adolescents' online essays to determine their knowledge of global lunar patterns. Australian and American students in grades five to seven wrote about global lunar patterns they had discovered by sharing observations with each other via the Internet. These essays were analyzed for…
Baker, Charlene K.; Gleason, Kristen; Naai, Rachel; Mitchell, Jennifer; Trecker, Christine
Objective: Child sexual abuse is a significant health problem with potential long-term consequences for victims. Therefore, prevention and education programs are critical. This preliminary study evaluates changes in children’s knowledge of sexual abuse using a school-based train-the-trainer curriculum. Emphasis was placed on developing a…
Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Abbot, Jaclyn Maurer; Quick, Virginia
To create effective educational interventions that address the food safety informational needs of youth, a greater understanding of their knowledge and skills is needed. The purposes of this study were to explore, via focus groups, the food-handling responsibilities of middle school youth and obstacles they face in practicing safe food handling…
Gahagan, Sheila; Sharpe, Tanya Telfair; Brimacombe, Michael; Fry-Johnson, Yvonne; Levine, Robert; Mengel, Mark; O'Connor, Mary; Paley, Blair; Adubato, Susan; Brenneman, George
Objectives: Prenatal exposure to alcohol interferes with fetal development and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities. The purpose of this study was to identify current knowledge, diagnosis, prevention, and intervention practices related to fetal alcohol syndrome and related conditions by members of the…
Rumiati, Rumi; Wright, Robert
An assessment approach from Mathematics Recovery was used to document the number knowledge of 20 first-graders and 20 second-graders in an Indonesian school. Sixteen first-graders were at the advanced-counting-by-ones stage and fourteen second-graders were facile. As well, fifteen first-graders and eleven second-graders were at the level of an…
JENNIFER U. DOTADO-MADERAZO; JONA JOCYLEN VIAVIAN BELOSO-DELOS REYES
Dental caries among Filipino children ranked second worst among 21 World Health Organization Western Pacific countries. A recent National Oral Health Survey showed that 97 percent of Grade 1 students and 82 percent of Grade 2 students surveyed suffered from tooth decay. WHO (2007) urges governments to “ promote oral health in schools, aiming at developing healthy lifestyles and self care practices in children”. The study assessed the dental health education of public school childr...
Full Text Available Introduction: Strength training intervention is primarily controlled by training parameters. A scientific desideratum exists concerning the question to what extent a self-controlled load perception might have an effect on motor performance and functional body-related knowledge. Method: A total of 81 primary school students were assigned to an intervention group (N=34, 9.7±2 years and control group (N=47, 7.3±0.4 years. The intervention group performed strength training twice a week (circuit training, scope of load: 45-60 minutes, duration 20-30 seconds, 7 stations, rest between sets 20-30 seconds, self-regulated intensity. After 9 weeks, both groups were tested for motor performance and functional body-related knowledge. Results: For push-ups (PRETEST: Z=103.2±7 vs. POSTTEST: Z=114.7±9; d=1.4; P<0.01 and sit-ups (PRETEST: Z=90.9±8 vs. POSTTEST: Z=98.6±9; d=0.89; P<0.01, a significant improvement was established in the intervention group. The control group showed substantial improvement for push-ups (PRETEST: Z=101.8±10 vs. POSTTEST: Z=107.5±9; d=0.58; P<0.01 and significant decline for sit-ups (PRETEST: Z=99.1±7 vs. POSTTEST: Z=96.6±6; d=-0.36; P<0.05. As to the knowledge test, the intervention group increased their performance considerably (PRETEST: 35±2 points vs. POSTTEST: 40±4 points; d=0.9; P<0.01 when compared to the control group (PRETEST: 34.2±4.6 points vs. POSTTEST: 31.2±4.5 points; d=-0.69; P<0.01. Discussion: A nine-week, self-regulated strength training for children has positive effects on sport motor performance (push-ups and sit-ups and functional body-related knowledge.Keywords: Strength training, children, motor performance, functional body-related knowledge, self-controlled load perception
Okashah, Rebecca; Schoch, Kelly; Hooper, Stephen R; Shashi, Vandana; Callanan, Nancy
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common microdeletion in humans. There have been few studies assessing the impact of this condition on the family and no previous studies conducted on unaffected siblings of children with 22q11DS. The goal of this study was to determine the frequency, method, and content of information being communicated by parents to unaffected siblings about the condition and to assess unaffected siblings' knowledge of 22q11DS and perceptions of the impact of the condition on their affected sibling and themselves. Families were recruited from several 22q11DS educational and support organizations and asked to complete a single anonymous online survey. Families were eligible to participate if they had one child with 22q11DS and at least one unaffected child between the ages of 12 and 17. Survey questions were developed based on previous literature and authors' expertise with individuals with 22q11DS. Responses to quantitative and qualitative questions were analyzed to calculate frequencies and proportions and to extract themes, respectively. A total of 25 families (defined as a unit of at least one parent, one affected child, and at least one unaffected child) participated in the study. Parents shared genetic information less often as compared to behavioral and medical information. Siblings of children with 22q11DS had both positive and negative experiences in having a brother or sister with this condition. Genetic counselors can use the results of this study to develop anticipatory guidance for parents of children with 22q11DS in talking with their unaffected children about the condition. PMID:25540895
Full Text Available The inherent differences between salient and nonsalient electrical machines are evaluated for two permanent magnet generators with different configurations. The neodymium based (NdFeB permanent magnets (PMs in a generator are substituted with ferrite magnets and the characteristics of the NdFeB generator and the ferrite generator are compared through FEM simulations. The NdFeB generator is a nonsalient generator, whereas the ferrite machine is a salient-pole generator, with small saliency. The two generators have almost identical properties at rated load operation. However, at overload the behaviour differs between the two generators. The salient-pole, ferrite generator has lower maximum torque than the NdFeB generator and a larger voltage drop at high current. It is concluded that, for applications where overload capability is important, saliency must be considered and the generator design adapted according to the behaviour at overload operation. Furthermore, if the maximum torque is the design criteria, additional PM mass will be required for the salient-pole machine.
Berenbaum, Howard; Boden, M Tyler; Baker, John P
Two studies with college student participants (Ns = 271 and 185) tested whether peculiar beliefs and magical thinking were associated with (a) the emotional salience of the stimuli about which individuals may have peculiar beliefs or magical thinking, (b) attention to emotion, and (c) clarity of emotion. Study 1 examined belief that a baseball team was cursed. Study 2 measured magical thinking using a procedure developed by P. Rozin and C. Nemeroff (2002). In both studies, peculiar beliefs and magical thinking were associated with Salience x Attention x Clarity interactions. Among individuals for whom the objects of the belief-magical thinking were highly emotionally salient and who had high levels of attention to emotion, higher levels of emotional clarity were associated with increased peculiar beliefs-magical thinking. In contrast, among individuals for whom the objects of the belief-magical thinking were not emotionally salient and who had high levels of attention to emotion, higher levels of emotional clarity were associated with diminished peculiar beliefs-magical thinking. PMID:19348532
Full Text Available Object-based visual attention has received an increasing interest in recent years. Perceptual object is the basic attention unit of object-based visual attention. The definition and extraction of perceptual objects is one of the key technologies in object-based visual attention computation model. A novel perceptual object definition and extraction method is proposed in this paper. Based on Gestalt theory and visual feature integration theory, perceptual object is defined using homogeneity region, salient region and edges. An improved saliency map generating algorithm is employed first. Based on the saliency map, salient edges are extracted. Then graph-based clustering algorithm is introduced to get homogeneity regions in the image. Finally an integration strategy is adopted to combine salient edges and homogeneity regions to extract perceptual objects. The proposed perceptual object extraction method has been tested on lots of natural images. Experiment results and analysis are presented in this paper also. Experiment results show that the proposed method is reasonable and valid.
Yang, Xiyu; Qian, Xueming; Xue, Yao
Nowadays, it is very convenient to capture photos by a smart phone. As using, the smart phone is a convenient way to share what users experienced anytime and anywhere through social networks, it is very possible that we capture multiple photos to make sure the content is well photographed. In this paper, an effective scalable mobile image retrieval approach is proposed by exploring contextual salient information for the input query image. Our goal is to explore the high-level semantic information of an image by finding the contextual saliency from multiple relevant photos rather than solely using the input image. Thus, the proposed mobile image retrieval approach first determines the relevant photos according to visual similarity, then mines salient features by exploring contextual saliency from multiple relevant images, and finally determines contributions of salient features for scalable retrieval. Compared with the existing mobile-based image retrieval approaches, our approach requires less bandwidth and has better retrieval performance. We can carry out retrieval with retrieval. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:25775488
Ronette R. Briefel; Allison Hedley Dodd; Charlotte Cabili; Carol West Suitor
Recommendations to promote healthy living, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, are intended to translate scientific knowledge into everyday practice. This report assesses the evidence base for child-focused dietary guidance, identifying new evidence as well as topics where there are gaps for developing future direction. Relatively little growth of the science base has occurred since 2004, except on a few topicsâ€”added sugars and weight, dairy foods/calcium and bone health, and sodi...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Immunization is the most cost effective public health intervention to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality. Thousands of children can be saved from vaccine preventable diseases each year by immunization. The knowledge of mothers’ is an important factor for better immunization coverage. Less knowledge affects decision making regarding immunization. OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge about immunization of under five children among mothers a ttending outpatient department of paediatrics in a tertiary care hospital in Kollam, Kerala and to find out the association of the knowledge level of mothers with some selected variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS : A Cross sectional study was done among mothers of under five children attending the OPD of pediatrics in a tertiary care hospital in Kollam, Kerala from 1 st to 30 th May, 2014. The sample size was 210 and simple random sampling was used. Statistical analysis was done and chi - square test & percentages w ere calculated. RESULT: 93.8% of mothers knew that vaccines are beneficial for their child. 58% were aware about the side effects of few vaccines. 50% of mothers believed that as polio is eradicated from India, there is no need to give polio vaccine. 35% o f mothers acquired knowledge regarding immunization through health workers. All of them had knowledge about polio vaccine but only half of them knew about rotavirus vaccine. 60% mothers believed that multiple vaccines are beneficial although 26% hold their view that it has no benefit at all. 39.5% of mothers’ had adequate knowledge about immunization. It was positively associated with education, working class and high socio - economic status of mothers. CONCLUSION: There are several loopholes in the mother’s knowledge regarding immunization. Many of them had no knowledge about optional vaccines. There is a need to improve knowledge regarding immunization among general population. Adequate information about completin g the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision-making in child and youth mental health (CYMH care requires recommendations that are developed through an efficient and effective method and are based on credible knowledge. Credible knowledge is informed by two sources: scientific evidence, and practice-based evidence, that reflects the "real world" experience of service providers. Current approaches to developing these recommendations in relation to CYMH will typically include evidence from one source or the other but do not have an objective method to combine the two. To this end, a modified version of the Grading Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach was pilot-tested, a novel method for the CYMH field. Methods GRADE has an explicit methodology that relies on input from scientific evidence as well as a panel of experts. The panel established the quality of evidence and derived detailed recommendations regarding the organization and delivery of mental health care for children and youth or their caregivers. In this study a modified GRADE method was used to provide precise recommendations based on a specific CYMH question (i.e. What is the current credible knowledge concerning the effects of parent-implemented, early intervention with their autistic children?. Results Overall, it appeared that early, parent-implemented interventions for autism result in positive effects that outweigh any undesirable effects. However, as opposed to overall recommendations, the heterogeneity of the evidence required that recommendations be specific to particular interventions, based on the questions of whether the benefits of a particular intervention outweighs its harms. Conclusions This pilot project provided evidence that a modified GRADE method may be an effective and practical approach to making recommendations in CYMH, based on credible knowledge. Key strengths of the process included separating the assessments of the quality of the evidence and
Chelule, Paul K.; Mokgatle, Mathildah M; Zungu, Lindiwe I.; Armelia Chaponda
Background: Fermented foods have positive health effects in adults and children if consumed regularly. However, lack of knowledge and perceptions to-wards fermented foods may limit their usage. This study aimed to assess the caregivers’ awareness and usage of fermented foods for feeding children in peri-urban/rural communities of Gauteng Province. Methods: A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in June, 2012, in a peri-urban/rural community to assess the awareness and use of fermented ...
Naidu, Rahul; Nunn, June; Irwin, Jennifer D.
Background Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been used across primary healthcare and been shown to be effective in reducing the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) in preschool children. This study aimed to compare the effect of MI, in contrast to traditional dental health education (DHE), on oral health knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours among parents and caregivers of preschool children in Trinidad. Method The design of this exploratory study included a cluster randomised ...
Amanda M. George
Full Text Available Physical literacy is the degree of fitness, behaviors, knowledge, and fundamental movement skills (agility, balance, and coordination a child has to confidently participate in physical activity. Active video games (AVG, like the Nintendo Wii, have emerged as alternatives to traditional physical activity by providing a non-threatening environment to develop physical literacy. This study examined the impact of AVGs on children’s (age 6–12, N = 15 physical literacy. For six weeks children played one of four pre-selected AVGs (minimum 20 min, twice per week. Pre and post measures of motivation, enjoyment, and physical literacy were completed. Results indicated a near significant improvement in aiming and catching (p = 0.06. Manual dexterity significantly improved in males (p = 0.001, and females felt significantly less pressured to engage in PA (p = 0.008. Overall, there appears to be some positive impact of an AVG intervention on components of physical literacy.
There is almost no chance to learn about the words (atomic energy), (radioactivity) and (radiation) in the middle and/or high school educations in Japan, because physics is one of the options in the high school curriculum, and 80-90% of students do not like to choose physics. This inquires aim to know the level of their knowledge on energy resources, atomic energy, radioactivity, radiation, and information sources on their related knowledge. Inquiries are made for the middle and high school students in Tokushima and Tsuruga. There are coal power plants in Tokushima, while atomic power plants in Tsuruga. Fossils energy gets the highest points in Tokushima, while Atomic energy gets the highest points in Tsuruga for a present-day energy source. Solar energy sources get the highest point as a promising 21st century energy source in both prefectures, especially for female students. Radioactivity reminds them of words atomic bomb, disease, injury, and harmful, those give very negative images. Radiation reminds them of words roentgen, radiation therapy, x-ray, and hospital use, those designate a sort of plus-image. More than 50 to 60% of them obtained their knowledge from mass media, particularly, television. In addition, less than a few % of them can give any scientific description about these words. As a whole, authors can say that the students have got a certain concept for these words from information of mass media. Meanwhile the school education has approximately no effect on the formation of their concept. Authors are giving some advises and recommendations for the school education and mass media in Japan. (Y. Tanaka)
Ezenwosu, O U; Chukwu, B F; Ikefuna, A N; Hunt, A T; Keane, J; Emodi, I J; Ezeanolue, E E
Sickle cell trait (SCT; HbAS), the heterozygous state for the sickle cell allele of the beta globin gene, is carried by as many as 100 million individuals worldwide. Nigeria has the highest prevalence of SCT, impacting an estimated 25 % of adult population. This study was designed to assess timing of awareness, knowledge of SCT status and preferred method of education among parents of children with sickle cell disease (SCD). We conducted a cross-sectional survey of parents of children with SCD from June 2013-March 2014. Participants completed a 20-item questionnaire to assess (1) awareness of personal sickle cell genotype, (2) timing of awareness of personal sickle cell genotype, and (3) knowledge of SCT. One hundred and fifty-five participants completed the survey. Seventy-eight percent were females, and 87 % (135/155) were aware of their own sickle cell genotype. Timing of awareness varied as follows: following birth of a child with sickle cell disease (45 %); during marriage (21.5 %); school admission (9.6 %); during pregnancy (9.6 %); and other times (14 %). Approximately 35.5 % of participants thought that sickle cell trait was a mild form of sickle cell disease. Radio (43.9 %), informational community meetings (27.7 %), and television (21.9 %) were identified by participants as the most effective method of increasing sickle cell trait awareness. Innovative approaches are needed to increase the proportion of individuals who are aware of their own sickle cell genotype prior to having a child with sickle cell anemia in line with the Healthy People 2020 objective. PMID:25869330
Kurtuncu, Meltem; akhan, latife utas; Tanir, İbrahim Murat; Yildiz, Hicran
This descriptive study was carried out in order to determine the knowledge levels and attitudes of doctors and nurses regarding children’s sexual development and sex education. The study was conducted with doctors and nurses who work at various clinics of two state hospitals located in the province of Istanbul. The data collection tool consisted of 58 questions. The Statistical Program for the Social Sciences, version 18.0 (SPSS 18.0) was used for data analysis. It was determined that females...
Liao, Hsin-I; Kidani, Shunsuke; Yoneya, Makoto; Kashino, Makio; Furukawa, Shigeto
A pupillary dilation response is known to be evoked by salient deviant or contrast auditory stimuli, but so far a direct link between it and subjective salience has been lacking. In two experiments, participants listened to various environmental sounds while their pupillary responses were recorded. In separate sessions, participants performed subjective pairwise-comparison tasks on the sounds with respect to their salience, loudness, vigorousness, preference, beauty, annoyance, and hardness. The pairwise-comparison data were converted to ratings on the Thurstone scale. The results showed a close link between subjective judgments of salience and loudness. The pupil dilated in response to the sound presentations, regardless of sound type. Most importantly, this pupillary dilation response to an auditory stimulus positively correlated with the subjective salience, as well as the loudness, of the sounds (Exp. 1). When the loudnesses of the sounds were identical, the pupil responses to each sound were similar and were not correlated with the subjective judgments of salience or loudness (Exp. 2). This finding was further confirmed by analyses based on individual stimulus pairs and participants. In Experiment 3, when salience and loudness were manipulated by systematically changing the sound pressure level and acoustic characteristics, the pupillary dilation response reflected the changes in both manipulated factors. A regression analysis showed a nearly perfect linear correlation between the pupillary dilation response and loudness. The overall results suggest that the pupillary dilation response reflects the subjective salience of sounds, which is defined, or is heavily influenced, by loudness. PMID:26163191
Moessnang, Carolin; Habel, Ute; Schneider, Frank; Siegel, Steven J
According to the aberrant-salience hypothesis, attribution of motivational salience is severely disrupted in patients with schizophrenia. To provide a translational approach for investigating underlying mechanisms, neural correlates of salience attribution were examined in normal mice and in a MK-801 model of schizophrenia. Electrophysiological responses to standard and deviant tones were assessed in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) using an auditory oddball paradigm. Motivational salience was induced by aversive conditioning to the deviant tone. Analysis of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) showed selective modulation of the late frontal negativity (LFN) by motivational salience, which persisted throughout a 4-week delay. MK-801, an N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist, abolished this differential response to motivational salience in conditioned mice. In contrast, a pronounced LFN response was observed towards the deviant, ie, perceptually salient tone, in nonconditioned mice. The finding of a selective modulation of a late frontal slow wave suggests increased top-down processing and emotional evaluation of motivationally salient stimuli. In particular, the LFN is discussed as the mouse analog to the human stimulus preceding negativity, which reflects preparatory processes in anticipation of reward or punishment. MK-801 led to a disruption of the normal response in conditioned and nonconditioned mice, including an aberrantly increased LFN in nonconditioned mice. This pattern of 'false-negative' and 'false-positive' responses suggests a degradation of salience attribution, which points to mPFC responses to be relevant for translational research on cognitive alterations in schizophrenia. PMID:22910459
Full Text Available Background and Aim: The role of caretakers at day-care centers has become more imperative in promoting oral health care in children since many new mothers opt to work outside their homes, leaving their children at day-care centers. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among secondary caretakers of children attending day-care centers. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional exploratory study conducted among secondary caretakers in Kubang Kerian, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four caretakers fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria participated in the study. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire addressing various aspects of knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health in children. Analysis was done using SPSS version 12.0. Results: The knowledge of factors causing dental caries was found to be good among majority of the caretakers, but the concepts of transmissibility of caries and effect of hidden sugars were not evident. Seventy one percent did not know that frequent bottle feeding could cause tooth decay. Attitudes seemed to be governed by the cultural practices of the region rather than the knowledge obtained. The knowledge was not translated to practice adequately. Giving sweetened liquid in bottles was practiced by 53% of the caretakers. Conclusion: Implementation of nursery-based oral health promotion programs for secondary caretakers is needed to counteract early childhood caries.
