WorldWideScience

Sample records for children imaging findings

  1. Imaging Findings of Scrotal Tumors in Children: A Pictorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Hee [Kang-Dong Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jee Eun [Gachon University, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye [Sungkyunkwan University, Samsung Medical Center, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dal Mo [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The diagnosis of scrotal tumors in children can be challenging because of the rarity, vague symptoms, and varied imaging features of the tumors. The pathology and frequency of scrotal tumors that occur in children are different from tumors that arise in adults. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate the imaging findings of scrotal tumors in children with pathological correlations. In addition, we present the clinical manifestations that are valuable for a differential diagnosis. Familiarity with the imaging findings and clinical manifestations of pediatric scrotal tumors may be helpful in making an accurate diagnosis and providing proper patient management

  2. Primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dann, Phoebe H.; Amodio, John B.; Rivera, Rafael; Fefferman, Nancy R. [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York (United States)

    2005-02-01

    We report the imaging findings of two recent cases of primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children with a clinical presentation mimicking acute appendicitis. Primary bacterial peritonitis is rare in the absence of underlying systemic disease. Although it has been described in the pediatric literature, the imaging findings have not been described in the radiological literature to the best of our knowledge. With imaging playing an increasing role in the evaluation of appendicitis in children, it is important for the radiologist to be familiar with this inflammatory process. (orig.)

  3. Primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the imaging findings of two recent cases of primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children with a clinical presentation mimicking acute appendicitis. Primary bacterial peritonitis is rare in the absence of underlying systemic disease. Although it has been described in the pediatric literature, the imaging findings have not been described in the radiological literature to the best of our knowledge. With imaging playing an increasing role in the evaluation of appendicitis in children, it is important for the radiologist to be familiar with this inflammatory process. (orig.)

  4. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging findings in children with myocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Guiying; Yang Xi; Su Ying; Xu Jimin; Wen Zhaoying

    2014-01-01

    Background Myocarditis is a common,potentially life-threatening disease that presents a wide rang of symptoms in children,as an important underlying etiology of other myocardial diseases such as dilated and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.The incidence of nonfatal myocarditis is probably greater than that of the one actually diagnosed,which is the result of the challenges of establishing the diagnosis in standard clinical settings.Currently,no single clinical or imaging finding confirms the diagnosis of myocarditis with absolute certainty.Historically,clinical exam,electrocardiogram (ECG),serology and echocardiography had an unsatisfactory diagnostic accuracy in myocarditis.Endomyocardial biopsy remains as a widely accepted standard,but may not be suitable for every patient,especially for those with less severe disease.Our aim was to find the changes in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging of children with myocarditis diagnosed by clinical criteria.Methods We studied 25 children (18 male,7 female; aged from 5-17 years) with diagnosed myocarditis by clinical criteria.CMR included function analyses,T2-weighted imaging,T1-weighted imaging before and after i.v.gadolinium injection (early gadolinium enhancement (EGE) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)).Results The T2 ratio was elevated in 21 children (84%,11 in anterolateral (44%),5 in inferolateral (20%),and 5 in septum (20%)),EGE was present in 9 children (36%,3 in anterolateral (12%),4 in inferolateral (20%),and 2 in septum (8%)),and LGE was present in 5 children (20%,2 in anterolateral (8%),1 in inferolateral (4%),1 in septum (4%),and 1 in midwall of left ventricular (LV) wall).In 9 children (36%),two (or more) out of three sequences (T2,EGE,LGE) were abnormal.Conclusions The CMR findings in children with clinically diagnosed myocarditis vary within the groups,including regional or global myocardial signal increase in T2-weighted images,EGE and LGE in T1

  5. Imaging findings in children with proliferative disorders following multivisceral transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryhorczuk, Anastasia L. [Tufts Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Kim, Heung Bae [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Harris, Marian H.; Vargas, Sara O. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Zurakowski, David [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Departments of Radiology and Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Multivisceral transplantation represents an important treatment option for children with intestinal failure. The attendant immunosuppression can lead to a spectrum of cellular proliferations including benign and malignant smooth muscle tumors and lymphoproliferative disorders, many related to cellular dysregulation from Epstein-Barr virus infection. The purpose of this study is to investigate the rates of post-transplantation proliferative disorders among children with multivisceral transplantation and to characterize the imaging and pathological features of these disorders. We identified all consecutive children who underwent multivisceral transplant from August 2004 to October 2011 with at least 27 months of clinical and imaging follow-up. We reviewed medical records to determine the underlying causes of the multivisceral transplant, age at transplantation, onset of neoplasm development, and outcome. Two pediatric radiologists reviewed all imaging studies independently and diagnosis of disease was made by consensus interpretation. Pathological specimens were reviewed for histopathological findings of post-transplantation neoplasm in this pediatric patient population. The study population consisted of 14 consecutive pediatric patients (7 boys and 7 girls; mean age 26 months, range 4-113 months). Of these 14 children, 4 (29%) developed histologically confirmed post-transplant neoplasms at a mean time of 2.4 years after multivisceral transplantation. Types of neoplasms included post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in three (21%) and Epstein-Barr-virus-associated smooth muscle tumor in two (14%). (One child developed both neoplasms following transplantation). Both children with smooth muscle tumor associated with Epstein-Barr virus presented with characteristic hypointense solid masses with peripheral rim enhancement on cross-sectional imaging studies. The mortality rate of children who developed post-transplant neoplasms was higher than that of those

  6. Imaging findings in children with proliferative disorders following multivisceral transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multivisceral transplantation represents an important treatment option for children with intestinal failure. The attendant immunosuppression can lead to a spectrum of cellular proliferations including benign and malignant smooth muscle tumors and lymphoproliferative disorders, many related to cellular dysregulation from Epstein-Barr virus infection. The purpose of this study is to investigate the rates of post-transplantation proliferative disorders among children with multivisceral transplantation and to characterize the imaging and pathological features of these disorders. We identified all consecutive children who underwent multivisceral transplant from August 2004 to October 2011 with at least 27 months of clinical and imaging follow-up. We reviewed medical records to determine the underlying causes of the multivisceral transplant, age at transplantation, onset of neoplasm development, and outcome. Two pediatric radiologists reviewed all imaging studies independently and diagnosis of disease was made by consensus interpretation. Pathological specimens were reviewed for histopathological findings of post-transplantation neoplasm in this pediatric patient population. The study population consisted of 14 consecutive pediatric patients (7 boys and 7 girls; mean age 26 months, range 4-113 months). Of these 14 children, 4 (29%) developed histologically confirmed post-transplant neoplasms at a mean time of 2.4 years after multivisceral transplantation. Types of neoplasms included post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in three (21%) and Epstein-Barr-virus-associated smooth muscle tumor in two (14%). (One child developed both neoplasms following transplantation). Both children with smooth muscle tumor associated with Epstein-Barr virus presented with characteristic hypointense solid masses with peripheral rim enhancement on cross-sectional imaging studies. The mortality rate of children who developed post-transplant neoplasms was higher than that of those

  7. Methylmalonic acidemia: brain imaging findings in 52 children and a review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radmanesh, Alireza [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Zaman, Talieh [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Metabolic Disorders, Tehran (Iran); Ghanaati, Hossein [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Tehran (Iran); Molaei, Sanaz [Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Tehran (Iran); Robertson, Richard L. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Zamani, Amir A. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is an autosomal-recessive inborn error of metabolism. To recognize the CT and MR brain sectional imaging findings in children with MMA. Brain imaging studies (47 MR and 5 CT studies) from 52 children were reviewed and reported by a neuroradiologist. The clinical data were collected for each patient. The most common findings were ventricular dilation (17 studies), cortical atrophy (15), periventricular white matter abnormality (12), thinning of the corpus callosum (8), subcortical white matter abnormality (6), cerebellar atrophy (4), basal ganglionic calcification (3), and myelination delay (3). The brain images in 14 patients were normal. Radiological findings of MMA are nonspecific. A constellation of common clinical and radiological findings should raise the suspicion of MMA. (orig.)

  8. Methylmalonic acidemia: brain imaging findings in 52 children and a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is an autosomal-recessive inborn error of metabolism. To recognize the CT and MR brain sectional imaging findings in children with MMA. Brain imaging studies (47 MR and 5 CT studies) from 52 children were reviewed and reported by a neuroradiologist. The clinical data were collected for each patient. The most common findings were ventricular dilation (17 studies), cortical atrophy (15), periventricular white matter abnormality (12), thinning of the corpus callosum (8), subcortical white matter abnormality (6), cerebellar atrophy (4), basal ganglionic calcification (3), and myelination delay (3). The brain images in 14 patients were normal. Radiological findings of MMA are nonspecific. A constellation of common clinical and radiological findings should raise the suspicion of MMA. (orig.)

  9. Non-cardiovascular findings in clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadimi Mahani, Maryam [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Morani, Ajaykumar C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Lu, Jimmy C.; Dorfman, Adam L. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Providence Hospital and Medical Centers, Department of Graduate Medical Education, Southfield, MI (United States); Jeph, Sunil [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Geisinger Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Danville, PA (United States); Agarwal, Prachi P. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-04-15

    With increasing use of pediatric cardiovascular MRI, it is important for all imagers to become familiar with the spectrum of non-cardiovascular imaging findings that can be encountered. This study aims to ascertain the prevalence and nature of these findings in pediatric cardiovascular MRIs performed at our institution. We retrospectively evaluated reports of all cardiovascular MRI studies performed at our institute from January 2008 to October 2012 in patients younger than18 years. Most studies (98%) were jointly interpreted by a pediatric cardiologist and a radiologist. We reviewed the electronic medical records of all cases with non-cardiovascular findings, defined as any imaging finding outside the cardiovascular system. Non-cardiovascular findings were classified into significant and non-significant, based on whether they were known at the time of imaging or they required additional workup or a change in management. In 849 consecutive studies (mean age 9.7 ± 6.3 years), 145 non-cardiovascular findings were found in 140 studies (16.5% of total studies). Overall, 51.0% (74/145) of non-cardiovascular findings were in the abdomen, 30.3% (44/145) were in the chest, and 18.6% (27/145) were in the spine. A total of 19 significant non-cardiovascular findings were observed in 19 studies in individual patients (2.2% of total studies, 47% male, mean age 5.9 ± 6.7 years). Significant non-cardiovascular findings included hepatic adenoma, arterially enhancing focal liver lesions, asplenia, solitary kidney, pelvicaliectasis, renal cystic diseases, gastric distention, adrenal hemorrhage, lung hypoplasia, air space disease, bronchial narrowing, pneumomediastinum and retained surgical sponge. Non-cardiovascular findings were seen in 16.5% of cardiovascular MRI studies in children, of which 2.2% were clinically significant findings. Prevalence and nature of these non-cardiovascular findings are different from those reported in adults. Attention to these findings is important

  10. Structural brain imaging in children and adolescents following prenatal cocaine exposure: preliminary longitudinal findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Nurunisa; Kekatpure, Minal V; Liu, Jie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Quinn, Brian T; Lala, Meenakshi D; Kennedy, David; Makris, Nikos; Lester, Barry M; Kosofsky, Barry E

    2014-01-01

    The brain morphometry of 21 children, who were followed from birth and underwent structural brain magnetic resonance imaging at 8-10 years, was studied. This cohort included 11 children with prenatal cocaine exposure (CE) and 10 noncocaine-exposed children (NCE). We compared the CE versus NCE groups using FreeSurfer to automatically segment and quantify the volume of individual brain structures. In addition, we created a pediatric atlas specifically for this population and demonstrate the enhanced accuracy of this approach. We found an overall trend towards smaller brain volumes among CE children. The volume differences were significant for cortical gray matter, the thalamus and the putamen. Here, reductions in thalamic and putaminal volumes showed a robust inverse correlation with exposure levels, thus highlighting effects on dopamine-rich brain regions that form key components of brain circuitry known to play important roles in behavior and attention. Interestingly, head circumferences (HCs) at birth as well as at the time of imaging showed a tendency for smaller size among CE children. HCs at the time of imaging correlated well with the cortical volumes for all subjects. In contrast, HCs at birth were predictive of the cortical volume only for the CE group. A subgroup of these subjects (6 CE, 4 NCE) was also scanned at 13-15 years of age. In subjects who were scanned twice, we found that the trend for smaller structures continued into teenage years. We found that the differences in structural volumes between the CE and NCE groups are largely diminished when the HCs are controlled for or matched by study design. Participants in this study were drawn from a unique longitudinal cohort and, while the small sample size precludes strong conclusions regarding the longitudinal findings reported, the results point to reductions in HCs and in specific brain structures that persist through teenage years in children who were exposed to cocaine in utero. PMID:24994509

  11. Neurostructural imaging findings in children with post-traumatic stress disorder: brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; de Araújo, Celia Maria; de Lacerda, Acioly Luiz Tavares; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Kaufman, Joan

    2009-02-01

    Child maltreatment has been associated with different psychiatric disorders. Studies on both animals and humans have suggested that some brain areas would be directly affected by severe psychological trauma. The pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to be related to a complex interaction involving genetic and environmental factors. Advanced neuroimaging techniques have been used to investigate neurofunctional and neurostructural abnormalities in children, adolescents, and adults with PTSD. This review examined structural brain imaging studies that were performed in abused and traumatized children, and discusses the possible biological mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of PTSD, the implications and future directions for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Published reports in refereed journals were reviewed by searching Medline and examining references of the articles related to structural neuroimaging of PTSD. Structural MRI studies have been performed in adults and children to evaluate the volumetric brain alterations in the PTSD population. In contrast with studies involving adults, in which hippocampus volumetric reduction was the most consistent finding, studies involving children and adolescents with PTSD have demonstrated smaller medial and posterior portions of the corpus callosum. PMID:19154207

  12. Postoperative imaging findings in children with auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplant (APOLT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyala, Rama S; Martinez, Mercedes; Lobritto, Steven J; Kato, Tomoaki; Ruzal-Shapiro, Carrie

    2016-07-01

    Auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplant (APOLT) is a treatment technique for people who have acute hepatic failure secondary to fulminant hepatic failure and might ultimately recover normal liver function. This surgical procedure is complicated, involving the placement of a liver graft while maintaining viability of the remaining native portion of the liver. This method allows the native liver to recover hepatic function, therefore eliminating the need for long-term immunosuppression, as is typically needed in post-transplant settings. Postoperative imaging in these cases can be challenging given the complex anatomy, specifically the vascular anastomosis. Therefore it is important for radiologists and clinicians to be aware of the anatomy as well as the variable imaging appearances of the liver. We review the imaging findings in children who have undergone auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplant (APOLT). PMID:26867605

  13. Imaging findings of the brain abnormalities in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of children during and after treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Joo; Lee, Seung Rho; Park, Dong Woo; Joo, Kyung Bin; Kim, Jang Wook; Hahm, Chang Kok; Kim, Ki Joong; Lee, Hahng [College of Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-01

    We evaluated the imaging abnormalities of the brain observed during and after treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia. The study group consisted of 30 patients (male : female=19 : 11 ; mean age, 64 months) with acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia during the previous ten-year period who had undergone prophylaxis of the central nervous system. Irrespective of the CNS symptoms, base-line study of the brain involving CT and follow-up CT or MRI was undertaken more than once. We retrospectively evaluated the imaging findings, methods of treatment, associated CNS symptoms, and the interval between diagnosis and the time at which brain abnormalities were revealed by imaging studies. In 15 (50% ; male : female=9 : 6 ; mean age, 77 months) of 30 patients, brain abnormalities that included brain atrophy (n=9), cerebral infarctions (n=4), intracranial hemorrhage (n=1), mineralizing microangiopathy (n=2), and periventricular leukomalacia (n=3) were seen on follow-up CT or MR images. In four of nine patients with brain atrophy, imaging abnormalities such as periventricular leukomalacia (n=2), infarction (n=1) and microangiopathy (n=1) were demonstrated. Fourteen of the 15 patients underwent similar treatment ; the one excluded had leukemic cells in the CSF. Six patients had CNS symptoms. In the 15 patients with abnormal brain imaging findings, the interval between diagnosis and the demonstration of brain abnormalities was between one month and four years. After the cessation of treatment, imaging abnormalities remained in all patients except one with brain atrophy. Various imaging abnormalities of the brain may be seen during and after the treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia and persist for a long time. In children with this condition, the assessment of brain abnormalities requires follow-up study of the brain.

  14. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy in Korean infants and children: imaging findings and diverse clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hye [Sansung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In One [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Myung Kwan [Incheon Medical Center, College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of our study was to describe acute necrotizing encephalopathy in Korean infants and children, and we sought to evaluate the prognostic factors. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy was diagnosed in 14 Korean infants and children. We retrospectively analyzed the neuroimaging findings including the follow-up changes. The clinical course of the disease was graded, and we evaluated prognostic factors including age, serum level of the aminotransferase, hemorrhage, and localized atrophy of the brain. This encephalopathy predominantly affected the bilateral thalami (n = 14), pons (n = 12), and midbrain (n = 10) in a symmetrical pattern. Hemorrhage was observed in eight patients (57%). On the follow-up images (n = 12), the brain lesions were reduced in extent for all patients, and generalized atrophy was seen in six patients. Localized tissue loss was observed in five patients and a complete resolution occurred for one patient. All the patients survived and two recovered completely; mild (n = 6) to severe (n = 6) neurological deficits persisted in the remaining 12 patient. The significant prognostic factors identified in this study were the presence of hemorrhage ({rho} 0.009) and localized atrophy ({rho} = 0.015). Acute necrotizing encephalopathy in Korean patients showed the characteristic patterns of the post-infectious encephalopathy as described in the literature. The high survival rate and the relatively favorable clinical course observed for the present study suggest a more diverse spectrum of disease severity than was previously described. The presence of hemorrhage and localized tissue loss on MR images may suggest a poor prognosis.

  15. Imaging findings in 512 children following all-terrain vehicle injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injuries related to all-terrain vehicle (ATV) use by children have increased in recent years, and the pattern of these injuries is not well known among radiologists. Our purpose was to identify different radiologically diagnosed injuries in children suffering ATV-related trauma and determine associations among various injuries as well as between injuries and outcome. The study included 512 consecutive children suffering from ATV injuries treated at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. All imaging studies were reviewed and correlated with injury frequency and outcome using multivariate analysis. Head injuries occurred in 244 children (48%) and in five of six deaths. Calvarial skull fractures occurred in 104 children and were associated with brain, subdural and epidural injuries. Brain and orbit injuries were associated with long-term disability. A total of 227 extremity fractures were present in 172 children (34%). The femur was the most commonly fractured bone. Nine children had partial foot amputations. Multiorgan injuries occurred in nearly half of the 97 children with torso injuries. Determinants for long-term disability or death were head injuries (odds ratio 3.4) and extremity fractures (odds ratio 3.3). Head and extremity injuries are the two most common injuries in children suffering ATV injuries and are associated with long-term disability. ATV use by children is dangerous and is a significant threat to child safety. (orig.)

  16. Chest Imaging Findings in Hospitalized Children with H1N1 Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Pekcan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to review the radiological findings and to find new prognostic factors that determine the need for pediatric intensive care unit (PICU in children with swine-origin influenza (H1N1 virus infection. Methods: Chest X-ray (CXR and computed tomography (CT findings of 18 children with laboratory-confirmed H1N1 infection (9 boys, 9 girls with a median age of 34 (1–216 months were retrospectively evaluated. Results: CXRs were performed in 15 (83.3% and thorax CT in 7 (38.8% children. Abnormal findings were detected in 60% of the patients who underwent CXR and 85.7% of the patients who underwent thorax CT. Radiological findings were mostly diffuse, bilateral, and asymmetric. Ground-glass opacity (GGO (66.6% was the leading abnormality and was followed by reticulation (38.8%, nodules (27.7%, consolidation only (16.6%, tree-in-bud pattern (11.1%, consolidation with GGO (5.5%, and septal lines (5.5%. Lymphadenopathy (22.2%, air trapping (5.5%, and parenchymal band (5.5% were other recorded findings. CXR was found to be insufficient to detect subpleural nodules, lymphadenopathies, and sometimes GGO. Only existence of nodules (p=0.04 affected the need for PICU admission. Conclusion: The most common radiological findings in children with H1N1 infection were bilateral, asymmetric GGO with or without associated multifocal areas of consolidation. CXR was insufficient to detect subpleural nodules, lymphadenopathies, and sometimes GGO. The existence of nodules is a bad prognostic factor in determining the need for PICU admission.

  17. Hepatic involvement of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children - imaging findings of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yingyan; Qiao, Zhongwei; Gong, Ying; Yang, Haowei; Li, Guoping; Pa, Mier [Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Xia, Chunmei [Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Physiology and Pathophysiology Department, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disease that occurs mainly in children, and hepatic involvement is generally a poor prognostic factor. To describe CT and MRI findings of hepatic involvement of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children, especially the abnormal bile duct manifestation on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Thirteen children (seven boys, six girls; mean age 28.9 months) were diagnosed with disseminated Langerhans cell histiocytosis. They underwent CT (n = 5) or MRI (n = 4), or CT and MRI examinations (n = 4) to evaluate the liver involvement. Periportal abnormalities presented as band-like or nodular lesions on CT and MRI in all 13 children. The hepatic parenchymal lesions were found in the peripheral regions of the liver in seven children, including multiple nodules on MRI (n = 6), and cystic-like lesions on CT and MRI (n = 3). In 11 of the 13 children the dilatations of the bile ducts were observed on CT and MRI. Eight of the 13 children underwent MR cholangiopancreatography, which demonstrated stenoses or segmental stenoses with slight dilatation of the central bile ducts, including the common hepatic duct and its first-order branches. The peripheral bile ducts in these children showed segmental dilatations and stenoses. Stenosis of the central bile ducts revealed by MR cholangiopancreatography was the most significant finding of liver involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children. (orig.)

