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Sample records for children iv thyroid

  1. Lingual thyroid in children

    OpenAIRE

    P Singhal; Sharma, K R; Singhal, A.

    2011-01-01

    Lingual thyroid is a rare embryological anomaly and originates from failure of the thyroid gland to descend from the foramen caecum to its normal eutopic pre-laryngeal site. The ectopic gland located at the base of the tongue is often asymptomatic but may cause local symptoms such as dysphagia, dysphonia with stomatolalia, upper airway obstruction and haemorrhage, often with hypothyroidism. One case is presented, in a 5 year-old girl patient, who complained of sensation of a foreign body and ...

  2. Effects of perinatal exposure to environmentally persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals on neurobehavioral development in Japanese children: IV. Thyroid hormones and neonatal neurobehavioral status

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    Suzuki, K.; Nakai, K.; Oka, T.; Kurokawa, N.; Satoh, H. [Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Hosokawa, T. [Dept. of Human Development, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Okamura, K. [Dept. of Obstetrics, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Sakai, T. [Miyagi Childrens Hospital, Sendai (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    From several epidemiological studies, it has been reported that there are some associations between perinatal exposures to PCBs, dioxins and heavy metals, and neurobehavioral defects such as postnatal growth delay and poorer cognitive function. We have started a prospective cohort study to examine the effects of perinatal exposures to environmentally persistent organic pollutants on neurobehavioral development in Japanese children. Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal brain development. A lack of THs in pregnancy can result in congenital hypothyroidism, which causes moderate to severe intellectual defects. It has been reported that perinatal exposure to PCBs adversely affects on children's intellectual functions. The chemical structures of some PCBs resembles thyroxine (T4), and therefore, it is suspected that the action mechanism of PCBs is disruption of TH function. Some PCBs and their metabolites are thought to bind with transthyretine (TTR), which is necessary for the transfer of T4 into the brain, and this may cause a shortage of T4 in the developing brain. To examine the effects of perinatal exposure to PCBs on children's development, it is essential to evaluate the functions of THs at a fundamental level. In this report, we examined the correlations of THs in maternal peripheral blood and cord blood, and the association between THs and neonatal neurobehavioral status.

  3. Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Children

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    Francesca Crea; Carla Bizzarri; Marco Cappa

    2011-01-01

    The two major autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) include Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT); both of which are characterized by infiltration of the thyroid by T and B cells reactive to thyroid antigens, by the production of thyroid autoantibodies and by abnormal thyroid function (hyperthyroidism in GD and hypothyroidism in AT). While the exact etiology of thyroid autoimmunity is not known, it is believed to develop when a combination of genetic susceptibility and environment...

  4. Screening for thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the screening of the thyroid diseases in the radiation exposed cohort, it is essential to make correct diagnosis and to measure radiation dose in every subjects in the cohort and to analyze the dose response relationship by the most appropriate statistical method. Thus, thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma and autoimmune hypothyroidism were confirmed to be radiation-induced thyroid diseases among atomic bomb survivors. A group of investigators from Nagasaki university have been working in the thyroid part of Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project, and more than 80000 children were screened in 5 diagnostic centers (Mogilev, Gomel, Kiev, Korosten and Klincy). In order to make correct diagnosis, thyroid echo-tomography, measurements of serum levels of free thyroxine, TSH, titers of anti-thyroid antibodies were performed in every children in the cohort and aspiration biopsy was performed when necessary. Whole body Cs137 radioactivity was also determined in every subjects. Children with thyroid cancer confirmed by histology (biopsy or operation) were 2 in Mogilev, 19 in Gomel, 6 in Kiev, 5 in Korosten and 4 in Klincy (until 1994). Since children screened in each center were less than 20000, prevalence of thyroid cancer was remarkably high (lowest 100 and highest 1000/million children) when compared to the other parts of the world (0.2 to 5/million/year). However, there was no dose response relationship between the prevalence of cancer or nodule and whole body Cs137 radioactivity. Although a significant correlation between thyroid cancer and reconstructed thyroid I131 dose was presented, there are no previous reports to prove that I131 produces thyroid cancer in human. Investigation on external radiation and short lived isotopes along with I131 may be important to elucidate the cause of thyroid cancer

  5. Children thyroid carcinoma and Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Nuclear medicine diagnostic department of Kaunas Medical University Clinics 22 children (6-16 years of age), ill with thyroid carcinoma were examined. Bas ing on the data of Kaunas Medical University Clinic the incidence of children thyroid carcinoma did not increase after Chernobyl accident. Ratio of boys and girls was 4.5:1. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was detected in 15 (68.2%)children, mixed carcinoma - 4 (18.2%), nondiferenciated -3 (13.6%) children. First stage of cancer was detected only in one patient (4.5%), second -16 (72.7%), third - 3 (13.6%), fourth stage - 2 (9.1%) patients. (author)

  6. Thyroid cancer in children in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 390 patients in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident. The morbidity rates increased by 55.7 times as compared with the 10 year pre-accident period. Thyroid cancer in children is highly aggressive disease accompanied by surrounding tissues and metastatic involvement of lymph nodes

  7. Investigation of thyroid of Lithuanian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The territory of Lithuania was divided into 3 regions according to the level of the contamination with radioactive materials (including 131J) after Chernobyl accident. Children born in 1985-1986 were examined in 3 counties: Kupishkis, Zarasai and Visaginas. The counties are located in a region with relatively lowest contamination with radioactive materials. Medium equivalent dose by 3 years old children thyroid was 0.001 Sv in those regions. The palpation, ultrasound and determination of TTH, FT4 and antibodies to Tg were used for the evaluation. There were examined 372 children in Kupishkis. The thyroid changes were found in 177 cases (47.5%), medium TTH - 1.3±0.09 pmol/l, FT4 - 8.5±0.28. 146 children were examined in Zarasai. In 90 (61.5%) cases were found changes in thyroid, medium FT4 - 12.8±0.45 and TTH 2.02±0.15. In Visaginas were examined 299 children. The thyroid changes were found in 144 (38.13%) cases. Medium FT4 - 11.8±0.37, TTH - 2.11±0.11. The frequency of children pathology in Lithuania is a very high. Functional parameters (TTH and FT4) were within normal range, no correlation was found between hormonal parameters and thyroid size. Detection of iodine excretion with urine are necessary in further study. (author)

  8. Thyroid carcinomas of Belarussian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma increases significantly following exposure to ionizing irradiation. However, the mechanisms of radiation-induced tumorigenesis at the molecular and chromosomal levels have not been identified. In order to gain some indication of the processes affecting the thyroid epithelium, cytogenetic and molecular genetic investigations were performed on childhood thyroid carcinomas that developed after the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Belarussia, and on secondary thyroid tumours that developed after radiotherapy. At the cytogenetic level, the radiation-induced tumours were shown to have an increased frequency of translocations, multiple and complex chromosome aberrations, and novel breakpoints for structural chromosome aberrations. At the molecular level, different alterations of the RET protooncogene were detected in 65% of the Belarussian tumours. (orig.)

  9. Differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents revealed that the incidence was 3.05% of total number of patients with differentiated thyroid cancers in all age groups. There was a female preponderance. The incidence of papillary, follicular and papillary with follicular elements was equal. There were no papillary carcinomas observed in children younger than 10 years. The predominant mode of presentation was a solitary nodule of thyroid and some of them had associated cervical adenopathy. A considerable number presented with only cervical adenopathy. The incidence of nodal metastases was 50% at time of presentation and lung involvement was present in 15% of children at the time of diagnosis. Radioiodine treatment was given in 70% of children. Ablation was achieved in 86% of patients given two doses of radioiodine (200 millicuries). The more resistant cases were those with lung and nodal metastases. There was complete ablation in 100% with only residual thyroid tissue, 83% in those with associated nodal metastases, and 57% in those with lung involvement. Average duration of follow-up was 10.3 years (range, 2 to 19 years). Recurrence rate or relapse was observed in 8.5% and was in the regional nodes. There was no recorded mortality due to the disease

  10. Thyroid function after treatment of brain tumors in children.

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    Ogilvy-Stuart, A L; Shalet, S M; Gattamaneni, H R

    1991-11-01

    In 134 children who had been treated for a brain tumor not involving the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thyroid function was assessed up to 24 years after treatment with cranial or craniospinal irradiation. In addition, 78 children received up to 2 years of cytotoxic chemotherapy. Of 85 children who received craniospinal irradiation, 30 (35%) had abnormalities of thyroid function, and 10 (20%) of 49 who received cranial irradiation had such abnormalities. Frank hypothyroidism developed in three children and thyrotoxicosis in one. Thirty-six children had an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level in the presence of a normal thyroxine level; in 16 of them the thyroid-stimulating hormone level subsequently returned to normal. Twenty-eight children who were treated between 1960 and 1970 were excluded from the analysis. Of 34 children who received cranial irradiation, five had thyroid dysfunction and 24 of 72 who received craniospinal irradiation had such dysfunction (p = 0.013). Thyroid dysfunction was present in 4 of 35 children who received no chemotherapy and in 25 of 71 who received chemotherapy (p = 0.014). Direct irradiation plus chemotherapy was more damaging than irradiation alone. These data confirm the high incidence of thyroid dysfunction when the thyroid gland is included in the radiation field. However, in a high proportion, the thyroid abnormalities are minor and revert to normal with time; life-long replacement therapy with thyroxine may be unnecessary. PMID:1941379

  11. Thyroid dose in children undergoing prophylactic cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the radiation dose received by the thyroid gland as a result of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in childhood leukemia and the factors influencing that dose. Methods and Materials: The dose to the thyroid resulting from simulated cranial irradiation with parallel opposed lateral fields of an adult anthropomorphic (ART) phantom with both 6 MV X-rays and Cobalt-60 γ-rays was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The dependence of thyroid dose on the distance of the field from the thyroid and the proportions of thyroid dose from stray radiation (leakage, scatter from jaws, etc.) and tissue scattered radiation were measured. The effects of a shadow tray and shielding blocks were also determined. Calculation of thyroid dose using the Clarkson scatter integration method was performed for 6 MV X-rays to compare with the measured doses. In vivo thyroid dose estimates were made using TLD measurements for three children receiving PCI with 6 MV X-rays. Results: Using open, unshielded fields, the thyroid region of the phantom received 1.2-1.4% of the prescribed cranial dose for 6 MV X-rays and 1.5-1.7% for Cobalt-60. For both treatment units, stray radiation accounted for approximately two thirds of the thyroid dose and tissue scatter accounted for the remaining one third. The thyroid dose increased as the field moved closer to the thyroid, with an increasing proportion of the dose due to tissue scatter. Placement of a thyroid shielding block on a shadow tray reduced the thyroid dose by only 20% compared with the open, unshielded setup. Thyroid dose from 6 MV using open fields was affected by the orientation of the collimator. When the inferior field edge was defined by the lower jaw, the dose was reduced by 27% compared with the upper jaw. Good correlation of dose to the thyroid region was obtained between phantom measured doses, in vivo measured doses and calculation of dose using the Clarkson method. Conclusion: For PCI doses of

  12. Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since August 1991, six surveys have been made on thyroid cancer in children in Ukraine and Belorussia. The results were compared with those for Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. Children with thyroid cancer were characterized as having the following: (1) frequent occurrence of thyroid cancer; (2) extremely short latency period; (3) poorly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma; (4) frequent occurrence within the thyroid gland; (5) the association of fibrosis, lymphocyte infiltration, and proliferation of follicular epithelial cells; (6) frequent occurrence of sclerosing variant of papillary cancer associated with fibrosis and lymphocyte infiltration, especially in heavily exposed areas. These findings were supposed to be attributable to Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. No data has been available on infantile thyroid cancer in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors because of the following reasons: (1) acute death from acute radiation injury, leukemia and cancer other than thyroid cancer; (2) few survey on thyroid cancer during the first 10 years after exposure; (3) the lack of surgical data on thyroid cancer. In the case of Chernobyl survivors, there were few acute death cases; I-131 seemed to have damaged specifically the thyroid gland; heavily exposed areas corresponded to areas with low iodine intake; pediatric thyroid gland is sensitive to I-131, leading to the possibility that infantile thyroid cancer may have been induced by I-131. (N.K.)

  13. Thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy in children with Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid function was measured in 119 children, 16 years of age or less, after radiotherapy (XRT) for Hodgkin's disease. Thyroid abnormalities developed in 4 of 24 children (17%) who received 2600 rad or less, and in 74 of 95 children (78%) who received greater than 2600 rad to the cervical area, including the thyroid. The abnormality in all but three (one with hyperthyroidism and two with thyroid nodules) included the development of elevated levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Age, sex, and administration of chemotherapy were not significant factors in the development of thyroid dysfunction. All children had lymphangiograms (LAG) and no time relationship was noted between thyroid dysfunction and LAG-XRT interval. The mean interval from radiotherapy to documented thyroid dysfunction was 18 months in the low-dose group and 31 months in the high-dose group, with most patients becoming abnormal within 3 to 5 years. Of interest was a spontaneous return of TSH to within normal limits in 20 children and substantial improvement in another 7. This study confirms the occurrence of dose-related occult hypothyroidism in children following external irradiation of the neck

  14. Ultrasonography of various thyroid diseases in children and adolescents: A pictorial essay

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    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Jeong, Sun Hye; Park, Ji Sang; Lee, Heon [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Thyroid imaging is indicated to evaluate congenital hypothyroidism during newborn screening or in cases of a palpable thyroid mass in children and adolescents. This pictorial essay reviews the ultrasonography (US) of thyroid diseases in children and adolescents, including normal thyroid gland development, imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (dysgenesis, [aplasia, ectopy, hypoplasia], dyshormonogenesis, transient hypothyroidism, thyroglossal duct cyst), diffuse thyroid disease (Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and suppurative thyroiditis), and thyroid nodules. The primary imaging modalities for evaluating thyroid diseases are US and radionuclide scintigraphy. Additionally, US can be used to guide aspiration of detected nodules.

  15. Ultrasonography of various thyroid diseases in children and adolescents: A pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid imaging is indicated to evaluate congenital hypothyroidism during newborn screening or in cases of a palpable thyroid mass in children and adolescents. This pictorial essay reviews the ultrasonography (US) of thyroid diseases in children and adolescents, including normal thyroid gland development, imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (dysgenesis, [aplasia, ectopy, hypoplasia], dyshormonogenesis, transient hypothyroidism, thyroglossal duct cyst), diffuse thyroid disease (Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and suppurative thyroiditis), and thyroid nodules. The primary imaging modalities for evaluating thyroid diseases are US and radionuclide scintigraphy. Additionally, US can be used to guide aspiration of detected nodules.

  16. Utility of malignancy markers in fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules: comparison of Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1, thyroid peroxidase and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV

    OpenAIRE

    De Micco, C; Savchenko, V.; Giorgi, R; Sebag, F; Henry, J-F

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic interest of Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1 (HBME-1), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DPP4) in thyroid fine-needle aspirates obtained from 200 resected thyroid lesions (55 colloid nodules, 54 follicular adenomas, 59 papillary cancers, and 32 follicular carcinomas). Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1 or TPO expression (% positive cells) and DPP4 staining score (12-point scale) were evaluated. Receive...

  17. Thyroid function and obesity in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichel, H; l'Allemand, D; Grüters, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the frequency of thyroid dysfunction as assessed by TSH, T3 and T4 in a large cohort of 290 obese and 280 healthy children. In addition, thyroid autoantibodies were measured in random subgroups of 123 obese and 80 control children, iodine excretion in 50 and thyroid volume in 23 of the obese children. Elevated TSH levels (>4 U/l) were found in 22 obese children (7.5%), but only in one control (0.3%). The medians of TSH and T3 concentrations were normal, but significantly higher in the obese group than in the controls, while T4 levels did not differ. The prevalence of positive thyroid autoantibodies was increased in the obese children, for the most part in those with elevated TSH. There was no evidence for iodine deficiency as a cause of the average increase of TSH. We conclude that in childhood obesity TSH and T3 levels are significantly increased; in most cases, however, these increases are not accounted for by thyroid autoimmunity or iodine deficiency. As a consequence, TSH elevations with normal thyroid hormone levels in obese children don't need any thyroxine treatment, if thyroid disorders were definitely excluded beforehand. PMID:11182630

  18. Immuno diagnosis of thyroid diseases in children exposed to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immune status has been studied in 200 children with different thyroid diseases. A marked deficiency of immunity T-link, considerable variations, depending on the type of thyroid pathology, on interferon content in blood, tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 have been revealed. 1 tab, 14 refs

  19. Thyroid Cancer in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    24 cases were revised, of patient with thyroid tumors in the period understood between 1983 and 1995. Of these tumors 14 were papillars, 3 medullar, 3 children with high levels of thyro calcitonine, 2 with follicular adenomas, a boy with hyperplasia and a doubtful cytology to the one who two years later it was made a total thyroidectomy. Most of the patients were bigger than the 10 years, globally there was not great difference in the distribution for sex, being lightly bigger the number of patient of feminine sex; in the medullar, the relationship was of 2:1 feminine: Masculine, similar to that reported in the literature. To the date, they are alive and without illness 12 patients; 3 evolve with lung metastasis, 2 (with lung metastasis) they abandoned the controls, 3 died with illness and 1 present metastasis and cardiac illness. Iodine131 was used in eleven patients

  20. Autoimmune thyroiditis in antinuclear antibody positive children without rheumatologic disease

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    Arkachaisri Thaschawee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children are commonly referred to a pediatric rheumatology center for the laboratory finding of an Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA of undetermined significance. Previous studies regarding adult rheumatology patients have supported an association between ANA and anti-thyroid antibodies, with the prevalence of thyroid antibodies being significantly higher in patients referred to a rheumatology center for an ANA without evidence of connective tissue disease compared to the general population. The purpose of the present study was to determine the frequency of thyroid antibodies in children referred to a pediatric rheumatology center for a positive ANA without evidence of a connective tissue disease. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed on children who were referred to our pediatric rheumatology center between August 2003 and March 2007 for positive ANA with concurrent thyroid antibody and thyroid function tests performed who did not fulfill criteria for a specific connective tissue disease. Laboratory and clinical features were recorded and analyzed. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe continuous data. Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used to compare proportions between variables. Results One-hundred and four ANA-positive patients with concurrent thyroid studies were evaluated (88% female, 93% Caucasian, mean age 11.9 ± 4.0 years. Half of patients had an ANA titer ≥ 1:320. The ANA pattern was speckled in 60% of the patients. Thyroid antibodies were detected in 30% of the patients. Anti-Thyroglobulin (ATG was detected in 29% and Anti-thyroid peroxidase (ATPO in 21% of the patients; of these children, 14% had hypothyroidism. ANA pattern and titer were not associated with anti-thyroid antibody positivity. Conclusion Thyroid antibodies associated with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, ATG and ATPO, were detected significantly higher in ANA-positive children without a rheumatologic condition (30% as

  1. Management of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer in Children: Focus on the American Thyroid Association Pediatric Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Marguerite T; Eslamy, Hedieh; Mankoff, David

    2016-03-01

    First introduced in 1946, radioactive iodine (I-131) produces short-range beta radiation with a half-life of 8 days. The physical properties of I-131 combined with the high degree of uptake in the differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) led to the use of I-131 as a therapeutic agent for DTC in adults. There are two indications for the potential use of I-131 therapy in pediatric thyroid disorders: nonsurgical treatment of hyperthyroidism owing to Graves' disease and the treatment of children with intermediate- and high-risk DTC. However, children are not just miniature adults. Not only are children and the pediatric thyroid gland more sensitive to radiation than adults but also the biologic behavior of DTC differs between children and adults as well. As opposed to adults, children with DTC typically present with advanced disease at diagnosis; yet, they respond rapidly to therapy and have an excellent prognosis that is significantly better than that in adult counterparts with advanced disease. Unfortunately, there are also higher rates of local and distant disease recurrence in children with DTC compared with adults, mandating lifelong surveillance. Further, children have a longer life expectancy during which the adverse effects of I-131 therapy may become manifest. Recognizing the differences between adults and children with DTC, the American Thyroid Association commissioned a task force of experts who developed and recently published a guideline to address the unique issues related to the management of thyroid nodules and DTC in children. This article reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatment, therapy-related effects, and suggestions for surveillance in children with DTC, focusing not only on the differences between adults and children with this disease but also on the latest recommendations from the inaugural pediatric management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. PMID:26897719

  2. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes

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    Inger Aakre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0–6 months was performed (baseline study. In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L, respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight.

  3. Radioiodine treatment in children with thyroid cancer from Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1st of April 1993 and 15th of November 1995, 95 children from Belarus with most advanced stages of thyroid cancer have been treated totally 305 times with radioiodine in Germany. In spite of a high frequency of advanced tumor stages pT4 (82%), lymph node metastases (95%) and distant metastases (55%) in those selected children, the preliminary results of radioiodine treatment are promising. In 55% of the children complete remission and in 44% partial remission of thyroid cancer could be achieved. In no case progressive disease under treatment has been observed

  4. Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo thyroid function testing is conducted with isotopes of iodine, the rate-limiting substrate for thyroid hormonogenesis, or with pertechnetate, an anion which the thyroidal follicular cells will concentrate or trap similarly to iodide, but will not organify. The physical characteristics of these isotopes, their advantages or indications, their disadvantages, and the average radiation dose to the thyroid in the infant, child, and adult are reviewed. The latter is expressed as estimated dose in rads per microcurie administered assuming an uptake of 27 percent and a biological half-life of 68 days. For many years the standard isotope for thyroid studies has been 131I. This isotope, however, has the disadvantage of a high radiation dose to the gland, especially in infants and children. Furthermore the high-energy gamma ray (364 keV) requires low-efficiency, thick septal collimators for scanning. More recently 125I, 123I, and 99/sup m/Tc-pertechnetate have been used. (auth)

  5. Thyroid Function Test Imbalance in Epileptic Children Under Anticonvulsive Therapy

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    Mohammad TORKAMAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Ravi Torkaman M, Amirsalari S, Saburi A. Thyroid Function Test Imbalance in Epileptic ChildrenUnder Anticonvulsive Therapy. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 2012;6(1:43-44. Dear Editor,There have been many studies regarding the impact of antiepileptic drugs(AEDs on thyroid function. There are some challenging scopes which must beconsidered for conducting the study adressing the focused question. “Which oneof the thyroid hormones is related to the AEDs consumption?”. Some studiesdemonstrated that there may be alterations in all thyroid function tests (T3, T4 andTSH after antiepileptic therapy in children (1. Some studies concluded that longtermprescription of anticonvulsive medications resulted in a decline in serum T4levels, although it had no effect on serum TSH levels. However, changes in serumT3 level was challenging and it must be investigated further (2.There were some confounding factors which may interfere with the conclusion.One of them is the type of the study. There are various study plans for this purposesuch as cross-sectional, case-control, experimental, self-controlled cohort anddouble-blind randomized clinical trial studies. It seems that the proper protocol ofstudy for this propose is a double-blind randomized clinical trial study. By usingother designs, the authors cannot interpret the effect of AEDs on thyroid function;however, they can discuss the prevalence of thyroid hormone imbalance and thecoordination among T3, T4 and TSH.Moreover, one of the confounding factors is the thyroid binding globulin (TBGeffect. It has appeared that some of the AEDs may change the amount of TBGand in this way may affect the amount of thyroid hormones (3. Clonazepamand valproic acid do not have any enzyme inducing effects, but phenobarbital,carbamazepine, phenytoin and primidone may induce the hepatic enzyme (4-6. Therefore, it seems necessary to analyze each group of patients based on thetype of drug which is

  6. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on 49 patients younger than 18 years at diagnosis, of 776 patients with thyroid cancer, seen in our institution in the last 17 years. Female/male ratio was 2.2:1. Histologic type was papillary in 44, follicular in 4, and medullary in 1. Initial treatment was near-total thyroidectomy with or without neck dissection. Surgical complications (vocal cord palsy, permanent hypoparathyroidism, or both) were found in 25 patients and were usually associated with more advanced primary tumors. At surgery, node metastases were present in 73% of the patients and lung metastases, detected by chest x ray films, in 6%. Patients were treated with thyroid suppressive therapy and, except the one with medullary cancer, with radioiodine (131I) therapy. After a mean follow-up of 7.7 +/- 4.4 years (range, 1 to 17 years), one patient with lung metastases died of respiratory failure. Of 36 patients who have been followed up more than 4 years, 22 (61.1%) are now cured, and 14 have metastases (to lymph nodes, 2; to nodes and lung, 10; and to lung, 2). Since 1977 serum thyroglobulin (Tg) was used routinely as a tumor marker for differentiated thyroid cancer. After operation, Tg was elevated in all patients both not receiving (mean +/- SE, 902 +/- 380 ng/ml) and receiving (44 +/- 15 ng/ml) suppressive therapy; after 131I treatment, serum Tg dropped to 104 +/- 50 and 7.3 +/- 1.7 ng/ml, without and with suppressive therapy, respectively. Of 11 patients with lung metastases treated with 131I, respiratory function, as assessed by means of spirometry, was normal in three, mildly reduced in six, and severely impaired in two (including the one who died). In conclusion, our study indicates that thyroid cancer in young patients is rather advanced at initial examination and usually associated with node and, less frequently, lung metastases

  7. Spectrum of thyroid function in children among the patients attending to examine thyroidal illness at CNMU, Dhaka - A retrospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of a standard range of thyroid hormones for Bangladesh younger population is very essential. Trials were conducted to standardize the normal range of thyroid hormones i.e. T3, T4 and TSH level, at 95% confidence limit (2sd) of age ranging from 1 day to 12 yrs of Bangladesh children group, which were differ by sex. The ranges of different thyroid status were evaluated in the In vitro Laboratory of Centre for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Dhaka. Comparing three stages (Table 2,3, and 4) observed hormone ranges at euthyroid stage marked off for overlapping the higher level of hypo thyroidal stage by lower side and the lower level of hyper thyroidal stage by higher side. Present work calculated the mean values of thyroid hormones of both sexes, which were found not affected by the sex. (author)

  8. Radioiodine Treatment of Well-Differentiated thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Well-differentiated thyroid cancer (DTCA) in children is quite different from the adult- onset disease in that they are more aggressive at the time of diagnosis and with metastases and has a higher risk for recurrence. Some studies claim it to be less lethal and hence treatment protocols may be different from that of the adult. This study was made to analyze the need for RAI therapy as one of the cornerstone of treatment aside from surgery and thyroid hormone suppression as well as to determine the behavior of WDTCA in children. Results: The incidence of DTCA is varied and ranges from 1-10% in several published series. In the Philippines where thyroid cancer in adults ranks 5th in mortality for both sexes, the incidence is likewise very low, around 0.5-1% for ages 18 years and below in a ten year study. It was predominantly a female population (74%) as compared to the males (26%). Fifteen cases were reviewed and included as most were given RAI (87%). Most presented as a solitary nodule and with lymph node metastases. Thirteen cases were papillary in nature and only two cases were follicular. The incidence of nodal metastases was 53% while lung metastases were seen in 20% of cases. Of the 13 cases that underwent RAI therapy, three cases of lung metastases needed repeat therapy. In the cases with lymph node metastases, 2 cases also had recurrence and which necessitated repeat RAI therapy. The two cases that did not get RAI therapy had progressive disease on follow- up after 5 and 7 years respectively from surgery. Discussion: Primary treatment for DTC should consist of surgery, radioiodine ablation and thyroid hormone suppression. We must rely on pediatric outcome studies and the high frequency of multifocal intrathyroidal disease, loco- regional spread and extra cervical metastases often seen as initial presentations of this particular group. The more advanced disease at diagnosis for children, propensity for recurrence as well as the greater radioiodine

  9. Radiation risk assessment of the thyroid cancer in Ukrainian children exposed due to Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The children's thyroid exposure to radioiodine is one of the most serious consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The collective dose to children aged 0-18 in the entire Ukraine was estimated to be 400000 person-Gy. The dose estimates were calculated on the basis of measurements of thyroid content of 131I for about 108000 people in Ukraine aged 0-18 years in May-June 1986. Up to the end of 1994, 542 thyroid cancers throughout the Ukraine have been reported in children and young adults who were aged 0-18 at the time of the accident. Rates of thyroid cancer have climbed, from about 0.7 per million children aged 0-14 in 1986 to more 7 per million in 1994. Rates increased most in region closest to Pripyat'. Between 1990 and 1994, 9 of the 14,580 people who had been children at the time of the accident in Pripyat' developed thyroid cancer. This corresponds to an annual incidence of 123 cases per million persons. The estimated average thyroid dose in Ukrainian children varies by several orders of magnitude. There is a more than 30-fold gradient in thyroid cancer incidence rates corresponding to the gradient in thyroid doses from 131I. A preliminary investigation shows an excess in the annual incidence rate of thyroid cancer, throughout the northern territory of Ukraine, corresponding to the average doses to thyroid from 131I. Coefficients of regression of excess cancers versus thyroid dose have been calculated

  10. Thyroid hormones and BMI in obese children: One year follow up results

    OpenAIRE

    Ekinci, Ferhat; Uzuner, Arzu; Demet, Merder Coşkun; Turgut, Bilge; TOSUN, Niyazi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between thyroid hormone levels and obesity, lipid levels and weight changes.Patients and Methods: Five to eleven year old normal weight, overweight and obese children underwent measurements of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), lipid profile and autoimmune thyroid antibodies. Children with high TSH were reevaluated one year later without any intervention.Results: Three hundred children (126 obese, 74 o...

  11. The Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer in Children: Emphasis on Surgical Approach and Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Scott A. Rivkees; Mazzaferri, Ernest L.; Verburg, Frederik A; Reiners, Christoph; Luster, Markus; Breuer, Christopher K; Dinauer, Catherine A.; Udelsman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric thyroid cancer is a rare disease with an excellent prognosis. Compared with adults, epithelial-derived differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), which includes papillary and follicular thyroid cancer, presents at more advanced stages in children and is associated with higher rates of recurrence.

  12. Prevalence of goiter and thyroid disorders in diabetic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaiery H

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus is the most common endocrine disorders in children. There is a close association between diabetes and other autoimmune disease especially thyroid disorders. As many as 20 percent of Insulin dependent diabetic patients may have thyroid antibodies in their serum. The prevalence is 2-20 times greater than observed in normal populations. In this study, 122 patients with Diabetes Mellitus type I who referred to Institute of Endocrine & Metabolism and private office during a 3 years period were studied. A complete history was taken and physical examination was done in al patients by Endocrinologist. The diabetic patients due to major thalassemia excluded from this study. The grading of the goiter was determined by WHO classification and T4 and TSH were measured by RIA method in all patients. All patients were on Insulin treatment. There were 64 girls (52.4 percent and 58 boys (47.6 percent in 2-16 years age group (mean age 11.2 years. The mean duration of diabetes was 4.2 years. Prevalence of goiter was 53.2 percent and 7.3 percent of patients with goiter had hypothyroidism and 1.6 percent, had hypothyroidism. Most of the patients with goiter were euthyroid (91.9 percent. The patients with hypothyroidism had marked growth retardation and frequent episodes of hypoglycemia. The findings of this study indicate that the risk of development of goiter and thyroid disorders is higher in our diabetic patients and decelebration of growth and brittle diabetes may be due to thyroid disorders. It is suggested that all of the diabetic children should be screened yearly for thyroid disorders.

  13. The association of thyroid nodule with non-iodized salt among Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Xu

    Full Text Available The controversy that iodized salt may increase the risk of thyroid disorders has been aroused in China during the past decade. Most of studies focused on adult rather than children. We aimed to explore whether iodized salt was associated with an increased risk of thyroid nodule in Chinese children.The cross-sectional study was conducted in Hangzhou, China, in 2010. Iodized salt intake, urine iodine concentration (UIC and thyroid nodule (by ultrasonography were measured in 3026 children. The associations of iodized salt with thyroid nodule were evaluated using multiple logistic regression models.The prevalence of thyroid nodule was 10.59% among Chinese children. Girls (11.89% had higher prevalence of thyroid nodule than boys (9.26%. No significant association was observed between type of salt and thyroid nodule in pooled samples, boys and girls, respectively. Similar associations were observed between UIC and thyroid nodule. There was no significant association between milk consumption and thyroid nodule as well.The present study indicated that non-iodized salt may not increase the risk of thyroid nodules among Chinese children. Similar associations were observed between milk consumption, UIC and thyroid nodules.

  14. SPECT/CT imaging in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Gelfand, Michael J.; Sharp, Susan E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2011-08-15

    SPECT/CT improves localization of single photon-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. To determine the utility of SPECT/CT in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma. 20 SPECT/CT and planar studies were reviewed in 13 children with papillary thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. Seven studies used I-123 and 13 used I-131, after elevating TSH by T4 deprivation or intramuscular thyrotropin alfa. Eight children had one study and five children had two to four studies. Studies were performed at initial post-total thyroidectomy evaluation, follow-up and after I-131 treatment doses. SPECT/CT was performed with a diagnostic-quality CT unit in 13 studies and a localization-only CT unit in 7. Stimulated thyroglobulin was measured (except in 2 cases with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies). In 13 studies, neck activity was present but poorly localized on planar imaging; all foci of uptake were precisely localized by SPECT/CT. Two additional foci of neck uptake were found on SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT differentiated high neck uptake from facial activity. In six studies (four children), neck uptake was identified as benign by SPECT/CT (three thyroglossal duct remnants, one skin contamination, two by precise anatomical CT localization). In two children, SPECT/CT supported a decision not to treat with I-131. When SPECT/CT was unable to identify focal uptake as benign, stimulated thyroglobulin measurements were valuable. In three of 13 studies with neck uptake, SPECT/CT provided no useful additional information. SPECT/CT precisely localizes neck iodine uptake. In small numbers of patients, treatment is affected. SPECT/CT should be used when available in thyroid carcinoma patients. (orig.)

  15. Aflibercept in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  16. Does WISC-IV Underestimate the Intelligence of Autistic Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Courchesne, Valérie; Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is widely used to estimate autistic intelligence (Joseph in The neuropsychology of autism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011; Goldstein et al. in Assessment of autism spectrum disorders. Guilford Press, New York, 2008; Mottron in J Autism Dev Disord 34(1):19-27, 2004). However, previous studies suggest that while WISC-III and Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) provide similar estimates of non-autistic intelligence, autistic children perform significantly better on RPM (Dawson et al. in Psychol Sci 18(8):657-662, doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01954.x , 2007). The latest WISC version introduces substantial changes in subtests and index scores; thus, we asked whether WISC-IV still underestimates autistic intelligence. Twenty-five autistic and 22 typical children completed WISC-IV and RPM. Autistic children's RPM scores were significantly higher than their WISC-IV FSIQ, but there was no significant difference in typical children. Further, autistic children showed a distinctively uneven WISC-IV index profile, with a "peak" in the new Perceptual Reasoning Index. In spite of major changes, WISC-IV FSIQ continues to underestimate autistic intelligence. PMID:25308198

  17. Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid of children in Belarus suffering from thyroid gland cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl a pronounced rise in childhood tyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the short-lived radioiodine isotope 131I was responsible for this effect. Therefore, methods had to be developed to reconstruct the tyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. To assess the tyroid dose the concentration of 131 I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between 129I and 131I. The inferred 131I-deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated tyroid dose to certain age groups of various residence areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalisation of a correlation between the 137Cs-deposition density and a few 131I-measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of 131I-deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the 129I-method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the 129I-method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0.5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (orig./MG)

  18. The Association of Thyroid Nodule with Non-Iodized Salt among Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Weimin; Chen, Zexin; Liu, Hui; Huo, Liangliang; Huang, Yangmei; Jin, Xingyi; Deng, Jin; Zhu, Sujuan; Jin, Wen; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2014-01-01

    Objective The controversy that iodized salt may increase the risk of thyroid disorders has been aroused in China during the past decade. Most of studies focused on adult rather than children. We aimed to explore whether iodized salt was associated with an increased risk of thyroid nodule in Chinese children. Methods The cross-sectional study was conducted in Hangzhou, China, in 2010. Iodized salt intake, urine iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid nodule (by ultrasonography) were measured in...

  19. Screening for thyroid disease among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Magdy A; Moustafa M. Rizk; Ahmed A. El-Kafoury; Doaa Kilany

    2014-01-01

    Altered thyroid hormones have been described in patients with diabetes especially those with poor glycemic control. The aim of this work was to evaluate; the presence of serum anti-thyroid peroxidase (serum anti-TPO) autoantibodies and the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Patients and methods: Fifty diabetic children coming for regular follow-up in the diabetes clinic of El-Shatby University Children’s Hospital were enrolled in the study a...

  20. Thyroid dysfunction and neoplasia in children receiving neck irradiation for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, I.D.; Black, T.L.; Thompson, E.I.; Pratt, C.; Rao, B.; Hustu, O.

    1985-03-15

    The reported relationship of radiation exposure and thyroid carcinoma stimulated this retrospective study of 298 patients treated at St. Jude Children's Hospital with radiation therapy to the neck for childhood cancer to identify patients who developed subsequent thyroid abnormalities. This series includes 153 patients with Hodgkin's disease, 95 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, 28 with lymphoepithelioma, and 22 with miscellaneous tumors. Inclusion in the study required 5 years of disease-free survival following therapy for their original tumor, which included thyroid irradiation. Follow-up has been 100%. Most patients also received chemotherapy. Seventeen patients were found to have decreased thyroid reserve with normal levels of free triiodothyroxine (T3) or free thyroxin, (T4) and an elevated level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In nine patients hypothyroidism developed, with decreased T3 or T4 levels and an elevated level of TSH. One hyperthyroid patient was identified. Two patients had thyroiditis, and seven had thyroid neoplasms: (carcinoma in two, adenoma in two, colloid nodule in one, and undiagnosed nodules in two). This survey has demonstrated an increased incidence of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid neoplasia when compared to the general population. The importance of long-term follow-up for thyroid disease is emphasized in patients who have received thyroid irradiation. The possible role of subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH elevation coupled with radiation damage to the thyroid gland as a model for the development of neoplastic disease is discussed.

  1. Thyroid exposure in Ukrainian and White Russian children following the Chernobyl disaster and the resultant risk of acquiring thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the main strong and weak points of various studies on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl disaster this study summarises the results of a recent ecological study. 175,800 measurements of 131I activity in the human thyroid gland performed in the contaminated regions of the Ukraine and White Russia during the first weeks after the Chernobyl disaster served as a starting point for this study on thyroid exposure in Ukrainian and White Russian children following the Chernobyl disaster and the resultant risk of acquiring thyroid cancer. More than 10 measurements were performed in each of altogether 1,114 locations. Age and sex-specific doses were calculated for each of these locations within the 1968-85 birth cohort. 95% of all dose values were within the range of 0.017 to 0.69 Gy. Since 1990 the incidence of thyroid cancer within the study area has increased at a markedly higher rate than one would expect on the basis of the cohort members' growing age. In the period from 1990 to 2001 1,091 cases of surgery for thyroid cancer were reported. The additional absolute risk per 104 PY Gy was calculated as 2.5 (95% CI: 2.3;2.9). The additional relative risk per dose was calculated as 10 (95% CI: 8;12) Gy-1. These results are consistent with risk values found for thyroid cancer after external exposure during childhood. Assuming that the calculated risk values also apply for the intervention level of 0.05 Gy at which iodine tablets are distributed in the event of a major release of radioiodide this means that within the period of 4 to 15 years following the exposure 3 additional cases of thyroid cancer are expected to occur within a collective of 20,000 children and adolescents. This is equivalent to a 50% increase in the spontaneous incidence of the disease

  2. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid gland volume among 8-15-year-old children in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moradi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The thyroid size in Isfahanian schoolchildren is lower than the reference values reported by WHO. These data could be used in determining local reference in the screening of children for thyroid enlargement.

  3. Interest of the thyroid scintigraphy in the hypothyroidism of children affected by Downs Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrected hypothyroidism for the trisomic children can have diverse etiologies. the thyroid scintigraphy allows to precise the stage of the thyroiditis in case of auto-immune disease and to comfort the hypothesis of the hypothalamus-hypophysis axis immaturity in the case of negative immunological evaluation. (N.C.)

  4. Thyroid status of children immigrating from the vicinity of Chernobylsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area surrounding the Chernobyl plant is generally recognized as a goitreogenous area, in the sense that soils and water are deficient in Iodine, and the incidence of goitre is relatively high. These conditions assure the avid uptake of an iodine as a pollutant, if and when present. The Chernobyl explosion and fire is estimated to have released 1.8*10E18 Bq of Iodine 131 and 3.7*10E18 Bq Iodine 133, together accounting for a large portion of the total radioactive emissions (US Department of Energy z Table 4.3, p. 4.15 in Health and Environmental Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident DOE/ER-0322, June 1987). Uptake was measured in the thyroid glands of many of those exposed. Within the past three years, the frequency of cancer of the thyroid in children in the Ukraine Belarus and in the Bryansk Region of the Russian Federation has risen rapidly, from less than one case per 100,000 per year in Belarus to over 10 cases in 1991, per 100,000 per year. In respect to the unusual exposures and risks, this report describes what studies we have done among Jewish immigrants from the areas and what our findings seem to mean. (authors). 8 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  5. Thyroid exposure in Belorussian and Ukrainian children after the Chernobyl accident and resulting risk of thyroid cancer. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: - to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968-1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986 - to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements - to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968-1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities - to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986-2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases - to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies - to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been accompanied by the BFS project StSch 4299 Range of applicability of epidemiological studies with aggregate data for risk factor determination. The purpose of that project is to explore by simulation calculations to which degree there is an ecologic bias in the risk studies performed in the frame of the present project. The results of project StSch 4299 indicate that the ecologic bias of excess absolute risk estimates is small because: - radiation is the dominating cause of thyroid cancer among those who were children or adolescents in the highly contaminated areas at the time of the accident - there is no indication that the dose-response for thyroid cancer after exposures during childhood is non-linear in the dose range of 0.05-1.0 Gy - the variability of average doses in the age

  6. Peculiarities of hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid function in children born from the Chornobyl NPP accident survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 168 children born to parents exposed after the Chernobyl accident were examined to study the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid system function in descendants of the Chernobyl survivors. Clinical, hormonal, ultrasound examinations and challenge test with tyroliberynum were conducted. Some abnormalities that might explain the functional strain of the hypothalamic-pituitary system were identified being of a great role in origination and progress of thyroid disease. The prolonged strain leads to decreased production of thyroid hormone, which causes an increased secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone. Under the influence of TSH the thyroid gland in the first stage becomes increased in its mass, which leads to the formation of endemic goiter. Stable and permanent thyroid gland enlargement often leads to formation of the nodular goiter and other proliferative processes, namely to carcinogenesis

  7. The effect of chemoradiation therapy on pituitary-thyroid system function in children suffering Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional status of the thyroid gland was evaluated in 63 children with Hodgkin's disease, aged 4-15 years, before, in the course of and 5 years after chemoradiation therapy. Thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronine (T) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the blood were assayed. The disease was shown to disrupt the pituitary-thyroid system leading to hypothyroidism development which progressed as the disease advanced. While chemotherapy brought the balance between the peripheral thyroid hormone levels and TSH back to normal, thyroid function decrease again following radiotherapy of the neck. The most pronounced and persistent failure of the pituitary-thyroid system was registered with the total target dose of 30 Gy and higher. Irradiation in a dose of 20 Gy caused less disruption and the function was spontaneously restored within 12 months after the treatment

  8. Thyroid function in children and adolescents after combined therapy of Hodgkin disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Feoktistov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid diseases, especially hypothyroidism, are among the most frequent endocrine complications in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma whohave received neck irradiation. Thyroid function was evaluated in 34 patients (11 males and 23 females after combined chemo radiotherapyof Hodgkin lymphoma according to modified DAL-HD-90M and GPOH-HD-2002 protocols. The median age was 15.9 years (range 5–18 years, the median time from the end of therapy was 1.08 years (range 1 month–4.9 years. 33 patients received radiotherapy to the neck region: 12 children — 20 Gy, 9 — 25 Gy, 10 — 30 Gy, 2 — 35 Gy. These patients were investigated by clinical examination, thyroid ultrasound and thyroid function tests. Thyroid abnormalities were detected in 4 of 21 patients who received 20–25 Gy (1 case of autoimmune thyroiditis and 3 cases of subclinical hypothyroidism and in 3 of 12 patients who received 30–35 Gy (2 cases of autoimmune thyroiditis and 1 case of subclinical hypothyroidism. Autoimmune thyroiditis also developed in patient who received only 35 Gy mediastinum irradiation. Age, sex, follow-up time, irradiation dose were not significant factors in the thyroid dysfunction development. Thyroid examination must be obligatory part of the follow-up examination of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma.

  9. Thyroid function in children and adolescents after combined therapy of Hodgkin disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Feoktistov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid diseases, especially hypothyroidism, are among the most frequent endocrine complications in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma whohave received neck irradiation. Thyroid function was evaluated in 34 patients (11 males and 23 females after combined chemo radiotherapyof Hodgkin lymphoma according to modified DAL-HD-90M and GPOH-HD-2002 protocols. The median age was 15.9 years (range 5–18 years, the median time from the end of therapy was 1.08 years (range 1 month–4.9 years. 33 patients received radiotherapy to the neck region: 12 children — 20 Gy, 9 — 25 Gy, 10 — 30 Gy, 2 — 35 Gy. These patients were investigated by clinical examination, thyroid ultrasound and thyroid function tests. Thyroid abnormalities were detected in 4 of 21 patients who received 20–25 Gy (1 case of autoimmune thyroiditis and 3 cases of subclinical hypothyroidism and in 3 of 12 patients who received 30–35 Gy (2 cases of autoimmune thyroiditis and 1 case of subclinical hypothyroidism. Autoimmune thyroiditis also developed in patient who received only 35 Gy mediastinum irradiation. Age, sex, follow-up time, irradiation dose were not significant factors in the thyroid dysfunction development. Thyroid examination must be obligatory part of the follow-up examination of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma.

  10. Peculiarities of ultrasonic picture of thyroid in children and teenagers affected by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic screening of thyroid has been carried out in 1577 children and teenagers 6-17 years old, who were affected by radionuclides and are living in goiter endemic territories of Gomel region. The spread of nodal pathology of the thyroid in children of Gomel region has been found to be more than 15% and that of cancer - 2,54%. 1 tab, 7 refs

  11. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents of Bryansk and Kaluga Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed 62 cases of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents of Bryansk and Kaluga regions, the most contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The data on specified radiation situation as well as probable radiation doses to the thyroid are given. It is noted that the development of thyroid cancer depends on the age of children at the time of accident (0-3, 7-9, 12-15 years). They are the most critical periods for the formation and functioning of the thyroid, in particular, in girls. It is suggested that thyroid cancer develops in children and teenagers residing in areas with higher Cs137 contamination level at younger age than in those residing in less contaminated regions. It is shown that the minimal latent period in the development of thyroid cancer makes up to 5 years. The results of ESR method on tooth enamel specimen indicate that over post-accident period the sufficient share of children has collected such individual radiation dose which are able to affect on their health state and development of thyroid pathology

  12. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Burhan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)], E-mail: dryazici@yahoo.com; Simsek, Enver [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Erdogmus, Besir [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Bahcebasi, Talat [Department of Public Health, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Aktas, Alev [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Buyukkaya, Ramazan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Uzun, Hakan [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Safak, Alp Alper [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children.

  13. Agenesis and not ectopia is common in North Indian children with thyroid dysgenesis

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    Devi Dayal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ectopic Thyroid Gland (ETG is known to be the most common form of thyroid dysgenesis in children with permanent congenital hypothyroidism (CH. Recent reports indicate that agenesis or hypoplasia of thyroid gland may be commoner as compared to ETG in thyroid dysgenesis (TD. There is limited information available on the proportion of different variants of TD in Indian children. Aim: To characterize the different TD variants in a cohort of North Indian children with TD. Settings and Design: Endocrinology Unit of a large Multispecialty Pediatrics Center located in North India. Retrospective review of clinical records of children with CH due to TD diagnosed between April 2004 and March 2014. Results: Diagnoses of TD in 94 children (48 boys and 46 girls were based on combined scanning with high-resolution ultrasonography, and technetium-99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy. Thyroid agenesis, ectopia and hypoplasia were diagnosed in 74 (78.7%, 14 (14.8% and 6 (6.4% patients respectively. The mean initial serum total T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations at diagnosis were 3.03 ± 2.88 μg/dL (range 0.01-8.9 and 284.52 ± 300.67 mIU/L (range 10.03-1159.0 respectively. Patients with ETG were older at the time of diagnosis as compared to patients with hypoplasia or ectopia. The mean duration of follow-up was 3.7 ± 2.85 years (range 3 months-10 years. Conclusions : Thyroid agenesis was the most common form of TD in our children with permanent CH. Hypoplasia and ectopia were uncommon. Female preponderance, noted in many previous reports, was not seen in our patients with TD.

  14. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis in Infants and Children: Protection from Radioiodines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Fisher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium iodide (KI is recommended as an emergency treatment for exposure to radioiodines, most commonly associated with nuclear detonation or mishaps at nuclear power plants. Protecting the thyroid gland of infants and children remains a priority because of increased incidence of thyroid cancer in the young exposed to radioiodines (such as 131I and 133I. There is a lack of clinical studies for KI and radioiodines in children or infants to draw definitive conclusions about the effectiveness and safety of KI administration in the young. In this paper, we compare functional aspects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis in the young and adults and review the limited studies of KI in children. The HPT axis in the infant and child is hyperactive and therefore will respond less effectively to KI treatment compared to adults. Research on the safety and efficacy of KI in infants and children is needed.

  15. Thyroid isthmus thickness in prepubertal healthy children in an iodine-sufficient region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study presented the reference values for thyroid isthmus thickness in prepubertal healthy children. Ultrasound evaluation of the isthmus seems to be very useful in the diagnostic process and monitoring of thyroid diseases, especially the diffuse ones. The authors are not aware of the existence of any other publications on reference values of isthmus depth in children population. In our study, we evaluated isthmus thickness in a healthy population of prepubertal children from a seaside region. A total of 402 healthy children (214 boys and 188 girls) aged 7–12 years, underwent ultrasound examinations of the thyroid. We propose the following maximum values for isthmus depth: from 2.6 mm for boys at the age of 7–9 years to 3.3 mm for those aged 10–12 years and from 2.7 mm to 3.5 mm for girls, respectively

  16. Thyroid Function and Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Children Living Near a Chemical Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Mondal, Debapriya; Armstrong, Ben; Bloom, Michael S.; Fletcher, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Background: Animal studies suggest that some perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) may impair thyroid function. Epidemiological findings, mostly related to adults, are inconsistent. Objectives: We investigated whether concentrations of PFAAs were associated with thyroid function among 10,725 children (1–17 years of age) living near a Teflon manufacturing facility in the Mid-Ohio Valley (USA). Meth...