Zarcone, Alessandra; van Schijndel, Marten; Vogels, Jorrig; Demberg, Vera
The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range of linguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g., visual salience of objects in the world, acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds) and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g., prominence of recently mentioned or topical referents) have been shown to influence language comprehension and production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates of cognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage using information-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect language processing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequately elucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability is still open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminological inconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalize upon work in visual cognition in order to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguistics and their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects of linguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attention and relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides a unified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levels of processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes and between predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus. PMID:27375525
Full Text Available The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range oflinguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g. visual salience of objects in the world,acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g. prominence ofrecently mentioned or topical referents have been shown to influence language comprehensionand production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates ofcognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage usinginformation-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect languageprocessing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequatelyelucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability isstill open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminologicalinconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalise upon work in visual cognition inorder to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguisticsand their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects oflinguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attentionand relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides aunified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levelsof processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes andbetween predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus.
Zarcone, Alessandra; van Schijndel, Marten; Vogels, Jorrig; Demberg, Vera
The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range of linguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g., visual salience of objects in the world, acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds) and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g., prominence of recently mentioned or topical referents) have been shown to influence language comprehension and production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates of cognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage using information-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect language processing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequately elucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability is still open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminological inconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalize upon work in visual cognition in order to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguistics and their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects of linguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attention and relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides a unified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levels of processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes and between predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus. PMID:27375525
Li, Ting; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Chongyang
Many current visual attention approaches used semantic features to accurately capture human gaze. However, these approaches demand high computational cost and can hardly be applied to daily use. Recently, some quaternion-based saliency detection models, such as PQFT (phase spectrum of Quaternion Fourier Transform), QDCT (Quaternion Discrete Cosine Transform), have been proposed to meet real-time requirement of human gaze tracking tasks. However, current saliency detection methods used global PQFT and QDCT to locate jump edges of the input, which can hardly detect the object boundaries accurately. To address the problem, we improved QDCT-based saliency detection model by introducing superpixel-wised regional saliency detection mechanism. The local smoothness of saliency value distribution is emphasized to distinguish noises of background from salient regions. Our algorithm called saliency confidence can distinguish the patches belonging to the salient object and those of the background. It decides whether the image patches belong to the same region. When an image patch belongs to a region consisting of other salient patches, this patch should be salient as well. Therefore, we use saliency confidence map to get background weight and foreground weight to do the optimization on saliency map obtained by QDCT. The optimization is accomplished by least square method. The optimization approach we proposed unifies local and global saliency by combination of QDCT and measuring the similarity between each image superpixel. We evaluate our model on four commonly-used datasets (Toronto, MIT, OSIE and ASD) using standard precision-recall curves (PR curves), the mean absolute error (MAE) and area under curve (AUC) measures. In comparison with most state-of-art models, our approach can achieve higher consistency with human perception without training. It can get accurate human gaze even in cluttered background. Furthermore, it achieves better compromise between speed and accuracy.
Wisman, Arnaud; Heflick, Nathan A
Do people lose hope when thinking about death? Based on Terror Management Theory, we predicted that thoughts of death (i.e., mortality salience) would reduce personal hope for people low, but not high, in self-esteem, and that this reduction in hope would be ameliorated by promises of immortality. In Studies 1 and 2, mortality salience reduced personal hope for people low in self-esteem, but not for people high in self-esteem. In Study 3, mortality salience reduced hope for people low in self...
There is a vast literature on the behavioural effects of partial reinforcement in Pavlovian conditioning. Compared with animals receiving continuous reinforcement, partially rewarded animals typically show (a) a slower development of the conditioned response (CR) early in training and (b) a higher asymptotic level of the CR later in training. This phenomenon is known as the partial reinforcement acquisition effect (PRAE). Learning models of Pavlovian conditioning fail to account for it. In accordance with the incentive salience hypothesis, it is here argued that incentive motivation (or 'wanting') plays a more direct role in controlling behaviour than does learning, and reward uncertainty is shown to have an excitatory effect on incentive motivation. The psychological origin of that effect is discussed and a computational model integrating this new interpretation is developed. Many features of CRs under partial reinforcement emerge from this model. PMID:25444780
Smith, Lauren M; Kasser, Tim
Based on principles of terror management theory, the authors hypothesized that participants would distance more from a target person with terminal cancer than from a target with arthritis, and that this effect would be stronger following mortality salience. In Study 1, adults rated how similar their personalities were to a target person; in Study 2, participants arranged two chairs in preparation for meeting the target person. Both studies found that distancing from the person with terminal cancer increased after participants wrote about their own death (vs. giving a speech). Thus, death anxiety may explain why people avoid close contact with terminally ill people; further analyses suggest that gender and self-esteem may also influence such distancing from the terminally ill. PMID:24521045
Clement, Jesper; Aastrup, Jesper; Forsberg, Signe Charlotte
that they are affected by the visual stimuli in the store. The objective for this paper is to investigate the visual saliency from two factors: 1) in-store signage and 2) placement of products. This is done by a triangulation method where we utilize data from an eye-track study and sales data from...... grocery stores. The first study takes place in laboratory settings with a simulated purchase situation, and the second research design builds on manipulated in-store settings and data from real purchases. We found optimal placement of two comparable goods (branded good and private label) to increase...... visual attention and sale for both goods. The use of signage increases visual attention and sale as well, yet only for the product that the label addressed, implying a cannibalization effect. The limitation of the study and implications for retail managers and for brand owners are discussed....
Full Text Available Background: Children less than 15 years of age are especially vulnerable to the morbidity and mortality resulting from injury. As caregivers of children, women play a critical role in the care of children immediately following injury. The first hour after an accident is very crucial and if the correct first aid measures are taken, lives could be saved and disabilities limited. Objectives: To assess first aid knowledge in selected circumstances among mothers of children less than 15 years of age in a rural area. To assess the current treatment practices in specific situation. Methods: A cross sectional study conducted among 140 mothers of under 15 children in a village of South India. A pretested interview schedule was administered which included socio-demographic details and thirteen questions covering knowledge regarding first aid in various circumstances. A correct response for each question was awarded '1' mark. A partially correct response was awarded '0.5' marks. A wrong response was awarded '0' marks. The subjects were grouped into one of 4 categories based on the total score obtained - Low= ≤3.25, Medium= 3.26 - 6.5, High= 6.6 - 9.75, Very High= 9.76–13. Results: only 48 (34.3% of all the mothers stated that they had heard about first aid and most of them had heard from their teachers. Correct knowledge on first aid in various situations was less than 30% in most of the situations. There were several misconceptions regarding the management of various emergencies and injuries which could potentially lead to adverse outcomes following injury. The mean overall baseline knowledge score was 2.34± 1.98 among mothers. Conclusion: The Knowledge regarding First Aid for management of injuries among women with children <15 years in the study area was poor.
Jackson, Grace L; Trail, Thomas E; Kennedy, David P; Williamson, Hannah C; Bradbury, Thomas N; Karney, Benjamin R
Developing programs to support low-income married couples requires an accurate understanding of the challenges they face. To address this question, we assessed the salience and severity of relationship problems by asking 862 Black, White, and Latino newlywed spouses (N = 431 couples) living in low-income neighborhoods to (a) free list their 3 biggest sources of disagreement in the marriage, and (b) rate the severity of the problems appearing on a standard relationship problem inventory. Comparing the 2 sources of information revealed that, although relational problems (e.g., communication and moods) were rated as severe on the inventory, challenges external to the relationship (e.g., children) were more salient in the free listing task. The pattern of results is robust across couples of varying race/ethnicity, parental status, and income levels. We conclude that efforts to strengthen marriages among low-income couples may be more effective if they address not only relational problems, but also couples' external stresses by providing assistance with child care, finances, or job training. PMID:26571196
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The majority of children's diseases have certain symptoms and warning signs. The mothers' knowledge of the signs and symptoms of these diseases, particularly of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, helps reduce mortality rates in children under the age of five. The present study was conducted to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers with respect to the warning signs of diseases in children less than the age of five. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 350 women with children under the age of five admitted to the healthcare centers of Arak and selected through random sampling. The study's data collection tool was a questionnaire consisting of different parts on the patients' demographic details, knowledge, attitude and practice. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed before beginning the study. Data were collected through interviews and then analyzed in SPSS-19 using the independent t-test, the Pearson correlation test and the one-way ANOVA. Results: The mean score ± standard deviation was 60.71±13.7 for knowledge about the warning signs, 77.45± 5.29 for attitude and 49.5±41.5 for practices aimed at respiratory infections, 49.25±41.42 at diarrhea and 52.1±42.91 at febrile seizure. There was a significant difference between the working mothers and the housewives in terms of practice. The mothers' practices differed significantly with their economic status and level of education. Attitude had a significant positive relationship with knowledge and practice (P<0.001. Conclusion: The findings of the present study can be helpful in the design and implementation of educational programs for promoting mothers' knowledge, attitude and practice with regard to the warning signs of diseases in their children.
方燕红; 杜顺冠; 尹观海
Task of matching puzzle was used to explore the development of the metacognition knowledge of mental-retarded children.Results showed that children's metacognition knowledge,including knowledge about person,task and strategy,increased with age.But still to the age of higher grade,the development level of mental-retarded children's metacogntion knowledge is rather low.There were significant changes in the use of inner strategy from lower grade to higher grade children.%采用拼图任务考查弱智儿童元认知知识的发展特点,结果表明,弱智儿童主体性元认知知识随着年龄增长不断发展,但直到高年级,儿童的主体性元认知知识水平仍较低;任务难度的元认知知识随年龄增长发展缓慢;弱智儿童具有一定的策略知识,且随着年龄增长,内部策略的使用频率增多,外部策略的使用频率减少。
van Os, E.C.C.; Kalverboer, M.E.; Zijlstra, A.E.; Post, W.J.; Knorth, E.J.
Decision-making regarding an asylum request of a minor requires decision-makers to determine the best interests of the child when the minor is relatively unknown. This article presents a systematic review of the existing knowledge of the situation of recently arrived refugee children in the host cou
Wang, Yetianjian; Pan, Li; Wang, Dagang; Kang, Yifei
Harbours are very important objects in civil and military fields. To detect them from high resolution remote sensing imagery is important in various fields and also a challenging task. Traditional methods of detecting harbours mainly focus on the segmentation of water and land and the manual selection of knowledge. They do not make enough use of other features of remote sensing imagery and often fail to describe the harbours completely. In order to improve the detection, a new method is proposed. First, the image is transformed to Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV) colour space and saliency analysis is processed via the generation and enhancement of the co-occurrence histogram to help detect and locate the regions of interest (ROIs) that is salient and may be parts of the harbour. Next, SIFT features are extracted and feature learning is processed to help represent the ROIs. Then, by using classified feature of the harbour, a classifier is trained and used to check the ROIs to find whether they belong to the harbour. Finally, if the ROIs belong to the harbour, a minimum bounding rectangle is formed to include all the harbour ROIs and detect and locate the harbour. The experiment on high resolution remote sensing imagery shows that the proposed method performs better than other methods in precision of classifying ROIs and accuracy of completely detecting and locating harbours.
Bennion, Kelly A; Payne, Jessica D; Kensinger, Elizabeth A
Prior research has demonstrated that sleep enhances memory for future-relevant information, including memory for information that is salient due to emotion, reward, or knowledge of a later memory test. Although sleep has been shown to prioritize information with any of these characteristics, the present study investigates the novel question of how sleep prioritizes information when multiple salience cues exist. Participants encoded scenes that were future-relevant based on emotion (emotional vs. neutral), reward (rewarded vs. unrewarded), and instructed learning (intentionally vs. incidentally encoded), preceding a delay consisting of a nap, an equivalent time period spent awake, or a nap followed by wakefulness (to control for effects of interference). Recognition testing revealed that when multiple dimensions of future relevance co-occur, sleep prioritizes top-down, goal-directed cues (instructed learning, and to a lesser degree, reward) over bottom-up, stimulus-driven characteristics (emotion). Further, results showed that these factors interact; the effect of a nap on intentionally encoded information was especially strong for neutral (relative to emotional) information, suggesting that once one cue for future relevance is present, there are diminishing returns with additional cues. Sleep may binarize information based on whether it is future-relevant or not, preferentially consolidating memory for the former category. Potential neural mechanisms underlying these selective effects and the implications of this research for educational and vocational domains are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27214500
Isabel C Dombrowe
Full Text Available Salient objects in the visual field attract our attention. Recent work in the orientation domain has shown that the effects of the relative salience of two singleton elements on covert visual attention disappear over time. The present study aims to investigate how salience derived from color and luminance differences affects covert selection. In two experiments, observers indicated the location of a probe which was presented at different stimulus-onset-asynchronies after the presentation of a singleton display containing a homogeneous array of oriented lines and two distinct color singletons (Experiment 1 or luminance singletons (Experiment 2. The results show that relative singleton salience from luminance and color differences, just as from orientation differences, affects covert visual attention in a brief time span after stimulus onset. The mere presence of an object, however, can affect covert attention for a longer time span regardless of salience.
Liang, Zhen; Fu, Hong; Chi, Zheru; Feng, Dagan
A novel saliency model is proposed in this paper to automatically process images in the similar way as the human visual system which focuses on conspicuous regions that catch human beings' attention. The model combines a hypergraph representation and a partitioning process with potential region-of-interest (p-ROI) approximation and validation. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method shows considerable improvement in the performance of saliency map generation.
Natalie Wyatt; Liana Machado
Along with target amplification, distractor inhibition is regarded as a major contributor to selective attention. Some theories suggest that the strength of inhibitory processing is proportional to the salience of the distractor (i.e., inhibition reacts to the distractor intensity). Other theories suggest that the strength of inhibitory processing does not depend on the salience of the distractor (i.e., inhibition does not react to the distractor intensity). The present study aimed to elucida...
Huber, David J.; Khosla, Deepak; Dow, Paul A.
In many real-world situations and applications that involve humans or machines (e.g., situation awareness, scene understanding, driver distraction, workload reduction, assembly, robotics, etc.) multiple sensory modalities (e.g., vision, auditory, touch, etc.) are used. The incoming sensory information can overwhelm processing capabilities of both humans and machines. An approach for estimating what is most important in our sensory environment (bottom-up or goal-driven) and using that as a basis for workload reduction or taking an action could be of great benefit in applications involving humans, machines or human-machine interactions. In this paper, we describe a novel approach for determining high saliency stimuli in multi-modal sensory environments, e.g., vision, sound, touch, etc. In such environments, the high saliency stimuli could be a visual object, a sound source, a touch event, etc. The high saliency stimuli are important and should be attended to from perception, cognition or/and action perspective. The system accomplishes this by the fusion of saliency maps from multiple sensory modalities (e.g., visual and auditory) into a single, fused multimodal saliency map that is represented in a common, higher-level coordinate system. This paper describes the computational model and method for generating multi-modal or fused saliency map. The fused saliency map can be used to determine primary and secondary foci of attention as well as for active control of a hardware/device. Such a computational model of fused saliency map would be immensely useful for a machine-based or robot-based application in a multi-sensory environment. We describe the approach, system and present preliminary results on a real-robotic platform.
Salient objects in the visual field attract our attention. Recent work in the orientation domain has shown that the effects of the relative salience of two singleton elements on covert visual attention disappear over time. The present study aims to investigate how salience derived from color and luminance differences affects covert selection. In two experiments, observers indicated the location of a probe which was presented at different stimulus-onset-asynchronies after the presentation of a...
Boujut, Hugo; Buso, Vincent; Benois-Pineau, Jenny
Extraction of visual saliency from video is in the focus of in- tensive research nowadays due to the variety and importance of application areas. In this paper we study the relation be- tween subjective saliency maps, recorded on the basis of gaze- tracker data in a new upcoming video content: the egocentric video recorded with wearable cameras. On the basis of phys- iological research and comparing the subjective maps of an Actor performing activities of everyday life and a Viewer who interp...
Soares da Silva, Augusto
This paper highlights three theoretical and descriptive insights into synonymy and lexical variation and change: (1) the diachronic development of synonymous forms reveals essential aspects about the nature and motivations of synonymy; (2) the emergence and competition of synonymous forms can either result from conceptual salience factors or from social salience factors; (3) synonym competition sheds light upon processes of language variation and change. Focusing on the interplay between conc...
Gniadek, Agnieszka; Cepuch, Grażyna; Ochender, Katarzyna; Salamon, Dominika
Despite a significant civilization advancement, parasitic diseases still pose a serious diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Children's susceptibility to these infections stems from their immature immune system and lack of basic hygiene routines. The objective of the study was to evaluate the level of knowledge which parents of preschool children's possess about parasitic diseases in their children's environment. The study was carried out in the group of 151 parents of preschool children living both in the city and in the country. The survey was carried out by means of a diagnostic poll with the application of a self-designed research questionnaire. To make the evaluation even more objective, a special scale was created in which parents could score points for their answers (0 - wrong answer, 1 - correct answer). The total number of points ranging from 0 to 9 indicated an unsatisfactory level of knowledge, from 10 to 13 - satisfactory level, from 14 to 16 - good level and from 17 to 20 - very good level of parents' awareness. The results of the study reveal that the level of parents' knowledge about parasitic diseases is only satisfactory. A statistically significant relationship was observed between the variables such as education and sex. The higher education, the higher level of knowledge. Moreover, women were more knowledgeable in the field of parasitic diseases than men were. Financial status of the family did not influence the level of parents' awareness. Well-planned educational programmes might have a positive influence on developing proper hygiene routines in families, which, in turn, will limit the risk of spreading parasitoses in the population of children. PMID:26342507
Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley
This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.