  18. Hepatic involvement of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children - imaging findings of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disease that occurs mainly in children, and hepatic involvement is generally a poor prognostic factor. To describe CT and MRI findings of hepatic involvement of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children, especially the abnormal bile duct manifestation on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Thirteen children (seven boys, six girls; mean age 28.9 months) were diagnosed with disseminated Langerhans cell histiocytosis. They underwent CT (n = 5) or MRI (n = 4), or CT and MRI examinations (n = 4) to evaluate the liver involvement. Periportal abnormalities presented as band-like or nodular lesions on CT and MRI in all 13 children. The hepatic parenchymal lesions were found in the peripheral regions of the liver in seven children, including multiple nodules on MRI (n = 6), and cystic-like lesions on CT and MRI (n = 3). In 11 of the 13 children the dilatations of the bile ducts were observed on CT and MRI. Eight of the 13 children underwent MR cholangiopancreatography, which demonstrated stenoses or segmental stenoses with slight dilatation of the central bile ducts, including the common hepatic duct and its first-order branches. The peripheral bile ducts in these children showed segmental dilatations and stenoses. Stenosis of the central bile ducts revealed by MR cholangiopancreatography was the most significant finding of liver involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children. (orig.)

  19. Popliteal cysts in children: prevalence, appearance and associated findings at MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Maeseneer, M.; Debaere, C.; Desprechins, B.; Osteaux, M. (Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Jette (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology)

    1999-08-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Baker's cysts on MR images in a paediatric orthopaedic population, to investigate the association of Baker's cyst with joint fluid and joint disorders in children, and to compare the MR appearance of Baker's cysts in children with that previously reported in adults. Materials and methods. Reports from 393 MR studies of the knee performed in children aged from 1 to 17 years were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of a Baker's cyst, joint effusion, meniscal tear, anterior cruciate ligament tear, or any other joint disorder. Results. A Baker's cyst was identified in 6.3 % (25/393) of patients. The MR images and clinical charts of patients with a Baker's cyst were reviewed. None of the 25 patients with a Baker's cyst had an associated anterior cruciate ligament tear or meniscal tear. Two patients had osteochondritis dissecans and two others had synovial disease (infection and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis). Joint fluid was demonstrated in 16 % (4/25) of patients with a Baker's cyst. There was no statistically significant association between presence of a Baker's cyst and presence of joint fluid. Conclusions. Baker's cyst is less prevalent in a paediatric orthopaedic population than in an adult population. In children, it seems that Baker's cyst is seldom associated with joint fluid, meniscal tear, or anterior cruciate ligament tear. On MR images, a communication between the Baker's cyst and the joint was not demonstrated in any of the patients. In addition, the presence of debris and cyst leakage was not observed. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs.

  20. Term and Preterm Children with Cerebral Palsy: Etiology, Clinic and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Adın, Sait; Aslan, Mehmet; DOĞAN, Metin; Yakıncı, Cengiz; Alkan, Alpay

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a frequent neurologic disease of term and preterm neonates. The disorder has various causes and the etiology, clinical manifestations and radiological screening findings are different in term and preterms. Thirty six preterm and 66 term CP patients aged between 6 months-16 years were evaluated in this study and were compared according to their etiology, clinical manifestation and cerebral Magnetic Resonance Imagıng (MRI) findings statistically. Material and Met...

  1. Imaging findings of recurrent acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and young adults, with emphasis on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Rosalyn P. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, 332 N. Lauderdale, Memphis, TN 38105-2794 (United States); Kaste, Sue C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, 332 N. Lauderdale, Memphis, TN 38105-2794 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee, College of Medicine, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common of all childhood malignancies. Current remission rates approach 80%. Recurrent disease can present in a wide variety of ways. MR imaging plays a crucial role in the detection of disease relapse. Because other disorders can mimic recurrence of leukemia, it is important for the radiologist to judge recurrence from non-recurrence accurately in order to avoid unnecessary testing and emotional stress on the patient and family. (orig.)

  2. Fibrolipomatous hamartoma: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Maeseneer, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Jaovisidha, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Lenchik, L. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Witte, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Baptist Memorial Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Schweitzer, M.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sartoris, D.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Resnick, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Objective. To analyze the MR imaging features of fibrolipomatous hamartoma (FLH) of nerves. Design and patients. MR imaging studies from six patients (three men and three women) were retrospectively reviewed by three musculoskeletal radiologists. In four patients, a biopsy of the nerve lesion was performed. In two patients, biopsy data were unavailable and the diagnosis was based on the clinical history combined with the MR imaging findings. Results and conclusion. MR imaging demonstrated fusiform nerve enlargement that was caused by fatty proliferation and thickening of nerve bundles. Nerve bundles appeared as serpentine tubular structures, hypointense on both T1- and T2-weighted images. The degree of fatty proliferation varied among patients. In addition, significant variation in the distribution of fat along the course of the nerves was noted. In three patients, FLH followed the branching pattern of the nerves, a characteristic pathologic finding. In two patients, intramuscular fat deposition (biceps and tibialis posterior muscles) was present. MR imaging findings of FLH are typical, allowing a confident diagnosis. The variation of fatty proliferation among patients and involved nerves as well as the tendency of the abnormalities to follow the branching pattern of the nerves is well demonstrated with MR imaging. FLH may present as an isolated nerve lesion, may be associated with intramuscular fat deposition, or may occur as a feature of macrodystrophia lipomatosa (MDL). (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Imaging findings of biliary hamartomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Qin Zheng; Bo Zhang; Masatoshi Kudo; Hirokazu Onda; Tatsuo Inoue

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the imaging findings of biliary hamartomas (von Meyenburg complexes, VMCs) and discuss the differential diagnosis with other related diseases.METHODS: Imaging findings of biliary hamartomas on ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)and hepatobiliary scintigraphy were retrospectively analyzed in six patients.RESULTS: On ultrasound images, five of the six cases showed multiple small hyper- and hypo-echoic lesions with comet-tail echoes, especially when magnified by US with the usage of zoom function. In all the six cases,multiple tiny hypodense lesions less than 10 mm in diameter were revealed as scattered throughout the liver with no enhancement on CT. These tiny lesions were demonstrated to be hyper- and hypo-intensity on T2- and TI-weighed images, respectively, in three patients who underwent MRI examinations. MRCP was performed in two patients, and clearly showed multiple tiny irregular- and round-shaped hyper-intensity lesions.MRCP and hepatobiliary scintigraphy showed normal appearances of intra- and extra-hepatic bile ducts in two and one patients, respectively.CONCLUSION: Imaging modalities are useful in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of VMCs. A correct diagnosis might be obtained when typical imaging findings are present even without a histological confirmation.

  4. Imaging findings of splenic hamartoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ri-Sheng Yu; Shi-Zheng Zhang; Jian-Ming Hua

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess CT and MR manifestations and their diagnostic value in splenic hamartoma with review of literatures.METHODS: We described a woman who was accidentally found to have a splenic tumor by ultrasound of the abdomen.CT and MR findings of this splenic hamartoma were proved by pathology retrospectively.RESULTS: The CT and MR findings in this case included a ball-like mass with homogeneous mild-hypodensity lesions on non-enhanced CT scans or isointensity on T1-weighted images and mild hypointensity on T2-weighted images,progressive homogeneous enhancement on multiple-phase spiral CT and MR enhanced scans, and isodense enhancement on delayed post-contrast CT scans and obvious hyperintensity relative to the spleen on delayed MR images.CONCLUSION: Splenic hamartoma has some specific radiological features. However, the diagnosis of this disease must be based on dinical features and confirmed by pathology.

  5. Imaging findings in external snapping hip syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh; Connolly, Bairbre L. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Image Guided Therapy, Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Narayanan, Unni [The Hospital for Sick Children, Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, Toronto (Canada); Babyn, Paul S. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    We describe a case of external snapping hip diagnosed by dynamic sonography. The case prompted us to retrospectively review the imaging findings of children who clinically had presented with snapping hip. From this review we identified the features on MRI and CT of either thickening of the iliotibial band or thickening of the anterior edge of the gluteus maximus muscle as the cause of snapping and atrophy of the bulk of gluteus maximus muscle as an important secondary sign associated with snapping. (orig.)

  6. Imaging findings of Paragonimus westermani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shambhu Kumar Sah

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The imaging findings of P. westermani is so diverse and non-specific due to its complex life cycle and several life stages during infestation of human; however, common features include nodule, GGO, worm cyst, migration track, pleural effusion, pleural thickening on chest CT scan; patchy low or mixed density lesions on brain CT scan; ring enhancing lesion on brain MRI scan; conglomerated small cystic or serpentine lesions and migration track in liver and spleen on abdominal CT scan. The characteristic imaging features of paragonimiasis are worm cyst and migration track.

  7. Imaging Findings of Congestive Hepatopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Michael L; Fenstad, Eric R; Poterucha, Joseph T; Hough, David M; Young, Phillip M; Araoz, Philip A; Ehman, Richard L; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K

    2016-01-01

    Congestive hepatopathy (CH) refers to hepatic abnormalities that result from passive hepatic venous congestion. Prolonged exposure to elevated hepatic venous pressure may lead to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Liver dysfunction and corresponding clinical signs and symptoms typically manifest late in the disease process. Recognition of CH at imaging is critical because advanced liver fibrosis may develop before the condition is suspected clinically. Characteristic findings of CH on conventional images include dilatation of the inferior vena cava and hepatic veins; retrograde hepatic venous opacification during the early bolus phase of intravenous contrast material injection; and a predominantly peripheral heterogeneous pattern of hepatic enhancement due to stagnant blood flow. Extensive fibrosis can be seen in chronic or severe cases. Hyperenhancing regenerative nodules that may retain hepatobiliary contrast agents are often present. Magnetic resonance (MR) elastography can show elevated liver stiffness and may be useful in evaluation of fibrosis in CH because it can be incorporated easily into routine cardiac MR imaging. Preliminary experience with MR elastography suggests its future use in initial evaluation of patients suspected of having CH, for monitoring of disease, and for assessment after therapy. To facilitate appropriate workup and treatment, radiologists should be familiar with findings suggestive of CH at radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, MR imaging, and MR elastography. In addition, knowledge of underlying pathophysiology, comparative histologic abnormalities, and extrahepatic manifestations is useful to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and suggest appropriate additional diagnostic testing. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27284758

  8. Painful Heel: MR Imaging Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Sanei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Heel pain is a common and frequently disabling clinical complaint that may be caused by a broad spectrum of osseous or soft-tissue disorders. "nThese disorders are classified on the basis of anatomic origin and predominant location of heel pain to foster a better understanding of this complaint. The disorders include plantar fascial lesions (fasciitis, rupture, fibromatosis, xanthoma, tendinous (tendonitis, tenosynovitis, osseous lesions (fractures, bone bruises, osteomyelitis, tumors, bursal lesions (retrocalcaneal bursitis, retroachilleal bursitis, tarsal tunnel syndrome, and heel plantar fat pad abnormalities. With its superior soft-tissue contrast resolution and multiplanar capability, magnetic resonance (MR imaging can help determine the cause of heel pain and help assess the extent and severity of the disease in ambiguous or clinically equivocal cases. Careful analysis of MR imaging findings and correlation of these findings with patient history and findings at physical examination can suggest a specific diagnosis in most cases. The majority of patients with heel pain can be successfully treated conservatively, but in cases requiring surgery (eg, plantar fascia rupture in competitive athletes, deeply infiltrating plantar fibromatosis, masses causing tarsal tunnel syndrome, MR imaging is especially useful in planning surgical treatment by showing the exact location and extent of the lesion

  9. Post-therapeutic imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollice, Saverio, E-mail: saveriopollice@hotmail.it [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, “L. Bonomo Hospital”, 76123 Andria, BT (Italy); Muto, Mario, E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Department of Neuroradiology, “Cardarelli Hospital”, Naples (Italy); Scarabino, Tommaso, E-mail: tscarabino@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, “L. Bonomo Hospital”, 76123 Andria, BT (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • This study is the result of collaboration between neuroradiologists and neurosurgeons. • Comparison between neuroimaging techniques to better evaluate the complications after treatment of the spin. • Evaluation of the imaging features of complications and definition of follow-up. - Abstract: Any surgical approach modifies the normal anatomical and functional arrangement of the segmental spine which is aimed, therefore image interpretation cannot ignore a correct set of knowledge in the field of anatomy, pathophysiology, drug compliance, interventional radiology and surgery. Neuroradiological imaging has an important role before surgery to direct the surgeon or interventional radiologist during the operation, both in post-surgery, where imaging examination can rightly evaluate properties and effects of the treatment and can detect potential complications as infections, abscess, bleeding, exuberant scar, mobilization and rupture of devices. The available methods of imaging are the X-rays (XR) made at least in two projections, Computed Tomography (CT) with MPR (multiplanar) and VR (volume rendering) reconstruction, and Magnetic Resonance (MR), often performed before and after contrast media injection. Imaging assessment of spine after surgery is complex and depends upon several factors, including surgical procedures and disease for which it was performed; biomechanical of the underlying cortical and cancellous bone findings; conditions of muscles, intervertebral disk and ligaments; time since surgery procedures; duration and nature of the post-surgical syndrome. Depending upon several factors, one or a combination of complementary imaging modalities (X-rays, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance) may be required to evaluate effectiveness of the treatment; to demonstrate any clinically relevant abnormality at the treated region and adjacent structures (complications such as inflammation, abscesses, bleeding and misplacement of the device); to

  10. Imaging findings in pediatric adrenocortical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J. [International Outreach Program, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Radiology, Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Ribeiro, R.C. [International Outreach Program, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Hematology-Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee-Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Fletcher, B.D. [International Outreach Program, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee-Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, 332 N. Lauderdale St., Memphis, TN 38105 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee-Memphis, TN (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Background. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), a tumor that is rare among children, causes clinically evident hormonal disturbances. Imaging methods are used to stage disease and to plan surgical resection. Objective. To describe the findings of the various imaging methods used to evaluate ACC. Materials and methods. We reviewed the records of ten consecutive patients (mean age, 8.1 years) who presented from 1987 to 1998 with ACC. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) scanning; five underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging; four underwent ultrasonography (US); and eight underwent radionuclide bone scans. Results. Seven patients presented with signs of hormonally functional tumors. Typical imaging findings consisted of a large, well-defined suprarenal tumor, containing calcifications (seven patients) with a thin capsule and central necrosis or hemorrhage (six patients). The inferior vena cava (IVC) was compressed by tumor in three patients, and ultrasonography demonstrated invasion of the IVC wall in one of these. Three patients' bone scans showed that the primary tumor took up radioactive tracer. Spread to lungs or liver or both was demonstrated in six patients. Conclusions. CT, US and MR imaging are effective methods of imaging the primary tumor. Chest CT and bone scintigraphy should be performed to detect metastases. The presence of a thin tumor capsule, a stellate central zone of necrosis, and evidence of hormonal function help distinguish ACC from neuroblastoma. (orig.)

  11. Abdominal Burkitt lymphoma in children : CT finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jae Uoo; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Ahn, Hyo Seop; Shin, Hee Young [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chi Sung [Seoul City Boramae Hospital Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To evaluate the CT findings of Burkitt's lymphoma involving the abdomen in children We retrospectively analyzed the abdominal CT of ten children who presented with abdominal symptom. They were confirmed by operation in two cases and by fine needle aspiration biopsy in eight to be suffering from Burkitt's lymphoma. We also abdominal ultrasonography(USG)(n=10) and carried out small bowel follow-through examination(SBS)(n=5). Analyses focused on features of the abdominal mass : bowel wall thickening, ascites, lymphadenopathy, and the involvement of intra-abdominal solid organ. Abdominal CT at the time of presentation showed a huge conglomerated mass encasing segments of small bowel and also peripherally displacing bowel loops(n=9), bowel wall thickening(n=10), and ascites(n=10). In three of these cases, we were able to see tumor necrosis and cavity formation. Extensive infiltration into mesenteric fat and obliteration of tissue plane made it impossible to identify on CT the margin of the tumor and the presence of mesenteric lymphadenopathy. In four patients, sonography showed enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes(15-20mm), and in three, retroperitoneal lymph nodes(5mm, 10mm, 12mm in long dimension) were detected on CT and USG. Abdominal CT can reveal the characteristic imaging features of Burkitt's lymphoma in children. These are a huge conglomerate mass with or without cavity formation, that encases the small bowel and infiltrates the mesentery, ascites, and the relatively spared retroperitoneal lymph nodes.

  12. Bacterial meningitis in children. MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Toshibumi; Ishii, Kiyoshi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Onuma, Takehide [Sendai City Hospital (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    We analyzed MRI findings for 17 children with bacterial meningitis. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images revealed meningeal enhancement at the basal cistern and/or the convex surface of the brain in 15 cases. Cerebral infarcts were found in the distribution of perforating and/or medullary arteries in four cases. In one neonatal case, venous infarction with hemorrhagic transformation was evident. Communicating hydrocephalus was noted in three cases, subdural effusion in two, subdural empyema in one, and encephalitis in one. In one neonatal case ventriculitis was found. We conclude that MRI is useful for the evaluation of the active inflammatory process of the meninges and the identification of the focal lesions in central nervous system complications. (author)

  13. [Typical findings of maltreated children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, E; Zinka, B; Schneider, K; Penning, R; Eisenmenger, W

    2006-06-15

    Childhood maltreatment manifests in a variety of forms and the underlying causes are manifold. In contrast to other offences involving physical injury, reporting behavior has, statistically speaking, remained unchanged. Patterns of injury must first be established and documented, and this involves a complete examination of the child's body. Depending on the constellation of findings, a radiological diagnosis is usually necessary. When all the findings have been collected, the further steps to be taken--where indicated a report to the police--must be discussed. All the evidence must be recorded, and photos obtained of all externally visible injuries before they fade. It is not the task of the physician to develop criminalistic ambitions, for example, by grilling (a parent) on the cause of the injuries. However, he/she has a duty to do everything necessary to protect the well-being of the child. PMID:16850804

  14. Imaging Findings of Hip Joint Tuberculosis of Children%小儿髋关节结核的影像学表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈久尊; 何家维; 郭安娜; 严志汉; 陈伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨小儿髋关节结核的影像学表现.方法 回顾性分析24例小儿髋关节结核病例的X线、CT、MRI影像资料.结果 病变多累及单侧关节,男孩多见,早期主要表现关节囊和周围软组织肿胀,关节腔积液,病变进展到中后期,主要表现骨质巯松,髋臼及股骨头骨骺破坏,冷脓肿形成并呈流注样扩散,肉芽组织形成,晚期表现为股骨头坏死,关节畸形、脱位及强直等.结论 MRI对于髋关节早期软组织病变,关节积液、脓肿,以及软骨破坏等敏感,X线片对于整体观察骨质疏松、骨质破坏,及关节脱位等有价值,CT能发现细微的骨破坏病灶及死骨等,3种检查方法合理选择,有助于病变早期诊断和长期随访观察.%Objective To study the imaging findings of hip joint tuberculosis of children. Methods Imaging data of X - ray, CT and MRI of 24 cases with hip joint tuberculosis of children were analyzed retrospectively. Results Lesions involeved more than a single, more in boys. Early main manifestations were the swelling of the joint capsule and the soft tissue around and the articular cavity effusion. When disease progressing to later period, the main manife stations were osteoporosis, the destruction of acetabulum and osteoepiphysis of caput femoris, the formation of cold abscess spreading like flow column samples and the formation of granulation tissue. The late manifestations were the necrosis of caput femoris, the joint deformities, dislocation and stiffness and so on. Conclusion MRI is a sensitive examination in the early soft tissue lesions, the joint effusion, abscess and the destruction of cartilage. X - ray is an valuable examination in osteoporosis, bone destruction and dislocation of joint. CT can discover the tiny lesions of bone destruction, sequestrum and so on. A reasonable choice of these three examinations is in favor of the early diagnosis of lesions and long - term follow - up.

  15. Imaging findings of perineal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The perineum is defined as the region of body below the pelvic diaphragm that lies within the boundaries of the pelvic outlet. It is the region which is home to pathologic conditions which include primary tumors, neoplasms of adjacent organs with secondary involvement, congenital or acquired cystic lesions and inflammatory lesions. In this article, we describe CT and MR imaging anatomy and various pathologic processes that affect this anatomic region, with a brief discussion. Emphasis is given to imaging features that help to characterize specific lesions

  16. Imaging findings of perineal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Rae; Park, Hae Won; Kook, Shin Ho; Lee, Chang Suk [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    The perineum is defined as the region of body below the pelvic diaphragm that lies within the boundaries of the pelvic outlet. It is the region which is home to pathologic conditions which include primary tumors, neoplasms of adjacent organs with secondary involvement, congenital or acquired cystic lesions and inflammatory lesions. In this article, we describe CT and MR imaging anatomy and various pathologic processes that affect this anatomic region, with a brief discussion. Emphasis is given to imaging features that help to characterize specific lesions.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in adnexial torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trindade, Ronald Meira Castro; Quadros, Marianne Siquara de [Hospital Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa], e-mail: rtrindade@einstein.br; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb; Rosemberg, Michelle; Racy, Marcelo de Castro Jorge; Tachibana, Adriano [Hospital Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao [Hospital Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Imaging Service

    2010-01-15

    Adnexial torsion is an unusual event, but a major cause of abdominal pain in women. It is often associated with ovarian tumor or cyst, but can occur in normal ovaries, especially in children. The twisting of adnexial structures may involve the ovary or tube, but frequently affects both. In most cases, it is unilateral, with slight predilection for the right size. In imaging findings, increased ovarian volume and adnexial masses are observed, with reduced or absent vascularisation. In cases of undiagnosed or untreated complete twist, hemorrhagic necrosis may occur leading to complications; in that, peritonitis is the most frequent. Early diagnosis helps preventing irreversible damage with conservative treatment, thereby saving the ovary. Limitations in performing physical examination, possible inconclusive results in ultrasound and exposure to radiation in computed tomography makes magnetic resonance imaging a valuable tool in emergency assessment of gynecological diseases. The objective of this study was to report two confirmed cases of adnexial twist, emphasizing the contribution of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of this condition. (author)

  18. Cutaneous findings of nutritional deficiencies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goskowicz, M; Eichenfield, L F

    1993-08-01

    Nutritional deficiencies may be associated with a variety of cutaneous findings in children. This review emphasizes new developments relating to cutaneous findings of nutritional deficiencies. Zinc deficiency, acrodermatitis enteropathica, and acrodermatitis enteropathica-like eruptions are seen with a variety of conditions including cystic fibrosis, anorexia nervosa, and breastfeeding. Similar cutaneous findings not related to zinc deficiency may also occur with such metabolic disorders as methylmalonic aciduria, multiple carboxylase deficiency, essential fatty acid deficiency and other amino acid deficiencies. Vitamin K deficiency is associated with hemorrhagic disease of the newborn and coagulopathy. Vitamin A deficiency presents with a variety of systemic findings and distinctive dermatologic findings. Acute vitamin A deficiency may be seen in children infected with measles and is associated with more severe disease. The systemic and cutaneous findings of vitamin C deficiency, scurvy, are discussed. PMID:8374671

  19. Infantile encephalitic beriberi: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wani, Nisar A. [Government Medical College Srinagar, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Jammu and Kashmir, Pin (India); Qureshi, Umar A.; Ahmad, Kaiser; Ahmad, Waseem [Government Medical College Srinagar, Department of Pediatrics, Jammu and Kashmir (India); Jehangir, Majid [Government Medical College Srinagar, Department of Radiology, Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    2016-01-15

    Thiamine deficiency in infants is still encountered in developing countries. It may present with acute neurological manifestations of infantile encephalitic beriberi. To review brain MRI findings in infantile encephalitic beriberi from a single institution. A retrospective review of MRI scans in 22 infants with acute-onset beriberi encephalopathy was carried out. Hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted images were seen symmetrically in the putamen in all patients, in the caudate nuclei in 16/22 (73%), the thalami in 7/22 (32%) and the globi pallidi in 3/22 (14%) of the infants. Altered signal intensity lesions in the cerebral cortex were seen in 7/22 (32%). The mammillary bodies were seen in one infant and the periaqueductal gray matter in two. There was restricted diffusion in 14/22 (64%), and 6/8 children with no evidence of restriction had been imaged ≥10 days after presentation. MR spectroscopy showed increased lactate peak in 6/8 infants (75%). Recognition of symmetrical T2-W hyperintense lesions in the basal ganglia with restricted diffusion and prominent lactate peak may allow early diagnosis of encephalitic beriberi in at-risk infants. (orig.)