  17. Thyroid gland protection against radioactive iodine. Fetus and preschool children are more sensitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intake of iodine tablets can prevent the irradiation and accumulation of iodine in the thyroid of humans. The summary of the author's thesis 'Protection of the thyroid against radioactive iodine during fetal life and infancy. An experimental approach in chimpanzees' is presented in an edited form. The research was carried out on pregnant and very young chimpanzees. Based on the experimental results recommendations are made for radiation protection for pre-school children and pregnant women. 3 figs., 1 refs

  18. Incidence of thyroid cancer among children of the Ukraine in 1996 as compared to previous post-Chernobyl years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996 a high incidence rate of thyroid cancer has persisted in Ukraine among children aged under 15 years, which averaged, according to preliminary data, 0.44 case per 100 thousand children's population. The geographical distribution of thyroid cancer cases in children of Ukraine is mainly related, as in previous years, with the most affected regions following the Chernobyl accident. The highest incidence of thyroid cancer (over 80%) was observed in those patients who were aged under 5 years at the moment of the accident, being the most radiosensitive age group. Among thyroid tumors removed in 1996, as in previous years, papillary carcinomas prevail, which are characterized by marked invasive properties. (author)

  19. The age transformations of thyroid size at the children and teenagers from the Slavgorod's area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical data processing of the screen investigates of 1638 children and teenagers from the Slavgorod's area of the Mogilev Region is conducted. Ultrasonic diagnostics was used to determine the quantitative objective laws of the thyroid gland volume changes depending on age of the surveyed persons. It was used the method of the standard statistical analysis of data, which was received with the screen survey of the healthy children and children from contamination region. Thyroid gland biometrics was conducted by the Toshiba SSA-240A ultrasonic scanner by Brunn et al. technique. Linear dependence of total volume, volume of a left and right share of the thyroid gland from age and floor surveyed was established. Comparison this results with data, received from 'clean' regions, as well as in Germany and Sweden too, permits to expand representation about age changes of the thyroid gland volume and leads to a conclusion, that the increase of the thyroid gland volume at teenagers in the most degree is defined by iodine insufficiency. For girls the thyroid gland volume are more, than for boys in all age groups, and it was detected excess of volume of a right share in comparison with volume of a left share, which is more expressed at girls too

  20. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents of Belarus irradiated as a result of Chernobyl accident: status and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid cancer incidence in the human population of Belarus irradiated in childhood for the period passed after the Chernobyl accident is analysed and potential perspectives for development of disease incidence in exposed population during life span. Thyroid cancer cases in children and adolescents of Belarus irradiated due to the Chernobyl accident are predicted using the additive model with modified parameters. Predicted values are shown to be in good agreement with the actual data on thyroid cancer cases in children aged 0-6

  1. Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Hilsted, Linda; Main, Katharina M

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have focused on the interrelation between thyroid size, anthropometric variables, and IGF-I in adults, but such data are lacking for children. We have investigated thyroid gland volume and several hormonal and anthropometric variables in prepubertal children. DE...

  2. Adaptation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV) for Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hoang-Minh; Weiss, Bahr; Pollack, Amie; Nguyen, Minh Cao

    2012-12-01

    Intelligence testing is used for many purposes including identification of children for proper educational placement (e.g., children with learning disabilities, or intellectually gifted students), and to guide education by identifying cognitive strengths and weaknesses so that teachers can adapt their instructional style to students' specific learning styles. Most of the research involving intelligence tests has been conducted in highly developed Western countries, yet the need for intelligence testing is as or even more important in developing countries. The present study, conducted through the Vietnam National University Clinical Psychology CRISP Center, focused on the cultural adaptation of the WISC-IV intelligence test for Vietnam. We report on (a) the adaptation process including the translation, cultural analysis and modifications involved in adaptation, (b) present results of two pilot studies, and (c) describe collection of the standardization sample and results of analyses with the standardization sample, with the goal of sharing our experience with other researchers who may be involved in or interested in adapting or developing IQ tests for non-Western, non-English speaking cultures. PMID:23833330

  3. Medullary thyroid carcinoma: a review on ethical considerations in treatment of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozhat, Zahra; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system and it accounts approximately 1%-3% of all human cancers. Among the three subtypes of thyroid cancers, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is the most common cause of death in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A (MEN2A), MEN type 2B (MEN2B) and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). Generally, MTC accounts for up to 10% of all types of thyroid cancers. It is one of the aggressive forms of thyroid carcinoma which is manifested in childhood ages more than adults, and it comprises about 17% of all pediatric thyroid cancer. Like the other cancers, prevention of MTC is easier than its cure. In the recent decades (from 1993) the diagnosis of asymptomatic child carrying RET mutations in the affected families by MTC, has been provided by genetic screening, and prophylactic thyroidectomy is an efficacy therapeutic procedure. On the one hand, according to near the complete penetrance of the disease and its onset in the early years of life, it is required to accelerate the protection of at-risk children with relative affected by MTC and on the other hand, there are several obstructions to MTC treatment including: 1) the proband's refusal to disclose the RET mutation genetic testing results, 2) children's vulnerability because of their inability to participate in the informed consent, and 3) the existence of conflict between physicians and children's guardian. In this review article, the recommendations and ethical issues of MTC treatment in asymptomatic and at-risk children have been summarized. PMID:26974132

  4. Thyroid doses to Belarussian children from the Chernobyl accident: results of an American-Belarussian collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI), in cooperation with the Ministry of Health of Belarus is involved in epidemiological studies of thyroid diseases in children presumably related to the Chernobyl accident. Within the framework of this study, individual thyroid absorbed doses, as well as uncertainties, have been estimated for all members of the cohort (11,918), who were selected from the large group of children aged 0 to 18 whose thyroids were monitored for gamma radiation within a few weeks after the accident. Information on the residence history and dietary habits of each cohort member was obtained during personal interviews. The methodology used to estimate the thyroid absorbed doses resulting from intakes of I 131 by the Belarussian cohort subjects is described. The model of thyroid dose estimation is run in two modes: deterministic and stochastic. In the stochastic mode, the model is run 1,000 times for each subject using a Monte-Carlo procedure. The geometric means of the individual thyroid absorbed doses obtained in the stochastic mode range from 0.0006 to 55 Gy. The arithmetic and geometric means of these individual thyroid absorbed doses over the entire cohort are found to be 1.39 and 0.35 Gy, respectively. On average, the individual thyroid dose estimates obtained in the deterministic mode are about the same as the geometric mean doses obtained in the stochastic mode, while the arithmetic mean thyroid absorbed doses obtained in the stochastic mode are about 25% higher than those obtained in the deterministic mode. The distributions of the 1000 values of the individual thyroid absorbed dose estimates are found to be approximately lognormal, with geometric standard deviations ranging from 1.7 to 4.2 for most cohort subjects. For the time being, only the thyroid doses resulting from intakes of I 131 have been estimated for all subjects. Future work will include the estimation of the contributions to the thyroid doses resulting from external

  5. Thyroid Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Isfahan Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Khanpour Ardestani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Studies in different populations have shown great variation in the prevalence of thyroid diseases in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. Our aim was to study the prevalence of thyroid disorders such as autoimmunity of thyroid (AIT, thyroid dysfunction, and goiter in children and adolescents with T1DM, compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls in Isfahan.Methods: One hundred patients with T1DM who were referred to Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center and 184 healthy schoolchildren matched for age and sex were included. They were examined for goiter by two endocrinologists. Thyroid function test and serum thyroid antibodies (anti-TPO Ab and anti-Tg Ab were measured.Findings: The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was high in both groups (18%. T1DM patients had lower frequency of goiter (21% vs. 38%, P=0.001, and higher prevalence of positive AIT (22% vs. 8%, P=0.001, anti-TPO Ab positivity (19.3% vs. 5.3%, P=0.000, and anti-Tg Ab (11.1% vs. 6.4%, P=0.1 in comparison with the control group. Being positive for AIT in diabetic patients meant an odds ratio of 5 (CI 95 %: 1.5-15.6 for thyroid dysfunction. There was no association between age, sex, duration of diabetes and HbA1C with serum anti-TPO Ab and anti-Tg Ab concentrations in this group.Conclusion: Our results demonstrated the high prevalence of AIT and thyroid dysfunction in patients with T1DM. We suggest regular thyroid function and antibody testing in these patients.

  6. Positive correlation of thyroid hormones and serum copper in children with congenital hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasig, Sarah; Kühnen, Peter; Schuette, Andrea; Blankenstein, Oliver; Mittag, Jens; Schomburg, Lutz

    2016-09-01

    Thyroid hormones are of central relevance for growth and development. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Recent studies in humans and mice have demonstrated that serum levels of selenium (Se) and copper (Cu) are positively affected by thyroid hormones. Given the importance of these trace elements for many biochemical processes, we tested whether this interaction is found in children at risk for hypothyroidism, potentially providing a novel factor contributing to the disturbed development observed in congenital hypothyroidism (CH). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 84 children diagnosed with CH displaying a wide range of thyroid hormone concentrations. Serum Se and Cu concentrations were measured by total reflection X-ray fluorescence. Data for thyrotropin (TSH) were available in all, thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) in the majority and triiodothyronine (T3) in 29 of the children. Spearman rank analyzes were performed. Cu and thyroid hormones showed a strong positive correlation (Cu/T4, rho=0.5241, P=0.0003; Cu/T3, rho=0.6003, P=0.0006). Unlike in adults, no associations were found between Se and any of the thyroid hormones. Our data highlight that serum Cu and thyroid hormones are strongly associated already in early postnatal life. Severely hypothyroid children are thus at risk of developing a Cu deficiency if not adequately nourished or supplemented. This finding needs to be verified in larger groups of children in order not to miss an easily-avoidable risk factor for poor development. PMID:27267969

  7. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Ulanovski, A.; Schotola, C.; Proehl, G. [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Kruk, J. [Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Vavilov, S.; Chepurniy, M. [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Inst., Kyiv (Ukraine); Tronko, M.; Bogdanova, T. [Institute of Endocrinolgoy and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Shinkarev, S.; Gavrilin, Y. [All-Russian Public Organization of Invalids ' Chernobylets' , Scientific Center ' FENIX' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Demidchik, Y. [Thyroid Cancer Center, Minsk (Belarus)

    2005-07-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  8. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  9. Signs of autoimmune thyroiditis in children and juveniles affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of antibodies to human thyroid microsomal antigen was investigated to evaluate the possible appearance of autoimmune thyroiditis in children and juveniles living in the areas of Kaluga region affected by the Chernobyl accident. The percentage of positive sera varied from 4.8% to 1.2% over seven years. There is a significant difference in the frequency of antibody appearance between persons affected by radioactive iodine and those not affected. A greater quantity of the positive sera was recorded in the area with highest level of radioactive contamination. It is suggested that the elevated rate of autoimmune thyroiditis signs in children and juveniles is one of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (Author)

  10. A forecast of the thyroid pathology at the children irradiated prenatally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is investigated a state of the hypophysis thyroid system at 44 pregnant women in age 19-36 years, which were irradiated by low dozes during the Chernobyl NPP accident and evacuated from the contaminated zone in first 10 days. The average doze of internal irradiation of the thyroid for pregnant women is equal 4,374 +- 1,364 mGy and for irradiated prenatally children -5,283 +- 1,454 mGy. The researches of free thyroxine, triiodothyronine and thyroxine binding globulin were done by the radiation immunological method in a venous blood serum, and a thyrotropic hormone - by a set of the 'CIS Bio International' firm. The diagnosis of the thyroid pathology was confirmed by a ultrasonic research and determination of contents of thyroid hormones. The account of the internal irradiation dozes for a thyroid was conducted by means of a use of a single exponential model of a removing of iodine 131. The fetus' thyroid irradiation doze owing to a entering of radioisotopes to the mother's body was estimated by means of the dose rate on the basis of the Johnson three component model. Direct correlation between the thyroid function at pregnant women, which were irradiation by low doses, and frequency of occurrence of an endemic goiter at the children irradiated prenatally is established. At the contents of the free thyroxine 128,9 +- 4,8 nmol/l or more, triiodothyronine 1,9 +- 0,2 nmol/l or less and increase of an activity of thyrotropic hormone from 1,3 +- 0,1 μU/ml in 12 - 27 weeks of pregnancy up to 1,9 +- 0,2 μU/ml in 38-40 weeks it is possible to predict an occurrence of the thyroid pathology at the future child. Is offered to use from the 12-weak term of pregnancy a radiation immunological method of research of thyrotropic and thyroid hormones of pregnant women, subjected to radiation effect, for preventive maintenance and revealing of early disorders of a thyroid at the children irradiated prenatally. 10 refs., 1 tab

  11. Clinicodiagnostic particularities of microcarcinomas at children who has thyroid cancer in dependence on absorbed doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study showed that microcarcinomas are characterized by long latent development period under comparison with tumors of more than 1 cm. There was marked statistically significant increase of TTG concentration level comparing with low dose at children in high dose group which can be the evidence of possibility of a thyroid functional status decrease during further period of time. (authors)

  12. Intake of Phthalate-tainted Foods and Serum Thyroid Hormones in Taiwanese Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hui-Ju; Wu, Chia-Fang; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Huang, Po-Chin; Chen, Mei-Lien; Wang, Shu-Li; Chen, Bai-Hsiun; Chen, Chu-Chih; Wu, Wen-Chiu; Hsu, Pi-Shan; Hsiung, Chao A.; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2016-07-01

    On April-May, 2011, phthalates, mainly Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), were deliberately added to a variety of foodstuff as a substitute emulsifier in Taiwan. This study investigated the relationship between DEHP-tainted foodstuffs exposure and thyroid function in possibly affected children and adolescents. Two hundred fifty participants adolescents.

  13. Thyroid antagonists and thyroid indicators in U.S. pregnant women in the Vanguard Study of the National Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Mary E; Birch, Rebecca; Wong, Lee-Yang; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Boyle, Elizabeth B; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Merrill, Lori S; Moye, John; Blount, Benjamin C

    2016-08-01

    The sodium iodide-symporter (NIS) mediates uptake of iodide into thyroid follicular cells. This key step in thyroid hormone synthesis is inhibited by perchlorate, thiocyanate (SCN) and nitrate (NO3) anions. When these exposures occur during pregnancy the resulting decreases in thyroid hormones may adversely affect neurodevelopment of the human fetus. Our objectives were to describe and examine the relationship of these anions to the serum thyroid indicators, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4), in third trimester women from the initial Vanguard Study of the National Children's Study (NCS); and to compare urine perchlorate results with those in pregnant women from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES). Urinary perchlorate, SCN, NO3, and iodine, serum TSH, FT4, and cotinine were measured and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was administered to pregnant women enrolled in the initial Vanguard Study. We used multiple regression models of FT4 and TSH that included perchlorate equivalent concentration (PEC, which estimates combined inhibitory effects of the anions perchlorate, SCN, and NO3 on the NIS). We used multiple regression to model predictors of each urinary anion, using FFQ results, drinking water source, season of year, smoking status, and demographic characteristics. Descriptive statistics were calculated for pregnant women in NHANES 2001-2012. The geometric mean (GM) for urinary perchlorate was 4.04µg/L, for TSH 1.46mIU/L, and the arithmetic mean for FT4 1.11ng/dL in 359 NCS women. In 330 women with completed FFQs, consumption of leafy greens, winter season, and Hispanic ethnicity were significant predictors of higher urinary perchlorate, which differed significantly by study site and primary drinking water source, and bottled water was associated with higher urinary perchlorate compared to filtered tap water. Leafy greens consumption was associated with higher urinary NO3 and higher urinary SCN. There was

  14. Pediatric thyroid disease: when is surgery necessary, and who should be operating on our children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Christopher; Tuggle, Charles; Solomon, Daniel; Sosa, Julie Ann

    2013-01-01

    Surgical diseases of the thyroid in the pediatric population represent a diverse set of both benign and malignant conditions. Overall, incidence is rare. Benign conditions include Graves' disease, toxic adenomas, congenital hyperthyroidism, and goiter. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), with its related familial cancer syndromes, are the most common malignancies. Near-total or total thyroidectomy is the appropriate surgery for thyroid cancer, with/out central lymph node dissection. Emerging practice guidelines from professional societies are helpful, although they generally have not addressed surgical management of the pediatric patient. Thyroidectomy in children is associated with a higher rate of complications, such as recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism, as compared to the surgery in adults. Therefore, it is essential that pediatric thyroidectomy be performed by high-volume thyroid surgeons, regardless of specialty. Case volume to support surgical expertise usually must be borrowed from the adult experience, given the relative paucity of pediatric thyroidectomies at an institutional level. These surgeons should work as part of a multidisciplinary team that includes pediatric endocrinologists and anesthesiologists, pediatricians, nuclear medicine physicians, and pathologists to afford children the best clinical outcomes. PMID:23149389

  15. Prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in children with celiac disease compared to healthy 12-year olds.

    OpenAIRE

    vanderPals, Maria; Ivarsson, Anneli; Norström, Fredrik; Högberg, Lotta; Svensson, Johan; Carlsson, Annelie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have suggested a correlation between untreated celiac disease and risk for other autoimmune diseases. We investigated the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in 12-year-old children (i) with symptomatic celiac disease diagnosed and treated with a gluten-free diet, (ii) with screening-detected untreated celiac disease, and (iii) without celiac disease. Methods. Blood samples from 12632 children were collected. All celiac disease cases, previously diagnosed and newly screenin...

  16. Prevalence of Thyroid Autoimmunity in Children with Celiac Disease Compared to Healthy 12-Year Olds

    OpenAIRE

    Maria van der Pals; Anneli Ivarsson; Fredrik Norström; Lotta Högberg; Johan Svensson; Annelie Carlsson

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have suggested a correlation between untreated celiac disease and risk for other autoimmune diseases. We investigated the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in 12-year-old children (i) with symptomatic celiac disease diagnosed and treated with a gluten-free diet, (ii) with screening-detected untreated celiac disease, and (iii) without celiac disease. Methods. Blood samples from 12632 children were collected. All celiac disease cases, previously diagnosed and newly screenin...

  17. Hypophyseal-thyroid system and microelements in young children and their mothers under unfavourable ecological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The objective of the investigation was the study of hypophyseal-thyroid and microelement status character as well as their relationships in young children and their mothers residing under condition of permanent iododeficient endemy and natural microelement imbalance, as well as anthropogenic environmental contamination in order to base measurements on prophylaxis of ecological factors adverse effects on children's health. Clinical-laboratory examination of 303 children aged 0 to 2 and their mothers from Mozyr area of Gomel' region (the main group) and Myadel district of Minsk region (control group) was done. It was determined: in venous blood serum - a basal level of thyrotropin (TTG), common (T3, T4) and free (fT3, fT4) thyroid hormones/ thyroninbinding globulin (TSG), thyroglobulin (TG); in blood erythrocytes - zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) content; in urine - concentration of nonorganic iodine. Thyroid status of lying-in women was characterized by biochemical features of excessive thyroid gland stimulation (with high level of TG) and peripheral hyperaesthesia (with syndrome of low fT3). Women from ecologically unfavourable districts needed the higher metabolic levels of thyroid hormones (relatively higher level of fT4). It may be due to more prominent changes in peripheral chain of thyroid homeostasis (relatively lower level of fT3). Functional state of hypophyseal-thyroid system in newborns from ecologically unfavourable districts indicated the increase in their metabolic needs (with relatively higher level of fT4) and the intensified thyroid gland stimulation (relatively higher TG level). This state was correlated with disorders in thyroid chain of homeostasis in their mothers. Rural infants of the first two-years of life residing in ecologically unfavourable region revealed the significant exertion of compensatory-adaptive mechanisms in hypophysis-thyroid gland system (with increase in TTG, T3, T4, thyroid index - T3+T4/TTG and decrease in TG in the

  18. Home IV Antibiotic Therapy and Exercise Capacity in Children with CF: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Narelle S.; McKay, Karen O.; Follett, Jennifer M.; Alison, Jennifer A

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This case series describes the effect of home intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy on spirometry and exercise capacity in a group of children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: Outcomes from 10 children with CF who were prescribed a 14-day course of home IV antibiotics for a respiratory exacerbation are reported. All children performed spirometry and a modified shuttle test (MST) before and after 14-days of home IV therapy. Results: After 14 days, FEV1 increased by mean (± SE) 12 ± 4...

  19. WISC-IV Profiles Are Associated with Differences in Symptomatology and Outcome in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Nicholas S.; Bello, Danielle T.; Etcoff, Lewis M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) cluster profiles of children with ADHD to examine the association between IQ profiles and diagnostic frequency, symptomatology, and outcome in this population. Method: Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on 189 children with a…

  20. Prophylaxis of radiation-induced thyroid cancers in children after the reactor catastrophe of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of thyroid cancer in children living in heavily contaminated regions some 100 km away from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant has increased significantly between 1989 and 1993. On the basis of this observation, preparations for iodine blockage of the thyroid in cases of reactor accidents should be made not only near but also far from nuclear power plants. The WHO recommendations on age-related dosage should be followed; the total iodide dose ranging between 15 and 150 mg daily may be split into several portions. In addition, prophylaxis of iodine-deficient goiters with 50-200 μg of iodide daily leads to a significant reduction of the risk of radiation-induced cancers. Consequent elimination of alimentary iodine deficiency should therefore be considered as the basis of precautions against health affects of reactor accidents. Thyroid hormones are indicated only in cases of thyroid enlargement, provided that lesions suspicious for malignancy have been definitely excluded. In the case of thyroid nodules in childhood, the indication for surgery and histological verification of the lesion has to be taken generously. (orig.)

  1. On hormonal activity of thyroid in children-oligopherens, living in endemic goiter region of medium intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    106 children with oligophrenia from a region of strumous endemia in Upland Shoria were examined clinically and by radioisotope methods in order to reveal thyroid function disorders. The investigation proved the necessity of more detailed examination of children, living in strumous endemia region. The revealed deviations in thyroid hormonal function were the least among aborigens. The fact testifies the conclusions that aborigens have certain adaptation mechanisms

  2. DSM-IV Diagnoses and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children Before and 1 Year after Adenotonsillectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, James E.; Blunden, Sarah; Ruzicka, Deborah L.; Guire, Kenneth E.; Champine, Donna; Weatherly, Robert A.; Hodges, Elise K.; Giordani, Bruno J.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    DSM-IV criteria-based psychiatric diagnoses done in children before and one year after adenotonsillectomy are assessed to record any improvement in behavior. It is found that surgery might be associated with reduced behavioral morbidity.

  3. Validation of DSM-IV Model of Psychiatric Syndromes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecavalier, Luc; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the internal construct validity of the DSM-IV as a conceptual model for characterizing behavioral syndromes in children with ASD. Parent and teachers completed the Child Symptom Inventory-4, a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale, for 6-to-12 year old clinic referrals with an ASD (N = 498). Ratings were…

  4. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident (1986-1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in the incidence of thyroid cancers in children and adolescents in Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident made it necessary to compile a clinical morphological register of respective cancers. In 1986-1994 there were 339 cases registered in children and adolescents, of them 211 children (who were operated at the age under 15 years) and 128 adolescents (who were operated at the age of 15-18 years). Before the Chernobyl accident (1981-1985) in Ukraine 59 cases of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents were reported: 25 cases in children and 34 cases in adolescents. This increase has been observed since 1990. In 1981-1985 the incidence rate (number of thyroid cancers per 100000 children population) ranged 0.04 - 0.06. In 1990 this estimate was 0.23 and in 1992-1994 0.36 - 0.43, thus a 7-10 fold increase exceeding the pre-Chernobyl level. In the 5 most contaminated northern regions of Ukraine (Kiev, Chernigov, Zhitomir, Cherkassy, Rovno regions) and the city of Kiev the incidence rate was much higher. For example, in 1984 it was 3.8 in Chernigov region, 1.6 in Zhitomir region. The total 'contribution' of the above-mentioned regions to the incidence of thyroid cancer in children after the Chernobyl accident makes more than 60%. It has been noted that in 1990-1994 there was an increase in the number of children operated at the age under 10, it means that these children were under 6 years at the time of the accident and were most sensitive to radioiodine exposure. As for the sex ratio, there has been a shift to males: in 1981-1985 F/M = 1.8/1, in 1990-1994 F/M = 1.4/1. Morphologically, 93.4% of 196 carcinomas resected from children and adolescents at the Institute of Endocrinology from 1986 to August 1st, 1995 were papillary carcinomas. They manifested high invasive and infiltrative growth, signs of intraglandular spread. Regional lymph node metastases were found in 59% of cases, distal lung metastases observed at various periods after surgery were noted

  5. Thyroid volume in Swedish school children; a national, stratified, population-based survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Filipsson Nyström, Helena; Andersson, Maria; Berg, Gertrud; Eggertsen, Robert; Gramatkovski, Elisabeth; Hansson, Marie; Hulthén, Lena Birgitta; Milakovic, Mille; Nyström, Ernst

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background/ Objectives: Sweden has had a salt iodination program since 1936. This first national surveillance study on iodine nutrition infers an adequate level of urinary iodine concentration (UIC 125 ug/L) and the aim is now to evaluate thyroid volume (Tvol) in the same national sample. Subjects/ Methods: A stratified probability proportionate to size cluster sampling was used to obtain a representative national sample of Swedish children aged 6-12 years. Media...

  6. Can children undergoing ophthalmologic examinations under anesthesia be safely anesthetized without using an IV line?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigoda M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Michael M Vigoda, Azeema Latiff, Timothy G Murray, Jacqueline L Tutiven, Audina M Berrocal, Steven GayerBascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAPurpose: To document that with proper patient and procedure selection, children undergoing general inhalational anesthesia for ophthalmologic exams (with or without photos, ultrasound, laser treatment, peri-ocular injection of chemotherapy, suture removal, and/or replacement of ocular prosthesis can be safely anesthetized without the use of an intravenous (IV line. Children are rarely anesthetized without IV access placement. We performed a retrospective study to determine our incidence of IV access placement during examinations under anesthesia (EUA and the incidence of adverse events that required intraoperative IV access placement.Methods: Data collected from our operating room (OR information system includes but is not limited to diagnosis, anesthesiologist, surgeon, and location of IV catheter (if applicable, patient’s date of birth, actual procedure, and anesthesia/procedure times. We reviewed the OR and anesthetic records of children (>1 month and <10 years who underwent EUAs between January 1, 2003 and May 31, 2009. We determined the percentage of children who were anesthetized without IV access placement, as well as the incidence of any adverse events that required IV access placement, intraoperatively.Results: We analyzed data from 3196 procedures performed during a 77-month period. Patients’ ages ranged from 1 month to 9 years. Overall, 92% of procedures were performed without IV access placement. Procedure duration ranged from 1–39 minutes. Reasons for IV access placement included parental preference for antinausea medication and/or attending preference for IV access placement. No child who underwent anesthesia without an IV line had an intraoperative adverse event requiring insertion of an IV line.Conclusion: Our data suggest that for

  7. Results of radioiodine treatment in 158 children from Belarus with thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 134 out of 158 children more than one course of radioiodine treatment has been performed in Germany up to now.In 101 out of 134 children (75%) complete remissions of thyroid cancer could be achieved up to now.In the remaining 25% of the cases,we were able to recognise partial remissions defined as decrease in tumour volume,tumour marker serum level or intensity of radioiodine uptake for at least 50%.In no single case has progression of disease been observed

  8. Discontinuation of thyroid hormone treatment among children in the United States with congenital hypothyroidism: findings from health insurance claims data

    OpenAIRE

    Grosse Scott D; Ouyang Lijing; Kemper Alex R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Thyroid hormone treatment in children with congenital hypothyroidism can prevent intellectual disability. Guidelines recommend that children diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism through newborn screening remain on treatment to at least 3 years of age, after which a trial off therapy can determine which children have transient hypothyroidism. The purpose of this study was to describe the rate at which children with congenital hypothyroidism in the United States disconti...

  9. Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl. Expert panel report on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1992, the Radiation Protection Research Action formed a panel of thyroid experts in order to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased rates of thyroid cancer in children living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl, where the reactor accident occurred on April 26 1986 and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination over large areas of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine. Studies of the Atom Bomb survivors in Japan have revealed that the incidence of leukemia starts to increase some five years after exposure. For Chernobyl accident health consequences are now becoming evident. Thyroid cancer has already been observed in children. Iodine 131 was seen to pose a specific hazard because it is taken up by the body and concentrated in the thyroid gland. At a dose of 5 Gy to the childhood thyroid about 4000 thyroid cancers per 100000 children exposed can be anticipated. An essential component of the verification of this observation is the study of the pathology of the lesions, which derived from four cell types: follicular cells, C cells, lymphoid cells and connective tumor cells. All distant metastases are lung metastases. Measures to be considered for the prevention of the development of thyroid cancer in a radiation-exposed population include correction of iodine deficiency by iodine prophylaxis and suppression of TSH. There are three methods of diagnosis: ultrasound imaging, thyroid scanning, fine needle aspiration performed by skilled personnel. For the therapy total or near-total thyroidectomy is regarded as the treatment of choice. Radioactive iodine can be used to treat lymph node and distant metastases which take up iodine after a total thyroidectomy. Thyroid hormone replacement should be carried out with TSH suppressive doses of L-Thyroxine. 45 refs., 1 annexe

  10. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer in children and adult population, living in contaminated territories after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the analysis of own and literature data on the occurrence and development of radiation-induced thyroid cancer are presented. Analysis involved distribution of the thyroid cancer incidence among 1 million children and 3 millions adults, living in the radioactively contaminated territories of Russia by age and sex. The main attention was paid to the understanding of latency period of spontaneous and radiation-induced cancer, comparison of oncological pathology features in children and adults, and the role of screening in the increase of incidence rate parameters. Analysis permitted to offer new interpretation of several previously known facts and to make new statements on the induction and development of radiogenic thyroid cancer, in particularly, on far more significant increase of the thyroid cancer incidence in adults, living in the contaminated territories, than it was considered earlier

  11. Expression of chromosome instability in children with thyroid pathology born to parents suffered from Chernobyl accident factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the usage of long-term human peripheral blood lymphocytes' cultures, the association between thyroid pathology in the children born to irradiated parents and the expression of the hidden cytogenetic effect in delayed cells' generations had been determined. The interindividual variability in the observed children as regard as the response of somatic cells' chromosomes to different terms of the lymphocytes cultivation had been revealed. The possible promotion of delayed chromosome instability on the realization of thyroid pathology in children with a hidden functional failure of the endocrine system has been assumed

  12. Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes at children and adolescents with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-color immunophenotyping of lymphocyte subsets using a lysed whole blood method was performed in 46 children and adolescents with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) from contaminated areas and in 18 children from 'clean' areas of Belarus. 46 healthy children of matched age and sex distribution were used as control group. Analysis of lymphocyte subsets in children with HT living in contamination areas shower a considerable decrease in the levels of total lymphocytes, CD8+ T cells (T-suppressors), total B cells, and CD5+ B cells together with an activation of NK and CD56+, CD8+CD57+T cells (T-killers not restricted by HLA antigens). The study of cellular immunity in children with different doses of ionizing radionuclides revealed that prolonged influence of very small doses of ionizing radiation resulted in significant changes in lymphocyte subsets; interestingly, B cell subsets were the first to react to such influence while stability of T-killers and NK was the highest. These changes were the greatest in children with HT with the highest dose of incorporated radionuclides. Significant correlation between the levels of main lymphocyte subsets and the doses of accumulated radionuclides observed in this study also indicated that their relation was dose-dependent. The results of the study suggest that 1) lymphocyte subsets are different in their reaction to chronic internal irradiation which, evidently, is determined by their proliferation activity, degree of differentiation, and function; 2) increase in the dose of incorporated radionuclides in children and adolescents with HT leads to different reaction of sells- a decrease in T-suppressors, B cells and activation of cells responsible for nonspecific cytotoxicity- T-killers unrestricted by HLA antigens and NK; 3) children and adolescents with HT from contaminated regions have much more pronounced imbalance of cellular immunity and activation of cellular cytotoxic reactions damaging the thyroid tissue than those with HT

  13. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for differentiated thyroid carcinoma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At most centres, the standard treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) comprises total thyroidectomy, radioiodine treatment and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppressive therapy. There is, however, considerable disagreement over the appropriate treatment for DTC in children. Some dispute the use of total thyroidectomy and/or question the routine application of iodine-131 therapy in children. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of treatment results and prognostic factors for DTC in children treated at our centre. The study included 109 children with DTC (aged 6-17 years). The primary treatment comprised total thyroidectomy in 81 cases, radioiodine therapy in 85 cases and TSH suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine in all patients. Uni- and multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for disease-free survival was performed using the Cox regression method. The actuarial survival rate was 100%, and the 5- and 10-year actuarial disease-free survival rates were 80% and 61% respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that older age, total thyroidectomy and radioiodine treatment had a positive impact on disease-free survival whereas there were no statistical differences with regard to the child's sex, histological type of cancer or lymph node status. On multivariate analysis, radical surgery was estimated to be the most significant factor (P=0.007) for disease-free survival, while less than total thyroidectomy increased the relative risk of relapse by a factor of 10. Radioiodine treatment decreased the relative risk of relapse by a factor of 5, but with borderline significance (P=0.07). Permanent postoperative complications were observed in 17% of children: in 11 laryngeal palsy occurred, in six there was hypoparathyroidism, and one suffered from both. It is concluded that total thyroidectomy and radioiodine treatment significantly improve recurrence-free survival in children and should be routinely applied even in young children as the

  14. Ablation with Iodine-131 in thirteen children and adolescents with differentiated cancer thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The frequency of pediatric thyroid carcinoma is 0.52% in the Institute of Neoplasic Diseases of Lima-Peru. The most frequent histological variant is well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, and many patients who develop thyroid cancer during childhood have metastases at the time of diagnosis. Actually there is no consensus on post-surgical management for this neoplasm in children and adolescents. We reviewed the clinical records of thirteen patients of less than 15 years of age having thyroid cancer. These patients were sent by the Department of Head and Neck Cancer of INEN to the Nuclear Medicine Center IPENINEN to for treatment with Iodine-131 during 1990 and 2002. Of the thirteen, twelve (92.3%) were girls, and one was a boy (7.7%). The average age was 12.5 years. In two patients (15.3%) a subtotal thyroidectomy was done; in other two (15.3%), total thyroidectomy was performed and in nine patients (69.4%) total thyroidectomy with cervical dissection was done. Pathology findings showed well differentiated papillary thyroid cancer in five patients (38.5%); well differentiated papillary with follicular variant in six (46.1%); poorly differentiated papillary cancer in one (7.7%) and well differentiated papillary follicular (mixed variant) in one (7.7%). Lymph node metastases were detected in 8/13 patients (61.5%), and pulmonary metastases in 4/13 patients (30.7%). Ten patients received a single dose of Iodine-131 - one 50 mCi, one 70 mCi; four 80 mCi, one 100 mCi; one 120 mCi, and the remaining two 150 mCi each. One patient was given Iodine-131 two times, the cumulative dose being 220 mCi. Another patient received Iodine-131 in 4 times, 480 mCi as the cumulated dose. One patient received a total dose of 650 mCi given over five times. The follow-up of these patients was between one to eleven years (average of 3.8 years). After this period, ten children were alive. The other three patients had lung metastases and two of them died. The third one was lost to

  15. Clinical and dosimetric analysis of peculiarities of intellectual development, mental and behavioural disorders in children with oncological pathology of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of 116 children with thyroid cancer was conducted in 1995-1997. On the basis of the data obtained the three-level system of prophylaxis and correction of mental and behavioural disorders in the children suffering from thyroid cancer has been developed

  16. Selenium and its relationship with selenoprotein P and glutathione peroxidase in children and adolescents with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Mitra; Ahmadpour, Fatemeh; Chahardoli, Behnam; Malekpour-Dehkordi, Zahra; Nourbakhsh, Mona; Hosseini-Fard, Seyed Reza; Doustimotlagh, Amirhossein; Golestani, Abolfazl; Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam

    2016-03-01

    The essential trace element selenium (Se) is required for thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. Selenoproteins contain selenocysteine and are responsible for biological functions of selenium. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is one of the major selenoproteins which protects the thyroid cells from oxidative damage. Selenoprotein P (SePP) is considered as the plasma selenium transporter to tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum Se and SePP levels, and GPx activity in erythrocytes of children and adolescents with treated Hashimoto's thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, and normal subjects. Blood samples were collected from 32 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 20 with hypothyroidism, and 25 matched normal subjects. All the patients were under treatment with levothyroxine and at the time of analysis all of the thyroid function tests were normal. GPx enzyme activity was measured by spectrophotometry at 340 nm. Serum selenium levels were measured by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption. SePP, TPOAb (anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody), and TgAb (anti-thyroglobulin antibody) were determined by ELISA kits. T4, T3, T3 uptake and TSH were also measured. Neither GPx activity nor SePP levels were significantly different in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis or hypothyroidism compared to normal subjects. Although GPx and SePP were both lower in patients with hypothyroidism compared to those with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and normal subjects but the difference was not significant. Serum Se levels also did not differ significantly in patients and normal subjects. We did not find any correlation between GPx or SePP with TPOAb or TgAb but SePP was significantly correlated with Se. Results show that in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis or hypothyroidism who have been under treatment with levothyroxine and have normal thyroid function tests, the GPx, SePP and Se levels are not significantly different. PMID:26854239

  17. Impact of TBI on late effects in children treated by megatherapy for Stage IV neuroblastoma. A study of the French Society of Pediatric oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the contribution of total body irradiation (TBI) to late sequelae in children treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation for Stage IV neuroblastoma. Patients and Methods: We compared two populations that were similar with regard to age, stage, pre-autologous bone marrow transplantation chemotherapy (CT) regimen, period of treatment, and follow-up (12 years). The TBI group (n = 32) received TBI as part of the megatherapy procedure (1982-1993), whereas the CT group (n 30) received conditioning without TBI (1985-1992). Analysis 12 years later focused on growth, weight and corpulence (body mass index) delay; hormonal deficiencies; liver, kidney, heart, ear, eye, and dental sequelae; school performance; and the incidence of secondary tumors. Results: Impact of TBI was most marked in relation to growth and weight delay, although the mean delay was not severe, probably because of treatment with growth hormones. Other consequences of TBI were thyroid insufficiency, cataracts, and a high incidence of secondary tumors. Hearing loss and dental agenesis were more prominent in the group treated with CT alone. No differences were observed in school performance. Conclusion: The most frequent side effects of TBI were cataracts, thyroid insufficiency, and growth delay, but more worrying is the risk of secondary tumors. Because of the young mean age of patients and the toxicity of TBI regimens without any survival advantage, regimens without TBI are preferable in the management of Stage IV neuroblastoma

  18. Child thyroid anatomy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and ... a major role in regulating the body's metabolism. Thyroid disorders are more common in older children and ...

  19. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology is applicable to frozen section diagnosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michael A; Nicol, Kathleen K

    2015-01-01

    The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) offers standardized and widely understood diagnostic categories for reporting thyroid cytology diagnoses. We compared the utility of TBSRTC categories in pediatric cytology diagnoses and pediatric intraoperative frozen section diagnoses. We examined the experience of our primary and referral care center over a 20-year period. This included 182 thyroidectomy patients who underwent 64 preoperative fine-needle aspirations and 91 intraoperative frozen section evaluations, including 38 patients evaluated sequentially by each method. All diagnoses were retrospectively reclassified into TBSRTC categories and correlated with the final thyroidectomy diagnoses. For each sampling method, malignant final diagnoses were observed at similar frequencies to rates predicted by TBSRTC. Malignant final diagnoses following fine-needle aspiration or frozen section diagnoses in TBSRTC categories other than malignant or suspicious for malignancy most often resulted from difficulty in detecting papillary carcinoma, including difficulty detecting the nuclear characteristics of papillary carcinoma in frozen sections. The limitations of needle biopsy and frozen section evaluations differ, yet serial utilization of these procedures was rarely informative. Based on the experience of our institution, classification of cytology and frozen section diagnosis by TBSRTC predicts a risk of malignancy similar to the guidance offered by TBSRTC. We recommend including a TBSRTC category when reporting either thyroid cytology or frozen section diagnoses in children. PMID:25625563

  20. Determination of I-131 content in children's and cow's thyroid in Kozloduj NPP region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the scope of general programme for the radiation safety investigations the I-131 content in thyroid has been measured. For this purpose a group of 20 children within the age of 8-12 supplied with milk from private cows was selected as well as a group of dairy cows of local breed during milking period. Both groups were selected in a village located at 4km from the NPP in the direction of the dominating winds. According to the measuring results both the separate and average count rates for the two groups did not differ from the background ones

  1. Thyroid dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children and its correlation with CD4 + T lymphocyte count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyakumar Thongam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Thyroid dysfunction has been reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals including children. Some studies have reported that thyroid dysfunction may be a marker of severity or progression of HIV. Aims: The aim was to study thyroid function in HIV-infected children with and without highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study carried out at a teaching hospital with Anti-Retroviral Therapy Centre (Centre of Excellence of National AIDS Control Organization. Subjects and Methods: Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, total thyroxine (T4, and total tri-iodothyronine (T3 were analyzed in 60 pediatric HIV cases: 30 on HAART and 30 HAART naive. Correlation of T3, T4, and TSH with CD4 count was assessed. Statistical Analysis Used: Data reported as mean ± standard deviation and as the number of cases and percentages. Comparison between groups was done by independent sample t-test and χ2 -test. Spearman′s correlation coefficient is used to assess the association between thyroid dysfunction and CD4 count. Results: Thyroid function abnormality was seen in five out of 30 patients in both patients on HAART or without HAART therapy. Among patients on HAART, three had hypothyroidism, and two had biochemical feature of sick euthyroid syndrome. Among the HAART naive group, sub-clinical hypothyroisim was seen in four, and one had biochemical feature of sick euthyroid syndrome. None of the patients had clinical features of thyroid dysfunction. There is a highly significant correlation (P = 0.01 between TSH and CD4 count. Conclusions: Thyroid dysfunction is quite common among pediatric HIV cases. An inverse correlation is seen between TSH and CD4 count indicating trend for hypothyroidism as HIV disease progress.

  2. Screening of thyroid status in children exposed to ionizing radiation in utero and at the first year of life as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study to investigate peculiarities of thyroid pathology development of children exposed to radiation in utero and within the first year of life. In 1998, the 12 years after the Chernobyl accident, two cohorts of children aged 11-14 in Khoiniki region and Braslav region were screened. Minimum average dose to the thyroid was in children exposed in utero - 36 cGy. Maximum average thyroid dose was registered in children exposed at 0-1.5 years old on mixed nutrition - 110 cGy

  3. Does WISC-IV Underestimate the Intelligence of Autistic Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Courchesne, Valérie; Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is widely used to estimate autistic intelligence (Joseph in The neuropsychology of autism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011; Goldstein et al. in "Assessment of autism spectrum disorders." Guilford Press, New York, 2008; Mottron in "J Autism Dev Disord" 34(1):19-27, 2004).…

  4. Accuracy of episodic autobiographical memory in children with early thyroid hormone deficiency using a staged event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Willoughby

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM is a highly constructive cognitive process that often contains memory errors. No study has specifically examined AM accuracy in children with abnormal development of the hippocampus, a crucial brain region for AM retrieval. Thus, the present study investigated AM accuracy in 68 typically and atypically developing children using a staged autobiographical event, the Children's Autobiographical Interview, and structural magnetic resonance imaging. The atypically developing group consisted of 17 children (HYPO exposed during gestation to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone (TH, a critical substrate for hippocampal development, and 25 children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH, who were compared to 26 controls. Groups differed significantly in the number of accurate episodic details recalled and proportion accuracy scores, with controls having more accurate recollections of the staged event than both TH-deficient groups. Total hippocampal volumes and anterior hippocampal volumes were positively correlated with proportion accuracy scores, but not total accurate episodic details, in HYPO and CH. In addition, greater severity of TH deficiency predicted lower proportion accuracy scores in both HYPO and CH. Overall, these results indicate that children with early TH deficiency have deficits in AM accuracy and that the anterior hippocampus may play a particularly important role in accurate AM retrieval.

  5. Discontinuation of thyroid hormone treatment among children in the United States with congenital hypothyroidism: findings from health insurance claims data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosse Scott D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hormone treatment in children with congenital hypothyroidism can prevent intellectual disability. Guidelines recommend that children diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism through newborn screening remain on treatment to at least 3 years of age, after which a trial off therapy can determine which children have transient hypothyroidism. The purpose of this study was to describe the rate at which children with congenital hypothyroidism in the United States discontinue thyroid hormone treatment in early childhood. Methods Retrospective analysis of the 2002-2006 MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters research databases and the 2001-2005 MarketScan Multi-State Medicaid databases. Children were classified as having congenital hypothyroidism based on billing codes and having filled a prescription for thyroid hormone treatment. Kaplan-Meier curve analysis was used to determine discontinuation rates. Results There were a total of 412 Medicaid-enrolled children and 292 privately-insured children with presumed congenital hypothyroidism included in this study. The overall birth prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism across both datasets was about 1 per 2,300. By 36 months, the percentage who had discontinued thyroid replacement treatment was 38% (95% Confidence Interval: 32%-44%. Medicaid-enrolled children had a more rapid decline in the first 24 months of treatment compared to those with private insurance (P = 0.02. Conclusions More than one-third of children treated for congenital hypothyroidism discontinued treatment within 36 months, which is inconsistent with current guidelines. It is not known how many of these children required continued treatment or experience adverse effects from discontinuation. These findings emphasize the critical need for follow-up systems to monitor the outcome of newborn screening.

  6. Determination of reference values of thyroid hormones in newborn children (Riobamba Hospitals)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Reference values of thyroid hormones in newborn children' was determined by this research. The work was carried out in two hospitals: Policlinic and Social Security at Riobamba city. The data was compared with international values and healthy adults. It was used 248 samples of umbilical cord blood and 38 samples of vessel blood from adults. The thyroid perfil (T3, T4, TSH and T3, RU) was determined through radioimmunoassay, RIAPC, LOTUS 123 and CHARTMASTER. The following values were obtained in newborn children: T4(ug/dl) = 10,8 + - 3,1 ; T3(ng/dl) = 41,8 + - 26,9; TSH(uUI/ml) 7,2 + - 6,5; <<<<< T3RU() = 22,6 + - 7,9. The data obtained were no significantly different from the international values. If we compare newborns with adults there is a high significant difference; so the values are quite distinct. Since the referencial values found were trusty it was recommended to use them in medical diagnosis

  7. Peculiarities of integral brain activity under compromised thyroid gland function of children and adolescent from radionuclide contaminated territories of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    80 children with thyroid gland hypertrophy (50 girls + 30 boys, 10 - 17 years old) from Luninets town, the Brest region, were investigated for integral brain activity. Quantitative determination of thyrotropic hormone level in blood serum was made by using enzyme immunodetection. Mentation, attention and memory were tested by questionnaire design. Results of experiments are given

  8. Anti-natrium/iodide symporter antibodies and other anti-thyroid antibodies in children with Turner's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Anna M; Czarnocka, Barbara; Demkow, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies against the Na/I symporter (anti-NIS ab) have been found in adult patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases. As easily available for the immune system, NIS can play a role in the initial stage of autoimmune thyroid diseases. Children with Turner's syndrome (TS) being at high risk of autoimmune thyroid disease development seem a valuable group for the investigation of the early autoimmune process. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of anti-NIS ab and its potential clinical significance in TS children. Fifty four girls with TS were examined (age 11.9 ± 2.46 years), and 23 healthy girls with normal thyroid function, free of autoimmune diseases. Anti-NIS antibodies were measured by the in-house ELISA method and the Western blotting. Sera considered positive for anti-NIS ab were used for the iodide uptake bioassay using COS7 cells stably transfected with hNIS. In all patients the thyroid function, antithyroid antibodies presence and thyroid ultrasonography were evaluated. In 20% of the patients a subclinical hypothyroidism was diagnosed and 70.4% had antithyroid antibodies (anti-TPO - 64.8% and Anti-Tg - 24%). Anti-NISab were present in 14.8% girls with TS and in none of the control group. Their presence was unrelated to other antithyroid antibodies titre or patients' age. A positive correlation between the anti-NIS ab presence and the hypothyroidism was found (p < 0.04). Anti-NIS ab-positive sera did not suppress iodine uptake. In conclusion, anti-NIS antibodies were present in 14.8% of children with TS and they were related to the presence of hypothyroidism. PMID:22836628

  9. Radioactive contamination. Italian programme to monitor the radiocesium levels in the urine and thyroid status of exposed children from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1995, following the accident at Chernobyl, the Italian Red Cross has hosted about 2,000 children from the contaminated zones of Belorussia and the Ukraine. The purpose of the project was to ensure, by temporary removal of the children from the contaminated areas, an improvement in their general well-being with both physical and psychological benefits. In the current work, in particular, the results reported are of a study carried out in order to evaluate radioactive contamination levels and the medical surveillance of the thyroid status of the exposed children after the fall-out of the accident at Chernobyl. During the course of the research 400 children were examined, masculine and feminine, between the ages of 6 and 16. The children from Belorussia were hosted by families in Tuscany and the children from the Ukraine were hosted in the Corpomiles Center of the Italian Red Cross in Lazio. The children were hosted for a period of 30 days in our country and many have returned since then and we have repeated the same analyses. In the current work a radiometric analysis was carried out on the children's urine samples to find Cs-137 and Cs-134. The concentration of the two radionuclides was measured at the beginning and end of the children's stay in Italy. The two radionuclides were collected over a period of 24 hours. Moreover, a scan of the thyroid was carried out on the same children to discover the potential presence of a glandular tumour of pathological form caused by I-131. The results of the spectrometric analyses give indications as to the degree of radioactivity contamination in the children relative to their different home countries. The results confirm the existence of a chronic radioactive contamination due to a balanced diet of contaminated food. The analysis of the thyroid also demonstrated small to medium lymphadenopaties latero cervical. In conclusion, data collected from our present multidisciplinary work shows a decrease of around 30% in Cs-137

  10. Evaluation of Mird and Marinelli formalisms in the radiation dosimetry for thyroid of adults and children using 131I (radioiodine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using MIRD formalism and Cristy-Eckerman representation for the thyroid adults, children of 15, 10, 5, 1 year old and newborn it is shown that the total dose absorbed by the gland due to 131I(iodine) is its self-dose. Their results are not significantly different from those reported by the formalism MARINELLI (self-dose), which uses a sphere as glandular representation. Consequently, the kinetic model to the gland is a single compartment and the thyroid can be represented as a sphere

  11. Subsequent fertility and birth histories of children and adolescents treated with 131I for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty patients aged 20 years or less who had been treated with 131I after surgery for papillary-follicular thyroid carcinoma were contacted for followup study. Five had died and two were unmarried; the remaining 33 were studied with respect to their subsequent reproductive histories and the health of the offspring. The mean age at the time of the first 131I therapeutic dose was 14.6 years (range 6 to 20), and the average followup interval, from that first dose until followup, was 18.7 years (range 14 to 25). The mean total dose of 131I was 196 mCi (range 80 to 691). The incidences of infertility (12 percent), miscarriage (1.4 percent), prematurity (8 percent), and major congenital anomaly (1.4 percent) found in this series are not significantly different from those in the general population. Thus, our study offers no overt evidence of genetic damage in children and adolescents treated with high doses of 131I for thyroid carcinoma

  12. Analysis of Thyroid Measurements of Children Conducted in Fukushima Prefecture, 26–30 March 2011. Annex VII of Technical Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information was provided on the 1080 thyroid measurements of children aged from 0 y to 15 y from the three settlements Iwake City, Kawamata Town, and Iitate Village. The dates of measurement were from 26–30 March 2011. This dataset contains the following information for each child measured: – date of measurement; – age (in years); – gender; – settlement; – result of the measurement of the exposure rate near the thyroid; – result of background exposure rate measurement; – net signal which is the difference between the measurement of exposure rate near the thyroid and the background measurement. General results of the thyroid measurements are presented

  13. Intake of phthalate-tainted foods alters thyroid functions in Taiwanese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tsang Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On April-May, 2011, two Taiwan chemical companies were found to have intentionally added phthalates, Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and/or Di-isononyl phthalate, as a substitute of emulsifier to many foodstuffs. This study aimed to investigate whether exposure to these foods altered endocrine functions in children aged ≤10 years and, if so, whether those changes could be reversed by stopping exposure. METHODS: One Phthalates Clinic for Children was established in southern Taiwan between May 31 and June 17, 2011. All eligible children had their exposure information, blood and/or urine specimens collected. Endocrine functions were assessed in serum. The exposure groups were categorized into three (High, >500 ppm, Low, 1-500 ppm, and No, <1 ppm of DEHP. After six months, some children were followed up for the selected endocrine hormones. RESULTS: Sixty children were eligible in this study; all were Tanner stage 1 with no pubic hair. Compared to non-exposed group, both high and low exposure groups had significantly lower serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels (P = 0.001 and 0.024. At six months follow-up, serum triiodothyronine (T3 levels was significantly changed (P = 0.034 in high exposure group (n = 13. For serum estradiol (E2, the detectable rate (≥8 pg/mL decreased from 76.9% (10/13 to 30.8% (4/13 (P = 0.070. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that serum TSH levels can be altered when children were exposed to high concentrations of phthalate-tainted foodstuffs. Serum E2 and T3 may be partially recovered after stopping exposure.