Li, Xi; Zhao, Liming; Wei, Lina; Yang, Ming-Hsuan; Wu, Fei; Zhuang, Yueting; Ling, Haibin; Wang, Jingdong
A key problem in salient object detection is how to effectively model the semantic properties of salient objects in a data-driven manner. In this paper, we propose a multi-task deep saliency model based on a fully convolutional neural network with global input (whole raw images) and global output (whole saliency maps). In principle, the proposed saliency model takes a data-driven strategy for encoding the underlying saliency prior information, and then sets up a multi-task learning scheme for exploring the intrinsic correlations between saliency detection and semantic image segmentation. Through collaborative feature learning from such two correlated tasks, the shared fully convolutional layers produce effective features for object perception. Moreover, it is capable of capturing the semantic information on salient objects across different levels using the fully convolutional layers, which investigate the feature-sharing properties of salient object detection with a great reduction of feature redundancy. Finally, we present a graph Laplacian regularized nonlinear regression model for saliency refinement. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in comparison with the state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:27305676
Wang, Hongyi; Hahn, Amanda C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C
Both behavioral and neural measures of the motivational salience of faces are positively correlated with their physical attractiveness. Whether physical characteristics other than attractiveness contribute to the motivational salience of faces is not known, however. Research with male macaques recently showed that more dominant macaques' faces hold greater motivational salience. Here we investigated whether dominance also contributes to the motivational salience of faces in human participants. Principal component analysis of third-party ratings of faces for multiple traits revealed two orthogonal components. The first component ("valence") was highly correlated with rated trustworthiness and attractiveness. The second component ("dominance") was highly correlated with rated dominance and aggressiveness. Importantly, both components were positively and independently related to the motivational salience of faces, as assessed from responses on a standard key-press task. These results show that at least two dissociable components underpin the motivational salience of faces in humans and present new evidence for similarities in how humans and non-human primates respond to facial cues of dominance. PMID:27513859
Saroj, Gyanendra; Sharma, Swati; Gupta, Basant
ABSTRACT Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and awareness among parents and general dental practitioners regarding rehabilitation with full coverage restoration in children following pulp therapy. Materials and methods: A multiple choice questionnaire was given to 1,000 parents and 400 general practitioners in this multicentric trial. The questionnaire assessed their beliefs, knowledge regarding care of primary teeth, assessment of treating children, and knowledge regarding importance of primary teeth. All the questionnaires were then compiled and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results and discussion: 53% parents did not know the importance of primary teeth and 73% parents also thought that no treatment is possible for pulpally involved primary teeth. 20% parents believed that root canal treatment can be possible for children and only 10% knew about full coverage restorations. 40% of the general dentists felt that the best treatment in the case of primary necrotic teeth is extraction and only 13% knew about stainless steel crowns. 62% of general dental practitioners pointed out patients’ noninterest in providing crowns whereas 68% parents reported non-information by dentists. Conclusion: Both parents and general dental practitioners have incomplete and inadequate knowledge regarding full coverage restorations, and we need to improve the knowledge and dental awareness of the parents and the general dental practitioners. How to cite this article: Moda A, Saroj G, Sharma S, Gupta B. Knowledge and Awareness among Parents and General Dental Practitioners regarding Rehabilitation with Full Coverage Restoration in Children: A Multi-centric Trial. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):177-180. PMID:27365944
Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T; Suresh, Chandan H
Neural representation of pitch-relevant information at the brainstem and cortical levels of processing is influenced by language experience. A well-known attribute of pitch is its salience. Brainstem frequency following responses and cortical pitch specific responses, recorded concurrently, were elicited by a pitch salience continuum spanning weak to strong pitch of a dynamic, iterated rippled noise pitch contour-homolog of a Mandarin tone. Our aims were to assess how language experience (Chinese, English) affects i) enhancement of neural activity associated with pitch salience at brainstem and cortical levels, ii) the presence of asymmetry in cortical pitch representation, and iii) patterns of relative changes in magnitude along the pitch salience continuum. Peak latency (Fz: Na, Pb, and Nb) was shorter in the Chinese than the English group across the continuum. Peak-to-peak amplitude (Fz: Na-Pb, Pb-Nb) of the Chinese group grew larger with increasing pitch salience, but an experience-dependent advantage was limited to the Na-Pb component. At temporal sites (T7/T8), the larger amplitude of the Chinese group across the continuum was both limited to the Na-Pb component and the right temporal site. At the brainstem level, F0 magnitude gets larger as you increase pitch salience, and it too reveals Chinese superiority. A direct comparison of cortical and brainstem responses for the Chinese group reveals different patterns of relative changes in magnitude along the pitch salience continuum. Such differences may point to a transformation in pitch processing at the cortical level presumably mediated by local sensory and/or extrasensory influence overlaid on the brainstem output. PMID:26903418
Full Text Available The automatic computerized detection of regions of interest (ROI is an important step in the process of medical image processing and analysis. The reasons are many, and include an increasing amount of available medical imaging data, existence of inter-observer and inter-scanner variability, and to improve the accuracy in automatic detection in order to assist doctors in diagnosing faster and on time. A novel algorithm, based on visual saliency, is developed here for the identification of tumor regions from MR images of the brain. The GBM saliency detection model is designed by taking cue from the concept of visual saliency in natural scenes. A visually salient region is typically rare in an image, and contains highly discriminating information, with attention getting immediately focused upon it. Although color is typically considered as the most important feature in a bottom-up saliency detection model, we circumvent this issue in the inherently gray scale MR framework. We develop a novel pseudo-coloring scheme, based on the three MRI sequences, viz. FLAIR, T2 and T1C (contrast enhanced with Gadolinium. A bottom-up strategy, based on a new pseudo-color distance and spatial distance between image patches, is defined for highlighting the salient regions in the image. This multi-channel representation of the image and saliency detection model help in automatically and quickly isolating the tumor region, for subsequent delineation, as is necessary in medical diagnosis. The effectiveness of the proposed model is evaluated on MRI of 80 subjects from the BRATS database in terms of the saliency map values. Using ground truth of the tumor regions for both high- and low- grade gliomas, the results are compared with four highly referred saliency detection models from literature. In all cases the AUC scores from the ROC analysis are found to be more than 0.999 ± 0.001 over different tumor grades, sizes and positions.
Full Text Available Visual saliency is the perceptual quality that makes some items in visual scenes stand out from their immediate contexts. Visual saliency plays important roles in natural vision in that saliency can direct eye movements, deploy attention, and facilitate tasks like object detection and scene understanding. A central unsolved issue is: What features should be encoded in the early visual cortex for detecting salient features in natural scenes? To explore this important issue, we propose a hypothesis that visual saliency is based on efficient encoding of the probability distributions (PDs of visual variables in specific contexts in natural scenes, referred to as context-mediated PDs in natural scenes. In this concept, computational units in the model of the early visual system do not act as feature detectors but rather as estimators of the context-mediated PDs of a full range of visual variables in natural scenes, which directly give rise to a measure of visual saliency of any input stimulus. To test this hypothesis, we developed a model of the context-mediated PDs in natural scenes using a modified algorithm for independent component analysis (ICA and derived a measure of visual saliency based on these PDs estimated from a set of natural scenes. We demonstrated that visual saliency based on the context-mediated PDs in natural scenes effectively predicts human gaze in free-viewing of both static and dynamic natural scenes. This study suggests that the computation based on the context-mediated PDs of visual variables in natural scenes may underlie the neural mechanism in the early visual cortex for detecting salient features in natural scenes.
Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Xilin; Wang, Yizhou; Zhou, Tiangang; Fang, Fang
A saliency map is the bottom-up contribution to the deployment of exogenous attention. It, as well as its underlying neural mechanism, is hard to identify because of the influence of top-down signals. A recent study showed that neural activities in V1 could create a bottom-up saliency map (Zhang et al. in Neuron 73(1):183-192, 2012). In this paper, we tested whether their conclusion can generalize to complex natural scenes. In order to avoid top-down influences, each image was presented with a low contrast for only 50 ms and was followed by a high contrast mask, which rendered the whole image invisible to participants (confirmed by a forced-choice test). The Posner cueing paradigm was adopted to measure the spatial cueing effect (i.e., saliency) by an orientation discrimination task. A positive cueing effect was found, and the magnitude of the cueing effect was consistent with the saliency prediction of a computational saliency model. In a following fMRI experiment, we used the same masked natural scenes as stimuli and measured BOLD signals responding to the predicted salient region (relative to the background). We found that the BOLD signal in V1, but not in other cortical areas, could well predict the cueing effect. These results suggest that the bottom-up saliency map of natural scenes could be created in V1, providing further evidence for the V1 saliency theory (Li in Trends Cogn Sci 6(1):9-16, 2002). PMID:26879771
Johnson, Ping; Porter, Kandice; McPherson, Ian
Background: Autism prevalence has grown dramatically. Early interventions are effective in helping children with autism develop behavior patterns similar to children without the condition. It is important for health educators and teachers to recognize common autism symptoms among preschool children so they will benefit from early intervention.…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is becoming increasingly prevalent among children in China. Poor parent knowledge and attitudes often contribute to inappropriate management practices, leading to deficiencies in the care process. We aimed to document the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of parents of children with asthma and analyze how knowledge and attitudes relate to practices. Our secondary objective was to identify the factors associated with parent KAP scores. Methods A KAP questionnaire was distributed to parents caring for 2960 children (0–14 years diagnosed with asthma for at least 3 months from China’s 29 provinces. A 50-item questionnaire was devised for this cross-sectional survey based on a comprehensive review of the subject. Questionnaires were scored on 30 items regarding parent asthma-related KAP, with one point for every correct response and a possible range of 0–13 for knowledge, 0–7 for attitudes and 0–10 for practices. Higher scores indicated better KAP. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with practices and combined KAP scores. Results The response rate was 83.95% (2485/2960. Only 18.31% (455/2485 of parents correctly answered ≥ 60% of the knowledge questions (mean = 5.69. Most (89.85%; 2226/2485 gave positive responses to ≥ 60% of the attitude questions (mean = 5.23 while 67.89% (1687/2485 correctly answered ≥ 60% of the practices questions (mean = 6.19. Knowledge and attitudes were positively associated with pulmonary function testing, regular physician visits, monitoring with a peak flow meter and the Children’s Asthma Control Test questionnaire, avoidance of asthma triggers, using an inhaled β2 receptor agonist and adherence to medication regimen (p ≤ 0.05. Attitudes were also associated with allergen testing. In logistic regression analysis, high KAP scores (dichotomized by a cut-off score of 18 were positively associated with food allergy, rhinitis
Torppa, Minna; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Eklund, Kenneth; Lyytinen, Heikki
The authors examined the developmental trajectories of children's early letter knowledge in relation to measures spanning and encompassing their prior language-related and cognitive measures and environmental factors and their subsequent Grade 1 reading achievement. Letter knowledge was assessed longitudinally at ages 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.5 years; earlier language skills and environmental factors were assessed at ages 3.5 and 4.5 years; and reading achievement was assessed at the beginning an...
Bertleff, Sabine; Fink, Gereon R; Weidner, Ralph
Selective visual attention requires an efficient coordination between top-down and bottom-up attention control mechanisms. This study investigated the behavioral and neural effects of top-down focused spatial attention on the coding of highly salient distractors and their tendency to capture attention. Combining spatial cueing with an irrelevant distractor paradigm revealed bottom-up based attentional capture only when attention was distributed across the whole search display, including the distractor location. Top-down focusing spatial attention on the target location abolished attentional capture of a salient distractor outside the current attentional focus. Functional data indicated that the missing capture effect was not based on diminished bottom-up salience signals at unattended distractor locations. Irrespectively of whether salient distractors occurred at attended or unattended locations, their presence enhanced BOLD signals at their respective spatial representation in early visual areas as well as in inferior frontal, superior parietal, and medial parietal cortex. Importantly, activity in these regions reflected the presence of a salient distractor rather than attentional capture per se. Moreover, successfully inhibiting attentional capture of a salient distractor at an unattended location further increased neural responses in medial parietal regions known to be involved in controlling spatial attentional shifts. Consequently, data provide evidence that top-down focused spatial attention prevents automatic attentional capture by supporting attentional control processes counteracting a spatial bias toward a salient distractor. PMID:27054402
Hutchinson, Jayne; Christian, Meaghan Sarah; Evans, Charlotte Elizabeth Louise; Nykjaer, Camilla; Hancock, Neil; Cade, Janet Elizabeth
Involvement of children in gardening has the potential to increase liking of fruit and vegetables (FV) and consequently, intake, but research results are mixed. School gardening led by external specialists such as the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) could have more impact than teacher-led gardening on children's knowledge of, and attitudes towards, FV. Data from a cluster randomised controlled trial were used to compare a RHS-led school gardening intervention with a teacher-led gardening intervention amongst 7-10 year olds in 21 London schools. A short questionnaire was developed and used to identify children's knowledge and attitudes towards FV consumption before the garden intervention and 18 months afterwards. Results from multilevel regression models, both unadjusted and adjusted for baseline responses and socio-demographic factors, were reported. Attitudes to FV intake were compared between groups. Change in FV knowledge was used to predict change in FV consumption assessed using 24-hour food diaries. In comparison with the RHS-led group (n = 373), teacher-led children (n = 404) were more likely to agree they ate lots of fruit (p gardening was associated with a greater increase in the total number of vegetables recognised (p = 0.031). No other differences in improvements in attitudes, or associations between change in FV recognition and intake were found. In relation to improvements in children's recognition and attitudes towards eating FV, this trial produced limited evidence that gardening activity packages led by external specialists (RHS-led) provide additional benefits over those led by teachers trained by the RHS. Indeed, the latter were potentially more effective. PMID:25937511
Choi, Yongmi; Ju, Seyoung; Chang, Hyeja
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The prevalence of food allergies in Korean children aged 6 to 12 years increased from 10.9% in 1995 to 12.6% in 2012 according to nationwide population studies. Treatment for food allergies is avoidance of allergenic-related foods and epinephrine auto-injector (EPI) for accidental allergic reactions. This study compared knowledge and perception of food allergy labeling and dietary practices of students. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was conducted with the fourth to sixth gr...
Kurt Buhagiar; Cassar, Joseph R.
Background and Objectives: General Practitioners (GPs) are generally the first point of contact for children and adolescents with mental health problems. This study investigates the confidence, beliefs, and knowledge of GPs regarding common mental health problems in youngsters. Methods: A self-designed questionnaire was distributed to nearly all registered GPs in a middle-income European country in order to address the aims of the study. Results: Response rate was 58%. Many GPs reported relat...
Full Text Available The salience of European issues to the general public is a major determinant of the domestic legitimacy demands that governments face when they devise their European policies. The higher the salience of these issues, the more restrictive will be the legitimacy demands that governments have to meet on the domestic level. Whereas the domestic legitimacy of European policy can rest on a permissive consensus among the public in cases of low issue salience, it requires the electorate’s explicit endorsement in cases of high issue salience. Polling data from Britain and Germany show that the salience of European issues is clearly higher in Britain than in Germany. We thus conclude that British governments face tougher domestic legitimacy demands when formulating their European policies than German governments. This may contribute to accounting for both countries’ different approaches to the integration process: Germany as a role model of a pro-integrationist member state and, in contrast, Britain as the eternal 'awkward partner'.
Liddle, Elizabeth B; Price, Darren; Palaniyappan, Lena; Brookes, Matthew J; Robson, Siân E; Hall, Emma L; Morris, Peter G; Liddle, Peter F
Aberrant salience attribution and cerebral dysconnectivity both have strong evidential support as core dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Aberrant salience arising from an excess of dopamine activity has been implicated in delusions and hallucinations, exaggerating the significance of everyday occurrences and thus leading to perceptual distortions and delusional causal inferences. Meanwhile, abnormalities in key nodes of a salience brain network have been implicated in other characteristic symptoms, including the disorganization and impoverishment of mental activity. A substantial body of literature reports disruption to brain network connectivity in schizophrenia. Electrical oscillations likely play a key role in the coordination of brain activity at spatially remote sites, and evidence implicates beta band oscillations in long-range integrative processes. We used magnetoencephalography and a task designed to disambiguate responses to relevant from irrelevant stimuli to investigate beta oscillations in nodes of a network implicated in salience detection and previously shown to be structurally and functionally abnormal in schizophrenia. Healthy participants, as expected, produced an enhanced beta synchronization to behaviorally relevant, as compared to irrelevant, stimuli, while patients with schizophrenia showed the reverse pattern: a greater beta synchronization in response to irrelevant than to relevant stimuli. These findings not only support both the aberrant salience and disconnectivity hypotheses, but indicate a common mechanism that allows us to integrate them into a single framework for understanding schizophrenia in terms of disrupted recruitment of contextually appropriate brain networks. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1361-1374, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26853904
Pedale, Tiziana; Santangelo, Valerio
One of the most important issues in the study of cognition is to understand which are the factors determining internal representation of the external world. Previous literature has started to highlight the impact of low-level sensory features (indexed by saliency-maps) in driving attention selection, hence increasing the probability for objects presented in complex and natural scenes to be successfully encoded into working memory (WM) and then correctly remembered. Here we asked whether the probability of retrieving high-saliency objects modulates the overall contents of WM, by decreasing the probability of retrieving other, lower-saliency objects. We presented pictures of natural scenes for 4 s. After a retention period of 8 s, we asked participants to verbally report as many objects/details as possible of the previous scenes. We then computed how many times the objects located at either the peak of maximal or minimal saliency in the scene (as indexed by a saliency-map; Itti et al., 1998) were recollected by participants. Results showed that maximal-saliency objects were recollected more often and earlier in the stream of successfully reported items than minimal-saliency objects. This indicates that bottom-up sensory salience increases the recollection probability and facilitates the access to memory representation at retrieval, respectively. Moreover, recollection of the maximal- (but not the minimal-) saliency objects predicted the overall amount of successfully recollected objects: The higher the probability of having successfully reported the most-salient object in the scene, the lower the amount of recollected objects. These findings highlight that bottom-up sensory saliency modulates the current contents of WM during recollection of objects from natural scenes, most likely by reducing available resources to encode and then retrieve other (lower saliency) objects. PMID:25741266
Full Text Available One of the most important issues in the study of cognition is to understand which are the factors determining internal representation of the external world. Previous literature has started to highlight the impact of low-level sensory features (indexed by saliency-maps in driving attention selection, hence increasing the probability for objects presented in complex and natural scenes to be successfully encoded into working memory(WM and then correctly remembered. Here we asked whether the probability of retrieving high-saliency objects modulates the overall contents of WM, by decreasing the probability of retrieving other, lower-saliency objects. We presented pictures of natural scenes for 4 secs. After a retention period of 8 secs, we asked participants to verbally report as many objects/details as possible of the previous scenes. We then computed how many times the objects located at either the peak of maximal or minimal saliency in the scene (as indexed by a saliency-map; Itti et al., 1998 were recollected by participants. Results showed that maximal-saliency objects were recollected more often and earlier in the stream of successfully reported items than minimal-saliency objects. This indicates that bottom-up sensory salience increases the recollection probability and facilitates the access to memory representation at retrieval, respectively. Moreover, recollection of the maximal- (but not the minimal- saliency objects predicted the overall amount of successfully recollected objects: The higher the probability of having successfully reported the most-salient object in the scene, the lower the amount of recollected objects. These findings highlight that bottom-up sensory saliency modulates the current contents of WM during recollection of objects from natural scenes, most likely by reducing available resources to encode and then retrieve other (lower saliency objects.
Cristina Soraia de Souza Curvelo
Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo examinar o conhecimento ortográfico utilizado pela criança em contexto lúdico. Sessenta crianças entre a 2ª e a 4ª séries do Ensino Fundamental foram convidadas a jogar forca com as pesquisadoras em entrevistas individuais. Os resultados mostraram que, em relação ao número médio de jogadas para concluir o jogo com sucesso, não houve diferença significativa no desempenho das crianças de diferentes níveis de escolaridade. No entanto, as respostas das crianças foram influenciadas pelo tipo de palavra apresentada. A maioria das crianças foi capaz de utilizar os conhecimentos lingüísticos que possui no nível ortográfico apesar das dificuldades encontradas em justificar seu raciocínio.The present study investigated childrens orthographic knowledge in the context of a game. Sixty children (2nd to 4th grade were asked to play hangman with the researchers in individual sessions. The unit of analysis was the number of trials required to finish the game. The results suggested that childrens answers varied significantly according to the type of word presented rather than schooling. Most children were able to make an appropriate use of their orthographic knowledge although they found difficulties in explaining their reasoning.