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) abdominal ultrasound imaging produces pictures ...

  1. Imaging findings in pulmonary vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañer, Eva; Alguersuari, Anna; Andreu, Marta; Gallardo, Xavier; Spinu, Cristina; Mata, Josep M

    2012-12-01

    Vasculitis is a destructive inflammatory process affecting blood vessels. Pulmonary vasculitis may develop secondary to other conditions or constitute a primary idiopathic disorder. Thoracic involvement is most common in primary idiopathic large-vessel vasculitides (Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis, Behçet disease) and primary antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated small-vessel vasculitides (Wegener granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome). Primary pulmonary vasculitides are rare, and their signs and symptoms are nonspecific, overlapping with those of infections, connective tissue diseases, and malignancies. The radiologic findings in primary pulmonary vasculitis vary widely and can include vessel wall thickening, nodular or cavitary lesions, ground-glass opacities, and consolidations, among others. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage usually results from primary small-vessel vasculitis in the lungs. To diagnose vasculitis, medical teams must recognize characteristic combinations of clinical, radiologic, laboratory, and histopathologic features. PMID:23168065

  2. A spectrum of neuroradiological findings in children with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Weon, Young Cheol [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2007-11-15

    Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare multisystem disorder. CNS involvement is a frequent and poor prognostic component. Better neuroradiological surveillance may be beneficial for patient management and outcome. To describe various neuroradiological findings in nine patients with HLH with an emphasis on correlation with disease activity and treatment response. Between 1996 and 2007, nine children with HLH with CNS involvement were identified in a single centre. Neuroradiological findings from CT, MRI, and proton MR spectroscopy, and the clinical records of the nine children were retrospectively reviewed. The frequency, distribution, characteristics of abnormal neuroradiological findings and changes during follow-up were correlated with clinical findings. Initial abnormal findings included multiple nodular or ring-enhancing parenchymal lesions, a laminated pattern of nodular parenchymal lesions on T2-weighted images, leptomeningeal enhancement, confluent parenchymal lesions, mild ventriculomegaly, and diffuse brain oedema. On follow-up imaging studies, haemorrhagic transformation and atrophy were seen where brain parenchymal lesions had been previously. These abnormal neuroradiological findings showed good correlation with clinical findings. Proton MR spectroscopy also demonstrated typical changes of metabolites during the course of the disease. A spectrum of neuroradiological findings in children with HLH is well matched with the clinical course of the disease and, therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the findings is useful to monitor disease activity and treatment responses. (orig.)

  3. Fungal myositis in children: serial ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin Soo [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children. Eleven lesions caused by fungal myositis and occurring in six children were included in this study. Eight lesions in five children were histopathologically proven and the other three were clinically diagnosed. Serial ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of size, location, margin, internal echotexture and adjacent cortical change occurring during the follow-up period ranging from five days to two months. Three patients (50%) had multiple lesions. The sites of involvment were the thigh (n=4), calf (n=3), chest wall (n=2), abdominal wall (n=1) and forearm (n=1). Initially, diffuse muscular swelling was revealed, with ill-defined hypoechoic lesions confined to the muscle layer (n=8). Follow-up examination of eight lesions over a period of 5-10 days showed that round central echogenic lesions were surrounded by previous slightly echogenic lesions (n=6, 75%). Long-term follow-up of five lesions over a two-month period revealed periosteal thickening in one case (20%), and the peristence of echogenic solid nodules in four (80%). Pathologic examination showed that the central lesions correlated with a fungus ball and the peripheral slightly echogenic lesions corresponded to hematoma and necrosis. Serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children revealed relatively constant features in each case. In particular, the findings of muscular necrosis and a fungus ball over a period of 5-14 days were thought to be characteristic.

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of the abdomen ... limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  5. CT findings in children with Meckel diverticulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Doug E.; Donnelly, Lane F. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kim, Yong-Woo [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Approximately 0.04% of the general population will present with a complication related to Meckel diverticulum. The classic teaching is that symptomatic children with Meckel diverticulum present with painless rectal bleeding and are evaluated with a radionuclide scan. Our subjective experience is that we see children with Meckel diverticulum who present with abdominal pain and are evaluated by CT. We reviewed the findings on CT in children with pathologically proven Meckel diverticulum to identify characteristic patterns of presentation. Databases were searched (2004-2008) for all children who had a pathologic diagnosis of Meckel diverticulum and a CT scan performed prior to surgery. Demographics, pathology, and CT features were reviewed. CT features reviewed included: soft-tissue stranding, abnormal calcifications, bowel obstruction, free air, free peritoneal fluid, cystic mass, intussusception, obvious lead point, location, and whether a normal appendix was identified. The frequency of Meckel diverticulum encountered on CT scans was compared to that found during the same period of time on technetium pertechnetate studies. The review identified 16 subjects (mean age 9.5 years, M:F 9:7). CT findings included: soft-tissue stranding in nine (56%), small-bowel obstruction (SBO) in nine (56%), intussusception in three (19%), free fluid in ten (63%), cystic mass in four (25%), calcification in none (0%), free air in one (6%), and no abnormalities in two (13%). A normal appendix was identified in only five children (31%). There were three basic patterns of presentation of abnormalities: SBO only in five, intussusception with SBO in three, or cystic mass with inflammatory stranding in four (one with SBO). Also, 2.3 times more Meckel diverticulum was encountered on CT than on technetium pertechnetate studies. Meckel diverticulum is currently more commonly encountered in children on CT performed for abdominal pain than on technetium pertechnetate studies. There are three

  6. CT findings in children with Meckel diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 0.04% of the general population will present with a complication related to Meckel diverticulum. The classic teaching is that symptomatic children with Meckel diverticulum present with painless rectal bleeding and are evaluated with a radionuclide scan. Our subjective experience is that we see children with Meckel diverticulum who present with abdominal pain and are evaluated by CT. We reviewed the findings on CT in children with pathologically proven Meckel diverticulum to identify characteristic patterns of presentation. Databases were searched (2004-2008) for all children who had a pathologic diagnosis of Meckel diverticulum and a CT scan performed prior to surgery. Demographics, pathology, and CT features were reviewed. CT features reviewed included: soft-tissue stranding, abnormal calcifications, bowel obstruction, free air, free peritoneal fluid, cystic mass, intussusception, obvious lead point, location, and whether a normal appendix was identified. The frequency of Meckel diverticulum encountered on CT scans was compared to that found during the same period of time on technetium pertechnetate studies. The review identified 16 subjects (mean age 9.5 years, M:F 9:7). CT findings included: soft-tissue stranding in nine (56%), small-bowel obstruction (SBO) in nine (56%), intussusception in three (19%), free fluid in ten (63%), cystic mass in four (25%), calcification in none (0%), free air in one (6%), and no abnormalities in two (13%). A normal appendix was identified in only five children (31%). There were three basic patterns of presentation of abnormalities: SBO only in five, intussusception with SBO in three, or cystic mass with inflammatory stranding in four (one with SBO). Also, 2.3 times more Meckel diverticulum was encountered on CT than on technetium pertechnetate studies. Meckel diverticulum is currently more commonly encountered in children on CT performed for abdominal pain than on technetium pertechnetate studies. There are three

  7. MR imaging findings of trigger thumb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chen, Karen C.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, Radiology Service, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Trigger finger (or trigger thumb), also known as sclerosing tenosynovitis, is a common clinical diagnosis that rarely presents for imaging. Because of this selection bias, many radiologists may not be familiar with the process. Furthermore, patients who do present for imaging frequently have misleading examination indications. To our knowledge, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of trigger thumb have not been previously reported in the literature. In this article, we review the entity of trigger thumb, the anatomy involved, and associated imaging findings, which include flexor pollicis longus tendinosis with a distinct nodule, A1 pulley thickening, and tenosynovitis. In addition, in some cases, an abnormal Av pulley is apparent. In the rare cases of trigger finger that present for MR imaging, accurate diagnosis by the radiologist can allow initiation of treatment and avoid further unnecessary workup. (orig.)

  8. MRI findings in 100 epileptic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain were retrospectively reviewed in 100 consecutive pediatric patients with epilepsy in relation to the type of epilepsy and prognosis. There were 65 boys and 35 girls, ranging in age from 3 months to 25 years. Among 100 patients, 67 (a total of 102 lesions) showed abnormal findings on MRI. Morphological abnormalities, including ventricular enlargement, atrophy and malformation, were seen in 54 patients. Periventricular (n=14), frontal (n=3), temporal (n=8) and occipital (n=7) areas were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. According to the type of epilepsy, MRI abnormality was seen in 34 (61%) of 56 patients with partial seizures and 33 (76%) of 44 patients with generalized seizures. When associated with cerebral palsy and mental retardation, the incidence of MRI abnormality was high. There was no sigificant correlation between MRI findings and prognosis. (N.K.)

  9. MRI findings in 100 epileptic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzukawa, Junko; Sugimoto, Tateo; Araki, Atsushi (Kansai Medical School, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan)) (and others)

    1993-02-01

    Findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain were retrospectively reviewed in 100 consecutive pediatric patients with epilepsy in relation to the type of epilepsy and prognosis. There were 65 boys and 35 girls, ranging in age from 3 months to 25 years. Among 100 patients, 67 (a total of 102 lesions) showed abnormal findings on MRI. Morphological abnormalities, including ventricular enlargement, atrophy and malformation, were seen in 54 patients. Periventricular (n=14), frontal (n=3), temporal (n=8) and occipital (n=7) areas were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. According to the type of epilepsy, MRI abnormality was seen in 34 (61%) of 56 patients with partial seizures and 33 (76%) of 44 patients with generalized seizures. When associated with cerebral palsy and mental retardation, the incidence of MRI abnormality was high. There was no sigificant correlation between MRI findings and prognosis. (N.K.).

  10. Pseudomembranous colitis: CT findings in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectrum of nodular haustral thickening and an 'accordion' pattern have been reported as specific features of pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) in adults. A retrospective review of nine patients with PMC was performed to assess whether this spectrum of CT findings also occurred in children. In four girls and five boys, CT scans were performed within 3 days of a positive stool toxin assay for Clostridium difficile. Documented CT abnormalities included nodular haustral thickening, the 'accordion' pattern, colonic wall thickening, ascites, and pericolonic edema. These results were then correlated as to their impact on the clinical outcome. Circumferential colon wall thickening was identified in 7/9 (78%) patients (mean thickening 14.5 mm). Nodular haustral thickening was identified in 4/9 (44%) and the 'accordion' pattern in 2/9 (22%). Other findings included pericolonic edema in 3/9 (33%) and ascites in 1/9 (11%). Wall thickening was confined to the left colon and rectum in 2/9 (22%), to the right colon in 2/9 (22%), and involved the whole colon in 3/9 (33%). Although CT findings associated with PMC in children may be suggestive for this diagnosis, CT is less specific than laboratory and clinical findings. (orig.)

  11. Pseudomembranous colitis: CT findings in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blickman, J.G. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Boland, G.W.L. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Cleveland, R.H. [The Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Bramson, R.T. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Lee, M.J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    A spectrum of nodular haustral thickening and an `accordion` pattern have been reported as specific features of pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) in adults. A retrospective review of nine patients with PMC was performed to assess whether this spectrum of CT findings also occurred in children. In four girls and five boys, CT scans were performed within 3 days of a positive stool toxin assay for Clostridium difficile. Documented CT abnormalities included nodular haustral thickening, the `accordion` pattern, colonic wall thickening, ascites, and pericolonic edema. These results were then correlated as to their impact on the clinical outcome. Circumferential colon wall thickening was identified in 7/9 (78%) patients (mean thickening 14.5 mm). Nodular haustral thickening was identified in 4/9 (44%) and the `accordion` pattern in 2/9 (22%). Other findings included pericolonic edema in 3/9 (33%) and ascites in 1/9 (11%). Wall thickening was confined to the left colon and rectum in 2/9 (22%), to the right colon in 2/9 (22%), and involved the whole colon in 3/9 (33%). Although CT findings associated with PMC in children may be suggestive for this diagnosis, CT is less specific than laboratory and clinical findings. (orig.)

  12. Radiographic findings in late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia: helpful imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzzafar, Sofia; Swischuk, Leonard E.; Jadhav, Siddharth P. [University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Galveston, TX (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Imaging findings in delayed presentation of congenital diaphragmatic hernia can be confusing and misleading, resulting in a delay in diagnosis. To evaluate the often puzzling plain film findings of late-presenting CDH in an effort to determine whether any of the findings could be helpful in arriving at an early diagnosis. We reviewed and documented the plain film findings and clinical data in eight patients seen during the last 20 years with late-presenting CDH. IRB exempt status was obtained in this study. There were five boys and three girls. The age range was 4 months to 12 years with a mean of 2.4 years. Five children presented with acute respiratory problems while three presented with acute abdominal pain. Two children presented with both respiratory and abdominal findings and one also presented with hematemesis. Two children had radiographic findings that were not difficult to analyze while the remaining six had findings that posed initial diagnostic problems. Although not common, late-presenting CDH can result in confusing plain film radiographic findings and a delay in diagnosis. We found that the most important finding in analyzing these radiographs is in evaluating the location and position of the gastric bubble with the more common left-side hernias. (orig.)

  13. MR imaging findings of hypertrophic olivary degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Joong; Jeon, Pyung; Kim, Dong Ik [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) MR images of seven patients with HOD were retrospectively reviewed. Two were women and five were men, and they were aged between 48 and 65 (mean 58) years. Imaging examinations were performed with a 1.5-T unit, and the findings were used to evaluate the size and signal intensity of olivary lesions. The time interval from hemorrhagic ictus to MR imaging was between two and 30 months. Follow-up examinations were performed in two patients. All four patients with hemorrhages involving the central tegmental tract in the pons or midbrain showed ipsilateral HOD. Among these four, bilateral HOD was seen in one patient with hemorrhage involving the bilateral central tegmental tract, and in another with tegmental hemorrhage extending to the ipsilateral superior cerebellar peduncle. One patient with cerebellar hemorrhage involving the dentate nucleus had contralateral HOD. Two patients with multiple hemorrhages involving both the pons and cerebellum showed bilateral HOD. Axial MR images showed mild enlargement of the involved olivary mucleus, with high signal intensity on both proton density and T2 weighted images. There was no apparent enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted images. MR imaging can clearly distinguish secondary olivary degeneration from underlying pathology involving the central tegmental tract in the pons or midbrain and cerebellum. These olivary abnormalities should not, however, be mistaken for primary medullary lesions.

  14. Local complications of hydatid disease involving thoracic cavity: Imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydatid disease, a worldwide zoonosis, is caused by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm. Although it can involve almost every organ of the body, lung involvement follows in frequency the hepatic infestation in adults and is the predominating site in children. Radiologically, hydatidosis usually demonstrates typical findings, but many patients are at risk of developing various complications of hydatid disease with atypical imaging findings and these are rarely described in the literature. In this pictorial review, the imaging features of local complications of hydatid disease involving the thorax including intrapulmonary or pleural rupture, infection of the ruptured cysts, reactions of the adjacent tissues, thoracic wall invasion and iatrogenic involvement of pleura are described. Additionally, imaging characteristics of transdiaphragmatic thoracic involvement of hepatic hydatid disease are presented. To prevent the development of subsequent catastrophic results, all radiologists need to be aware of the atypical imaging appearances of complications of pulmonary hydatid disease.

  15. Local complications of hydatid disease involving thoracic cavity: Imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut, A.T. [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ahmettuncayturgut@yahoo.com; Altinok, T. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Topcu, S. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli University, Izmit (Turkey); Kosar, U. [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-04-15

    Hydatid disease, a worldwide zoonosis, is caused by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm. Although it can involve almost every organ of the body, lung involvement follows in frequency the hepatic infestation in adults and is the predominating site in children. Radiologically, hydatidosis usually demonstrates typical findings, but many patients are at risk of developing various complications of hydatid disease with atypical imaging findings and these are rarely described in the literature. In this pictorial review, the imaging features of local complications of hydatid disease involving the thorax including intrapulmonary or pleural rupture, infection of the ruptured cysts, reactions of the adjacent tissues, thoracic wall invasion and iatrogenic involvement of pleura are described. Additionally, imaging characteristics of transdiaphragmatic thoracic involvement of hepatic hydatid disease are presented. To prevent the development of subsequent catastrophic results, all radiologists need to be aware of the atypical imaging appearances of complications of pulmonary hydatid disease.

  16. Imaging findings of perforative appendicitis: a pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, K.L.; Patrick, L.E.; Ball, T.I. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Egleston, GA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Appendicitis is common in children. Early diagnosis depends on recognition of characteristic signs and symptoms: right lower quadrant or periumbilical pain, localized tenderness, fever, and leukocytosis. Because these classic features may be difficult to elicit or masked by other complaints, the incidence of perforative appendicitis in children is high. This paper reviews the imaging sequelae with emphasis on CT and sonography findings. Areas of focus include abdominopelvic abscess, peritonitis, pyelephlebitis, pyelethrombosis, and hepatic abscess. Secondary involvement of the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts is also discussed. (orig.)

  17. Neuroimaging findings in children with retinopathy-confirmed cerebral malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potchen, Michael J. [Michigan State University, Department of Radiology, 184 Radiology Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1303 (United States)], E-mail: mjp@rad.msu.edu; Birbeck, Gretchen L. [Michigan State University, International Neurologic and Psychiatric Epidemiology Program, 324 West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)], E-mail: Gretchen.Birbeck@ht.msu.edu; DeMarco, J. Kevin [Michigan State University, Department of Radiology, 184 Radiology Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1303 (United States)], E-mail: jkd@rad.msu.edu; Kampondeni, Sam D. [University of Malawi, Department of Radiology, Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre (Malawi)], E-mail: kamponde@msu.edu; Beare, Nicholas [St. Paul' s Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nbeare@btinternet.com; Molyneux, Malcolm E. [Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, College of Medicine (Malawi); School of Tropical Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mmolyneux999@google.com; Taylor, Terrie E. [Michigan State University, College of Osteopathic Medicine, B309-B West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); University of Malawi, College of Medicine, Blantyre Malaria Project, Blantyre (Malawi)], E-mail: taylort@msu.edu

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To describe brain CT findings in retinopathy-confirmed, paediatric cerebral malaria. Materials and methods: In this outcomes study of paediatric cerebral malaria, a subset of children with protracted coma during initial presentation was scanned acutely. Survivors experiencing adverse neurological outcomes also underwent a head CT. All children had ophthalmological examination to confirm the presence of the retinopathy specific for cerebral malaria. Independent interpretation of CT images was provided by two neuroradiologists. Results: Acute brain CT findings in three children included diffuse oedema with obstructive hydrocephalus (2), acute cerebral infarctions in multiple large vessel distributions with secondary oedema and herniation (1), and oedema of thalamic grey matter (1). One child who was reportedly normal prior to admission had parenchymal atrophy suggestive of pre-existing CNS injury. Among 56 survivors (9-84 months old), 15 had adverse neurologic outcomes-11/15 had a follow-up head CT, 3/15 died and 1/15 refused CT. Follow-up head CTs obtained 7-18 months after the acute infection revealed focal and multifocal lobar atrophy correlating to regions affected by focal seizures during the acute infection (5/11). Other findings were communicating hydrocephalus (2/11), vermian atrophy (1/11) and normal studies (3/11). Conclusions: The identification of pre-existing imaging abnormalities in acute cerebral malaria suggests that population-based studies are required to establish the rate and nature of incidental imaging abnormalities in Malawi. Children with focal seizures during acute cerebral malaria developed focal cortical atrophy in these regions at follow-up. Longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate mechanisms of CNS injury and death in this common fatal disease.

  18. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging signs and clinical findings in follow-up examinations in children and juveniles with temporomandibular joint involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to analyze the extent to which pathological findings of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up examinations are correlated with clinical symptoms in patients with TMJ involvement in juvenile ideopathic arthritis (JIA) over time. Data from 34 patients with TMJ involvement in JIA was retrospectively examined. Shortly after two clinical examinations, the first MRI and the follow-up MRI were performed. The MRI examinations took place with 1.5 T MRI. In both MRI examinations alterations on the condyle (MRI1: 88 %, MRT2: 91 %) and contrast enhancement (MRT1: 76 %, MRT2 65 %) were found most frequently. TMJ pain (65 %) and lower mouth opening capacity (65 %) were the number one finding in the first clinical examination. A statistically significant correlation was found between the alterations on the condyle and TMJ pain (p = 0.025) and between the alterations on the condyle and lower mouth opening capacity (p = 0.019). By comparing the results of the first MRI with the results of the follow-up MRI, we identified a trend towards a progression of TMJ arthritis, while the clinical follow-up showed an improvement in most patients. We found a discrepancy between the progressive or stable trends of pathological findings in follow-up MRI and the decrease in clinical symptoms over time. Therefore, follow-up examination by MRI shows important information for correct evaluation about the stage of TMJ arthritis and about the need for treatment. Consequently, follow-up examination by MRI is an appropriate addition to clinical examination in the therapeutic concept. (orig.)