  14. Thyroid scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PET scan Skin nodules Thyroid cancer Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma Toxic nodular goiter ... Topics Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Nuclear Scans Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Diseases Thyroid Tests Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  15. Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid of children in Belarus suffering from thyroid gland cancer; Rekonstruktion der Schilddruesendosis fuer Kinder mit Schilddruesenkrebs in Weissrussland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robl, R.; Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1997-10-01

    About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl a pronounced rise in childhood tyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the short-lived radioiodine isotope {sup 131}I was responsible for this effect. Therefore, methods had to be developed to reconstruct the tyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. To assess the tyroid dose the concentration of {sup 1}31 I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between {sup 129}I and {sup 131}I. The inferred {sup 131}I-deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated tyroid dose to certain age groups of various residence areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalisation of a correlation between the {sup 137}Cs-deposition density and a few {sup 131}I-measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of {sup 131}I-deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the {sup 129}I-method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the {sup 129}I-method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0.5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (orig./MG)

  16. Abnormalities of Thyroid Function in Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: are Transient or Permanent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğrul Karakuş

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to determine the incidence and short term outcome of abnormal thyroid functions in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.Materials and Methods: Fourty-two patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus who were diagnosed and observed in our department of pediatrics between 2001-2006 were retrospectively evaluated. The thyroid function tests of the patients were measured within four and a half days of the initial diagnosis of diabetes and at least one follow-up test median on day 180 after diagnosis.Results: Twenty-two (52.4% of the patients were female and 20 (47.6% were male. Mean age of the patients was 9.4 (±3.6 years. Twenty-three patients (54.8% were diagnosed as diabetic ketoacidosis, 15 (35.7% as ketosis and 4 (9.5% as hyperglycemia at the time of initial presentation. Thyroid functions were normal in 26 (61.9% subjects. Thyroid function tests were abnormal in 16 (38.1% subjects of whom 12 (75.0% had biochemical findings compatible with sick euthyroid syndrome and of these 10 (83.3% had diabetic ketoacidosis. All of these abnormalities were transient and thyroid function tests all returned to normal except for one patient. Antithyroid antibodies were positive in 7 (16.7% subjects 2 (10.5% with ketosis or hyperglycemia and 5 (21.7% diabetic ketoacidosis. Thyroid function tests were abnormal in 6 (14.3.1% subjects at follow-up. Thyroid disfunction rate decrased the 38.1% to 14.3% at the follow-up.Conclusion: This retrospective study revealed that abnormalities in thyroid function tests in subjects with newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes mellitus were frequent and mostly transient. For this reason, in the absence of any clinical situation suggesting a thyroid disorder, we think it would be better to assess thyroid function tests at least one mouth after theinitial diagnosis of diabetes. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 5-9

  17. Effect of iodine-137 on sex and thyroid hormone binding to blood plasma proteins in children with functional lesions of the thyroid gland as a result of Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studying characteristics of specific interaction of estradiol-, testosterone- and thyriod-binding blood globulins with the corresponding ligands in children from Gomel region with with endemic swelling of the thyroid gland (degrees 1 and 2) affected by iodine-131 revealed were a reduced cooperativity in estradiol T-3 binding and a halved affinity to androgens and thyroids as compared to healthy controls. In addition, there was a drastic decline in the binding capacity of estradiol- and testosterone-binding globulins in the blood plasma. The endemic thyroid gland swelling is supposed to be due to sexual malfunction in teenagers

  18. Role of monitoring in diagnostics of diseases of the thyroid gland at children at the moment of the disaster on ChNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looking back on eighteen-year experience of liquidation of consequences of disaster on Chernobyl NPP shows the importance of monitoring in formation of pathology of a thyroid gland at children, undergone to radiating influence. (Authors)

  19. Clinical experience with radiation enhancement by hyperbaric oxygen in children with recurrent neuroblastoma stage IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voute, P.A.; Kleij, A.J. van der; De Kraker, J.; Hoefnagel, C.A. [Nederlands Atoomforum, The Hague (Netherlands); Tiel-van Buul, M.M.C.; Gennip, H. van [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Academic Medical Center

    1995-12-31

    The high risk group of patients with neuroblastoma are children over 1 year with stage IV disease. Most series report a maximum of 20% survival at 5 years. For recurrent neuroblastoma stage IV, cure rates are not reported in the literature, but they are nil. Any treatment for recurrent neuroblastoma stage IV remains a therapeutic dilemma. The outcome of radiation therapy is variable. A very important factor in tumour treatment remains tumour hypoxia, and others, such as metabolic factors, also play a role. Combined application of radiation modifiers may influence the final survival rate. In an attempt to improve the survival of recurrent neuroblastoma stage IV, hyperbaric oxygen and radioionated meta-Iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) was used in a clinical setting. Although survival may not be used as a determinant of the usefulness of a treatment for stage IV neuroblastoma disease, a better one is not available. In this study, at 28 months, a cumulative probability of survival of 32% was recorded for patients treated with [{sup 131}I]MIBG and hyperbaric oxygen compared to 12% for [{sup 131}I]MIBG treatment alone. These preliminary results are promising but further studies are needed to reveal substantial therapeutic gain. (Author).

  20. Clinical experience with radiation enhancement by hyperbaric oxygen in children with recurrent neuroblastoma stage IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high risk group of patients with neuroblastoma are children over 1 year with stage IV disease. Most series report a maximum of 20% survival at 5 years. For recurrent neuroblastoma stage IV, cure rates are not reported in the literature, but they are nil. Any treatment for recurrent neuroblastoma stage IV remains a therapeutic dilemma. The outcome of radiation therapy is variable. A very important factor in tumour treatment remains tumour hypoxia, and others, such as metabolic factors, also play a role. Combined application of radiation modifiers may influence the final survival rate. In an attempt to improve the survival of recurrent neuroblastoma stage IV, hyperbaric oxygen and radioionated meta-Iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) was used in a clinical setting. Although survival may not be used as a determinant of the usefulness of a treatment for stage IV neuroblastoma disease, a better one is not available. In this study, at 28 months, a cumulative probability of survival of 32% was recorded for patients treated with [131I]MIBG and hyperbaric oxygen compared to 12% for [131I]MIBG treatment alone. These preliminary results are promising but further studies are needed to reveal substantial therapeutic gain. (Author)

  1. 甲状腺超声检查对少儿健康体检的价值%Clinical Value of Thyroid Ultrasonography for Children's Physical Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁崇德

    2009-01-01

    Objective To probe into the value of ultrasonic check of thyroid gland in children's physical examination. Method Adopting the ultra-sonic inspection of thyroid gland to catty on the physical examination for 40 children of 2-14 years old. Results 12 persons had abnormal thyroid gland: one case's thyroid gland existed inborn scarce; 5 cases had thyroid gland tu-bercles; 2 cases had abnormal development in thyroid gland; one case had thy-roglossal cyst; 3 cases had thyroid gland-swelling. Conclusion The ultrasonic check of thyroid glandlt has important value in children's physical examina-tion.%目的 探讨甲状腺超声检查在少年儿童的健康体检方面的价值.方法 采用甲状腺超声检查对40例2~14岁少年儿童进行健康体检.结果 发现非正常甲状腺者12例:1例先天性甲状腺缺如:5例甲状腺结节;2例甲状腺发育异常,1例甲状舌管囊肿;3例甲状腺肿大.结论 甲状腺超声检查在少年儿童的健康体检方面有重要的价值.

  2. Pediatric Thyroid Disease: When is Surgery Necessary, and Who Should be Operating on Our Children?

    OpenAIRE

    Breuer, Christopher; Tuggle, Charles; Solomon, Daniel; Sosa, Julie Ann

    2013-01-01

    Surgical diseases of the thyroid in the pediatric population represent a diverse set of both benign and malignant conditions. Overall, incidence is rare. Benign conditions include Graves’ disease, toxic adenomas, congenital hyperthyroidism, and goiter. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), with its related familial cancer syndromes, are the most common malignancies. Near-total or total thyroidectomy is the appropriate surgery for thyroid cancer, with/out c...

  3. Results of simplified survey for thyroid internal exposure of children in Fukushima and other surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process, subjects, methods, results and tasks of the title surveys are described, where the others involve the survey of internal and external exposures in Fukushima residents. The simplified survey for thyroid internal exposure of children was based on the request (Mar. 23-25, 2011) of the Nuclear Safety Committee with data of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information (SPEEDI) and was conducted on Mar 24-30 in 1,080 infants/children of age range 0-15 y. Aloka NaI scintillation survey meter was used for measurement of thyroid radioactivity by contacting the detector with the organ portion. The standard limit was 0.2 micro-Sv/h (100 mSv eq./y for 1 year old child). Net dose rates were found to be 0 and <0.04 micro-Sv/h in 55.4% and 99.0% of children, respectively, and were thus lower than the standard in all children. Reliability and error in the measurement should be validated for explanation of the results. The investigations of internal exposures in Fukushima 174 residents were firstly performed on Japanese authority's request by the whole body counting in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), and then those in 6,434 residents, from Aug. to Oct. (6,608 in total). Exposure at <1 mSv of the committed effective dose equivalent was found in 99.7% of residents and the maximum, 3 mSv, in 2 residents. The dose estimated by various institutions hereafter should be assessed along with the standardized scenario. The external exposure was investigated by inputting the data (1,727 residents, Mar. 11-July 11) of Fukushima Prefectural Health Management into the system to estimate the dose developed by NIRS. Subjects were 138 radiation workers and 1,589 people (F/M 675/914) of 3 regions near the Power Station: when excepting for the workers, 62.8% of subjects were exposed to <1 mSv, 97.4% to <5 mSv, and 99.7% to <10 mSv. Four people were exposed to 10 mSv or more, one of whom, to the maximum of 14.5 mSv. (T.T.)

  4. Thyroid lesions in children and adolescents after the Chernobyl disaster: Implications for the study of radiation tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the most obvious effect is manifested by an increase in the prevalence of thyroid gland diseases in the exposed children and adolescents. In this study, we describe a comparative analysis of epidemiological, clinical, and morphological features of 92 malignant and 59 benign thyroid lesions from patients 5-18 yr of age exposed to radiation in Belarus as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. All of them were operated at the same institution during the period from September 1991 through December 1992. The highest number of patients that subsequently developed thyroid carcinomas was in the group that was less that 1 yr of age at the time of Chernobyl, and this number decreased progressively through age 12 yr. Conversely, none of the patients with benign lesions only was less than 2 yr old at the time of the accident, and an exposure age of 5-6 yr was a threshold separating significant prevalence of malignant tumors in younger children from the more frequently benign lesions in older patients (P ≤ 0.001). Fifty-two percent of the children with carcinomas and only 24% with benign lesions (P ≤ 0.005) were residents of the Gomel region, which is the most contaminated in Belarus. The morphology of thyroid tissue adjacent to carcinomas showed a high prevalence of multinodular and diffuse changes, but not of adenomas or solitary adenomatoid nodules. There was a high prevalence of focal micropapillary hyperplasia with graded degrees of severity, which we hypothesize may correspond to precursors for papillary thyroid carcinoma in post-Chernobyl radiation-associated tumors. 36 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Comparative light- and electro microscopic characteristics of thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents in Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    190 thyroid carcinomas in children aged up to 15 (154 cases) and adolescents aged 15 to 18 (36 cases) operated at the Institute's Clinic from 1986 to the 30th of June 1995, have been studied using light and electron microscopy. It has been found in 93.2% papillary, in 3.2% - medullary, in 1% - anaplastic carcinomas. A typical papillary carcinoma was revealed in 11.5%, follicular variant - in 39.0%, solid variant - in 28.1%, diffuse and sclerosing variant - in 3.8%. In cases of solid variant low-differentiated cells prevailed in the tumor, what manifested itself the most obviously by electron microscopic analysis. The thyroid carcinomas studied in children and adolescents of Ukraine are characterized by high invasive properties, that is confirmed by a high percentage (66.5%) of regional metastases

  6. Rh-TSH (Thyrogen) aided radioiodine therapy in children and adolescents with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Background: Although recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) is widely used to aid radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), almost in all clinical studies it was used in adults and there are very few data concerning paediatric group of patients. The Aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of rhTSH-aided radioiodine treatment in DTC patients 18 yr old or younger. Material and Methods: Twenty five children/adolescents (median age 15, range 7-18) with the diagnosis of DTC were treated using the approved adult regimen (one 0.9 mg im. injection daily on two consecutive days) and therapeutic activity of 131I (median 3.7 GBq, range 2.2-3.8 GBq). Thyroglobulin concentration was evaluated on the 1. and 6. day of stimulation, and whole body scan (WBC) on the 6. day. Subsequently the patients were followed-up every 6 months, including single diagnostic 131I WBS. The median follow up after the treatment was 28 months. Results: In 16 children radioiodine treatment was given as an adjuvant treatment after total/near total thyroidectomy. In another 9 children distant metastases (mainly to lungs) were recognized. Peak TSH concentration post-rhTSH exceeded 25 mU/liter in all children. In all children the peak stimulated thyroglobulin was achieved on day 6 of stimulation (median 4 ng/ml, range 0.17-1080.0 ng/ml). In children treated with radioiodine as an adjunct to total thyroidectomy, in all but two cases complete remission was achieved. Two patients needed subsequent radioiodine retreatment. All are now free of disease. Among patients with distant metastases in 3 (33%) complete remission and in 6 (67%) partial remission (decrease in thyroglobulin concentration and decrease in radioiodine uptake on WBS) was achieved. In none but one patients there were side effects after rhTSH application. In one patient on the second day after the first rhTSH dose rush was observed, that resolved after anti

  7. Utility of computed tomography in identifying an ectopic thyroid in infants and pre-school children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In purpose of identifying thyroid tissue in patients with congenital hypothyroidism during childhood, ultrasonography is usually used as a screening examination, and scintigraphy is performed secondarily. Though these methods are useful, it is not easy to identify the accurate location of thyroid tissue by these methods. We previously reported the utility of computed tomography (CT) in identifying thyroid tissue in four cases of congenital hypothyroidism. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether CT is useful in identifying thyroid tissue, compared to ultrasonography or scintigraphy. Nineteen cases (0 month to 18 years of age) that were suspected to have ectopic thyroid tissue or thyroid agenesis on ultrasonography were examined by CT. CT was useful in diagnosing ectopic thyroid tissue or thyroid agenesis in all the cases, whereas ultrasonography or scintigraphy was less accurate in this purpose in seven cases. Plain CT had a difficulty in identifying thyroid tissue in two cases, in which contrasted image was required. This study showed that CT, especially an enhanced CT, is useful in identifying thyroid tissue, when the gland is not identified in the normal position by ultrasonography. (author)

  8. Follicular thyroid cancer in children and adolescents. Clinicopathologic features, long-term survival, and risk factors for recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children and adolescents represent 1-1.5% of all patients with thyroid cancer (TC). The vast majority of TC in children and adolescents is papillary TC; follicular TC (FTC) is exceedingly rare. In this study, we evaluate the clinical and pathological features of FTC in children and adolescents. We also report the risk factors for post-operative tumor recurrence and the associated outcomes. Twenty children and adolescents (under 21 years old) with FTC have been treated and followed at Noguchi Thyroid Clinic and Hospital Foundation since 1946. All patients underwent surgery (lobectomy, 11; subtotal thyroidectomy, 8; and total thyroidectomy, 1), and 8 patients received postoperative external beam radiation therapy. The incidence of FTC in children and adolescents was 1.9% among all FTC patients treated in our hospital. Histopathology revealed vascular and capsular invasion in 9 and 20 patients, respectively. The tumor recurrence rate in FTC with vascular invasion is significantly higher than in those without it (p=0.038). No other factors were significant. Patients with recurrences were treated with completion thyroidectomy and 131I radioactive iodine therapy. There were no significant differences in the rates of disease-free survival or cause-specific survival when pediatric/adolescent FTC patients were compared to adults with FTC. FTC is very rare among children and adolescents, but the outcomes are similar to those observed among adults. Vascular invasion is poor prognostic indicator in pediatric/adolescent FTC patients. (author)

  9. The association with Turner syndrome significantly affects the course of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in children, irrespective of karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversa, Tommaso; Messina, Maria Francesca; Mazzanti, Laura; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Mussa, Alessandro; Faienza, Maria Felicia; Scarano, Emanuela; De Luca, Filippo; Wasniewska, Malgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Only few studies have investigated to now whether the association with Turner syndrome (TS) may affect the course of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) in children. Aim of this study was to ascertain whether the presentation and long-term course of HT in TS children may be characterized by a peculiar and atypical pattern. The clinical and biochemical findings at HT diagnosis in 90 TS children (group A) were compared with those recorded in 449 girls with HT but without TS (group B); in group A patients, thyroid function tests were re-evaluated after a median time interval of 4.9 years. At HT diagnosis median TSH levels and the rate of cases presenting with a thyroid dysfunction picture were significantly lower in group A, irrespective of karyotype abnormalities. In group A only 34.8 % of the girls who had initially presented with euthyroidism remained euthyroid even at re-evaluation, whilst 67.7 % of those who had presented with subclinical hypothyroidism became overtly hypothyroid over time; also such evolutive pattern was irrespective of karyotype abnormalities. (1) In TS girls, HT presents with a milder hormonal pattern, which often deteriorates over time; (2) these biochemical features are not necessarily linked with a specific karyotype. PMID:25542186

  10. Prophylactic cerebral irradiation in children with leukemia: In vivo evaluation of the irradiation dose applied to the thyroid during prophylactic cerebral irradiation delivered within the framework of the children leukemia treatment; Dosimetrie in vivo pour l`evaluation de la dose recue par la thyroide lors de l`irradiation cerebrale prophylactique delivree dans le cadre du traitement des leucemies de l`enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardi, U.; Rossi, G.; Tessa, M.; Monetti, U.; Verna, R.; Urgesi, A.; Barisone, E.; Besenzon, L.; Corrias, A. [Turin Univ. (Italy)

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate by in vivo dosimetry, the dose received by the thyroid parenchyma during an encephalon irradiation for children having acute lymphoid leukemia, then to look for a correlation between the thyroid alterations ( hypothyroidism, second tumors) and the dosimetry data. (N.C.). 5 refs.

  11. Thyroid nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016:chap 14. Read More Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease) Laryngeal nerve damage Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II Thyroid cancer Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma Thyroid gland removal Patient Instructions Thyroid gland ...

  12. Chernobyl accident: revision of individual thyroid dose estimates for the children included in the cohort of the Belarusian-American study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observed sharp increase in the number of childhood-thyroid-cancer cases in Belarus that has occurred since the Chernobyl accident stimulated the undertaking in 1994 of a long-term American-Belarusian cohort study. That epidemiological study is aimed at revealing the carcinogenic effectiveness of 131I (the main contributor to the thyroid exposure) and at estimating the risk coefficient of thyroid disease, especially thyroid cancer, as a function of age at exposure. It is planned to follow actively 15,000 children (aged 0-18 at the time of the accident) sampled among about 40,000 who had their thyroid measured in vivo in 1986. Such direct thyroid measurements provide the basis for the initial thyroid dose estimates that have been established for the 40,000 children in the absence of personal interviews. As of August 1999, approximately 5,000 cohort subjects have been screened and interviewed. The initial estimates of individual thyroid dose are being revised for all of the cohort subjects that have been screened. The revision procedure of the 131I thyroid dose assessment consists of two parts: (1) re-analysis of the direct thyroid measurements and (2) analysis of the responses to the personal interview which were conducted in order to determine the kinetics of the radioiodine intake by the cohort subjects. Revised estimates of thyroid dose resulting from 131I intake are presented for a sample of 1,000 subjects residing in various areas of Belarus. The reason for the differences between the initial and the revised thyroid dose estimates are discussed. In addition to the estimation of the internal thyroid dose from 131I, three minor contributors to the thyroid exposure are considered separately: (1) the internal exposure resulting from intake of short-lived radioiodines and radiotelluriums, (2) the internal exposure resulting from intake of other radionuclides (mainly radiocesiums), and (3) external exposure from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Examples are

  13. Treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer with 131I in children: 23 years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is an infrequent tumor in childhood. Its incidence is less than 1% among malignant neoplasm. Its treatment involves surgery, ablation with 131I and replacement with thyroxine. The aim of this study was to present our experience of using 131I as treatment for DTC in children under 18 years age, at the National Institute of Pediatrics, Mexico. This was a retrospective, longitudinal, observational and descriptive study that included 34 patients under 18 years age with DTC. We used clinical data, imaging, histopathology results and doses of 131I administered based on the extension of the disease after surgery (residual tissue, residual tissue with regional/distant metastasis and regional/distant metastasis with lung infiltration). The average follow-up time was 10 years (range: 0.33 - 23 years). Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test were used for the statistical analysis. Of the 34 patients, average age at diagnosis was 10.8 years (ranging from 6 to 17 years), 21 were females and 13 were males. The histopathological variety was papillary in 97% of the cases and follicular in 3%. At the time of initial diagnosis, the disease was intrathyroidal (76.4%) while (23.6%) had regional and distant metastases. Subtotal thyroidectomy was done in 60% of the patients while the remaining 40% had total thyroidectomy. An average single dose 3.4 GBq of 131I was administered to 14 patients (ranging 1.8 to 5.5 GBq). The remaining 20 patients with distant or lung metastasis received 2 to 6 doses ranging, 3.1 to 23.3 GBq (average of 9.7 GBq). Complete ablation was achieved in 21 cases (62%), while in 38% it could not be achieved. A significant number of children with intra thyroid DTC and regional metastasis achieved ablation with 131I doses between 3.7 and 5.5 GBq. With doses < 1.85 GBq, the probability of ablation was poor. Lung fibrosis was seen in 2 cases as a secondary effect. Average disease free survival was 9 years (41

  14. Thyroid cancer among children and adolescents in Russia following the Chernobyl accident. Retrospective estimation of thyroid doses and case - control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first large-scale study of thyroid cancer among young people in Russia following the Chernobyl accident was conducted. The study population consists of all children and adolescents (17 years and less) who were resided in Kaluga, Orel and Tula oblasts of Russia at the time of Chernobyl accident. Kaluga, Orel and Tula oblasts are approximately equally contaminated oblasts of Russia (up to 15 Ci/km2 for cesium-137). All prevalent and new carcinoma cases from 1 January 1992 to 31 December 1998 were collected in 1997-1998 years as a result of joint project on thyroid disease conducted by the Medical Radiological Research Center (Russia), International Agency for Research on Cancer (France) and Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation (Japan). Cases of thyroid cancer were found through the Russia National Medical and Dosimetric Registry and Russian Oncology Dispensaries. All cases were independently hystologically verified by the international panel of pathologists from Russia, Belarus and Europe. There were 12 cases in Kaluga, 27 cases in Orel and 23 cases in Tula oblasts. For each case were randomly selected two and four controls: two controls were matched on age, sex and on settlement of residence at the time of accident; four controls were matched on age, sex and on oblast of residence at the time of accident. Each patient and corresponding controls were examinated by the high-resolution ultrasonographic instrument and were interviewed by special trained medical staff. The new technique for reconstruction of the individual dose of internal irradiation of thyroid with incorporated 131I was developed. The method allows to take into account major factors influencing formation thyroid doses of the population: (1) three sources of receipt 131I in organism of the man: inhalation, consumption of milk and green vegetables; (2) types of food production: public and private (individual) sectors of its (her) manufacture; (3) weather conditions of spring of 1986 in regions of

  15. Dosimetric contribution of organs of biokinetics of 99mTc and 123I to estimate radiation doses in thyroids of children of 1 and 5 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorbed doses by thyroids during uptake studies through biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing 123I (iodine) or 99mTc (pertechnetate) are estimated. Using the MIRD scheme and the representation of Cristy-Eckerman for thyroids in children of 1 and 5 years, the objective of the study was to determine whether the dosimetric biokinetic contributions of the organs of 123I (iodide) and 99mTc (pertechnetate) biokinetic are significant in the estimated of the absorbed dose for thyroid uptake studies

  16. Thyroid gland protection against radioactive iodine. Fetus and preschool children are more sensitive; Bescherming van de schildklier tegen radioactief jodium. Foetus en kleuter zijn gevoeliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noteboom, J.L. [Integraal Kankercentrum, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-09-01

    The intake of iodine tablets can prevent the irradiation and accumulation of iodine in the thyroid of humans. The summary of the author`s thesis `Protection of the thyroid against radioactive iodine during fetal life and infancy. An experimental approach in chimpanzees` is presented in an edited form. The research was carried out on pregnant and very young chimpanzees. Based on the experimental results recommendations are made for radiation protection for pre-school children and pregnant women. 3 figs., 1 refs.

  17. Increase in Incidence of Medically-Treated Thyroid Disease in Children with Down Syndrome Following Re-release of American Academy of Pediatrics Health Supervision Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kecia N.; Arbogast, Patrick; Dudley, Judith A.; Cooper, William O.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence of medically treated thyroid disease in children with Down syndrome enrolled in Tennessee Medicaid (TennCare) during 1995–2005 and determine whether rates increased following re-release of American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines in 2001. PATIENTS AND METHODS We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study in which we identified children with Down syndrome using TennCare files and birth certificates. We included 1–18 year olds who were continuously enrolled in TennCare and did not fill a prescription for thyroid medication during a 90-day pre-study period. The rate of medically treated thyroid disease (a prescription filled for thyroid medication) was the main outcome. We determined rates of medically treated thyroid disease by study year, age, sex, race, region of residence, and payer type. We used Poisson regression to estimate predictors. RESULTS During the eleven year study period, 1257 children with Down syndrome (28% black, 72% white) met inclusion criteria. Overall, 10.8% filled a new prescription for thyroid medication. Rates of medically treated thyroid disease per 1000/child years were 13.25 (1995–1997), 13.34 (1998–1999), 13.62 (2000–2001), 22.34 (2002–2003) and 22.51 (2004–2005). In multivariable analyses, there was an increased rate of medically treated thyroid disease in 2002–03 (adjusted IR 1.73, 95% CI 1.02–2.93) and 2004–05 (adjusted IR 1.72, 95% CI 1.01–2.91) compared to 1995–1997. In a comparison cohort of children without Down syndrome, there was a smaller increase in the rate of medically treated thyroid disease when comparing 2002–03 (adjusted IR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03–1.53) and 2004–05 (adjusted IR 1.22, 95% CI 0.99–1.49) to 1995–1997. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of medically treated thyroid disease in children with Down syndrome in the TennCare cohort from 1995 to 2005 was 10.8%. A 73% increase in rate occurred following re-release of American Academy of Pediatrics

  18. Prevalence of autoantibodies and the risk of autoimmune thyroid disease in children with chronic hepatitis C virus infection treated with interferon-α

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephan Gehring; Ulrike Kullmer; Sabine Koeppelmann; Patrick Gerner; Philip Wintermeyer; Stefan Wirth

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of autoantibodies in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected children focusing on thyroid autoimmunity.METHODS: We investigated the prevalence of autoantibodies in 123 chronic HCV-infected children before,during and after monotherapy with interferon-alpha (TFN-α) or combined treatment with interferon-α or peginterferon-α and ribavirin. Besides antibodies against smooth muscle (SMA), nuclei (ANA), and liver/kidney microsomes (LKM), the incidence of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies as well as thyroid function parameters (TSH, FT3 and FT4) were determined.RESULTS: We found that 8% of children had autoantibodies before treatment. During treatment,18% of children were found positive for at least one autoantibody; 15.5% of children developed pathologic thyroid values during IFN-α treatment compared to only one child before therapy. Six children had to be substituted while developing laboratory signs of hypothyroidism.CONCLUSION: Our data indicate a strong correlation between interferon-α treatment and autoimmune phenomena, notably the emergence of thyroid antibodies. The fact that some children required hormone replacement underlines the need of close monitoring in particularly those who respond to therapy and have to be treated for more than 6 mo.

  19. Long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis and future perspectives on thyroid protection during {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment in children with neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, S.C. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, PO box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rijn, R.R. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Eck-Smit, B.L.F. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Trotsenburg, A.S.P. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, PO box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, H.N.; Tytgat, G.A.M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Santen, H.M. van [Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Treatment with {sup 131}I-MIBG is associated with significant thyroid damage. This study was undertaken to investigate the long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis, to explore the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and thyroid volume after exposure to {sup 131}I-MIBG and to evaluate the possible negative effects of {sup 131}I{sup -} on the parathyroid glands. Of 81 long-term surviving patients with neuroblastoma treated with {sup 131}I-MIBG during the period 1999-2012, 24 were finally evaluated. Patients received thyroxine (T4), methimazole and potassium iodide as thyroid protection. In all patients (para)thyroid function was evaluated and ultrasound investigation of the (para)thyroid gland(s) was performed. Thyroid dysfunction was defined as a plasma thyrotropin concentration >5.0 mU/L (thyrotropin elevation, TE) or as the use of T4 at the time of follow-up. Hyperparathyroidism was defined as a serum calcium concentration above the age-related reference range in combination with an inappropriately high parathyroid hormone level. At a median follow-up of 9.0 years after {sup 131}I-MIBG treatment, thyroid disorders were seen in 12 patients (50 %; 9 with TE, 5 with a thyroid nodule and 1 patient was subsequently diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma). No significant risk factors for the occurrence of thyroid damage could be identified. In 14 of 21 patients (67 %) in whom thyroid volume could be determined, the volume was considered small (<-2SD) for age and gender. Patients treated with T4 at the time of follow-up had significantly smaller thyroid volumes for age than patients without T4 treatment (p = 0.014). None of the patients was diagnosed with hyperparathyroidism. Thyroid protection during treatment with {sup 131}I-MIBG needs attention and must be further improved, as thyroid disorders are still frequently seen despite current thyroid prophylaxis. Reduced thyroid volume in neuroblastoma survivors may be related to previous {sup 131}I

  20. Long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis and future perspectives on thyroid protection during 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment in children with neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment with 131I-MIBG is associated with significant thyroid damage. This study was undertaken to investigate the long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis, to explore the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and thyroid volume after exposure to 131I-MIBG and to evaluate the possible negative effects of 131I- on the parathyroid glands. Of 81 long-term surviving patients with neuroblastoma treated with 131I-MIBG during the period 1999-2012, 24 were finally evaluated. Patients received thyroxine (T4), methimazole and potassium iodide as thyroid protection. In all patients (para)thyroid function was evaluated and ultrasound investigation of the (para)thyroid gland(s) was performed. Thyroid dysfunction was defined as a plasma thyrotropin concentration >5.0 mU/L (thyrotropin elevation, TE) or as the use of T4 at the time of follow-up. Hyperparathyroidism was defined as a serum calcium concentration above the age-related reference range in combination with an inappropriately high parathyroid hormone level. At a median follow-up of 9.0 years after 131I-MIBG treatment, thyroid disorders were seen in 12 patients (50 %; 9 with TE, 5 with a thyroid nodule and 1 patient was subsequently diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma). No significant risk factors for the occurrence of thyroid damage could be identified. In 14 of 21 patients (67 %) in whom thyroid volume could be determined, the volume was considered small (<-2SD) for age and gender. Patients treated with T4 at the time of follow-up had significantly smaller thyroid volumes for age than patients without T4 treatment (p = 0.014). None of the patients was diagnosed with hyperparathyroidism. Thyroid protection during treatment with 131I-MIBG needs attention and must be further improved, as thyroid disorders are still frequently seen despite current thyroid prophylaxis. Reduced thyroid volume in neuroblastoma survivors may be related to previous 131I-MIBG therapy or current T4 treatment. No

  1. Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Body in Balance › Thyroid Nodules Fact Sheet Thyroid Nodules March 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Hindi ... Singer, MD Leonard Wartofsky, MD What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped ...

  2. Cancer and non-cancer diseases of the thyroid gland and their dose dependence in children and adolescents affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 30,000 children and adolescents from four rayons of Brayansk oblast and from three rayons of Kaluga oblast have been examined. The cohort is being followed up dynamically. An age dependence of the radiation doses to the thyroid was clearly detected. The largest doses were found to be in children under 3 years old. Three per cent of children received doses above 200 cGy. 5 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Effect of suppressive L-thyroxine therapy on lipid profile of children and adolescents with thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of lipid profile indexes was performed among children and adolescents (n=403) being operated on thyroid carcinoma and, consequently, undertaken suppressive doses of L-thyroxin (3.0 μkg/kg body weight/daily). There was a significant increase in average levels of total lipids (TL), total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and atherogenity coefficient (K= [TC-HDL-C] / HDL-C) and the average level of HDL-C decrease as compared to the control group. Under the TSH suppression there was positive dynamics in TC and LDL-C levels as compared to patients with postoperative hypothyroidism

  4. Determining pathogenetic connection between disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and non-malignant pathology of thyroid gland in children , born from parents, Chernobyl accident survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 92 children aged 12-17 years were examined with the purpose to study the links between carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities and non-malignant thyroid disorders in descendants of the Chernobyl accident survivors. Clinical, anthropometrical studies and hormonal assays were applied. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities were revealed in every third case of thyroid disease. It confirms our supposition of such a possibility being due to the fact that radiation impact even in low doses can result in pronounced metabolic disorders lading to entire endocrine disregulation. It is relevant in children of the puberty age

  5. Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsies in Children: Study of Cytological-Histological Correlation and Immunostaining with Thyroid Peroxidase Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily Vasko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. There is limited data comparing results of fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs to histological diagnosis in children. Design. FNABs were performed in 707 children and cytological results were compared to histology in 165 cases. The usefulness of immunostaining with anti-TPO monoclonal antibodies (MoAb47 on FNAB samples was examined in 54 operated patients. Results. Among unsatisfactory, benign, suspicious, and malignant FNAB, the histological diagnoses were benign in 12/12 (100%, 69/70 (98.5%, 40/50 (80.0%, and 0/33 (0%, respectively. After surgery, malignancy was established in 44/165 (26.6% cases. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 95.4%, 55.8%, 61.7%, and 95% with standard FNAB; and 100%, 75%, 73.3, and 100% with MoAb47. Among suspicious FNAB, positive MoAb47 staining was a reliable marker for exclusion of malignancy. Conclusion. Benign and malignant FNAB accurately predict histological diagnosis. In suspicious FNAB, MoAb47 immunostaining may be a useful adjunct to standard cytology.

  6. Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsies in Children: Study of Cytological-Histological Correlation and Immunostaining with Thyroid Peroxidase Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Context. There is limited data comparing results of fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs to histological diagnosis in children. Design. FNABs were performed in 707 children and cytological results were compared to histology in 165 cases. The usefulness of immunostaining with anti-TPO monoclonal antibodies (MoAb47 on FNAB samples was examined in 54 operated patients. Results. Among unsatisfactory, benign, suspicious, and malignant FNAB, the histological diagnoses were benign in 12/12 (100%, 69/70 (98.5%, 40/50 (80.0%, and 0/33 (0%, respectively. After surgery, malignancy was established in 44/165 (26.6% cases. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 95.4%, 55.8%, 61.7%, and 95% with standard FNAB; and 100%, 75%, 73.3, and 100% with MoAb47. Among suspicious FNAB, positive MoAb47 staining was a reliable marker for exclusion of malignancy. Conclusion. Benign and malignant FNAB accurately predict histological diagnosis. In suspicious FNAB, MoAb47 immunostaining may be a useful adjunct to standard cytology.

  7. Kiddie-SADS Reveals High Rates of DSM-IV Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjevik, Elen; Eldevik, Sigmund; Fjaeran-Granum, Torill; Sponheim, Eili

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of current comorbid DSM-IV disorders was assessed in a special school population of children and adolescents with ASD (N = 71, age 6.0-17.9 years), representing all cognitive levels and main ASD subgroups. Symptoms were assessed through parent interview and association to child characteristics was explored. Seventy-two percent was…

  8. Further Evidence of the Reliability and Validity of DSM-IV ODD and CD in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Danis, Barbara; Hill, Carri; Humphries, Marisha; Duax, Jeanne; Donald, Radiah

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the reliability and validity of DSM-IV oppositional defiant and conduct disorders (ODD and CD) and symptoms using the Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorders Schedule and generate data on the manifestation of symptoms of ODD and CD in 3- to 5-year-old children. Method: One hundred twenty-three consecutive referrals to a child and…

  9. The assessment of the influence of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster on the incidence of thyroid diseases among children in Poland. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was attempted to assess the incidence of thyroid diseases in Polish children born between 1980 - 1986, who at the time of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster were 0 - 6 years old, or whose mothers were in the third trimester of pregnancy. 3071 children have been examined, 1772 girls and 1299 boys. The following were assessed in each child : the health status, the development level, the thyroid ultrasound examination, and the level of TSH, FT4, antithyroid antibodies ATM and ATGL in the blood serum. Disorders in thyroid morphology have been found in 462 children (15%), almost twice as much in girls than in boys. Goiter has been recognized in 4,6% of all children, an abnormal echogenity in 5,4% and focal changes in 4,8%. 3,9% of children have been found to have a high level of ATM antibodies, and 8,7% - a high level of ATGL antibodies. Among 6 children, who had thyroidectomy, 2 children have been diagnosed to have carcinoma papillare and 4 children - adenoma. (author)

  10. Results of the thyroid and diabetes-associated autoantibodies screening in children and adolescents living in various regions of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently among the factors capable to induce autoimmune reaction, it is ionizing radiation that is discussed, along with virus infections and chemical influences. Investigation of 540 healthy children and adolescents (age range 12-19 y.o.) living in radionuclide contaminated areas (average cesium 137 contamination 0,19-0,56 MBq/m2) and in conditionally clear regions revealed significant differences in levels of diabetes-associated (AB-GAD, AB-IA2) and thyroid (AB-TG, AB-TPO) autoantibodies. At the same time frequencies of positive AB-IA2, AB-TPO and AB-TG were higher in persons from contaminated regions. Obtained results correlate with the increase of the type 1 diabetes incidence in children and adolescents from Gomel region and dictate the necessity to continue the such study

  11. Thyroid function in children and adolescents after combined therapy of Hodgkin disease

    OpenAIRE

    R. I. Feoktistov; Y. G. Abugova; Y. Y. Dyakonova; O. V. Makarova; N. V. Myakova

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid diseases, especially hypothyroidism, are among the most frequent endocrine complications in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma whohave received neck irradiation. Thyroid function was evaluated in 34 patients (11 males and 23 females) after combined chemo radiotherapyof Hodgkin lymphoma according to modified DAL-HD-90M and GPOH-HD-2002 protocols. The median age was 15.9 years (range 5–18 years), the median time from the end of therapy was 1.08 years (range 1 month–4.9 years). 33 patients r...

  12. Burkitts primary thyroid lymphoma coexistence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Th primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare neoplasm, above all in children. We present a case of a child with Burkitt's thyroid lymphoma as the only manifestation of this disease, associated to lymphocytic thyroiditis. Clinically, it initiated as a rapidly growing goiter with compressive symptomatology. The X-ray findings are described: hypoechoic and hypodense multiple nodes that affect the right thyroid lobe and isthmus, with extraglandular extension to the vascular space and to the mediastinum. The differential diagnosis is considered with other more frequent thyroid pathologies in this age group. (Author) 14 refs

  13. Radiation and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An International Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer took place on 21-23 February 2014 in Tokyo, Japan, to support the efforts of the Fukushima Prefecture and the Japanese government in enhancing public health measures following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. The workshop, which was designed to develop a state-of-the-art scientific understanding of thyroid cancer in children and of radiation-induced thyroid cancer (papillary carcinoma) in particular, was co-organised by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment (MOE), the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It brought together the world's top experts in the field, including medical doctors, epidemiologists and radiological risk assessment specialists from ten countries. Although rare, thyroid cancer occurs naturally, with the risk of developing a thyroid cancer increasing with age. Cases are usually identified when a thyroid carcinogenic nodule grows enough to be felt with a patient's fingers, at which point the patient visits a medical doctor to identify the nature of the growth. In many countries around the world, the incidence rate of naturally occurring thyroid cancer is on the order of less than 1 per year per 100 000 children (from ages 0 to 18). Statistically, this rate appears to be increasing in many countries, with young girls slightly more at risk than young boys. A second but very different means of detecting thyroid cancer cases is through thyroid ultrasound screening examinations on subjects who do not demonstrate any symptoms. Ultrasound screening is a more sensitive approach that can detect very small nodules (< 5 mm) and cysts (< 20 mm) which would not normally be perceived through simple palpitation. However, because thyroid ultrasound screening examinations are much more effective, the number of thyroid cancer cases per examination will normally be larger than the number per capita found through national cancer

  14. Interest of the thyroid scintigraphy in the hypothyroidism of children affected by Downs Syndrome; Interet de la scintigraphie thyroidienne dans l'hypothyroidie des enfants atteints de trisomie 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimi, S.; Slim, I.; Yeddes, I.; El Ajmi, W.; Rmadi, S.; Ltaief, B.; Mhiri, A.; Ben Slimene, M.F. [Service de medecine nucleaire, institut Salah Azeiz, Tunis, (Tunisia)

    2009-05-15

    The corrected hypothyroidism for the trisomic children can have diverse etiologies. the thyroid scintigraphy allows to precise the stage of the thyroiditis in case of auto-immune disease and to comfort the hypothesis of the hypothalamus-hypophysis axis immaturity in the case of negative immunological evaluation. (N.C.)

  15. Dietary Habits and Health Related Behaviors in Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN- IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azizi-Soleiman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity has a growing global epidemic with several risk factors including lifestyle habits, physical activity, and prolonged screen time. This study aimed to compare the dietary habits and self-reported health behaviors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional nationwide study was conducted in the framework of the fourth survey of a national school-based surveillance program, entitled Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non‑communicable disease (CASPIAN-IV Study. Participants were 14,880 students aged 6-18 years from 30 provinces in Iran. The World Health Organization- Global Student Health Survey questionnaire was utilized to assess their relationship with peers, body image, dietary, life-style and smoking habits, physical activity, and violence behaviors. Apart from the questionnaire, additional information on dietary habits was obtained as well. The Chi-square test and the student t-test were used to compare the groups. Results: Boys had higher proportions of obesity (P

  16. Risk of thyroid cancer due to I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of increasing thyroid cancer in children after Chernobyl accident is explained. The current situation of thyroid exposure and ultrasonography of thyroid after Fukushima nuclear accident are compared with the experiment of Chernobyl. It is consisted of 1) thyroid and iodine, medical treatment for radioactive iodine, 2) adult thyroid cancer due to Chernobyl nuclear accident, 3) increase of adult thyroid cancer after Chernobyl nuclear accident, 4) Fukushima nuclear accident and thyroid cancer and 5) principle of future research of thyroid. Nuclear tests in the world and change of I-131 in thyroid of sheep in Tokyo (1955 to 1987), ultrasonography of thyroid for atomic bomb survivor, some examples of many adult patients of thyroid cancer at EU mission, annual incidence of adult thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident (1986 to 1995), distribution of thyroid I-131 from March 26 to 30, 2011, and results of thyroid test in Fukushima prefecture are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  17. Thyroid Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... producing a hormone knows as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Most people who have an underactive thyroid gland ... levels of T4 and high blood levels of TSH. Hyperthyroidism Also known as overactive thyroid and thyrotoxicosis, ...

  18. Thyroid Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Thyroid Antibodies Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Thyroid Autoantibodies; Antithyroid Antibodies; Antimicrosomal Antibody; Thyroid Microsomal Antibody; ...

  19. Thyroid ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may or may not be cancerous (a tumor ). Sometimes the thyroid is enlarged without any nodules. ... to: Cysts Enlargement of the thyroid gland ( goiter ) Thyroid nodules Your doctor can use these ...

  20. Thyroid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (2015) Radiation Safety in the Treatment of Patients with Thyroid Diseases by Radioiodine 131 I: Practice Recommendations of the ...

  1. A Clinical Comparison Study of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (DSM-IV) and Hyperkinetic Disorder (ICD-10) in Indian children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitholey, Prabhat; Agarwal, Vivek; Bharti, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To compare the usefulness of DSM IV and ICD-10 DCR criteria in clinic children presenting with the symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. Methods: 62 children (54 boys and 8 girls) participated in the study. Children were assessed on Kiddie schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia--present and lifetime version and…

  2. Dose absorbed in adults and children thyroid due to the I123 using the dosimetry MIRD and Marinelli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the dosimetry MIRD, and representation Cristy-Eckerman in the thyroid gland and organs of their bio-kinetics when I123 (Iodine) is used, the study demonstrates that the absorbed dose by the gland of an adult, children, and newly born, is their auto-dose, independent of the compartments number of their bio-kinetics. The dosimetric contributions of the organs of their bio-kinetics are insignificant. Their results are not significantly different to those obtained by the formalism MARINELLI (auto-dose) when it uses a sphere like glandular representation. In consequence, the kinetic model corresponding to the glandular representation decreases to a compartment, where the gland can also be represented like a sphere. (Author)

  3. Thyroid Growth and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dillwyn

    2015-09-01

    It is proposed that most papillary thyroid cancers originate in infancy and childhood, based on the early rise in sporadic thyroid carcinoma incidence, the pattern of radiation-induced risk (highest in those exposed as infants), and the high prevalence of sporadic papillary thyroid cancers in children and adolescents (ultrasound screening after the Fukushima accident). The early origin can be linked to the growth pattern of follicular cells, with a high mitotic rate in infancy falling to very low replacement levels in adult life. The cell of origin of thyroid cancers, the differentiated follicular cell, has a limited growth potential. Unlike cancers originating in stem cells, loss of the usually tight link between differentiation and replicative senescence is required for immortalisation. It is suggested that this loss distinguishes larger clinically significant papillary thyroid cancers from micro-papillary thyroid cancers of little clinical significance. Papillary carcinogenesis can then be divided into 3 stages: (1) initiation, the first mutation in the carcinogenic cascade, for radiation-induced papillary thyroid cancers usually a RET rearrangement, (2) progression, acquisition of the additional mutations needed for low-grade malignancy, and (3) escape, further mutations giving immortality and a higher net growth rate. Most papillary thyroid cancers will not have achieved full immortality by adulthood, and remain as so-called micro-carcinomas with a very low growth rate. The use of the term 'cancer' to describe micro-papillary thyroid cancers in older patients encourages overtreatment and alarms patients. Invasive papillary thyroid tumours show a spectrum of malignancy, which at its lowest poses no threat to life. The treatment protocols and nomenclature for small papillary carcinomas need to be reconsidered in the light of the new evidence available, the continuing discovery of smaller lesions, and the model of thyroid carcinogenesis proposed. PMID:26558233

  4. Vitamin A supplementation in iodine-deficient African children decreases thyrotropin stimulation of the thyroid and reduces the goiter rate 1-3

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, M B; Jooste, P.L.; Mabapa, N.S.; S. Schoeman; Biebinger, R; Mushaphi, L.F.; Mbhenyane, X.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A (VA) deficiency (VAD) and iodine deficiency (ID) often coexist in children in Africa. VAD may affect thyroid function and the response to iodine prophylaxis. Objective: The aim was to investigate the effects of supplementation with iodine or VA alone, and in combination, in children with concurrent VAD and ID. Design: A 6-mo randomized, double-blind, 2 x 2 intervention trial was conducted in 5¿14 y-old South African children (n = 404), who, on average, had mild-to-modera...

  5. Thyroid and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic 'Thyroid and Radiation' is both an old and new area to be solved by human beings. The thyroid is an organ that is usually susceptible to exposure to ionizing radiation, both by virtue of its ability to concentrate radioiodine (internal radiation) and by routine medical examination: Chest X-ray, Dental X-ray, X-irradiation of cervical lymph nodes etc. (external radiation). Iodine-131 is widely used for the therapy of Graves' disease and thyroid cancers, of which the disadvantage is radiation-induced hypothyroidism but not complications of thyroid tumor. The thyroid gland is comparatively radioresistant, however, the data obtained from Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Marshall islands indicates a high incidence of external radiation-induced thyroid tumors as well as hypothyroidism. The different biological effects of internal and external radiation remains to be further clarified. Interestingly, recent reports demonstrate the increased number of thyroid cancer in children around Chernobyl in Belarus. In this review, we would like to introduce the effect of radiation on the thyroid gland at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. Furthermore the clinical usefulness of iodine-131, including the safety-control for radiation exposure will be discussed. (author) 50 refs

  6. Thyroid function and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Silvia; Radetti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, childhood obesity is one of the biggest health emergencies in the developed countries. Obesity leads to multiple metabolic alterations which increase the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Thyroid function has been often described as altered in obese children, however, it is not clear whether the altered thyroid function is the cause or the consequence of fat excess. On the other hand, thyroid structure seems also to be affected. Nevertheless, both functional and structural alterations seem to improve after weight loss and therefore no treatment is needed. PMID:23149391

  7. Which DSM-IV-TR criteria best differentiate high-functioning autism spectrum disorder from ADHD and anxiety disorders in older children?

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Sikora, Darryn M.

    2009-01-01

    Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often delayed in high-functioning children with milder and more varied forms of ASD. The substantial overlap between ASD and other psychiatric disorders is thought to contribute to this delay. This study examined the endorsement of DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for ASD based on semi-structured parent interviews across three groups of older children referred to an ASD clinic: 55 children diagnosed with high-functioning ASD, 27 children diagnosed w...

  8. 儿童及青少年肥胖与甲状腺功能的关系%Relationship between Obesity and Thyroid Function in Children and Adolescent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张竞帆; 李玲

    2012-01-01

    儿童及青少年肥胖与甲状腺功能密切相关,其关联的可能原因有:甲状腺自身免疫状态、瘦素、炎症因子、甲状腺激素抵抗、线粒体功能受损等.甲状腺激素影响肥胖,但血清促甲状腺素(TSH)轻度升高更像是肥胖的结果而不是引起肥胖的原因,因此对于这部分儿童的甲状腺激素治疗没有必要.甲状腺激素类似物GC-1是否能用于治疗儿童及青少年肥胖仍有待研究.%There is close relationship between obesity and thyroid function in children and adolescent. The causes of the relationship may include the autoimmunity of thyroid, the role of leptin, impact of inflammatory factors, thyroid hormone resistance and consequence of impaired mitochondrial function. The thyroid hormone may have effect on obesity, but the TSH increase in obese children and adolescent seems to be a consequence rather than a cause of obesity. Therefore, this kind of increase of TSH should not be treated with thyroxine in obese children. Whether the synthetic analogue of thyroxine GC - 1 can be used to treat o-besity in children and adolescent should be further researched.