Pyszczynski, Tom; Abdollahi, Abdolhossein; Solomon, Sheldon; Greenberg, Jeff; Cohen, Florette; Weise, David
Study 1 investigated the effect of mortality salience on support for martyrdom attacks among Iranian college students. Participants were randomly assigned to answer questions about either their own death or an aversive topic unrelated to death and then evaluated materials from fellow students who either supported or opposed martyrdom attacks against the United States. Whereas control participants preferred the student who opposed martyrdom, participants reminded of death preferred the student who supported martyrdom and indicated they were more likely to consider such activities themselves. Study 2 investigated the effect of mortality salience on American college students' support for extreme military interventions by American forces that could kill thousands of civilians. Mortality salience increased support for such measures among politically conservative but not politically liberal students. The roles of existential fear, cultural worldviews, and construing one's nation as pursing a heroic battle against evil in advocacy of violence were discussed. PMID:16513804
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new automatic and adaptive aircraft target detection algorithm in high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR images of airport. The proposed method is based on gradient textural saliency map under the contextual cues of apron area. Firstly, the candidate regions with the possible existence of airport are detected from the apron area. Secondly, directional local gradient distribution detector is used to obtain a gradient textural saliency map in the favor of the candidate regions. In addition, the final targets will be detected by segmenting the saliency map using CFAR-type algorithm. The real high-resolution airborne SAR image data is used to verify the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrate that this algorithm can detect aircraft targets quickly and accurately, and decrease the false alarm rate.
Chen, Chenyi; Sung, Jia-Ying; Cheng, Yawei
Sleep has been related to emotional functioning. However, the extent to which emotional salience is processed during sleep is unknown. To address this concern, we investigated night sleep in healthy adults regarding brain reactivity to the emotionally (happily, fearfully) spoken meaningless syllables dada, along with correspondingly synthesized nonvocal sounds. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were continuously acquired during an entire night of sleep while we applied a passive auditory oddball paradigm. During all stages of sleep, mismatch negativity (MMN) in response to emotional syllables, which is an index for emotional salience processing of voices, was detected. In contrast, MMN to acoustically matching nonvocal sounds was undetected during Sleep Stage 2 and 3 as well as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Post-MMN positivity (PMP) was identified with larger amplitudes during Stage 3, and at earlier latencies during REM sleep, relative to wakefulness. These findings clearly demonstrated the neural dynamics of emotional salience processing during the stages of sleep. PMID:27378870
Stapel, DA; Van der Zee, KI
In a series of studies the Self Salience Model of other-to-self effects is tested. This model posits that self-construal salience is all important determinant of whether other-to-self effects follow the principles of self-enhancement, imitation, or complementarity. Participants imagined interactions
Chow, Jonathan J; Nickell, Justin R; Darna, Mahesh; Beckmann, Joshua S
Stimulus-reward learning has been heavily linked to the reward-prediction error learning hypothesis and dopaminergic function. However, some evidence suggests dopaminergic function may not strictly underlie reward-prediction error learning, but may be specific to incentive salience attribution. Utilizing a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure consisting of two stimuli that were equally reward-predictive (both undergoing reward-prediction error learning) but functionally distinct in regard to incentive salience (levers that elicited sign-tracking and tones that elicited goal-tracking), we tested the differential role of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors and nucleus accumbens dopamine in the acquisition of sign- and goal-tracking behavior and their associated conditioned reinforcing value within individuals. Overall, the results revealed that both D1 and D2 inhibition disrupted performance of sign- and goal-tracking. However, D1 inhibition specifically prevented the acquisition of sign-tracking to a lever, instead promoting goal-tracking and decreasing its conditioned reinforcing value, while neither D1 nor D2 signaling was required for goal-tracking in response to a tone. Likewise, nucleus accumbens dopaminergic lesions disrupted acquisition of sign-tracking to a lever, while leaving goal-tracking in response to a tone unaffected. Collectively, these results are the first evidence of an intraindividual dissociation of dopaminergic function in incentive salience attribution from reward-prediction error learning, indicating that incentive salience, reward-prediction error, and their associated dopaminergic signaling exist within individuals and are stimulus-specific. Thus, individual differences in incentive salience attribution may be reflective of a differential balance in dopaminergic function that may bias toward the attribution of incentive salience, relative to reward-prediction error learning only. PMID:27371135
Folsom-Meek, Sherry L.
In conjunction with Public Law 101-476, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Head Start programs are committed to including children with disabilities as 10 percent of their student population. This study sought to determine the effects of training on Head Start providers' attitudes toward children with disabilities and their knowledge…
Roux, Amy Loomis
Epilepsy is one of the most common diseases to affect the human nervous system, affecting approximately 0.5% of school-age children (Leppik, 2001; Kaleyias et al., 2005). Epilepsy has the potential to profoundly impact a child's adjustment to school. A large body of literature documents that children with epilepsy are at an increased risk for…
This phenomenological research investigated what fifteen preschool educators have come to know about children's self-regulation and emotion regulation development, and how we can better enable them to communicate with parents about their children's development. The data sources included over 100 pages of transcripts, field notes and journal…
Edwards, Susan; Skouteris, Helen; Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy; Rutherford, Leonie; O'Conner, Mandy; Mantilla, Ana; Morris, Heather; Elliot, Sue
Early childhood educators currently provide content focused learning opportunities for children in the areas of well-being and environmental education. However, these are usually seen as discrete content areas and educators are challenged with responding to children's interests in popular-culture inspired food products given these influence their…
Nouri, Anass; Charrier, Christophe; Lézoray, Olivier
International audience Our visual attention is attracted by specific areas into 3D objects (represented by meshes). This visual attention depends on the degree of saliency exposed by these areas. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-scale approach for detecting salient regions. To do so, we define a local surface descriptor based on patches of adaptive size and filled in with a local height field. The single-scale saliency of a vertex is defined as its degree measure in the mesh with ed...
Survey results indicate differences in the perceived salience and magnitude of impacts across both expert groups and dam scenarios. Furthermore, surveys indicate that stakeholder perceptions changed as the information provided regarding dam impacts became more specific, suggesting that stakeholder evaluation may be influenced by quality of information. Finally, qualitative comments from the survey reflect some of the challenges of interdisciplinary dam assessment, including cross-disciplinary cooperation, data standardisation and weighting, and the distribution and potential mitigation of impacts. Given the complexity of data and perceptions around dam impacts, decision-support tools that integrate the objective magnitude and perceived salience of impacts are required urgently.
Huang, Jingang; Kong, Bin; Cheng, Erkang; Zheng, Fei
The iLab Neuromorphic Vision Toolkit (iINVT), steadily kept up to date by the group around Laurent Itti, is one of the currently best known attention systems. Their model of bottom up or saliency-based visual attention as well as their implementation serves as a basis for many research groups. How to combine the feature maps finally into the saliency map is a key point for this kind of visual attention system. We modified the original model of Laurent Itti to make it more corresponding with our perception.
Morrow, Jonathan D.; Maren, Stephen; ROBINSON, TERRY E.
It has been proposed that animals that attribute high levels of incentive salience to reward-related cues may be especially vulnerable to addiction. Individual variation has also been observed in the motivational value attributed to aversive cues, which may confer vulnerability to anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There may be a core behavioral trait that contributes to individual variation in the motivational value assigned to predictive cues regardless of emot...
Tsai, Ming-Horng; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Huang, Yu-Shu
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects approximately 5 % of children and adolescents, and sleep problems are common in these patients. There is growing evidence informing the significant importance of sleep problems in youth with ADHD. The sleep problems in children with ADHD include specific sleep disorders and sleep disturbances due to comorbid psychiatric disorders or ADHD medications. The specific sleep disorders of ADHD children include behaviorally based insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, and restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movement disorder. Current practices on the management of sleep problems for ADHD children are based mostly on expert consensus, whereas more evidence-based literature can be found only recently. Assessment of the sleep conditions in ADHD children before initiation of pharmacotherapy is the currently recommended guideline, and good sleep hygiene can be considered as the first-line treatment option. In addition to modifying the dose regimens, formulation, or alternative stimulants when sleep problems are encountered in ADHD children, atomoxetine, once daily guanfacine extended release, and melatonin are potential choices for ADHD children with more severe sleep problems. In this review, we aimed to provide the most updated information, preferably based on meta-analyses, systemic review, and randomized controlled trials published in the latest 3 years, in order to be clinically useful for practitioners and clinicians. PMID:27357497
Mattila, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Kivelä, Johanna; Pienihäkkinen, Kaisu; Lahti, Satu; Merne-Grafström, Marina
Objective The aim of the study was to investigate oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and habits and their relationship to perceived oral symptoms among 12-year-olds and differences between boys and girls. Material and methods The study population consisted of children (n = 588) in 15 randomly selected elementary schools in Turku, Finland. Associations between oral health-related habits, knowledge and attitudes with perceived oral symptoms and gender differences were evaluated with χ(2)-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression analysis. Results Oral health promoting habits but not knowledge or attitudes associated significantly with absence of oral symptoms. Girls reported a higher percentage of several health promotional habits than boys. Girls reported more frequently gingival bleeding and less frequently dental calculus than boys did. The most common oral symptom was gingival bleeding. Conclusions The present findings suggest some gender-related differences in oral health habits, attitudes, as well as perceived oral symptoms in 12-year-olds. There seems, however, not to be gender differences in relation to knowledge or the association of health habits with perceived oral symptoms. It is important to maintain health promotion at schools and additional efforts should be aimed at translating knowledge into action. PMID:26881848
This master thesis is based on a field work conducted in Thailand with migrant and refugee children from Burma belonging to the ethnic minority of the Karen people. One urban school for migrant children and one rural refugee camp school served as research sites. The study explores the daily life experiences of children aged 8 – 13, with main focus on their school life. Various methods such as observation, essay writing, drawing and photography were used in order to search for the children’s o...
Full Text Available Knowledge is one of the major factors that promotes adherence to treatment regimens. With the current trends worldwide of home and community-based services for the management of HIV/AIDS patients, knowledge of care givers about the home care of these patients will determine the success of the programs. The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore the knowledge and practices of primary care givers of HIV/AIDS children in the provision of home care services. In this study an attempt was made to describe the factors which are associated with knowledge. Thirty-six primary care givers were randomly selected from three major home based care centres in Blantyre City, Malawi. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data. Data were analysed manually and by computer, using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS. The findings revealed a gap in knowledge since in many instances taking a child to the hospital for the management of minor ailments was the action of choice, thus perpetuating the problem of overburdening hospital resources. Lack of prior preparation for home based care was found to be the major factor contributing to the lack of knowledge. Recommendations proposed include the need to put into place mechanisms that will ensure that all the primary care givers are adequately prepared in good time for home care service. Ensuring regular home visits was also thought to be helpful for efficient and effective supervision and reinforcement of information given to fill the gaps in knowledge wherever necessary.
... hereditary illness found in fewer than 1,000 children worldwide. It used to be a death sentence for kids before they reached age 10. But thanks to her mother, who wouldn’t accept that scenario, at age ...
Setalaphruk, C.; Price, L.L.
Consuming wild foods is part of the food ways of people in many societies, including farming populations throughout the world. Knowledge of non-domesticated food resources is part of traditional and tacit ecological knowledge, and is largely transmitted through socialization within cultural and hous
Garner, Pamela W.; Waajid, Badiyyah
This study examined the relative contributions of emotion knowledge and teacher-child relational variables to school competence. Seventy-four economically and ethnically diverse preschoolers (40 boys, 34 girls) completed an emotion knowledge task and a standardized school competence measure. Classroom teachers and their assistants rated the…
van Os, E C C; Kalverboer, M E; Zijlstra, A E; Post, W J; Knorth, E J
Decision-making regarding an asylum request of a minor requires decision-makers to determine the best interests of the child when the minor is relatively unknown. This article presents a systematic review of the existing knowledge of the situation of recently arrived refugee children in the host country. This research is based on the General Comment No. 14 of UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. It shows the importance of knowing the type and number of stressful life events a refugee child has experienced before arrival, as well as the duration and severity of these events. The most common mental health problems children face upon arrival in the host country are PTSD, depression and various anxiety disorders. The results identify the relevant elements of the best interests of the child assessment, including implications for procedural safeguards, which should promote a child rights-based decision in the asylum procedure. PMID:27389604
Beyer, Kirsten M M; Heller, Elizabeth F; Bizub, Jessica M; Kistner, Amy J; Szabo, Aniko; Shawgo, Erin E; Zetts, Corey J
Our work assessed the influence of an urban environmental education program on children's attitudes toward outdoor play, as well as knowledge of neighborhood features that can facilitate this type of activity. The project team engaged 6 schools near the newest Urban Ecology Center location in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, through a community-academic partnership entitled More Than a Pretty Place. Intervention classrooms participated in programming over the 2012-2013 academic year and pre and post surveys were implemented in classrooms. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression models. The intervention group reported reduced fears of outdoor play in nature and increased frequency of visits to the Urban Ecology Center. The proportion of students who acknowledged knowing of a place to play outside in nature increased significantly in both groups. Our findings indicate an important role for environmental education in addressing fears that may dissuade children from engaging in outdoor play in natural areas. PMID:25685953
Sylvina M Raver
Full Text Available The basal forebrain (BF contains major projections to the cerebral cortex, and plays a well-documented role in arousal, attention, decision-making, and in modulating cortical activity. BF neuronal degeneration is an early event in Alzheimer’s disease and dementias, and occurs in normal cognitive aging. While the BF is best known for its population of cortically projecting cholinergic neurons, the region is anatomically and neurochemically diverse, and also contains prominent populations of non-cholinergic projection neurons. In recent years, increasing attention has been dedicated to these non-cholinergic BF neurons in order to better understand how non-cholinergic BF circuits control cortical processing and behavioral performance. In this review, we focus on a unique population of putative non-cholinergic BF neurons that encodes the motivational salience of stimuli with a robust ensemble bursting response. We review recent studies that describe the specific physiological and functional characteristics of these BF salience-encoding neurons in behaving animals. These studies support the unifying hypothesis whereby BF salience-encoding neurons act as a gain modulation mechanism of the decision-making process to enhance cortical processing of behaviorally relevant stimuli, and thereby facilitate faster and more precise behavioral responses. This function of BF salience-encoding neurons represents a critical component in determining which incoming stimuli warrant an animal’s attention, and is therefore a fundamental and early requirement of behavioral flexibility.
Lang, Congyan; Feng, Jiashi; Feng, Songhe; Wang, Jingdong; Yan, Shuicheng
Saliency detection is an important procedure for machines to understand visual world as humans do. In this paper, we consider a specific saliency detection problem of predicting human eye fixations when they freely view natural images, and propose a novel dual low-rank pursuit (DLRP) method. DLRP learns saliency-aware feature transformations by utilizing available supervision information and constructs discriminative bases for effectively detecting human fixation points under the popular low-rank and sparsity-pursuit framework. Benefiting from the embedded high-level information in the supervised learning process, DLRP is able to predict fixations accurately without performing the expensive object segmentation as in the previous works. Comprehensive experiments clearly show the superiority of the proposed DLRP method over the established state-of-the-art methods. We also empirically demonstrate that DLRP provides stronger generalization performance across different data sets and inherits the advantages of both the bottom-up- and top-down-based saliency detection methods. PMID:27046853
Bavirisetti, Durga Prasad; Dhuli, Ravindra
Military, navigation and concealed weapon detection need different imaging modalities such as visible and infrared to monitor a targeted scene. These modalities provide complementary information. For better situation awareness, complementary information of these images has to be integrated into a single image. Image fusion is the process of integrating complementary source information into a composite image. In this paper, we propose a new image fusion method based on saliency detection and two-scale image decomposition. This method is beneficial because the visual saliency extraction process introduced in this paper can highlight the saliency information of source images very well. A new weight map construction process based on visual saliency is proposed. This process is able to integrate the visually significant information of source images into the fused image. In contrast to most of the multi-scale image fusion techniques, proposed technique uses only two-scale image decomposition. So it is fast and efficient. Our method is tested on several image pairs and is evaluated qualitatively by visual inspection and quantitatively using objective fusion metrics. Outcomes of the proposed method are compared with the state-of-art multi-scale fusion techniques. Results reveal that the proposed method performance is comparable or superior to the existing methods.
Beckmann, Joshua S.; Chow, Jonathan J.
Sign- and goal-tracking are differentially associated with drug abuse-related behavior. Recently, it has been hypothesized that sign- and goal-tracking behavior are mediated by different neurobehavioral valuation systems, including differential incentive salience attribution. Herein, we used different conditioned stimuli to preferentially elicit…
Auer, Peter; Barden, Birgit; Grosskopf, Beate
Presents results of a longitudinal study on long-term dialect accommodation in a German dialect setting. An important model of explaining which linguistic structures undergo such convergence and which do not makes use of the notion of "salience." (Author/VWL)
Elsner, Birgit; Pfeifer, Caroline
The impact of goal salience and verbal cues given by the model on 3- to 5-year-olds' reproduction of action components (movement or goal) was investigated in an imitation choice task. Preschoolers watched an experimenter moving a puppet up or down a ramp, terminating at one of two target objects. The target objects were either differently colored…
Kwon, Mee-Kyoung; Setoodehnia, Mielle; Baek, Jongsoo; Luck, Steven J.; Oakes, Lisa M.
Four experiments examined how faces compete with physically salient stimuli for the control of attention in 4-, 6-, and 8-month-old infants (N = 117 total). Three computational models were used to quantify physical salience. We presented infants with visual search arrays containing a face and familiar object(s), such as shoes and flowers. Six- and…
Change detection requires perceptual comparison and decision processes on different features of multiattribute objects. How relative salience between two feature-changes influences the processes has not been addressed. This study used the systems factorial technology to investigate the processes when detecting changes in a Gabor patch with visual…
Chen, Yanfei; Sang, Nong; Dan, Zhiping
A fusion algorithm of infrared and visible images based on saliency scale-space in the frequency domain was proposed. Focus of human attention is directed towards the salient targets which interpret the most important information in the image. For the given registered infrared and visible images, firstly, visual features are extracted to obtain the input hypercomplex matrix. Secondly, the Hypercomplex Fourier Transform (HFT) is used to obtain the salient regions of the infrared and visible images respectively, the convolution of the input hypercomplex matrix amplitude spectrum with a low-pass Gaussian kernel of an appropriate scale which is equivalent to an image saliency detector are done. The saliency maps are obtained by reconstructing the 2D signal using the original phase and the amplitude spectrum, filtered at a scale selected by minimizing saliency map entropy. Thirdly, the salient regions are fused with the adoptive weighting fusion rules, and the nonsalient regions are fused with the rule based on region energy (RE) and region sharpness (RS), then the fused image is obtained. Experimental results show that the presented algorithm can hold high spectrum information of the visual image, and effectively get the thermal targets information at different scales of the infrared image.
Full Text Available General mutual information- (MI- based registration methods treat all voxels equally. But each voxel has a different utility depending upon the task. Because of its robustness to noise, low computation time, and agreement with human fixations, the Itti-Koch visual saliency model is used to determine voxel utility of renal perfusion data. The model is able to match identical regions in spite of intensity change due to its close adherence to the center-surround property of the visual cortex. Saliency value is used as a pixel's utility measure in an MI framework for rigid registration of renal perfusion data exhibiting rapid intensity change and noise. We simulated varying degrees of rotation and translation motion under different noise levels, and a novel optimization technique was used for fast and accurate recovery of registration parameters. We also registered real patient data having rotation and translation motion. Our results show that saliency information improves registration accuracy for perfusion images and the Itti-Koch model is a better indicator of visual saliency than scale-space maps.
Perez-Salas, Claudia P.; Streiner, David L.; Roberts, Maxwell J.
The nature of contextual facilitation effects for items derived from Raven's Progressive Matrices was investigated in two experiments. For these, the original matrices were modified, creating either abstract versions with high element salience, or versions which comprised realistic entities set in familiar contexts. In order to replicate and…
Yen, Chih-Long; Cheng, Chung-Ping
A recent meta-analysis of 164 terror management theory (TMT) papers indicated that mortality salience (MS) yields substantial effects (r = 0.35) on worldview and self-esteem-related dependent variables (B. L. Burke, A. Martens, & E. H. Faucher, 2010). This study reanalyzed the data to explore the researcher effects of TMT. By cluster-analyzing…
Kopp, Mary L.