  19. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor ; MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the characteristic MR imaging findings of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT). We retrospectively reviewed MR images and pathologic findings of seven patients (five male and two female, mean age 22) with surgically proven DNTs. We analyzed the location, size, configuration, signal intensity and contrast enhancement of nodules and accompanying calcifications, surrounding edema and calvarial changes. All tumors were located in the cortical and subcortical portions of the temporal lobes. Most tumors showed small well-demarcated gyriform cystic nodules with almost the same signal intensity as that of the cerebropinal fluid. Nodule margins were more sharply delineated on T2 than on T1-weighted images because on the former the peripheral portion of nodules shows high signal intensity. None of the patiens showed surrounding edema or mass effect. On contrast-enhanced study, one of five patients showed subtle peripheral enhancement. Two patients showed included dense calcified nodules adjacent to cystic nodules, and two showed overlying calvarial thinning. Multiple small gyriform intracortical cystic nodules and occasional dense nodular calcifications are the characteristic findings of DNTs, and these may be differentiated from other focal lesions in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with the help of MR imaging

  20. Pneumoconiosis: Comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, S.; Lee, K.S.; Chung, M.J.; Han, J.H.; Kwon, O.J.; Kim, T.S. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Samsung Medical Center

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  1. Pneumoconiosis: comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semin Chong; Kyung Soo Lee; Myung Jin Chung; Joungho Han; O. Jung Kwon; d Tae Sung Kim [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  2. Imaging Findings in Patients with Granulomatous Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oztekin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Granulomatous mastitis (GM is a rare inflammatory breast disease that may mimic the clinical characteristics and radiologic imaging findings of breast carcinoma. Considering the importance of making a correct diagnosis, careful radiologic evaluations and recognition of imaging features are necessary. Objectives The aim of this study was to review the radiological findings and diagnostic value of the imaging in GM. Patients and Methods This retrospective study involved a total of 29 patients who were diagnosed with GM between 2009 and 2013 and who underwent mammography (MG and/or ultrasound (US examination in addition to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI before diagnosis. Results Among 14 patients over 35 years of age who underwent MG imaging, focal asymmetric, ill-defined nodular, or diffusely increased densities were detected in nine (64.3%, two (14.3%, and one (7.1% subjects, respectively, while there were no pathological findings in two (14.3% patients. In the overall group of 29 patients, US showed heterogeneous hypoechoic lesions with tubular extensions in 16 (55.2%, well-demarcated heterogeneous hypoechoic lesions in eight (27.6%, parenchymal heterogeneous appearance in three (10.3%, and a heterogeneous hypoechoic lesion with irregular margins in one (3.4%, with another (3.4% patient having normal US findings. MRI findings included lesions consistent with solitary or multiple separate or confluent abscesses with marked peripheral ring enhancement in 25 (86.2% patients, accompanied by intensity changes suggesting edematous inflammation in the peripheral parenchyma, as well as non-mass-like heterogeneous segmental and regional contrast enhancement. Four (13.8% patients had non-mass-like segmental and regional contrast enhancement only. A histopathological diagnosis of GM was established in all patients with biopsy. Conclusion GM presents with a wide range of conventional radiological findings, hampering the diagnosis. In patients

  3. MR findings of ADEM in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Dong Erk; Ko, Ki Young; Yoo, Shi Joon; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Suh, Dae Chul; Choi, Hyo Kyeong [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hae Young [Ewha University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choun Sik [Young Dong Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    To evaluate MR characteristics of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in children, which was confirmed by clinical findings. The subjects were six patients, who were diagnosed by clinical findings. One subject had recurrence one year after clinical improvement leading to one additional care with the total of seven. The modes of viral infections were as follows; four cases of non-specific upper respiratory tract infection, one of E-B virus, one f Japanese-B-encephalitis vaccination, and one of upper respiratory infection in Bruton's disease. The Gd-DTPA enhanced scan was performed in all cases. MR findings were evaluated in anatomic location of the lesions, presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the temporal changes were also evaluated on follow-up MRI. There were multifocal high signal intensity lesions on T2WI in all cases. The location of lesions were basal ganglia in five, thalamus and brain stem in four, and cerebral gray and white matter and cerebellar white matter in three. Bilaterality was 77%. There were contrast enhancement in two of three cerebral cortical lesions and one of three white matter lesions. The size of lesions decreased on the first follow-up MRI which were done after 1 month in 4 cases, but new lesions were developed in two cases. On the second follow-up MRI which were done 2 months after, all lesions were decreased in size and there was no newly developed lesion. However, in one case who had recurrent similar symptom after 1 year, several new lesions developed on follow-up MRI, and it was comidened as a recurrence. The characteristic MR findings of ADEM were multifocal bilateral white and gray matter lesions which were high signal intensities on T2WI. The majority of lesions improved on follow-up MRI, but occasionally showed multiphasic pattern.

  4. MR imaging findings in patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively examined the MR imaging (MRI) findings in 144 patients with epilepsy (31 with temporal lobe epilepsy and 113 with other epilepsies). 110 cases (76.4%) showed abnormal findings such as spotty lesions in white matter, hippocampal atrophy and/or signal change, ventricular dilatation and/or deformity, developmental lesions, brain tumors and so on. Hippocampal atrophy and/or signal change was shown in 74.1% of temporal lobe epilepsy, a remarkably high percentage (p<0.01) compared with the other types of epilepsies (18.1%). This finding means that hippocampal lesions may play a large part in the cause of temporal lobe epilepsy. Investigation of the relationship between clinical term and abnormal findings revealed that the longer the clinical term, the large the number of hippocampal lesions, regardless of whether it is temporal lobe epilepsy or not. Thus hippocampal lesions may occur as a result of hypoxia accompanied with seizure. Therefore we recommend horizontal and/or vertical sections of hippocampus in MR imaging of all patients with epilepsy. Even though MR finding may reflect some secondary lesions, MRI will shed some light on the proper understanding of epilepsy. (author)

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in Kimura's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although early diagnosis of Kimura's disease, a rare chronic inflammatory disorder most commonly presenting with asymmetric swelling in the head and neck region, is helpful in avoiding unnecessary diagnostic tests and starting prompt treatment, only a few reports emphasized radiological findings in detail. Magnetic resonance imaging findings showing the infiltrative nature of the disease and diffuse loss of fat tissue even in nonpalpable normally appearing regions of the head and neck in a young man with Kimura's disease are presented in this report. (orig.)

  6. Imaging findings in acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Caio Giometti; Diniz, Fabio de Vilhena; Garcia, Marcio Ricardo Taveira; Gomes, Regina Lucia Elia; Daniel, Mauro Miguel; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Imaging Dept.

    2011-09-15

    Acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis is a benign and rare condition that presents calcification of the superior oblique fibers of longus colli muscle with local inflammatory reaction. Such condition is one of the less common presentations of calcium hydroxyapatite deposition disease. Clinical signs are usually acute neck pain and odynophagia, and it may be misdiagnosed as retropharyngeal abscess, spondylodiscitis or traumatic injury. The imaging findings in calcific prevertebral tendinitis are pathognomonic. The knowledge of such findings is extremely important to avoid unnecessary interventions in a patient presenting a condition with a good response to conservative treatment. (author)

  7. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital-including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome)-or compressive-including "nutcracker" syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic. PMID:27777480

  8. Iron overload following bone marrow transplantation in children: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of post-transfusional iron overload in children after bone marrow transplantation by reviewing their magnetic resonance imaging (MR) findings. Materials and methods. We reviewed the abdominal MR studies of 13 children after autologous bone marrow transplantation. Nine of the children had also undergone MR prior to transplantation. Iron deposition in the liver, spleen and bone marrow was graded semi-quantitatively on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Serum ferritin levels and number of blood units given after bone marrow transplantation were recorded. Results. None of the pre-transplantation MR studies revealed iron overload. After bone marrow transplantation, three children showed normal liver and spleen. Iron overload in the liver was noted in ten patients (77 %), six of whom also showed iron overload in the spleen (46 %) and five in the bone marrow (38.5 %). The degree of hepatic iron overload was correlated significantly and splenic iron overload was correlated weakly with the number of blood transfusions (P 0.01 and P > 0.01, respectively), but neither was correlated with the serum ferritin level. Conclusion. Iron overload commonly accompanies bone marrow transplantation. The observed pattern of iron deposition, in which the spleen was uninvolved in 40 % of patients demonstrating iron overload, is not typical of post-transfusional hemochromatosis. (orig.)

  9. Iron overload following bone marrow transplantation in children: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornreich, L.; Horev, G.; Grunebaum, M. [Department of Imaging, Schneider Children`s Medical Center of Israel, Beilinson Medical Campus, 49202 Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University (Israel); Yaniv, I.; Stein, J.; Zaizov, R. [Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Schneider Children`s Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University (Israel)

    1997-11-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of post-transfusional iron overload in children after bone marrow transplantation by reviewing their magnetic resonance imaging (MR) findings. Materials and methods. We reviewed the abdominal MR studies of 13 children after autologous bone marrow transplantation. Nine of the children had also undergone MR prior to transplantation. Iron deposition in the liver, spleen and bone marrow was graded semi-quantitatively on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Serum ferritin levels and number of blood units given after bone marrow transplantation were recorded. Results. None of the pre-transplantation MR studies revealed iron overload. After bone marrow transplantation, three children showed normal liver and spleen. Iron overload in the liver was noted in ten patients (77 %), six of whom also showed iron overload in the spleen (46 %) and five in the bone marrow (38.5 %). The degree of hepatic iron overload was correlated significantly and splenic iron overload was correlated weakly with the number of blood transfusions (P = 0.01 and P > 0.01, respectively), but neither was correlated with the serum ferritin level. Conclusion. Iron overload commonly accompanies bone marrow transplantation. The observed pattern of iron deposition, in which the spleen was uninvolved in 40 % of patients demonstrating iron overload, is not typical of post-transfusional hemochromatosis. (orig.) With 1 fig., 2 tabs., 15 refs.

  10. Imaging findings of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 15-year-old girl was referred to a dentist complaining of parageusia, bad taste in the mouth, which started 9 months ago. Panoramic X-ray and non-enhanced computed tomography scan revealed multiple bilateral unilocular cysts in the mandible and maxilla, along with calcification of anterior part of the falx cerebri. She was eventually diagnosed with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome based on imaging and histopathologic finding of keratocystic odontogenic tumor

  11. Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma: novel MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Salutario J.; Vinson, Emily N. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Moreno, Courtney Coursey [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States); Dodd, Leslie G. [University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Brigman, Brian E. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-05-15

    To describe novel MR imaging features, and clinical characteristics of soft tissue angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH) at presentation, local recurrence, and metastases. We described the MRI findings of six cases of histologically proven AFH. Pathologic findings, clinical presentation, and outcome were reviewed. Lesions were primarily cystic. At initial presentation, tumors were surrounded by low signal intensity fibrous pseudocapsule. High signal intensity consistent with the lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate was seen in T2-weighted and post-contrast images as a rim over the hypointense pseudocapsule (double rim sign). High signal intensity infiltrating tumoral cords extended into adjacent tissues, through pseudocapsular defects on T2-weighted and post-contrast images. The cystic component and tumor cell nodularity were demonstrated at post-contrast images. Clinically, lesions were often thought to be benign, underwent marginal resection, developed local recurrence, and one developed second recurrence consisting of metastases. Recurrent tumors appeared as multiple masses, misinterpreted as post-surgical changes. An intramuscular recurrence demonstrated double rim and infiltrating margin. A predominantly well-circumscribed, primarily cystic mass with double-rim and marginal infiltration on MRI suggests the possibility of AFH, in particular in child or young adult. Inclusion of these novel observations in AFH differential diagnosis may have a significant impact on treatment and prevention of recurrence. (orig.)

  12. Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma: novel MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe novel MR imaging features, and clinical characteristics of soft tissue angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH) at presentation, local recurrence, and metastases. We described the MRI findings of six cases of histologically proven AFH. Pathologic findings, clinical presentation, and outcome were reviewed. Lesions were primarily cystic. At initial presentation, tumors were surrounded by low signal intensity fibrous pseudocapsule. High signal intensity consistent with the lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate was seen in T2-weighted and post-contrast images as a rim over the hypointense pseudocapsule (double rim sign). High signal intensity infiltrating tumoral cords extended into adjacent tissues, through pseudocapsular defects on T2-weighted and post-contrast images. The cystic component and tumor cell nodularity were demonstrated at post-contrast images. Clinically, lesions were often thought to be benign, underwent marginal resection, developed local recurrence, and one developed second recurrence consisting of metastases. Recurrent tumors appeared as multiple masses, misinterpreted as post-surgical changes. An intramuscular recurrence demonstrated double rim and infiltrating margin. A predominantly well-circumscribed, primarily cystic mass with double-rim and marginal infiltration on MRI suggests the possibility of AFH, in particular in child or young adult. Inclusion of these novel observations in AFH differential diagnosis may have a significant impact on treatment and prevention of recurrence. (orig.)

  13. Imaging Finding in 222 Patients with Vestibular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zahiri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Vestibular Schwannoma is the most common cranial schwannoma with gradually produce sensorineural deafness. In this study we observed the effect of Gamma Knife therapy for control of this type of schwannoma."nPatients and Methods: We observed imaging findings of 250 patients with vestibular schwannoma from September 2003 to October 2007. We performed the Gamma Knife with C model (Elekta Company for the treatment and control of the tumor."nResults: The minimum age of our patients was 14 years and maximum age was 90 years. Twenty six patients was N.F.2, and female to male ratio was 2/1. The most common imaging finding was loss of central contrast enhancement in contrast MRI beginning after nine months after Gamma Knife. Loss of volume and cystic changes were other imaging findings and regrowth of tumor was seen in same case. After three years follow up, tumor control, tumor regression, and tumor enlargement were seen in 85%, 10%, and 5% of our patients respectively."nConclusion: Gamma Knife should be considered as a suitable treatment option for the treatment of Vestibular Schwannoma.

  14. Penile epithelioid sarcoma: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirikci, A.; Bayram, M.; Demirci, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, Gaziantep (Turkey); Bakir, K. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, Gaziantep (Turkey); Sarica, K. [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, Gaziantep (Turkey)

    1999-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 38-year-old man with epithelioid sarcoma of the penis is presented. It started as a firm, painless and slowly growing nodule at the base of his penis 6 months previously which caused pain radiating to the testis during coitus. It has been well known that sarcomas may well mimic reactive processes. Initial presentation of epithelioid sarcoma may provoke considerable diagnostic difficulty, and its differentiation from benign lesions, such as Peyronie`s disease and chronic inflammation, may be a clinical problem. In our present report the MR findings are compared with those of the epithelioid sarcomas of various locations reported in the literature and differential diagnosis of the entity is discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the MR findings of the epithelioid sarcoma of penis. (orig.) With 3 figs., 16 refs.

  15. MR imaging findings of acute gouty arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyung Kyu [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jee Young [Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jin Suck [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and MR imaging features of acute gouty arthritis and to define the characteristic findings that would be helpful for differentiating acute gouty arthritis from septic arthritis. The authors retrospectively studied seven patients who suffered from acute gouty arthritis. The MR imaging findings were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists who focused on joint effusion, subchondral bone erosion, bone marrow edema, synovial thickening (regular and even, or irregular and nodular), and the soft tissue changes (edema or abscess). The clinical records of the patients were reviewed with regard to age and gender, the clinical presentation and the laboratory findings (serum uric acid, WBC, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and synovial fluid culture). The patients consisted of six men and one woman whose mean age was 41 years (age range:24-65 years). The joints involved were the knee (n=6), and ankle (n=1). Two patients had medical histories of gouty attacks that involved the first metatarsophalangeal joint. In six cases, the serum uric acid level during acute attacks was elevated. In all the patients, the affected joint became swollen, hot, erythematous and extremely tender, and this was accompanied by a high ESR and a high C-reactive protein level at the time of presentation. The results of Gram stain and culture of the synovial fluid were negative. In all patients, the MR images showed large amounts of joint effusion, thick irregular and nodular synovial thickening and soft tissue edema without subchondral bone erosions and soft tissue abscess. In one case, subchondral bone marrow edema of the medial femoral condyle was present. In five cases, there were multiple low signal foci in the joint on the spin-echo T2-weighted MR image. Even though the MR imaging findings of acute gouty arthritis are nonspecific, it should be considered as a possible diagnosis when a large amount of joint effusion

  16. Imaging findings in congenital hepatic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhan, Okan [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: akhano@tr.net; Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Ergen, Bilge [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-01-15

    Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) is a rare congenital multisystemic disorder, mostly inherited in autosomal recessive fashion, primarily affecting renal and hepatobiliary systems. Main underlying process of the disease is the malformation of the ductal plate, the embryological precursor of the biliary system, and secondary biliary strictures and periportal fibrosis ultimately leading to portal hypertension. The natural course of the disease is highly variable ranging from minimally symptomatic disease to true cirrhosis of the liver. However, in most patients the most common manifestations of the diseases that are related to portal hypertension, particularly splenomegaly and bleeding varices. Many other disease processes may co-exist with the disease including Caroli's disease, choledochal cysts and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) reflecting the mulstisystemic nature of the disease. The associating biliary ductal disease led the authors to think that all these entities are a continuum and different reflections of the same underlying pathophysiological process. Although, conventional method of diagnosis of CHF is the liver biopsy the advent of imaging technologies and modalities, today, may permit the correct diagnosis in a non-invasive manner. Characteristic imaging features are generally present and recognition of these findings may obviate liver biopsy while preserving the diagnostic accuracy. In this article, it is aimed to increase the awareness of the practising radiologists to the imaging findings of this uncommon clinical disorder and trail the blaze for future articles relating to this issue.

  17. Imaging findings in fetal diaphragmatic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamo, Leonor; Gudinchet, François; Meuli, Reto

    2015-12-01

    Imaging plays a key role in the detection of a diaphragmatic pathology in utero. US is the screening method, but MRI is increasingly performed. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is by far the most often diagnosed diaphragmatic pathology, but unilateral or bilateral eventration or paralysis can also be identified. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration can be located in the diaphragm and, exceptionally, diaphragmatic tumors or secondary infiltration of the diaphragm from tumors originating from an adjacent organ have been observed in utero. Congenital abnormalities of the diaphragm impair normal lung development. Prenatal imaging provides a detailed anatomical evaluation of the fetus and allows volumetric lung measurements. The comparison of these data with those from normal fetuses at the same gestational age provides information about the severity of pulmonary hypoplasia and improves predictions about the fetus's outcome. This information can help doctors and families to make decisions about management during pregnancy and after birth. We describe a wide spectrum of congenital pathologies of the diaphragm and analyze their embryological basis. Moreover, we describe their prenatal imaging findings with emphasis on MR studies, discuss their differential diagnosis and evaluate the limits of imaging methods in predicting postnatal outcome. PMID:26255159

  18. Imaging findings in fetal diaphragmatic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamo, Leonor; Gudinchet, Francois [University Hospital Center of Lausanne, Unit of Radiopediatrics, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Meuli, Reto [University Hospital Center of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    Imaging plays a key role in the detection of a diaphragmatic pathology in utero. US is the screening method, but MRI is increasingly performed. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is by far the most often diagnosed diaphragmatic pathology, but unilateral or bilateral eventration or paralysis can also be identified. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration can be located in the diaphragm and, exceptionally, diaphragmatic tumors or secondary infiltration of the diaphragm from tumors originating from an adjacent organ have been observed in utero. Congenital abnormalities of the diaphragm impair normal lung development. Prenatal imaging provides a detailed anatomical evaluation of the fetus and allows volumetric lung measurements. The comparison of these data with those from normal fetuses at the same gestational age provides information about the severity of pulmonary hypoplasia and improves predictions about the fetus's outcome. This information can help doctors and families to make decisions about management during pregnancy and after birth. We describe a wide spectrum of congenital pathologies of the diaphragm and analyze their embryological basis. Moreover, we describe their prenatal imaging findings with emphasis on MR studies, discuss their differential diagnosis and evaluate the limits of imaging methods in predicting postnatal outcome. (orig.)

  19. Imaging findings of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beall, Douglas P.; Sweet, Clifford F.; Martin, Hal D.; Lastine, Craig L.; Grayson, David E.; Ly, Justin Q.; Fish, Jon R. [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Department of Radiologal Sciences, Oklahoma City (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAI) is a pathologic entity which can lead to chronic symptoms of pain, reduced range of motion in flexion and internal rotation, and has been shown to correlate with degenerative arthritis of the hip. History, physical examination, and supportive radiographic findings such as evidence of articular cartilage damage, acetabular labral tearing, and early-onset degenerative changes can help physicians diagnose this entity. Several pathologic changes of the femur and acetabulum are known to predispose patients to develop FAI and recognition of these findings can ultimately lead to therapeutic interventions. The two basic mechanisms of impingement - cam impingement and pincer impingement - are based on the type of anatomic anomaly contributing to the impingement process. These changes can be found on conventional radiography, MR imaging, and CT examinations. However, the radiographic findings of this entity are not widely discussed and recognized by physicians. In this paper, we will introduce these risk factors, the proposed supportive imaging criteria, and the ultimate interventions that can help alleviate patients' symptoms. (orig.)