  9. Kaubamaja Lastemaailm IV korrusel = Children's World on the fourth floor of Tallinn Department Store

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Lastemaailm Tallinna Kaumabaja IV korrusel Gonsiori tänav 2. Arhitektuuri Sihtkapitali äramärkimine 2012 visuaalselt atraktiivse ning kontseptuaalselt tervikliku laste- ja vanemasõbraliku fantaasiamaailma loomise eest. Sisearhitektid Janno Roos, Andres Labi, Liisa Põime (Ruumilabor)

  10. Ectopic lingual thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid ectopy is characterized by the presence of thyroid tissue outside its normal position resulting from a defect of the thyroid diverticulum migration from the base of the tongue until its final pre-tracheal position. One case is presented in a 12-year-old girl patient who consults for a failure to thrive estimated at less than three standard deviations (SD). Bone age was estimated at 8 years late compared to chronological age. The hormonal assessment showed hypothyroidism with negative thyroid antibodies. Cervical ultrasound was revealed thyroid parenchyma pre-dominantly left in place while sweeping the area under chin showed a nodular formation of the base of the tongue. Thyroid scan with technetium 99 m showed a selective uptake of radiotracer in sublingual position. Cervical computed tomography revealed a posterior median sublingual mass spontaneously hyperdense and enhancing sharply after injection of contrast. Treatment with thyroxine allowed obtaining euthyroidism. This case asks us to be careful before aetiological diagnosis of hypothyroidism in children, because although this is rare, the presence of a thyroid parenchyma up to the cervical ultrasound does not eliminate the presence of ectopic tissue

  11. Analysis of serum lipid profiles, metal ions and thyroid hormones levels abnormalities in - thalassaemic children of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the serum lipid profile of cardiovascular disease free male and female children with - thalassaemia. Levels of zinc, copper and magnesium in the serum were also determined along with the Thyroid profile. Methods: From January to December 2007, we enrolled 121 consecutive patients with -thalassaemia that visited The Thalassaemia Center at Dhaka Shishu (Children) Hospital, Bangladesh every month for routine examinations. Fasting blood lipid levels were measured in all participants. Zinc, Copper and Magnesium levels in serums were determined. Thyroid function was also assessed by evaluating T3, T4 and TSH levels. Results: Of the 121 patients, 65 were males (10.14 +- 3.91 years) and 56 were females (9.08 +- 4.32 years). Data analysis revealed that 2.0% males and 4.35% females had high total serum cholesterol, and 28.57% males and 21.74% females had high triglyceride levels. In addition, mean HDL-cholesterol levels were 21.14 +- 5.82 mg/dl in males and 21.17 +- 6.02 mg/dl in females; total-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratios were 5.47 +- 1.66 and 5.96 +- 2.81 in males and females respectively. About 60% patients showed low serum level of Zn and Cu. Hypothyroidism was detected in 30% patients and 23% patients had abnormal experimental values of all the study parameters. Conclusions: The majority of the patients had blood lipid levels (by the exception of HDL-cholesterol) within the normal range, and consequently the prevalence of lipid abnormalities was much lower as compared to the general population of the same age. Interestingly, the total-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratio was high in our patients, and may underline the importance of this index for the prognosis of future cardiac events in these patients. The serum Zn and Cu levels were low in most of the patients which may cause some metabolic abnormalities in future. Most of the patients also showed hypothyroidism indicating the presence of endocrine complications. (author)

  12. Post treatment thyroid dysfunction and obesity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: a brief report

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ghasemi; Abdollah Banihashem; Nosrat Ghaemi; Saghi Elmi; Habibollah Esmaeili; Reza Erfani Sayyar; Sam Elmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: In most children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) and Non Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL) who have received chemotherapy with and without radi-otherapy, some late effects due to treatment may occur such as endocrinopathies. Methods: We evaluated growth criteria (including short stature, obesity) and thyroid test function in 50 children with ALL (n= 25) and NHL (n= 25) 3-17 year-old in remis-sion period who randomly received chemotherapy with (n= 25) or without (n= 25) radi-atio...

  13. Environmental chemicals and thyroid function: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, M.; Main, K.M.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To overview the effects of endocrine disrupters on thyroid function. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in recent years have revealed thyroid-disrupting properties of many environmentally abundant chemicals. Of special concern is the exposure of pregnant women and infants, as thyroid...... pregnant women, neonates and small children in order to avoid potential impairment of brain development. Future studies will indicate whether adults also are at risk of thyroid damage due to these chemicals Udgivelsesdato: 2009/10...

  14. DIFFICULT AIRWAY IN THYROID SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuello-Azcárate JJ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid surgery has been considered as a risk factor for the management of difficult airway.Method: We review the relevant literature related to the difficult airway and thyroid surgery.Comments: Endothoracic goiter, deformity of the airway, compression of the airway and thyroid cancer do not appear to have an influence on the difficulty for intubation.Classical parameters have a better predictive value: mouth opening less than 35 mm, Mallampati II-IV, short neck, neck movility less than 80 degrees, thyromental distance less than 60 mm, retrognathia, Cormack index III-IV, macroglossia, inability to protude the teeth and body mass index (BMI greater than 35 Kg/m2.Conclusions: According to the literature, thyroid disease does not increase the risk for a difficult airway (ventilation / intubation.The risk of an unexpected difficult airway (false negative cannot be eliminated.All patients must undergo an assessment of the airway

  15. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in your neck, just above your collarbone. It makes hormones that help ... There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater risk if you ...

  16. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders cannot be distinguished from one another on pathology specimens. As in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis is ... associated with symptoms including anxiety, insomnia, palpitations (fast heart rate), fatigue, weight loss, and irritability. Since these ...

  17. Thyroid storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000400.htm Thyroid storm To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Thyroid storm is a life-threatening condition that develops ...

  18. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  19. Thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications

  20. Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2030: The Unexpected Burden of Thyroid, Liver, and Pancreas Cancers in the United States . Cancer Research; 74(11): ... 2030: The Unexpected Burden of Thyroid, Liver, and Pancreas Cancers in the United States . Cancer Research; 74(11): ...

  1. Thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of ionizing radiation in the introduction of thyroid carcinoma is discussed. In the treatment of thyroid cancer, radioiodine administration is of value as an ablation procedure, completing the thyroidectomy and as a method to irradiate selectively functioning thyroid carcinoma tissue that cannnot be removed surgically. Results of the clinical management of 155 patients with malignant thyroid tumours are presented. The ablation dose of iodine-131 can be decreased to 40 millicuries thus effectively reducing the patients whole body radiation dose

  2. Common and Unique Factors Associated with DSM-IV-TR Internalizing Disorders in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Smith, Rita L.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2008-01-01

    With the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association. "Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-IV Fourth Edition-Text Revision". Author, Washington, DC. 2000) ahead, decisions will be made about the future of taxonomic conceptualizations. This study examined the…

  3. Clinical Implications of DSM-IV Subtyping of Bipolar Disorders in Referred Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Perugi, Giulio; Millepiedi, Stefania; Mucci, Maria; Pari, Cinzia; Pfanner, Chiara; Berloffa, Stefano; Toni, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Objective: According to DSM-IV, bipolar disorders (BDs) include four subtypes, BD I, BD II, cyclothymic disorder, and BD not otherwise specified (NOS). We explore the clinical implications of this subtyping in a naturalistic sample of referred youths with BD I, BD II, and BD-NOS. Method: The sample consisted of 217 patients, 135 males and 82…

  4. Favourable course of disease after incomplete remission on {sup 131}I therapy in children with pulmonary metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma: 10 years follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph; Kreissl, Michael C.; Verburg, Frederik A. [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Demidchik, Yuri [Thyroid Cancer Centre, Minsk (Belarus); Drozd, Valentina [International Belarussian-German Foundation, Minsk (Belarus)

    2011-04-15

    The aim of this study is to report on a collective of 20 children from Belarus who had developed papillary thyroid carcinoma with pulmonary metastases after the Chernobyl disaster. In all children fractionated radioiodine therapy (RIT) was ceased before achieving complete remission due to a lack of further effects of {sup 131}I therapy and an increased risk of pulmonary fibrosis. The 20 children (12 girls) were treated with {sup 131}I using 50 MBq/kg body weight for thyroid remnant ablation and 100 MBq/kg for further therapy in intervals of 5-12 months. After five to six courses and a cumulative activity of about 24 GBq {sup 131}I no further RIT was conducted; the median thyroglobulin (TG) was 56 {mu}g/l at this time. All patients were followed for at least 10 years after cessation of RIT using diagnostic whole-body scintigraphy, CT of the chest, lung function testing and stimulated TG measurements every 1-3 years. During follow-up after the last RIT a continuous decline of values for TG levels of {proportional_to}35% per year was observed between individual visits. The median Tg level at the time of cessation of {sup 131}I therapy was 56 {mu}g/l; however, at the last visit 16 of 20 patients had a TG level {<=}10 {mu}g/l (median 2.4 {mu}g/l). Neither on diagnostic radioiodine whole-body scan nor on CT was progression of lung metastases observed. No significant pulmonary fibrosis developed. In spite of incomplete remission of thyroid cancer at cessation of RIT, a continuing spontaneous decline of TG and clinically stable partial remissions were observed in this collective of children. Therefore, if RIT does not show further effects, the administration of further courses should be handled restrictively. (orig.)

  5. Favourable course of disease after incomplete remission on 131I therapy in children with pulmonary metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma: 10 years follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to report on a collective of 20 children from Belarus who had developed papillary thyroid carcinoma with pulmonary metastases after the Chernobyl disaster. In all children fractionated radioiodine therapy (RIT) was ceased before achieving complete remission due to a lack of further effects of 131I therapy and an increased risk of pulmonary fibrosis. The 20 children (12 girls) were treated with 131I using 50 MBq/kg body weight for thyroid remnant ablation and 100 MBq/kg for further therapy in intervals of 5-12 months. After five to six courses and a cumulative activity of about 24 GBq 131I no further RIT was conducted; the median thyroglobulin (TG) was 56 μg/l at this time. All patients were followed for at least 10 years after cessation of RIT using diagnostic whole-body scintigraphy, CT of the chest, lung function testing and stimulated TG measurements every 1-3 years. During follow-up after the last RIT a continuous decline of values for TG levels of ∝35% per year was observed between individual visits. The median Tg level at the time of cessation of 131I therapy was 56 μg/l; however, at the last visit 16 of 20 patients had a TG level ≤10 μg/l (median 2.4 μg/l). Neither on diagnostic radioiodine whole-body scan nor on CT was progression of lung metastases observed. No significant pulmonary fibrosis developed. In spite of incomplete remission of thyroid cancer at cessation of RIT, a continuing spontaneous decline of TG and clinically stable partial remissions were observed in this collective of children. Therefore, if RIT does not show further effects, the administration of further courses should be handled restrictively. (orig.)

  6. Elevated Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Alteration of Thyroid Hormones in Children from Guiyu, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xijin; Liu, Junxiao; Zeng, Xiang; Lu, Fangfang; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling results in serious environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals. This study explored whether there is an association between PBDEs, heavy metal and key growth-and development-related hormones in children from Guiyu,

  7. [Thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research. PMID:22514922

  8. Analysis of thyroid malignant pathological findings identified during three rounds of screening (1997-2008) of a Belarusian cohort of children and adolescents exposed to radioiodines after the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Lydia; Nadyrov, Eldar; Rozhko, Alexander; Gong, Zhihong; Polyanskaya, Olga; McConnell, Robert; O'Kane, Patrick; Brenner, Alina; Little, Mark P.; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, Andre; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Viktor; Demidchik, Yuri; Nerovnya, Alexander; Yauseyenka, Vassilina; Savasteeva, Irina; Nikonovich, Sergey; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Hatch, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies of children and adolescents exposed to radioactive iodine-131 (I-131) after the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident in Ukraine showed significant dose-related increase in the risk of thyroid cancer, but the association of radiation doses with tumor histological and morphological features is not clear. Methods A cohort of 11,664 individuals in Belarus ≤18 years at the time of the accident underwent three cycles of thyroid screening in 1997-2008. I-131 thyroid doses were estimated from individual thyroid activity measurements taken within two months after the accident and dosimetric data from questionnaires. Demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics of thyroid cancer cases were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, chi-square or Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. Results As a result of screening, 158 thyroid cancers were identified. The majority of cases had T1a and T1b tumors (93.7%), with many regional N1 (60.6%) but few distant M1 (<1%) metastases. Higher I-131 doses were associated with higher frequency of solid or diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer (P<0.01) and histological features of cancer aggressiveness, such as lymphatic vessel invasion, intrathyroidal infiltration, and multifocality (all P<0.03). Latency was not correlated with radiation dose. Fifty-two cases of self-reported thyroid cancers diagnosed prior to 1997 were younger at the time of the accident and had a higher percentage of solid variant cancers compared to screening-detected cases (all P<0.0001). Conclusions I-131 thyroid radiation doses were associated with significantly higher frequency of solid or diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer and various features of tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25351557

  9. Thyroid Disorders Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Symptoms Hypothyroidism Thyroid Nodules Lifestyle and Prevention Thyroid Disorders The thyroid gland is located at the ... lives, and must be closely monitored by physicians. Thyroid Nodules Thyroid disorders can also occur because of ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  11. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » Thyroid cancer risk factors What causes thyroid cancer? Can thyroid cancer be prevented? Previous Topic Thyroid cancer risk factors Next Topic Can thyroid cancer be prevented? What ...

  12. Thyroid gland removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small thyroid growth ( nodule or cyst) A thyroid gland that is so overactive it is dangerous ( thyrotoxicosis ) Cancer of the thyroid Noncancerous (benign) tumors of the thyroid that are causing symptoms Thyroid ...

  13. Thyroid dysfunction in Down's syndrome and screening for hypothyroidism in children and adolescents using capillary TSH measurement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, J

    2008-02-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is more common in individuals with Down\\'s syndrome (DS) than in the general population, whose clinical features can mask the presenting signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism. Biochemical screening is necessary; however, venepuncture may be difficult.

  14. The immunological phenotype and ultrastructure of blood lymphocytes of children with the diagnosis of thyroid cancer who lived near the Chernobyl NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the flow cytometric and electron microscopic study of blood cells in children with papillary thyroid cancer, who lived near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station, we revealed a decrease in the number and changes in the ultrastructure of T-lymphocytes (CD3+ cells), T-helpers (CD4+ cells), and NK cells (CD56+cells) as well as eosinophilia. We suggest that the impairment of T-cellular and natural immunity may be a promoting factor of the malignant transformation of thyrocytes induced by radioiodine

  15. “Focal thyroid inferno” on color Doppler ultrasonography: A specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods: A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The χ2 test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. Results: The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using “focal thyroid inferno” as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The vascularity type of “focal thyroid inferno” is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy.

  16. 儿童和青少年甲状腺癌的治疗进展%Treatment progress of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嘉莹; 张凌; 嵇庆海

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is uncommon in children and adolescents. This article analyzed the current data and stated the treatment progress of the thyroid cancer in children and adolescents. Even though in the advanced stage at diagnosis, the prognosis is good for pediatric patients. Surgery is the treatment for pediatric thyroid cancer. Although there is no optimal surgery recommendation, most surgeons preferred total and (or) subtotal thyroidectomy. Hemi-thyroidectomy could also be considered in the low-risk patients with small unifocal tumors. We recommend routine central compartment clearance in pediatric thyroid cancers to reduce the local recurrence. Radioactive iodine therapy is also recommended in particular pediatric patients. Recurrences after treatment in childhood thyroid cancer may take place over a long period of time. Therefore, a life-long follow-up is mandatory.%儿童和青少年甲状腺癌较为罕见。本文通过分析现有数据资料,阐述儿童和青少年甲状腺癌的治疗进展。尽管发现时分期较晚,但该病总体预后较好。手术治疗是最主要的治疗方式,目前无标准的手术处理方式。大部分外科医生赞成甲状腺全切和(或)次全切。对于单侧的低危患者,也可考虑单侧腺叶切除。预防性中央区淋巴结清扫术能够降低局部复发。在特定的患者中行放射性131I治疗能降低复发风险。由于生存期较长,在长期无瘤生存后仍可能再次复发,因此患者需要长期随访。

  17. Assessing the accuracy of the WISC-IV seven-subtest short form and the child and adolescent intellectual disability screening questionnaire in identifying intellectual disability in children

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, Karen; Murray, Aja Louise; Murray, Kara; Murray, George

    2014-01-01

    Little research has been conducted into the accuracy of abbreviated assessments in identifying children and young people with an intellectual disability (ID). The present study compared two such methods in a clinical population of individuals with (n = 106) and without (n = 170) ID: a 7-subtest short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales for Children--fourth edition (WISC-IV) proposed by Crawford and colleagues and the Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionna...

  18. Children's Problems Predict Adults' "DSM-IV" Disorders across 24 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reef, Joni; van Meurs, Inge; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to determine continuities of a broad range of psychopathology from childhood into middle adulthood in a general population sample across a 24-year follow-up. Method: In 1983, parent ratings of children's problems were collected with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in a general population sample of 2,076…

  19. Thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the relationship between A-bomb radiation and thyroid cancer in the literature. The previous studies have showed a similar outcome; that is, the incidence of thyroid cancer is higher with increasing radiation doses. Risk for thyroid cancer is significantly high in women. Latent cancer found at autopsy is also found to be significantly increased with increasing radiation doses, especially for women. (N.K.)

  20. Incidence of leukemia, lymphoma and thyroid cancers in children under 15 years old in the vicinity of Marcoule nuclear plant, 1985-95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was to report incidence of childhood leukemia, lymphoma and thyroid neoplasms in children under 15 years of age living in the vicinity of the French Marcoule nuclear reprocessing plant. This exhaustive and retrospective survey was carried out between 1985 and 1995 in children aged under 14 at the time of diagnosis and living inside a 35 kilometer zone around the nuclear site. 656 practitioners, 109 medical analysis laboratories and 5 hospitals or cancer institutes were investigated. A panel of experts checked each case. 48 cases of acute leukemia (39 acute lymphoid leukemia and 9 acute myeloid leukemia), 15 cases of lymphoma (8 Hodgkin lymphomas - 53 % - and 7 non hodgkinian lymphomas including 5 Burkitt lymphomas), 1 case of chronic myeloid leukemia and 1 case of papillary thyroid cancer, appeared among the 1,116,442 children-years followed. The total incidences of leukemias and lymphomas were respectively 4.12 and 1.29.10-5. Standardised Incidence Ratios, calculated according to Poisson methods and Bayesian inference, with various reference rates did not show any excess of risk: 100.67 (95 % confidence interval 72-131) for leukemia. Children under 5 years old and living in non exposed areas to dominant winds or downstream Rhodanian water drawing presented a 3 or 4 fold decreased risk of leukemia than others (the latter still having an identical risk to that of the general population). This was not true for lymphomas, nor for the other age groups. Over the entire zone, children do not have an increased risk of malignant hematology disease but health monitoring by a systematic collection of cases remains useful around Marcoule. The assumption of aquiferous or air contamination thus still remains questionable: further studies investigating models of contamination are needed to take into account all other nonionizing leukemogenic factors (benzene and viral infection in particular) or correlation studies between health indicators and

  1. Differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retrospective analysis of the case files of children with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) was performed to define the disease by its presentation, clinical course and outcome of radioiodine therapy. Differentiated thyroid cancer in children and adolescents is rare but aggressive. The biological behavior differs from that in adults and is related to the age. Younger the age (≤10 years), more aggressive and widespread is the disease with male preponderance and high mortality. The Post-surgical radioiodine ablation/therapy is an important and effective adjuvant in the management of DTC in children and adolescents and even though they present with advance disease, long-term survival and overall prognosis is good

  2. Thyroid nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib H, Papini E, Paschke R, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice ...

  3. Cognitive Profile for Children with ADHD by Using WISC-IV: Subtype Differences?

    OpenAIRE

    Fenollar-Cortés, Javier; Navarro Soria, Ignacio Javier; González Gómez, Carlota; García-Sevilla, Julia

    2015-01-01

    El presente estudio explora si se puede obtener un perfil cognitivo específico para niños/as con TDAH a partir de la Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Niños Cuarta Edición (WISC-IV), y si ese perfil es capaz de diferenciar entre los subtipos clínicos de TDAH. Se seleccionó un grupo de control de 47 niños/as y otro grupo clínico de 86 niños/as diagnosticados/as con TDAH, éste último dividido a su vez en dos subgrupos de acuerdo a sus características clínicas. El grupo clínico se caracterizó...

  4. Diagnostic Classification of Eating Disorders in Children and Adolescents: How Does DSM-IV-TR Compare to Empirically-Derived Categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Le Grange, Daniel; Crosby, Ross D.; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Doyle, Angela Celio; Smyth, Angela; Herzog, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to empirically derive eating disorder phenotypes in a clinical sample of children and adolescents using latent profile analysis (LPA), and to compare these latent profile (LP) groups to the DSM-IV-TR eating disorder categories. Method: Eating disorder symptom data collected from 401 youth (aged 7 through 19…

  5. Prevalence of DSM IV anxiety and affective disorders in a pediatric population of asthmatic children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, G; Nollet-Clemençon, C; de Blic, J; Mouren-Simeoni, M C; Scheinmann, P

    2000-06-01

    A series of 82 children and adolescents with moderate and severe persistent asthma was studied. Their psychopathological problems were compared to those of 82 healthy subjects, matched for age, sex and socio-economic status. The patients completed the Child Depression Inventory, an inventory of fears and anxiety (ECAP) and the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory. Parents of asthmatic children filled in the Child Behavior Check List to assess their social competence. The patients were examined with the revised Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. There were more anxiety symptoms in the asthmatic group than in the control group. Asthmatics were not significantly more depressed than controls and their self-esteem was as good. We found 29 anxiety disorders, four affective disorders and four disruptive behavior disorders. Generalized anxiety disorder was the main diagnosis (n=24). The asthmatic subgroup presenting anxiety and affective disorders had poorer self esteem, fewer activities and worse social competence than other asthmatics and controls. Adolescents did not seem to have more emotional disturbances than younger patients. Girls did not have more DSM IV anxiety or affective disorders than boys. PMID:10802131

  6. Comprehensive analysis of cytokine gene polymorphisms defines the association of IL-12 gene with ophthalmopthy in Korean children with autoimmune thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jung-Pil; Cho, Won-Kyoung; Baek, In-Cheol; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Shin, Dong-Hwan; Suh, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Tai-Gyu

    2016-05-01

    In early onset autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) showing a strong genetic tendency, cytokines have been suggested to play a critical role in the development of AITD. To directly compare the influences of several cytokine gene polymorphisms, 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 17 cytokine genes were analyzed on 104 Korean children with AITD [Hashimoto's disease (HD) = 44, Graves' disease (GD) = 60 (thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) = 29, non-TAO = 31)] and 192 controls. Compared with healthy controls, any significant association with polymorphisms of cytokine genes was not found in HD and GD. Among GD patients, non-TAO group only showed significant associations with IL-12 C allele (rs3212227: A > C) (76.6% vs. 51.6%, OR = 0.3 [0.15-0.71], Pc = 0.007). Particularly, the frequency of IL-12C allele was significantly lower in the non-TAO group than in the TAO group (82.8% vs. 51.6%, Pc = 0.018). Our comprehensive analysis of cytokine gene polymorphisms suggests that IL-12 gene may play impact on specific pathogenesis of ophthalmopathy in Korean children with AITD. PMID:26850223

  7. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms in preschool children from an E-waste recycling town: assessment by the parent report derived from DSM-IV

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ruibiao; Huo, Xia; Ho, Guyu; Chen, Xiaojuan; Wang, Hongwu; Wang, Tianyou; Ma, Lian

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) status among preschool-aged children in Guiyu, an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling town in Guangdong, China. Methods Two hundred and forty-three parents were surveyed regarding ADHD behaviors in their children (aged 3–7 years) based solely on the DSM-IV criteria. The peripheral blood samples were taken from these children to measure blood lead levels (BLLs) and blood cadmium levels (BCLs). Results 12.8% of child...

  8. WISC-IV Intellectual Profiles in Italian Children With Specific Learning Disorder and Related Impairments in Reading, Written Expression, and Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Michele

    2016-05-01

    The fifth edition of theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disordersgrouped specific learning disabilities in the single diagnostic category of specific learning disorder (SLD), with specifiers for impairments in reading, written expression, and mathematics. This study aimed at investigating the intellectual profile, assessed with the fourth edition of theWechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(WISC-IV), of 172 children with a diagnosis of SLD, compared to 74 clinical referral controls. WISC-IV intellectual functioning in children with SLD was characterized by a significant discrepancy between general ability and cognitive proficiency (General Ability Index [GAI] > Cognitive Proficiency Index [CPI]), and worse performances on the Similarities, Digit Span, Letter-Number Sequencing, and Coding subtests, supporting models of multiple cognitive deficits at the basis of neurodevelopmental disorders as SLD. GAI was the best and more conservative measure provided by the WISC-IV to identify intellectual functioning in children with SLD, and the intellectual discrepancy between GAI and CPI could be considered a "cognitive sign" for the presence of SLD in a single diagnostic category. Cognitive deficits differed in subtypes of impairment (reading, written expression, and mathematics), supporting their distinction for empirical, educational, and rehabilitative purposes. These findings need further replication in larger samples and in comparison to typically developing children. PMID:25349093

  9. Thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter reviews the correlation between thyroid disease, other than cancer, and radiation in the literature. Radiation-induced thyroid disturbance is discussed in the context of external and internal irradiation. External irradiation of 10 to 40 Gy may lower thyroid function several months or years later. Oral administration of I-131 is widely given to patients with Basedow's disease; it may also lower thyroid function with increasing radiation doses. When giving 70 Gy or more of I-131, hypothyroidism has been reported to occur in 20-30% and at least 10%. Thyroiditis induced with internal I-131 irradiation has also been reported, but no data is available concerning external irradiation-induced thyroiditis. The incidence of nodular goiter was found to be several ten times higher with external irradiation than internal irradiation. Thyroid disturbance is correlated with A-bomb survivors. A-bomb radiation can be divided into early radiation within one minute after A-bombing and the subsequent residual radiation. Nodular goiter was significantly more frequent in the exposed group than the non-exposed group; it increased with increasing radiation doses and younger age (20 years or less) at the time of exposure. The incidence of decrease in thyroid function was higher with increasing radiation doses. However, in the case of Nagasaki, the incidence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in the low-dose exposed group, especially A-bomb survivors aged 10-39 at the time of exposure and women. (N.K.)

  10. Thyroid consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, F; Vorontsova, T; Molinaro, E; Shavrova, E; Agate, L; Kuchinskaya, E; Elisei, R; Demidchik, E P; Pinchera, A

    1999-12-01

    It is well recognized that the use of external irradiation of the head and neck to treat patients with various non-thyroid disorders increases their risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma years after radiation exposure. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has also been reported in survivors of the atomic bombs in Japan, as well as in Marshall Island residents exposed to radiation during the testing of hydrogen bombs. More recently, exposure to radioactive fallout as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has clearly caused an enormous increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus, Ukraine, and, to a lesser extent, in the Russian Federation, starting in 1990. When clinical and epidemiological features of thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident are compared with those of naturally occurring thyroid carcinomas in patients of the same age group in Italy and France, it becomes apparent that the post-Chernobyl thyroid carcinomas were much less influenced by gender, virtually always papillary (solid and follicular variants), more aggressive at presentation and more frequently associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Gene mutations involving the RET proto-oncogene, and less frequently TRK, have been shown to be causative events specific for papillary cancer. RET activation was found in nearly 70% of the patients who developed papillary thyroid carcinomas following the Chernobyl accident. In addition to thyroid cancer, radiation-induced thyroid diseases include benign thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, with or without thyroid insufficiency, as observed in populations after environmental exposure to radioisotopes of iodine and in the survivors of atomic bomb explosions. On this basis, the authors evaluated thyroid autoimmune phenomena in normal children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. The results demonstrated an increased prevalence of circulating thyroid

  11. Pictorial essay of developmental thyroid anomalies identified by Technetium thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developmental anomalies and anatomic variations of the thyroid gland in the general population with no known thyroid dysfunction usually goes unnoticed. Only those patients with neck swellings, incidentally detected hypo or hyperthyroidism, and those with a maternal history of hypothyroidism undergo screening for the thyroid gland. Neck ultrasound and scintigraphic techniques are the imaging tools routinely used to identify these anomalies. We present interesting technetium (Pertechnetate and sestaMIBI) scintigraphic images of adults and children who presented to our department with thyroid dysfunction showing developmental anomalies of the thyroid

  12. Snack Consumption among Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam BAHREYNIAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to assess the frequency of consuming different types of snacks among Iranian students according to socio-economic status (SES of their living region.Methods: Data were obtained from the fourth national school-based surveillance survey entitled CASPIAN-IV study. Overall, 14880 school students, aged 6-18 years, were selected through multistage, cluster sampling from rural and urban areas of the of 30 provinces of Iran. The World Health Organization Global School Student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS was used. Data were compared at national/sub-national levels by survey data analysis methods.Results: The participation rate was 90.6%, 13486 students (49.2% girls, mean (SD age of 12.50 (3.36 years completed the study. At national level, fresh fruits were the most common used category of healthy snacks (55.74%, 95% CI: 54.51, 56.96. Boys had more daily consumption of milk (48.65% vs. 43.27%, and girls had more daily consumption of fresh fruits (58.07% vs. 53.47%. Urban residents had lower consumption of vegetables (30.53% vs. 37.55%, dried fruits (18.29% vs. 23.02%, and fresh fruits (45.33% vs. 50.09% than their rural counterparts. Among unhealthy snacks, sweets had the highest daily consumption (34.15%, 95% CI: 33.04, 35.28. Boys had higher consumption of sweetened beverages (22.57% vs. 17.6% and fast foods (3.51% vs. 2.17%. At national level, except than salty snacks (16.24% rural vs.11.83% urban, consumption of other junk snacks had no significant difference between urban and rural residents.Conclusion: Differences in the frequency of consuming healthy and unhealthy snacks according to the SES of the living region, and the choice differences between genders should be considered in planning national health programs. Keywords: Snack, Healthy snack, Junk food, Socio-economic status, Iran 

  13. Thyroid effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk coefficients for thyroid disorders have been developed for both 131I and external x or gamma low-LET radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been used for thyroid neoplasms. A linear, threshold model has been used for other thyroid disorders. Improvements since the Reactor Safety Study were made possible by relevant new animal and human data. Major changes are as follows. Animal data are used to supplement the human experience where necessary. A specific risk estimate model is used for thyroid neoplasms, which accounts for observed effects of gender and age at exposure on risk. For thyroid cancer, the basis of the risk coefficients is the experience of North Americans following x-irradiation for benign disease in childhood. This recognizes possible differences in susceptibility in people of different heritage. A minimum induction period for thyroid neoplasms following irradiation is used to define periods at risk. An upper bound risk coefficient for cancer induction following exposure to 131I is based on human experience at relatively low dose exposures. While the overall lifetime risks of death due to thyroid cancer are consistent with projections by the ICRP, BEIR III, and UNSCEAR Reports, the current model permits greater flexibility in determining risk for population subgroups. 88 references, 8 tables

  14. Pathogenesis of radiation-induced thyroid cancer in children affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of our 12-year experience in dealing with this problem,we offered a functional model of thyroid pathogenesis in the post-Chernobyl period.The model highlights the tight correlation between the response of the thyroid gland at exposure to ionising radiation and its functional state.The model takes into account that the thyroid functional state - its volume,iodine intake,production of hormones,etc.- has an influence upon the formation of the absorbed dose,mainly due to radioactive iodine,as well as on the type and level of radiation response manifestation.The functional activity of the gland depends both on peculiarities of the pubescent period in boys and girls,on periods of pregnancy,lactation and menopause in women and on external factors(iodine enemy in the environment or iodine prophylaxis).This permits us to consider and analyse a wide set of thyroid disorders possibly related to radiation exposure

  15. CLINICAL CONCEPTS ON THYROID EMERGENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo ePontecorvi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Thyroid-related emergencies are caused by overt dysfunction of the gland that are so severe that require admission to intensive care units frequently. Nonetheless, in the ICU setting, it is crucial to differentiate patients with non-thyroidal illness and alterations in thyroid function tests from those with intrinsic thyroid disease. This review presents and discusses the main etiopathogenetical and clinical aspects of hypothyroid coma (HC and thyrotoxic storm (TS, including therapeutic strategy flow-charts. Furthermore, a special chapter is dedicated to the approach to massive goiter, which represents a surgical thyroid emergency.Data source. We searched the electronic MEDLINE database to September 2013.Data selection and Data extraction. Reviews, original articles and case reports on myxedematous coma, hypothyroid coma, thyroid storm, thyrotoxic storm, massive goiter, huge goiter, prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, therapy, prognosis were selected.Data synthesis and conclusions. Severe excess or defect of thyroid hormone are rare conditions which jeopardize the life of patients in most cases. Both HC and TS are triggered by precipitating factors, which occur in patients with severe hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis, respectively. The pillars of HC therapy are: high dose l-thyroxine and/or tri-iodothyroinine; i.v. glucocorticoids; treatment of hydro-electrolyte imbalance (mainly, hyponatraemia; treatment of hypothermia; not rarely, endotracheal intubation and assisted mechanic ventilation are needed. Therapy of TS is based on beta-blockers, thyrostatics, and i.v. glucocorticoids; eventually, high-dose iodide compounds or lithium carbonate may be of benefit. Surgery represents the gold standard treatment in patients with euthyroid massive nodular goiter, although new techniques – e.g., percutaneous laser ablation - are helpful in subjects at high surgical risk or refusing operation.

  16. Medullary carcinoma of thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by radiation therapy to the neck given ...

  17. Stages of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enlarged thyroid). Having a family history of thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

  18. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving Workplace Giving Other Ways to Donate Thyroid Hormone Treatment Thyroid hormone is used in two situations: ... prevent recurrence or progression of their cancer. THYROID HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY Many people have a thyroid gland ...

  19. Association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SND of CD28 (IVS3+17+K and CTLA-4 (+49 A/G with thyroid autoimmunity AIT Asociación de polimorfismos de simple nucleótido (SNP de CD28 (IVS3+17T/C Y CTLA-4 (+49A/G con autoinmunidad tiroidea (AIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Galarza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The autoimmune thyroid disease is the most prevalent autoimmune affection and affects until 5% of the general population; its development is given by the interaction between genetic susceptibility and other factors. One particularity is the early production of thyroid autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (aTPO which often predicts the clinical development of the disease. The genetic susceptibility for the thyroid autoimmunity (AIT is generated by genes of the HLA and by other genes candidates of the chromosome 2q33. This region contains the genes: CTLA-4 and CD 28. Several polymorphisms of both would be associated according to previous studies. Objective: To analyze and to compare the simple nucleotide polymorphism distribution (SNP of CD28 (IVS3+17 T/C and CTLA-4 (+ 49 A/G in patients with aTPO> 10 IU/ml (AIT compared to a control group aTPO ≤ 10 IU/ml with no AIT. Subjects and Methods: We have studied 69 patients with AIT and 36 control subjects. Serum aTPO were measured by using chemiluminescence immunoassay (IMMULITE1000, Siemens. Genomic DNA was prepared from peripheral white blood cells. The amplification of the genes was carry out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Statistical analyses : the differences between groups were made using the chisquare test. P less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was a significant difference of genotype CD 28 C/T in patients with AIT compared with controls (p=0.026. The genotypes of CTLA-4 was analyzed and there was no significant difference between AIT and controls. Analysis of genotypes association CD 28 C/T and CTLA-4 A/A or A/G, revealed significant difference comparing AIT versus controls (p= 0.013. Conclusions: We found a possible association of genotype CD 28 C/T in individuals with AIT, since carriers of genotype C/T would have a risk three times higher to acquire AIT. The combination of genotypes CD 28 C/T and CTLA-4 A/A or A/G would increase the risk of

  20. Thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Special place in oncology belongs to thyroid cancer as it is a cancer originating from hormonally active tissue. 90 % of endocrine neoplasia are represented by thyroid cancer. It is a relatively rare cancer and due to its heterogeneity it encompasses spectrum of therapeutic approaches with interdisciplinary management which includes various implications for prognosis and lethality. Generally, the prognosis for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is good, a 10 years survival rate is at 85 %. Standard treatment includes surgical therapy, TSH suppressive therapy and ablation of the thyroid remnant with radioactive iodine. Patients with recurrent disease, disseminated disease present at the time of diagnosis, patients unsuitable for surgical treatment or for treatment with radioiodine still remain a therapeutic challenge. As there is no effective systematic treatment there is a hope for new therapy with multiple kinase inhibitors such as vandetanib, sorafenib, cabozantinib a lenvatinib which is based on promising results of several studies. (author)

  1. Thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy and chemotherapy of brain tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Livesey, E A; Brook, C G

    1989-01-01

    We investigated thyroid function in 119 survivors of treatment for brain tumours not involving the hypothalamo-pituitary region. Cranial irradiation did not effect thyroid function but 11 of 47 children (23%) who had spinal irradiation had raised concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone. Chemotherapy further increased the incidence of thyroid dysfunction: two of four patients who had cranial irradiation and chemotherapy and 20 of 29 patients (69%) who had spinal irradiation and chemother...

  2. An independent confirmatory factor analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-fourth Edition (WISC-IV) integrated: what do the process approach subtests measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M; Bernstein, Joshua D

    2013-09-01

    The Wechsler intelligence scale for children--fourth edition (WISC-IV) Integrated contains the WISC-IV core and supplemental subtests along with process approach subtests designed to facilitate a process-oriented approach to score interpretation. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which WISC-IV Integrated subtests measure the constructs they are purported to measure. In addition to examining the measurement and scoring model provided in the manual, this study also tested hypotheses regarding Cattell-Horn-Carroll abilities that might be measured along with other substantive questions regarding the factor structure of the WISC-IV Integrated and the nature of abilities measured by process approach subtests. Results provide insight regarding the constructs measured by these subtests. Many subtests appear to be good to excellent measures of psychometric g (i.e., the general factor presumed to cause the positive correlation of mental tasks). Other abilities measured by subtests are described. For some subtests, the majority of variance is not accounted for by theoretical constructs included in the scoring model. Modifications made to remove demands such as memory recall and verbal expression were found to reduce construct-irrelevant variance. The WISC-IV Integrated subtests appear to measure similar constructs across ages 6-16, although strict factorial invariance was not supported. PMID:23544403

  3. Post treatment thyroid dysfunction and obesity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemi

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Regarding to effects of thyroid dysfunction on short stature and obesity in adolescent with ALL and NHL, we suggest to have more attention about growth, thy-roid test to avoid late side effect of malignancy treatment.

  4. The Clinical and Pathological Presentation of Thyroid Nodules in Children and the Comparison with Adult Population: Experience of a Single Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymosi, Tamas; Lukacs Toth, Gyula; Budai, Laszlo; Gal, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and pathological presentation of thyroid nodules among younger and adult patients was compared in an iodine-deficient (ID) region. Data of 3,010 consecutive patients younger than 20 years and 3,010 patients older than 20 years were compared. The proportion of nodular goiters (22.8% versus 39.3%), the ratio of surgically treated nodules (33.2% versus 15.2%), and the proportion of malignant nodules (4.3% versus 2.1%) among diseased patients differed significantly between the two groups (younger versus adult). Nine papillary and 1 medullary carcinoma were found among children, while 15 papillary, 2 follicular, 1 insular, 1 anaplastic, and 1 medullary carcinomas occurred among adults. The ratio of follicular adenoma to hyperplastic nodules (3 : 1 to 1 : 1.67), the proportion of follicular variant (77.8% versus 26.7%), T4 tumors (77.8% versus 33.3%), and tumors with lymph node metastasis (88.9% versus 66.7%) were significantly higher among younger papillary carcinoma patients. No malignancies occurred among spongiform and central type cysts. Similarly to iodine-sufficient regions, more nodules are malignant and carcinomas have a clinically more aggressive presentation in children in comparison with adult patients in ID. Taking the significantly greater proportion of adenomas and the lack of follicular carcinoma into account, a conservative approach has to be considered in follicular tumors among children. PMID:27087807

  5. The Clinical and Pathological Presentation of Thyroid Nodules in Children and the Comparison with Adult Population: Experience of a Single Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Solymosi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and pathological presentation of thyroid nodules among younger and adult patients was compared in an iodine-deficient (ID region. Data of 3,010 consecutive patients younger than 20 years and 3,010 patients older than 20 years were compared. The proportion of nodular goiters (22.8% versus 39.3%, the ratio of surgically treated nodules (33.2% versus 15.2%, and the proportion of malignant nodules (4.3% versus 2.1% among diseased patients differed significantly between the two groups (younger versus adult. Nine papillary and 1 medullary carcinoma were found among children, while 15 papillary, 2 follicular, 1 insular, 1 anaplastic, and 1 medullary carcinomas occurred among adults. The ratio of follicular adenoma to hyperplastic nodules (3 : 1 to 1 : 1.67, the proportion of follicular variant (77.8% versus 26.7%, T4 tumors (77.8% versus 33.3%, and tumors with lymph node metastasis (88.9% versus 66.7% were significantly higher among younger papillary carcinoma patients. No malignancies occurred among spongiform and central type cysts. Similarly to iodine-sufficient regions, more nodules are malignant and carcinomas have a clinically more aggressive presentation in children in comparison with adult patients in ID. Taking the significantly greater proportion of adenomas and the lack of follicular carcinoma into account, a conservative approach has to be considered in follicular tumors among children.

  6. 肥胖儿童的甲状腺功能及性腺发育状况刘树琴%Thyroid and gonadal function in children obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树琴; 贾敬华; 潘天荣; 徐胜前; 汪延华

    2001-01-01

    目的 调查学龄期肥胖儿童甲状腺机能及性腺发育状况。方法 测定了60例9~12岁肥胖儿童血清甲状腺激素和性激素水平,观察了性征发育状况。结果 肥胖儿童的身高与对照组相似,而体重及体重指数显著高于对照组。肥胖儿童的血清游离三碘甲状腺原氨酸(FT3)显著高于对照组;肥胖儿童组的尿碘中位数为180μg/L,明显低于正常体重儿童组。女性肥胖儿童的血清卵泡刺激素(FSH)水平显著低于对照组,而雌二醇(E2)水平明显高于对照组;男性肥胖儿童的性激素水平与对照组间差异无显著意义;肥胖儿童的性征发育早于对照组。结论 学龄期儿童肥胖症对甲状腺功能有所影响,并致性腺发育期提前。%Objective The aim of our study was to investigate the thyroid andgonadal functions in obese children aged 9~12 years old.Methods Serum thyroid and six steroid hormones were measured in both obese children and their control.Results Obese children were found to have significantly higher body weight index (BMI) than that in control.It turned out that free 3,5,3'-thiiodothyronine(FT3) in obese children were significantly increased (6.0±1.3 vs 3.5±0.6).The result of urinary iodine measurement in obese children showed that the median urinary iodine excretion level was lower than that in control (180 μg/L vs 269 μg/L).Serum FSH level was significantly lower and E2 level was significantly higher in obese girls than those in control(3.3±0.8 vs 4.8±2.2 ng/L,P<0.05 of FSH,90±35 vs 23±6 ng/L,P<0.01,for E2).Gonadal development and maturity took place earlier in the obese children than in control.Conclusions These results suggested that,obesity may interfere in thyroid metablism function;obesity may be responsible for the earlier gonadal development and maturity.

  7. Association of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4 (CTLA4) Gene Polymorphisms with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Children and Adults: Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Fu-Sung; Wang, Chao-Hung; Huang, Chi-Yu; Lin, Chiung-Ling; Lin, Wen-Shan; Chang, Tzu-Yang; Yang, Horng-Woei; Chen, Wei-Fang; Lien, Ya-Ping; Cheng, Bi-Wen; Lin, Chao-Hsu; Chen, Chia-Ching; Wu, Yi-Lei; Hung, Chen-Mei; Li, Hsin-Jung; Chan, Chon-In; Lee, Yann-Jinn

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), including Graves disease (GD) and Hashimoto disease (HD), is an organ-specific autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component. Although the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) polymorphism has been reported to be associated with AITD in adults, few studies have focused on children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the CTLA4 polymorphisms, including -318C/T (rs5742909), +49A/G (rs231775), and CT60 (rs3087243), were associated with GD and HD in Han Chinese adults and children. We studied 289 adult GD, 265 pediatric GD, 229 pediatric HD patients, and 1058 healthy controls and then compared genotype, allele, carrier, and haplotype frequencies between patients and controls. We found that CTLA4 SNPs +49A/G and CT60 were associated with GD in adults and children. Allele G of +49A/G was significantly associated with GD in adults (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21–1.84; corrected P value [Pc] < 0.001) and children (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.15–1.77; Pc = 0.002). Allele G of CT60 also significantly increased risk of GD in adults (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.27–2.09; Pc < 0.001) and GD in children (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.22–2.04; Pc < 0.001). Significant linkage disequilibrium was found between +49A/G and CT60 in GD and control subjects (D’ = 0.92). Our results showed that CTLA4 was associated with both GD and HD and played an equivalent role in both adult and pediatric GD in Han Chinese population. PMID:27111218

  8. The state of thyroid system in children born form the parents irradiated in the result of Chornobyl accident as a factor of dysmetabolic changes in the period of sexual development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the work was to reveal functional and structural changes in the thyroid gland in children of puberty age with clinical manifestations of metabolic syndrome born from the parents irradiated in the result of Chornobyl accident. The study involved 108 patients aged 12-17. The investigated parameters characterizing TG function and the state and the of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism became the diagnostic criteria of dyshormonal disorders revealed in children with puberty dyshormonal disorders revealed in children with puberty dispituitarism. The pathological changes in the TG can be a risk factor of metabolic syndrome development.

  9. Thyroid Nodules and Thyroid Cancer: Surgical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Orlo H.

    1980-01-01

    Patients with thyroid nodules must be treated selectively because these nodules develop far more frequently than does thyroid cancer. A thorough clinical history, family history and history of radiation, as well as an accurate physical examination, are very important in determining whether surgical treatment is indicated. Thyroid function tests, a radioactive isotope scan, a thyroid echogram and fine-needle biopsy are also useful.

  10. Development of a method for the retrospective reconstruction of the thyroid dose for children in Belarus after the reactor accident of Chernobyl by determination of the 129I-concentration in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl, a pronounced rise in childhood thyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the shortlived radioiodine isotope 131I was responsible for this effect. As there were only a few direct measurements performed to measure the iodine activity in thyroids, other methods had to be developed to reconstruct the thyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. First approaches to this task were performed by the determination of caesium deposition densities on ground which were correlated to a few available measurements of 131I in soil samples. But soon it had to be realized that this approach was not appropriate for a consistent retrospective dose reconstruction due to the patchy depositions patterns and the different release and transport mechanisms between caesium and iodine. For a new approach it was suggested to determine the 129I concentration in soil by introducing a newly developed extraction procedure that produces samples which can be measured for 129I by means of Accelerator Mass-spectrometry (AMS). Both techniques were sequentially applied to soil samples taken during two successive field-expeditions to Belarus. They are discussed in detail in this thesis. To assess the thyroid dose the concentration of 131I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between 129I and 131I. The inferred 131I deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated thyroid dose to certain age groups of various resistance areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalization of a correlation

  11. [Autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krátký, Jan; Jiskra, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Association between autoimmune thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer remains not clear. Although both diseases often occur simultaneously in histological samples, it is not yet clear whether CLT can be regarded as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy. This review focus on the known epidemiological and molecular genetics links between both diseases. Most studies have shown a significant association between thyroid cancer and positive antibodies to thyroglobulin and histological evidence of CLT, as well. Both disorders share some risk factors (greater incidence in women, in areas with adequate supply of iodine and in patients after radiotherapy of the neck) and molecular genetics linkage. For example: RET/PTC rearrangements could be more often found in carcinomas associated with CLT, but this mutation could be found in benign lesions such as CLT, as well. CLT seems to be a positive prognostic factor in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is associated with less invasive forms of tumor, lower occurrence of infiltrated lymphatic nodes and a lower risk of recurrence. PMID:26486481

  12. What Does the Shipley-2 Measure for Children and Adolescents? Integrated and Conjoint Confirmatory Factor Analysis With the WISC-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Hajovsky, Daniel B; Pace, Jesse R; Niileksela, Christopher R

    2016-02-01

    We used integrated and conjoint confirmatory factor analysis of Shipley-2 and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) data to investigate constructs measured in the Shipley-2 for children and adolescents. We also estimated Shipley-2 composite reliability at the subtest level rather than the item level. The three Shipley-2 subtests for the most part measured what was described in the manual, although Block Patterns measured visual spatial ability in addition to fluid ability and Abstraction was best considered a measure of psychometric g. The g factors derived from the WISC-IV and Shipley-2 were similar but not identical. Internal reliability estimates for Shipley-2 composites that were based on correlations between the subtests were substantially lower than those based on the items. Last, based on WISC-IV derived g factors, 37% to 53% of the variance in Shipley-2 composites was explained by g. Some of the reliable variance in the Shipley-2 composites was due to something specific that the subtests had in common not explained by psychometric g. PMID:25712673

  13. Black Thyroid Associated with Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Emad Kandil; Mohamed Abdel Khalek; Haytham Alabbas; Philip Daroca; Tina Thethi; Paul Friedlander; Ryan Leblanc; Obai Abdullah; Bernard Jaffe; Byron Crawford

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Black thyroid is a rare pigmented change seen almost exclusively in patients upon minocycline ingestion, and the process has previously been thought to be generally benign. There have been 61 reported cases of black thyroid. We are aware of 13 cases previously reported in association with thyroid carcinoma. This paper reports six patients with black thyroid pigmentation in association with thyroid carcinoma. Design. The medical records of six patients who were diagnosed with black ...

  14. Treatment of congenital thyroid dysfunction: Achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krude, Heiko; Kühnen, Peter; Biebermann, Heike

    2015-06-01

    The active thyroid hormone tri-iodothyronine (T3) is essential for a normal development of children. Especially within the first years of life, thyroid hormone is pivotal in enabling maturation of complex brain function and somatic growth. The most compelling example for a life without thyroid hormone are those historical cases of children who came to birth without a thyroid gland - as shown in autopsy-studies- and who suffered from untreated hypothyroidism, at that time initially called "sporadic congenital hypothyroidism" (CH). In the last decades huge achievements resulted in a normal development of these children based on newborn screening programs that enable an early onset of a high dose LT4-treatment. Further progress will be necessary to further tailor an individualized thyroid hormone substitution approach and to identify those more complex patients with congenital hypothyroidism and associated defects, who will not benefit from an even optimized LT4 therapy. Besides the primary production of thyroid hormone a variety of further mechanisms are necessary to mediate the function of T3 on normal development that are located downstream of thyroid hormone production. Abnormalities of these mechanisms include the MCT8-transport defect, deiodinase-insufficiency and thyroid hormone receptor alpha-and beta defects. These thyroid hormone resistant diseases can not be treated with classical LT4 substitution alone. The development of new treatment options for those rare cases of thyroid hormone resistance is one of the most challenging tasks in the field of congenital thyroid diseases today. PMID:26051299

  15. Thyroid autoantibodies and thyroid function in subjects exposed to Chernobyl fallout during childhood: evidence for a transient radiation-induced elevation of serum thyroid antibodies without an increase in thyroid autoimmune disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agate, Laura; Mariotti, Stefano; Elisei, Rossella;

    2008-01-01

    An increase in the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies (ATAs) was reported 6-8 yr after the Chernobyl accident in radiation-exposed children and adolescents.......An increase in the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies (ATAs) was reported 6-8 yr after the Chernobyl accident in radiation-exposed children and adolescents....

  16. Thyroid function in pregnancy☆

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones. Normal thyroid function during pregnancy is important for both the mother and developing fetus. This review discusses the changes in thyroid physiology that occur during pregnancy, the significance of thyroid function tests and thyroid antibody titers assessed during pregnancy, and the potential obstetric complications associated with maternal hypothyroidism.

  17. Lingual thyroid

    OpenAIRE

    BASARIA, S.

    2000-01-01

    Lingual thyroid is an uncommon entity (Incidence: 1 per 10,000 individuals). The first case was noted in 1869 by Hickmann. In 1972, a total number of 373 cases were collected from the world literature. Because of the rarity and the suprahyoid approach of Operation Choosen, this case is reported.