This study compared active teaching strategies with passive lecture by evaluating cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning outcomes, while highlighting end-of-life communication in nursing education. The problem addressed was twofold: First, passive lecture prevents transfer to situational decision-making, or a sense of salience (Benner,…
Xia, Chen; Qi, Fei; Shi, Guangming
Research on visual perception indicates that the human visual system is sensitive to center-surround (C-S) contrast in the bottom-up saliency-driven attention process. Different from the traditional contrast computation of feature difference, models based on reconstruction have emerged to estimate saliency by starting from original images themselves instead of seeking for certain ad hoc features. However, in the existing reconstruction-based methods, the reconstruction parameters of each area are calculated independently without taking their global correlation into account. In this paper, inspired by the powerful feature learning and data reconstruction ability of deep autoencoders, we construct a deep C-S inference network and train it with the data sampled randomly from the entire image to obtain a unified reconstruction pattern for the current image. In this way, global competition in sampling and learning processes can be integrated into the nonlocal reconstruction and saliency estimation of each pixel, which can achieve better detection results than the models with separate consideration on local and global rarity. Moreover, by learning from the current scene, the proposed model can achieve the feature extraction and interaction simultaneously in an adaptive way, which can form a better generalization ability to handle more types of stimuli. Experimental results show that in accordance with different inputs, the network can learn distinct basic features for saliency modeling in its code layer. Furthermore, in a comprehensive evaluation on several benchmark data sets, the proposed method can outperform the existing state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:26800552
Phalet, Karen; Baysu, Gülseli
This article addresses the question of when and for what purpose Muslims will act collectively in the political arena. The impact of religious identity salience, goal framing, and normative constraints on political mobilization was examined in two Muslim communities with different group positions in
Zou, Xiaochun; Zhao, Xinbo; Yang, Yongjia; Li, Na
This paper brings forth a learning-based visual saliency model method for detecting diagnostic diabetic macular edema (DME) regions of interest (RoIs) in retinal image. The method introduces the cognitive process of visual selection of relevant regions that arises during an ophthalmologist's image examination. To record the process, we collected eye-tracking data of 10 ophthalmologists on 100 images and used this database as training and testing examples. Based on analysis, two properties (Feature Property and Position Property) can be derived and combined by a simple intersection operation to obtain a saliency map. The Feature Property is implemented by support vector machine (SVM) technique using the diagnosis as supervisor; Position Property is implemented by statistical analysis of training samples. This technique is able to learn the preferences of ophthalmologist visual behavior while simultaneously considering feature uniqueness. The method was evaluated using three popular saliency model evaluation scores (AUC, EMD, and SS) and three quality measurements (classical sensitivity, specificity, and Youden's J statistic). The proposed method outperforms 8 state-of-the-art saliency models and 3 salient region detection approaches devised for natural images. Furthermore, our model successfully detects the DME RoIs in retinal image without sophisticated image processing such as region segmentation. PMID:26884750
Full Text Available This paper brings forth a learning-based visual saliency model method for detecting diagnostic diabetic macular edema (DME regions of interest (RoIs in retinal image. The method introduces the cognitive process of visual selection of relevant regions that arises during an ophthalmologist’s image examination. To record the process, we collected eye-tracking data of 10 ophthalmologists on 100 images and used this database as training and testing examples. Based on analysis, two properties (Feature Property and Position Property can be derived and combined by a simple intersection operation to obtain a saliency map. The Feature Property is implemented by support vector machine (SVM technique using the diagnosis as supervisor; Position Property is implemented by statistical analysis of training samples. This technique is able to learn the preferences of ophthalmologist visual behavior while simultaneously considering feature uniqueness. The method was evaluated using three popular saliency model evaluation scores (AUC, EMD, and SS and three quality measurements (classical sensitivity, specificity, and Youden’s J statistic. The proposed method outperforms 8 state-of-the-art saliency models and 3 salient region detection approaches devised for natural images. Furthermore, our model successfully detects the DME RoIs in retinal image without sophisticated image processing such as region segmentation.
Borji, Ali; Tanner, James
Predicting where people look in natural scenes has attracted a lot of interest in computer vision and computational neuroscience over the past two decades. Two seemingly contrasting categories of cues have been proposed to influence where people look: 1) low-level image saliency and 2) high-level semantic information. Our first contribution is to take a detailed look at these cues to confirm the hypothesis proposed by Henderson and Nuthmann and Henderson that observers tend to look at the center of objects. We analyzed fixation data for scene free-viewing over 17 observers on 60 object-annotated images with various types of objects. Images contained different types of scenes, such as natural scenes, line drawings, and 3-D rendered scenes. Our second contribution is to propose a simple combined model of low-level saliency and object center bias that outperforms each individual component significantly over our data, as well as on the Object and Semantic Images and Eye-tracking data set by Xu et al. The results reconcile saliency with object center-bias hypotheses and highlight that both types of cues are important in guiding fixations. Our work opens new directions to understand strategies that humans use in observing scenes and objects, and demonstrates the construction of combined models of low-level saliency and high-level object-based information. PMID:26452292
Jodi L. Sandford
Full Text Available This study presents results of two questionnaires posed to English speaking middle-school students to verify the level of color term entrenchment and color prototypes at the age of 12. The methods included color listing and informant introspection on a color prototype linguistic construction. Listing techniques have long been used to identify basic categories and prototypically relevant linguistic items. In this case Sutrop’s Cognitive Salience Index (2001 served to reveal the facilitation of retrieval of concepts in long-term memory thus allowing us to evince the degree of entrenchment and salience of the given color term. Participant introspection in conjunction with conceptual salience analysis (Talmy 2000, 2005 regarding prototypical items (Rosch 1975, 1978, 1983 was also employed to identify what items are actually associated prototypically with colors at this age. The results are compared to adult color listings and prototypes (for both English and Italian speakers. Divergence is significant both in regard to the Cognitive Salience Index and within group judgment of the color prototypes. Further details about the subordinate color term choices and the agreement on prototypes reveal the conventionalized linguistic color associations made by this specific group of north-west American middle-school students.
Koca-Atabey, Mujde; Oner-Ozkan, Bengi
The study examined the relationship between the defensive versus existential religious orientation and mortality salience hypothesis in a country where the predominant type of religion is Islam. It was predicted that the mortality reactions of participants would not differ in accordance with their religious orientations within a Muslim sample. The…
Lou, Bin; Hsu, Wha-Yin; Sajda, Paul
For day-to-day decisions, multiple factors influence our choice between alternatives. Two dimensions of decision making that substantially affect choice are the objective perceptual properties of the stimulus (e.g., salience) and its subjective value. Here we measure EEGs in human subjects to relate their feedback-evoked EEG responses to estimates of prediction error given a neurally derived expected value for each trial. Unlike in traditional reinforcement learning paradigms, in our experiment the reward itself is not probabilistic; rather, it is a fixed value, which, when combined with the variable stimulus salience, yields uncertainty in the choice. We find that feedback-evoked event-related potentials (ERPs), specifically those classically termed feedback-related negativity, are modulated by both the reward level and stimulus salience. Using single-trial analysis of the EEG, we show stimulus-locked EEG components reflecting perceived stimulus salience can be combined with the level of reward to create an estimate of expected reward. This expected reward is used to form a prediction error that correlates with the trial-by-trial variability of the feedback ERPs for negative, but not positive, feedback. This suggests that the valence of prediction error is more important than the valence of the actual feedback, since only positive rewards were delivered in the experiment (no penalty or loss). Finally, we show that these subjectively defined prediction errors are informative of the riskiness of the subject's choice on the subsequent trial. In summary, our work shows that neural correlates of stimulus salience interact with value information to yield neural representations of subjective expected reward. Significance statement: How we make perceptual decisions depends on sensory evidence and the value of our options. These two factors often interact to yield subjective decisions; i.e., individuals integrate sensory evidence and value to form their own estimates of
An Evaluation to assess the Knowledge regarding Prevention and Management of Chickenpox in Children among Mothers having Children below 10 years of age residing at selected community area of Allahabad (India
Jemy Elizabeth Joseph
Full Text Available Chickenpox is a worldwide disease and is no respecter race or class. The incidence increases in spring & winter months in the temperate zones. In the tropics, the peak incidence is during winter and early spring. The disease in fact started spreading from February itself. Lack of knowledge among common people on preventing water contamination is helping the virus to spread rapidly. The descriptive study attempts to assess the knowledge regarding prevention and management of chickenpox among mothers of below 10 years of age children who are residing at Naini, Allahabad with a view to develop an information booklet. Method: The study involved single group test without a control, using non-experimental descriptive design, with non-probability convenient sampling. 60 women were involved in data collection by using structured questionnaire. The study came to an end by implementation of information booklet on chickenpox and its prevention and management, and the results were described using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The overall mean knowledge score was found to be 48.86 % and S.D 5.87. The highest mean knowledge score was found on general health (46.5%. The mean knowledge score varied from 46.5% to 55.6% on different aspects of chickenpox. Chi-square test implies that there was a statistically significant association between selected demographic variables with knowledge of prevention and home care management of chickenpox at 5 percent level. Conclusion: The overall findings of the study clearly showed that there is lack of knowledge of prevention and home care management of chickenpox among mothers and the results revealed that distribution of information booklet on chickenpox and its prevention and management will be helpful for the women to gain knowledge.
The title of the thesis is ‘What are four-year-olds doing at school? Reconciling current knowledge about learning in young children with early educational pedagogy.’ The study addresses the question of four-year-olds at school on two levels. On the one hand, the study describes what four-year-olds are doing at school. Using data from the IEA Preprimary Project1 the thesis provides information on parental and teacher expectations for 203 four-year-olds and presents details of the observed beha...
Foulsham, Tom; Barton, Jason J S; Kingstone, Alan; Dewhurst, Richard; Underwood, Geoffrey
Two recent papers (Foulsham, Barton, Kingstone, Dewhurst, & Underwood, 2009; Mannan, Kennard, & Husain, 2009) report that neuropsychological patients with a profound object recognition problem (visual agnosic subjects) show differences from healthy observers in the way their eye movements are controlled when looking at images. The interpretation of these papers is that eye movements can be modeled as the selection of points on a saliency map, and that agnosic subjects show an increased reliance on visual saliency, i.e., brightness and contrast in low-level stimulus features. Here we review this approach and present new data from our own experiments with an agnosic patient that quantifies the relationship between saliency and fixation location. In addition, we consider whether the perceptual difficulties of individual patients might be modeled by selectively weighting the different features involved in a saliency map. Our data indicate that saliency is not always a good predictor of fixation in agnosia: even for our agnosic subject, as for normal observers, the saliency-fixation relationship varied as a function of the task. This means that top-down processes still have a significant effect on the earliest stages of scanning in the setting of visual agnosia, indicating severe limitations for the saliency map model. Top-down, active strategies-which are the hallmark of our human visual system-play a vital role in eye movement control, whether we know what we are looking at or not. PMID:21316191
Full Text Available Purpose: Estimation of qualifying preparation of the doctors participating in rendering of emergency medical aid to children. Material: On the basis of the developed test cards the analysis of doctors' knowledge level of the first help on the basic questions of emergency medicine is carried out. 120 doctors are interrogated. Results compared depending on age, work experience and presence of a qualifying professional category. Results: As a whole answers of respondents were distributed as follows: unsatisfactorily - 2,6 %; satisfactorily - 7,9 %; well - 18,4 %; perfectly - 71,1 %. Distinctions in a dale of right answers on separate sections of knowledge depending on the experience and a qualifying professional category are established. The conclusion: The weakest places in preparation of experts of the first help on which it is necessary to pay special attention in courses of postdegree preparation are revealed
Reyes, Maria M; Taramona, Claudia; Saire-Mendoza, Mardeli; Guevara, Carlos; Garcia, Héctor H
Cystic hydatid disease (CHD) is a common cause of lung and liver disease worldwide. Despite Peru being highly endemic, information about the level of knowledge is scarce and poor. A telephone survey was applied to assess the knowledge in the caregivers of patients treated for CHD at a paediatric hospital at Lima, Peru. Of the 26 contacted families, only 5 (20%) answered correctly all seven questions. A higher education degree was associated with correct answers (P = 0.002). Most respondents (17, 65%) incorrectly identified the etiologic agent and mode of transmission. Lact of knowledge is likely a major contributor to maintain the endemicity of disease in Peru. PMID:21188767
Full Text Available Human vision system can optionally process the visual information and adjust the contradiction between the limited resources and the huge visual information. Building attention models similar to human visual attention system should be very beneficial to computer vision and machine intelligence; meanwhile, it has been a challenging task due to the complexity of human brain and limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying the human attention system. Previous studies emphasized on static attention, however the motion features, which are playing key roles in human attention system intuitively, have not been well integrated into the previous models. Motion features such as motion direction are assumed to be processed within the dorsal visual and the dorsal auditory pathways and there is no systematic approach to extract the motion cues well so far. In this paper, we proposed a generic Global Attention Model (GAM system based on visual attention analysis. The computational saliency map is superimposed by a set of saliency maps via different predefined approaches. We added three saliencies maps up together to reflect dominant motion features into the attention model, i.e., the fused saliency map at each frame is adjusted by the top-down, static and motion saliency maps. By doing this, the proposed attention model accommodating motion feature into the system so that it can responds to real visual events in a manner similar to the human visual attention system in a realistic circumstance. The visual challenges used in our experiments are selected from the benchmark video sequences. We tested the GAM on several dynamic scenes, such as traffic artery, parachuter landing and surfing, with high speed and cluttered background. The experiment results showed the GAM system demonstrated high robustness and real-time ability under complex dynamic scenes. Extensive evaluations based on comparisons with other approaches of the attention model results have
Helga A Harsay
Full Text Available A body of work suggests that there are similarities in the way we become aware of an error and process motivationally salient events. Yet, evidence for a shared neural mechanism has not been provided. A within-subject investigation of the brain regions involved in error awareness and salience processing has not been reported. While the neural response to motivationally salient events is classically studied during target detection after longer target-to-target intervals in an oddball task and engages a widespread insula-thalamo-cortical brain network, error awareness has recently been linked to, most prominently, anterior insula cortex. Here we explore whether the anterior insula activation for error awareness is related to salience processing, by testing for activation overlap in subjects undergoing two different task settings. Using a within-subjects design, we show activation overlap in six major brain areas during aware errors in an antisaccade task and during target detection (which were associated with longer target-to-target interval conditions in an oddball task: anterior insula, anterior cingulate, supplementary motor area, thalamus, brainstem and parietal lobe. Within subject analyses shows that the insula is engaged in both error awareness and the processing of salience, and that the anterior insula is more involved in both processes than the posterior insula. The results of a fine-grained spatial pattern overlap analysis between active clusters in the same subjects indicated that even if the anterior insula is activated for both error awareness and salience processing, the two types of processes might tend to activate non-identical neural ensembles on a finer-grained spatial level. Together, these outcomes suggest a similar functional phenomenon in the two different task settings. Error awareness and salience processing share a functional anatomy, with a tendency towards subregional dorsal and ventral specialization within the
Full Text Available Aim: Caretakers in day-care centers play a significant role in imparting good oral hygiene practices and also extend a working relationship with parents with regard to their children′s oral health. As a result of this, caregiver′s dental knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices affect the child′s oral condition. Settings and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study involved caretakers working in day-care centers of Bangalore. Fifty-two day-care centers were randomly selected from the different zones of Bangalore city, from which 246 caretakers provided consent for participation. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive, closed-ended, self-administered questionnaire was employed which was designed to collect the sociodemographic details and to evaluate the oral health knowledge, attitudes, practice of caretakers. The institutional review committee approved the study. Data were entered using SPSS 13.01. Results: Seventy-nine percent of the subjects had good knowledge of child′s tooth eruption time, clinical presentation of dental caries and the role of fluoride in caries prevention. Yet, half of the subjects found routine dental examination after all the milk teeth have erupted in the oral cavity insignificant and 41% strongly agreed that dentist should be consulted only when the child has a toothache. In spite of the good knowledge, 77% preferred to use pacifier dipped in honey/sugar if the children acted troublesome. Analogous to this, 45% gave milk/juice with sugar before the child′s nap time. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that caretaker′s attitude toward oral health care needs is far from acceptable standards to mirror any positive impact on the children.
Jahromi, Laudan B.; Guimond, Amy B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Toomey, Russell B.
This study examined parenting knowledge among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 191; M[subscript age] = 16.26 years), family contextual factors associated with adolescents' parenting knowledge, and toddlers' (M[subscript age] = 2.01 years) subsequent developmental outcomes. Data came from home interviews and direct child…
Price Lisa; Setalaphruk Chantita
Abstract Consuming wild foods is part of the food ways of people in many societies, including farming populations throughout the world. Knowledge of non-domesticated food resources is part of traditional and tacit ecological knowledge, and is largely transmitted through socialization within cultural and household contexts. The context of this study, a small village in Northeast Thailand, is one where the community has experienced changes due to the migration of the parental generation, with t...
Campbell, Wenonah N.; Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth
Peer victimization, or bullying, has been identified as a significant child health priority and children with language impairment (LI) are among those who are vulnerable. Given the mandate of educators to provide support for "all" students who are bullied regardless of language status, research is needed that integrates the study of risk factors…
Many preschool children fail to achieve the National Association for Sport and Physical Education physical activity recommendations placing themselves at increased risk of overweight and its associated health consequences. The early learning and care system is well positioned to intervene. Yet few child obesity prevention efforts have focused on…
Full Text Available Abstract Approximately one-quarter of all Canadian children will seek emergency care in any given year, with the two most common medical problems affecting children in the emergency department (ED being acute respiratory illness and injury. Treatment for some medical conditions in the ED remains controversial due to a lack of strong supporting evidence. The purpose of this paper is to describe a multi-centre team grant in pediatric emergency medicine (PEM that has been recently funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR. This program of research integrates clinical research (in the areas of acute respiratory illness and injury and knowledge translation (KT. This initiative includes seven distinct projects that address the objective to generate new evidence for clinical care and KT in the pediatric ED. Five of the seven research projects in this team grant make significant contributions to knowledge development in KT science, and these contributions are the focus of this paper. The research designs employed in this program include: cross-sectional surveys, randomized controlled trials (RCTs, quasi-experimental designs with interrupted time-series analysis and staggered implementation strategies, and qualitative designs. This team grant provides unique opportunities for making important KT methodological developments, with a particular focus on developing a better theoretical understanding of the causal mechanisms and effect modifiers of different KT interventions.
Haurum, J; Johansen, M
In a questionnaire investigation concerning attitudes to and knowledge about MFR vaccination among 81 parents who did not want their children to be vaccinated against measles, mumps and German measles, the parents could be divided into two main groups with reasons formulated in advance: 41% stated that "infectious diseases are beneficial for children" including here their somatic and mental development and the parent-child relationship. The remaining parents based their attitudes on defective knowledge about MFR vaccination, fear of side effects, erroneous contraindications and attitudes such as: the MFR diseases are not serious and vaccination may cause serious disease, does not protect effectively or lowers the resistance of the population and that economy is a poor argument in favour of vaccination. Parents who were critical about the total information concerning the MFR programme were also more critical about their general practitioner than the remaining parents. 80% stated that the MFR programme had been introduced because it involved social economy while 56% thought that health benefits were the reason. It is concluded that further well-directed information about the MFR programme is essential, if the necessary vaccine coverage is to be obtained. PMID:2008713
Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)
"Which mouse kissed the frog?" Effects of age of onset, length of exposure, and knowledge of case marking on the comprehension of wh-questions in German-speaking simultaneous and early sequential bilingual children.