  20. Imaging findings of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAI) is a pathologic entity which can lead to chronic symptoms of pain, reduced range of motion in flexion and internal rotation, and has been shown to correlate with degenerative arthritis of the hip. History, physical examination, and supportive radiographic findings such as evidence of articular cartilage damage, acetabular labral tearing, and early-onset degenerative changes can help physicians diagnose this entity. Several pathologic changes of the femur and acetabulum are known to predispose patients to develop FAI and recognition of these findings can ultimately lead to therapeutic interventions. The two basic mechanisms of impingement - cam impingement and pincer impingement - are based on the type of anatomic anomaly contributing to the impingement process. These changes can be found on conventional radiography, MR imaging, and CT examinations. However, the radiographic findings of this entity are not widely discussed and recognized by physicians. In this paper, we will introduce these risk factors, the proposed supportive imaging criteria, and the ultimate interventions that can help alleviate patients' symptoms. (orig.)

  1. Imaging findings of Hoffa's fat pad herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the radiologic findings of herniation of Hoffa's fat pad through a defect in the lateral patellar retinaculum in young children who presented with painless masses visible by ultrasound (US) only with flexion of the knee. Six children, between the ages of 1-8 years, presented with an anterolateral knee mass that was not tender and was only seen and palpable with knee flexion. An US was performed in all patients, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 2 patients and knee radiographs in 1 patient. US imaging displayed focal herniation of Hoffa's fat pad within the infrapatellar region through a defect of the lateral retinaculum, visible only during dynamic imaging when the knee was in flexion. MRI performed in knee extension did not demonstrate a mass; however, it revealed a focal defect in the lateral retinaculum in the region of the abnormality. Radiographs were normal. Focal herniation of Hoffa's fat pad is an uncommon cause of an anterolateral knee mass in young children. When a knee mass is only identified in flexion, focal fat herniation through a defect in the retinaculum should be suspected and a dynamic US should be performed. (orig.)

  2. Imaging findings of Hoffa's fat pad herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, Nancy A.; Khwaja, Asef [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Epelman, Monica [Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Orlando, FL (United States); Callahan, Michael J. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-04-15

    We report the radiologic findings of herniation of Hoffa's fat pad through a defect in the lateral patellar retinaculum in young children who presented with painless masses visible by ultrasound (US) only with flexion of the knee. Six children, between the ages of 1-8 years, presented with an anterolateral knee mass that was not tender and was only seen and palpable with knee flexion. An US was performed in all patients, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 2 patients and knee radiographs in 1 patient. US imaging displayed focal herniation of Hoffa's fat pad within the infrapatellar region through a defect of the lateral retinaculum, visible only during dynamic imaging when the knee was in flexion. MRI performed in knee extension did not demonstrate a mass; however, it revealed a focal defect in the lateral retinaculum in the region of the abnormality. Radiographs were normal. Focal herniation of Hoffa's fat pad is an uncommon cause of an anterolateral knee mass in young children. When a knee mass is only identified in flexion, focal fat herniation through a defect in the retinaculum should be suspected and a dynamic US should be performed. (orig.)

  3. Renal imaging in children with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwit Rahmawati; Heru Muryawan; Farah Prabowo

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney failure is a cause of death in children. Diagnosing chronic kidney disease is often made by clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and ultrasonography or other imaging tests. Early detection of chronic kidney disease is needed for education and management of the disease. Objective To describe renal imaging findings and mortality in children with chronic kidney disease. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on children with kidney diseases who were in...

  4. Apophysitis of the lower limbs: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apophyses are secondary ossification centers that appear during growth. These ossification centers are under traction forces because of insertion of muscles and ligaments. When traction stress become greater in magnitude and frequency irritation of physis (growth plate) may occur resulting in apophysitis. Apophysitis injuries typically occur in active adolescents and usually presents as peri-articular pain associated with growth, skeletal immaturity, repetitive microtrauma and muscle-tendon imbalance. The most common types of apophysitis of the include Osgood-Schlatter disease (tibial tuberosity), apophysitis of the hip (iliac crest, ischial tuberosity), Sever's disease (posterior calcaneus), Sindig-Larsen-Johansson syndrome (inferior patella), and Iselin's disease (fifth metarsal base). The aim of this study was to show the main magnetic resonance imaging and X-rays findings in patients with these diseases and to discuss the frequent differential diagnosis. (author)

  5. Histiocytic disorders of the chest: imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jitesh; Kanne, Jeffrey P; Meyer, Cristopher A; Pipavath, Sudhakar N J; Schmidt, Rodney A; Swanson, Jonathan O; Godwin, J David

    2015-01-01

    Histiocytic disorders of the chest comprise a broad spectrum of diseases. The lungs may be involved in isolation or as part of systemic disease. Some of these disorders are primary and have unknown etiology, and others result from a histiocytic response to a known cause. Among primary histiocytic disorders, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is the most common; others include Erdheim-Chester disease and Rosai-Dorfman disease. Adult PLCH occurs almost exclusively in adults aged 20-40 years who smoke. Pediatric PLCH is extremely rare and typically occurs as part of multisystemic disease. Erdheim-Chester disease affects middle-aged and older adults; thoracic involvement usually occurs as part of systemic disease. Rosai-Dorfman disease affects children and young adults and manifests as painless cervical lymphadenopathy. Examples of secondary histiocytic disorders are storage diseases such as Gaucher disease, Niemann-Pick disease, and Fabry disease; pneumoconiosis such as silicosis and coal workers' pneumoconiosis; and infections such as Whipple disease and malakoplakia. These disorders are characterized at histopathologic examination on the basis of infiltration of alveoli or the pulmonary interstitium by histiocytes, which are a group of cells that includes macrophages and dendritic cells. Dendritic cells are a heterogeneous group of nonphagocytic antigen-presenting immune cells. Immunohistochemical markers help to distinguish among various primary histiocytic disorders. Characteristic radiologic findings in the appropriate clinical context may obviate biopsy to establish a correct diagnosis. However, in the absence of these findings, integration of clinical, pathologic, and radiologic features is required to establish a diagnosis. PMID:25763722

  6. Oral findings in children with celiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    ERTEKİN, Vildan; SÜMBÜLLÜ, Muhammed Akif; Tosun, Mahya Sultan

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether Turkish children with celiac disease (CD) show dental enamel defects (DEDs), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), teeth missing, and xerostomia, and to compare the results with age- and sex-matched healthy children. Materials and methods: The oral cavity was explored in 81 patients with CD (mean age 8.7 ± 3.7 years; age range 2.5 to 17 years) and in 20 healthy controls. Enamel defects, teeth missing, RAS, and xerostomia were established. Results: Forty-three (53....

  7. Ultrasonographic findings in thymic lymphoma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sonographic manifestations of thymic involvement by T lymphoblastic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma/leukaemia in 6 children are presented. The criteria which may help in its differentiation from a normal thymus gland are reviewed. Hypoechoic and non-homogeneous large masses are the most typical presentation of thymic infiltration. Fixity of tumour and compression of surrounding structures are the most important associated signs with pleural and pericardial effusions. In children, ultrasonography of the mediastinum can play a role by establishing the nature of anterior masses. (orig.)

  8. Characterization of spinal findings in children and adults with neurofibromatosis type 1 enrolled in a natural history study using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Rosa; Dombi, Eva; Akshintala, Srivandana; Baldwin, Andrea; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2015-01-01

    To characterize spinal abnormalities in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). NF1 patients with at least one spine MRI were selected from participants prospectively enrolled in the National Cancer Institute NF1 Natural History Study. Data were analyzed retrospectively. Ninety-seven patients (38 females, median age 14.2 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.6) had baseline imaging of the spine, and 26 patients (27 %) had one follow-up spine MRI (follow up time 2.5 years, SD 1.1, range 0.7-4.7). Seventy-eight patients (80 %) had spinal neurofibromas, with rising frequency from 70 % in patients younger than 10 years to 80 % in patients aged 10-18 years to 89 % in individuals older than 18 years of age. At baseline, 33/97 patients (34 %) had MRI changes consistent with spinal cord compression that was most prevalent at the cervical (43 %) and lumbar spine region (40 %). Seven of nine patients with progression of their spinal neurofibromas developed cord compression. Paraspinal plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) were present in 77/97 patients (79 %), of which 68 patients (88 %) had concomitant spinal neurofibromas. Spinal curvature abnormality was present in 50/97 patients (51 %, 20 females, median age 14.6 years, SD 7.6). Patients with paraspinal PNs had six-fold higher odds of developing spinal curvature abnormalities compared to patients without PN (OR = 5.9, 95 % CI 1.81 to 19.44, p = 0.0033). A total of 58/97 patients (60 %, median age 16.1 years, SD 7.8, range 4.8-48.2 years) presented with neurologic abnormalities that progressed in 12/26 patients (46 %). Substantial spinal neurofibroma and paraspinal PN burden was observed in our study population, which represents a selective group of patients with specifically more severe tumor involvement than the general NF1 population. Occurrence and progression of spinal neurofibromas on repeat evaluations highlight the need for longitudinal clinical monitoring in patients with known

  9. Television Advertising and Children: Issues, Research and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esserman, June F., Ed.

    This volume consists of 10 papers dealing with issues, research and research findings regarding the effects of television advertising on children. The first paper critically examines recent research literature which bears on policy questions related to the effects of television advertising on children. Findings from a study designed to examine…

  10. Ophthalmologic Findings in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Kurt; Kemal Türkyılmaz; Adem Gül

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a chronic disease which is seen in early childhood, i.e. in the first two years of life. It is a non-progressive disorder resulting from a defect or lesion in the immature brain and thus leading to posture and movement disorders. The reason for facing high rates of ophthalmologic problems in CP cases is that visual functions are covered in a large area in the brain. While vision defect in the normal population ranges from 4 to 5%, this rate in children with CP ...

  11. Imaging features of juxtacortical chondroma in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Stephen F. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Juxtacortical chondroma is a rare benign bone lesion in children. Children usually present with a mildly painful mass, which prompts diagnostic imaging studies. The rarity of this condition often presents a diagnostic challenge. Correct diagnosis is crucial in guiding surgical management. To describe the characteristic imaging findings of juxtacortical chondroma in children. We identified all children who were diagnosed with juxtacortical chondroma between 1998 and 2012. A single experienced pediatric radiologist reviewed all diagnostic imaging studies, including plain radiographs, CT, MR and bone scans. Seven children (5 boys and 2 girls) with juxtacortical chondroma were identified, ranging in age from 6 years to 16 years (mean 12.3 years). Mild pain and a palpable mass were present in all seven children. Plain radiographs were available in 6/7, MR in 7/7, CT in 4/7 and skeletal scintigraphy in 5/7 children. Three lesions were located in the proximal humerus, with one each in the distal radius, distal femur, proximal tibia and scapula. Radiographic and CT features deemed highly suggestive of juxtacortical chondroma included cortical scalloping, underlying cortical sclerosis and overhanging margins. MRI features consistent with juxtacortical chondroma included isointensity to skeletal muscle on T1, marked hyperintensity on T2 and peripheral rim enhancement after contrast agent administration. One of seven lesions demonstrated intramedullary extension, and 2/7 showed adjacent soft-tissue edema. Juxtacortical chondroma is an uncommon benign lesion in children with characteristic features on plain radiographs, CT and MR. Recognition of these features is invaluable in guiding appropriate surgical management. (orig.)

  12. Computer Vision Tools for Finding Images and Video Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    Computer vision offers a variety of techniques for searching for pictures in large collections of images. Appearance methods compare images based on the overall content of the image using certain criteria. Finding methods concentrate on matching subparts of images, defined in a variety of ways, in hope of finding particular objects. These ideas…

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No To submit ... facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments ...

  14. Oral findings of Down syndrome children in Chennai city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asokan Sharath

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the common oral findings and anomalies of Down syndrome (DS children in Chennai city, India. Materials and Methods: Among the 130 DS children examined, 102 children aged 15 years and below were included in the study. There were 57 male children and 45 female children in the total study sample. A specially prepared case record was used to record the following findings in each child: a brief family and personal history; anomalies of soft tissues, teeth, occlusion, and temporomandibular joint. Age wise and sex wise comparisons of the findings were done. Results: About 97 children (95% had the habit of regular tooth brushing. Everted lower lip (66%, retained primary teeth (31%, and midface deficiency (76% were the most commonly seen soft tissue, dental, and occlusion anomalies, respectively. Conclusions: Midface deficiency was the most common orofacial anomaly seen in these children, followed by everted lower lip and retained primary teeth. Almost all the children had a regular tooth brushing habit. All the children examined were offered free dental treatment in our dental college.

  15. MRI findings and differential diagnosis in children with cerebral paragonimiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zeng

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The clinical manifestations of cerebral paragonimiasis are nonspecific in children while the MRI findings of cerebral paragonimiasis are characteristic, including irregular hemorrhage, ring-like enhancement and disproportionately large areas of surrounding edema. Brain MRI plays an important role in the diagnosis of cerebral paragonimiasis in children.

  16. Mothers' and Their Children's Self-Concepts: A Serendipitous Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocco, Thomas S.

    1975-01-01

    Findings of the study resubstantiate earlier results: a) mother's self-concept measures are related to children's self-concept measures, and b) mother's self-concept measures at the beginning of the school year are related to change in children's self-concept measures over the course of the school year as well as to latter's end-of-school-year…

  17. Find Your Image between the Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rachel Singer

    2004-01-01

    Librarians' unfortunate fixation on image as a defining generational characteristic also makes them just as guilty of promoting misconceptions as nonlibrarians. Can the profession stand another article in the general press that trumpets the amazing new discovery that librarians can be young, trendy, stylish? The level of our colleagues'…

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in tuberculous meningoencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pui, M.H.; Memon, W.A. [Aga Khan Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for distinguishing tuberculosis from other types of meningoencephalitis. MRIs of 100 patients with tuberculous (50), pyogenic (33), viral (14), or fungal (3) meningoencephalitis were analyzed independently by 2 radiologists. Number, size, location, signal characteristics, surrounding edema, and contrast enhancement pattern of nodular lesions; location and pattern of meningeal enhancement; extent of infarct or encephalitis and hydrocephalus were evaluated. Contrast-enhancing nodular lesions were detected in patients with tuberculous (43 of 50 patients), pyogenic (9 of 33), and fungal (3 of 3) infections. No nodules were detected in patients with viral meningoencephalitis. Using the criteria of 1 or more solid rim or homogeneously enhancing nodules smaller than 2 cm, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosing tuberculous meningitis were 86.0%, 90.0% and 88.0%, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful in distinguishing tuberculous from pyogenic, viral and fungal meningoencephalitis. (author)

  19. Metanephric Adenoma: clinical, imaging, and histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Marchini, Giovanni Scala, E-mail: fabio_torri@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Urologica; Campos, Rodrigo Sousa Madeira [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Urologia; Gil, Antonio Otero [Instituto Dante Pazanezzi, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Metanephric adenoma (MA), also designated nephrogenic nephroma or renal epithelial tumor resembling immature nephron, has just been recently recognized as a special type of benign renal epithelial tumor. Only few reports are found in the literature regarding this rare renal tumor. The purpose of this paper is to describe our clinical, imaging and histological / immunohistochemical observations of MA diagnosed in two patients and compare these data to previous information reported in medical databases (author)

  20. Metanephric Adenoma: clinical, imaging, and histological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metanephric adenoma (MA), also designated nephrogenic nephroma or renal epithelial tumor resembling immature nephron, has just been recently recognized as a special type of benign renal epithelial tumor. Only few reports are found in the literature regarding this rare renal tumor. The purpose of this paper is to describe our clinical, imaging and histological / immunohistochemical observations of MA diagnosed in two patients and compare these data to previous information reported in medical databases (author)

  1. Children's perceptions of eating and body image

    OpenAIRE

    S. Robinson

    1999-01-01

    Concerns about children's eating problems such as obesity, unhealthy eating, dieting and eating disorders have been rising in recent years because of their detrimental effects on children's health. By exploring nine year old children's perceptions of body image, their perceptions of the link between body size and food, and their perceptions of the control of children's eating, this study seeks to contribute to an understanding of why children may develop these eating problems. 98 children u...

  2. Incidental Cardiac Findings on Thoracic Imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kok, Hong Kuan

    2013-02-07

    The cardiac structures are well seen on nongated thoracic computed tomography studies in the investigation and follow-up of cardiopulmonary disease. A wide variety of findings can be incidentally picked up on careful evaluation of the pericardium, cardiac chambers, valves, and great vessels. Some of these findings may represent benign variants, whereas others may have more profound clinical importance. Furthermore, the expansion of interventional and surgical practice has led to the development and placement of new cardiac stents, implantable pacemaker devices, and prosthetic valves with which the practicing radiologist should be familiar. We present a collection of common incidental cardiac findings that can be readily identified on thoracic computed tomography studies and briefly discuss their clinical relevance.

  3. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Avila [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros, E-mail: braunrich@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (InRad/HC/FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas. Institutlo de Radiologia

    2016-03-15

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of health care. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases. (author)

  4. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases. PMID:27141135

  5. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Andreas Braun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases.

  6. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of health care. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases. (author)

  7. MR imaging findings in diabetic muscle infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Gitanjali; Nicholas, Richard; Pandey, Tarun; Montgomery, Corey; Jambhekar, Kedar; Ram, Roopa

    2014-10-01

    Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare, often unrecognized complication seen in patients with poorly controlled Diabetes Mellitus. The diagnosis is often missed and leads to unnecessary invasive investigations and inappropriate treatment. The patients usually present with unilateral thigh pain and swelling. MRI typically demonstrates diffuse swelling and increased T2 signal intensity within the affected muscles. The condition is self-limiting and is treated conservatively with bed rest and analgesics. Recurrences have been reported in the same or contralateral limb. We report a case of diabetic muscle infarction with spontaneous resolution of symptoms and imaging abnormality with recurrence on the contralateral side.

  8. Cystic and cavitary lung lesions in children: radiologic findings with pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odev, Kemal; Guler, Ibrahim; Altinok, Tamer; Pekcan, Sevgi; Batur, Abdussamed; Ozbiner, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    A number of diseases produce focal or multiple thin-walled or thick-walled air- or fluid-containing cysts or cavitary lung lesions in both infants and children. In infants and children, there is a spectrum of focal or multifocal cystic and cavitary lung lesions including congenital lobar emphysema, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, pleuropulmonary blastoma, bronchogenic cyst, pulmonary sequestration, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, airway diseases, infectious diseases (bacterial infection, fungal infection, etc.), hydatid cysts, destroid lung, and traumatic pseudocyst. For the evaluation of cystic or cavitary lung lesion in infants and children, imaging plays an important role in accurate early diagnosis and optimal patient management. Therefore, a practical imaging approach based on the most sensitive and least invasive imaging modality in an efficient and cost-effective manner is paramount. We reviewed the conventional radiographs and computed tomography findings of the most common cystic and cavitary lung lesions in infants and children. PMID:24605255

  9. Cystic and Cavitary Lung Lesions in Children: Radiologic Findings with Pathologic Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Odev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of diseases produce focal or multiple thin-walled or thick-walled air- or fluid-containing cysts or cavitary lung lesions in both infants and children. In infants and children, there is a spectrum of focal or multifocal cystic and cavitary lung lesions including congenital lobar emphysema, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, pleuropulmonary blastoma, bronchogenic cyst, pulmonary sequestration, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, airway diseases, infectious diseases (bacterial infection, fungal infection, etc., hydatid cysts, destroid lung, and traumatic pseudocyst. For the evaluation of cystic or cavitary lung lesion in infants and children, imaging plays an important role in accurate early diagnosis and optimal patient management. Therefore, a practical imaging approach based on the most sensitive and least invasive imaging modality in an efficient and cost-effective manner is paramount. We reviewed the conventional radiographs and computed tomography findings of the most common cystic and cavitary lung lesions in infants and children.

  10. Imaging findings of measles pneumonia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To illustrate the chest radiography and MSCT findings of measles pneumonia in adults. Methods: One hundred and sixty three measles patients underwent chest radiography, MSCT was performed in 3 of them. Measles pneumonia was confirmed in 10 patients (6.13%). Results: Eight of 10 patients had abnormal appearances in initial chest radiography. The characteristic chest radiographic findings were ground-glass opacities (n=6) and bronchial wall thickening (n=2). MSCT showed bilateral multiple ground-glass opacities in 1 patient, unilateral patchy ground-glass opacities with lobular distribution in the right upper lung in 2 patients. Conclusions: Familiarizing with radiographic and MSCT appearances of measles pneumonia in adults is very important for the differential diagnosis and appropriate management of measles pneumonia. Normal initial chest radiography cannot exclude the involvement of the lungs. (authors)

  11. MR imaging findings in cesarean scar pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze MRI findings of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP). Methods: The MR findings in 18 patients who were diagnosed as CSP by surgery from March 2010 to November 2011 were retrospectively analyzed, and comparison was made between the MRI findings and surgical results. Results: All Gestational sacs (18) were clearly detected by MRI. Among the 18 cases,gestational sac presented as cystic mass with smooth margin located within the scar of uterine wall at the lower anterior uterus in 16 cases. In 2 of the 16 cases, gestational sac was found within the myometrium, whereas in the remaining 14 cases, gestational sac was found partially within the myometrium with extension into the uterine cavity. The anterior wall of isthmus uteri became thinner. In the remaining 2 of the 18 cases, gestational sac presented as irregular, multilobolated mass, growing deep into the myometrium as well as into the uterine cavity. On T2WI, the mass showed heterogeneous signal intensity. A small amount of hemorrhage within the mass and uterine cavity could be seen on T1WI. An enhancing solid component with a heterogeneous mass could be seen. All gestational sacs in 18 cases were located at or adjacent to the previous cesarean scar. In the area of cesarean scar,the signal of the uterine wall was disconnected, with focal indentation or thinning and the previous cesarean scar exhibited hypointensity on both T1WI and T2WI. Conclusion: CSP has its unique findings on MRI, these specific features can provide useful information in the management of CSP. (authors)

  12. MRI findings and sleep apnea in children with Chiari I malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatwa, Umakanth; Ramgopal, Sriram; Mylavarapu, Alexander; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Smith, Edward; Proctor, Mark; Scott, Michael; Pai, Vidya; Zarowski, Marcin; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2013-04-01

    Chiari I malformation is characterized by downward herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. Scant data are available on the clinical course, relationship to the extent of herniation on magnetic resonance imaging in Chiari I malformation and the presence of sleep-disordered breathing on polysomnography. Retrospective analysis was performed looking at polysomnographic findings of children diagnosed with Chiari I malformation. Details on how Chiari I malformation was diagnosed, brainstem magnetic resonance imaging findings, and indications for obtaining the polysomnogram in these patients were reviewed. We also reviewed available data on children who had decompression surgery followed by postoperative polysomnography findings. Twenty-two children were identified in our study (11 males, median age 10 years, range 1 to 18). Three had central sleep apnea, five had obstructive sleep apnea, and one had both obstructive and central sleep apnea. Children with sleep-disordered breathing had excessive crowding of the brainstem structures at the foramen magnum and were more likely to have a greater length of herniation compared with those children without sleep-disordered breathing (P = 0.046). Patients with central sleep apneas received surgical decompression, and their conditions were significantly improved on follow-up polysomnography. These data suggest that imaging parameters may correlate with the presence of sleep-disordered breathing in children with Chiari I malformation.