  18. Thyroid swellings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rebecca Hatton; Madhukar Patel; Devasenan Devendra

    2009-01-01

    @@ A 48 year old post-menopausal woman presents with a smooth midline sweHing in her neck,which has been present for more than 10 years.On examination.you find that it is consistent with an enlarged thyroid gland.

  19. Thyroid Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one of the glands that make up the endocrine system. The glands of the endocrine system produce and store hormones and release them into ... one of the glands that make up the endocrine system. Thyroid hormones affect metabolism, brain development, breathing, heart ...

  20. An attempt at assessing the quality of radiotherapy based on the analysis of irradiation therapy plans in five children with stage IV neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy treatment quality is of paramount importance in preventing local relapses and late radiotherapy complications, especially those involving normal tissues near the primary tumor. To assess the quality of irradiation treatment in five children with stage IV neuroblastoma based on the adherence to radiotherapy protocol recommendations and the evaluation of problems associated with protocol implementation. The analysis included plans of irradiation therapy in five children with stage IV neuroblastoma, three of whom had been treated at the University Children's Hospital of Cracow, and two - in other Polish radiotherapy centers. The most common protocol deviation was the use of oblique fields rather than the recommended AP-opposite fields technique, followed by a failure to plan the therapy basing on preoperative CT scans. Other technical problems involved the inability of fusing pre and postoperative CT scans, as well as the inability of recording treatment plans on discs or CD's. Participation in international multicenter clinical trials significantly improves the quality of treatment. One should strive for better collaboration between pediatric centers and radiotherapy departments. Pediatric radiotherapy should be provided by highly specialised centers with appropriate knowledge and equipment. Even in the course of protocol implementation, its strict assumptions may be changed for the benefit of the patients. (author)

  1. Developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency and brain development: A role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for normal brain development. Even subclinical hypothyroidism experienced in utero can result in neuropsychological deficits in children despite normal thyroid status at birth. Neurotrophins have been implicated in a host of brain cellular func...

  2. Radiation and thyroid neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now generally accepted that an association exists between external radiation administered to the head, neck, and upper thorax of infants, children, and adolescents and the subsequent development of neoplastic changes in the thyroid gland. Until recent years, external radiation was frequently administered to shrink an enlarged thymus or for the treatment of tonsillitis, adenoiditis, hearing loss, hemangioma, acne, tinea capitis, and other conditions. During the course of these treatments, the thyroid gland was exposed to scatter radiation. The use of external radiation therapy was then accepted practice, and its value was attested by many. Concern about the adverse effects was not initially appreciated, primarily because of the long periods of time between the radiation and the recognition of changes in the thyroid. The availability and effectiveness of other therapeutic measures and the growing concern about the delayed effects of radiation therapy when administered to the young for relatively benign conditions has, in recent years, largely eliminated use of this form of therapy, except in a few unusual conditions

  3. Familial Autoimmune Thyroid Disease as a Risk Factor for Regression in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A CPEA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Cynthia A.; Morrow, Ardythe L.; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Dawson, Geraldine; Bernier, Raphael; Dunn, Michelle; Hyman, Susan L.; McMahon, William M.; Goudie-Nice, Julie; Hepburn, Susan; Minshew, Nancy; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Spence, M. Anne; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Volkmar, Fred R.; Lord, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    A multicenter study of 308 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was conducted through the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism (CPEA), sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, to compare the family history of autoimmune disorders in children with ASD with and without a history of regression. A…

  4. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... determine thyroid function include: Free T4 test Serum TSH T3 Thyroid autoantibodies Imaging studies are generally not ... signs of mild thyroid failure (such as elevated TSH). This condition is also known as subclinical hypothyroidism. ...

  5. Thyroid Diseases Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Thyroid Diseases Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... a health practitioner will usually order to detect thyroid dysfunction is a test for thyroid stimulating hormone ( ...

  6. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000293.htm Thyroid gland removal - discharge To use the sharing features ... surgery. This will make your scar show less. Thyroid Hormone Replacement You may need to take thyroid ...

  7. Burkitts primary thyroid lymphoma coexistence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis; Linfoma Burkitt primario tiroideo. Coexistencia con tiroiditis de Hashimoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuera, A. [Hospital Alto Guadalquivir. Andujar Jaen (Spain); Vicente, J.; Lazaro, J. C. [Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Th primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare neoplasm, above all in children. We present a case of a child with Burkitt's thyroid lymphoma as the only manifestation of this disease, associated to lymphocytic thyroiditis. Clinically, it initiated as a rapidly growing goiter with compressive symptomatology. The X-ray findings are described: hypoechoic and hypodense multiple nodes that affect the right thyroid lobe and isthmus, with extraglandular extension to the vascular space and to the mediastinum. The differential diagnosis is considered with other more frequent thyroid pathologies in this age group. (Author) 14 refs.

  8. Thyroid gland irradiations and thyroid cancers; Critical bibliographic journal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were mainly less than five years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident is still a major concern for endocrinologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Epidemiological studies have focused solely on iodine-131. However, past knowledge on thyroid irradiation (medical use of iodine-131, radioactive fallout on Marshall islands and the Nevada and Hanford site releases) as well as number of recent works (about low-dose irradiation) raise question on the role of other factors. It is here shown that post-Chernobyl thyroid irradiation is complex and that all factors (iodine-131, but also short lived isotopes of iodine and external irradiation) should be considered. Finally, one needs to think about some of the present medical uses of iodine-131 and especially to the treatment of hyperthyroidism in young subjects. (author)

  9. Management of thyroid disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Premawardhana, L D K E; Lazarus, J H

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease is the predominant form of thyroid dysfunction in the developed world. Although its precise cause is currently unclear, principles of management have been established. There is a vigorous debate about the management of the increasingly commonly recognised subclinical forms of thyroid dysfunction despite recent recommendations. Nodular thyroid disease and thyroid carcinoma have received wide attention. The effects of drugs and pregnancy on thyroid function have also ...

  10. Thyroid Imaging in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldis, Marina; Waldman, Lindsey; Marginean, Otilia; Rosenberg, Henrietta Kotlus; Rapaport, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common preventable cause of mental retardation. It is important to know the cause of each patient's thyroid dysfunction to foresee the course of therapy and outcomes. Imaging methods, such as ultrasound and thyroid scan, help determine the anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. Although thyroid scan is considered superior in detecting ectopic thyroid tissue, ultrasound is able to detect the presence of thyroid tissue not otherwise visualized in 15% of patients. PMID:27241963

  11. Black Thyroid Associated with Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Kandil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Black thyroid is a rare pigmented change seen almost exclusively in patients upon minocycline ingestion, and the process has previously been thought to be generally benign. There have been 61 reported cases of black thyroid. We are aware of 13 cases previously reported in association with thyroid carcinoma. This paper reports six patients with black thyroid pigmentation in association with thyroid carcinoma. Design. The medical records of six patients who were diagnosed with black thyroid syndrome, all of whom underwent thyroid surgery, were reviewed. Data on age, gender, race, preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA, thyroid function levels, and pathology reports were collected. Main Outcome. The mean age was 60 years. There were 5 females, 4 of whom were African American. All patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid. Black pigmentation was not diagnosed in preoperative FNA, and only one patient had a preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The other patients underwent surgery and were found to have black pigmentation of the thyroid associated with carcinoma. Conclusions. FNA does not diagnose black thyroid, which is associated with thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid glands with black pigmentation deserve thorough pathologic examination, including several sections of each specimen.

  12. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  13. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Adjadj, Elisabeth [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Thomas-Teinturier, Cecile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Hopital Bicetre, Bicetre (France); Oberlin, Odile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Veres, Cristina [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Pacquement, Helene [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Jackson, Angela [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Munzer, Martine; N' Guyen, Tan Dat [Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Bondiau, Pierre-Yves [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne [Centre Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Bridier, Andre; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Schlumberger, Martin [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Vathaire, Florent de, E-mail: florent.devathaire@igr.fr [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  14. Thyroid diseases after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive iodine is released at every atomic-bomb testings and nuclear plants accidents and radioactive iodine is taken up by thyroid glands (internal radiation). In addition to the internal radiation, radioactive fallout causes the external radiation and thyroid glands are known to be sensitive to the external radiation. Furthermore, patients with radiation-induced thyroid disease can survive for a long time regardless of the treatment. The survey of thyroid diseases, therefore, is very sensitive and reliable ways to investigate the effects of radiation caused by atomic bomb explosion, testing and various types of nuclear plants' accidents. Our group from Nagasaki University was asked to investigate the thyroid diseases and jointed to the Sasakawa Project. In order to investigate the effects of radiation on thyroid disease, it is essential 1) to make a correct diagnosis in each subject, 2) to calculate a correct radiation dose in each subject and finally, 3) to find out the correlation between the radiation dose and thyroid diseases including age-, sex- and area-matched controls. We have established 5 centers (1 in Russia, 2 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine) and supplied the most valuable ultrasonography instruments, commercial kits for the determination of serum free T4 and TSH level and for the autoantibodies, instrument for urinary iodine measurements, syringers, tubes, refrigerators, etc. We visit each center often and asked people at centers to come to Japan for training. Protocol of investigation is essentially the same as that in Nagasaki, and we are planning to investigate more than 50,000 children within 5 years. We are hoping to show a definite conclusion in the near future. Recent articles are also discussed. (author)

  15. Thyroid diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scriba, P.C.; Boerner, W.; Emrich, S.; Gutekunst, R.; Herrmann, J.; Horn, K.; Klett, M.; Krueskemper, H.L.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Pickardt, C.R.

    1985-03-01

    None of the in-vitro and in-vivo methods listed permits on unambiguous diagnosis when applied alone, owing to the fact that similar or even identical findings are obtained for various individual parameters in different thyroid diseases. Further, especially the in-vitro tests are also subject to extrathyroidal effects which may mask the typical findings. The limited and varying specificity and sensitivity of the tests applied, as well as the falsification of results caused by the patients' idiosyncracies and the methodology, make it necessary to interpret and evaluate the in-vivo and in-vitro findings only if the clinical situation (anamnesis and physical examination) is known. For maximum diagnostic quality of the tests, the initial probability of the assumed type of thyroid disease must be increased (formulation of the clinical problem). The concepts of exclusion diagnosis and identification must be distinguished as well as the diagnosis of functional disturbances on the one hand and of thyroid diseases on the other. Both of this requires a qualified, specific and detailed anamnesis and examination procedure, and the clinical examination remains the obligatory basis of clinical diagnostics. In case of inexplicable discrepancies between the clinical manifestations and the findings obtained with specific methods, or between the findings obtained with a specific method, the patient should be referred to an expert institution, or the expert institution should be consulted.

  16. Thyroid blocking after nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl accident a marked increase in thyroid cancer incidence among the children in Belarus, the Ukraine and Russia has been detected, strongly suggesting a causal relationship to the large amounts of radioactive iodine isotopes in the resulting fallout. Taking into account the Chernobyl experience the German Committee on Radiation Protection decided to reduce the intervention levels on the basis of the 1989 WHO recommendations and adopted a new concept concerning thyroid blocking in response to nuclear power plant accidents. Experimental animal studies and theoretical considerations show that thyroid blocking with potassium iodide (KI) in a dose of about 1.4 mg per kg body weight is most effective in reducing irradiation to the thyroid from the intake of radioiodine nuclides, provided KI is given within 2 hours after exposure. According to the new concept, persons over 45 years of age should not take iodine tablets because the drug could cause a greater health risk due to prevalent functional thyroid autonomy in this age group than the radioactive iodine averted by KI. On the basis of accident analysis and the new philosophy suitable distribution strategies and logistics are proposed and discussed. (orig.)

  17. Ultrasound diagnostics of thyroid diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharchenko, Vladimir P. [Russian Radiology Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kotlyarov, Peter M. [Russian Center of Roentgenradiology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mogutov, Mikhail S.; Sencha, Alexander N.; Patrunov, Yury N.; Belyaev, Denis V. [Yaroslavl Railway Clinic (Russian Federation); Alexandrov, Yury K. [State Medical Academy, Yaroslavl (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    This book is based on the authors' extensive practical experience in the use of modern ultrasound, and other radiological methods, in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. The authors have analyzed more than 100,000 ultrasound examinations performed between 1995 and 2008 in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disease, as well as many thousands of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures. The opening chapters include discussion of current ultrasound techniques, pitfalls, and the specifics of ultrasound examination of the thyroid in children. Detailed attention is then devoted to findings in the normal thyroid and in the presence of diffuse and focal changes. Further chapters focus on such topics as ultrasound examination after thyroid surgery and ultrasound diagnosis of parathyroid disease, recurrent goiter, and neck masses. Ultrasound-guided minimally invasive techniques, such as fine-needle aspiration biopsy, percutaneous laser ablation, and ethanol and glucocorticoid injections, are considered in depth. This up-to-date and richly illustrated book will interest and assist specialists in ultrasound diagnostics, radiologists, endocrinologists, and neck surgeons. (orig.)

  18. Ultrasound diagnostics of thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is based on the authors' extensive practical experience in the use of modern ultrasound, and other radiological methods, in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. The authors have analyzed more than 100,000 ultrasound examinations performed between 1995 and 2008 in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disease, as well as many thousands of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures. The opening chapters include discussion of current ultrasound techniques, pitfalls, and the specifics of ultrasound examination of the thyroid in children. Detailed attention is then devoted to findings in the normal thyroid and in the presence of diffuse and focal changes. Further chapters focus on such topics as ultrasound examination after thyroid surgery and ultrasound diagnosis of parathyroid disease, recurrent goiter, and neck masses. Ultrasound-guided minimally invasive techniques, such as fine-needle aspiration biopsy, percutaneous laser ablation, and ethanol and glucocorticoid injections, are considered in depth. This up-to-date and richly illustrated book will interest and assist specialists in ultrasound diagnostics, radiologists, endocrinologists, and neck surgeons. (orig.)

  19. Dosimetric contribution of organs of biokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I to estimate radiation doses in thyroids of children of 1 and 5 years; Contribucion dosimetrica de organos de la biocinetica del {sup 99m}Tc y {sup 123}I para estimar dosis en tiroides de ninos de 1 y 5 anos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, M.V.; Castillo, C.E.; Abanto, D.M.; Rocha, D.; Garcia, W.H.; Marin, K., E-mail: marvva@hotmail.com [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo (UNT), Trujillo (Peru); Quispe, R. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, UNAM, Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    The absorbed doses by thyroids during uptake studies through biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing {sup 123}I (iodine) or {sup 99m}Tc (pertechnetate) are estimated. Using the MIRD scheme and the representation of Cristy-Eckerman for thyroids in children of 1 and 5 years, the objective of the study was to determine whether the dosimetric biokinetic contributions of the organs of {sup 123}I (iodide) and {sup 99m}Tc (pertechnetate) biokinetic are significant in the estimated of the absorbed dose for thyroid uptake studies.

  20. Effect of leucovorin (folinic acid on the developmental quotient of children with Down's syndrome (trisomy 21 and influence of thyroid status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Blehaut

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seven genes involved in folate metabolism are located on chromosome 21. Previous studies have shown that folate deficiency may contribute to mental retardation in Down's syndrome (DS. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the effect of oral folate supplementation (daily dose of 1.0+/-0.3 mg/kg on cognitive functions in DS children, aged from 3 to 30 months. They received 1 mg/kg leucovorin or placebo daily, for 12 months, in a single-centre, randomised, double-blind study. Folinic acid (leucovorin, LV was preferred to folic acid as its bioavailability is higher. The developmental age (DA of the patients was assessed on the Brunet-Lezine scale, from baseline to the end of treatment. RESULTS: The intent-to-treat analysis (113 patients did not show a positive effect of leucovorin treatment. However, it identified important factors influencing treatment effect, such as age, sex, and concomitant treatments, including thyroid treatment in particular. A per protocol analysis was carried out on patients evaluated by the same examiner at the beginning and end of the treatment period. This analysis of 87 patients (43 LV-treated vs. 44 patients on placebo revealed a positive effect of leucovorin on developmental age (DA. DA was 53.1% the normal value with leucovorin and only 44.1% with placebo (p<0.05. This positive effect of leucovorin was particularly strong in patients receiving concomitant thyroxin treatment (59.5% vs. 41.8%, p<0.05. No adverse event related to leucovorin was observed. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that leucovorin improves the psychomotor development of children with Down's syndrome, at least in some subgroups of the DS population, particularly those on thyroxin treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00294593.

  1. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M;

    2000-01-01

    elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...

  2. Association between breast and thyroid cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehrer S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven Lehrer, Sheryl Green, John A Martignetti, Kenneth E Rosenzweig Departments of Radiation Oncology and Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: The risk of thyroid cancer is known to be slightly increased in women after treatment for breast cancer. In the current study, we analyzed the incidence of thyroid cancer and breast cancer in 50 US states and in the District of Columbia to ascertain how often these two diseases are associated. Methods: Data on the incidence of thyroid cancer were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute and data on the incidence of breast cancer were from the American Cancer Society. Data on the average number of children per family with children and mean household income were sourced from the US Bureau of the Census and prevalence of obesity by state is determined from a paper published in 2010 on state-specific obesity prevalence among US adults by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: There was a significant association between breast and thyroid cancer (P=0.002. Since the incidence of breast cancer increases with increasing income and obesity, while decreasing with parity, multiple linear regression was performed. Breast cancer incidence was significantly related to thyroid cancer incidence (β=0.271, P=0.039, inversely related to average number of children per family with children (β=-0.271, P=0.039, unrelated to adult obesity (β=0.134, P=0.369, and significantly related to family income (β=0.642, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study identifies an association between breast and thyroid cancer. The association suggests that unexplored breast-thyroid cancer susceptibility loci exist and warrant further study. Keywords: breast cancer, thyroid cancer, genetics, association

  3. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or MRI of the neck may show a tumor growing from the thyroid gland. A thyroid biopsy makes the diagnosis. An examination ... the thyroid Images ... Saunders; 2016:chap 226. Lai SY, Mandel SJ, Weber RS. Management of thyroid neoplasms. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et ...

  4. What Is Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment is needed. Many types of growths and tumors can develop in the thyroid gland. Most of these are benign (non-cancerous) but ... are thyroid lymphoma, thyroid sarcoma or other rare tumors. Parathyroid cancer Behind, but attached to, the thyroid gland are 4 tiny glands called the parathyroids . The ...

  5. Radionuclide thyroid imaging in the newborn with suspected hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoosufani, Z.; Karimeddini, M.K.; Spencer, R.P.; Ratzan, S.K.

    1985-05-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with thyroid imaging in newborns with suspected congenital hypothyroidism. The infants were selected through a hypothyroidism screening program. There were 19 infants (14 females, 5 males) from 2 to 8 weeks of age with a blood T4 <6 ..mu..g/dl. Thyroid imaging was performed with either IV or IM injection of 0.5 to 1 mCi of Tc 99m pertechnetate using a gamma camera with a pinhole collimator. Salivary glands and stomach were also imaged for assessing the presence of the transport system. In 6 infants (32%) no thyroid tissue was visualized (thyroid hypoplasia). Four infants (21%) showed ectopic thyroid tissue in the lingual or sublingual area. Two infants (10%) had evidence of goiter. The remaining 7 infants (37%) had normal appearing glands in size and position. TSH values were markedly elevated (> 100 ..mu mu../ml) in all 10 patients with hypoplastic or ectopic thyroid. Two patients were subsequently found to have normal thyroid function (one with TBG deficiency and one with transient hypothyroidism). Thyroidal as well as salivary gland trapping of the radiotracer in these two infants was clearly less than that of adults suggesting immaturity of the transport/trapping mechanism. All 4 patients with ectopic thyroid had markedly increased uptake of the radiotracer. All other patients with elevated TSH levels had increased uptake of the radiotracer as compared to the normals. They conclude that thyroid scanning is an important tool in delineating the etiology of congenital hypothyroidism.

  6. Thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was studied with regard to mode of presentation, initial findings, treatment and survival. The classic signs, symptoms, physical and scan findings were found to be present in approximately 70% of the patients. Prognosis was found to be dependent on age of presentation more than any other factor. Patients with prior exposure to radiation were found to have more extensive disease and require more extensive surgery but ultimately had the same prognosis for 15-year cure. Treatment for distant metastatic disease by surgery, radioactive iodine and external radiation all resulted in long-term survival in certain cases

  7. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  8. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiravova, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty Hospital Motol, Uk, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  9. Thyroid volumes and iodine status in Egyptian South Sinai schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El Naser Yamamah, Gamal; Kamel, Ashraf Fawzy; Abd-El Dayem, Soha; Hussein, Amal Saad; Salama, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The determination of goitre prevalence in children by ultrasonography is an important tool for considering iodine deficiency disorders. Our objective was to describe measurements of thyroid volumes by ultrasonography in Egyptian South Sinai schoolchildren and compare these with the WHO/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders normative thyroid volume criteria (WHO/ICCIDD). Material and methods Cross-sectional thyroid ultrasonographic data of 719 school...

  10. Help Desk Answers: Are IV fluids better than oral rehydration for children with acute diarrhea and vomiting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Suvag; Nanda, Mitali; Tiburicio, Jose

    2016-04-01

    Intravenous fluid therapy (IVF) has a slightly lower failure rate than oral replacement therapy (ORT) in children with acute gastroenteritis, but the clinical significance is questionable. IVF takes longer to initiate than ORT and lengthens the hospital stay. PMID:27262252

  11. Asteroids IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  12. Recurrent Silent Thyroiditis as a Sequela of Postpartum Thyroiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Preaw Hanseree; Vincent Bryan Salvador; Issac Sachmechi; Paul Kim

    2014-01-01

    Thyroiditis encompasses a group of disorders characterized by thyroid inflammation. Though clinically indistinguishable from silent thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis occurs in women within 12 months after delivery. Recurrent postpartum thyroiditis in subsequent pregnancies is common, but recurrent silent thyroiditis is rare. We reported a case of patient with recurrent episodes of thyroiditis, unrelated to pregnancy, after an episode of postpartum thyroiditis. It is of interest that postpar...

  13. General Information about Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enlarged thyroid). Having a family history of thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enlarged thyroid). Having a family history of thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

  15. Key Statistics for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? Next Topic Thyroid cancer risk factors Key statistics for thyroid cancer How common is thyroid cancer? ... remains very low compared with most other cancers. Statistics on survival rates for thyroid cancer are discussed ...

  16. Impact of Uncertainties in Exposure Assessment on Thyroid Cancer Risk among Persons in Belarus Exposed as Children or Adolescents Due to the Chernobyl Accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Little

    Full Text Available The excess incidence of thyroid cancer in Ukraine and Belarus observed a few years after the Chernobyl accident is considered to be largely the result of 131I released from the reactor. Although the Belarus thyroid cancer prevalence data has been previously analyzed, no account was taken of dose measurement error.We examined dose-response patterns in a thyroid screening prevalence cohort of 11,732 persons aged under 18 at the time of the accident, diagnosed during 1996-2004, who had direct thyroid 131I activity measurement, and were resident in the most radio-actively contaminated regions of Belarus. Three methods of dose-error correction (regression calibration, Monte Carlo maximum likelihood, Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo were applied.There was a statistically significant (p0.2.In summary, the relatively small contribution of unshared classical dose error in the current study results in comparatively modest effects on the regression parameters.

  17. Nuclear accidents and thyroid - a stitch in time saves nine!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid is a hormone secreting gland located superficially in the neck anterior to the trachea and below the thyroid cartilage. The normal adult gland weighs 15-20 g. Thyroid needs iodine to produce hormones that regulate body's energy and metabolism. It absorbs available iodine from the bloodstream. It cannot distinguish between stable iodine and radioactive iodine. In the event of nuclear accident huge amount of radioactive iodine (Iodine-131) will be released in the atmosphere. This will contaminate soil, plants, vegetables, water bodies etc. People residing in the vicinity will get radioactive iodine by inhalation and consuming contaminated food, water and milk. This radioactive iodine will saturate the thyroid gland. In neonates, infants and young children the thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive parts of the body. When thyroid cells absorb too much radioactive iodine, it can cause thyroid cancer over several years after the exposure. Neonates, infants and young children are at highest risk of developing thyroid cancer at a later stage in life. Incidence of thyroid cancer goes up in the native population after the nuclear reactor accident. Most of the thyroid cancers are papillary carcinomas and usually amenable to treatment with 10 year survival rate. It is believed that post nuclear accident carcinomas are more aggressive as compared to the usual papillary ca. Thyroid gland is at greatest risk from radioactive iodine and potassium iodide can protect the gland, if given as per the recommended dose schedule. The Chernobyl reactor accident and events around that time have proven beyond doubt that potassium iodide protects the gland. Thus, its proper use in rescue workers and survivors could effectively protect thyroid gland and prevent thyroid cancer. (author)

  18. Thyroid axis alterations in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertig, Anna M; Niechciał, Elżbieta; Skowrońska, Bogda

    2012-01-01

    In recent years researchers have become increasingly interested in the particular relation between the function of the thyroid gland and the body mass in the population of obese children. Numerous studies have been conducted and the literature on the related issues has been abounding. Several thereof have strived at pinpointing a significant link between the function of the thyroid axis and the body mass. Yet, it still remains to be clarified whether these subtle changes in the level of thyroid hormones and TSH observed in childhood obesity are responsible for the increased body mass or rather they represent a secondary phenomenon. The mechanism most often put forward by the researchers that links obesity to thyroid function is the increased level of leptin, which affects neurones in the hypothalamus and the thyroid axis causing TRH and TSH secretion. The body mass is positively correlated with serum leptin and elevated level of leptin is connected with an increase in TSH level. However, there is still controversy whether these inconspicuous differences observed in thyroid axis merit the treatment with thyroxine since these changes seem to constitute a consequence rather than a cause of obesity. Therefore, as most authors postulate, primary importance should be placed on lifestyle changes and body weight reduction leaving substitutive treatment as a supplementary option. The purpose of this review is to present the most current issues on child obesity and the related malfunction of the thyroid axis through an overview of international publications from the years 1996-2011. PMID:23146791

  19. Impact of Uncertainties in Exposure Assessment on Estimates of Thyroid Cancer Risk among Ukrainian Children and Adolescents Exposed from the Chernobyl Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Mark P.; Kukush, Alexander G.; Masiuk, Sergii V.; Shklyar, Sergiy; Carroll, Raymond J.; Lubin, Jay H.; Kwon, Deukwoo; Brenner, Alina V.; Tronko, Mykola D.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Bogdanova, Tetiana I.; Hatch, Maureen; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Tereshchenko, Valeriy P.; Ostroumova, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    The 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains the most serious nuclear accident in history, and excess thyroid cancers, particularly among those exposed to releases of iodine-131 remain the best-documented sequelae. Failure to take dose-measurement error into account can lead to bias in assessments of dose-response slope. Although risks in the Ukrainian-US thyroid screening study have been previously evaluated, errors in dose assessments have not been addressed hitherto. Dose...

  20. Impact of uncertainties in exposure assessment on estimates of thyroid cancer risk among Ukrainian children and adolescents exposed from the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mark P; Kukush, Alexander G; Masiuk, Sergii V; Shklyar, Sergiy; Carroll, Raymond J; Lubin, Jay H; Kwon, Deukwoo; Brenner, Alina V; Tronko, Mykola D; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Bogdanova, Tetiana I; Hatch, Maureen; Zablotska, Lydia B; Tereshchenko, Valeriy P; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, André C; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Chepurny, Mykola I; Kovgan, Lina N; Simon, Steven L; Shpak, Victor M; Likhtarev, Ilya A

    2014-01-01

    The 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains the most serious nuclear accident in history, and excess thyroid cancers, particularly among those exposed to releases of iodine-131 remain the best-documented sequelae. Failure to take dose-measurement error into account can lead to bias in assessments of dose-response slope. Although risks in the Ukrainian-US thyroid screening study have been previously evaluated, errors in dose assessments have not been addressed hitherto. Dose-response patterns were examined in a thyroid screening prevalence cohort of 13,127 persons aged thyroid activity to thyroid mass. The two components that make up this ratio have different types of error, Berkson error for thyroid mass and classical error for thyroid activity. The first regression-calibration method yielded estimates of excess odds ratio of 5.78 Gy(-1) (95% CI 1.92, 27.04), about 7% higher than estimates unadjusted for dose error. The second regression-calibration method gave an excess odds ratio of 4.78 Gy(-1) (95% CI 1.64, 19.69), about 11% lower than unadjusted analysis. The Monte Carlo maximum-likelihood method produced an excess odds ratio of 4.93 Gy(-1) (95% CI 1.67, 19.90), about 8% lower than unadjusted analysis. There are borderline-significant (p = 0.101-0.112) indications of downward curvature in the dose response, allowing for which nearly doubled the low-dose linear coefficient. In conclusion, dose-error adjustment has comparatively modest effects on regression parameters, a consequence of the relatively small errors, of a mixture of Berkson and classical form, associated with thyroid dose assessment. PMID:24489667

  1. A nationwide survey on the daily screen time of Iranian children and adolescents: The CASPIAN - IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Jari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The time spent on screen activities is long in a considerably high number of Iranian children and adolescents. It should be reduced by increasing the public awareness and by providing facilities for regular daily physic activity for students′ leisure times.

  2. Exploring the Agreement between Questionnaire Information and DSM-IV Diagnoses of Comorbid Psychopathology in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjevik, Elen; Sandstad, Berit; Andreassen, Ole A.; Myhre, Anne M.; Sponheim, Eili

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are often comorbid with other psychiatric symptoms and disorders. However, identifying psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorders is challenging. We explored how a questionnaire, the Child Behavior Check List, agreed with a "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth…

  3. Thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study two main objectives were concerned.The first one is the estimation of serum of thyroid hormones antigen level in pregnant women in Khartoum area. To fulfill the first objectives, thirty pregnant women were selected their age 25-45 yrs and serum was determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for T4, T3 and TSH and was found that mean concentration in serum T4=156, T3= 2.9 and TSH 0.4. For the assessment of the other parameters, the same number was allowed for Hb%, age and weight and so no significant different was observed in the mean concentration and evaluated as best results can concerned. Different techniques were used in the study such as micro reader and spectrophotometer. (Author)

  4. Studies on multiple thyroid cell membrane-directed antibodies in Graves' disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Zakarija, M; Garcia, A.; McKenzie, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G was obtained from the serum of a woman who had given birth to three children with a delayed onset of hyperthyroidism; the clinical events were due to the coexistence of thyroid-stimulating antibody (TSAb) and an inhibitor of TSAb in the maternal serum. The current studies explore the possible existence of additional thyroid membrane-directed antibodies. Human thyroid slices, cells in monolayer culture, and functioning rat thyroid cells (FRTL5), with measurement of cyclic AMP ...

  5. Thyroid Hemiagenesis Associated with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsame, D.; Chadli, A.; Hallab, L.; El Aziz, S.; El Ghomari, H.; Farouqi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from failure of one thyroid lobe development. We report a 23-year-old female presented with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in left lobe, associated with hemiagenesis of right lobe and isthmus which was previously diagnosed as Graves' hyperthyroidism, but developed further into Hashimoto's thyroiditis after being treated with antithyroid drugs. The symptoms of hyperthyroidism in the current case led to the diagnostic confirmation by scintiscanning of an absent lobe. The antithyroid pharmacotherapy by thiamazole was used. However, due to symptoms of hypothyroidism, it was discontinued two months later, so thyroid hormone substitution was reintroduced. Antithyroid antibody studies and ultrasonography documented the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:24198979

  6. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Pediatric Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayper KAÇAR

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objectives were to evaluate fine needle aspiration cytology results of 39 pediatric patients, and the pathologies that cause childhood thyroid nodules, and to review the literature on the subject.Material and Method: Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology results of 39 pediatric patients were retrospectively reviewed. Associated diseases, thyroid functions, anti-thyroid antibody levels, ultrasonographic findings and number of nodules were also evaluated.Results: The vast majority of patients with thyroid nodules were cytopathologically diagnosed as benign (97.3%. Of these patients, 64.8% (24 patients were diagnosed as nodular goiter and 35.2% (13 patients as lymphocytic thyroiditis. Thyroid malignancy was found in two patients; one was diagnosed as follicular neoplasm/ minimal invasive follicular carcinoma on surgical evaluation while the other was a secondary tumor (Burkitt's lymphoma. The majority of our subjects were females (66.6%: the female/male ratio was 2:1 for nodular goiter and 3.3:1 for thyroiditis. Surgical resection was performed in 5 patients (4 cases of nodular goiter, 1 suspicious for malignancy and cytological diagnoses were confirmed by histology.Conclusion: Our study confirmed the utility of fine needle aspiration cytology in childhood thyroid disorders along with a possible higher incidence of nodular thyroiditis in childhood. Nodular autoimmune thyroiditis, focal thyroiditis and thyroid cancer in children are discussed and attention is drawn to some special subtypes of thyroid cancer and some benign lesions that can cause difficulty in interpreting fine needle aspiration cytology and frozen sections at this age.

  7. Hazard of the radiation induced thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of thyroid cancer in Belarus before Chernobyl accident was low and made in different age and sex groups 0,03-2,5 (male) and 0,1-3,9 (female) per 100000 correspondingly. Different risk factors, which can influence the thyroid cancer development, are being taken into account. They are the factors of environment (strong external irradiation, long-time irradiation for medical purposes or in result of disaster), endo gen factors (hormonal, reproductive, genetic predisposition), some medicinal preparations and other. The protective effect of vegetable and fish consumption was found out. Among the factors of thyroid cancer development one of the most important is radiation. There is a point of view, which assumes that one of the reasons of thyroid cancer cases increase among the population of developed countries is increase of radiation induced thyroid cancer. The results of first research testify the influence of radiation factor on thyroid cancer development. During the period 1920 -1960 in the USA X-ray therapy was applied for the treatment of different good-quality diseases. Thyroid got in the zone of irradiation during the complex treatment with using of radiation. The results of the research of 1970 revealed that 70% of children with thyroid cancer were exposed to radiation in children's age. The subsequent researches of by-effects from the side of a thyroid at beam therapy of various diseases alongside with the results of the estimation of consequences of inhabitants of Hiroshima and Nagasaki irradiation owing to nuclear bombardment have shown the influence of irradiation of a thyroid on cancer development. High quantity of radio-epidemiological researches was directed to the studying of the consequences of thyroid external irradiation at young age. In all carried out researches the quantity of observed thyroid cancer cases among irradiated people has exceeded number of expected. The influence of thyroid internal irradiation by I-131 at young age was

  8. Maternal Thyroid Dysfunction and Neonatal Thyroid Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Ozdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate obstetric features of pregnant women with thyroid disorders and thyroid function tests of their newborn infants. Methods. Women with hypothyroidism and having anti-thyroglobulin (ATG and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO antibodies were assigned as group I, women with hypothyroidism who did not have autoantibodies were assigned as group II, and women without thyroid problems were assigned as group III. Results. Pregnant women with autoimmune hypothyroidism (group I had more preterm delivery and their babies needed more frequent neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admission. In group I, one infant was diagnosed with compensated hypothyroidism and one infant had transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Five infants (23.8% in group II had thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels >20 mIU/mL. Only two of them had TSH level >7 mIU/L at the 3rd postnatal week, and all had normal free T4 (FT4. Median maternal TSH level of these five infants with TSH >20 mIU/mL was 6.6 mIU/mL. In group III, six infants (6.5% had TSH levels above >20 mIU/mL at the 1st postnatal week. Conclusion. Infants of mothers with thyroid problems are more likely to have elevated TSH and higher recall rate on neonatal thyroid screening. Women with thyroid disorders and their newborn infants should be followed closely for both obstetrical problems and for thyroid dysfunction.

  9. Association of Dietary Behaviors with Physical Activity in a Nationally Representative Sample of Children and Adolescents: the CASPIAN- IV Study

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Safiri; Roya Kelishadi; Mostafa Qorbani; Razieh Lotfi; Shirin Djalalinia; Delara Salehifar; Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh; Gelayol Ardalan; Morteza Mansourian; Hamid Asayesh; Ramin Heshmat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nutritional health and adequate physical activity (PA), especially in childhood and grow periods, have a substantial role in health. This study assessed the association of dietary behaviors (main courses and snacks intake) with PA in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: Using multistage random cluster sampling method, a representative sample of 14,880 school students were selected from urban and rural areas of 30 provinces of Iran. Through a validated questionnaire, da...

  10. Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačev-Zavišić Branka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3. Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency. The proper daily amount of iodine is required for optimal thyroid function. Iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism, developmental brain disorders and goiter. Iodine deficiency is the single most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world. It also decreases child survival, causes goiters, and impairs growth and development. Iodine deficiency disorders in pregnant women cause miscarriages, stillbirths, and other complications. Children with iodine deficiency disorders can grow up stunted, apathetic, mentally retarded, and incapable of normal movements, speech or hearing. Excessive Iodine Intake. Excessive iodine intake, which can trigger autoimmune thyroid disease and dysfunction, is on the other side. Iodine use in Case of Nuclear Catastrophe. In addition to other severe consequences of radioactivity, high amount of radioactive iodine causes significant increase in incidence of thyroid gland carcinoma after some of the nuclear catastrophes (Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Chernobyl, Fukushima. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was increased mostly in children. This paper was aimed at clarifying some of the possibilities of prevention according to the recommendations given by the World Health Organization.

  11. Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant disaster and its consequences for thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of profilactic action consisting in iodine solution intake for children in Poland has been assessed. The population exposition to radioactive iodine in air after the accident has been discussed as well as its consequences for thyroid

  12. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery to remove part or all of your thyroid gland. This operation is called thyroidectomy . You probably ... in just a few weeks. If you had thyroid cancer, you may need to have radioactive iodine ...

  13. Retrosternal thyroid surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007558.htm Retrosternal thyroid surgery To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The thyroid gland is normally located at the front of ...

  14. Thyroid preparation overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid preparations are medicines used to treat thyroid gland disorders. Overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be by accident or ...

  15. Cancer of the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main types of thyroid cancer are papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. The four types are ... on statistics from SEER and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. ...

  16. Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Next Topic Targeted therapy for thyroid cancer Chemotherapy for thyroid cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) uses anti-cancer drugs that are injected ... vein or muscle, or are taken by mouth. Chemotherapy is systemic therapy, which means that the drug ...

  17. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Page Content On this page: ... responds by decreasing TSH production. [ Top ] How does pregnancy normally affect thyroid function? Two pregnancy-related hormones— ...

  18. A Nationwide Survey on the Daily Screen Time of Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN - IV Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Jari; Mostafa Qorbani; Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh; Ramin Heshmat; Gelayol Ardalan; Roya Kelishadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Leisure time activity is an important life-style habit. This study aims to determine the screen time of a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: This nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted as part of the fourth survey of a surveillance system. The participants consisted of 14880 students, with aged range from 6 to 18 years, living in 30 provinces in Iran. Screen time, i.e. the time spent on watching television (TV)/video and comp...

  19. Meal Frequency in Iranian Children and Adolescents at National and Sub-National Levels: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya KELISHADI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to assess the pattern of meal frequency consumption of Iranian children and adolescents at national and subnational levels according to the socioeconomic status (SES of the living region.Methods:  This multi-centric study was conducted in 2011-2012 among 14,880 students, aged 6-18 years, who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from 30 provinces. Meal frequency was assessed by the World Health Organization Global School-based student Health Survey (WHO- GSHS questionnaire. Data were compared at national and sub-national levels according to the SES of the living region.Results: Overall, 13486 students completed this study (participation rate: 90.6%. The frequency of breakfast, lunch, and dinner skipping was 32.08% (95% CI: 30.99, 33.2, 8.58% (95% CI: 7.71, 9.54, and 10.90% (95% CI: 10.21, 11.62, respectively. The frequency of consuming 1 meal, 2 meals, and 3 meals a day was 9.60% (95%CI: 8.94, 10.31, 29.28% (95% CI: 28.31, 30.26, and 61.12 % (95% CI: 59.89, 62.34, respectively. The mean number of days per week of breakfast consumption was 5.14 (95% CI: 5.08, 5.20, the corresponding figure was 6.39 (95%CI: 6.35, 6.42, and 6.24 (95%CI: 6.21, 6.28 for lunch and dinner, respectively. These frequencies had no significant difference according to the SES of the living region.Conclusion: Most Iranian children and adolescents consumed all three main meals, however irrespective of SES; in general skipping breakfast was more frequent than skipping lunch and dinner. Regular meal intake, notably breakfast, should be considered in health promoting programs for all children and adolescents. Keywords: Meal frequency, Skipping meals, Children and adolescents, Prevention, Health promotion, Iran

  20. Thyroid Disease Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Thyroid Disease Definitions KidsHealth > For Teens > Thyroid Disease Definitions Print A A A Text Size ... sweat, mucous, and tears. goiter: This is a thyroid gland that is enlarged to the point that ...

  1. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to other parts of the body, making the disease more difficult to control. Medullary : This rare form of thyroid cancer develops in ... about 5-10 percent of all thyroid malignancies. Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) ... Symptoms: Symptoms of this disease vary. Your child may have a lump in ...

  2. Thyroid and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Ghianda, S; Tonacchera, M; Vitti, P

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is common in the general population especially in women. All thyroid diseases are in fact more common in women than in men and may interfere with the reproductive system. Thyroid function and the gonadal axes are related throughout the woman's fertile period. The relationship between the two glands is mutual. In particular, thyroid hormones affect the reproductive function both directly and indirectly through several actions. Studies on the relationship between menopause and thyroid function are few and do not allow to clarify whether menopause has an effect on the thyroid regardless of aging. With aging, the main changes regarding thyroid physiology and function are: a reduction of thyroid iodine uptake, free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine synthesis and catabolism of free thyroxine while reverse triiodothyronine increases; the level of thyroid stimulating hormone remains normal with sometimes a tendency to higher limits. These changes are present in both sexes without distinction between males and females. The complexity of the relationships can be summarized in three aspects: thyroid status does not influence significantly the climacteric syndrome; menopause may modify the clinical expression of some thyroid diseases, particularly the autoimmune ones; thyroid function is not directly involved in the pathogenesis of the complications of menopause. However, coronary atherosclerosis and osteoporosis may be aggravated in the presence of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. The effects of postmenopausal estrogen replacement on thyroxine requirements in women with hypothyroidism should be considered. PMID:23998691

  3. Is Meal Frequency Associated with Mental Distress and Violent Behaviors in Children and Adolescents? the CASPIAN IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ansari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to assess the relationship between meal frequency with mental distress and violent behavior among a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: The participants of this national study were 14,880 Iranian students with 6 to 18 years of age. They were selected from urban and rural regions of Iran by multi-stage cluster sampling method. The data were obtained about demographic information, mental distress, violent behaviors and meal frequency by the questionnaire of the World Health Organization-Global School-based Student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS. Results: The response rate was 90.6%. The participants who were categorized as the group eating 3 meals per week significantly experienced less mental distress than those who were categorized as consuming 2 meals and one/no meal per week (P-value < 0.05. The min rate of violent behaviors was observed among participants who were classified as consuming 3 meals group and the max rate in one/no meal group. Participants who were categorized as consuming one/ no meal and 2 meals per week had higher risk of mental distress and violent behaviors compared with those whom consumed 3 meals per week. Conclusions: Meal skipping was significantly associated with mental problems and violent behaviors among Iranian children and adolescents and this association was independent of known confounders.

  4. Is Meal Frequency Associated with Mental Distress and Violent Behaviors in Children and Adolescents? the CASPIAN IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ansari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to assess the relationship between meal frequency with mental distress and violent behavior among a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: The participants of this national study were 14,880 Iranian students with 6 to 18 years of age. They were selected from urban and rural regions of Iran by multi-stage cluster sampling method. The data were obtained about demographic information, mental distress, violent behaviors and meal frequency by the questionnaire of the World Health Organization-Global School-based Student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS. Results: The response rate was 90.6%. The participants who were categorized as the group eating 3 meals per week significantly experienced less mental distress than those who were categorized as consuming 2 meals and one/no meal per week (P-value < 0.05. The min rate of violent behaviors was observed among participants who were classified as consuming 3 meals group and the max rate in one/no meal group. Participants who were categorized as consuming one/ no meal and 2 meals per week had higher risk of mental distress and violent behaviors compared with those whom consumed 3 meals per week. Conclusions: Meal skipping was significantly associated with mental problems and violent behaviors among Iranian children and adolescents and this association was independent of known confounders.

  5. Perspectives of development of thyroid cancers in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives an overview on the total number if thyroid cancers observed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident among children, discusses possible sources of the observed increase over expected cases and compares these observations with predictive calculations using different risk coefficients published in the literature. To this purpose exposure estimates of the thyroid are made for children living in three selected areas. Different radioecological, dosimetric and other reasons make it very difficult to obtain reliable dose estimates for these victims, and the use of published risk coefficients for the assessment of future developments of the thyroid cancer incidence rates results in predictions which do not agree too well with the observations

  6. Welding IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding IV, a competency-based course in advanced arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with proficiency in: (1) single vee groove welding using code specifications established by the American Welding Society…

  7. Association of Socio-economic Status with Injuries in Children Andadolescents:the CASPIAN-IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Childhood and adolescence injuries are still frequently occuring in developing countries. This study aims to assess the association  of socio-economic status (SES with injuriesin Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This multicentricsurvey was part of a national surveillance program, which was conducted in 2011-2012 amongst 14,880 students aged6-18 years. Participants were randomly selected from urban and rural areas of 30 provinces in Iran. Socio- economic status (SES of participants was categorized to “low”, “middle” ,and “high” by using principle component analysis method by considering parental job and education as well as family assets. Prevalence, types and places of injuries were based on the questionnaire of the World Health Organization- Global School-based student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS.Multivariate modelwas used for comparison of variables between SES groups. Results: Overall, 13486 out of 14880 invited students (response rate: 90.6% participated in this study.Their mean (SD age was12.47 (3.36 years.Boys and urban residents constituted the majority of participants (50.8% and 75.6%, respectively. Compared with low SES group, oddsof sport injury was higher in students with middle (OR=1.44; 95%CI: 0.92-2.26 and highSES (OR=1.96; 95%CI: 1.27-3.01. Compared to participants withlow SES,odds of home injuries was significantly lower in high SES group (OR=0.78; 95%CI: 0.64-0.95. Conclusion: This study revealedconsiderable differences in injuries of children and adolescents according to their SES, with higher prevalence of home injuries in low SES families and higher prevalence of sport injuries in middle and high SES levels. When implementing injury prevention programs, such differences should be taken into account.

  8. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Yoo; Yohanan Kim; Alfred Simental; Jared C. Inman

    2016-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  9. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  10. Thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Baba KA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Khalid A El Baba1, Sami T Azar21Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Bahrain Specialist Hospital, Manama, Bahrain; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, American University of Beirut-Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Timely treatment of thyroid disease during pregnancy is important in preventing adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Thyroid abnormalities are very often subclinical in nature and not easily recognized without specific screening programs. Even mild maternal thyroid hormone deficiency may lead to neurodevelopment complications in the fetus. The main diagnostic indicator of thyroid disease is the measurement of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine levels. Availability of gestation-age-specific thyroid-stimulating hormone thresholds is an important aid in the accurate diagnosis and treatment of thyroid dysfunction. Pregnancy-specific free thyroxine thresholds not presently available are also required. Large-scale intervention trials are urgently needed to assess the efficacy of preconception or early pregnancy screening for thyroid disorders. Accurate interpretation of both antepartum and postpartum levels of thyroid hormones is important in preventing pregnancy-related complication secondary to thyroid dysfunction. This article sheds light on the best ways of management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy in order to prevent any possible maternal or fetal complication.Keywords: TSH, HCG, TBG

  11. Radiation exposure and thyroid nodules. Survey of related studies and analysis of thyroid test in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid nodules, this study overviewed the relevant studies, and then analyzed the results of thyroid test in Fukushima. In the studies on atomic bomb survivors, medical exposure, and Chernobyl accident, the positive correlation between exposure and nodule prevalence, and high thyroid cancer incidence in the nodule group were known. Although cancer was said to have increased 4 years after the Chernobyl accident, nodules as cancer's previous step was likely to have been seen prior to it. The authors analyzed the thyroid test data in Fukushima Prefecture, including the results of 'priority review' by the 'citizens' health survey' study committee as of the end of February 2015, as well as the test data of total 299,000 people during FY2011 and 2013. As the exposure dose, thyroid dose estimates for 10-year-old children announced by UNSCEAR were used. Positive correlation trend was seen between the thyroid dose estimates of municipalities and nodule (5 mm or smaller) prevalence. As for the nodule prevalence according to Poisson regression analysis, thyroid dose was positive, average age during exposure was negative, and average age at the time of test was positive, as the statistically significant data. From the examination data by Fukushima Prefecture, significantly positive correlation was also shown between exposure amounts and nodule morbidity, but it is necessary to pay attention to the uncertainty of dose estimation. (A.O.)

  12. Thyroid function study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short revision of thyroid physiology is done. The radioisotopes of common use in thyroid investigation and the choice of the most appropriated ones are discussed. A table showing radioisotopes frequently used in this study, with their main characteristics is presented. Among several isotopic assays in thyroid propaedeutics, those that refer to the function study, topographic studies and tests 'in vitro' are pointed out. Exploration methods 'in vivo' are treated, such as: thyroid uptake; urinary excretion; thyroid scintigraphy, with scintigraphic imagings; stimulation test by TSH; suppression test; pbi; clearance test with perchlorate; iodine deficiency test and thyroid study with technetium. 'In vitro' proofs like triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) assays, as well as free thyroxine index, are treated. At last, the therapeutics by Iodine 131 is commented and emphasis is given to its application on the treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma

  13. Thyroid shields and neck exposures in cephalometric radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha-Cruz Joana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The thyroid is among the more radiosensitive organs in the body. The goal of this study was twofold: (1 to evaluate age-related changes in what is exposed to ionizing radiation in the neck area, and (2 to assess thyroid shield presence in cephalometric radiographs Methods Cephalometric radiographs at one academic setting were sampled and neck exposure was related to calendar year and patient's gender and age. Results In the absence of shields, children have more vertebrae exposed than adults (p Conclusion In the absence of a thyroid shield, children have more neck structure exposed to radiation than adults. In agreement with other reports, thyroid shield utilization in this study was low, particularly in children.

  14. Radiation induced thyroid neoplasms 1920 to 1987: A vanishing problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation for benign diseases has been implicated as an etiologic factor in thyroid cancer. From 1930-60, over 2 million children may have been exposed to therapeutic radiation and it is estimated that up to 7% may develop thyroid cancer after a 5-40 year latency. Thyroid stimulating hormone, secondary to radioinduced hypothyroidism, has been implicated as causative in animals. Such data has led to expensive screening programs in high risk patients. Because of a decline in irradiation for benign diseases in children over the last 2 decades, we questioned whether the incidence of radiation induced thyroid neoplasms (RITN) was also decreasing. Twenty-six of 227 patients (11%) with thyroid malignancies seen at our institution from 1974-87 had a history of previous head and neck irradiation. These included 13 papillary, 3 follicular, and 7 mixed carcinomas as well as 2 lymphomas and 1 synovial cell sarcoma. None of these 26 patients had abnormal thyroid function tests at presentation. Mean latency from irradiation to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer was 25.4 years (6-55 year range). Compared to the reported increasing incidence of RITN from 1940-70, there appears to be a significant decrease since 1970. Based on our analysis, the use of expensive screening programs in high risk populations may no longer be warranted. Additionally, the routine use of thyroid replacement in previously irradiated chemically hypothyroid patients is not recommended.30 references

  15. Radiation induced thyroid neoplasms 1920 to 1987: A vanishing problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, M.P.; Goetowski, P.G.; Kinsella, T.J.