Roesch, Anne Dorothee; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki
Studies examining age of onset (AoO) effects in childhood bilingualism have provided mixed results as to whether early sequential bilingual children (eL2) differ from simultaneous bilingual children (2L1) and L2 children on the acquisition of morphosyntax. Differences between the three groups have been attributed to other factors such as length of exposure (LoE), language abilities, and the phenomenon to be acquired. The present study investigates whether four- to five-year-old German-speaking eL2 children differ from 2L1 children on the acquisition of wh-questions, and whether these differences can be explained by AoO, LoE, and/or knowledge of case marking. The 2L1 children outperformed the eL2 children in terms of accuracy; however, both bilingual groups exhibited similar error patterns. This suggests that 2L1 and eL2 bilingual children are sensitive to the same morphosyntactic cues, when comprehending wh-questions. Finally, children's performance on the different types of wh-questions was explained by a combination of knowledge of case marking, LoE, and AoO. PMID:26923116
Elkabetz, R.; And Others
This study examined the impact of facial plastic surgery, labeling (mentally retarded, normal, Down's syndrome), and level of knowledge of Down's syndrome on 127 student teachers' evaluations of slides of persons with such characteristics. Although there was no overall significant main effect for the pre-post operation condition, there was a…
Droit, Sylvie; And Others
Examined the role of prior temporal knowledge of 4 1/2- and 6-year-olds through the use of high-rate, interval, and minimal instructions in a fixed-interval training schedule. Determined that the subjects' learning depended on their verbal self-control skills. (BC)
Boujut, Hugo; Buso, Vincent; Benois-Pineau, Jenny; Gaëstel, Yann; Dartigues, Jean-François
We are interested in finding the relation between the visual saliency maps of the viewer of visual content and the actors (person executing the actions) in the context of studies of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. From results of eye-trackers worn by the actors and used when recording observers, and on the basis of hand-eye interactions from motor control studies we established a time shift between actor's and viewer's saliency maps. This time shift corresponds to the ...
Zhao, Jufeng; Gao, Xiumin; Chen, Yueting; Feng, Huajun; Wang, Daodang
Fusion for visible and infrared images aims to combine the source images of the same scene into a single image with more feature information and better visual performance. In this paper, the authors propose a fusion method based on multi-window visual saliency extraction for visible and infrared images. To extract feature information from infrared and visible images, we design local-window-based frequency-tuned method. With this idea, visual saliency maps are calculated for variable feature information under different local window. These maps show the weights of people's attention upon images for each pixel and region. Enhanced fusion is done using simple weight combination way. Compared with the classical and state-of-the-art approaches, the experimental results demonstrate the proposed approach runs efficiently and performs better than other methods, especially in visual performance and details enhancement.
Schmack, Katharina; Burk, Julia; Haynes, John-Dylan; Sterzer, Philipp
The affective value of a stimulus substantially influences its potency to gain access to awareness. Here, we sought to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying such affective salience in a combined behavioral and fMRI experiment. Healthy individuals with varying degrees of spider phobia were presented with pictures of spiders and flowers suppressed from view by continuous flash suppression. Applying multivoxel pattern analysis, we found that the average time that spider stimuli took relative to flowers to gain access to awareness in each participant could be decoded from fMRI signals evoked by suppressed spider versus flower stimuli in occipitotemporal and orbitofrontal cortex. Our results indicate neural signals during unconscious processing of complex visual information in orbitofrontal and ventral visual areas predict access to awareness of this information, suggesting a crucial role for these higher-level cortical regions in mediating affective salience. PMID:26232987
Bassett, Jonathan F; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Green, Jeffrey D; Sonntag, Michael E; Kilpatrick, Harrison
In two studies, the authors examined how threat induced by reminders of mortality would moderate the effect of political orientation on moral judgments. In Study 1, university students (n = 113) categorized their political orientation, were randomly assigned to complete a fear of death or public speaking scale, and then completed a moral foundations questionnaire. In Study 2, university students (n = 123) rated their political orientations, were randomly assigned to write about their own death or dental pain, and then completed a moral foundations questionnaire. In both studies, mortality salience intensified the moral differences between liberals and conservatives. These findings were primarily the result of the reactions of liberals, who responded to mortality salience with increased ratings of the fairness/cheating virtue in Study 1 and the care/harm virtue in Study 2. PMID:25302551
Full Text Available Autonomy, affiliation, and ability appear as main factors that influence online learners‟ motivation and learning outcomes, however, the relative salience of these three factors remains unclear in the online learning literature. Drawing on Deci and Ryan‟s self-determination theory, this study sought to bridge this gap by investigating the relative salience of perceived autonomy, affiliation, and ability on learner motivation and learning outcomes in two special education online programs (N = 262. This study found that the most salient predictor varied from categories of motivation and learning outcomes, and the number of significant predictors increased by participants‟ level of motivation/self-determination. Results of this study provide implications for online learner support.
Cornwell, T Bettina; McAlister, Anna R; Polmear-Swendris, Nancy
Studies regarding the advancing challenges of obesity in many countries are beginning to converge on the importance of early food exposure and consumption patterns. Across two studies (Study 1, 34 boys, 35 girls; Study 2, 40 boys, 35 girls, ages 3-6), child knowledge of brands offering products high in sugar, salt and fat was shown to be a significant predictor of child BMI, even after controlling for their age and gender and when also considering the extent of their TV viewing. Additionally, two different collage measures of brand knowledge (utilized across the two studies) performed similarly, suggesting that this measure may be serving as a surrogate indicator of an overall pattern of product exposure and consumption. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:24972133
Tianwen Chen; Weidong Cai; Srikanth Ryali; Kaustubh Supekar; Vinod Menon
One of the most fundamental features of the human brain is its ability to detect and attend to salient goal-relevant events in a flexible manner. The salience network (SN), anchored in the anterior insula and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, plays a crucial role in this process through rapid detection of goal-relevant events and facilitation of access to appropriate cognitive resources. Here, we leverage the subsecond resolution of large multisession fMRI datasets from the Human Connecto...
Hewett, Rebecca; Conway, Neil
Self-determination theory suggests that some rewards can undermine autonomous motivation and related positive outcomes. Key to this undermining is the extent to which rewards are perceived as salient in a given situation; when this is the case individuals tend to attribute their behavior to the incentive and the intrinsic value of the task is undermined. The role of salience has yet to be explicitly tested with respect to work motivation; we know little about whether undermining occurs in rel...
Geng, Haiyang; Li, Xuebing; Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; Gu, Ruolei
Objective: Adolescence is a critical period for the vulnerability of anxiety. Imaging studies focusing on adolescents' susceptibility to anxiety suggest that the different development trajectories between the limbic system and the executive control system may play important roles in this phenomenon. However, few studies have explored the brain basis of this susceptibility from the perspective of functional networks. The salience network (SN) consists of a series of key limbic and prefrontal r...
Wang, Mao; MAEDA, Yoichiro; Takahashi, Yasutake
Visual attention region prediction has been paid much attention by researchers in intelligent systems recent years because it can make the interaction between human and intelligent agents to be more convenient. In this paper, the prediction method of the visual attention region inferred by using fuzzy neural network (FNN) after extracting and computing of images feature maps and saliency maps was proposed. A method for training FNN is also proposed. A user experiment was conducted to evaluate...
Llamas, Carmen; Watt, Dominic; MacFarlane, Andrew E.
One way of evaluating the salience of a linguistic feature is by assessing the extent to which listeners associate the feature with a social category such as a particular socioeconomic class, gender, or nationality. Such ‘top–down’ associations will inevitably differ somewhat from listener to listener, as a linguistic feature – the pronunciation of a vowel or consonant, for instance – can evoke multiple social category associations, depending upon the dialect in which the feature is embedded and the context in which it is heard. In a given speech community it is reasonable to expect, as a consequence of the salience of the linguistic form in question, a certain level of intersubjective agreement on social category associations. Two metrics we can use to quantify the salience of a linguistic feature are (a) the speed with which the association is made, and (b) the degree to which members of a speech community appear to share the association. Through the use of a new technique, designed as an adaptation of the Implicit Association Test, this paper examines levels of agreement among 40 informants from the Scottish/English border region with respect to the associations they make between four key phonetic variables and the social categories of ‘Scotland’ and ‘England.’ Our findings reveal that the participants exhibit differential agreement patterns across the set of phonetic variables, and that listeners’ responses vary in line with whether participants are members of the Scottish or the English listener groups. These results demonstrate the importance of community-level agreement with respect to the associations that listeners make between social categories and linguistic forms, and as a means of ranking the forms’ relative salience. PMID:27574511
Tianwen Chen; Weidong Cai; Srikanth Ryali; Kaustubh Supekar; Vinod Menon
One of the most fundamental features of the human brain is its ability to detect and attend to salient goal-relevant events in a flexible manner. The salience network (SN), anchored in the anterior insula and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, plays a crucial role in this process through rapid detection of goal-relevant events and facilitation of access to appropriate cognitive resources. Here, we leverage the subsecond resolution of large multisession fMRI datasets from the Human Connecto...
Vasilescu, Ioana; Candea, Maria; Adda-Decker, Martine
Are acoustic differences in autonomous fillers salient for the human perception ? Acoustic measurements have been carried out on autonomous fillers from eight languages (Arabic, Mandarin Chinese, French, German, Italian, European Portuguese, American English and Latin American Spanish). They exhibit timbre differences of the support vowel of autonomous fillers across languages. In order to evaluate their salience for human perception, two discrimination experiments have been conducted, French...
Mejía-Ocaña, Ana Belén; Frutos-López, Manuel de; Sanz-Rodríguez, Sergio; del-Ama-Esteban, Óscar; Peláez-Moreno, Carmen; Díaz-De-María, Fernando
In this paper, a low-complexity motion-based saliency map estimation method for perceptual video coding is proposed. The method employs a camera motion compensated vector map computed by means of a hierarchical motion estimation (HME) procedure and a Restricted Affine Transformation (RAT)-based modeling of the camera motion. To allow for a computationally efficient solution, the number of layers of the HME has been restricted and the potential unreliable motion vectors due to homogeneous regi...
Boujut, Hugo; Benois-Pineau, Jenny; Hadar, Ofer; Ahmed, Toufik; Bonnet, Patrick
Human vision system is very complex and has been studied for many years specifically for purposes of efficient encoding of visual, e.g. video content from digital TV. There have been physiological and psychological evidences which indicate that viewers do not pay equal attention to all exposed visual information, but only focus on certain areas known as focus of attention (FOA) or saliency regions. In this work, we propose a novel based objective quality assessment metric, for assessing the p...
García Sierra, Juan Felipe; Rodríguez Lera, Francisco Javier; Fernández Llamas, Camino; Matellán Olivera, Vicente
Attention mechanism can be used both for reducing the amount of perceptual information to be processed and for restricting all available actions to only those useful for a given scenario. Information reduction improves performance and action restriction allows for a more precise interaction with our environment. In this paper we present the design of an attention control mechanism based on a saliency map and its implementation in the SPL's Nao robot. The results obtained are analysed and fut...
Gradin, Victoria; Waiter, Gordon; O'Connor, Akira Robert; Romaniuk, Liana; Stickle, Catriona; Matthews, Keith; Hall, Jeremy; Steele, Douglas
Theories of schizophrenia propose that abnormal functioning of the neural reward system is linked to negative and psychotic symptoms, by disruption of reward processing and promotion of context-independent false associations. Recently it has been argued that an insula-anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) salience network system enables switching of brain states from the default mode to a task-related activity mode. Abnormal interaction between the insula-ACC system and reward processing regions ma...
Llamas, Carmen; Watt, Dominic; MacFarlane, Andrew E
One way of evaluating the salience of a linguistic feature is by assessing the extent to which listeners associate the feature with a social category such as a particular socioeconomic class, gender, or nationality. Such 'top-down' associations will inevitably differ somewhat from listener to listener, as a linguistic feature - the pronunciation of a vowel or consonant, for instance - can evoke multiple social category associations, depending upon the dialect in which the feature is embedded and the context in which it is heard. In a given speech community it is reasonable to expect, as a consequence of the salience of the linguistic form in question, a certain level of intersubjective agreement on social category associations. Two metrics we can use to quantify the salience of a linguistic feature are (a) the speed with which the association is made, and (b) the degree to which members of a speech community appear to share the association. Through the use of a new technique, designed as an adaptation of the Implicit Association Test, this paper examines levels of agreement among 40 informants from the Scottish/English border region with respect to the associations they make between four key phonetic variables and the social categories of 'Scotland' and 'England.' Our findings reveal that the participants exhibit differential agreement patterns across the set of phonetic variables, and that listeners' responses vary in line with whether participants are members of the Scottish or the English listener groups. These results demonstrate the importance of community-level agreement with respect to the associations that listeners make between social categories and linguistic forms, and as a means of ranking the forms' relative salience. PMID:27574511
Ruiz-Soler, Marcos; Salvador Beltrán, Francesc
Research on face recognition and social judgment usually addresses the manipulation of facial features (eyes, nose, mouth, etc.). Using a procedure based on a Stroop-like task, Montepare and Opeyo (J Nonverbal Behav 26(1):43-59, 2002) established a hierarchy of the relative salience of cues based on facial attributes when differentiating faces. Using the same perceptual interference task, we established a hierarchy of facial features. Twenty-three participants (13 men and 10 women) volunteere...
Coutrot, Antoine; Guyader, Nathalie
Conversation scenes are a typical example in which classical models of visual attention dramatically fail to predict eye positions. Indeed, these models rarely consider faces as particular gaze attractors and never take into account the important auditory information that always accompanies dynamic social scenes. We recorded the eye movements of participants viewing dynamic conversations taking place in various contexts. Conversations were seen either with their original soundtracks or with unrelated soundtracks (unrelated speech and abrupt or continuous natural sounds). First, we analyze how auditory conditions influence the eye movement parameters of participants. Then, we model the probability distribution of eye positions across each video frame with a statistical method (Expectation-Maximization), allowing the relative contribution of different visual features such as static low-level visual saliency (based on luminance contrast), dynamic low level visual saliency (based on motion amplitude), faces, and center bias to be quantified. Through experimental and modeling results, we show that regardless of the auditory condition, participants look more at faces, and especially at talking faces. Hearing the original soundtrack makes participants follow the speech turn-taking more closely. However, we do not find any difference between the different types of unrelated soundtracks. These eyetracking results are confirmed by our model that shows that faces, and particularly talking faces, are the features that best explain the gazes recorded, especially in the original soundtrack condition. Low-level saliency is not a relevant feature to explain eye positions made on social scenes, even dynamic ones. Finally, we propose groundwork for an audiovisual saliency model. PMID:24993019
Mizzi, Raphaël; Michael, George A
Visual attention has been shown to progress from the most to the least salient item in a given scene. Cognitive and physiological models assume that this orienting of covert attention relies on the collicular pathway, involving the superior colliculus and the pulvinar. Recent studies questioned this statement as they described attentional capture by visual items invisible to the superior colliculus. Electrophysiological studies shown that there is no direct projections from short-wave receptors to the superior colliculus. S-cone stimuli can thus be employed to assess visual processing without the involvement of the collicular pathway. We have attempted to investigate whether this pathway is involved in the salience-based orientation of attention by presenting S-cone stimuli. Volunteers were asked to make a judgment regarding a target among two distractors (all items of unequal sizes). Items' location and size varied randomly, as well as color, randomly black or calibrated for each subject to activate exclusively S-cones. The hierarchical pattern testifying of the salience-based orientation of attention was only found with black stimuli, arguing in favor of an implication of the collicular pathway in salience. In a second experiment, one item was presented at a time in order to test the item-multiplicity effect by comparing experiments. Performance was the most penalized when presenting multiple stimuli in the black condition. Results were interpreted in terms of distinct modes of processing by the collicular and geniculate pathways. The establishment of salience that determines attentional progression appeared to be only possible when the collicular pathway was solicited. PMID:24880095
Prooijen, J.-W. van; Bos, K. van den; Wilke, H.A.M.
The current article explores status as an antecedent of procedural fairness effects (the findings that perceived procedural fairness affects people’s reactions, e.g., their relational judgments). On the basis of the literature, the authors proposed that salience of the general concept of status leads people to be more attentive to procedural fairness information and that, as a consequence, stronger procedural fairness effects should be found. In correspondence with this hypothesis, Experiment...
Diankun Gong; Hui He; Weiyi Ma; Dongbo Liu; Mengting Huang; Li Dong; Jinnan Gong; Jianfu Li; Cheng Luo; Dezhong Yao
Action video games (AVGs) have attracted increasing research attention as they offer a unique perspective into the relation between active learning and neural plasticity. However, little research has examined the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of neural network mechanisms. It has been proposed that AVG experience is related to the integration between Salience Network (SN) and Central Executive Network (CEN), which are responsible for attention and working memory, respectiv...
Marta Teixeira; Gabriel Pires; Miguel Raimundo; Sérgio Nascimento; Vasco Almeida; Miguel Castelo-Branco
The neural correlates of visual awareness are elusive because of its fleeting nature. Here we have addressed this issue by using single trial statistical ‘‘brain reading’’ of neurophysiological event related (ERP) signatures of conscious perception of visual attributes with different levels of saliency. Behavioral reports were taken at every trial in 4 experiments addressing conscious access to color, luminance, and local phase offset cues. We found that single trial neurophysiologic...
Stip, Emmanuel; Lungu, Ovidiu V
The salience network (SN), a set of brain regions composed of the anterior fronto-insular cortex (aFI) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), is usually involved in interoception, self-regulating, and action selection. Accumulating evidence indicates that dysfunctions in this network are associated with various pathophysiological deficits in both schizophrenia and eating disorders, stemming mainly from dysfunctional information processing of internal or external stimuli. In addition, the me...
Xiaochun Zou; Xinbo Zhao; Yongjia Yang; Na Li
This paper brings forth a learning-based visual saliency model method for detecting diagnostic diabetic macular edema (DME) regions of interest (RoIs) in retinal image. The method introduces the cognitive process of visual selection of relevant regions that arises during an ophthalmologist’s image examination. To record the process, we collected eye-tracking data of 10 ophthalmologists on 100 images and used this database as training and testing examples. Based on analysis, two properties (Fe...
Herbranson, Walter T
Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, with ...
Walter Troy Herbranson
Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, wi...
Full Text Available This study examined the influence of phonological processing abilities on letter knowledge and letter learning in 1st grade children growing in poverty. At the beginning of the school year, 59 first graders were evaluated with tests measuring phonological awareness, phonological memory and rapid naming. Letter knowledge was assessed at the beginning and at the end of the year. All phonological processing abilities predicted letter knowledge at time 1, with phonological awareness producing the largest effect. However, only phonological memory predicted additional letter learning during the school year, once initial letter knowledge was taken into account.El presente trabajo busca explorar la incidencia de las habilidades de procesamiento fonológico en el conocimiento y aprendizaje de letras en niños hispanohablantes de primer año de nivel socioeconómico (NSE bajo. Al comenzar el año se evaluó el conocimiento de letras, la conciencia fonológica, la memoria fonológica y la denominación veloz. A fin de año se evaluó el conocimiento de letras. El análisis de la relación entre las medidas administradas se realizó en el grupo total y en un subgrupo con poco conocimiento alfabético. Los resultados sugieren que la conciencia fonológica tendría un papel fundamental en el inicio del aprendizaje, en tanto el aprendizaje adicional en el marco de la enseñanza escolar estaría asociado a las diferencias individuales en memoria fonológica.