  13. CT findings in children with blunt trauma in the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated CT findings in 19 children with blunt injuries in the spleen. CT demonstrated laceration of the spleen in 7 children, rupture of the spleen in 7, and splenic hematoma in 5. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in 3 children, of whom 1 was treated by arterial embolization. Laparotomy was performed in 3 children (15.8%) other than the 3 showing contrast medium leakage; hemostasis by compression was performed in 1 with laceration, and splenectomy in 2 with rupture. Late splenic rupture or abscess did not occur in any child. One child (5.3%) died of complicating injuries. Many of children with blunt splenic injuries can be successfully treated with conservative treatment, and CT scanning is useful for evaluating the degree of splenic injuries and complicating injuries. (author)

  14. Imaging findings of solitary fibrous tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the imaging characteristics of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Methods: This study included 11 cases with SFT proved by pathological results. The imaging manifestations were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed in comparison with surgical and pathological results. Among them, 8 patients underwent CT plain scan (1/8) or enhanced scan (7/8), 4 patients underwent MR plain scan (2/4) or enhanced scan (2/4), and only 1 patient underwent both CT and MR scan. Results: (1) SFT were located in the thoracic cavity(2/11), abdominal and pelvis (5/11), and somatic soft tissues (4/11). The average tumor size was 11.8 cm (2.5 to 23.0 cm). Among them, 4 tumors were round or ellipse, and 7 tumors were irregular. Eight tumors had well-defined contours,and the others showed ill-defined contours. (2) On CT scan, all SFTs showed inhomogeneous density with low density areas. Calcification was seen in I case,and hemorrhagic foci were detected in 2 cases. (3) On MR scan, all SFTs showed intermediate signal intensity on T1WI. Three tumors were slightly hyperintense and the other was hypointense on T2WI. All of them were rich of vascular signal voids. Three tumors,including 2 tumors with scattered long T1 and T2 signal and 1 tumor in the liver with hyperintense haemorrhage, displayed inhomogeneous mixed signal.One tumor in the orbit showed homogeneous signal. (4) On enhanced scan, 9 tumors showed irregular enhancement with multiple circuitous vessels in the arterial phase, and continuous or progressive enhancement with patch non-enhanced areas in the venous phase. (5) Histologically, SFTs were composed of juxtaposed hyper- and hypo-cellular spindle cells, dense collagenous stroma and numerous thin-walled blood vessels with a staghorn configuration. Conclusion: The possibility of SFT should be considered when a single soft tissue mass with sharp border, inhomogeneous density is detected, especially with inhomogeneous enhancement maintaining in the venous phase

  15. Brain CT findings of severely multiple handicapped children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain CT were performed in 63 severely multiple handicapped children (30 males and 33 females) ranging in age from 2 to 21 years. Abnormal findings including ventricular dilatation and cortical atrophy were detected in 56 of the patients (88.9%). There was no specific finding for athetosis type cerebral palsy. There was no constant relationship between underlying diseases and CT findings.(Namekawa, K.)

  16. Chest Radiography Findings in Primary Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Milković, Đurđica; Richter, Darko; Zoričić-Letoja, Ivka; Raos, Miljenko; Koncul, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Plain chest radiography plays a major role in the diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary tuberculosis in childhood. The aim of our study was to investigate the distribution of characteristic chest radiographic findings at diagnosis in children with pulmonary tuberculosis. The age of the patients and the type and localization of radiographic changes at admission were retrospectively analyzed. We reviewed chest radiographs in 204 children admitted from January 1, 1991 until June 30, 1994 for newl...

  17. Neuroradiologic findings in children with mitochondrial disorder: correlation with mitochondrial respiratory chain defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinna; Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Dong Ik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Eung Yeop [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Young-Mock; Lee, Joon Soo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Epilepsy Clinics, Severance Children' s Hospital, Brain Research Institute, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Heung Dong [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Epilepsy Clinics, Severance Children' s Hospital, Brain Research Institute, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul (Korea)

    2008-08-15

    Mitochondrial disorders are a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting energy metabolism that can present at any age with a wide variety of clinical symptoms. We investigated brain magnetic resonance (MR) findings in 40 children with defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complex and correlated them with the type of MRC defects. Enrolled were 40 children with MRC defects in biochemical enzyme assay of the muscle specimen. Twenty-one children were found to have classical syndromes of mitochondrial disorders and 19 children presented nonspecific mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. Their brain MR imaging findings were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with the biochemical defect in the MRC complex. Children with MRC defects showed various neuroradiologic features on brain MR imaging that resulted from a complex genetic background and a heterogeneous phenotype. Rapid progression of atrophy involving all structures of the brain with variable involvement of deep gray and white matter are the most frequent MR findings in children with MRC defects in both classical syndromes of mitochondrial disorder and nonspecific mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. The type of biochemical defect in the MRC complex enzyme did not correlate with brain MR findings in child patients. (orig.)

  18. Neuroradiologic findings in children with mitochondrial disorder: correlation with mitochondrial respiratory chain defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitochondrial disorders are a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting energy metabolism that can present at any age with a wide variety of clinical symptoms. We investigated brain magnetic resonance (MR) findings in 40 children with defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complex and correlated them with the type of MRC defects. Enrolled were 40 children with MRC defects in biochemical enzyme assay of the muscle specimen. Twenty-one children were found to have classical syndromes of mitochondrial disorders and 19 children presented nonspecific mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. Their brain MR imaging findings were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with the biochemical defect in the MRC complex. Children with MRC defects showed various neuroradiologic features on brain MR imaging that resulted from a complex genetic background and a heterogeneous phenotype. Rapid progression of atrophy involving all structures of the brain with variable involvement of deep gray and white matter are the most frequent MR findings in children with MRC defects in both classical syndromes of mitochondrial disorder and nonspecific mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. The type of biochemical defect in the MRC complex enzyme did not correlate with brain MR findings in child patients. (orig.)

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in anterolateral impingement of the ankle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, L.K. III.; Cooperman, A.E. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Helms, C.A. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Speer, K.P. [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To demonstrate the MR imaging findings of anterolateral impingement (ALI) of the ankle.Design and patients. Nine patients with a history of ankle inversion injury and chronic lateral ankle pain were imaged with MR imaging, and the findings correlated with the results of arthroscopy. Three additional patients with clinically suspected ALI of the ankle were also included. Ankle MR imaging studies from 20 control patients in whom ALI was not suspected clinically were examined for similar findings to the patient group.Results. MR imaging findings in the patients with ALI included a soft tissue signal mass in the anterolateral gutter of the ankle in 12 of 12 (100%) cases, corresponding to the synovial hypertrophy and soft tissue mass found at arthroscopy in the nine patients who underwent arthroscopy. Disruption, attenuation, or marked thickening of the anterior talofibular ligament was seen in all cases. Additional findings included signs of synovial hypertrophy elsewhere in the tibiotalar joint in seven of 12 patients (58%) and bony and cartilaginous injuries to the tibiotalar joint in five of 12 (42%). None of the control patients demonstrated MR imaging evidence of a soft tissue mass in the anterolateral gutter.Conclusions. ALI of the ankle is a common cause for chronic lateral ankle pain. It has been well described in the orthopedic literature but its imaging findings have not been clearly elucidated. The MR imaging findings, along with the appropriate clinical history, can be used to direct arthroscopic examination and subsequent debridement. (orig.)

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in anterolateral impingement of the ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To demonstrate the MR imaging findings of anterolateral impingement (ALI) of the ankle.Design and patients. Nine patients with a history of ankle inversion injury and chronic lateral ankle pain were imaged with MR imaging, and the findings correlated with the results of arthroscopy. Three additional patients with clinically suspected ALI of the ankle were also included. Ankle MR imaging studies from 20 control patients in whom ALI was not suspected clinically were examined for similar findings to the patient group.Results. MR imaging findings in the patients with ALI included a soft tissue signal mass in the anterolateral gutter of the ankle in 12 of 12 (100%) cases, corresponding to the synovial hypertrophy and soft tissue mass found at arthroscopy in the nine patients who underwent arthroscopy. Disruption, attenuation, or marked thickening of the anterior talofibular ligament was seen in all cases. Additional findings included signs of synovial hypertrophy elsewhere in the tibiotalar joint in seven of 12 patients (58%) and bony and cartilaginous injuries to the tibiotalar joint in five of 12 (42%). None of the control patients demonstrated MR imaging evidence of a soft tissue mass in the anterolateral gutter.Conclusions. ALI of the ankle is a common cause for chronic lateral ankle pain. It has been well described in the orthopedic literature but its imaging findings have not been clearly elucidated. The MR imaging findings, along with the appropriate clinical history, can be used to direct arthroscopic examination and subsequent debridement. (orig.)

  1. Neuroradiological findings in perinatally HIV-infected children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neuroradiological studies (CT, MRI, angiography) in 21 children with perinatal HIV infection were reviewed retrospectively. No patient showed an intracranial mass lesion; after intravenous contrast medium application there was no case with disturbed blood-brain barrier. Common non-specific findings were atrophy and delayed myelination. In 7 cases atrophy was combined with multifocal nearly symmetric white matter lesions, which characteristically spared the U-fibres. Further findings included an intramedullary ring-shaped structure in the cervical cord, an AIDS-associated vasculopathy and symmetric calcifications in the basal ganglia. The spectrum of neuroradiological findings in paediatric AIDS patients differs from that in adults. Knowledge of these age-specific findings is important because the number of HIV-infected children is rising. (orig.)

  2. The Children's Hearings Project Research Findings. A Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Sally E.; And Others

    Since 1980 the Children's Hearings Project (CHP) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, has offered status offenders and their families mediation as an alternative to the courts. This report describes CPH's origins and summarizes the results of an extensive research study conducted during the first 2 years of its operation. The key findings were: (1)…

  3. "Toxocara canis" Infection of Children: Epidemiology and Neurospychologic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of a serologic survey for antibodies to Toxocara canis (the common roundworm of dogs) in a sample of 4,652 New York City children. Discusses findings of a case-control study conducted to identify host and environmental risk factors for T. canis infection and to investigate its consequences. (KH)

  4. MR imaging findings suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscal, Eyal; De Guzman, Marietta M.; Myones, Barry L. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine and Pediatric Rheumatology Center, Houston, TX (United States); Traipe, Elfrides; Hunter, Jill V. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Brey, Robin L. [University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Department of Neurology, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Endothelial damage, hypertension and cytotoxic medications may serve as risk factors for the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in systemic lupus erythematosus. There have been few case reports of these findings in pediatric lupus patients. We describe clinical and neuroimaging findings in children and adolescents with lupus and a PRES diagnosis. We identified all clinically acquired brain MRIs of lupus patients at a tertiary care pediatric hospital (2002-2008). We reviewed clinical features, conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of patients with gray- and white-matter changes suggestive of vasogenic edema and PRES. Six pediatric lupus patients presenting with seizures and altered mental status had MRI findings suggestive of PRES. In five children clinical and imaging changes were seen in conjunction with hypertension and active renal disease. MRI abnormalities were diffuse and involved frontal regions in five children. DWI changes reflected increased apparent diffusivity coefficient (unrestricted diffusion in all patients). Clinical and imaging changes significantly improved with antihypertensive and fluid management. MRI changes suggestive of vasogenic edema and PRES may be seen in children with active lupus and hypertension. The differential diagnosis of seizures and altered mental status should include PRES in children, as it does in adults. (orig.)

  5. MR imaging findings suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endothelial damage, hypertension and cytotoxic medications may serve as risk factors for the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in systemic lupus erythematosus. There have been few case reports of these findings in pediatric lupus patients. We describe clinical and neuroimaging findings in children and adolescents with lupus and a PRES diagnosis. We identified all clinically acquired brain MRIs of lupus patients at a tertiary care pediatric hospital (2002-2008). We reviewed clinical features, conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of patients with gray- and white-matter changes suggestive of vasogenic edema and PRES. Six pediatric lupus patients presenting with seizures and altered mental status had MRI findings suggestive of PRES. In five children clinical and imaging changes were seen in conjunction with hypertension and active renal disease. MRI abnormalities were diffuse and involved frontal regions in five children. DWI changes reflected increased apparent diffusivity coefficient (unrestricted diffusion in all patients). Clinical and imaging changes significantly improved with antihypertensive and fluid management. MRI changes suggestive of vasogenic edema and PRES may be seen in children with active lupus and hypertension. The differential diagnosis of seizures and altered mental status should include PRES in children, as it does in adults. (orig.)

  6. Acute appendicitis in children: ultrasound and CT findings in negative appendectomy cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To decrease the negative appendectomy rate in children, knowledge of the misleading imaging findings on US and CT in negative appendicitis cases is important. To evaluate the negative appendectomy rate and describe the imaging findings of US and CT that lead radiologists to misdiagnose acute appendicitis in children. From 2007 to 2013, 374 children operated for suspected appendicitis were proved to either have acute appendicitis (n = 348) or to be negative for appendicitis (n = 26) on pathological reports. Negative appendectomy rates were compared among imaging modalities, age groups and genders. We retrospectively reviewed US and CT findings from negative appendectomy cases. The overall negative appendectomy rate was 7.0% (26/374). There were no statistically significant differences among the subgroups. The most common misleading presentations on US were sonographic tenderness (9/16, 56%) and non-compressibility (9/16, 56%). The most common misleading finding on CT were the presence of an appendicolith or hyperdense feces (5/12, 42%). Periappendiceal fat inflammation was observed in only one case of negative appendicitis on US and on CT. Radiologists can misdiagnose children with equivocal diameters of appendices as having acute appendicitis when sonographic tenderness or non-compressibility is present on US and when an appendicolith or hyperdense feces is noted on CT. The possibility of negative appendicitis should be borne in mind when periappendiceal fat inflammation is absent or minimal in indeterminate cases. (orig.)

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of proliferating trichilemmal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of proliferative trichilemmal tumor (PTT), a rare benign tumor of the scalp. MR imaging showed a well-margined mass with isointense signal on T1-weighted images and heterogeneous mixed intensity signal on T2-weighted images After i.v. administration of contrast material, the mass showed significant enhancement, with small portions remaining unenhanced. It was considered that these findings reflected the pathological characteristics of PTT, which consists of solid lobules and cystic cavities. (orig.)

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of proliferating trichilemmal tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Imanaka, Kazufumi; Hayashi, Masahiko; Kuwata, Yoichiro [Nishi-Kobe Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Kobe (Japan); Hashimoto, Kimio [Nishi-Kobe Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Kobe (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University Graduate school of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kobe (Japan)

    2005-06-01

    We report the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of proliferative trichilemmal tumor (PTT), a rare benign tumor of the scalp. MR imaging showed a well-margined mass with isointense signal on T{sub 1}-weighted images and heterogeneous mixed intensity signal on T{sub 2}-weighted images After i.v. administration of contrast material, the mass showed significant enhancement, with small portions remaining unenhanced. It was considered that these findings reflected the pathological characteristics of PTT, which consists of solid lobules and cystic cavities. (orig.)

  9. Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy in Children; Clinical and Electrophysiologic Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Hasan Tonekaboni

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the electrophysiologic findings of Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS in children and their relation with clinical progress of the disease. Methods:Twenty-three children with GBS were evaluated between 2005 and 2007. Electrophysiologic evaluations were performed at admission and one month later. Findings: Five patients needed respirator, 15 were bedridden, 1 developed recurrence 6 months later, and 2 experienced chronic GBS. The most common findings included: decreased amplitude of muscle action potential (CMAP (96%, increased distal latency (74%, increased F wave latency (69%, and decreased nerve conduction velocity (NCV (61%. Sensory nerve conduction (evaluating sural nerve was normal in 78% of the cases. These measures did not significantly change after 1 month. Conclusion:Electrodiagnostic evaluations are helpful at the primary stages of GBS for diagnosis. Fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves showing denervation and axonal injury are presentative of longer duration of the disease and a worse prognosis.

  10. Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain George Hightower searches for genetic mutations that affect HIV's ability to infect the brain. Read Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry and Biochemistry Enzymes, Molecular Probes, Metabolic ...

  11. Sickle cell anemia: a review of the imaging findings

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado, E.; Paixão, P; Schmitt, W; Penha, D; Carvalho, F; Tavares, A.

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia - a review of the imaging findings LEARNING OBJECTIVES: To review and describe the manifestations of sickle cell anemia, focusing on the typical imaging findings in the most frequent affected organs. BACKGROUND: Sickle cell anemia is an autosomal recessive genetic condition characterized by a defective form of hemoglobin (hemoglobin S), which promotes the aggregation and distortion of red blood cells. Anemia results from the rapid removal of the abnormal red ...

  12. Imaging Findings of Brain Death on 3-Tesla MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate the usefulness of 3-tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), T2*-weighted gradient recalled echo (GRE), and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in diagnosing brain death. Magnetic resonance imaging findings for 10 patients with clinically verified brain death (group I) and seven patients with comatose or stuporous mentality who did not meet the clinical criteria of brain death (group II) were retrospectively reviewed. Tonsilar herniation and loss of intraarterial flow signal voids (LIFSV) on T2WI were highly sensitive and specific findings for the diagnosis of brain death (p < 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively). DWI, TOF-MRA, and GRE findings were statistically different between the two groups (p = 0.015, 0.029, and 0.003, respectively). However, cortical high signal intensities in T2WI and SWI findings were not statistically different between the two group (p = 0.412 and 1.0, respectively). T2-weighted imaging, DWI, and MRA using 3T MRI may be useful for diagnosing brain death. However, SWI findings are not specific due to high false positive findings.

  13. Imaging Findings of Brain Death on 3-Tesla MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Chul Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hwa Pyung [Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, CHA Gumi Medical Center, CHA University, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jun Beom [Dept. of Radiology, Korean Armed Force Daejeon Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyuk Won; Kim, Easlmaan; Park, Ui Jun; Kim, Hyoung Tae [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Jeong Hun [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To demonstrate the usefulness of 3-tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), T2*-weighted gradient recalled echo (GRE), and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in diagnosing brain death. Magnetic resonance imaging findings for 10 patients with clinically verified brain death (group I) and seven patients with comatose or stuporous mentality who did not meet the clinical criteria of brain death (group II) were retrospectively reviewed. Tonsilar herniation and loss of intraarterial flow signal voids (LIFSV) on T2WI were highly sensitive and specific findings for the diagnosis of brain death (p < 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively). DWI, TOF-MRA, and GRE findings were statistically different between the two groups (p = 0.015, 0.029, and 0.003, respectively). However, cortical high signal intensities in T2WI and SWI findings were not statistically different between the two group (p = 0.412 and 1.0, respectively). T2-weighted imaging, DWI, and MRA using 3T MRI may be useful for diagnosing brain death. However, SWI findings are not specific due to high false positive findings.

  14. Neurophysiologic findings in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Kothari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Cerebral palsy (CP is a heterogeneous group of permanent, non-progressive motor disorders of movement and posture caused by chronic brain injuries. It is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood; spastic cerebral palsy being the most prevalent of its various forms. There is scanty information about the neurophysiologic investigations in children diagnosed as having spastic CP. Aims : The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between abnormal VEP and BAEP findings with different clinical parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Materials and Methods : Fifteen children with spastic CP in the age range 4 months to 10 years participated in this study. Evaluation of VEPs, brainstem evoked potentials (BAEPs were performed in all study patients as well as 35 healthy children as controls. The study was conducted after obtaining ethics committee approval and informed consent of parents. Statistical Analysis Used : Significance of difference in the mean values of different parameters in different groups was assessed by Student′s "t" test and the P value <0.05 was considered to be significant. All the values were expressed as mean ± 1 Std. Deviation. Results : A significant difference was found in the VEP latencies and amplitude between the subjects with CP and controls. Striking BAEP abnormalities in CP patients include prolongation of absolute latency of wave V, interpeak latencies of III-V and lowered I-V ratio. Abnormal VEPs and BAEPs in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy demonstrated a correlation with the presence of moderate to severe developmental delay. Conclusions : The differences in VEPs and BAEPs were determined between CP children and healthy children. The abnormalities found are probably linked to the neurological deficits present in cases of cerebral palsy.

  15. Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism Have Similar Neuroradiological Abnormal Findings as Healthy Ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Rachmiel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the neuroradiological findings of children with congenital hypothyroidism (CHT compared to healthy controls (HC. Patients and Methods. Thirty children with CHT, mean age 12.5 ± 1.6 years, 14 (44.8% males, were compared with 38 HC mean age 11.7 ± 1.7 years, 16 (45.7% males. Clinical data were collected from medical charts and questionnaires seeking information on family history, birth and perinatal period events, medications, and overall health history. Neurocognitive function was assessed for global intelligence, visual and verbal memory, and executive functioning using standardized tests. Neuroimaging was performed using 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging and assessed by two pediatric radiologists. Results. Children with CHT had a similar proportion of incidental findings as did the children in the HC group, at 43.3% and 39.5%, respectively, . Abnormalities of the sellar region were reported in 13.3% of CHT group and 7.9% of HC group, . Other incidental findings included cerebellar ectopia, choroidal fissure and pineal cysts, and multiple increased signal intensity foci. Neuroradiological findings were not associated with clinical and neurocognitive abnormalities. Conclusion. Neuroimaging of children with CHT demonstrated a similar incidence of structural abnormalities as in the healthy population. There is no association between those findings and neurocognitive function.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with medial epicondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Smet, Arthur A. De [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madison (United States)

    2005-04-01

    To compare the MR imaging findings of 13 patients with clinically diagnosed medial epicondylitis with the MR imaging findings of 26 patients of similar age with no clinical evidence of medial epicondylitis. The study group consisted of 13 patients with clinically diagnosed medial epicondylitis. The control group consisted of 26 patients of similar age with no clinical evidence of medial epicondylitis. The medical records and MR imaging findings of these patients were retrospectively reviewed by two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists. Eleven of the 13 patients in the study group had thickening and increased signal intensity of the common flexor tendon on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. The remaining two patients in the study group had soft tissue edema around a normal-appearing common flexor tendon. Twenty-one of the 26 patients in the control group had a normal-appearing common flexor tendon on MR imaging. Three patients in the control group had a thickened common flexor tendon which was of intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images but of uniform low signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Two patients in the control group had a thickened common flexor tendon which was of intermediate signal intensity on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. None of the patients in the control group had soft tissue edema around the common flexor tendon. MR imaging findings of patients with clinically diagnosed medial epicondylitis included thickening and increased T1 and T2 signal intensity of the common flexor tendon and soft tissue edema around the common flexor tendon. The presence of intermediate to high T2 signal intensity or high T2 signal intensity within the common flexor tendon and the presence of paratendinous soft tissue edema were the most specific findings of medial epicondylitis on MR imaging. (orig.)