    1989-06-01

    Radiation for benign diseases has been implicated as an etiologic factor in thyroid cancer. From 1930-60, over 2 million children may have been exposed to therapeutic radiation and it is estimated that up to 7% may develop thyroid cancer after a 5-40 year latency. Thyroid stimulating hormone, secondary to radioinduced hypothyroidism, has been implicated as causative in animals. Such data has led to expensive screening programs in high risk patients. Because of a decline in irradiation for benign diseases in children over the last 2 decades, we questioned whether the incidence of radiation induced thyroid neoplasms (RITN) was also decreasing. Twenty-six of 227 patients (11%) with thyroid malignancies seen at our institution from 1974-87 had a history of previous head and neck irradiation. These included 13 papillary, 3 follicular, and 7 mixed carcinomas as well as 2 lymphomas and 1 synovial cell sarcoma. None of these 26 patients had abnormal thyroid function tests at presentation. Mean latency from irradiation to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer was 25.4 years (6-55 year range). Compared to the reported increasing incidence of RITN from 1940-70, there appears to be a significant decrease since 1970. Based on our analysis, the use of expensive screening programs in high risk populations may no longer be warranted. Additionally, the routine use of thyroid replacement in previously irradiated chemically hypothyroid patients is not recommended.30 references.

  16. Evaluation and management of the pediatric thyroid nodule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guille, Jeremy T; Opoku-Boateng, Adwoa; Thibeault, Susan L; Chen, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are commonly diagnosed in adults. Although rare in children, the risk for thyroid cancer is much higher in the pediatric population compared with adults. Presenting as either a solitary nodule or a multinodular goiter, thyroid nodular disease in children requires a thorough workup that includes a detailed clinical examination comprised of prior history of thyroid disease in the patient or in their family, history of radiation exposure, careful palpation of the thyroid and lymph nodes, blood tests, ultrasonography, and cytological assessment. Thyroid surgery is the gold-standard treatment for pediatric thyroid nodules; nonetheless, the extent of surgery remains controversial. Because surgery is not without risk, the decision matrix necessitates focus on the benefits of surgery for the child contingent upon all the preoperative exams. New diagnostic technology such as molecular testing with fine needle aspiration biopsy may help distinguish between benign and malignant lesions while potentially decreasing surgery for benign disease. The objective of this review is to summarize new concepts in clinical disease management of nodular thyroid disease in the pediatric population, including patient history, medical examination, and diagnosis workup. PMID:25480825

  17. Improvement of dosimetry for I-131 therapy of lung metastases with special regard to children with thyroid cancer from Belarus following the Chernobyl accident. Final report 1997-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main problem in treating disseminated pulmonary metastases in children with papillary thyroid cancer is to find a balance between an insufficient dose for the ablation of metastatic tissue and unnecessary high radiation exposure to the lungs and the bone marrow. This can hardly be achieved without quantitative dosimetry for the more or less inhomogeneously distributed 1-131 in high dosed radioiodine therapy. The major goal of this project is to improve the concept for treating patients with lung metastases induced by thyroid carcinoma. Almost all of the patients with lung metastases are treated in more than one therapy course. After each course the knowledge of the doses to the tumor tissue, the lung, and the bone marrow is of crucial importance for a well funded decision about further treatment. In the cases of either the tumor doses being inefficient for ablation or substantial impairment of residuing pulmonary metastases or the cumulated doses to lung and bone marrow exceeds empirically defined ''critical'' limits the fractionated radioiodine treatment has to be stopped to avoid side effects such as lung fibrosis or leukemia in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. The decision which has to be taken must consider that prognosis with respect to mortality and quality of life even in the case of persisting lung metastases may be better than after the induction of progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Up to now, patients are treated more or less empirically until complete remission is achieved and no tumor uptake is visible in post-therapeutic scans with a gamma camera or the cumulative activity of 1-131 taken up by the lungs exceeds 3 GBq (80 mCi) according to recommendations given by Benua and Leaper in 1962. This project combines empirical approaches with theoretical research at cellular level to optimize the dose to the tumor cells with protection of healthy lung tissue. (orig.)

  18. Association of Dietary Behaviors with Physical Activity in a Nationally Representative Sample of Children and Adolescents: the CASPIAN- IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Safiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional health and adequate physical activity (PA, especially in childhood and grow periods, have a substantial role in health. This study assessed the association of dietary behaviors (main courses and snacks intake with PA in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: Using multistage random cluster sampling method, a representative sample of 14,880 school students were selected from urban and rural areas of 30 provinces of Iran. Through a validated questionnaire, daily consumption of main course ( breakfast, lunch, and dinner as well as daily consumption of different snacks and health foods ( fast foods, milk, vegetables, dry fruits, fresh fruits, sweetened beverages, salty snacks and sweets were recorded for every participants. Information of past week weekly frequency of leisure time PA was collected. Results: Overall, 13,486 out of 14,880 students (response rate: 90.6% participated in this survey. Participants consisted of 6,640 (49.2% girls and 75.6% urban residents; their mean and standard deviation (SD age was 12.47 (3.36 years. Daily consumption of fresh fruits (odds ratio [OR]: 1.35, 95%confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-1.52, dried fruits (OR: 1.21; 95%CI: 1.06-1.40, vegetable (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.24-1.56, and milk (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.21-1.52 increased the odds of high PA compare to low PA in adjusted model.  Skipping the breakfast, lunch and dinner decreased the odds of moderate and high PA compare to low PA (P

  19. Frequency of aggressive behaviors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sadinejad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to explore the frequency of aggressive behaviors among a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: This nationwide study was performed on a multi-stage sample of 6-18 years students, living in 30 provinces in Iran. Students were asked to confidentially report the frequency of aggressive behaviors including physical fighting, bullying and being bullied in the previous 12 months, using the questionnaire of the World Health Organization Global School Health Survey. Results: In this cross-sectional study, 13,486 students completed the study (90.6% participation rate; they consisted of 49.2% girls and 75.6% urban residents. The mean age of participants was 12.47 years (95% confidence interval: 12.29, 12.65. In total, physical fight was more prevalent among boys than girls (48% vs. 31%, P < 0.001. Higher rates of involvement in two other behaviors namely being bullied and bulling to other classmates had a higher frequency among boys compared to girls (29% vs. 25%, P < 0.001 for being bullied and (20% vs. 14%, P < 0.001 for bulling to others. Physical fighting was more prevalent among rural residents (40% vs. 39%, respectively, P = 0.61, while being bullied was more common among urban students (27% vs. 26%, respectively, P = 0.69. Conclusions: Although in this study the frequency of aggressive behaviors was lower than many other populations, still these findings emphasize on the importance of designing preventive interventions that target the students, especially in early adolescence, and to increase their awareness toward aggressive behaviors. Implications for future research and aggression prevention programming are recommended.

  20. Thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients with vitiligo: retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlu, Murat; Çınar, Salih Levent; Kesikoğlu, Ayten; Utaş, Serap

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between vitiligo and thyroid disease is not fully investigated especially in paediatric patients. Aim To determine the incidence of vitiligo and thyroid disorders in children. This is the first report from middle Anatolia and the second report from Turkey. Material and methods A retrospective chart review was performed to examine the presence of thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients who had been admitted to the dermatology department with vitiligo. Results A total of 155 paediatric patients, including 80 (52%) male and 75 (48%) female patients were included. The mean age was 8.6 years. Non segmental vitiligo was the most common type of the disease in 140 (90%) reviewed patients, while segmental vitiligo appeared only in 15 (10%) patients. The mean onset of vitiligo was 5.6 ±0.9 years. A family history of vitiligo was found in 14 (9%) children. Thirty-four (22%) patients had thyroid function tests and/or thyroid autoantibody abnormality. All of these patients had non segmental vitiligo. It was statistically significant (p vitiligo and thyroid disease parameters. Conclusions Our results show that it may be useful to screen thyroid in children with non segmental vitiligo.

  1. Do IGF-I concentrations better reflect growth hormone (GH action in children with short stature than the results of GH stimulating tests? Evidence from the simultaneous assessment of thyroid function

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    Smyczyńska Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of growth hormone (GH deficiency (GHD in short children seems unquestionable when both GH peak in stimulating tests (GHST and IGF-I concentration are decreased. However, the discrepancies between the results of GHST and IGF-I secretion are observed. It seems purposeful to determine the significance of GHST and IGF-I assessment in diagnosing GHD. The relationship between GH secretion and thyroid function, as well as GH influence on the peripheral thyroxine (T4 to triiodothyronine (T3 deiodination, mediated by IGF-I, were identified. Thus, clear differences in thyroid function between GH-deficient and non-GH-deficient subjects should exist. Methods Analysis comprised 800 children (541 boys, age 11.6 ± 3.1 years (mean ± SD, with short stature, in whom two (2 standard GHST (with clonidine and with glucagon were performed and IGF-I, free T4 (FT4, free T3 (FT3 and TSH serum concentrations were assessed. The patients were qualified to the following groups: GHD - decreased GH peak in GHST and IGF-I SDS (n = 81, ISS - normal GH peak and IGF-I SDS (n = 347, low GH - normal IGF-I SDS, and decreased GH peak (n = 212, low IGF - decreased IGF-I SDS, and normal GH peak (n = 160. The relationships among the results of particular tests were evaluated. Results In the groups with decreased IGF-I concentrations (GHD Group and low IGF Group, the more severe deficit of height was observed, together with higher TSH and FT4 but lower FT3 levels than in groups with normal IGF-I concentrations (ISS Group and low GH Group, independently of the results of GHST. TSH, FT4 and FT3 concentrations were - respectively - similar in two groups with decreased IGF-I secretion, as well as in two groups with normal IGF-I levels. Significant correlations were found between patients' height SDS and IGF-I SDS, between FT3 and IGF-I SDS (positive, and between FT4 and IGF-I SDS (negative, with no correlation between GH peak and any of the parameters

  2. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  3. Evaluation of Mird and Marinelli formalisms in the radiation dosimetry for thyroid of adults and children using {sup 131I} (radioiodine); Evaluacion de las dosimetrias Mird y de Marinelli en el estimado de dosis de radiacion para tiroides de adultos y ninos cuando se usa {sup 131}I (yoduro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, A.M.; Rocha, J.J.; Castillo, D.C.; Gomez, M.A.; Mendoza, A.A.; Rabanal, M.J.; Cruz, S.J. [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo (UNT-UCV), Trujillo (Peru). Grupo de Fisica Medica

    2013-11-01

    Using MIRD formalism and Cristy-Eckerman representation for the thyroid adults, children of 15, 10, 5, 1 year old and newborn it is shown that the total dose absorbed by the gland due to {sup 131}I(iodine) is its self-dose. Their results are not significantly different from those reported by the formalism MARINELLI (self-dose), which uses a sphere as glandular representation. Consequently, the kinetic model to the gland is a single compartment and the thyroid can be represented as a sphere.

  4. Differentiated thyroid cancer in childhood and adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiated thyroid cancer in children is rare. There is scanty information on the course of the disease in childhood. The biological behavior differs from that in adults and is related to the factor of age and gender. Response to 131I therapy is excellent. A total/near total thyroidectomy followed by 131I ablation of residual/remnant thyroid tissue and nodal or distal metastases if present reduces the rate of mortality and recurrence. Death occurs as a result of recurrence. Experience shows that Hurthle cell tumor can be aggressive in childhood and leads to death within a few years

  5. Clinical analysis of thyroid abnormalities in 55 children with Turner syndrome%55例Turner综合征患儿甲状腺异常临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑞敏; 张莹; 杨晓红; 林祥泉

    2013-01-01

    Objective Turner syndrome (TS) is characterized with reduced adult height and gonadal dysgenesis and associated with a number of complications including thyroid disease.The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thyroid diseases and the association between thyroid autoantibodies (TAA) and thyroid dysfunction,age,and karyotype.Methods Fifty-five girls with TS were diagnosed by chromosome analyses and were divided into 2 groups according to whether there was TAA-positive or not:TAA-positive group and TAA-negative group.Thyroid autoantibodies (antithyroglobulin antibody,thyroperoxidase antibody),thyroid function (free T3,free T4,and TSH) were determined with immunochemiluminescent.Ultrasound was applied in TAA-positive group.Results Thyroid functions in 34 TAA-negative girls were normal.Of the 21 TAA-positive girls (21/55,38.2%),7 girls suffered from hypothyroidism and 3 girls had hyperthyroidism.All of 21 TAA-positive girls were diagnosed as cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.As compared with the girls in TAA-negative group,the age of girls in TAA-positive group was significantly higher [(12.16 ± 2.55 vs 9.95 ± 4.50) years,P<0.05].6 cases under 5 years old were TAA-negative.31.3 % (5/16) of patients aged 5-10 years old,48.1% (13/27) aged 10-15 years old and 50.0% (3/6) above the age of 15 were TAA-positive.There were no significant differences in the numbers of TAApositive cases among different karyotypes (P > 0.05).Thyroid ultrasound in girls with positive-TAA showed the abnormal echogenicity in bilateral lobus lateralis of thyroid.Conclusion Patients with TS are prone to suffer from Hashimoto's thyroiditis leading to thyroid dysfunction,when they are older than 5 years.Thyroid function should be evaluated yearly in girls with TS after 5 years old.There is no specific association between the incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease and certain karyotypes.%目的 观察Turner综合征(TS)患儿甲状腺异常的发生率、甲状腺

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Hashimoto thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Hashimoto thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Hashimoto thyroiditis is a condition that affects the function ...

  7. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable.

  8. Results from the IRS-IV randomized trial of hyperfractionated radiotherapy in children with rhabdomyosarcoma--a report from the IRSG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome and toxicity of hyperfractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) vs. conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (CFRT) in children with Group III rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Methods and Materials: Five hundred fifty-nine children were enrolled into the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study IV with Group III RMS. Sixty-nine were ineligible for the analysis because of incorrect group or pathologic findings. Of the 490 remaining, 239 were randomized to HFRT (59.4 Gy in 54 1.1-Gy twice daily fractions) and 251 to CFRT (50.4 Gy in 28 1.8-Gy daily fractions). The age range was <1-21 years. All patients received chemotherapy. RT began at Week 9 after induction chemotherapy for all but those with high-risk parameningeal tumors who received RT during induction chemotherapy. The patient groups were equally balanced. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Results: Analysis by randomized treatment assignment (intent to treat) revealed an estimated 5-year failure-free survival (FFS) rate of 70% and overall survival (OS) of 75%. In the univariate analysis, the factors associated with the best outcome were age 1-9 years at diagnosis; noninvasive tumors; tumor size <5 cm; uninvolved lymph nodes; Stage 1 or 2 disease; primary site in the orbit or head and neck; and embryonal histologic features (p=0.001 for all factors). No differences in the FFS or OS between the two RT treatment methods and no differences in the FFS or OS between HFRT and CFRT were found when analyzed by age, gender, tumor size, tumor invasiveness, nodal status, histologic features, stage, or primary site. Treatment compliance differed by age. Of the children <5 years, 57% assigned to HFRT received HFRT and 77% assigned to CFRT received CFRT. Of the children ≥5 years, 88% assigned to both HFRT and CFRT received their assigned treatment. The reasons for not receiving the appropriate randomized treatment were progressive disease, early death, parent or physician refusal, young age, or surgery. The

  9. Thyroid gland irradiations and thyroid cancers; Critical bibliographic journal; Irradiations de la thyroide et cancers thyroidiens. Revue bibliographique critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitauxa, F. [CHI Le Raincy-Montfermeil, Faculte X. Bichat, Lab. de Biophysique, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 93 - Le Raincy-Montfermeil (France)

    2007-07-15

    The large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were mainly less than five years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident is still a major concern for endocrinologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Epidemiological studies have focused solely on iodine-131. However, past knowledge on thyroid irradiation (medical use of iodine-131, radioactive fallout on Marshall islands and the Nevada and Hanford site releases) as well as number of recent works (about low-dose irradiation) raise question on the role of other factors. It is here shown that post-Chernobyl thyroid irradiation is complex and that all factors (iodine-131, but also short lived isotopes of iodine and external irradiation) should be considered. Finally, one needs to think about some of the present medical uses of iodine-131 and especially to the treatment of hyperthyroidism in young subjects. (author)

  10. Pathophysiology of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main physiological function of the thyroid gland is to produce thyroid hormones. The primary physiological control over iodine transport, organification and hormone synthesis appears to be through thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Regulation of tumor cells, biochemical studies in experimental tumors, role of oxygen free radical and antioxidants, role of proteases in metastasis, influence of growth factors and influence of sex hormones and receptors are discussed

  11. Thyroid and parathyroid imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, J E; Freitas, A E

    1994-07-01

    With the advent of better thyroid function tests, a tumor marker, and fine-needle aspiration, the role of thyroid imaging studies in the evaluation of the patients with thyroid disease has diminished. Although multimodality thyroid imaging had improved our understanding of thyroid disease, current indications for thyroid imaging are the solitary or dominant thyroid nodule, an upper mediastinal mass, differentiation of hyperthyroidism, detection and staging of postoperative thyroid cancer, neonatal hypothyroidism, thyroid developmental anomalies, and the thyroid mass post-thyroidectomy for benign disease. To provide optimal, cost-effective, care for the thyroid patient, the physician must understand the advantages and disadvantages of each imaging modality--scintigraphy, real-time sonography (RTS), computed tomography, and magnetic resonance--in specific clinical settings. Similarly, preoperative noninvasive localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism undergoing their initial neck exploration usually is not warranted. In this situation, the best localization procedure is to enlist the services of an experienced parathyroid surgeon. However, if this is not feasible because of local constraints, both sestamibi methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide excellent localization (< 90%) of juxta-thyroidal and ectopic parathyroid adenomas. Hyperplastic glands are more difficult to detect because of their smaller size, and tandem studies (MIBI and MRI) should provide higher sensitivity before initial exploration, especially in patients with ectopic glands. In patients with persistent or recurrent disease, multimodality imaging with MIBI, MR, computed tomography and RTS in a sequential fashion is warranted to optimize two-test, site-specific localization. PMID:7973759

  12. Dose absorbed in adults and children thyroid due to the I{sup 123} using the dosimetry MIRD and Marinelli; Dosis absorbida en tiroides de adultos y ninos debido al I{sup 123} utilizando las dosimetrias MIRD y Marinelli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, M.; Castillo, C.; Cabrera, C.; Sarachaga, R.; Castaneda, J. [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Av. Juan Pablo II s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Trujillo (Peru); Diaz, E., E-mail: marvva@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Paulo Gamma 110, Bairro Farropilhas, Porto Alegre, RS 90040-060 (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Using the dosimetry MIRD, and representation Cristy-Eckerman in the thyroid gland and organs of their bio-kinetics when I{sup 123} (Iodine) is used, the study demonstrates that the absorbed dose by the gland of an adult, children, and newly born, is their auto-dose, independent of the compartments number of their bio-kinetics. The dosimetric contributions of the organs of their bio-kinetics are insignificant. Their results are not significantly different to those obtained by the formalism MARINELLI (auto-dose) when it uses a sphere like glandular representation. In consequence, the kinetic model corresponding to the glandular representation decreases to a compartment, where the gland can also be represented like a sphere. (Author)

  13. Thyroid shields and neck exposures in cephalometric radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid is among the more radiosensitive organs in the body. The goal of this study was twofold: (1) to evaluate age-related changes in what is exposed to ionizing radiation in the neck area, and (2) to assess thyroid shield presence in cephalometric radiographs Cephalometric radiographs at one academic setting were sampled and neck exposure was related to calendar year and patient's gender and age. In the absence of shields, children have more vertebrae exposed than adults (p < 0.0001) and females have more neck tissue exposed inferior to the hyoid bone than males (p < 0.0001). The hyoid bone-porion distance increased with age (p <0.01). Thyroid shields were visible in 19% of the radiographs and depended strongly on the calendar year during which patient was seen (p-value <0.0001). Compared to adults, children were less likely to wear thyroid shields, particularly between 1973 and 1990 (1.8% versus 7.3% – p-value < 0.05) and between 2001 and 2003 (7.1% versus 42.9% – p-value < 0.05). In the absence of a thyroid shield, children have more neck structure exposed to radiation than adults. In agreement with other reports, thyroid shield utilization in this study was low, particularly in children

  14. Carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reference is made to the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodule, reaffirming the concepts of algorithm study, sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic procedures and cost-effectiveness. Stressing once again the place of cytology and the concept of selecting patients for surgery, surgical tactics in front of the thyroid nodule and the need for probate multidisciplinary study and treatment of this pathology. Briefly discusses the most controversial treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinomas, the sine qua non of the pathologist in the operating room in thyroid surgery and the value of the quantification of nuclear DNA in the diagnosis and prognosis of these tumors (Author)

  15. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  16. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with MTC should be checked for certain other tumors, especially pheochromocytoma. ... Treatment involves surgery to remove the thyroid gland and surrounding ... and experienced with the operation required. Chemotherapy ...

  17. Post-Chernobyl scientific perspectives: Thyroid effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population in the area around Chernobyl, particularly southern Belarus and northern Ukraine, was exposed to high levels of fallout from the Chernobyl accident including large amounts of radioactive iodine. As the thyroid gland concentrates iodine, it was exposed to higher levels of radiation than other body tissues. The radioactive isotope of iodine, iodine-131, has been extensively and safely used in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis. Thus, the report of increased numbers of thyroid carcinoma in children in areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl was surprising to some, both because of the previous lack of thyroid carcinoma in patients treated with radioactive iodine, and because of the very short time (four years) between exposure and the start of the increase

  18. Lack of Association Between Peripheral Activity of Thyroid Hormones and Elevated TSH Levels in Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Lobotková, Denisa; Staníková, Daniela; Staník, Juraj; Cervenová, Ol’ga; Bzdúch, Vladimír; Tichá, L’ubica

    2014-01-01

    Ob­jec­ti­ve: An elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is a frequent finding in obese children, but its association with peripheral hormone metabolism is not fully understood. We hypothesized that in obesity, the changes in thyroid hormone metabolism in peripheral tissues might lead to dysregulation in the thyroid axis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of TSH with thyroid hormones in a group of obese children as compared to normal-weight controls. Method...

  19. Epidemiological studies of thyroid cancer in the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the great international interest in Chernobyl and the need for quantitative risk information on the carcinogenic effectiveness of the radio iodines, there has been relatively little epidemiological research on thyroid cancer following the Chernobyl accident. The reasons for this are many, diverse, and difficult to eliminate, although some progress is being made. Among them are the natural priority of public health concerns, a weak infrastructure for conducting studies in chronic disease epidemiology, and the difficulty of assigning thyroid dose estimates to individuals for study. In spite of the difficulties a number of significant studies have been begun or are planned, and several valuable reports have appeared. From the descriptive studies it is now known that the latent period for thyroid cancer in children exposed to radio iodines is not 5 to 10, but probably three years, that the magnitude of the increase in thyroid cancer among children is beyond anything previously experienced or expected, and that there is a strong correlation between thyroid cancer and environmental radiocesium contamination levels in the Gomel region of Belarus, and between thyroid cancer and average regional levels of I131 dose to the thyroid in Ukraine. However, even today, there is very little hard scientific information on the relation of thyroid cancer in children and their exposure to the radio iodines in the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. This is information that only well-designed scientific epidemiological studies, based on firm dose estimates, could be expected to provide. With that purpose in mind, the US has planned with Belarus and Ukraine long-term cohort studies of many thousands of subjects with thyroid activity measurements

  20. Thyroid neoplasia following radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of thyroid neoplasia following high-dose radiation treatment to the neck and mediastinum for malignant neoplasms such as Hodgkin's lymphoma in children and young adults has been raised recently. Five patients, 19 to 39 years old, were operated on for thyroid neoplasms that developed following cervical and mediastinal radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. Three patients had papillary carcinomas and two had follicular adenomas. The latency period between radiation exposure and the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm ranged from eight to 16 years. This limited series provided strong support for the recommendation that children and young adults who are to receive high-dose radiation therapy to the head, neck, and mediastinum should receive suppressive doses of thyroxine prior to radiation therapy in order to suppress thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone) and then be maintained on a regimen of suppression permanently

  1. Thyroid cancer development in Chernobyl including new additional results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We have been studying the etiology of thyroid cancer development among the exposed people in Hiroshima. In 1993, we have proposed the hypothesis of oncology model of thyroid cancer development in children following the nuclear power plant accident in Chernobyl, and then related studies has been done in Chernobyl and also in Hiroshima. Following findings are included. Urinary iodine level was lower in Chernobyl than in Hiroshima. Stimulation of ret oncogene in thyroid cancer tissues, and appearance of nuclear abnormalities of thyroid follicular cells were found higher rate among the exposed people. Sensitivity of TSH-receptor in thyroid tissues (TSH-R mRNA expression) was higher while young. Synergistic effect of TSH-R mRNA and ER mRNA expressions were found in both of normal tissues and cancer tissues in thyroid, but it was more apparent in cancer tissues. These findings gave the additional proofs on the hypothesis of thyroid cancer development in Chernobyl. Including these results, we like to present the importance of thyroid for the health of the exposed people in Chernobyl

  2. Thyroid ultrasonography in congenital isolated thyroid stimulating hormone deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Wakamoto, H; Miyazaki, M.; Tatsumi, K; Amino, N

    1995-01-01

    The effects of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiency on thyroid development was examined using ultrasonography in a child with congenital isolated TSH deficiency. Ultrasound revealed the thyroid gland was one sixth normal volume, suggesting that TSH plays an important part in thyroid growth, but not a critical role in differentiation.

  3. Chernobyl disaster non-stochastic effects on thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The results of clinical investigation of thyroid abnormalities and diseases after the Chernobyl accident for 1986-2005 years in various groups of population are generalized in this work. Methods: standard clinical diagnostic system, ultrasound investigation of thyroid, detection of thyroid hormones were utilized. 30 000 persons of various age exposed to radiation were investigated. Among them were those irradiated 'in utero', who worked during I-131 - period in 1986; being evacuated from contaminated regions and those who lived in contaminated regions. The investigations were chronologically divided into three stages. The first period (1986-1987) was characterized with hormonal changes for children, and less for adults - with increasing of total thyroxin without changes of TSH and free T4. There was dependence between the level of total thyroxin and dose of radiation in children. The maximum level of T4 in children was when the dose of radiation exceeded 2 Gy. There were no clinical symptoms in this period. For the second period (1988-1990) high level of T4 was decreasing. It was found morphological changes in thyroid gland in all groups which corresponded chronicle thyroiditis, which was provided by immunological investigation. The first non-stochastic results of thyroid gland radiation damage had appeared in the third period (1991-1993). They had character of chronic thyroiditis with hypothyroidism. The groups of high risk included children and women (more than 20% and 40% correspondingly). It is possible that chronic thyroiditis with hypothyroidism will be the most serious pathology of population affected by the Chernobyl accident. Thyroid abnormalities in future will influence on the energy supply system of organism especially under conditions of deregulation systems of adaptation and compensation. In other words the abnormalities will conduct to increase in psychosomatic pathology. It is possible that thyroid pathology will influence on development

  4. Thyroid iatrogenic sequelae after the treatment of pediatric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incidental/therapeutic thyroid irradiation causes hypothyroidism and nodular disease. As increasing numbers of children, adolescents and young adults are being cured of cancer after being treated with radiation therapy that has included the thyroid bed, it is important to understand whether early diagnosis and treatment of any radiation-related thyroid changes has an impact on their evolution and outcome. In this review the authors discuss main epidemiologic data, morbidity events, radiation cancerogenic effects and also original data about patients surveillance and evolution control of iatrogenic effects, together with some experiences of prospectively reducing the occurrence of post-radiation hypothyroidism.

  5. Dual Ectopic Thyroid with Normally Located Thyroid: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Santanu Barua; Sarojini Dutta Choudhury; Mihir Saikia; Dipti Sarma; Uma Kaimal Saikia; Bipul Kumar Choudhury; Swapna Dewri

    2011-01-01

    Dual ectopic thyroid is a rare presentation of thyroid ectopia. Only a few cases have been reported in the world literature. Dual ectopic thyroid in the presence of a normally located thyroid is even rarer. We report a case of dual ectopic thyroid in the lingual and submandibular areas in a seventeen-year-old female with hypoplastic thyroid gland in its normal location. The patient presented with a midline swelling at the base of tongue with dysphagia. Thyroid function test revealed primary h...

  6. Evolution of thyroid cancer occurrence in metropolitan France. Assessment over 25 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the epidemiological context of thyroid cancer in France, this report, based on cancer record data, analyzes the occurrence of thyroid cancers between 1982 and 2006. It discusses the contribution and limits of medical-administrative data for the epidemiological monitoring of thyroid cancer occurrence between 1997 and 2009. It proposes a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancers in two districts (Marne and Ardennes) between 1975 and 2008, and a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancer for children under 14 between 2000 and 2008. It proposes an estimation of thyroid cancer occurrence in Corsica between 1998 and 2006. It reports and discusses a pilot study performed in two regions (Ile de France and Nord Pas-de-Calais), based on a multi-source system of cancer monitoring (SMSC), and comments studies on risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancers in France

  7. Ultrasonography of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two rare diseases of the thyroid gland are described. One, an intracystic carcinoma, has apparently only been described once before. The other, a mousetyphoid induced abscess, is extremely rare. Without ultrasonography both conditions would have been misdiagnosed in the first instance. It is advocated that all uncertain thyroid conditions and all ''cold'' areas on scintigraphy should be examined with ultrasonography. (orig.)

  8. Thyroid ultrasound (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a sound wave picture of the thyroid gland taken by a hand-held instrument and translated to a 2-dimensional picture on a monitor. It is used in diagnosis of tumors, cysts or goiters of the thyroid, and is a painless, no-risk procedure.

  9. Thyroid stem cells: lessons from normal development and thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Dolly; Friedman, Susan; Lin, Reigh-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Ongoing advances in stem cell research have opened new avenues for therapy for many human disorders. Until recently, however, thyroid stem cells have been relatively understudied. Here, we review what is known about thyroid stem cells and explore their utility as models of normal and malignant biological development. We also discuss the cellular origin of thyroid cancer stem cells and explore the clinical implications of cancer stem cells in the thyroid gland. Since thyroid cancer is the most...

  10. Thyroid diseases and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Grandi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid diseases and diabetes mellitus are the most common endocrine diseases during pregnancy. Internal Medicine doctors could be involved in the management of pregnant women affected by thyroid diseases, in particular if an Endocrine Unit lacks in the hospital; it is mandatory that they have the skills to cope with these diseases. METHODS In this work authors describe the most common thyroid abnormalities that can occur during pregnancy: hypothyroidism (clinical and subclinical, hyperthyroidism (clinical and sub-clinical, autoimmune thyroiditis (in particular the so called post-partum thyroiditis, nodular diseases and cancer. They discuss moreover the peculiar pathophysiologic mechanisms by which these diseases appear, the diagnostic tools and the therapies, according to their own experience and the more recent international guidelines. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS It is important to evaluate thyroid function tests before and during pregnancy, at 16th and 28th gestational week; it is mandatory to cure also the “sub-clinical” hypothyroidism during pregnancy, when TSH level are higher than 5 μIU/mL; the optimal dose of levo-thyroxine during pregnancy is, average, 30-50% higher than that used before pregnancy; it is not correct to treat mild or sub-clinical hyperthyroidism; propylthyouracil is the best drug to treat hyperthyroidism during pregnancy; the post-partum thyroiditis is generally transient, so that a careful monitoring of thyroid function is advisable, in particular after 9-12 months of therapy; thyroid cancer, if discovered during pregnancy, generally has no negative effects on the outcome of the pregnancy; it would be better to treat surgically thyroid cancer during the last trimester of the pregnancy.

  11. Assessment of ecological studies examining the risk of thyroid cancer in children through radiation exposure following the nuclear power plant disaster in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies can be divided into studies with an individual database (cohort studies, case control studies) and studies with aggregate data (ecological studies). The former have the advantage that they can make use of methods based on risk models and examine dose-effect curves with due consideration to potential confounders, but the drawback of being expensive. Studies based on aggregate data can take account of large case numbers at comparatively low cost. However, ecological studies are also associated with serious methodological problems, especially when the goal is to find causal links (''ecological bias''). Thus it is well known that variations in a confounding factor (such as smoking in a study on lung cancer through radon) can invalidate the results of studies based on aggregate data. On the other hand, the only studies to have produced quantitative results on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer through 131I exposure during childhood in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster happen to be based on aggregate data. The purpose of the present paper is to examine problems associated with ecological studies which have already been in the focus of many studies of epidemiological methodology in terms of whether they are relevant to studies investigating connections between thyroid cancer and 131I exposure. It also presents the results of several simulation studies which examine the degree of distortion associated with ecological analyses

  12. [Thyroid and the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker-Davis, Françoise; Hiéronimus, Sylvie; Fénichel, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    It has long been known that the thyroid depends upon the environment for regular iodine supply, avoiding iodine deficiency or excess. Thyroid function may be altered by natural compounds present in water or foodstuff (such as iodine or phyto-goitrogens), or by synthetic compounds, either administered knowingly (in case of medicine), or as an untoward event in case of exposure to industrial products and pesticides, massively produced and polluting the environment. Compounds with an impact on thyroid homeostasis are called thyroid disruptors (TD). TD may disrupt the thyroid economy at any level of regulation: thyroid hormone synthesis, metabolism, or transport; cellular level including thyroid hormone signaling; tumorigenesis or more indirectly via the triggering of an autoimmune process. Compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may act at multiple levels. PT effects on human health depend on parameters linked to the individual person (age at exposure, iodine status, diet, professional exposure, place of living, family history of thyroid disease, detoxification enzyme genetic variants) and on parameters linked to the compounds themselves (chemical structure, lipo- or hydro-solubility, modes of exposure, metabolites activity, "cocktail effect"). The toxic effects of TD do not necessarily follow the rules of classical toxicology (low-dose effects, non-monotonic curves). The main clinical risks are the deleterious impact on neurocognition and behavior for the fetus and the young child, and possibly the elderly, while in adults the main concerns are tumori/goitrogenesis and autoimmune thyroid disease. The potential socioeconomic impact for society warrants an active and major involvement in research to find solutions in a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26603908

  13. The effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis and frequency of thyroid enlargement (thyroid goiter) and clinical diagnosis of thyroid diseases in inhabitants of Szczecin's region after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study, supported by program MZ-17, was carried on 4567 inhabitants of the area of Szczecin (2350 females and 2217 males). The population was chosen randomly, according to a simple drawing scheme. All subjects were clinically examined using standardised questionnaires. In 3468 persons (including 1807 girls and women, 1661 boys and men) apart form clinical examination, the assessment of thyrotropin, thyroxine and triiodothyronine in serum and frequency of anti thyroglobulin antibodies and antithyroid membrane and antithyroid membrane antibodies were evaluated. The data indicate that 94% of children in Szczecin's region received the prophylactic dose of iodine, mostly between the 1st and 5th of May 1986. Only 17% of the adults received iodine. The most common preparation was Lugol solution given in a single dose. Among all persons who received iodine, only in 5% of subjects the side effects were noted (mostly in children), including symptoms of gastrointestinal tract (vomiting, abdomen pain) and occasionally intra thyroid side effects (thyroid pains). In examined population the high frequency of thyroid enlargement, mainly in women (up to 43-44% at the age group 30-50 years) was found. The frequency of thyroid enlargement, mainly in women (up to 43-44% at the age group 30-50 years) was found. The frequency of clinical diagnosis of thyroid disease was higher in woman than in man (most of the diffuse goiter, rarely the nodular goiter). The frequency of thyroid enlargement and clinical diagnosis of thyroid disease was not dependent on prophylactic iodine intake. The iodine prophylaxis did not influence on thyroid hormones and TSH serum levels and in frequency of antithyroid antibodies. (author). 1 ref, 6 tabs

  14. Thyroid cancer : studies on etiology and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hallquist, Arne

    1994-01-01

    Thyroid cancer constitutes about 1% of all malignant tumours and the incidence is increasing in Sweden. It is rare in children before the age of 10. During puberty the female to male ratio increases to be two to three times more common in females. The ratio remains constant until menopause and thereafter declines. The etiology of this gender-dependent incidence difference is unclear. Ionizing radiation is the only well-established risk factor for the disease, while the impact of other etiolog...

  15. Thyroid-Specific Genes Expression Uncovered Age-Related Differences in Pediatric Thyroid Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Cunha Vieira Cordioli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a more advanced stage of disease at presentation, a better response to radioiodine (RAI therapy and a reduced overall mortality have been reported in pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC in comparison to adult DTC. Few studies suggested that the better response to RAI therapy in pediatric patients might be associated with an increased expression of NIS. However, a marked heterogeneity within the pediatric group has been recognized. Children (<10 years old usually present a more aggressive disease than adolescents (≥10–18 years old. By analyzing the expression of thyroid-specific genes in 38 sporadic pediatric tumors, we show that the expression of NIS, PDS, and TSHR was lower in children than adolescents (P<0.05. A linear regression confirmed the association between NIS expression and age. Most significantly, NIS was expressed at similar levels in DTC from children and adults, whereas PDS and TSHR expression was even lower in DTC from children, compared to adolescents and adults. Our data suggest that biological behaviors of DTC in adolescents might differ from those in children and adults. Therefore, the premise that the expression of thyroid-specific genes is higher in tumors from pediatric patients than in adults is not entirely true and might be too oversimplified.

  16. Congenital hypothyroidism. The role of nuclear medicine in diagnosis: a case of lingual thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypothyroidism present from birth is a devastating condition and causes cretinism, which results in delayed development and mental retardation unless treated very early. All neonates in Australia are screened by a blood test when about two days old to exclude hypothyroidism (and several other biochemical conditions). A non-invasive nuclear scan may be able to recognise the cause of neonatal hypothyroidism: 1. Thyroid dysgenesis, (anatomical anomalies) including aplasia or hypoplasia of the thyroid gland; and ectopy of the thyroid, often with hypoplasia, in which there is insufficient tissue to match the demands of the infant or growing child. The abnormal anatomy is seen on thyroid scanning. 2. Dyshormonogencsis, (organification defects) a serious error in thyroid hormone synthesis. In general, thyroid trapping of pertechnctate or iodine will be increased, and demonstrated on the radionuclide study. 3. Hypopituitarism (secondary hypothyroidism) due to pituitary aplasia or midline brain developmental defects. There may also be hypothalamic dysfunction (tertiary hypothyroidism). An anatomically normal thyroid will show reduced uptake. Lingual thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly caused by failure of migration of the thyroid gland to its normal position in the neck. The incidence is relatively rare and sex incidence is four or five to one in favour of females. If untreated, there are sequelae of hypothyroidism, or growth of the mass in base of the tongue to the mass of a normal thyroid gland, which may cause respiratory compression. Thyroid malignancies may also be more frequent. This poster reports a case of lingual thyroid in a 19-day-old baby girl with biochemically diagnosed hypothyroidism. T4 = 9 (N > 12), TSH = 80, (N < 5). Scanning with a pinhole collimator 20min after IV injection of 40 MBq of Pertechnetate showed the only uptake to be in the base of the tongue, a lingual thyroid. Uptake was estimated at 2%, (N not available in infants)

  17. Differences in superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery blood flow spectrum parameters in subacute thyroiditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Bo Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the differences in superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery blood flow spectrum parameters in subacute thyroiditis. Methods:A Total of 40 cases of patients with subacute thyroiditis and 40 cases of healthy volunteers were selected for study and enrolled in pathology group and control group respectively, color Doppler ultrasonography was conducted to detect peak blood flow velocities (Vmax) of superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery as well as resistance index (RI), and serum was collected to detect thyroid hormone contents, infection indexes and oxidative stress indexes. Results:Peak blood flow velocities Vmax of superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery of pathology group were significantly higher than those of control group, and resistance index RI was not different from that of control group;FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, ESR, CRP, PCT and MDA of pathology group were significantly higher than those of control group, and SOD and TAOC were significantly lower than those of control group;Vmax of superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery were positively correlated with FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, ESR, CRP, PCT and MDA, and negatively correlated with SOD and TAOC. Conclusion:Peak blood flow velocities (Vmax) of superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery in subacute thyroiditis are significantly accelerated, Vmax has good consistency with thyroid hormone contents, infection indexes and oxidative stress indexes, and it can accurately assess the severity of the disease.

  18. Treatment Options by Stage (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enlarged thyroid). Having a family history of thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

  19. Thyroid cancer in child (about 9 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children thyroid cancer is a very uncommon affection. Its incidence has sharply risen among the patients who underwent therapeutic irradiation and after the Chernobylsk accident in the contaminated regions. Our study consists of emphasizing the distinctive features of children thyroid cancer on the epidemiological, clinical and para clinical aspects, in order to discuss diagnostic difficulties, prognostic elements as well as a therapeutic approach. Through a study conducted in the nuclear medical department of Rabat, we brought together 9 cases of thyroid cancer in children aged between 11 and 15 years old. In our series, the average age is 13 years, with a feminine prevalence. A family notion of goitre is reported in one case, without notion of irradiation, the revealing mode is mainly an euthyroid goitre and the cervical adenopathies, with good general health conditions being maintained. The scintigraphy showed a cold nodule, witch anatomo-pathological examination is papillary carcinoma. Extensive surgery, ira therapy and substitute hormonal treatment combined allowed a high recovery rate among our patients, with no side effects. The medium-term evolution was positive even in metastases cases. The prognostic is generally good, especially in the differentiated forms. (authors)

  20. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Ovarian Cancer Stage IV View/Download: Small: 576x641 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV ...

  1. Evaluation of Thyroid Diseases by Hormonal Analysis in Pediatric Age Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana A Shah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among endocrine disorders commonly encountered in pediatric age group, thyroid diseases are more frequent. Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the major problems in this age with worldwide incidence of 1:3000-4000 live birth and in India it is 1:2500-2800. Objectives: The aim of this study is to know the prevalence of thyroid diseases in newborn and children by hormonal evaluation. Methodology: We have studied 50 children suspected of having signs and symptoms of thyroid diseases. Hormonal evaluation was done by the estimation of serum TSH, T3 and T4. Results: Out of total 50 children, 16 were detected with abnormal hormone level and diagnosed having thyroid diseases. Out of 16 affected children, 4 had congenital hypothyroidism (25%, 6 had subclinical or acquired hypothyroidism (37.5%, 3 had autoimmune thyroiditis (18.75% and 3 had goiter with graves disease (18.75%. Conclusion: Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the major preventable thyroid disease if diagnosed early. Other thyroid diseases commonly seen in pediatric age are subclinical hypothyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis, goiter and rarely hyperthyroidism. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(4.000: 367-370

  2. Unusual Presentation of Cystic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Vijayraj S.; Abhishek Vijayakumar; Neelamma Natikar

    2012-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid malignancy, accounting for 80% of all thyroid cancers. The most common presentation of thyroid cancer is an asymptomatic thyroid mass or a nodule. Usually as thyroid enlarges, it extends in to mediastinum. Papillary thyroid carcinoma presentation as multiple true cystic swelling extending from neck to anterior chest wall in subcutaneous plane is not present in the literature. We present a rare case of cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma wh...

  3. Carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural history and the clinical findings in 227 patients with thyroid carcinoma are described and the etiology discussed. The need for uniform pathologic classification and staging is emphasized. (Auth.)

  4. Thyroid Disease and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid absorbs the radioactive substance. Next, a special camera measures where the radioactive substance is taken up ... Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  5. Thyroid Disease (for Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid absorbs the radioactive substance. Then a special camera measures where the radioactive substance is taken up ... Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  6. MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

    OpenAIRE

    V S Medvedev; P. A. Isayev; Ilyin, A. A.; D. Yu. Semin; V. V. Polkin; D. N. Derbugov; S. V. Vasilkov

    2013-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma belongs to orphan diseases affecting a small part of the population. Multicenter trials are required to elaborate a diagnostic algorithm, to define treatment policy, and to predict an outcome.

  7. MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Medvedev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid carcinoma belongs to orphan diseases affecting a small part of the population. Multicenter trials are required to elaborate a diagnostic algorithm, to define treatment policy, and to predict an outcome.

  8. Thyroid Disorders (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... and released into the kid's bloodstream. Why Do Kids Get Thyroid Disease? In most cases, doctors and ...

  9. Hashimoto's thyroiditis following Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Husaini; Muallima, Nur; Adam, John M F; Sanusi, Harsinen

    2010-01-01

    Both Graves' disease and chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis) are autoimmune diseases of thyroid gland. Graves' disease is caused by stimulation of TSH receptor located on the thyroid gland by an antibody, which is known as TSH receptor antibody (TRAb). Furthermore, this may lead to hyperplasia and hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. On the contrary, the cause of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is thought due to a TSH stimulation-blocking antibody (TSBAb) which blocks the action of TSH hormone and subsequently brings damage and atrophy to thyroid gland. Approximately 15-20% of patients with Graves' disease had been reported to have spontaneous hypothyroidism resulting from the chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease). Pathogenesis for chronic thyroiditis following anti-thyroid drug treatment in patients with Graves' disease remains unclear. It has been estimated that chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's disease, which occurs following the Graves' disease episode is due to extended immune response in Graves' disease. It includes the immune response to endogenous thyroid antigens, i.e. thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin, which may enhance lymphocyte infiltration and finally causes Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We report four cases of chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease) in patients who have been previously diagnosed with Graves' hyperthyroidism. In three cases, Hashimoto's thyroiditis occurs in 7 to 25 years after the treatment of Grave's disease; while the other case has it only after few months of Grave's disease treatment. The diagnosis of Hashimoto's disease (chronic thyroiditis) was based on clinical manifestation, high TSHs level, positive thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody, and supported by positive results of fine needle aspiration biopsy. Moreover, the result of histopathological test has also confirmed the diagnosis in two cases. All cases have been successfully treated by levothyroxine treatment. PMID:20305330

  10. Effects of prenatal phthalate exposure on thyroid hormone levels, mental and psychomotor development of infants: The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatoya, Machiko; Naka Jima, Sonomi; Sasaki, Seiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Ikeno, Tamiko; Nakajima, Tamie; Goto, Yuko; Kishi, Reiko

    2016-09-15

    Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is commonly used phthalates and concerns of adverse effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on neonatal thyroid hormone (TH) and neurodevelopment are increasing. However, there is no report regarding association between prenatal DEHP exposure and infant neurodevelopment including TH levels in Japanese population. Thus the aim of present study was to evaluate the associations between prenatal DEHP exposure and mental and psychomotor development of infants 6 and 18months along with investigating influence on neonatal free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the prospective birth cohort study. Maternal blood samples collected between 23 and 41weeks of gestation was analyzed for mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), metabolite of DEHP levels. Neonatal FT4 and TSH were obtained from mass screening data. Infant neurodevelopment was assessed by Bayley Scale of Infant Development second edition at 6 and 18month of age. For the final analysis, 328 participants were included. The median levels of maternal MEHP was 10.6ng/ml, neonatal TSH and FT4 was 2.20 μU/ml and 2.03ng/ml, respectively. We did not find any associations between prenatal DEHP exposure and neonatal TH levels or infant mental and psychomotor development at 6 and 18month. In this study, prenatal DEHP exposure did not show adverse effects on infant TH levels or mental and psychomotor development in early life stage. However, our previous study revealed negative effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on sex hormone levels, continuous investigation on neurodevelopment in later life in association with prenatal DEHP exposure is necessary. PMID:27261429

  11. Thyroid doses for evacuees from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, Masahiro; Akiba, Suminori; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Balonov, Mikhail

    2012-07-01

    A primary health concern among residents and evacuees in affected areas immediately after a nuclear accident is the internal exposure of the thyroid to radioiodine, particularly I-131, and subsequent thyroid cancer risk. In Japan, the natural disasters of the earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 destroyed an important function of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1-NPP) and a large amount of radioactive material was released to the environment. Here we report for the first time extensive measurements of the exposure to I-131 revealing I-131 activity in the thyroid of 46 out of the 62 residents and evacuees measured. The median thyroid equivalent dose was estimated to be 4.2 mSv and 3.5 mSv for children and adults, respectively, much smaller than the mean thyroid dose in the Chernobyl accident (490 mSv in evacuees). Maximum thyroid doses for children and adults were 23 mSv and 33 mSv, respectively.

  12. Hypothalamus, pituitary and thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation has been carried out due to the apparent disagreement between the very wide so called normal ranges of the serum levels of the thyroid hormones and the extreme sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary control system to minimal changes in thyroid hormone production. TRH (thyrotropin-releasing-hormone) infusion and injection studies have been performed using labelled compounds and radioassays and radioimmunoassays. (Auth.)

  13. Vascularity in thyroid neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjaer; Andersen, Niels Frost; Melsen, Flemming;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of four different methods (vascular grading, Chalkley count, microvessel density (MVD) and stereological estimation) for quantifying intratumoral microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms, by comparing the variability within and between...... count should be the preferred method for assessing microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms. The diagnostic evaluation revealed a tendency towards higher degree of vascularity in FA compared to both FC and PC for all methods. No statistically significant association was seen between vascular density and...

  14. Papillary thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, C; Asschenfeldt, P; Sørensen, J A;

    1994-01-01

    The age influence on the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma was analyzed in a group of 67 patients. A marked decline in cause-specific survival was found for patients older than 60 years of age at the time of diagnosis. In order to find a tumor-biological explanation of the prognostic...... invasion and distant metastases. The results indicate that 60 years of age the time of diagnosis may be the "prognostic break-point" for papillary thyroid carcinoma....

  15. Robotic transaxillary thyroid surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Rabinovics, Naomi; Aidan, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological advances have led to a rapid progress in endocrine surgery. With the advent of minimally invasive techniques in thyroid surgery, robot-assisted transaxillary thyroid surgery (RATS) has emerged as one of the most promising approaches. Its main advantages are improved cosmetic outcome, avoiding cervical incisions, increased patient satisfaction, improved visualization, arms articulations, eliminating surgeon’s natural tremor, thereby increasing precision. The main disadvant...

  16. Thyroid diseases in a school population with thyromegaly.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaksić, J; Dumić, M; B Filipović; Ille, J.; Cvijetić, M; Gjurić, G

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 5462 schoolchildren was conducted for signs of thyroid disease in the seaside region of Sibenik, Croatia. In this region, salt is regularly iodised with 0.01% potassium iodide. Thyromegaly was found in 152 children (2.8%). The most common disorder was simple goitre, which was established in 126 of these, 12 boys and 114 girls (combined prevalence of 2.3%, and of 0.45% in boys and 4.07% in girls). Juvenile autoimmune thyroiditis was found in 19 of the children (prevalence 0.35%), w...

  17. Achalasia and thyroid disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Hassan Emami; Mostafa Raisi; Jaleh Amini; Hamed Daghaghzadeh

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate some possible etiologies of achalasia by screening patients with achalasia for some autoimmune diseases such as thyroid disease.METHODS: We examined 30 known cases of achalasia (20 females, 10 males). Their age ranged 15-70 years.All of them were referred to our institute for treatment.Their sera were evaluated to detect some possible associations with rheumatoid disease, thyroid disease,inflammatory process, anemia, etc.RESULTS: Seven out of 30 patients (23%) had thyroid disease including four patients with hypothyroidism (13.3%), two patients with hyperthyroidism (6.6%),and one had only thyroid nodule but was in euthyroid state (3.3%). Two of these hypothyroid patients had no related clinical symptoms (subclinical) and two had clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism. There were no correlations between the intensity of thyroid diseases and the severity of achalasia symptoms.CONCLUSION: The etiology of achalasia is unknown although autoimmunity has been implicated and is supported by several studies. Thyroid disease presents concomitantly with achalasia in about one fourth of our patients who may have a common etiology.