Zhang, Wenlan; Luo, Ting; Jiang, Gangyi; Jiang, Qiuping; Ying, Hongwei; Lu, Jing
Visual comfort assessment (VCA) for stereoscopic images is a particularly significant yet challenging task in 3D quality of experience research field. Although the subjective assessment given by human observers is known as the most reliable way to evaluate the experienced visual discomfort, it is time-consuming and non-systematic. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop objective VCA approaches that can faithfully predict the degree of visual discomfort as human beings do. In this paper, a novel two-stage objective VCA framework is proposed. The main contribution of this study is that the important visual attention mechanism of human visual system is incorporated for visual comfort-aware feature extraction. Specifically, in the first stage, we first construct an adaptive 3D visual saliency detection model to derive saliency map of a stereoscopic image, and then a set of saliency-weighted disparity statistics are computed and combined to form a single feature vector to represent a stereoscopic image in terms of visual comfort. In the second stage, a high dimensional feature vector is fused into a single visual comfort score by performing random forest algorithm. Experimental results on two benchmark databases confirm the superior performance of the proposed approach.
Wisman, Arnaud; Heflick, Nathan A
Do people lose hope when thinking about death? Based on Terror Management Theory, we predicted that thoughts of death (i.e., mortality salience) would reduce personal hope for people low, but not high, in self-esteem, and that this reduction in hope would be ameliorated by promises of immortality. In Studies 1 and 2, mortality salience reduced personal hope for people low in self-esteem, but not for people high in self-esteem. In Study 3, mortality salience reduced hope for people low in self-esteem when they read an argument that there is no afterlife, but not when they read "evidence" supporting life after death. In Study 4, this effect was replicated with an essay affirming scientific medical advances that promise immortality. Together, these findings uniquely demonstrate that thoughts of mortality interact with trait self-esteem to cause changes in personal hope, and that literal immortality beliefs can aid psychological adjustment when thinking about death. Implications for understanding personal hope, trait self-esteem, afterlife beliefs and terror management are discussed. PMID:25920481
Newton, Joshua D; Newton, Fiona J; Ewing, Michael T
The theory of reasoned action (TRA) specifies a set of expectancy-value, belief-based frameworks that underpin attitude (behavioural beliefs × outcome evaluations) and subjective norm (normative beliefs × motivation to comply). Unfortunately, the most common method for analysing these frameworks generates statistically uninterpretable findings, resulting in what has been termed the 'expectancy-value muddle'. Recently, however, a dimensional salience approach was found to resolve this muddle for the belief-based framework underpinning attitude. An online survey of 262 participants was therefore conducted to determine whether the dimensional salience approach could also be applied to the belief-based framework underpinning subjective norm. Results revealed that motivations to comply were greater for salient, as opposed to non-salient, social referents. The belief-based framework underpinning subjective norm was therefore represented by evaluating normative belief ratings for salient social referents. This modified framework was found to predict subjective norm, although predictions were greater when participants were forced to select five salient social referents rather than being free to select any number of social referents. These findings validate the use of the dimensional salience approach for examining the belief-based frameworks underpinning subjective norm. As such, this approach provides a complete solution to addressing the expectancy-value muddle in the TRA. PMID:25088611
William H. Alexander
Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex, especially the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, has long been implicated in cognitive control and error processing. Although the association between ACC and behavior has been established, it is less clear how ACC contributes to dysfunctional behavior such as substance dependence. Evidence from neuroimaging studies investigating ACC function in substance users is mixed, with some studies showing disengagement of ACC in substance dependent individuals (SDs, while others show increased ACC activity related to substance use. In this study, we investigate ACC function in SDs and healthy individuals performing a change signal task for monetary rewards. Using a priori predictions derived from a recent computational model of ACC, we find that ACC activity differs between SDs and controls in factors related to reward salience and risk aversion between SDs and healthy individuals. Quantitative fits of a computational model to fMRI data reveal significant differences in best fit parameters for reward salience and risk preferences. Specifically, the ACC in SDs shows greater risk aversion, defined as concavity in the utility function, and greater attention to rewards relative to reward omission. Furthermore, across participants risk aversion and reward salience are positively correlated. The results clarify the role that ACC plays in both the reduced sensitivity to omitted rewards and greater reward valuation in SDs. Clinical implications of applying computational modeling in psychiatry are also discussed.
Sterling, Joanna; Jost, John T.; Shrout, Patrick E.
Experiments conducted during the 2004 and 2008 U.S. presidential elections suggested that mortality salience primes increased support for President George W. Bush and Senator John McCain, respectively. Some interpreted these results as reflecting “conservative shift” following exposure to threat, whereas others emphasized preferences for “charismatic” leadership following exposure to death primes. To assess both hypotheses in the context of a new election cycle featuring a liberal incumbent who was considered to be charismatic, we conducted four experiments shortly before the 2012 election involving President Barack Obama and Governor Mitt Romney. Contrary to earlier studies, there was little evidence that mortality salience, either by itself or in interaction with political orientation, affected overall candidate ratings or voting intentions. However, a significant interaction between mortality salience and system justification in some studies indicated a more circumscribed effect. The failure to “replicate” previous results in the context of this election may be attributable to disagreement among participants as to which of the candidates better represented the societal status quo. PMID:26982197
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel top-down visual saliency detection method for optical satellite images using local adaptive regression kernels. This method provides a saliency map by measuring the likeness of image patches to a given single template image. The local adaptive regression kernel (LARK is used as a descriptor to extract feature and compare against analogous feature from the target image. A multi-scale pyramid of the target image is constructed to cope with large-scale variations. In addition, accounting for rotation variations, the histogram of kernel orientation is employed to estimate the rotation angle of image patch, and then comparison is performed after rotating the patch by the estimated angle. Moreover, we use the bounded partial correlation (BPC to compare features between image patches and the template so as to rapidly generate the saliency map. Experiments were performed in optical satellite images to find airplanes, and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and robust in complex scenes.
Sterling, Joanna; Jost, John T; Shrout, Patrick E
Experiments conducted during the 2004 and 2008 U.S. presidential elections suggested that mortality salience primes increased support for President George W. Bush and Senator John McCain, respectively. Some interpreted these results as reflecting "conservative shift" following exposure to threat, whereas others emphasized preferences for "charismatic" leadership following exposure to death primes. To assess both hypotheses in the context of a new election cycle featuring a liberal incumbent who was considered to be charismatic, we conducted four experiments shortly before the 2012 election involving President Barack Obama and Governor Mitt Romney. Contrary to earlier studies, there was little evidence that mortality salience, either by itself or in interaction with political orientation, affected overall candidate ratings or voting intentions. However, a significant interaction between mortality salience and system justification in some studies indicated a more circumscribed effect. The failure to "replicate" previous results in the context of this election may be attributable to disagreement among participants as to which of the candidates better represented the societal status quo. PMID:26982197
Full Text Available Experiments conducted during the 2004 and 2008 U.S. presidential elections suggested that mortality salience primes increased support for President George W. Bush and Senator John McCain, respectively. Some interpreted these results as reflecting "conservative shift" following exposure to threat, whereas others emphasized preferences for "charismatic" leadership following exposure to death primes. To assess both hypotheses in the context of a new election cycle featuring a liberal incumbent who was considered to be charismatic, we conducted four experiments shortly before the 2012 election involving President Barack Obama and Governor Mitt Romney. Contrary to earlier studies, there was little evidence that mortality salience, either by itself or in interaction with political orientation, affected overall candidate ratings or voting intentions. However, a significant interaction between mortality salience and system justification in some studies indicated a more circumscribed effect. The failure to "replicate" previous results in the context of this election may be attributable to disagreement among participants as to which of the candidates better represented the societal status quo.
Pitchers, Kyle K.; Flagel, Shelly B.; O’Donnell, Elizabeth G.; Solberg Woods, Leah C.; Sarter, M.; Robinson, Terry E.
There is considerable individual variation in the propensity of animals to attribute incentive salience to discrete reward cues, but to date most of this research has been conducted in male rats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sex influences the propensity to attribute incentive salience to a food cue, using rats from two different outbred strains (Sprague-Dawley [SD] and Heterogeneous Stock [HS]). The motivational value of a food cue was assessed in two ways: (i) by the ability of the cue to elicit approach towards it and (ii) by its ability to act as a conditioned reinforcer. We found that female SD rats acquired Pavlovian conditioned approach behavior slightly faster than males, but no sex difference was detected in HS rats, and neither strain showed a sex difference in asymptotic performance of approach behavior. Moreover, female approach behavior did not differ across estrous cycle. Compared to males, females made more active responses during the test for conditioned reinforcement, although they made more inactive responses as well. We conclude that although there are small sex differences in performance on these tasks, these are probably not due to a notable sex difference in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to a food cue. PMID:25446811
Kazemi, Baharan; Gamberale-Stille, Gabriella; Leimar, Olof
Mimicry occurs when one species gains protection from predators by resembling an unprofitable model species. The degree of mimic-model similarity is variable in nature and is closely related to the number of traits that the mimic shares with its model. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that the relative salience of traits, as perceived by a predator, is an important determinant of the degree of mimic-model similarity required for successful mimicry. We manipulated the relative salience of the traits of a two-trait artificial model prey, and subsequently tested the survival of mimics of the different traits. The unrewarded model prey had two colour traits, black and blue, and the rewarded prey had two combinations of green, brown and grey shades. Blue tits were used as predators. We found that the birds perceived the black and blue traits to be similarly salient in one treatment, and mimic-model similarity in both traits was then required for high mimic success. In a second treatment, the blue trait was the most salient trait, and mimic-model similarity in this trait alone achieved high success. Our results thus support the idea that similar salience of model traits can explain the occurrence of multi-trait mimicry. PMID:26511051
Posner, Stephen M; McKenzie, Emily; Ricketts, Taylor H
Research about ecosystem services (ES) often aims to generate knowledge that influences policies and institutions for conservation and human development. However, we have limited understanding of how decision-makers use ES knowledge or what factors facilitate use. Here we address this gap and report on, to our knowledge, the first quantitative analysis of the factors and conditions that explain the policy impact of ES knowledge. We analyze a global sample of cases where similar ES knowledge was generated and applied to decision-making. We first test whether attributes of ES knowledge themselves predict different measures of impact on decisions. We find that legitimacy of knowledge is more often associated with impact than either the credibility or salience of the knowledge. We also examine whether predictor variables related to the science-to-policy process and the contextual conditions of a case are significant in predicting impact. Our findings indicate that, although many factors are important, attributes of the knowledge and aspects of the science-to-policy process that enhance legitimacy best explain the impact of ES science on decision-making. Our results are consistent with both theory and previous qualitative assessments in suggesting that the attributes and perceptions of scientific knowledge and process within which knowledge is coproduced are important determinants of whether that knowledge leads to action. PMID:26831101
Nico Nitzsche; Toni Lange; Markus Klein; Michael Fröhlich
Introduction: Strength training intervention is primarily controlled by training parameters. A scientific desideratum exists concerning the question to what extent a self-controlled load perception might have an effect on motor performance and functional body-related knowledge. Method: A total of 81 primary school students were assigned to an intervention group (N=34, 9.7±2 years) and control group (N=47, 7.3±0.4 years). The intervention group performed strength training twice a week (circuit...
Marcia Aparecida Gobbi
Full Text Available Este artigo relata a experiência com o projeto "Os parques infantis de Mário de Andrade ontem e hoje", empreendido por todos os profissionais e crianças de uma escola municipal de Educação Infantil da cidade de São Paulo. A preocupação com o conhecimento histórico e as crianças da primeira infância e suas especificidades, numa perspectiva não-escolarizante e não-antecipatória do Ensino Fundamental, foi a tônica e um desafio. Procura aliar história e memória, estabelecendo relações entre História da Educação, história da escolarização de crianças pequenas e formação docente.This article discusses an experience with the project "The children's playgrounds of Mario de Andrade, yesterday and today", undertaken by all the professionals and children of a state primary school in the city of São Paulo. The concern with historical knowledge and the children in the first years of primary school, with their specific qualities, their un-schooled perspective and their inability to predict the school's teaching approach, was the keynote of this study and the challenge faced. A link between history and memory is sought, establishing a relationship between the History of Education, the history of small children being schooled and teacher training.
Full Text Available Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs are common in children and represent a significant cause of antibiotic abuse which contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance. A survey was conducted in Cyprus in 2006 to assess parents’ and pediatricians’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP concerning the role of antibiotics in children with URTIs. A school-based stratified geographic clustering sampling was used and a pre-tested KAP questionnaire was distributed. A different questionnaire was distributed to paediatricians. Demographic factors associated with antibiotic misuse were identified by backward logistic regression analysis. The parental overall response rate was 69.3%. Parents (N = 1,462 follow pediatricians advice and rarely administer antibiotics acquired over the counter. Although a third expects an antibiotic prescription for URTI symptoms, most deny pressuring their doctors. Low parental education was the most important independent risk factor positively related to antibiotic misuse (OR = 2.88, 95%CI 2.02 to 4.12, p < 0.001. Pediatricians (N = 33 denied prescribing antibiotics after parental pressure but admit that parents ask for antibiotics and believe they expect antibiotic prescriptions even when not needed. In conclusion, Cypriotic parents trust their primary care providers. Although it appears that antibiotic misuse is not driven by parental pressure, the pediatricians’ view differs.
Cintrón-Valentín, Myrna C.; Ellis, Nick C.
We consider the role of physical form, prior experience, and form focused instruction (FFI) in adult language learning. (1) When presented with competing cues to interpretation, learners are more likely to attend to physically more salient cues in the input. (2) Learned attention is an associative learning phenomenon where prior-learned cues block those that are experienced later. (3) The low salience of morphosyntactic cues can be overcome by FFI, which leads learners to attend cues which might otherwise be ignored. Experiment 1 used eye-tracking to investigate how language background influences learners’ attention to morphological cues, as well as the attentional processes whereby different types of FFI overcome low cue salience, learned attention and blocking. Chinese native speakers (no L1 verb-tense morphology) viewed Latin utterances combining lexical and morphological cues to temporality under control conditions (CCs) and three types of explicit FFI: verb grammar instruction (VG), verb salience with textual enhancement (VS), and verb pretraining (VP), and their use of these cues was assessed in a subsequent comprehension test. CC participants were significantly more sensitive to the adverbs than verb morphology. Instructed participants showed greater sensitivity to the verbs. These results reveal attentional processes whereby learners’ prior linguistic experience can shape their attention toward cues in the input, and whereby FFI helps learners overcome the long-term blocking of verb-tense morphology. Experiment 2 examined the role of modality of input presentation – aural or visual – in L1 English learners’ attentional focus on morphological cues and the effectiveness of different FFI manipulations. CC participants showed greater sensitivity toward the adverb cue. FFI was effective in increasing attention to verb-tense morphology, however, the processing of morphological cues was considerably more difficult under aural presentation. From visual
Cintrón-Valentín, Myrna C; Ellis, Nick C
We consider the role of physical form, prior experience, and form focused instruction (FFI) in adult language learning. (1) When presented with competing cues to interpretation, learners are more likely to attend to physically more salient cues in the input. (2) Learned attention is an associative learning phenomenon where prior-learned cues block those that are experienced later. (3) The low salience of morphosyntactic cues can be overcome by FFI, which leads learners to attend cues which might otherwise be ignored. Experiment 1 used eye-tracking to investigate how language background influences learners' attention to morphological cues, as well as the attentional processes whereby different types of FFI overcome low cue salience, learned attention and blocking. Chinese native speakers (no L1 verb-tense morphology) viewed Latin utterances combining lexical and morphological cues to temporality under control conditions (CCs) and three types of explicit FFI: verb grammar instruction (VG), verb salience with textual enhancement (VS), and verb pretraining (VP), and their use of these cues was assessed in a subsequent comprehension test. CC participants were significantly more sensitive to the adverbs than verb morphology. Instructed participants showed greater sensitivity to the verbs. These results reveal attentional processes whereby learners' prior linguistic experience can shape their attention toward cues in the input, and whereby FFI helps learners overcome the long-term blocking of verb-tense morphology. Experiment 2 examined the role of modality of input presentation - aural or visual - in L1 English learners' attentional focus on morphological cues and the effectiveness of different FFI manipulations. CC participants showed greater sensitivity toward the adverb cue. FFI was effective in increasing attention to verb-tense morphology, however, the processing of morphological cues was considerably more difficult under aural presentation. From visual exposure
Tegelbeckers, Jana; Bunzeck, Nico; Duzel, Emrah; Bonath, Björn; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin
Attentional problems in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been linked with deficits in cognitive control. Whether these deficits are associated with increased sensitivity to external salient stimuli remains unclear. To address this issue, we acquired functional brain images (fMRI) in 38 boys with and without ADHD (age: 11-16 years). To differentiate the effects of item novelty, contextual rareness and task relevance, participants performed a visual oddball task including four stimulus categories: a frequent standard picture (62.5%), unique novel pictures (12.5%), one repeated rare picture (12.5%), and a target picture (12.5%) that required a specific motor response. As a main finding, we can show considerable overlap in novelty-related BOLD responses between both groups, but only healthy participants showed neural deactivation in temporal as well as frontal regions in response to novel pictures. Furthermore, only ADHD patients, but not healthy controls, engaged wide parts of the novelty network when processing the rare but familiar picture. Our results provide first evidence that ADHD patients show enhanced neural activity in response to novel but behaviorally irrelevant stimuli as well as reduced habituation to familiar items. These findings suggest an inefficient use of neuronal resources in children with ADHD that could be closely linked to increased distractibility. PMID:25648705
Full Text Available Free listing was used to obtain names of marine animals from 234 Peruvian children with families involved in fishing activities. They live in the fishing towns of Vila-vila, Morro Sama and Ilo, located in Southern Peru. Fishes, birds and the category “other marine animal” were used for the classification of marine fauna by children. The group of 6-8 year-olds shows a mean frequency of 19.7 names per child, while the group of 9-11 year-olds shows a mean frequency of 25.7 names per child. Folk species of fish is the most frequently recorded category with a predominance of coastal species and with a mean frequency of 7.56 and 11.51 names per child for the groups of 6-8 year-olds and 9-11 year-olds, respectively. In contrast, bird names are less frequently recorded in the lists. Some bird and mollusc names have lexical under-differentiation at a generic level and apparently have lower cultural significance than fish. Children’s classification in different levels of organization is evidence of a folk biology. The folk taxonomy of marine animals could be influenced by the lesser cognitive development of younger children and the ecological salience of some species. Some species with coastal habitat exhibit a high dominance index of folk names. Cultural transmission of knowledge about birds could be failing due to the recent occupancy of the study sites by migratory people and the sexual division of work in the children’s families.
Theoretical part: Basic terms of knowledge management, knowledge worker, knowledge creation and conversion process, prerequisites and benefits of knowledge management. Knowledge management and it's connection to organizational culture and structure, result measurements of knowledge management, learning organization and it's connection to knowledge management. Tacit knowledge management tools -- stories -- types, how to create, practical use, communities, coaching. Value Based Organization. Pr...
Banitalebi-Dehkordi, Amin; Nasiopoulos, Eleni; Pourazad, Mahsa T.; Nasiopoulos, Panos
Visual attention models (VAMs) predict the location of image or video regions that are most likely to attract human attention. Although saliency detection is well explored for two-dimensional (2-D) image and video content, there have been only a few attempts made to design three-dimensional (3-D) saliency prediction models. Newly proposed 3-D VAMs have to be validated over large-scale video saliency prediction datasets, which also contain results of eye-tracking information. There are several publicly available eye-tracking datasets for 2-D image and video content. In the case of 3-D, however, there is still a need for large-scale video saliency datasets for the research community for validating different 3-D VAMs. We introduce a large-scale dataset containing eye-tracking data collected from 61 stereoscopic 3-D videos (and also 2-D versions of those), and 24 subjects participated in a free-viewing test. We evaluate the performance of the existing saliency detection methods over the proposed dataset. In addition, we created an online benchmark for validating the performance of the existing 2-D and 3-D VAMs and facilitating the addition of new VAMs to the benchmark. Our benchmark currently contains 50 different VAMs.