  17. Correlation between histopathological findings and MR imaging of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the prostate gland was performed in 8 patients with cancer prior to radical prostectomy or pelvic exenteration and 3 healthy volunteers. To investigate the imaging of prostatic cancer by MR, we compared the signal intensity on T2-weighted images with histopathological findings. Firstly, the area ratio of the glandular lumen or vascular lumen to the whole area of a field of a stained prostatic gland section viewed at a 100-fold magnification, and signal intensity on T2-weighted images were measured. Then, correlations were estimated between the glandular lumen ratio and signal intensity on preoperative MR images, and between the vascular lumen ratio and signal intensity. Tissues with large glandular lumens showed high intensity on T2-weighted images. No relation was observed between the signal intensity and vascular lumen ratio. The signal intensity on T2-weighted images seemed to be correlated with the glandular lumen ratio in the prostatic gland. (author)

  18. Structural and functional imaging: Particularities in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiron, C.; Hertz-Pannier, L. [Hop Necker Enfants Malad, INSERM, Serv Neuropediat, U663, F-75015 Paris (France); Chiron, C.; Hertz-Pannier, L. [UnivParis 05, F-75005 Paris (France); Chiron, C.; Hertz-Pannier, L. [CEA, I2BM, Neurospin, SHFJ, F-91191 Orsay (France)

    2008-07-01

    Surgery of partial epilepsies in childhood has largely benefited from the recent advances of imaging techniques, which carry a triple goal: (1) to contribute to the localization of the epilepsy onset zone, (2) to detect and delineate an underlying lesion, and (3) to study the spatial relationship between the epileptogenic zone and the neighboring functional cortex, in order to select patients and plan the resection. This noninvasive pre-surgical imaging workup must be compared to clinical and electrical data to estimate the postoperative prognosis, while invasive techniques such as SEEG, cortical stimulations, and IAT often remain indispensable in difficult cases, i.e., in cryptogenic epilepsies. As in adults, advances in MRI allow us to detect more and more subtle underlying lesions, but this requires repeating MR studies during early childhood and using adapted sequence parameters to account for ongoing myelination. Ictal SPECT and PET imaging prove especially useful in planning depth electrode placement when video-EEG is not contributive, when MRI looks normal or shows multiple abnormalities, or in cases of discrepant findings. Multimodal imaging greatly enhances the sensitivity of all of these techniques. Finally, functional MRI of motor and language functions provide noninvasive cortical mapping of essential functions, using age-adapted paradigms, in cooperating children from age five to six and from IQs around 60. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of Tl-201 SPECT imaging findings in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Ozyurt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare with histopathological findings the findings of prostate cancer imaging by SPECT method using Tl-201 as a tumor seeking agent. Methods: The study comprised 59 patients (age range 51-79 years, mean age 65.3 ± 6.8 years who were planned to have transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS-guided biopsies due to suspicion of prostate cancer between April 2011 and September 2011. Early planar, late planar and SPECT images were obtained for all patients. Scintigraphic evaluation was made in relation to uptake presence and patterns in the visual assessment and to Tumor/Background (T/Bg ratios for both planar and SPECT images in the quantitative assessment. Histopathological findings were compatible with benign etiology in 36 (61% patients and malign etiology in 23 (39% patients. Additionally, comparisons were made to evaluate the relationships between uptake patterns,total PSA values and Gleason scores. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between the benign and malignant groups in terms of uptake in planar and SPECT images and T/Bg ratios and PSA values. No statistically significant difference was found between uptake patterns of planar and SPECT images and Gleason scores in the malignant group. Conclusions: SPECT images were superior to planar images in the comparative assessment. Tl-201 SPECT imaging can provide an additional contribution to clinical practice in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and it can be used in selected patients.

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body ... children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns and ...

  1. Medulloblastoma: atypical CT and MRI findings in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eran, Ayelet; Ozturk, Arzu; Aygun, Nafi; Izbudak, Izlem [Division of Neuroradiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Posterior fossa mass lesions in children usually present a diagnostic challenge despite their high frequency and the limited number of differential diagnostic possibilities. Consideration of medulloblastoma within the differential diagnosis of such lesions mandates an aggressive surgical approach as residual tumor is a known risk factor for poor prognosis. Preoperative imaging of the entire neuroaxis is critical given the high propensity of drop metastases. In this pictorial presentation, we review and demonstrate less common features of medulloblastomas to facilitate diagnosis in challenging cases. (orig.)

  2. BCGitis and BCGosis in children with primary immunodeficiency - imaging characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrot, Shai; Soudack, Michalle [Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ramat-Gan (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Barkai, Galia [Sheba Medical Center, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit, Safra Children' s Hospital, Tel-Hashomer (Israel); Ben-Shlush, Aviva [Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ramat-Gan (Israel)

    2016-02-15

    When administered to an immune-compromised patient, BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guerin) can cause disseminated and life-threatening infections. To describe the imaging findings in children with primary immunodeficiency and BCG-related infections. We reviewed the imaging findings of children with primary immunodeficiency treated at a children's hospital during 2012-2014 with localized or disseminated BCG infection. Imaging modalities included US, CT and radiography. Nine children with primary immunodeficiency had clinical signs of post-vaccination BCGitis; seven of these children showed disseminated disease and two showed only regional lesions with characteristic ipsilateral lymphadenopathy. Overall, lymphadenopathy was the most prevalent feature (n = 8) and characteristically appeared as a ring-enhancing hypodense (CT) or hypoechoic (US) lesion. Visceral involvement with multiple abscesses appeared in the spleen (n = 2), liver (n = 1) and bones (n = 1). All lesions regressed following appropriate anti-tuberculosis treatment. BCG infection needs to be considered in children with typical findings and with suspected primary immunodeficiency. (orig.)

  3. BCGitis and BCGosis in children with primary immunodeficiency - imaging characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When administered to an immune-compromised patient, BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guerin) can cause disseminated and life-threatening infections. To describe the imaging findings in children with primary immunodeficiency and BCG-related infections. We reviewed the imaging findings of children with primary immunodeficiency treated at a children's hospital during 2012-2014 with localized or disseminated BCG infection. Imaging modalities included US, CT and radiography. Nine children with primary immunodeficiency had clinical signs of post-vaccination BCGitis; seven of these children showed disseminated disease and two showed only regional lesions with characteristic ipsilateral lymphadenopathy. Overall, lymphadenopathy was the most prevalent feature (n = 8) and characteristically appeared as a ring-enhancing hypodense (CT) or hypoechoic (US) lesion. Visceral involvement with multiple abscesses appeared in the spleen (n = 2), liver (n = 1) and bones (n = 1). All lesions regressed following appropriate anti-tuberculosis treatment. BCG infection needs to be considered in children with typical findings and with suspected primary immunodeficiency. (orig.)

  4. MR findings of synovial disease in children and young adults: Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Merrow, Arnold C.; Emery, Kathleen H. [Cincinnati Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, In-One [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Synovial diseases in children can be classified into normal structures as potential sources of pathology (synovial folds: plicae, infrapatellar fat pad clefts); noninfectious synovial proliferation (juvenile idiopathic arthritis, hemophilic arthropathy, lipoma arborescens, synovial osteochondromatosis, pigmented villonodular synovitis, reactive synovitis), and infectious synovial proliferation, deposition disease, vascular malformations, malignancy (including metastasis) and intra-articular/periarticular cysts and cyst-like structures (ganglia). Familiarity with characteristic MR imaging findings of synovial diseases in children and young adults will enable a more confident diagnosis for earlier intervention and directed therapy. The first part of this paper will cover potential pathology of normal synovial structures as well as noninfectious synovial proliferation. (orig.)

  5. CT findings of pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of our study was to study the CT findings of cryptococcosis in immunocompetent children. Methods: CT scan and clinical data of 21 immunocompetent children with proven pulmonary cryptococcosis were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results: The CT scans demonstrated 1 mm subpleural nodule in the lingula of left lung in 1 patient and multiple nodules in 20 patients.Of 20 patients with multiple nodules, peripheral or subpleural distribution was found in 12 patients,and diffuse distribution in 8 patients. Of 20 patients with multiple nodules,Nodules of < 10 mm was found in 18 patients,< 3 mm in 14 patients, and > 10 mm in 2 patients. Round nodular with smooth margin was detected in 15 of 20 patients with multiple nodules. Lymphadenopathy was found in 17 patients including 3 patients with mild contrast enhancement and 2 patients with circular enhancement. Extrapulmonary lesions distributing in liver, spleen, kidney, and the nervous system were found in 14 patients. In follow-up, 1 patient died and 20 patients fully recovered. Conclusions: Pulmonary multiple nodules with lymphadenopathy is the characteristic CT findings in immunocompetent children with pulmonary cryptococcosis which is prone to involve multiple extra-pulmonary organs. (authors)

  6. Intracranial hydatid cyst: imaging findings of a rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslakian, Bedros; Darwish, Houssein

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease (echinococcosis) is a worldwide zoonosis produced by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm. The disease is endemic in many parts of the world, particularly in the Middle East, Australia, New Zealand, South America and central and south Europe. Intracranial hydatid disease is considered a rare disease and may be sometimes very difficult to diagnose based on the clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the condition and the imaging findings even in the non-endemic parts of the world. We report the case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with headache and vomiting for a few months. The mass was totally excised, with no postoperative complications. We present MR spectroscopy (MRS) findings in this operatively proven case of hydatid cyst of the brain. We discuss imaging findings, in particular the findings on MRS, which is rarely reported in the literature. PMID:27620198

  7. Intracranial hydatid cyst: imaging findings of a rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslakian, Bedros; Darwish, Houssein

    2016-09-12

    Hydatid disease (echinococcosis) is a worldwide zoonosis produced by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm. The disease is endemic in many parts of the world, particularly in the Middle East, Australia, New Zealand, South America and central and south Europe. Intracranial hydatid disease is considered a rare disease and may be sometimes very difficult to diagnose based on the clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the condition and the imaging findings even in the non-endemic parts of the world. We report the case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with headache and vomiting for a few months. The mass was totally excised, with no postoperative complications. We present MR spectroscopy (MRS) findings in this operatively proven case of hydatid cyst of the brain. We discuss imaging findings, in particular the findings on MRS, which is rarely reported in the literature.

  8. Cranial MR imaging of abused children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of intracranial sequelae of child abuse has important clinical and legal implications. CT findings are often subtle or nonspecific. Acutely, a small interhemispheric subdural hematoma (IHSDH) is seen, which may be difficult to distinguish from the falx. In chronic or recurrent abuse, ventricular dilatation and extracerebral fluid collections are encountered that may be difficult to distinguish from atrophy. Four abused children underwent MR imaging and, in each case, MR demonstrated the nature and extent of abnormalities with greater accuracy than CT. In acute abuse (two cases), the IHSDH was diagnosed with greater confidence than on CT, and convexity subdural collections were identified which could not be detected on CT. In chronic abuse (two cases) the subdural location of extracerebral collections and the extent of parenchymal damage was better appreciated on MR than CT

  9. Renal imaging in children with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwit Rahmawati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Chronic kidney failure is a cause of death in children. Diagnosing chronic kidney disease is often made by clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and ultrasonography or other imaging tests. Early detection of chronic kidney disease is needed for education and management of the disease. Objective To describe renal imaging findings and mortality in children with chronic kidney disease. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on children with kidney diseases who were inpatients at Dr. Kariadi Hospital from January 2008 to June 2011. Data were taken from medical records. Chronic kidney disease was confirmed by clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and radiologic imaging. Renal ultrasound findings were determined by the radiologist responsible at that time. Results were presented as frequency distributions. Results Of 37 chronic kidney disease cases, 27 were males and 10 were females. Subjects’ most common complaints were dyspnea (7 out of 37 and edema (30 out of 37. Renal ultrasound imaging of subjects with chronic kidney disease yielded the following findings: reduced cortico-medullary differentiation (30 out of 37, bilateral echogenic kidneys (21 out of 37, reduced renal cortex thickness (4 out of 37 and small-sized kidneys (4 out of 37. Eight of the 37 children died. These 8 subjects had the following radiologic imaging findings: both kidneys appeared small in size (4 out of 8, reduced ‘renal cortex’ thickness (4 out of 8, echogenic kidneys (6 out of 8, and reduced cortico-medullary differentiation (8 out of 8. Conclusion Renal ultrasound imaging of pediatric subjects with chronic kidney disease revealed findings of reduced cortico-medullary differentiation, bilateral echogenic kidneys, reduced renal cortex thickness, and small kidneys bilaterally. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:193-9.].

  10. Etic aspects of childrens body image

    OpenAIRE

    Bokaová, Katarína

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with marketing communication focused on children, particulary with the impact on children's body image. It reflects the regulation of advertising in terms of legal and ethical issues. It seeks to examine the manipulability of children in decision-making process and the impact of advertising and media on their healthy development. The role of the thesis is to highlight the importance of careful monitoring of the marketing development and its negative impact on childr...

  11. MRI findings in acute idiopathic transverse myelopathy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the clinical and MRI findings in three children with acute idiopathic myelopathy (AIM). Retrospective review of the clinical presentation, MRI findings and outcome of three patients diagnosed with acute idiopathic transverse myelitis. Of note was the swift onset of symptoms in all patients, without any preceding illness or history of vaccination in two of the patients, and the rapid resolution of symptoms on steroid therapy in all the patients. MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensity and patchy enhancement with gadolinium, but the extensive cord involvement did not correlate with the severity of presentation or outcome. Our findings do not support that MRI evidence alone of diffuse myelopathy is a predictor of poor outcome in childhood AIM. (orig.)

  12. MRI findings in acute idiopathic transverse myelopathy in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Albuquerque-Jonathan, Glenda; Hewlett, Richard [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, University of Cape Town and School of Child and Adolescent Health, Klipfontein Road, Cape Town (South Africa); Wilmshurst, Jo [Department of Paediatric Neurology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, University of Cape Town and School of Child and Adolescent Health, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2003-09-01

    To describe the clinical and MRI findings in three children with acute idiopathic myelopathy (AIM). Retrospective review of the clinical presentation, MRI findings and outcome of three patients diagnosed with acute idiopathic transverse myelitis. Of note was the swift onset of symptoms in all patients, without any preceding illness or history of vaccination in two of the patients, and the rapid resolution of symptoms on steroid therapy in all the patients. MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensity and patchy enhancement with gadolinium, but the extensive cord involvement did not correlate with the severity of presentation or outcome. Our findings do not support that MRI evidence alone of diffuse myelopathy is a predictor of poor outcome in childhood AIM. (orig.)

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides real-time images, images that are renewed continuously, it also ...

  14. MR imaging findings of renal infarction induced by renal artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Woo; Kim, Suck; Kim, Yong Woo; Hu, Jin Sam; Choi, Sang Yoel; Moon, Tae Yong; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Su; Lee, Chang Hun [Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Repulic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-02-01

    To assess the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in evaluating serial parenchymal changes in renal infarction induced by renal artery ligation, by comparing this with the conventional spin echo technique and correlating the results with the histopathological findings. In 22 rabbits, renal infarction was induced by ligation of the renal artery. Spin-echo T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), turbo spin-echo (TSE) T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and DWI were performed, using a 1.5-T superconductive unit, at 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2,3,6, 12 and 24 hours, and 2, 3, 7 and 20 days after left renal artery ligation. Changes in signal intensity on T1WI, T2WI, and DWI were correlated with histopathologic findings. Diffusion-weighted imaging is useful for the detection of hyperacute renal infarction, and the apparent diffusion coefficient may provide additional information concerning its evolution. (author). 21 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Atypical Imaging Findings in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Afravi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The incidence of primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSL is increasing. Timely diagnosis of PCNSL can lead to proper therapeutic management. There are some atypical imaging findings that may easily be misdiagnosed as other pathologic processes such as infectious and demyelinative diseases. As a result, histopathologic diagnosis is necessary for all suspected lesions."nPatients and Methods: In this research we studied 120 cases of PCNSL over the past 16 years. Some of them had atypical imaging findings, suggesting many differential diagnoses. Having said that, stereotactic biopsy was performed for all cases and the diagnosis was proved."nResults: We selected some interesting cases with atypical imaging findings of PCNSL, which were unlikely to be diagnosed without histopathologic evaluation. "nConclusion: PCNSL must be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis for other brain lesions. Histopathologic diagnosis is necessary for prompt management.

  16. Imaging Findings in Symptomatic Patients with Femoral Diaphyseal Stress Injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorou, S.J.; Theodorou, D.J.; Resnick, D. [Univ. of California, San Diego Medical Center, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the imaging findings seen in symptomatic patients with stress injuries of the femoral diaphysis. Material and Methods: Seven patients (5 F, 2 M, age range 16 to 56 years, mean 38 years) underwent imaging evaluation of the symptomatic lower extremity due to an insidious onset of thigh or groin pain unrelated to trauma. Imaging studies included radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in seven patients, bone scintigraphy in five, and computed tomography (CT) in three. Results: Radiographs depicted three frank fractures in two patients, and revealed findings of stress injury in six patients. Available scintigraphic and CT findings were abnormal. On MR images, a solitary fracture was seen in two patients; two patients presented with bilateral stress fractures of the femoral diaphysis; and all seven patients had the imaging features of stress injury. Femoral diaphyseal stress fractures (n=6) appeared as linear regions of T1- and T2-weighted low signal intensity, surrounded by diffuse bone marrow edema. Three of the six frank fractures, with an evident fracture line, were longitudinal and parallel to the cortical surface. Conclusion: Femoral diaphyseal stress fractures are often inconspicuous with conventional radiography. MRI depicts the changes of stress injury in the femoral diaphysis, and is particularly useful in documenting the presence, morphology, and extent of fracture(s), information valuable for definitive diagnosis and appropriate management.

  17. Alveolar echinococcosis of the liver. Findings of magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayasaka, Kazumasa; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Okuhata, Yoshitaka; Yoshinobu, Takashi; Takemoto, Akiko; Himi, Kazuhisa; Mutoh, Haruomi [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Shuke, Noriyuki; Aburano, Tamio

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the findings of MR imaging obtained in patients with Echinococcus multilocularis involving the liver. For 10 patients with alveolar echinococcosis of the liver, the MR findings were compared with the histopathologic findings after biopsy or surgery. Conventional T1-weighted spin echo, T2-weighted spin echo and T1-weighted spin echo after Gd-DTPA were employed. The signal from the lesions of alveolar liver echinococcosis on T1-weighted images was hypointense in 16 of 23 lesions (69.6%), hyperintense in 4 (17.4%), and isointense in 3 (13.0%). The signal from the lesions on T2-weighted images was hyperintense in 20 lesions (87.0%), hypointense in 2 (8.7%), and isointense in one (4.3%). On using Gd-DTPA, 7 of 21 lesions (33.3%) were observed with rim enhancement, and 14 lesions (66.7%) were non-enhanced. We describe our clinical experience together with the various findings of MR imaging as observed in the patients with alveolar echinococcosis of the liver. MR imaging excels in visualizing a low-intensity rim and small cystic foci, with liquefaction necrotic foci displaying a variety of signal intensities. After Gd-DTPA administration, the surrounding inflammatory granulomatous foci could be more clearly visualized. (author).

  18. MR imaging findings of patients with mesial temporal sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. We retrospectively reviewed the MR imaging findings of 116 patients diagnosed by MRI as suffering from mesial temporal sclerosis. In 18 of these, the condition was also histologically proven. Among the 116 patients, volume loss of the hippocampus was found in 95 (81.9%) and signal changes of the hippocampus in 53 (45.7%). Decreased signal intensity in the hippocampus on T1-weighted images was found in 13 (11.2%) and increased signal on T2-weighted images in 50 (43.1%). Signal abnormality in the hippocampus on both T1- and T2-weighted images was found in ten, and associated extrahippocampal abnormalities, as follows, in 20 (17.2%): atrophy of fornix (n=3D10), atrophy of the mammillary body (n=3D8), atrophy of the amygdala (n=3D10), atrophy or increased T2 signal intensity of the anterior thalamic nuclei (n=3D2), atrophy of the cingulate gyrus (n=3D2), atrophy or increased signal intensity of the anterior temporal lobe (n=3D8), and cerebral hemiatrophy (n=3D4). A high T2 signal and atrophy of the hippocampus are the most common and important MRI findings of mesial temporal sclerosis. Other abnormal findings, if any, which may be found in extrahippocampal structures such as the fornix, mammillary body and temporal lobe, should, however, also be carefully observed. (author)

  19. Fulminant hepatic failure in children: Etiology, histopathology and MDCT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to determine the etiologies, histopathology and MDCT findings of children with fulminant hepatic failure admitted to our institution. Materials and methods: Between June 2004 and November 2006, 15 children with fulminant hepatic failure who underwent MDCT were included retrospectively in this study. Twelve patients had liver biopsies. The patients were divided into three groups as hyperacute (Group I), acute (Group II) and subacute (Group III) depending on onset of hepatic encephalopathy. Results: Hepatitis A in 4 patients, non-A, non-E hepatitis in 4; mushroom poisoning in 3; fulminant Wilson's disease in 2; autoimmune hepatitis in 1; and both hepatitis B and toxic hepatitis (with leflunomide treatment) in 1 patient were detected. MDCT of all three groups revealed diffuse reduction in hepatic attenuation in 11 patients; ascites in 9; periportal edema in 6; edema of gallbladder wall in 6; splenomegaly in 6; heterogeneous hepatic parenchyma in 6; hepatomegaly in 3; irregular contours of liver in 2; multiple micronodules in 1 and necrotic areas and regeneration in liver parenchyma in 2 patients. Histopathologic evaluation of liver biopsies showed massive hepatic necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and ductular proliferation in 8 patients, periportal edema in 6, edema of gallbladder wall in 5, regenerating nodules and fibrous septa consistent with cirrhotic pattern in 2, and regenerating nodules and necrotic areas in 2 patients. Conclusion: The most common MDCT findings in fulminant hepatic failure were diffuse reduction in hepatic attenuation and ascites. Massive hepatic necrosis was the most common histopathologic finding.