  18. Thyroid hormone action in postnatal heart development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone is a critical regulator of cardiac growth and development, both in fetal life and postnatally. Here we review the role of thyroid hormone in postnatal cardiac development, given recent insights into its role in stimulating a burst of cardiomyocyte proliferation in the murine heart in preadolescence; a response required to meet the massive increase in circulatory demand predicated by an almost quadrupling of body weight during a period of about 21 days from birth to adolescence. Importantly, thyroid hormone metabolism is altered by chronic diseases, such as heart failure and ischemic heart disease, as well as in very sick children requiring surgery for congenital heart diseases, which results in low T3 syndrome that impairs cardiovascular function and is associated with a poor prognosis. Therapy with T3 or thyroid hormone analogs has been shown to improve cardiac contractility; however, the mechanism is as yet unknown. Given the postnatal cardiomyocyte mitogenic potential of T3, its ability to enhance cardiac function by promoting cardiomyocyte proliferation warrants further consideration.

  19. Unusual thyroid tumor in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant neoplasms of the thyroid gland are quite rare in children. Winship, in his classic article, could find only 562 cases in the literature. The histopathological patterns resemble those of the adult tumors. Despite early cervical metastasis, the prognosis in general is favorable, with many long-term survivals. Prior exposure to radiation of the head and neck is a definite pre-disposing factor. Teratomas of the neck are a medical curiosity--less than 100 cases are described in the literature. The vast majority of these are found during the neonatal period, and are benign histologically. These are usually large, cystic, bulky masses which produce mechanical obstruction of the upper airway and digestive tract. Only one of these tumors, described by Pupovac in 1896, has been considered malignant. A six-year-old child was examined with a right thyroid mass of three months' duration. The thyroid scan showed a ''cold nodule''. At surgery, a well-encapsulated mass was found. The pathology showed a predominance of malignant spindle cells, with areas of papillary carcinoma; however, there were well-defined mucous glands present in the tumor. Clinically the child has remained well and asymptomatic. The slides have been extensively reviewed. To my knowledge no such tumor has been prepreviously described. The tumor is considered to be a malignant thyroid tumor growing out of teratomatous tissue

  20. The Thyroid Status of Children and Adolescents in Fukushima Prefecture Examined during 20–30 Months after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Cross-Sectional, Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanobe, Hajime; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Yanai, Rie; Takahashi, Miyuki; Sato, Hideo; Sagawa, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    Background A possible increase in thyroid cancer in the young represents the most critical health problem to be considered after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan (March 2011), which is an important lesson from the Chernobyl disaster (April 1986). Although it was reported that childhood thyroid cancer had started to increase 3–5 yr after the Chernobyl accident, we speculate that the actual period of latency might have been shorter than reported, considering the delay in initiating thyroid surveillance in the then Soviet Union and also the lower quality of ultrasonographic testing in the 1980s. Our primary objectives in the present study were to identify any possible thyroid abnormality in young Fukushima citizens at a relatively early timepoint (20–30 months) after the accident, and also to strive to find a possible relationship among thyroid ultrasonographic findings, thyroid-relevant biochemical markers, and iodine-131 ground deposition in the locations of residence where they stayed during very early days after the accident. Methods and Findings This is a cross-sectional study. We targeted the Fukushima residents who were 18 yr old or younger (including fetuses) at the time of the accident. Our examinations comprised a questionnaire, thyroid ultrasonography, thyroid-related blood tests, and urinary iodine measurement. We analyzed a possible relationship among thyroid ultrasonographic findings (1,137 subjects), serum hormonal data (731 subjects), urinary iodine concentrations (770 subjects), and iodine-131 ground deposition (1,137 subjects). We did not find any significant relationship among these indicators, and no participant was diagnosed to contract thyroid cancer. Conclusions At the timepoint of 20–30 months after the accident, we did not confirm any discernible deleterious effects of the emitted radioactivity on the thyroid of young Fukushima residents. This is the first report in English detailing the thyroid status of young Fukushima

  1. The thyroid status of children and adolescents in Fukushima Prefecture examined during 20-30 months after the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster: a cross-sectional, observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Watanobe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A possible increase in thyroid cancer in the young represents the most critical health problem to be considered after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan (March 2011, which is an important lesson from the Chernobyl disaster (April 1986. Although it was reported that childhood thyroid cancer had started to increase 3-5 yr after the Chernobyl accident, we speculate that the actual period of latency might have been shorter than reported, considering the delay in initiating thyroid surveillance in the then Soviet Union and also the lower quality of ultrasonographic testing in the 1980s. Our primary objectives in the present study were to identify any possible thyroid abnormality in young Fukushima citizens at a relatively early timepoint (20-30 months after the accident, and also to strive to find a possible relationship among thyroid ultrasonographic findings, thyroid-relevant biochemical markers, and iodine-131 ground deposition in the locations of residence where they stayed during very early days after the accident. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a cross-sectional study. We targeted the Fukushima residents who were 18 yr old or younger (including fetuses at the time of the accident. Our examinations comprised a questionnaire, thyroid ultrasonography, thyroid-related blood tests, and urinary iodine measurement. We analyzed a possible relationship among thyroid ultrasonographic findings (1,137 subjects, serum hormonal data (731 subjects, urinary iodine concentrations (770 subjects, and iodine-131 ground deposition (1,137 subjects. We did not find any significant relationship among these indicators, and no participant was diagnosed to contract thyroid cancer. CONCLUSIONS: At the timepoint of 20-30 months after the accident, we did not confirm any discernible deleterious effects of the emitted radioactivity on the thyroid of young Fukushima residents. This is the first report in English detailing the thyroid status of young Fukushima

  2. Antioxidant defence-related genetic variants are not associated with higher risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodusek Ana Lina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. Thyroid gland is very sensitive to the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation, especially in children. Imbalance between pro- and anti-oxidant factors may play a role in thyroid carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between genetic variability of antioxidant defence-related genes and the risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence.

  3. Estimating individual thyroid doses for a case-control study of childhood thyroid cancer in Bryansk Oblast, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl accident, radioactive fission products, including 131I in 137Cs, were deposited in Bryansk Oblast in Russia. Intakes of radio-iodines, mainly 131I in milk, were the principal sources of radiation doses to thyroids of residents of the contaminated areas, but those radionuclides decayed before detailed contamination surveys could be performed. As a result, 137Cs deposition density is the primary measure of the contamination due to the accident and there are relatively few measurements of the ratio of 131I to 137Cs in vegetation or soil samples from this area. Although many measurements of radiation emitted from the necks of residents were performed and used to estimate thyroidal 131I activities and thyroid doses, such data are not available for all subjects. The semi-empirical model was selected to provide a dose calculation method to be applied uniformly to cases and controls in the study. The model was developed using dose estimates from direct measurements of 131I in adult thyroids, and relates settlement average thyroid doses to 137Cs contamination levels and ratios of 131I to 137Cs. This model is useful for areas where thyroid monitoring was not performed and can be used to estimate doses to exposed individuals. For application to children in this study, adjustment factors are used to address differences in age-dependent intake rates and thyroid dosimetry. Other individual dietary factors and sources (private/public) of milk consumed are reflected in the dose estimates. Countermeasures that reduced thyroid dose, such as cessation of milk consumption and intake of stable iodine, are also considered for each subject. The necessary personal information of subjects was obtained by interview, most frequently of their mothers, using a questionnaire developed for the study. Uncertainties in thyroid dose, estimated using Monte Carlo techniques, are presented for reference conditions. Thyroid dose estimates for individual children made using the

  4. Tshuktshid IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülo Siimets

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available On May 26 the ice on the river began to break. In the next few days the water level was so high that the river rose over shores and flooded the village of Vaeg.At places water reached as high as first-floor windows. People carried all their things to attics and roof and went to live in tents. And though alcohol was usually sold in native Chukchi villages only at national holidays, on this occasion people were permitted to buy one bottle of brandy per person every day.People gathered to sing, talk and drink alcohol. My friend and me found us in the company of Moshalski, the local school principle, and two other men. Our conversation began on the subject of the local flood, then turned to the universal Flood and Jesus Christ.Moshalski had been working as a school teacher in Kamchatka and told a legend of a local deity Kutka, who resided in heaven and every once in a while visited women on earth. Kutka had children with many women. Having heard that gods wished to destroy all people on earth, he built a large ship to save his descendants. Before the beginning of the flood he gathered all his relatives, birds and animals on board the ship.Then the flood began and lasted for forty days. Mammoths came too late and were all killed in the flood. When the water began to sink Kutka landed his ship on a mountain peak in Kamtchatka. Thus he became the forefather of all local tribes.One of the local construction workers then told a version of a story of Jesus Christ as the son of Herod's twin brother. On the following day of the flood in Vaeg, local girls told me story of a Chukchi hunter, who had lost his way in the tundra. Having been missing for six months he could not remember where he had been. After having sought help from the local shaman, he learned that he had been in an underground cave with mammoths, who fed on the frozen grass of permafrost. One of the mammoths had taken pity in him and had helped the man out. The article concludes with

  5. Association between postpartum thyroid dysfunction and thyroid antibodies and depression.

    OpenAIRE

    B. Harris; Othman, S.; Davies, J. A.; Weppner, G. J.; Richards, C J; Newcombe, R G; Lazarus, J H; Parkes, A. B.; Hall, R; Phillips, D I

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To define the relation between mood and autoimmune thyroid dysfunction during the eight months after delivery. DESIGN--Double blind comparison of the psychiatric status of women positive and negative for thyroid antibodies. Clinical examination and blood sampling for free triiodothyronine and thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, and thyroid antibody concentrations at four weekly intervals. Psychiatric assessment at six, eight, 12, 20, and 28 weeks post partum. SETTING--Outpatien...

  6. Increased Incidence of Thyroid Dysfunction and Autoimmunity in Patients with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Stagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormones may play a role in the pathophysiology of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC. An increased incidence of thyroid autoantibodies was recently observed in VKC, although there were no data on thyroid function. Two hundred and eighty-eight patients (202 males, 86 females; range 5.5 to 16.9 years with VKC were evaluated and compared with 188 normal age- and sex-matched subjects. In all subjects, serum concentrations of free T4, TSH, thyroperoxidase, thyroglobulin, and TSHr autoantibodies were evaluated. In VKC, the family history of thyroid diseases showed no significant differences compared to the controls (9.4 versus 8.6%, whereas the family history of autoimmune diseases was significantly higher (13.2% versus 6.3%; P<0.05. Subclinical hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 6.6% (versus 1.6% of the controls; P<0.05 and overt hypothyroidism in 0.7% (versus 0.0% of the controls; P=NS. Finally, 5.2% of patients were positive for thyroid autoantibodies, which were significantly higher with respect to the controls (0.5%, P<0.05. In the patients positive for thyroid autoantibodies, 80% showed a sonography pattern that suggested autoimmune thyroiditis. Thyroid function and autoimmunity abnormalities are frequently present in children with VKC. Children with VKC should be screened for thyroid function and evaluated for thyroid autoimmunity.

  7. Thyroid blockade in fetuses and infants in a chimpanzee model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a nuclear accident large populations might be exposed to fallout. The main internal radiation dose is received from radioiodine which enters the body with air, food or through the skin. A large fraction of the iodide in the circulation is concentrated by the cells of the thyroid, which have an iodide pump in their cell membrane. Radiation damage will occur mainly in the thyroid. Protection of the thyroid is achieved by preventing ingestion of radioiodine (shielding, food- and water control) and by stopping the thyroid from concentrating circulating radioiodine. Blockade of the thyroidal iodide pump by high levels of circulating iodide is responsible for the reduction of radioiodine uptake by the thyroid. For pregnant women no specific recommendations regarding the administration of stable iodide have been made. For infants younger than one year half the dose is recommended (2,4,5), though data to support this advice do not exist. Fetuses and infants might be more vulnerable to irradiation of the thyroid and therefore require effective protection. Efficiency of thyroid protection with stable iodide, however, was never assessed for these groups in the population. Nineteen infants and thirteen pregnant chimpanzees have been tested. The results demonstrate the efficiency of thyroid blockade with stable iodide in pregnancy and infancy, in chimpanzees. We feel that these data can be safely applied to the human situation. The main risk when fetuses and children are exposed to massive amounts of stable iodide is the induction of hypothyroidism. In the infant chimpanzees this didn't occur. 9 tabs

  8. Thyroid Cancer and Tumor Collaborative Registry (TCCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shats, Oleg; Goldner, Whitney; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Smith, Russell B; Sherman, Simon

    2016-01-01

    A multicenter, web-based Thyroid Cancer and Tumor Collaborative Registry (TCCR, http://tccr.unmc.edu) allows for the collection and management of various data on thyroid cancer (TC) and thyroid nodule (TN) patients. The TCCR is coupled with OpenSpecimen, an open-source biobank management system, to annotate biospecimens obtained from the TCCR subjects. The demographic, lifestyle, physical activity, dietary habits, family history, medical history, and quality of life data are provided and may be entered into the registry by subjects. Information on diagnosis, treatment, and outcome is entered by the clinical personnel. The TCCR uses advanced technical and organizational practices, such as (i) metadata-driven software architecture (design); (ii) modern standards and best practices for data sharing and interoperability (standardization); (iii) Agile methodology (project management); (iv) Software as a Service (SaaS) as a software distribution model (operation); and (v) the confederation principle as a business model (governance). This allowed us to create a secure, reliable, user-friendly, and self-sustainable system for TC and TN data collection and management that is compatible with various end-user devices and easily adaptable to a rapidly changing environment. Currently, the TCCR contains data on 2,261 subjects and data on more than 28,000 biospecimens. Data and biological samples collected by the TCCR are used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against TC. PMID:27168721

  9. Thyroid Cancer and Tumor Collaborative Registry (TCCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shats, Oleg; Goldner, Whitney; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Smith, Russell B.; Sherman, Simon

    2016-01-01

    A multicenter, web-based Thyroid Cancer and Tumor Collaborative Registry (TCCR, http://tccr.unmc.edu) allows for the collection and management of various data on thyroid cancer (TC) and thyroid nodule (TN) patients. The TCCR is coupled with OpenSpecimen, an open-source biobank management system, to annotate biospecimens obtained from the TCCR subjects. The demographic, lifestyle, physical activity, dietary habits, family history, medical history, and quality of life data are provided and may be entered into the registry by subjects. Information on diagnosis, treatment, and outcome is entered by the clinical personnel. The TCCR uses advanced technical and organizational practices, such as (i) metadata-driven software architecture (design); (ii) modern standards and best practices for data sharing and interoperability (standardization); (iii) Agile methodology (project management); (iv) Software as a Service (SaaS) as a software distribution model (operation); and (v) the confederation principle as a business model (governance). This allowed us to create a secure, reliable, user-friendly, and self-sustainable system for TC and TN data collection and management that is compatible with various end-user devices and easily adaptable to a rapidly changing environment. Currently, the TCCR contains data on 2,261 subjects and data on more than 28,000 biospecimens. Data and biological samples collected by the TCCR are used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against TC. PMID:27168721

  10. Celiac Disease and Thyroid Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... illnesses, so it is important to get a TSH thyroid test if you experience any of the ... Function •It is recommended that people have their TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) measured once a year. This ...

  11. Thyroid dysfunction: an autoimmune aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farah Aziz; Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Mohammad Fareed; Al-Rashid, May; Tabassum, Hajera

    2015-01-01

    Auto immune thyroid disease (AITD) is the common organ specific autoimmune disorder, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and Grave's disease (GD) are its well-known sequelae. It occurs due to loss of tolerance to autoantigens thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) which leads to the infiltration of the gland. T cells in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (cAIT) induce apoptosis in thyroid follicular cells and cause destruction of the gland. Presences of TPO antibodies are common in HT and GD, while Tg has been reported as an independent predictor of thyroid malignancy. Cytokines are small proteins play an important role in autoimmunity, by stimulating B and T cells. Various cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-14, TNF-α and IFN-γ are found in thyroid follicular cells which enhance inflammatory response with nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins. PMID:26221205

  12. How Is Thyroid Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called metanephrines). Other tests Vocal cord exam (laryngoscopy) Thyroid tumors can sometimes affect the vocal cords. If you are going to have surgery to treat thyroid cancer, a procedure called a laryngoscopy will probably ...

  13. Static and dynamic thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Static images as isolated investigation in thyroid diagnosis mainly provides morphologic information, and therefore sonography is largely applied for this purpose. 99mTc-pertechnetate scans or 123I-scans are indicated in cases of malpositions and serve to clarify lesions of unknown dignity. Additionally 201Tl-chloride is suited for examinations with regard to metabolically active thyroid tissue, whereby differential diagnostic laboratory tests must be carried out to exclude parathyroid adenoma. Dynamic thyroid scans before and after regulation tests (suppression, stimulation) reflect the physiological correlation between the iodine avidity of the thyroid, the peripheral thyroid hormone concentrations and the hypophyseal regulation in the TRH-test. The main application of this procedure is the clarification of thyroid autonomy, i.e. indication, detection, quantification or exclusion of thyroid autonomy. For the treatment of immunogenic thyrotoxicosis, dynamic thyroid scintigraphy provides important information about the onset of remission, thus permitting to end thyreostatic therapy. (orig.)

  14. Clinical studies on thyroid diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Fliers, E.; Wiersinga, W.M.; Eskes, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on some aspects of thyroid disease: prevention of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), diagnosis of related conditions as autoimmune hypophysitis in autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto’s disease), and treatment of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT).

  15. Clinical Concepts on Thyroid Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    AlfredoPontecorvi; GiampaoloPapi; SalvatoreMariaCorsello

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Thyroid-related emergencies are caused by overt dysfunction of the gland that are so severe that require admission to intensive care units frequently. Nonetheless, in the ICU setting, it is crucial to differentiate patients with non-thyroidal illness and alterations in thyroid function tests from those with intrinsic thyroid disease. This review presents and discusses the main etiopathogenetical and clinical aspects of hypothyroid coma (HC) and thyrotoxic storm (TS), including ther...

  16. Sweet's syndrome and subacute thyroiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmus, Y.; Kovatz, S.; Shilo, L.; Ganem, G; Shenkman, L.

    2000-01-01

    A 63 year old woman developed biopsy documented lesions of acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet's syndrome) one week after the onset of subacute thyroiditis. This is only the second reported case of such an association. The role of cytokines in the development of both subacute thyroiditis and Sweet's syndrome may be the link between these two conditions.


Keywords: Sweet's syndrome; thyroiditis; cytokines; thyroid

  17. Thyroid ultrasonography: Pitfalls and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seon hyeong; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Soo Jin; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Thyroid ultrasonography (US) plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of thyroid-related diseases. The aim of this article was to illustrate various pitfalls that can occur in utilizing thyroid US and techniques to prevent them. In this article, we present cases demonstrating the common pitfalls associated with US equipment, performance, normal thyroid structures, misinterpretations, and surrounding structures. Knowledge of these areas is essential to avoid misdiagnosis or improper disease management.

  18. Fulda thyroid nodule prognosis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Fulda'-program calculates for thyroid nodule patients the probability of management with respect to surgery, follow up, radioiodine therapy or fine needle aspiration biopsy by use of the weighted factors: pre-existing results, patient age, palpation, thyroid volume, marginal nodule perfusion, echo texture, thyroid volume increase and TSH level. As the following definite management is in good correlation to the precalculated management, the 'Fulda'-program could be useful for organisation and strategy of thyroid nodule patients. (orig.)

  19. Thyroid carcinoma and hot nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukata, Shuji; Tamai, Hajime; Matsubayashi, Sunao; Nagai, Keisuke; Hirota, Yoshihiko; Matsuzuka, Fumio; Katayama, Shoichi; Kuma, Kanji; Nagataki, Shigenobu

    1987-09-01

    A 70-year-old woman presented with a nodule in the thyroid gland. /sup 131/I scintigraphy of the gland showed a hot nodule. Histology of the resected thyroid revealed a papillary adenocarcinoma. Although a thyroid carcinoma with a hot nodule seen on the radioiodine isotope scan is a very rare occurrence, it is clinically very important because it may indicate a thyroid malignancy.

  20. Revisiting Thyroid Hormones in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Correia Santos; Patrício Costa; Dina Ruano; António Macedo; Maria João Soares; José Valente; Ana Telma Pereira; Maria Helena Azevedo; Joana Almeida Palha

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are crucial during development and in the adult brain. Of interest, fluctuations in the levels of thyroid hormones at various times during development and throughout life can impact on psychiatric disease manifestation and response to treatment. Here we review research on thyroid function assessment in schizophrenia, relating interrelations between the pituitary-thyroid axis and major neurosignaling systems involved in schizophrenia’s pathophysiology. These include the ser...

  1. Robotic Surgery for Thyroid Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jandee; Chung, Woong Youn

    2013-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an innovation in thyroid surgery that may compensate for the drawbacks of conventional endoscopic surgery. A surgical robot provides strong advantages, including three-dimensional imaging, motion scaling, tremor elimination, and additional degrees of freedom. We review here recent adaptations, experience and applications of robotics in thyroid surgery. Robotic thyroid surgeries include thyroid lobectomy, total thyroidectomy, central compartment neck dissection, and radical ...

  2. Evolution of thyroid cancer occurrence in metropolitan France. Assessment over 25 years; evolution de l'incidence du cancer de la thyroide en France metropolitaine. Bilan sur 25 ans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogel, Agnes; Caserio-Schonemann, Celine; Cherie-Challine, Laurence; Rudant, Jeremie; Bloch, Juliette; Thuret, Anne [Unite cancer, Departement des maladies chroniques et traumatismes - DMCT, Institut de veille sanitaire - InVS (France); Colonna, Marc [Registre des cancers de l' Isere, Reseau francais des registres de cancer (Francim) (France); Uhry, Zoe; Kudjawu, Yao; Danzon, Arlette [Unite cancer, DMCT, InVS (France); Lacour, Brigitte [Registre national des tumeurs solides de l' enfant, Francim (France); Schvartz, Claire [Registre des cancers de la thyroide Marne-Ardennes, Francim (France); Pascal, Laurence; Lasalle, Jean-Luc [Cellule interregionale d' epidemiologie - Cire Sud (France); Borson-Chazot, Francoise; Sassolas, Genevieve; Hafdi-Nejjari, Zakia [Registre des cancers thyroidiens de la region Rhone-Alpes (France); Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Guenel, Pascal; Vathaire, Florent de; Guillas, Gwenaelle; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Clero, Enora; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Bedouche, Lallia [Institut national de la sante et de la recherche medicale (Inserm) U1018 (France); Belot, Aurelien [Unite Cancer, DMCT, InVS (France); Hospices civils de Lyon - HCL (France); Fieffe, Sandrine; Dalac, Audrey; Goncalves, Katia; Kaplan, Martine; Pochart, Jean-Marie [Registre des cancers de la thyroide Marne-Ardennes, Francim, Centre de luttre contre le cancer de Reims (France); Desenclos, Jean-Claude [Direction scientifique, InVS (France)

    2011-04-15

    After a presentation of the epidemiological context of thyroid cancer in France, this report, based on cancer record data, analyzes the occurrence of thyroid cancers between 1982 and 2006. It discusses the contribution and limits of medical-administrative data for the epidemiological monitoring of thyroid cancer occurrence between 1997 and 2009. It proposes a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancers in two districts (Marne and Ardennes) between 1975 and 2008, and a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancer for children under 14 between 2000 and 2008. It proposes an estimation of thyroid cancer occurrence in Corsica between 1998 and 2006. It reports and discusses a pilot study performed in two regions (Ile de France and Nord Pas-de-Calais), based on a multi-source system of cancer monitoring (SMSC), and comments studies on risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancers in France

  3. Postirradiation carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1920's many infants and children received x-ray therapy for such conditions as enlarged thymus, hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids, cervical adenitis, sinusitis, and so forth. Unfortunately, the thyroid gland frequently received direct or scattered irradiation during these treatments. As the irradiated population has grown older it has become apparent that these people have an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. Recent publicity on this problem in the newspaper, radio, and television has alarmed individuals or their parents who in turn have consulted their physicians for advice. All individuals with a history of head and neck irradiation should be considered as having an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. These patients should be examined every two years indefinitely. Fortunately, only a small percentage of irradiated individuals develop thyroid tumors. Most of the tumors found have been benign. Those which are malignant have been well differentiated, papillary, or follicular neoplasms which grow slowly, metastasize relatively late, and are curable by surgical removal before metastasis has occurred. If on palpation of the thyroid gland one or more firm, discrete nodules are palpated, these should be removed regardless of other findings. A scan may be useful in assessing the functional status of the nodule and may give some indication as to whether the nodule is malignant or benign. If the scan shows a cold area which corresponds with a palpable mass, the patient should be considered for prompt surgical exploration. If the scan shows a hot nodule, it is usually not malignant, but should be closely observed for change

  4. Editorial: Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl power station nearly 10 years ago was unprecedented in the exposure of a very large population to high levels of fallout including high levels of isotopes of iodine, predominantly 131I. An increase in incidence of childhood thyroid cancer was first observed in 1990 in Belarus and in the Ukraine, and the first reports in the Western literature were published in 1992. At a symposium in Nagasaki in June 1994, the numbers of cases that had occurred between 1990 and 1993 in Belarus, a country with a population of just over 10 million, was reported to be 233, and in the heavily contaminated northern parts of the Ukraine, with a population of about 7 million, 36 cases occurred in the same period. To put these figures into perspective, the number of childhood thyroid cancers registered in England and Wales over a 30-year period was 154, an average of 5 cases per yr in a population of 50 million people, with about 10 million children under 15 yr of age. The initial reports of such a great increase in childhood thyroid cancers in the areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl were at first greeted in the West with some skepticism. The latent period between exposure and development of thyroid cancer was surprisingly short, based on experience with thyroid carcinomas developing after external radiation to the neck. The reliability of the figures based on the pathological diagnosis was questioned because the cases had not been confirmed by Western pathologists, and because the known high frequency of papillary microcarcinoms in adults raised the possibility that the reported incidence was resulted form increased ascertainment and not a true increase in incidence. 14 refs

  5. Case presentation – thyroid lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkisa Izić

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors of the thyroid gland account for about 1% of thenewly diagnosed malignant tumors each year, and their incidence inwomen is twice the incidence in men. According to the WHO classification (2004 thyroid tumors are divided into: carcinoma of the thyroid, adenoma and similar tumors, and other thyroid tumors which include: teratomas, angiosarcomas, paragangliomas and others, as well as primary lymphomas and plasmacytomas. Primary thyroid lymphomasare defined as lymphomas which originate in the thyroid gland. This study presents the case of a 68-year-old patient with a thyroid lymphoma, which caused compression of the airways. In the patientpresented there was reduced activity of the thyroid gland. The dominant symptoms were: breathing difficulties, hoarse voice and the enlargement of the thyroid. An ultrasound examination was performedbefore surgery on the neck, which showed a multinodular thyroid,with compromised and compressed trachea to the right and rear. Anemergency surgical procedure was performed to reduce the tumor.Pathohistological diagnosis confirmed diffuse large B cell lymphoma.The aim of the study was to present a patient with a thyroid lymphoma, who had previously not had any immunological changes to the gland,that is, she had not had any chronic lymphocyte thyroiditis, but due to the compressive syndrome it was necessary to perform an emergencysurgical procedure to reduce the tumor.

  6. Diagnostics of thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recommendations of the Thyroid Section of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Endokrinologie have been established with a view to diagnostic practice; they help to define the most appropriate diagnostic procedure in consideration of its diagnostic value, necessity, expenditure in terms of time and cost, and the hazard involved. Methodological progress and recent scientific findings have been considered as well as economic aspects and the available technical facilities. The decision on what method to apply in thyroid diagnostics and therapy should be based on a specific anamnesis and a detailed physical examination. The measured data must be compatible with the patient's symptoms and with unambiguously established clinical signs. In a progressively structured diagnostic procedure, one should always start with the simple, non-invasive in vitro techniques. Functional diagnostics of thyroid diseases is supplemented by thyroid scintiscanning with short-lived radionuclides and by thyroid cytology. Experience and precise knowledge help to save funds and reduce the radiation doses applied. Of course, uncertain diagnoses and untypical findings necessitate a wider application of diagnostic means than clinically more or less validated diagnoses. (orig./MG)

  7. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  8. Indirect thyroid lymphography in the thyroid diseases diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indirect thyroid lymphography with water-soluble radiographic agents has been applied. This method allows contrast lymph microvessels of the thyroid gland, providing the detection of volume formations of 0.3 to 0.4 cm and more in diameter. 232 patients with different thyroid diseases were examined. Different rate of the water-soluble contrast agent resolution in diffuse toxic and nodular goiter, thyroid cancer, chronic thyroiditis is of great importance in differential diagnosis of these diseases. This method provides necessary information on the organs inner structure, its topography and size

  9. Dosimetric evaluation in organs of the Tc{sup 99m}, I{sup 123} bio-kinetics to estimate dose in thyroid children 1 and 5 years; Evaluacion dosimetrica en organos de la biocinetica del Tc{sup 99m}, I{sup 123} para estimar dosis en tiroides ninos 1 y 5 anos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, A. M.; Quispe, R.; Vasquez, D. J.; Rocha, M. D.; Morales, N. R.; Marin, R. K. [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Av. Juan Pablo II s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Trujillo (Peru); Zelada, A. L., E-mail: marvva@hotmail.com [Universidad Cesar Vallejo, Grupo de Fisica Medica, Av. Larco s/n, Trujillo (Peru)

    2012-10-15

    Using the formalism MIRD and the representation of Cristy-Eckerman for the thyroid in children of 1 and 5 years, is demonstrated that the dosimetric contribution of the organs of I{sup 123} (iodure) bio-kinetics is not significant in the dose estimate. The total dose absorbed by the gland is its auto dose. The dosimetric contribution of the organs source of the Tc{sup 99m} (pertechnetate) bio-kinetics in the gland is significant in the dose estimate like to be ignored. The reported results for the iodure are not significantly different to the found for the Marinelli scheme (auto-dose) for thyroid represented by a sphere of 1,78 and 3,45 grams. (Author)

  10. Radiation protection: an analysis of thyroid blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis was performed to provide guidance to policymakers concerning the effectiveness of potassium iodide (KI) as a thyroid blocking agent in potential reactor accident situations, the distance to which (or area within which) it should be distributed, and its relative effectiveness compared to other available protective measures. The analysis was performed using the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) consequence model. Four categories of accidents were addressed: gap activity release accident (GAP), GAP without containment isolation, core melt with a melt-through release, and core melt with an atmospheric release. Cost-benefit ratios (US $/thyroid nodule prevented) are given assuming that no other protective measures are taken. Uncertainties due to health effects parameters, accident probabilities, and costs are assessed. The effects of other potential protective measures, such as evacuation and sheltering, and the impact on children (critical population) are evaluated. Finally, risk-benefit considerations are briefly discussed

  11. Expression of thyroid stimulating hormone β splice variant in thyroid of mouse with autoimmune thyroiditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁继红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of marrowderived thyroid stimulating hormoneβ(TSHβ)splice variant in thyroid of mouse with autoimmune thyroiditis induced by thyroglobulin(Tg)immunization,and to analyze whether TSHβsplice variant participated in the pathological process of autoimmune thyroiditis.Methods Using random number table,forty-eight mice(24 females and 24 males)of 7 to 8 weeks old with body mass 20 to25 g were randomly divided into 4 groups(12 females

  12. Risk assessment of thyroid follicular cell tumors.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, R. N.; Crisp, T M; Hurley, P M; Rosenthal, S L; Singh, D. V.

    1998-01-01

    Thyroid follicular cell tumors arise in rodents from mutations, perturbations of thyroid and pituitary hormone status with increased stimulation of thyroid cell growth by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), or a combination of the two. The only known human thyroid carcinogen is ionizing radiation. It is not known for certain whether chemicals that affect thyroid cell growth lead to human thyroid cancer. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency applies the following science policy positions: 1)...

  13. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-I Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy.

  14. Thyroid uptake test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid gland is altered by the iodine content of diet or drugs. American diet has a high iodine content because each slice of the white bread contains nearly 150μg of iodine due to the bleaching process employed in the production of the bread. This carrier content of iodine reduces the uptake so much, that the normal American uptakes are usually three to four times lower than the uptakes in the developing countries. The other drawback of the thyroid uptake test is that it is affected by the iodine containing drugs. Anti-diarrhoea medications are quire common in the developing countries and many of them contain iodine moiety. Without a reliable drug history, a low thyroid uptake value may lead to a misleading conclusion

  15. Radioiodine dosimetry and prediction of consequences of thyroid exposure of the Russian population following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early period after the Chernobyl accident, analysis of patterns of 131I exposure of the human thyroid showed that contaminated milk was the basic source of 131I intake among the inhabitants of Russia. The equipment and techniques used for measurement of the 131I content in the thyroids of these individuals are described in this work. A model of the 131I intake, taking into account protective actions, and a method of thyroid dose calculation are discussed. The mean thyroid dose and frequency distributions of the thyroid doses to inhabitants of towns and villages of the Bryansk, Tula and Orel regions of Russia are presented. The mean dose to the thyroids of children living in the villages was 2 to 5 times higher than the dose to adult thyroids; for children living in the towns, the mean dose was 1.5 to 12 times higher. The mean thyroid mass in adult inhabitants of the Bryansk region was 27 g, which exceeded the value for a standard man (20 g) and was taken into account in the dosimetric calculations. The technique for reconstructing the mean and individual thyroid doses was based on the correlation between thyroid dose and several parameters: Surface 137Cs activity in soil, dose rate in air in May of 1986, 131I content in local milk, milk consumption rate, and 134Cs + 137Cs content in the body. The collective thyroid dose to inhabitants of the most contaminated regions of Russia is estimated and a thyroid cancer rate prognosis is derived. The need for intensified medical care for the critical group - children of preschool age during 1986 - is based on a significant increase in the number of projected thyroid cancers and adenomas. 32 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs

  16. Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas of thyroid in Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Mimicking benign cystic nodule on ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma (SEP) of the thyroid is uncommon and mostly occur in patients with a Hashimoto's thyroiditis (82%). We present a case on SEP of thyroid in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, which mimics growing benign cystic masses on serial ultrasonography.

  17. Emerging therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine malignancy. Its incidence is currently rising worldwide. The discovery of genetic mutations associated with the development of thyroid cancer, such as BRAF and RET, has lead to the development of new drugs which target the pathways which they influence. Despite recent advances, the prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is still unfavourable. In this review we look at emerging novel therapies for the treatment of well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and advances and future directions in the management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  18. Thyroid Dysfunction and its Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Agnihotri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the present review article is on thyroid dysfunctions which can be hypo or hyper thyroidism. Along with the ongoing allopathic treatment options, one can go for the alternative therapies or natural cures. Various nutritional supplements including iodine, botanicals like guggul and many more play an effective role in the management of thyroid dysfunction apart from the pharmaceuticals like synthetic T3 and T4 hormones and procaine thyroid. Along with these, homeopathy and yoga are equally important. The discussion suggests and emphasizes the importance of improving the lifestyle and nutritional diet; and further providing spiritual support along with natural thyroid medication.

  19. Development and evaluation of a questionnaire for assessment of determinants of weight disorders among children and adolescents: The Caspian-IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The developed questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for assessment of the determinants of weight disorders in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents in the MENA.

  20. Organochlorine compounds and concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas-Fito, N; M. Sala; Cardo, E; Mazon, C; de Muga, M E; Verdu, A; Marco, E.; Grimalt, J.; Sunyer, J

    2003-01-01

    Methods: A total of 98 mother-infant pairs (83.1% of all children born during the period 1997–99 in a specific area polluted with HCB) were recruited. Levels of organochlorine compounds were measured in 70 cord serum samples. Concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in plasma of all newborns three days after birth.

  1. Children with chronic lung diseases have cognitive dysfunction as assessed by event-related potential (auditory P300) and Stanford-Binet IQ (SB-IV) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Terez Boshra; Abd Elmonaem, Mahmoud Tarek; Khalil, Lobna Hamed; Goda, Mona Hamdy; Sanyelbhaa, Hossam; Ramzy, Mourad Alfy

    2016-10-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) in children represents a heterogeneous group of many clinico-pathological entities with risk of adverse impact of chronic or intermittent hypoxia. So far, few researchers have investigated the cognitive function in these children, and the role of auditory P300 in the assessment of their cognitive function has not been investigated yet. This study was designed to assess the cognitive functions among schoolchildren with different chronic pulmonary diseases using both auditory P300 and Stanford-Binet test. This cross-sectional study included 40 school-aged children who were suffering from chronic chest troubles other than asthma and 30 healthy children of similar age, gender and socioeconomic state as a control group. All subjects were evaluated through clinical examination, radiological evaluation and spirometry. Audiological evaluation included (basic otological examination, pure-tone, speech audiometry and immittancemetry). Cognitive function was assessed by auditory P300 and psychological evaluation using Stanford-Binet test (4th edition). Children with chronic lung diseases had significantly lower anthropometric measures compared to healthy controls. They had statistically significant lower IQ scores and delayed P300 latencies denoting lower cognitive abilities. Cognitive dysfunction correlated to severity of disease. P300 latencies were prolonged among hypoxic patients. Cognitive deficits in children with different chronic lung diseases were best detected using both Stanford-Binet test and auditory P300. P300 is an easy objective tool. P300 is affected early with hypoxia and could alarm subtle cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27075686

  2. The etiology of thyroid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The etiology of thyroid tumors is a complex subject, complicated by the fact that these tumors are not one entity, but separate neoplasms with different histology, evolution and prognosis. The recognized etiological factors of thyroid cancer include the iodine content of the diet, the inheritance, racial predispositions, the presence of an autoimmune thyroiditis and mostly, the exposure of the thyroid gland to external radiation following radiotherapy. The role played by these factors varies from one type of tumor to another. Thyroid radiation probably represents the most important factor in the development of a papillary carcinoma, with other factors (iodine-rich diet, inheritance, racial predispositions) having a minor role. The follicular carcinoma is more common in regions with low-iodine diet, therefore suggesting that TSH stimulation could be an etiological factor of these tumors. Thyroid radiation may also be carcinogenic for follicular carcinoma although less than for papillary carcinoma. Anaplastic carcinoma appears to originate from a papillary carcinoma already in the thyroid gland. In medullary carcinoma, inheritance plays a major role (autosomal dominant) and lymphomas occur in thyroids already affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Recent experimental studies have suggested other possible cellular factors as responsible for the development of thyroid tumors. They include an alteration of the responsivity of TSH cellular receptors and the monoclonal mutation of C-cells. These new factors could provide a new insight on the etiology of thyroid tumors

  3. Radiotherapeutic management of thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outcomes of radiotherapy were analyzed in 19 patients with malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland. Seventeen patients had stage I or II disease and two had stage IV disease. The male to female ratio was 2 : 17. Six patients were treated with radiotherapy alone and 13 were treated with combined-modality therapy. Patients were treated with 40 to 50 Gy megavoltage irradiation to the whole neck or to the neck and upper mediastinum. Combined modality therapy was used except for patients with low-grade lymphoma or for patients more than 70 years old. Chemotherapy consisted of CHOP or VEMP. Cause-specific survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The 5-year cause-specific survival rate was 72.7% overall, and was 81.6% for patients with stage I or II disease. There were no treatment failures among patients who received radiation therapy alone. Therefore, combined-modality therapy may be unnecessary for patients with low-grade lymphoma of clinical stages I or II. (author)

  4. Horner's syndrome and thyroid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchter, Igor; Becker, Minerva; Mickel, Robert; Dulguerov, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Although thyroid goiter is a common condition, it rarely results in Horner's syndrome. We report a case of a patient with an intrathoracic multinodular goiter complicated by Horner's syndrome. Benign thyroid disease was confirmed pathologically, and the patient's symptoms improved after surgery. In the literature, the major cause of Horner's syndrome is neoplasia, with malignant lesions being twice as frequent as benign tumors. An extensive review of the literature demonstrates a different repartition for thyroid neoplasia: including our case, 38 cases of Horner's syndrome secondary to a benign thyroid tumor are described, against only 8 cases caused by a thyroid carcinoma. We conclude that contrary to the commonly held opinion, Horner's syndrome is more often due to benign thyroid diseases than to thyroid malignancies. PMID:11891400

  5. Thyroid Nodules as a Late Effect of Exposure to Fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple nodules of the thyroid gland have developed in a Marshallese population 10 to 14 years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout The exposure occurred in 1954 when an unpredicted shift in winds caused deposition of fallout on several Marshall Islands east of Bikini Sixty four people received 175 rads of gamma radiation which proved to be sub lethal but resulted in early nausea and vomiting and significant depression of blood elements Exposure of the skin resulted m beta bums and epilation and there was significant internal absorption of fission isotopes from contaminated food and water The most serious internal exposure was from radioiodines (131I 132I 133I 135I) It was estimated that in addition to the gamma radiation the adult thyroid gland received 160 rads from radioiodines and the young children because of their considerably smaller glands an estimated 700 1400 rads Recovery of blood elements to nearly normal and healing of skin lesions with regrowth of hair was complete by one year These findings have been fully documented The most important late radiation effect has been the development of thyroid abnormalities Since 1963 a total of 20 cases have thus far been detected 17 in children exposed at less than 10 years of age (90% of that group) and 3 in adults Thyroid surgery on 11 children and 3 adults revealed that all had benign adenomatous nodules except for a mixed papillary and follicular carcinoma in a 40 year-old woman The benign nodules were similar to those associated with iodine deficiency but such deficiency was not apparent m the Marshallese who live largely on seafood However most pathologists could not distinguish definite radiation effects in the nodules Growth and development retardation in some of the exposed children is now clearly related to thyroid deficiency Two boys with the greatest growth retardation developed pronounced hypothyroidism with atrophy of their thyroid glands Treatment of the exposed group with thyroid hormone

  6. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes. PMID:1726925

  7. Parasitic thyroid nodule in a patient with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Vitorino Modesto dos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of parasitic thyroid nodule is presented. The patient was a non symptomatic 53-year-old white woman, on irregular course of L-thyroxine to treat hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Without a history of thyroid trauma or surgery, she presented a 1.6 x 0.7 x 0.5cm right pre-laryngeal lymph node-like mass which, on ultrasonography, appeared distinct from the gland. TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody serum levels were elevated and T4-free level was normal. Thyroid and total body 99mTc isonitrile scintiscan showed a topic thyroid without radionuclide uptake in the nodule. Fine-needle aspiration of the nodule showed epithelial cells with nuclear atypia and oncocytic changes plus intense lymphoid infiltration and germinative center formation, simulating lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conventional biopsy revealed a parasitic thyroid nodule with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis. Parasitic thyroid nodule must always be remembered so that unnecessary surgical assessment and undesirable sequels may be avoided.

  8. Parasitic thyroid nodule in a patient with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of parasitic thyroid nodule is presented. The patient was a non symptomatic 53-year-old white woman, on irregular course of L-thyroxine to treat hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Without a history of thyroid trauma or surgery, she presented a 1.6 x 0.7 x 0.5 cm right pre-laryngeal lymph node-like mass which, on ultrasonography, appeared distinct from the gland. TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody serum levels were elevated and T4-free level was normal. Thyroid and total body 99m Tc isonitrile scintiscan showed a topic thyroid without radionuclide uptake in the nodule. Fine-needle aspiration of the nodule showed epithelial cells with nuclear atypia and oncocitic changes plus intense lymphoid infiltration and germinative center formation, simulating lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conventional biopsy revealed a parasitic thyroid nodule with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis. Parasitic thyroid nodule must always be remembered so that unnecessary surgical assessment and undesirable sequels may be avoided. (author)

  9. Remote access thyroid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Parisha; Mohamed, Hossam Eldin; Kadi, Abida; Kandil, Emad; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2015-10-01

    Robot assisted thyroid surgery has been the latest advance in the evolution of thyroid surgery after endoscopy assisted procedures. The advantage of a superior field vision and technical advancements of robotic technology have permitted novel remote access (trans-axillary and retro-auricular) surgical approaches. Interestingly, several remote access surgical ports using robot surgical system and endoscopic technique have been customized to avoid the social stigma of a visible scar. Current literature has displayed their various advantages in terms of post-operative outcomes; however, the associated financial burden and also additional training and expertise necessary hinder its widespread adoption into endocrine surgery practices. These approaches offer excellent cosmesis, with a shorter learning curve and reduce discomfort to surgeons operating ergonomically through a robotic console. This review aims to provide details of various remote access techniques that are being offered for thyroid resection. Though these have been reported to be safe and feasible approaches for thyroid surgery, further evaluation for their efficacy still remains. PMID:26425450

  10. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gene. These cases are known as familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). FMTC can occur alone, or it can be seen along with other tumors. The combination of FMTC and tumors of other endocrine glands is called multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN ...

  11. Thyroid and parathyroid gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008029 Diagnostic value of serum thyroglobulin autoantibody on recurrence and/or metastasis following surgery in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. FAN Qun(范群), et al. Dept Nucl Med, West China Hosp, Sichuan Univ, Chengdu 610041. Chin J Endocrinol Metab 2007;23(6):494-497. Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of serum thyrog

  12. Tubercular thyroid abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Awanish; Pahwa, Harvinder Singh; Srivastava, Rohit; Khan, Khursheed Alam

    2013-01-01

    We encountered a patient who presented with neck swelling, difficulty in swallowing, voice change along with systemic features such as evening rise of temperature, chronic cough and weight loss. Ultrasonography of the thyroid gland revealed two cystic swellings. An ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology was suggestive of tubercular abscess. The patient responded well to antigravity aspiration of the swellings and antitubercular treatment.

  13. Thyroid ophthalmopathy revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune orbital disorder closely associated with Graves' disease, although both conditions may also occur isolatedly. Thyroid ophthalmopathy may precede, coincide or follow the thyroid dysfunction onset and may rarely occur in euthyroid and hypothyroid patients. The extra ocular muscles are most frequently involved and become enlarged resulting in ophthalmoplegia and proptosis. Other relevant signs include palpebral retraction, conjunctival hyperemia and periorbitary edema. Visual loss may occur in association with compressive optic neuropathy at the orbital apex. Thyroid ophthalmopathy is characterized by inflammation, congestion, hypertrophy and fibrosis involving fat and the orbital muscles. The disease activity is divided into two phases: an acute or inflammatory phase and a second one corresponding to an inactive phase associated with fibrotic changes and fat infiltration of the retrobulbar tissues. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings and imaging methods are indicated in case of doubt or suspicion of optic neuropathy. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can confirm the diagnosis, allowing the evaluation of the critical region of the orbital apex. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice considering the superior tissue contrast resolution, besides the capacity of evaluating the disease activity by means of long TR sequences and detecting inflammatory changes, with a relevant role in a timely therapeutic planning, which may improve the prognosis. (author)

  14. Thyroid, spermatogenesis, and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajender, Singh; Monica, Marie Gray; Walter, Lee; Agarwal, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Since the identification of thyroid hormone receptors on the testes, thyroid has been suggested to have a significant impact on the male reproductive tract, spermatogenesis, and male fertility. Several research articles on the role of thyroid in spermatogenesis or male infertility have been published in the last three decades. We conducted an exhaustive literature search was conducted in order to create an up-to-date review of literature. This review aims to discuss the impact of thyroid on testicular development, spermatogenesis, hypo- or hyper- thyroidism and male infertility, and the management of thyroid related abnormal semen profile. The literature revealed that thyroid significantly impacts testicular development and that abnormal thyroid profile affects semen quality and male fertility by compromising testicular size, sperm motility and ejaculate volume. A clear link exists between thyroid hormones, testicular development and spermatogenesis. Thyroid disease negatively affects spermatogenesis and consequently may cause male infertility. In such cases, infertility is reversible, but more studies need to be conducted, especially in post-pubertal males to cement the current findings. PMID:21622096

  15. Thyroid Hemiagenesis Associated with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nsame

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from failure of one thyroid lobe development. We report a 23-year-old female presented with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in left lobe, associated with hemiagenesis of right lobe and isthmus which was previously diagnosed as Graves’ hyperthyroidism, but developed further into Hashimoto’s thyroiditis after being treated with antithyroid drugs. The symptoms of hyperthyroidism in the current case led to the diagnostic confirmation by scintiscanning of an absent lobe. The antithyroid pharmacotherapy by thiamazole was used. However, due to symptoms of hypothyroidism, it was discontinued two months later, so thyroid hormone substitution was reintroduced. Antithyroid antibody studies and ultrasonography documented the presence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.

  16. Introduction to European comments on "Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarzab, Barbara; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    Guest Editors of Thyroid Research supplement devoted to medullary thyroid cancer present the history on how the discussion about "Medullary Thyroid Cancer: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association" was initiated and subsequently widely commented before and during European Thyroid...

  17. Chernobyl accident. Assessment of the Collective thyroid dose for the Belarusian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, a widespread radioactive contamination occurred over the territory of the Republic of Belarus. During the first few weeks after the accident, the intake of 131I, due essentially to the consumption of contaminated milk, resulted in substantial thyroid exposures for many Belarusians. The sharp increase of thyroid cancer cases among children that has been observed since the early 1990s has triggered many studies on the comparison between the levels of thyroid exposure among children and the number of cancer cases. In 1996, we estimated the collective thyroid dose to the Belarusian population to be about 510,000 person Gy (including 130,000 person Gy for the children up to 7 years old at the time of the accident). Since 1996, we have improved the dose assessment model used for 7.3 million residents (73%) of Belarus. Two models will be to assess thyroid doses for rural inhabitants: the first one is based on relationship between mean adult-thyroid dose and the deposition density of 131I or 137Cs in the settlements where lived a sufficient number of residents whose thyroids were measured in vivo in May through beginning of June 1986; the second one is an environmental transfer model making use of the available measurements of 131I in fallout, grass, and milk. For the other 2.7 million residents we will estimate the collective dose based on doses obtained by residents of corresponding settlements or areas, whose thyroids were measured in 1986. The associated uncertainties will be discussed. The magnitude of the collective dose will be compared to the number of observed thyroid cancer cases among children, Oblast by Oblast. The variations observed in various Oblasts of Belarus will be analyzed. (author)

  18. Thyroid Ultrasonography Consistently Identifies Goiter in Adults Over the Age of 30 Years Despite a Diminished Response with Aging of the Thyroid Gland to the Effects of Goitrogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sheela R. Brahmbhatt; Brahmbhatt, Rajesh M.; Eastman, Creswell J.; Steven C. Boyages

    2001-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a national health problem in India and we have recently reported on the severity of IDD in adults and children in Gujarat province. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of thyroid ultrasonography to detect goiter in adults from an iodine-deficient population of Gujarat. We studied 472 adults selected by random household surveys. Data were collected on height, body weight, mid-upper arm circumference, thigh circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, thyroid s...

  19. Resistance to Thyroid Hormone due to defective thyroid receptor alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Carla; Chatterjee, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones act via nuclear receptors (TR?1, TR?1, TR?2) with differing tissue distribution; the role of ?2 protein, derived from the same gene locus as TR?1, is unclear. Resistance to thyroid hormone alpha (RTH?) is characterised by tissue-specific hypothyroidism associated with near-normal thyroid function tests. Clinical features include dysmorphic facies, skeletal dysplasia (macrocephaly, epiphyseal dysgenesis), growth retardation, constipation, dyspraxia and intellectual deficit...

  20. The Thyroid Status of Children and Adolescents in Fukushima Prefecture Examined during 20–30 Months after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Cross-Sectional, Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Watanobe, Hajime; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Yanai, Rie; Takahashi, Miyuki; Sato, Hideo; Sagawa, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    Background A possible increase in thyroid cancer in the young represents the most critical health problem to be considered after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan (March 2011), which is an important lesson from the Chernobyl disaster (April 1986). Although it was reported that childhood thyroid cancer had started to increase 3–5 yr after the Chernobyl accident, we speculate that the actual period of latency might have been shorter than reported, considering the delay in initiating thyr...