Conocimiento de Transmision de SIDA y Percepcion Hacia los Ninos con SIDA en el Salon de Clases de los Maestros de Educacion Especial (Knowledge of AIDS Transmission and Special Education Teachers' Attitudes towards Children with AIDS in the Classroom).
Lopez de Williams, Milka
This Spanish-language master's thesis presents a study which measured special education teachers' knowledge of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) virus transmission and their attitudes toward children with AIDS in schools. Attitudes were then related to social variables such as sex, teacher's age, and knowing someone with AIDS. A survey of…
Morrow, Jonathan D; Maren, Stephen; Robinson, Terry E
It has been proposed that animals that attribute high levels of incentive salience to reward-related cues may be especially vulnerable to addiction. Individual variation has also been observed in the motivational value attributed to aversive cues, which may confer vulnerability to anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There may be a core behavioral trait that contributes to individual variation in the motivational value assigned to predictive cues regardless of emotional valence. To test this hypothesis, we used a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure to classify rats based on whether they learned to approach and interact with a cue predicting food reward (sign-trackers) or learned upon cue presentation to go to the location of impending food delivery (goal-trackers), and then examined Pavlovian fear conditioning in the same animals. It has recently been proposed that sign-trackers are more vulnerable to substance abuse because they attribute greater incentive motivational value to drug cues. Here we show that sign-trackers also have a tendency to be more fearful of discrete cues that predict footshock. In addition, we found that goal-trackers exhibited greater contextual fear when placed back into the original fear-conditioning context in the absence of temporally discrete cues. These results suggest that there may be a subset of individuals who tend to attribute high levels of motivational salience to predictive cues regardless of emotional valence, which may predispose them to a number of psychiatric comorbidities including PTSD and substance abuse. Other individuals use contexts to appropriately modify their reactions to such salient stimuli. PMID:21316397
A study to assess the effectiveness of planned health teaching programme using child-to –child approach on knowledge of selected first aid measures among school children in selected schools at Dharapuram in Tamil Nadu, India
Full Text Available “All citizens – All health workers” Everyone, even the children also have responsible to involve in health services & act as change agents for health promotion. The study was to assess the effectiveness of teaching programme using child-to-child approach on knowledge of selected first aid measures in children. The aim of the study to assess effectiveness of planned health teaching programme on selected first aid measures among school children using child-to-child approach. Quasi experimental design was adopted. The present study was conducted at Dharapuram in Erode district, Tamil Nadu India. The samples were 200 selected by simple random sampling method. The results showed that (‘Z’ value =1.96 mean pre and post-tests value were 10.26 and 21.55. The study concluded that about 68.5percent of students gained adequate knowledge after teaching programme using child-to-child approach.
Berridge, K C; Robinson, T E
What roles do mesolimbic and neostriatal dopamine systems play in reward? Do they mediate the hedonic impact of rewarding stimuli? Do they mediate hedonic reward learning and associative prediction? Our review of the literature, together with results of a new study of residual reward capacity after dopamine depletion, indicates the answer to both questions is 'no'. Rather, dopamine systems may mediate the incentive salience of rewards, modulating their motivational value in a manner separable from hedonia and reward learning. In a study of the consequences of dopamine loss, rats were depleted of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and neostriatum by up to 99% using 6-hydroxydopamine. In a series of experiments, we applied the 'taste reactivity' measure of affective reactions (gapes, etc.) to assess the capacity of dopamine-depleted rats for: 1) normal affect (hedonic and aversive reactions), 2) modulation of hedonic affect by associative learning (taste aversion conditioning), and 3) hedonic enhancement of affect by non-dopaminergic pharmacological manipulation of palatability (benzodiazepine administration). We found normal hedonic reaction patterns to sucrose vs. quinine, normal learning of new hedonic stimulus values (a change in palatability based on predictive relations), and normal pharmacological hedonic enhancement of palatability. We discuss these results in the context of hypotheses and data concerning the role of dopamine in reward. We review neurochemical, electrophysiological, and other behavioral evidence. We conclude that dopamine systems are not needed either to mediate the hedonic pleasure of reinforcers or to mediate predictive associations involved in hedonic reward learning. We conclude instead that dopamine may be more important to incentive salience attributions to the neural representations of reward-related stimuli. Incentive salience, we suggest, is a distinct component of motivation and reward. In other words, dopamine systems are necessary
Hurtado, Sylvia; Alvarado, Adriana Ruiz; Guillermo-Wann, Chelsea
Racial identity salience is an important component of identity development that is associated with a number of educational outcomes. Using the Diverse Learning Environments Survey, this study identifies precollege and college experiences that contribute to a heightened salience of racial identity, and its relationship to perceptions of campus…
Edwards, Adrienne Laney
The salience of racial socialization among African American families has received considerable attention in the literature; however, few scholars have examined how the process of racial socialization unfolds in families with very young children. This study investigated how African American mothers of preschool-age children approached the process of racial socialization. I interviewed African American mothers who were at least age 18 (N=12) with biological children between the ages of three an...
This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacit knowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individuals in an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization, and managing key individuals as knowledge creators and carriers. By contrast, the explicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held by individuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: General Practitioners (GPs are generally the first point of contact for children and adolescents with mental health problems. This study investigates the confidence, beliefs, and knowledge of GPs regarding common mental health problems in youngsters. Methods: A self-designed questionnaire was distributed to nearly all registered GPs in a middle-income European country in order to address the aims of the study. Results: Response rate was 58%. Many GPs reported relatively low confidence on a number of issues, including diagnosis (70.0%, initiating management (86.6%, assessing the child-caregiver relationship (72.0% and the ability to distinguish between normal and pathological behavioural problems (75.1%. However, GPs showed greater inclination to conduct follow-up care after assessment by specialist services (53.5%. Few GPs considered psychosocial interventions to play a role in the treatment of anxiety disorders (18.5%, hyperkinetic disorders (24.2%, depression (22.9% and disruptive behaviour disorders (18.5% and this largely came from younger GPs (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Confidence of GPs in the management of youngsters with mental health problems is generally low. They may require significant back-up from specialist services in the form of both training and clinical collaboration.
Full Text Available Along with target amplification, distractor inhibition is regarded as a major contributor to selective attention. Some theories suggest that the strength of inhibitory processing is proportional to the salience of the distractor (i.e., inhibition reacts to the distractor intensity. Other theories suggest that the strength of inhibitory processing does not depend on the salience of the distractor (i.e., inhibition does not react to the distractor intensity. The present study aimed to elucidate the relationship between the intensity of a distractor and its subsequent inhibition during focused attention. A flanker task with a variable distractor-target stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA was used to measure both distractor interference and distractor inhibition. We manipulated the intensity of the distractor in two separate ways, by varying its distance from the target (Experiment 1 and by varying its brightness (Experiment 2. The results indicate that more intense distractors were associated with both increased interference and stronger distractor inhibition. The latter outcome provides novel support for the reactive inhibition hypothesis, which posits that inhibition reacts to the strength of distractor input, such that more salient distractors elicit stronger inhibition.
Full Text Available Special features in real marine environments such as cloud clutter, sea glint and weather conditions always result in various kinds of interference in optical images, which make it very difficult for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs to detect the sea-sky line (SSL accurately. To solve this problem a saliency-based SSL detection method is proposed. Through the computation of gradient saliency the line features of SSL are enhanced effectively, while other interference factors are relatively suppressed, and line support regions are obtained by a region growing method on gradient orientation. The SSL identification is achieved according to region contrast, line segment length and orientation features, and optimal state estimation of SSL detection is implemented by introducing a cubature Kalman filter (CKF. In the end, the proposed method is tested on a benchmark dataset from the “XL” USV in a real marine environment, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is significantly superior to other state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy rate and real-time performance, and its accuracy and stability are effectively improved by the CKF.
Wang, Bo; Su, Yumin; Wan, Lei
Special features in real marine environments such as cloud clutter, sea glint and weather conditions always result in various kinds of interference in optical images, which make it very difficult for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) to detect the sea-sky line (SSL) accurately. To solve this problem a saliency-based SSL detection method is proposed. Through the computation of gradient saliency the line features of SSL are enhanced effectively, while other interference factors are relatively suppressed, and line support regions are obtained by a region growing method on gradient orientation. The SSL identification is achieved according to region contrast, line segment length and orientation features, and optimal state estimation of SSL detection is implemented by introducing a cubature Kalman filter (CKF). In the end, the proposed method is tested on a benchmark dataset from the "XL" USV in a real marine environment, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is significantly superior to other state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy rate and real-time performance, and its accuracy and stability are effectively improved by the CKF. PMID:27092503
Erkan, G; 10.1613/jair.1523
We introduce a stochastic graph-based method for computing relative importance of textual units for Natural Language Processing. We test the technique on the problem of Text Summarization (TS). Extractive TS relies on the concept of sentence salience to identify the most important sentences in a document or set of documents. Salience is typically defined in terms of the presence of particular important words or in terms of similarity to a centroid pseudo-sentence. We consider a new approach, LexRank, for computing sentence importance based on the concept of eigenvector centrality in a graph representation of sentences. In this model, a connectivity matrix based on intra-sentence cosine similarity is used as the adjacency matrix of the graph representation of sentences. Our system, based on LexRank ranked in first place in more than one task in the recent DUC 2004 evaluation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of our approach and apply it to a larger data set including data from earlier DUC evaluatio...
Zhang, Lin; Shen, Ying; Li, Hongyu
Perceptual image quality assessment (IQA) aims to use computational models to measure the image quality in consistent with subjective evaluations. Visual saliency (VS) has been widely studied by psychologists, neurobiologists, and computer scientists during the last decade to investigate, which areas of an image will attract the most attention of the human visual system. Intuitively, VS is closely related to IQA in that suprathreshold distortions can largely affect VS maps of images. With this consideration, we propose a simple but very effective full reference IQA method using VS. In our proposed IQA model, the role of VS is twofold. First, VS is used as a feature when computing the local quality map of the distorted image. Second, when pooling the quality score, VS is employed as a weighting function to reflect the importance of a local region. The proposed IQA index is called visual saliency-based index (VSI). Several prominent computational VS models have been investigated in the context of IQA and the best one is chosen for VSI. Extensive experiments performed on four large-scale benchmark databases demonstrate that the proposed IQA index VSI works better in terms of the prediction accuracy than all state-of-the-art IQA indices we can find while maintaining a moderate computational complexity. The MATLAB source code of VSI and the evaluation results are publicly available online at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/IQA/VSI/VSI.htm. PMID:25122572
Liu, Ziyi; Gao, Junfeng; Yang, Guoguo; Zhang, Huan; He, Yong
We present a pipeline for the visual localization and classification of agricultural pest insects by computing a saliency map and applying deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) learning. First, we used a global contrast region-based approach to compute a saliency map for localizing pest insect objects. Bounding squares containing targets were then extracted, resized to a fixed size, and used to construct a large standard database called Pest ID. This database was then utilized for self-learning of local image features which were, in turn, used for classification by DCNN. DCNN learning optimized the critical parameters, including size, number and convolutional stride of local receptive fields, dropout ratio and the final loss function. To demonstrate the practical utility of using DCNN, we explored different architectures by shrinking depth and width, and found effective sizes that can act as alternatives for practical applications. On the test set of paddy field images, our architectures achieved a mean Accuracy Precision (mAP) of 0.951, a significant improvement over previous methods. PMID:26864172
Fritzler, Bryan; Hecker, Jeffrey E; Fawzy, Tamer I
Salkovskis [1985. Obsessional-compulsive problems: A cognitive-behavioural analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 571-583.] hypothesized that intrusive thoughts are more likely to occur if the thought is salient for the individual, triggers feelings of responsibility and if the individual attempts to suppress the thought. The relationship between these three factors (responsibility, salience, thought suppression) and frequency of intrusive thoughts as well as anxiety were examined in the present study. One hundred female college students were led to believe that a snake had escaped from the cage in which it was housed. Half of the participants were led to believe that they were responsible for the snake's escape and half were not (Responsibility/No Responsibility). Half of the participants in each Responsibility condition were instructed to suppress thoughts of snakes during a stream of consciousness exercise and half were not (Thought Suppression vs. No Thought Suppression). All participants then completed a second stream of consciousness without suppression instructions. Salience groups were determined by a median split on a measure of snake fearfulness. Participants for whom the snake was a salient stimulus and who believed that they were responsible for the snake's escape had the highest frequency of snake thoughts during the second stream of consciousness task and also experienced the highest levels of state anxiety. Findings are discussed with respect to Salkovskis' model. PMID:18423568
Wang, Wenguang; Li, Chenming; Shi, Jianing
Dim target detection in infrared image with complex background and low signal-clutter ratio (SCR) is a significant and difficult task in the infrared target tracking system. A robust infrared dim target detection method based on template filtering and saliency extraction is proposed in this paper. The weighted gray map is obtained from the infrared image to highlight the target which is brighter than its neighbors and has weak correlation with its background. The target saliency map is then calculated by phase spectrum of Fourier Transform, so that the dim target detection could be converted to salient region extraction. The potential targets are finally extracted by combining the two maps. Moreover, position discrimination between targets in the two maps is used to exclude the false alarms and extract the targets. Experimental results on measured images indicate that our method is feasible, adaptable and robust in different backgrounds. The ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curves obtained from the simulated images demonstrate the proposed method outperforms some existing typical methods in both detection rate and false alarm rate, for target detection with low SCR.
Belmi, Peter; Pfeffer, Jeffrey
According to Terror Management Theory, people respond to reminders of mortality by seeking psychological security and bolstering their self-esteem. Because previous research suggests that having power can provide individuals a sense of security and self-worth, we hypothesize that mortality salience leads to an increased motivation to acquire power, especially among men. Study 1 found that men (but not women) who wrote about their death reported more interest in acquiring power. Study 2A and Study 2B demonstrated that when primed with reminders of death, men (but not women) reported behaving more dominantly during the subsequent week, while both men and women reported behaving more prosocially during that week. Thus, mortality salience prompts people to respond in ways that help them manage their death anxiety but in ways consistent with normative gender expectations. Furthermore, Studies 3-5 showed that feeling powerful reduces anxiety when mortality is salient. Specifically, we found that when primed to feel more powerful, both men and women experienced less mortality anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26867106
Image-based dietary assessment has recently received much attention in the community of obesity research. In this assessment, foods in digital pictures are specified, and their portion sizes (volumes) are estimated. Although manual processing is currently the most utilized method, image processing holds much promise since it may eventually lead to automatic dietary assessment. In this paper we study the problem of segmenting food objects from images. This segmentation is difficult because of various food types, shapes and colors, different decorating patterns on food containers, and occlusions of food and non-food objects. We propose a novel method based on a saliency-aware active contour model (ACM) for automatic food segmentation from images acquired by a wearable camera. An integrated saliency estimation approach based on food location priors and visual attention features is designed to produce a salient map of possible food regions in the input image. Next, a geometric contour primitive is generated and fitted to the salient map by means of multi-resolution optimization with respect to a set of affine and elastic transformation parameters. The food regions are then extracted after contour fitting. Our experiments using 60 food images showed that the proposed method achieved significantly higher accuracy in food segmentation when compared to conventional segmentation methods. (paper)
Many Israelis are preoccupied with the prospect of a nuclear-armed Iran, frequently associating it with the danger of annihilation that existed during the Holocaust. The current article examined whether offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS) are especially preoccupied and sensitive to the Iranian threat, and whether this susceptibility is a part of their increased general image of actual and potential threats, defined as the hostile world scenario (HWS). Study 1 (N = 106) showed that relative to comparisons, OHS reported more preoccupation with the Iranian nuclear threat. Moreover, the positive relationship between the salience of the Iranian threat and symptoms of anxiety was stronger among OHS. Study 2 (N = 450) replicated these findings, while focusing on the Iranian nuclear threat salience and symptoms of psychological distress. It further showed that OHS reported more negative engagement with the HWS (i.e., feeling that surrounding threats decrease one's sense of competence), which in turn mediated their increased preoccupation with the Iranian threat. The results suggest that intergenerational transmission of the Holocaust trauma includes heightened preoccupation with and sensitivity to potential threats of annihilation, and that the specific preoccupation with threats of annihilation reflects a part of a more general preoccupation with surrounding threats. PMID:25793401
Chen, Hsin-Chen; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Xin; Li, Zhaoxin; Li, Yuecheng; Fernstrom, John D.; Burke, Lora E.; Baranowski, Thomas; Sun, Mingui
Image-based dietary assessment has recently received much attention in the community of obesity research. In this assessment, foods in digital pictures are specified, and their portion sizes (volumes) are estimated. Although manual processing is currently the most utilized method, image processing holds much promise since it may eventually lead to automatic dietary assessment. In this paper we study the problem of segmenting food objects from images. This segmentation is difficult because of various food types, shapes and colors, different decorating patterns on food containers, and occlusions of food and non-food objects. We propose a novel method based on a saliency-aware active contour model (ACM) for automatic food segmentation from images acquired by a wearable camera. An integrated saliency estimation approach based on food location priors and visual attention features is designed to produce a salient map of possible food regions in the input image. Next, a geometric contour primitive is generated and fitted to the salient map by means of multi-resolution optimization with respect to a set of affine and elastic transformation parameters. The food regions are then extracted after contour fitting. Our experiments using 60 food images showed that the proposed method achieved significantly higher accuracy in food segmentation when compared to conventional segmentation methods.
Antón-Méndez, Inés; Gerfen, Chip; Ramos, Miguel
Salience influences grammatical structure during production in a language-dependent manner because different languages afford different options to satisfy preferences. During production, speakers may always try to satisfy all syntactic encoding preferences (e.g., salient entities to be mentioned early, themes to be assigned the syntactic function of object) and adjust when this is not possible (e.g., a salient theme in English) or, alternatively, they may learn early on to associate particular conceptual configurations with particular syntactic frames (e.g., salient themes with passives). To see which of these alternatives is responsible for the production of passives when dealing with a salient theme, we looked at the second language effects of salience for English-speaking learners of Spanish, where the two preferences can be satisfied simultaneously by fronting the object (Prat-Sala and Branigan in J Mem Lang 42:168-182, 2000). In accordance with highly incremental models of language production, English speakers appear to quickly make use of the alternatives in the second language that allow observance of more processing preferences. PMID:25822758
Herbranson, Walter T
Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, with one or more line features on a single key differing between consecutive displays. Change salience was manipulated by varying the number of line features that changed on the critical response key. Results indicated that change blindness is reduced if a change is made more salient, and this matches previous human results. Furthermore, accuracy patterns indicate that pigeons' effective search area expanded over the course of a trial to encompass a larger portion of the stimulus environment. Thus, the data indicate two important aspects of temporal cognition. First, the timing of a change has a profound influence on whether or not that change will be perceived. Second, pigeons appear to engage in a serial search for changes, in which additional time is required to search additional locations. PMID:26284021
Walter Troy Herbranson
Full Text Available Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, with one or more line features on a single key differing between consecutive displays. Change salience was manipulated by varying the number of line features that changed on the critical response key. Results indicated that change blindness is reduced if a change is made more salient, and this matches previous human results. Furthermore, accuracy patterns indicate that pigeons’ effective search area expanded over the course of a trial to encompass a larger portion of the stimulus environment. Thus, the data indicate two important aspects of temporal cognition. First, the timing of a change has a profound influence on whether or not that change will be perceived. Second, pigeons appear to engage in a serial search for changes, in which additional time is required to search additional locations.
Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael
To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of…
Roest, Annette M. C.; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.
This study applied the gender role model of socialization theory, the developmental aging theory, and the topic salience perspective to the investigation of parent-child value transmissions. Specifically, we examined whether the bi-directionality and selectivity of value transmissions differed as a function of parents' and children's gender and…