  1. Thyroid disease in the pediatric patient: emphasizing imaging with sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid disease does occur in the pediatric patient, and imaging plays an important role in its evaluation. A review is presented of normal development of the thyroid gland, the technique and indications for thyroid sonography, and key imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (ectopic or absent thyroid, infantile goiter, thyroglossal duct remnants), benign thyroid masses (follicular adenoma, degenerative nodules, colloid and thyroid cysts), malignant masses (follicular, papillary and medullary carcinoma) and diffuse thyroid disease (acute bacterial thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Grave's disease). (orig.)

  2. Thyroid hormone antibodies and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in mongrel dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormally elevated serum T3 concentrations measured by RIA were observed in 19 clinically euthyroid or hypothyroid mongrel dogs. The serum T4 concentrations in these sera were low, normal, or high. Measurement of the intensity of thyroid hormone binding to serum proteins was determined by equilibrium dialysis. A marked decrease in the percent free T3 was observed in these abnormal sera. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, pH 7.4, of normal dog serum enriched with tracer 125I-labeled thyroid hormones demonstrated binding of [125I]T4 to transthyretin, thyroid hormone-binding globulin, and albumin and of [125I]T3 primarily to thyroid hormone-binding globulin. In all abnormal sera, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated strikingly higher binding of T3 to immunoglobulin (Ig). Eleven of 16 abnormal sera had minimal to moderate binding of T4 to Ig. The percent free T4 was lower only in dogs whose sera demonstrated markedly increased binding of T4 to Ig. All abnormal sera tested had positive antithyroglobulin antibodies, consistent with the diagnosis of autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis. As in humans, antibodies to thyroid hormones in dogs are more common in the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and should be considered when elevated serum thyroid hormone concentrations are observed in the absence of clinical thyrotoxicosis. When an antibody to only one thyroid hormone is present, a marked discrepancy in the serum concentrations of T3 and T4 will be observed

  3. Thyroid dysfunction and thyroid antibodies in Iranian patients with vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi Sedighe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a common skin disorder, and the pathogenesis is unknown. An increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases has been described in these patients. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and hypoparathyroidism in patients with vitiligo. Materials and Methods: One hundred and nine patients (38 males and 71 females with vitiligo were enrolled. Thyroid physical examination was carried out. Thyroid function tests, thyroid antibodies, calcium and phosphorus were assessed. The collected data were analysed by SPSS version 11. Results: Thyromegaly was found in 30.1% of patients. Hypothyroidism was found in 16 (15.7% out of 109 cases. Two of them had clinical and 14 had subclinical hypothyroidism. One patient had Grave′s disease. Antibody positivity was the most common disorder (anti-TPO and anti-tg were positive in 36.7 and 32.1%, respectively. No patient had hypoparathyroidism. Conclusion: According to our study, thyroid dysfunction, particulary hypothyroidism and thyroid antibodies increase in patients with vitiligo. We recommend thyroid antibodies assessment and thyroid function evaluation in these patients.

  4. Sonographic Elastography of the Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Menzilcioglu, Mehmet Sait; Duymus, Mahmut; Avcu, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Summary Thyroid gland disorders include benign and malignant thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid disorders. The incidence of malignant thyroid nodules is low and the prognosis is good. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer and diffuse parenchymal disorders is generally based on clinical manifestations and histopathological evaluation. Ultrasonography has its place in the diagnostics and follow-up of thyroid disorders. Ultrasonographic elastography is a new, developing method that shows increase in ...

  5. ROLE OF ULTRASOUND IN THYROID DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Janani Parkkunam; Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography has established itself has a useful tool in evaluating and managing thyroid disorders. This article provides an overview of basic principles of ultrasound, how it is used in different thyroid disorders, different sonographic pattern of thyroid disorders, comparative features of malignant and benign nodule, ultrasound features of diffuse thyroid disorders and congenital thyroid disorders, ultrasound guided FNAC, advanced techniques of ultrasound in thyroid imaging.

  6. Revisiting Thyroid Hormones in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Correia Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are crucial during development and in the adult brain. Of interest, fluctuations in the levels of thyroid hormones at various times during development and throughout life can impact on psychiatric disease manifestation and response to treatment. Here we review research on thyroid function assessment in schizophrenia, relating interrelations between the pituitary-thyroid axis and major neurosignaling systems involved in schizophrenia’s pathophysiology. These include the serotonergic, dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic networks, as well as myelination and inflammatory processes. The available evidence supports that thyroid hormones deregulation is a common feature in schizophrenia and that the implications of thyroid hormones homeostasis in the fine-tuning of crucial brain networks warrants further research.

  7. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accidents (IPHECA). Protocol for the pilot project ''Thyroid''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protocol document for the Thyroid Project of International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accidents (IPHECA) describes the main aims of the project, namely 1) to detect and describe selected diseases of the thyroid among children and adolescents in population centres assigned earlier as ''strictly controlled zones'' and, 2) to determine, if possible, the link between the prevalence of the diseases and radiation doses received by the thyroid. Population to be investigated, medical and laboratory examinations and advanced diagnostics for thyroid diseases to be undertaken are enlisted in the protocol

  8. Gestational Diabetes and Thyroid Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Monaco; Giorgio Napolitano; Cesidio Giuliani; Ester Vitacolonna; Ines Bucci; Barbara Di Nenno; Annalisa Passante; Annunziata Lapolla; Dominique Cerrone; Fabio Capani

    2012-01-01

    Background. About 10% of pregnancies are complicated by previously unknown impairment of glucose metabolism, which is defined as gestational diabetes. There are little data available on prevalence of thyroid disorders in patients affected by gestational diabetes, and about their postgestational thyroid function and autoimmunity. We therefore investigated pancreatic and thyroid autoimmunity in gestational diabetic patients and in women who had had a previous gestational diabetic pregnancy. Met...

  9. PHARMACOTHERAPY IN ADVANCED THYROID CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Voichiţa Mogoş

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid cancers are the most common carcinomas of the endocrine system. Their behavior depends of histology, extension of the disease and patients-related factors. Differentiated thyroid cancers arising from follicular epithelium may be cured with combined surgery and radioiodine therapy. In 10-15 % of cases patients may develop metastases which are cause of death. In advanced differentiated thyroid cancers of follicular origin combined therapy with radioiodine and TSH suppression may result ...

  10. Some aspects of thyroid system status in persons exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid system status estimation held in post-accidental period dynamics among 7868 children evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone and resident now in Slavutich city (Cs-137 contaminated area), among contaminated regions permanent residents, among native kievites and evacuated from 30-km zone. The thyroid pathology incidence dependence on residence place during Chernobyl Accident and after that was revealed. The immune-inflammatory thyroid disorders are characteristic for 30-km zone migrants, goitre different forms - for the radionuclides contaminated territories residents. No thyroid function abnormalities frequency confidential increase was registered during the research activities run. The total serum cholesterol level application unavailability is revealed in Chernobyl accident survivors thyroid hormones metabolic effects estimation. Data concerning Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) presented additionally. (author)

  11. Thyroid equivalent dose for children up to five years old and adults in the Republic of Slovenia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The highest concentration of 131I in fallout was measured on May 3rd, 30 MBq/m3, then decreased to few hundred on May 15th. Concentrations of radionuclides in grass were in range from 0.3 kBq/m2 to 15 kBq/m2. Specific activities of 131I in different foodstuffs like fresh milk, beef, fruits and leafy vegetables in first months after accident in Chernobyl were in range from few Bq/kg to 9 kBq/kg. In first two weeks after Chernobyl accident the most dangerous radionuclide for inhalation and ingestion was 131I. Our government suggested to stay in closed apartments, especially for children and pregnant women. The usage of fresh fodder for cattle and other domestic animals was restricted because of possible high contamination of milk with 131I

  12. Association of Socioeconomic Status with Anthropometric Measures and Blood Pressure in a Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adoles-cents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmat, Ramin; Shafiee, Gita; Kelishadi, Roya; Omid Reza TABATABAIE; Djalalinia, Shirin; Motlagh, Mohammad-Esmaeil; Zahedi, Hoda; Noori, Atefeh; Ardalan, Gelayol; Arefirad, Tahereh; Asayesh, Hamid; Bagher LARI­JANI; Mostafa QORBANI

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of Socioeconomic Status (SES) with anthropometric measures and BP in Iranian children and adolescents.Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2011-2012 among 14,880 students, aged 6-18 years, selected by multistage, cluster-sampling method from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces of Iran. Anthropometric indexes and BP were measured by standard protocols and with calibrated instruments. SES was estimated based on famil...

  13. Incidence of leukemia, lymphoma and thyroid cancers in children under 15 years old in the vicinity of Marcoule nuclear plant, 1985-95; Incidence des leucemies aigues, lymphomes et cancers thyroidiens chez les enfants de moins de 15 ans vivant autour du site nucleaire de Marcoule de 1985 a 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouges, S.; Daures, J.P.; Hebrard, M. [Montpellier-1 Univ., 34 (France). Institut Universitaire de Recherche Clinique, Laboratoire d' Epidemiologie et de Biostatistiques; Bouges, S. [Hopital Gaston Doumergue, 30 - Nimes (France)

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to report incidence of childhood leukemia, lymphoma and thyroid neoplasms in children under 15 years of age living in the vicinity of the French Marcoule nuclear reprocessing plant. This exhaustive and retrospective survey was carried out between 1985 and 1995 in children aged under 14 at the time of diagnosis and living inside a 35 kilometer zone around the nuclear site. 656 practitioners, 109 medical analysis laboratories and 5 hospitals or cancer institutes were investigated. A panel of experts checked each case. 48 cases of acute leukemia (39 acute lymphoid leukemia and 9 acute myeloid leukemia), 15 cases of lymphoma (8 Hodgkin lymphomas - 53 % - and 7 non hodgkinian lymphomas including 5 Burkitt lymphomas), 1 case of chronic myeloid leukemia and 1 case of papillary thyroid cancer, appeared among the 1,116,442 children-years followed. The total incidences of leukemias and lymphomas were respectively 4.12 and 1.29.10{sup -5}. Standardised Incidence Ratios, calculated according to Poisson methods and Bayesian inference, with various reference rates did not show any excess of risk: 100.67 (95 % confidence interval 72-131) for leukemia. Children under 5 years old and living in non exposed areas to dominant winds or downstream Rhodanian water drawing presented a 3 or 4 fold decreased risk of leukemia than others (the latter still having an identical risk to that of the general population). This was not true for lymphomas, nor for the other age groups. Over the entire zone, children do not have an increased risk of malignant hematology disease but health monitoring by a systematic collection of cases remains useful around Marcoule. The assumption of aquiferous or air contamination thus still remains questionable: further studies investigating models of contamination are needed to take into account all other nonionizing leukemogenic factors (benzene and viral infection in particular) or correlation studies between health indicators

  14. Anti-thyroid drugs in pediatric Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Mathew; Sundrarajan, Rajasree; Gomadam, S Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in children. Most children and adolescents are treated with anti-thyroid drugs as the initial modality. Studies have used Methimazole, Carbimazole and Propylthiouracil (PTU) either as titration regimes or as block and replacement regimes. The various studies of anti-thyroid drug (ATD) treatment of Graves' disease in pediatric patients differ in terms of the regimes, remission rate, duration of therapy for adequate remission, follow up and adverse effects of ATD. Various studies show that lower thyroid hormone levels, prolonged duration of treatment, lower levels of TSH receptor antibodies, smaller goiter and increased age of child predicted higher chance of remission after ATD. A variable number of patients experience minor and major adverse effects limiting initial and long term treatment with ATD. The adverse effects of various ATD seem to more in children compared to that of adults. In view of liver injury including hepatocellular failure need of liver transplantation associated with PTU, the use has been restricted in children. The rate of persistent remission with ATD following discontinuation is about 30%. Radioactive iodine therapy is gaining more acceptance in older children with Graves's disease in view of the limitations of ATD. For individual patients, risk-benefit ratio of ATD should be weighed against benefits of radioactive iodine therapy and patient preferences. PMID:25932387

  15. Anti-thyroid drugs in pediatric Graves′ disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew John

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves′ disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in children. Most children and adolescents are treated with anti-thyroid drugs as the initial modality. Studies have used Methimazole, Carbimazole and Propylthiouracil (PTU either as titration regimes or as block and replacement regimes. The various studies of anti-thyroid drug (ATD treatment of Graves′ disease in pediatric patients differ in terms of the regimes, remission rate, duration of therapy for adequate remission, follow up and adverse effects of ATD. Various studies show that lower thyroid hormone levels, prolonged duration of treatment, lower levels of TSH receptor antibodies, smaller goiter and increased age of child predicted higher chance of remission after ATD. A variable number of patients experience minor and major adverse effects limiting initial and long term treatment with ATD. The adverse effects of various ATD seem to more in children compared to that of adults. In view of liver injury including hepatocellular failure need of liver transplantation associated with PTU, the use has been restricted in children. The rate of persistent remission with ATD following discontinuation is about 30%. Radioactive iodine therapy is gaining more acceptance in older children with Graves′s disease in view of the limitations of ATD. For individual patients, risk-benefit ratio of ATD should be weighed against benefits of radioactive iodine therapy and patient preferences.

  16. Thyroid scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Gregory B; Neelis, Dana A

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is performed in cats and dogs and has been used to a limited degree in other species such as the horse. Thyroid scintigraphy is most commonly used to aid in the diagnosis and treatment management of feline hyperthyroidism but is also used in the evaluation of canine hypothyroidism and canine thyroid carcinoma. This article reviews the normal scintigraphic appearance of the thyroid in the cat, the dog, and the horse and the principles of interpretation of abnormal scan results in the cat and the dog. Radioiodine is the treatment of choice for feline hyperthyroidism, and the principles of its use in the cat are reviewed. PMID:24314043

  17. Construction of thyroid simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This work exposes the methodology of construction of thyroid simulators; which was developed considering the mathematical model for the man of reference proposed by Cristy M. The physical models are designed for different ages and is conformed by two concentric cylinders of polyvynil chloride and its anatomic form was molded with silicone (polyimethyl siloxano). The cavities that represent the lobes of the thyroid contain a radioactive solution. It was made a theoretical calculation of the damping factors for this structure reproducing the values reported in literature with a rank of acceptable uncertainty within the margin of energies of photons emitted by the radionuclides ones but using. Here a protocol of construction of these simulators appears to be used like patterns in dosimetry in alive. (orig.)

  18. Ultrasonography of thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chu Wan; Lee, Kwan Seh; Chung, Yong In; Lee, Kyung Hi; Lee, Mun Ho; Koh, Chang Soon; Kim, Byung Kook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    The fundamental requirement for ultrasound in thyroid disease is to differentiate cystic masses from solid ones. But with the advance in scan equipment and technique the more detailed information about the lesion, echogenicity, internal echo pattern and surroundings casts but a faint on the clues to give more specific categorical or histological diagnosis of the lesions. Authors reviewed 186 cases of ultrasonography of thyroid gland performed from March to September, 1979 at Seoul National University Hospital and concluded that; 1. Differentiation of solid mass from cystic one is easily and readily made but a few of solid masses appear as cystic ones in ultrasonogram because of inappropriate scan technique. 2. Categorical or histological diagnosis is still beyond the scope of our knowledge but some clues suggest that only accumulation of data will solve the problem in the future.

  19. Ultrasonography of thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental requirement for ultrasound in thyroid disease is to differentiate cystic masses from solid ones. But with the advance in scan equipment and technique the more detailed information about the lesion, echogenicity, internal echo pattern and surroundings casts but a faint on the clues to give more specific categorical or histological diagnosis of the lesions. Authors reviewed 186 cases of ultrasonography of thyroid gland performed from March to September, 1979 at Seoul National University Hospital and concluded that; 1. Differentiation of solid mass from cystic one is easily and readily made but a few of solid masses appear as cystic ones in ultrasonogram because of inappropriate scan technique. 2. Categorical or histological diagnosis is still beyond the scope of our knowledge but some clues suggest that only accumulation of data will solve the problem in the future.

  20. Robotic transaxillary thyroid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovics, Naomi; Aidan, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Recent technological advances have led to a rapid progress in endocrine surgery. With the advent of minimally invasive techniques in thyroid surgery, robot-assisted transaxillary thyroid surgery (RATS) has emerged as one of the most promising approaches. Its main advantages are improved cosmetic outcome, avoiding cervical incisions, increased patient satisfaction, improved visualization, arms articulations, eliminating surgeon's natural tremor, thereby increasing precision. The main disadvantages are longer operative time, and increased cost compared to conventional thyroidectomy, as well as potential injuries to the brachial plexus, skin flap, esophagus, and trachea. Large-scale studies, mainly from South-Korea, have proved that in skilled hands, RATS is a safe alternative to conservative thyroidectomy and should be presented to patients with aesthetic concerns. As with any new emerging technique, careful patient selection is crucial, and further evidence must be sought to confirm its indications. PMID:26425452

  1. Radiofrequency ablation for postsurgical thyroid removal of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Wang, Lipin; Long, Bin; Ye, Xuemei; Ge, Minghua; Wang, Kejing; Guo, Liang; Li, Linfa

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. Surgical removal with radioactive iodine therapy is recommended for recurrent thyroid carcinoma, and the postsurgical thyroid removal is critical. This study evaluated the clinical values of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the postsurgical thyroid removal for DTC. 35 DTC patients who had been treated by subtotal thyroidectomy received RFA for postsurgical thyroid removal. Before and two weeks after RFA, the thyroid was examined by ultrasonography and (99m)TcO4 (-) thyroid imaging, and the serum levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) were detected. The efficacy and complications of RFA were evaluated. Results showed that, the postsurgical thyroid removal by RFA was successfully performed in 35 patients, with no significant complication. After RFA, the average largest diameter and volume were significantly decreased in 35 patients (P > 0.05), and no obvious contrast media was observed in ablation area in the majority of patients. After RFA, the serum FT3, FT4 and Tg levels were markedly decreased (P < 0.05), and TSH level was significantly increased (P < 0.05). After RFA, radioiodine concentration in the ablation area was significantly reduced in the majority of patients. The reduction rate of thyroid update was 0.69±0.20%. DTC staging and interval between surgery and RFA had negative correlation (Pearson coefficient = -0.543; P = 0.001), with no obvious correlation among others influential factors. RFA is an effective and safe method for postsurgical thyroid removal of DTC. PMID:27186311

  2. Primary Burkitt’s Lymphoma Presenting as a Rapidly Growing Thyroid Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Yildiz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old male patient presented with a rapidly growing neck mass with normal thyroid function tests. Ultrasonography showed thyroidal expansion, a hypoechoic nodule that completely filled the right lobe, and 2 hypoechoic lymphadenopathies in the right jugulodigastric chain. The patient underwent right total and left subtotal thyroidectomy, following the diagnosis of nodular goiter; however, postoperative histopathological evaluation demonstrated primary Burkitt’s lymphoma of the thyroid gland. The tumor was staged as stage 1, and R-hyper-CVAD protocol (rituximab, hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone was administered. The protocol was changed to R-CHOP after 4 cycles due to recurrent grade III/IV cytopenias and febrile neutropenia. The PET-CT scans performed after chemotherapy and at the 6-month follow-up were normal. In summary, we reported a case with a diagnosis of Burkitt’s lymphoma, which is a rare type of primary thyroid lymphoma.

  3. Radiation Dose in the Thyroid and the Thyroid Cancer Risk Attributable to CT Scans for Pediatric Patients in One General Hospital of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Ping Su

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantify the radiation dose in the thyroid attributable to different CT scans and to estimate the thyroid cancer risk in pediatric patients. Methods: The information about pediatric patients who underwent CT scans was abstracted from the radiology information system in one general hospital between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2012. The radiation doses were calculated using the ImPACT Patient Dosimetry Calculator and the lifetime attributable risk (LAR of thyroid cancer incidence was estimated based on the National Academies Biologic Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII model. Results: The subjects comprised 922 children, 68% were males, and received 971 CT scans. The range of typical radiation dose to the thyroid was estimated to be 0.61–0.92 mGy for paranasal sinus CT scans, 1.10–2.45 mGy for head CT scans, and 2.63–5.76 mGy for chest CT scans. The LAR of thyroid cancer were as follows: for head CT, 1.1 per 100,000 for boys and 8.7 per 100,000 for girls; for paranasal sinus CT scans, 0.4 per 100,000 for boys and 2.7 per 100,000 for girls; for chest CT scans, 2.2 per 100,000 for boys and 14.2 per 100,000 for girls. The risk of thyroid cancer was substantially higher for girls than for the boys, and from chest CT scans was higher than that from head or paransal sinus CT scans. Conclusions: Chest CT scans caused higher thyroid dose and the LAR of thyroid cancer incidence, compared with paransal sinus or head CT scans. Therefore, physicians should pay more attention to protect the thyroid when children underwent CT scans, especially chest CT scans.

  4. Thyroid associated orbitopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Maheshwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid associated orbitopathy, also known as Graves′ orbitopathy, is typically a self-limiting autoimmune process associated with dysthyroid states. The clinical presentation may vary from very mild disease to severe irreversible sight-threatening complications. Despite ongoing basic science and clinical research, the pathogenesis and highly effective therapeutic strategies remain elusive. The present article reviews the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of this common, yet poorly understood disease, which remains a challenge to the ophthalmologist.

  5. Tubercular thyroid abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Awanish; Pahwa, Harvinder Singh; Srivastava, Rohit; Khan, Khursheed Alam

    2013-01-01

    We encountered a patient who presented with neck swelling, difficulty in swallowing, voice change along with systemic features such as evening rise of temperature, chronic cough and weight loss. Ultrasonography of the thyroid gland revealed two cystic swellings. An ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology was suggestive of tubercular abscess. The patient responded well to antigravity aspiration of the swellings and antitubercular treatment. PMID:23814203

  6. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... possible to obtain very detailed pictures of the heart and blood vessels in children, even newborn infants. ... have, and if there is a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. ...

  7. Kinetics of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of thyroid hormones were outlined, and recent progress in metabolism of these hormones was also described. Recently, not only T4 and T3 but also rT3, 3,3'-T2, 3',5'-T2, and 3,5-T2 can be measured by RIA. To clarify metabolic pathways of these hormones, metabolic clearance rate and production rate of these hormones were calculated. As single-compartment analysis was insufficient to clarify disappearance curves of thyroid hormones in blood such as T3 and T2 of which metabolic speed was so fast, multi-compartment analysis or non-compartment analysis were also performed. Thyroid hormones seemed to be measured more precisely by constant infusion method. At the first step of T4 metabolism, T3 was formed by 5'-monodeiodination of T4, and rT3 was formed by 5-monodeiodination of T4. As metabolic pathways of T3 and rT3, conversion of them to 3,3'-T2 or to 3',5'-T2 and 3,5-T2 was supposed. This subject will be an interesting research theme in future. (Tsunoda, M.)

  8. Diagnosis, surgical treatment and follow-up of thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the activities and the results of the research carried out by the Centers participating to the JSP4 project, within the framework of the EU program on the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. The project was aimed to develop and to control the application of basic principles for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of thyroid carcinoma, with special attention to the peculiar requirement of children and adolescents. To this purpose, training in Western European Centers was offered to a number of scientists from Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. Several official meetings were organized to share views and to discuss the progress of the project. A basic protocol for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of thyroid carcinoma has been developed and approved by all participating Centers. Hopefully, it will be applied to the new cases and to those already under monitoring. A large part of the protocol is dedicated to the post-surgical treatment with thyroid hormones for the suppression of TSH and with calcitriol for the management of surgical hypoparathyroidism. A detailed protocol to asses iodine deficiency and, eventually, to introduce a program of iodine supplementation has been proposed. The collection of control cases of childhood thyroid carcinoma in non-radiation exposed European countries has been initiated in Italy, France and Germany. This data will be used as control for the post-Chernobyl childhood thyroid carcinomas. Here is reported a preliminary comparison of the clinical and epidemiological features of almost all (n=368) radiation-exposed Belarus children who developed thyroid carcinoma (age at diagnosis < 16 years), with respect to 90 children of the same age group, who, in the past 20 years, have received treatment for thyroid carcinoma in two centers in Italy (Pisa and Rome). Finally, by molecular biology, genetic mutations of the RET proto-oncogene have been found in several samples of thyroid carcinomas provided by the Belarus

  9. Radio-in-vitro thyroid studies in newborn and children up to 14 years of age in consideration of present diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 630 children from newborn age to 14 years, T3, T4, T3 uptake, reverse T3 (RT3) and TSH were determined by nuclear methods, and the overall balance of the free iodine hormone indices and the quotients T4:T3, RT3:T4 and RT3:T3 were calculated on this basis. There was a typical modification with age of these parameters which was most pronounced during the first 24 months of age. Induced by TSH secretion, which is very high in the postpartal stage and then decreases continuously, the primarily subnormal T4 level increases by 60% in the first month of age and then goes back to normal after two months. The RT3 levels changed inversely. The T3 uptake increased to constant, normal levels within a 4-week period while the overall balance of the free iodine hormone indices reaches its peak after 4 weeks and the goes back to normal. Diseases cause characteristic changes in the hormone pattern. The central role of the liver in the peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 or RT3 was confirmed. The increasing RT3 level, which is correlated with a decreasing T3 level, is a significant factor in many diseases; it is also a suitable parameter for screening newborns for hypothyreosis. (orig./MG)

  10. Association of Socioeconomic Status with Anthropometric Measures and Blood Pressure in a Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adoles-cents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin HESHMAT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of Socioeconomic Status (SES with anthropometric measures and BP in Iranian children and adolescents.Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2011-2012 among 14,880 students, aged 6-18 years, selected by multistage, cluster-sampling method from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces of Iran. Anthropometric indexes and BP were measured by standard protocols and with calibrated instruments. SES was estimated based on family assets and parents’ job and education using principle component analysis method. SES was considered as “low”, “intermediate” and “high” in the statistical analysis.Results: Overall, 13486 children and adolescents out of 14,880 invited students (response rate 90.6% participated in this study. They consisted of 50.8% boys, 75.6% urban residents, with a mean age of 12.47 ±3.36 years. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity and also mean of all anthropometric measures increased linearly with increasing SES. Inversely, underweight decreased linearly with increasing SES. Association of BP measures with SES was not statistically significant. After adjustment for potential confounders, association of anthropometric measures and BP with SES did not change significantly.Conclusion: We found that obesity, overweight and abdominal obesity was prevalent in high SES group and underweight in low SES group. Our findings serve as confirmatory evidence that contrary to developed countries, in developing countries childhood obesity is more prevalent in families with higher SES. Keywords: Anthropometric measures, Blood pressure, Socio-economic status, Children and adolescents, Iran

  11. Association of junk food consumption with high blood pressure and obesity in Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV Study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the association of junk food consumption with hypertension and obesity in a national sample of Iranian children and adolescents. METHODS: This nationwide study was conducted in 2011-2012 among 14,880 students, aged 6-18 years, selected by cluster sampling from 30 provinces. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were m...

  12. DNA Methylation in Thyroid Tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer with 1,690 deaths each year. There are four main types of which the papillary and follicular types together account for >90% followed by medullary cancers with 3% to 5% and anaplastic carcinomas making up <3%. Epigenetic events of DNA hypermethylation are emerging as promising molecular targets for cancer detection. Our immediate and long term goal is to identify DNA methylation markers for early detection of thyroid cancer. This pilot study comprised of 21 patients to include 11 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC), 2 follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), 5 normal thyroid cases, and 3 hyperthyroid cases. Aberrant promoter methylation was examined in 24 tumor suppressor genes using the methylation specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) assay and in the NIS gene using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). The frequently methylated genes were CASP8 (17/21), RASSF1 (16/21) and NIS (9/21). In the normal samples, CASP8, RASSF1 and NIS were methylated in 5/5, 4/5 and 1/5 respectively. In the hyperthyroid samples, CASP8, RASSF1 and NIS were methylated in 3/3, 2/3 and 1/3 respectively. In the thyroid cancers, CASP8, RASSF1, and NIS were methylated in 9/13, 10/13, and 7/13 respectively. CASP8, RASSF1 and NIS were also methylated in concurrently present normal thyroid tissue in 3/11, 4/11 and 3/11 matched thyroid cancer cases (matched for presence of both normal thyroid tissue and thyroid cancer), respectively. Our data suggests that aberrant methylation of CASP8, RASSF1, and NIS maybe an early change in thyroid tumorigenesis regardless of cell type

  13. Thyroid neoplasia following radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHenry, C.; Jarosz, H.; Calandra, D.; McCall, A.; Lawrence, A.M.; Paloyan, E.

    1987-06-01

    The question of thyroid neoplasia following high-dose radiation treatment to the neck and mediastinum for malignant neoplasms such as Hodgkin's lymphoma in children and young adults has been raised recently. Five patients, 19 to 39 years old, were operated on for thyroid neoplasms that developed following cervical and mediastinal radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. Three patients had papillary carcinomas and two had follicular adenomas. The latency period between radiation exposure and the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm ranged from eight to 16 years. This limited series provided strong support for the recommendation that children and young adults who are to receive high-dose radiation therapy to the head, neck, and mediastinum should receive suppressive doses of thyroxine prior to radiation therapy in order to suppress thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone) and then be maintained on a regimen of suppression permanently.

  14. Thyroid hormone therapy following the thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medication with thyroid hormones following total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma is based on the following principles: 1. The patient is informed about the lifelong necessity of taking a thyroid hormones daily before breakfast. This hormone must be given orally and its bioligical effect is identical with that of the tyhroid hormone secreted by the healthy thyroid gland. 2. The daily dosage of thyroid hormones may be assessed on the basis of the following parameters: a) the patient's clinical euthyroidism, b) suppression of thyrotropic activity, c) unrestricted tolerance of the preparation. 3. The in vitro parameters associated with optimal medication should be within the following ranges: Thyroxine value (TT4 or FT4): above the normal range, triiodothyronine value (TT3 or FT3): within the upper normal range and thyrotropin value (TSH 'ultrasensitive' or TRH-test): suppressed. (orig.)

  15. RET rearrangement: toward a molecular genetic definition of tumor-inducing radiation effects in the thyroid gland after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular genetic analyses of thyroid carcinomas in children exposed to radioactive fallout after Chernobyl revealed a complete lack of mutational activation of H-, K- or N-RAS or of a mutational inactivation of P53. However, a high prevalence of RET rearrangements was found. ELE/RET rearrangements of the RET/PTC3 type were preferentially observed suggesting that this paracentric inversion at chromosome 10 represents a typical form of genetic lesion in thyroid tumors of children after Chernobyl. (orig.)

  16. Measurement of thyroids indicators in nearest areas to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of T4 hormone and the frequency of thyroid enlargement were evaluated in five groups formed with 3033 children from 421 locations with different levels of Cs-137 surface contamination. The only difference among groups is the increase of the thyroid enlargement frequency from less contaminated locations to more contaminated at the time of the accident. Other significant findings in studied cases were: high levels of T4 (18%), normal levels of TSH (99.3%), thyroid enlargement (61%, around 90% of which are 1A or 1B grade). (authors). 3 refs., 6 tabs

  17. Sonographic evaluation of children with congenital hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise de Almeida Sedassari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective:To establish benchmarks and study some sonographic characteristics of the thyroid gland in a group of euthyroid children aged up to 5 years as compared with age-matched children with congenital hypothyroidism.Materials and Methods:Thirty-six children (17 female and 19 male aged between 2 months and 5 years were divided into two groups – 23 euthyroid children and 13 children with congenital hypothyroidism – and were called to undergo ultrasonography.Results:In the group of euthyroid children (n = 23, mean total volume of the thyroid gland was 1.12 mL (minimum, 0.39 mL; maximum, 2.72 mL; a homogeneous gland was found in 17 children (73.91% and 6 children (26.08% had a heterogeneous gland. In the group of children with congenital hypothyroidism (n = 13, mean total volume of the thyroid gland was 2.73 mL (minimum, 0.20 mL; maximum, 11.00 mL. As regards thyroid location, 3 patients (23.07% had ectopic thyroid, and 10 (69.23% had topic thyroid, and out of the latter, 5 had a homogeneous gland (50% and 5, a heterogeneous gland (50%. In the group with congenital hypothyroidism, 6 (46.15% children had etiological diagnosis of dyshormoniogenesis, 3 (23.07%, of ectopic thyroid, and 4 (30.76%, of thyroid hypoplasia.Conclusion:Thyroid ultrasonography is a noninvasive imaging method, widely available, easy to perform and for these reasons could, and should, be performed at any time, including at birth, with no preparation or treatment discontinuation, to aid in the early etiological definition of congenital hypothyroidism.

  18. Additional thyroid dose factor from transportation sources in Russia after the Chernobyl disaster.

    OpenAIRE

    Parshkov, E M; Chebotareva, I V; V.A. Sokolov; Dallas, C E

    1997-01-01

    Beginning approximately 4 years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident a steady increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer was observed in children and adolescents of the Bryansk Oblast, which received the highest level of radionuclide contaminants in Russia. We examined the spatial relationship between the residence location of patients with identified thyroid cancer (0-18 years old at the time of the accident) and a number of geographic parameters to better account for the etiology of thyroi...

  19. Scintigraphic visualization of 'Blocking' thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An important problem in nuclear endocrinology is 'blocking' of thyroid gland, which necessitates postpone of the investigation, adverse clinical effect of stopping medications and a delay of making diagnosis. The aim of the study was to introduce and to determine the clinical value of the scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI in patients (Pts) with 'blocked thyroid'. In 365 Pts (aged 38-75 years), indicated for a thyroid scintigraphy after proper preparation, an investigation was performed with 74 MBq 99mTc-pertechnetate, 20 min. p.i. In 14 of them (3.8%), the thyroid was 'blocked' and additional scintigraphy was done with 370-555 MBq 99mTc-MIBI, 15 and 120 min.p.i. It was estimated that in all Pts there was a visualization of thyroid. In 1 of them, a large 'hot' nodule was visualized in the early and late image. Later on a differentiated thyroid carcinoma was proved histologically. In the rest of the patients 'cold' nodules with different size were visualized, eventually as a result of cysts. As a conclusion we consider, that a scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI is a useful tool in Pts with 'blocked' thyroid. In addition an evaluation of the thyroid nodule could be done and therefore- a recommendation for therapy

  20. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... look for the gene mutations found in familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Because of this, most of the familial cases of MTC can be prevented or treated early by removing the thyroid gland. Once the disease is discovered in a family, the rest of ...

  1. 儿童白癜风与甲状腺功能指标异常及其他免疫性疾病的关系%Abnormality of parameters of thyroid function and incidence of autoimmune diseases in children with vitiligo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芸; 骆肖群; 傅雯雯

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨儿童白癜风与甲状腺功能指标异常及其他免疫性疾病的关系.方法 对363例白癜风儿童(男198例,女165例)和93例对照儿童(男55例,女38例)进行甲状腺功能指标的检查.结果 363例白癜风儿童中有43例(11.8%)儿童有不同程度的甲状腺功能指标的异常,93例对照组正常儿童中有4例儿童甲状腺功能指标异常,两者比较差异有统计学意义.白癜风儿童甲状腺功能指标异常发生率明显增高(P<0.05).而43例甲状腺功能异常的白癜风儿童中,寻常型白癜风儿童为39例(13.6%),节段型白癜风儿童为4例(5.3%),寻常型比节段型白癜风儿童甲状腺功能指标异常发生率有明显增高(P<0.05).结论 儿童寻常型白癜风患者的甲状腺功能指标异常的发生率明显增高.%Objective To investigate the abnormality of parameters of thyroid function and incidence of autoimmune diseases in children with vitiligo.Methods A total of 363 children with vitiligo,including 198 males and 165 females were recruited into this study together with 93 normal human controls(55 males and 38 females).The serum levels of free tetraiodothyronine,free triiodothyronine,thyroid stimulating hormone,antithyroperoxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassay in these subiects.Results The abnormality of parameters of thyroid function was observed in 43 out of 363(11.8%)patients affected by vitiligo and in 4 out of 93(4.3%)normal human controls;a significant difference was observed between the two groups (P<0.05).Of the 43 patients wim abnormality of parameters of thyroid function,39 were diagnosed as vitiligo vulgaris,4 as segmental vitiligo.A significant increase Was observed in the incidence of abnormality of parameters of thyroid function in patients with vitiligo vulgaris compared with those with segmental vitiligo(P<0.05).Conclusion There is an increase in tbe abnormality of parameters of thyroid

  2. Influence of excessive iodine intake on the thyroid function and spectrum of thyroid abnormalities in population of Turinsk, Sverdlovsk Region, of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Vasil'evich Kiyaev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background.Previous surveys showed chronic iodine excess - median urinary iodine concentration (UIC over 500 mcg/l — supposedly due to water contamination in population of Turinsk, a town in Sverdlovsk Region of Russia.Aim.Conduct an assessment of the effects of chronic iodine excess on thyroid function and spectrum of thyroid abnormalities in schoolchildren and adults.Materials and methods.Assessment was conducted in 100 schoolchildren and 100 adults residing in Turinsk and 97 schoolchildren and 100 adults in the control site (city of Pervouralsk with optimal UIC. Assessment included thyroid ultrasonogrpahy, urinary iodine and dry spot TSH in schoolchildren and TSH and TPO-ab in adults. Iodine was also measured in random water samples from 10 households in Turinsk.Results.Median UIC in schoolchildren in Turinsk (719 mcg/l was significantly higher (129 mcg/l than in Pervouralsk resulting in higher prevalence of thyroid enlargement and TSH level. In adults TSH level as well as prevalence of sub-clinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis were higher in residents of Turinsk compared to control group from Pervouralsk.Conclusions.Iodine excess alters thyroid function in schoolchildren and adults increasing prevalence of thyroid enlargement in children and autoimmune thyroidis in adults.

  3. Probable consequence of damage by radio-active iodine of thyroid gland in the period of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important peculiarity of the Chernobyl catastrophe is the discharge into the atmosphere of tremendous amount of radioactive iodine and, as a result, selective damage of the thyroid in children from the affected areas. The most dangerous consequence is the thyroid cancer. The analysis of the situation when children's thyroids were subjected to irradiation shows that tumors can most frequently develop as late as 20-30 years after irradiation. There are reasons to believe that tumors are induced by low dose of irradiation. Refs. 31, figs. 3, tabs. 1

  4. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. 131I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  5. IV treatment at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 24 hours a day. If there is a problem with the IV, you can call your home health care agency for help. If the IV comes out of ... bleeding stops. Then call the home health care agency or the doctor right away.

  6. Sonographic Elastography of the Thyroid Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzilcioglu, Mehmet Sait; Duymus, Mahmut; Avcu, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Summary Thyroid gland disorders include benign and malignant thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid disorders. The incidence of malignant thyroid nodules is low and the prognosis is good. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer and diffuse parenchymal disorders is generally based on clinical manifestations and histopathological evaluation. Ultrasonography has its place in the diagnostics and follow-up of thyroid disorders. Ultrasonographic elastography is a new, developing method that shows increase in clinical practice. In this study, we aimed to review the data on thyroid ultrasound elastography. PMID:27103947

  7. Thyroid ultrasonography consistently identifies goiter in adults over the age of 30 years despite a diminished response with aging of the thyroid gland to the effects of goitrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmbhatt, S R; Brahmbhatt, R M; Eastman, C J; Boyages, S C

    2001-07-17

    Iodine deficiency is a national health problem in India and we have recently reported on the severity of IDD in adults and children in Gujarat province. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of thyroid ultrasonography to detect goiter in adults from an iodine-deficient population of Gujarat. We studied 472 adults selected by random household surveys. Data were collected on height, body weight, mid-upper arm circumference, thigh circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, thyroid size (palpation and ultrasonography), and diet. Casual urine samples for iodine (UI) and blood spots for TSH estimation were obtained. Endemic goiter is a major public health problem in Gujarat State, India and is probably caused by multiple factors including iodine deficiency, malnutrition, and other dietary goitrogens. These results indicate that thyroid US consistently detects goiter in adults despite a diminished thyroidal response to variable goitrogenic stimuli. PMID:12806080

  8. Thyroid Ultrasonography Consistently Identifies Goiter in Adults Over the Age of 30 Years Despite a Diminished Response with Aging of the Thyroid Gland to the Effects of Goitrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela R. Brahmbhatt

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency is a national health problem in India and we have recently reported on the severity of IDD in adults and children in Gujarat province. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of thyroid ultrasonography to detect goiter in adults from an iodine-deficient population of Gujarat. We studied 472 adults selected by random household surveys. Data were collected on height, body weight, mid-upper arm circumference, thigh circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, thyroid size (palpation and ultrasonography, and diet. Casual urine samples for iodine (UI and blood spots for TSH estimation were obtained. Endemic goiter is a major public health problem in Gujarat State, India and is probably caused by multiple factors including iodine deficiency, malnutrition, and other dietary goitrogens. These results indicate that thyroid US consistently detects goiter in adults despite a diminished thyroidal response to variable goitrogenic stimuli.

  9. Etiopathogenetic factors, thyroid functions and thyroid autoimmunity in melasma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Nimet; Kılıç, Arzu; Koparal, Suha; Artüz, Ferda; Çakmak, Atıl; Köse, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Melasma is a common chronic, acquired pigmentation disorder with a significant impact on the quality of life of patients. Aim To investigate the etiopathogenetic factors, thyroid functions and thyroid autoimmunity in patients with melasma. Material and methods Forty-five women with melasma and 45 age-matched healthy women were included in the study group. A detailed history was taken from the patients including triggering factors of melasma. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroglobulin (AbTG) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (Ab-TPO) were measured and thyroid ultrasonography was performed for each subject. Results In 26.7% of patients, pregnancy, in 17.8%, oral contraceptive use and in 13.3%, intense sunlight exposure were the triggering factors. 17.8% of patients had a family history of melasma. FT4, TSH and AbTG levels were significantly higher in the patient group. Conclusions The results suggest that a combination of factors including pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, sunlight and genetic factors often trigger melasma. Thyroid hormones and thyroid autoimmunity may also play a role in the pathogenesis which needs to be proven by further studies. PMID:26759539

  10. Thyroid Ultrasound Pitfalls: Esophageal Fibrovascular Polyp Mimicking Thyroid Nodule

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    Anna Ansaloni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ultrasound (US is the most accurate tool in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules if performed by expert physician. Misdiagnosis due to extrathyroidal lesions mimicking thyroid nodules is reported in literature. We describe the first case of an esophageal fibrovascular polyp misdiagnosed as a thyroid nodule on US examination. Patient Findings. A 54-year-old woman presented to emergency department for headache and underwent carotid Doppler extended to neck ultrasound with incidental finding of a nodule in the posterior side of the left thyroid lobe. A following thyroid US performed by an endocrinologist allowed the characterization of the lesion as an esophageal pathology, considering the extrathyroidal position, the typical peripheral hyperechoic spots and hypoechoic rim, the connection to the esophagus, and the swallowing connected movement. The patient was addressed to further investigations and finally to anterior pharyngotomy with histological diagnosis of esophageal fibrovascular polyp. Summary. Differential diagnosis between thyroid nodules and other neck lesions is important to prevent an unnecessary fine needle aspiration biopsy and to treat the extrathyroidal pathology. In this case, an US performed by an expert endocrinologist allowed detecting an esophageal fibrovascular polyp requiring surgical removal. In conclusion, the possibility of an esophageal pathology, and even fibrovascular polyp, should be considered during US thyroid examination.

  11. Thyroid diseases and Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A Raza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the month of Ramadan, patients with thyroid diseases, most of the time, do not need treatment adjustments and can fast safely without any health hazards. Patients with hypothyroidism taking thyroxine can take their tablets on an empty stomach at bedtime instead of half an hour before Sehr. Patients with hyperthyroidism, on methimazole/carbimazole can continue their dose in once or twice daily regimes, while those on propylthiouracil need to be switched. Hyperthyroid patients with severe symptoms should start treatment immediately and can avoid fast for few days after a consultation with their religious scholar.

  12. Diagnosis of thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recommendations of the thyroid section of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Endokrinologie take account mostly of practical diagnostic aspects; they will form a framework for a precise indication of various diagnostic procedures, taking into account the diagnostic value and necessity as well as expenditure and risk. Methodological progress was taken into account as well as recent scientific findings, economic aspects, and available possibilities. Experience and precise knowledge can help to 'save radiation and money'. Of course, nuclear diagnosis and atypical findings will lead to a wider use of diagnostic means than a diagnosis that is more or less clinically assured. (orig./MG) 891 MG/orig.- 892 MKO

  13. Radioiodine and thyroid gland

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    Takavar A

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of a precise amount of activity in thyroid gland radioiodine (¹³¹I therapy is of prime importance. Several methods for this purpose have been suggested and used over many years. In this paper, a method for required ¹³¹I activity calculation for each case has been proposed. Major factors affecting ¹³¹I calculation such as gland volume, integral dose, and prescription index have been described. Using the method, ¹³¹I activity or any other radioisotope activity required for a certain case can be determined with a good estimate.

  14. Thyroid and parathyroid gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950261 Humoral autoimmunity in endocrine ophthal-mopathy.TANG Zhengyi(汤正义),et al.Shanghai En-docrinol Res Instit,Shanghai 2nd Med Univ,Shang-hai,200025.Chin J Endorinol & Metabol 1994;10(5)151-153.The crude antigens of the cell membrane and cyto-plasm of the thyroid,eye muscles and periobital con-nective tissues and cell membrane crude antigens of theskeletal muscle,and liver were subjected to SDS-PAGE,then immunoblotting with the sera of the pa-

  15. Weight disorders and anthropometric indices according to socioeconomic status of living place in Iranian children and adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreynian, Maryam; Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kasaeian, Amir; Ardalan, Gelayol; Rad, Tahereh Arefi; Najafi, Fereshteh; Asayesh, Hamid; Heshmat, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Excess weight in children and adolescents is a multi-factorial phenomenon and associated with earlier risk of obesity-related diseases. This study aims to assess the prevalence of weight disorders and the mean values of anthropometric indices according to regional, socioeconomic, and urban-rural variations among Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This nationwide study was performed in 2011-2012 among a representative multi-stage cluster sample of 14,880 Iranian students aged 6-8 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) reference curves were used to define weight disorders. Abdominal obesity was defined as the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) of more than 0.5. Iran was classified into four regions according to the socioeconomic status (SES). Results: The mean (95% confidence interval) of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) was 18.8 (18.7, 18.9) kg/m2, 67.0 (66.7, 67.3) cm, and 80.8 (80.3, 81.2) cm, respectively. The prevalence of underweight was 12.2%. A total of 9.7%, 11.9%, and 19.1% of students overweight, obese, and abdominally obese, respectively. The highest mean of BMI, WC, wrist circumference, HC, and WHtR were related to the second high SES (North-northeast) area (19.2 [18.8, 19.5], 68.3 [67.3, 69.4], 14.8 [14.7, 15.0], 82.6 [81.1, 84.0], and 0.464 [0.460, 0.468]). In contrast, the lowest SES (Southeast) region had the lowest mean of these anthropometric indices (17.6 [17.1, 18.2], 63.2 [61.7, 64.8], 14.5 [14.2, 14.8], 76.9 [74.9, 79.0], and 0.439 [0.434, 0.444]). Conclusion: We found considerable differences in the prevalence of anthropometric measures throughout the country by SES of the region. Health policy making and implementing health strategies should consider SES of regions. PMID:26487872

  16. Weight disorders and anthropometric indices according to socioeconomic status of living place in Iranian children and adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bahreynian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess weight in children and adolescents is a multi-factorial phenomenon and associated with earlier risk of obesity-related diseases. This study aims to assess the prevalence of weight disorders and the mean values of anthropometric indices according to regional, socioeconomic, and urban-rural variations among Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This nationwide study was performed in 2011-2012 among a representative multi-stage cluster sample of 14,880 Iranian students aged 6-8 years. The World Health Organization (WHO reference curves were used to define weight disorders. Abdominal obesity was defined as the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR of more than 0.5. Iran was classified into four regions according to the socioeconomic status (SES. Results: The mean (95% confidence interval of body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and hip circumference (HC was 18.8 (18.7, 18.9 kg/m 2 , 67.0 (66.7, 67.3 cm, and 80.8 (80.3, 81.2 cm, respectively. The prevalence of underweight was 12.2%. A total of 9.7%, 11.9%, and 19.1% of students overweight, obese, and abdominally obese, respectively. The highest mean of BMI, WC, wrist circumference, HC, and WHtR were related to the second high SES (North-northeast area (19.2 [18.8, 19.5], 68.3 [67.3, 69.4], 14.8 [14.7, 15.0], 82.6 [81.1, 84.0], and 0.464 [0.460, 0.468]. In contrast, the lowest SES (Southeast region had the lowest mean of these anthropometric indices (17.6 [17.1, 18.2], 63.2 [61.7, 64.8], 14.5 [14.2, 14.8], 76.9 [74.9, 79.0], and 0.439 [0.434, 0.444]. Conclusion: We found considerable differences in the prevalence of anthropometric measures throughout the country by SES of the region. Health policy making and implementing health strategies should consider SES of regions.

  17. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography for Primary Thyroid Cancer: Correlation with the Clinical, Pathologic and Sonographic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We wanted to investigate the incidence and the clinicopathologic and sonographic characteristics of thyroid cancers that exhibit positive PET scans. From January 2007 to February 2008, 156 patients with thyroid cancer underwent both sonography and FDG-PET for the purpose of staging the cancer. We conducted a retrospective review of their clinical, radiologic and pathologic records and we evaluated the incidence of PET-positive thyroid cancer, as well as the associated clinicopathologic aggressiveness and the sonographic features. The incidence of PET-positive thyroid carcinoma was 78.2% (122/156). On univariate analysis, PET-positive thyroid cancer was significantly associated with tumor size, extracapsular invasion and central lymph node metastasis, but there was no association between the sonographic features of the thyroid cancer or the sonographic features of the 2 groups of tumor (1. probably benign and 2. suspicious for malignancy) and the FDG uptake. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between PET positivity and both extrathyroidal extension and a higher cancer stage (III/IV) (p < 0.05). The incidence of PET positive thyroid carcinoma is high (78.2%) and PET positivity is significantly associated with tumor size, extracapsular extension and a higher stage. However, there is no significant association between PET positivity and the sonographic features of thyroid carcinoma

  18. Thyroid gland pigmentation and minocycline therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, G.; Sparano, B. M.; Kramer, A.W.; Kelly, R. G.; Iatropoulos, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Thyroid pigments in black thyroid glands from minocycline-treated patients were compared by light and electron microscopy, histochemistry, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis with minocycline-induced pigment in thyroid glands of laboratory animals, and with naturally occurring lipofuscins in untreated laboratory animals and humans. All thyroid samples examined contained nonbirefringent, Schmorl-positive pigment. However, the pigments in black thyroids from minocycline-treated patients resemb...

  19. Epitope recognition patterns of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies in healthy individuals and patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus H; Brix, Thomas H; Gardas, Andrzej;

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) are markers of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), including Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), but naturally occurring TPOAb are also detectable in healthy, euthyroid individuals. In AITD, circulating TPOAb react mainly with two immunodominant regions (IDR), IDR...

  20. Dual thyroid ectopia-role of thyroid scintigraphy and neck ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) is a rare developmental anomaly of the thyroid tissue where the thyroid gland is not located in its usual position. Dual thyroid ectopia is far rarer. This case of a 5-year-old euthyroid girl with thyroglossal cyst was planned for surgery. Presurgical ultrasonography (USG) of the neck followed by thyroid scintigraphy was performed. There was absent normal thyroid gland with single ETT in neck swelling on USG. However, thyroid scintigraphy revealed two ectopic foci of thyroid tissue; one was corresponding to neck swelling, and other was superior to it at the base of the tongue along with absent eutopic thyroid gland. The repeat neck USG could demonstrate the same. The present case emphasizes that, if the thyroid gland is not visible by USG; ETT should be evaluated with thyroid scintigraphy in case of thyroid dysgenesis