  20. Imaging findings and cerebral perfusion in arterial ischemic stroke due to transient cerebral arteriopathy in children; Achados de imagem e perfusao arterial cerebral em acidente vascular cerebral isquemico devido a arteriopatia transitoria em crianca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa Junior, Alcino Alves, E-mail: alcinojr@uol.com.br [Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ellovitch, Saada Resende de Souza [Neuropediatria, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pincerato, Rita de Cassia Maciel [Hospital Samaritano, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    We report the case of a 4-year-old female child who developed an arterial ischemic stroke in the left middle cerebral artery territory, due to a proximal stenosis of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, most probably related to transient cerebral arteriopathy of childhood. Computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, perfusion magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance angiography are presented, as well as follow-up by magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance angiography exams. Changes in cerebral perfusion and diffusion-perfusion mismatch call attention. As far as we know, this is the first report of magnetic resonance perfusion findings in transient cerebral arteriopathy. (author)

  1. CT imaging of mass-like renal lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Edward Y. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Mass-like renal lesions in children occur in a diverse spectrum of conditions including benign and malignant neoplasm, infection, infarction, lymphatic malformation, and traumatic injury. Although mass-like renal lesions can sometimes be suspected on plain radiographs and evaluated with US in children, subsequent CT is usually performed for the confirmation of diagnosis and further characterization. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to review the CT imaging findings of both common and uncommon mass-like renal lesions in pediatric patients. Understanding the characteristic CT appearance of mass-like renal lesions in children enables an accurate diagnosis and optimizes patient management. (orig.)

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Diffuse Lymphangiomatosis: Neuroradiological Manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, A.; Yousem, D.M. [Russell H. Morgan Dept. of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-07-15

    We report magnetic resonance (MR) findings in a patient with histologically proven lymphangiomatosis with a history of chylothorax, diffuse lung infiltrates, spinal involvement, cystic lesions of the mediastinum, and mesentery thickening. The patient also had diffuse infiltration of the right brachial plexus, with similar imaging findings as the spinal lesions. Although osseous and extraosseous involvement may be seen frequently with lymphangiomatosis, involvement of the brachial plexus has not been previously reported.

  3. The magnetic resonance image findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is rare disease of breast. Clinically and radiologically it may mimic breast carcinoma. We report a case of a 34-year old female patient with the diagnosis, concentrating on magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings and its clinical application. There have been other reports on MRI findings in this entity in the radiological literature, but in our case report clinical, cytological, pathological and radiological correlations are also provided. (author)

  4. Sporadic meningioangiomatosis: imaging findings with histopathologic correlations in seven patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Tae Yeon; Kim, Ji Hye; Yoo, So-Young; Eo, Hong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Yeon-Lim; Ahn, Soomin [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Meningioangiomatosis (MA) is a rare benign cerebral lesion. We aimed to evaluate the CT and MR features of sporadic MA, with a focus on the correlation between imaging and histopathologic findings. CT (n = 7) and MR (n = 8) images of eight patients (6 men and 2 women; mean age, 12.8 years; range, 4-22 years) with pathologically proven MA were retrospectively reviewed. After dividing the MA lesions according to their distribution into cortical and subcortical white matter components, the morphologic characteristics were analyzed and correlated with histopathologic findings in seven patients. CT and MR images showed cortical (n = 4, 50 %) and subcortical white matter (n = 7, 88 %) components of MA. All four cortical components revealed hyperattenuation on CT scan and T1 isointensity/T2 hypointensity on MR images, whereas subcortical white matter components showed hypoattenuation on CT scan and T1 hypointensity/T2 hyperintensity on MR images. Two cortical components (25 %) demonstrated enhancement and one subcortical white matter component demonstrated cystic change. Seven cases were available for imaging-histopathologic correlation. In all seven cases, the cortex was involved by MA and six patients (86 %) showed subcortical white matter involvement by MA. There were excellent correlations between the imaging and histopathologic findings in subcortical white matter components, and the accuracy was 100 % (seven of seven); whereas there were poor correlations in cortical components, and the accuracy was 43 % (three of seven). The cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter were concomitantly involved by MA. Subcortical white matter components of MA were more apparent than cortical components on CT and MR imaging. (orig.)

  5. Intravesical oxybutinin chloride in children with intermittent catheterization: sonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerin, J M; DiPietro, M A; Ritchey, M L; Bloom, D A

    1994-01-01

    The sonographic findings in the bladder are presented in four children with myelomeningocele and neurogenic dysfunction of the bladder, who were treated with intermittent self-catheterization and intravesical oxybutinin chloride. All were referred for routine sonography of the urinary tract. Each had infused a crushed tablet of oxybutinin chloride intravesically 30-120 min before the examination. In two children, brightly echogenic, non-shadowing particles were suspended in the bladder urine. In one of these, the particles swirled giving the impression of a "snowstorm"; in the other, most of the particles gradually settled forming an irregular clump on the bladder base. In the remaining two children, the urine appeared diffusely hazy with innumerable tiny particles giving the impression of a fine mist filling the bladder. The sonographic appearance of the urine in the bladder after intravesical instillation of crushed tablets can be dramatic and can simulate pus, blood, fungus, or other debris in the bladder lumen. In the absence of clinical symptoms or hematuria, a history of recent infusion of medication into the bladder should be sought.

  6. Intravesical oxybutinin chloride in children with intermittent catheterization: sonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerin, J M; DiPietro, M A; Ritchey, M L; Bloom, D A

    1994-01-01

    The sonographic findings in the bladder are presented in four children with myelomeningocele and neurogenic dysfunction of the bladder, who were treated with intermittent self-catheterization and intravesical oxybutinin chloride. All were referred for routine sonography of the urinary tract. Each had infused a crushed tablet of oxybutinin chloride intravesically 30-120 min before the examination. In two children, brightly echogenic, non-shadowing particles were suspended in the bladder urine. In one of these, the particles swirled giving the impression of a "snowstorm"; in the other, most of the particles gradually settled forming an irregular clump on the bladder base. In the remaining two children, the urine appeared diffusely hazy with innumerable tiny particles giving the impression of a fine mist filling the bladder. The sonographic appearance of the urine in the bladder after intravesical instillation of crushed tablets can be dramatic and can simulate pus, blood, fungus, or other debris in the bladder lumen. In the absence of clinical symptoms or hematuria, a history of recent infusion of medication into the bladder should be sought. PMID:7824373

  7. Relationship Between Migraine and Abnormal EEG Findings in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibe NEJAD BIGLARI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Nejad Biglari H, Rezayi A, Nejad Biglari H, Alizadeh M, Ahmadabadi F. Relationship Between Migraine and Abnormal EEG Findings in Children. Iran J Child Neurol 2012; 6(3: 21-24.ObjectiveMigraine is a disabling illness that causes absence from school andaffects the quality of life. It has been stated that headache may representan epileptic event. EEG abnormality is a prominent finding in children with migraine. The aim of this study was to evaluate EEG abnormalities in children with migraine.Materials & MethodsTwo-hundred twenty-eight children were enrolled into the study. Evaluation and following of cases was performed by one physician, paraclinical tests were used to increase the accuracy. The study wasconducted under the supervision of pediatric neurology masters and theselected cases were from different parts of the country.ResultsComparing EEG abnormalities in different types of migraine revealed that there is an association between them. There was also a significant difference between EEG abnormalities in different types of aura. Migraine type was associated with the patient’s age. Sleep disorders were more common in patients with a positive family history of seizure.ConclusionOur study disclosed migraine as a common problem in children with abnormalities present in approximately 20% of the patients. Migraine and abnormal EEG findings are significantly associated.ReferencesOttman, R, Lipton RB, Comorbidity of migraine and epilepsy. Neurology 1994 Nov;44(11:2105-10.Haut SR, Bigal ME, Lipton RB. Chronic disorders with episodic manifestations: focus on epilepsy and migraine.Lancet Neurol 2006 Feb;5(2:148-57.Piccinelli P, Borgatti R, Nicoli F, Calcagno P, Bassi MT,Quadrelli M et al. Relationship between migraine and epilepsy in pediatric age. Headache 2006 Mar;46(3:413-21.Hauser WA, Annegers JF, Anderson VE. Epidemiology and the genetics of epilepsy. Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis 1983;61:267-94.Yankovsky AE

  8. Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings of spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas with pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeo Ju; Park, In Suh; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Choi, Suk Jin; Kim, Youn Jeong; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Ha Young; Kim, Woo Chul; Han, Jun Gu; Cho, Soon Gu [Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas with pathologic correlation and to determine whether these schwannomas share the imaging features of schwannomas in the peripheral nerves. The MRIs of 17 cases of pathologically proven spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas were reviewed retrospectively, and cystic changes, enhancement, and intratumoral hemorrhage of the tumors were evaluated. Imaging features known to be common findings of schwannoma in the peripheral nerves, such as encapsulation, the target sign, the fascicular sign, and visualization of entering or exiting nerve rootlets, were also evaluated. The histopathology of the tumors was correlated with the MRI findings. Cystic changes were detected in 14 cases by MRI and in 16 cases by pathology. The most common pattern of enhancement was a thick peripheral septal pattern (70.59%). Intratumoral hemorrhage was detected in four cases on MRI, but in all cases on pathology. Encapsulation was observed in all cases. The fascicular sign was seen in only four cases, and thickening of an exiting rootlet was visualized in one case. None of the cases showed the target sign. Spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas were typical encapsulated cystic tumors and had few imaging features of schwannomas in the peripheral nerves.

  9. Spectrum of MR imaging findings of peripheral neurofibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PURPOSE: Accurate assessment of peripheral neurofibromas (NFs) in all neurofibromatosis forms (type I, II, and segmental) critically influences clinical management. This paper assesses the spectrum of MR manifestations of peripheral NFs. MR studies of 16 patients with peripheral NFs (plexiform in 13, sacromas in five) were retrospectively analyzed for size, signal appearance, and signs of NF malignant degeneration by comparing signal intensities with that of muscle. MR findings were compared with findings of CT (n = 8) and histopathology (n = 14). All NFs were hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. On T2-weighted images, MFs displayed a target appearance (center of low and rim of higher signal intensity) in 14 patients. With CT, no target sign or other attenuation differences were depicted

  10. Cerebellopontine angle lipomas: magnetic resonance imaging findings in two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Rafael S. [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Brito, Cecilia Castelo Branco [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina; Carvalho, Gustavo A. [Clinica Bambina, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Neurocirurgia; Hospital Silvestre, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Domingues, Romeu C. [Clinicas CDPI e Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil); Gasparetto, Emerson L. [Clinicas CDPI e Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Vestibular schwannomas and meningiomas are the most common lesions of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA), accounting for approximately 85-90% of the tumors seen in this location. Lipomas are rare at this topography, representing about 0.15% of the CPA lesions. These tumors are mal developmental masses that arise from abnormal differentiation of the meninx primitive. Clinically, CPA lipomas can cause slowly progressive neurological symptoms and signs affecting cranial nerves or brain stem. Because these lesions usually are strongly attached to the surrounding structures, any surgical attempts of complete resection can result in neural or vascular damage, reinforcing the importance of the pre-operative imaging diagnosis. Although the CT findings of CPA lipomas can be typical, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, especially the fat suppression sequences, had improved the identification of these lesions. We aimed to report two patients with a CPA lipoma, emphasizing the MR imaging findings. (author)

  11. Epidermoid Cyst of the Testicle: Unusual Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeztuerk, M.; Mavili, E.; Erdogan, N.; Demirci, D. [Radyoloji Anabilim Dali, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2004-12-01

    Epidermoid cyst of the testis is an uncommon benign tumor that can be treated by organ-preserving surgery when diagnosed preoperatively. Although some sonographic characteristics may be suggestive of epidermoid cysts, sonography is not completely diagnostic. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings may provide support for the diagnosis of epidermoid cysts. The MRI findings of testicular epidermoid cysts have been reported as either bull's eye or target in appearance, or with signal intensity characteristics more typical of a cystic lesion. In this paper, we present typical sonographic and unusual MRI findings of a testicular epidermoid cyst.

  12. The format of children's mental images: Evidence from mental scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Marina C; Maras, Katie L; Robinson, Elizabeth J; Thomas, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the development and format of children's mental images. Children (4-, 5-, 6-7-, 8-9-, and 11-year-olds) and adults (N=282) viewed a map of a fictitious island containing various landmarks and two misleading signposts, indicating that some equidistant landmarks were different distances apart. Five-year-olds already revealed the linear time-distance scanning effect, previously shown in adults (Experiments 1 and 2): They took longer to mentally scan their image of the island with longer distances between corresponding landmarks, indicating the depictive format of children's mental images. Unlike adults, their scanning times were not affected by misleading top-down distance information on the signposts until age 8 (Experiment 1) unless they were prompted to the difference from the outset (Experiment 2). Findings provide novel insights into the format of children's mental images in a mental scanning paradigm and show that children's mental images can be susceptible to top-down influences as are adults'. PMID:27239749

  13. Noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II: spectrum of imaging findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has evolved into an effective imaging technique for the evaluation of coronary artery disease in selected patients. Two distinct advantages over other noninvasive cardiac imaging methods include its ability to directly evaluate the coronary arteries and to provide a unique opportunity to evaluate for alternative diagnoses by assessing the extracardiac structures, such as the lungs and mediastinum, particularly in patients presenting with the chief symptom of acute chest pain. Some centers reconstruct a small field of view (FOV) cropped around the heart but a full FOV (from skin to skin in the area irradiated) is obtainable in the raw data of every scan so that clinically relevant noncardiac findings are identifiable. Debate in the scientific community has centered on the necessity for this large FOV. A review of noncardiac structures provides the opportunity to make alternative diagnoses that may account for the patient\\'s presentation or to detect important but clinically silent problems such as lung cancer. Critics argue that the yield of biopsy-proven cancers is low and that the follow-up of incidental noncardiac findings is expensive, resulting in increased radiation exposure and possibly unnecessary further testing. In this 2-part review we outline the issues surrounding the concept of the noncardiac read, looking for noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part I focused on the pros and cons for and against the practice of identifying noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II illustrates the imaging spectrum of cardiac CT appearances of benign and malignant noncardiac pathology.

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... between the transducer and the skin that can block the sound waves from passing into your body. ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... real-time images, images that are renewed continuously, it also can be used to guide procedures such ... of a testicle limiting proper blood flow into it. top of page How should we prepare? Your ...

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in horses with septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Jeremiah T; Brokken, Matthew T; Zubrod, Chad J; Morton, Alison J; Garrett, Katherine S; Holmes, Shannon P

    2011-01-01

    Fourteen horses with septic arthritis underwent high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Septic arthritis was diagnosed based on results from historical and clinical findings, synovial fluid analyses and culture, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, arthroscopic, and histopathologic findings. MR findings included diffuse hyperintensity within bone and extracapsular tissue on fat-suppressed images in 14/14 horses (100%), joint effusion, synovial proliferation, and capsular thickening in 13/14 horses (93%), bone sclerosis in 11/14 horses (79%), and evidence of cartilage and subchondral bone damage in 8/14 horses (57%). Intravenous gadolinium was administered to five of the 14 horses and fibrin deposition was noted in all horses. Other findings after gadolinium administration included synovial enhancement in 4/5 (80%) horses, and bone enhancement in 1/5 (20%) horses. The MR findings of septic arthritis in horses were consistent with those reported in people. MRI may allow earlier and more accurate diagnosis of septic arthritis in horses as compared with other imaging modalities, especially when the clinical diagnosis is challenging. It also provides additional information not afforded by other methods that may influence and enhance treatment.

  17. Extrafetal Findings on Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Pictorial Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelman, Monica; Merrow, Arnold C; Guimaraes, Carolina V; Victoria, Teresa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A; Kline-Fath, Beth M

    2015-12-01

    Although US is the mainstay of fetal imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an invaluable adjunct in recent years. MRI offers superb soft tissue contrast that allows for detailed evaluation of fetal organs, particularly the brain, which enhances understanding of disease severity. MRI can yield results that are similar to or even better than those of US, particularly in cases of marked oligohydramnios, maternal obesity, or adverse fetal positioning. Incidentally detected extrafetal MRI findings are not uncommon and may affect clinical care. Physicians interpreting fetal MRI studies should be aware of findings occurring outside the fetus, including those structures important for the pregnancy. A systematic approach is necessary in the reading of such studies. This helps to ensure that important findings are not missed, appropriate clinical management is implemented, and unnecessary follow-up examinations are avoided. In this pictorial essay, the most common extrafetal abnormalities are described and illustrated. PMID:26614136

  18. HRCT findings of asthmatic children under maintenance therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Park, Jai Soung; Goo, Dong Erk; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Pyun, Bok Yang [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the HRCT findings of bronchial asthma during maintenance bronchodilator therapy and to determine whether there were irreversible bronchial changes occurred in pediatric patients with this condition. HRCT findings of the lung in 21 asthmatic children (14 boys and 7 girls aged between 3.5 and 13.8 (mean: 7.7) years) who were receiving maintenance bronchodilator therapy were retrospectively studied. At the time of CT examination, 16 were receiving nonsteroid bronchodilator therapy only, and five were receiving both bronchodilator and steroid therapy. Thirteen patients were defined as allergic and eight were nonallergic. The clinical severity of chronic asthma was graded as severe in seven cases, and moderate in 14. The duration of the disease ranged from 4 months to 6 years (mean 3.2 years). HRCT was performed in 19 cases for evaluation of the atelectasis, hyperinflation, and prominent bronchovascular bundles seen on plain radiographs, and in two cases for evaluation following acute exacerbation. A CT W-2000 scanner (Hitachi Medical Co. Tokyo, Japan) was used during the end inspiratory phase, and in addition, ten patients were scanned during the expiratory phase. Scans were reviewed for evidence of bronchial thickening, bronchiectasis, emphysema, abnormal density, mucus plugs, and other morphological abnormalities. The presence of bronchial wall thickening or air trapping was evaluated according to the duration, severity and type of asthma. Among the 21 patients, 7 (33.3%) had normal HRCT findings, while in 14 (66.7%), bronchial wall thickening was demonstrated. Eleven of the 14 patients with bronchial wall thickening(78.6%) also had air trapping. No patient was suffering from bronchiectasis or emphysema. There were no statistically significant correlations between the presence of bronchial wall thickening or air trapping and the duration of the disease, its severity, or type of asthma. There was, however, a statistically

  19. Clinical findings in children with cutaneous anthrax in eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbayram, Sinan; Doğan, Murat; Akgün, Cihangir; Peker, Erdal; Bektaş, M Selçuk; Kaya, Avni; Caksen, Hüseyin; Oner, Ahmet Faik

    2010-01-01

    Anthrax is a zoonosis produced by Bacillus anthracis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical findings, therapy, and outcome in children with cutaneous anthrax (CA). Data on age, gender, occupation, clinical symptoms and findings, location and type of lesions, clinical history, laboratory findings, treatment, and outcome were recorded from patients' medical records, retrospectively. The study included 65 patients between 1 month and 18 years old (9.0±4.0 years), 37 patients (56.9%) were male and 28 (43.1%) were female. Most of the patients (89.1%) were admitted in summer and autumn (panthrax edema was noted in 36 (55.3%) patients, anthrax pustule in 27 (41.5%), and anthrax edema and anthrax pustule in two (3%) patients. Gram staining and culture was positive for B. anthracis in 35 (53.8%) patients, and only Gram staining was positive in 10 (15.4%) patients. In the remaining 20 (30.8%) patients, the diagnosis was made by clinical findings. Because the anthrax outbreak in Turkey was associated with slaughtering or milking of ill cows, sheep, or goats, and handling raw meat without taking any protective measures, persons in the community must be educated about using personal protective equipment during slaughtering of animals and handling of meat and skins. PMID:21083757

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Please note ... you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs ...

  1. Fulminant hepatic failure in children: Etiology, histopathology and MDCT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakir, Banu [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: banutopcu@yahoo.com; Kirbas, Ismail [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: drismailk@yahoo.com; Demirhan, Beyhan [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pathology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: beyhand@baskent-ank.edu.tr; Tarhan, Nefise Cagla [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: caglat@gmail.com; Bozkurt, Alper [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: abozkurt78@hotmail.com; Ozcay, Figen [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: fozcay@baskent.edu.tr; Coskun, Mehmet [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: mcoskun@baskent-ank.edu.tr

    2009-11-15

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to determine the etiologies, histopathology and MDCT findings of children with fulminant hepatic failure admitted to our institution. Materials and methods: Between June 2004 and November 2006, 15 children with fulminant hepatic failure who underwent MDCT were included retrospectively in this study. Twelve patients had liver biopsies. The patients were divided into three groups as hyperacute (Group I), acute (Group II) and subacute (Group III) depending on onset of hepatic encephalopathy. Results: Hepatitis A in 4 patients, non-A, non-E hepatitis in 4; mushroom poisoning in 3; fulminant Wilson's disease in 2; autoimmune hepatitis in 1; and both hepatitis B and toxic hepatitis (with leflunomide treatment) in 1 patient were detected. MDCT of all three groups revealed diffuse reduction in hepatic attenuation in 11 patients; ascites in 9; periportal edema in 6; edema of gallbladder wall in 6; splenomegaly in 6; heterogeneous hepatic parenchyma in 6; hepatomegaly in 3; irregular contours of liver in 2; multiple micronodules in 1 and necrotic areas and regeneration in liver parenchyma in 2 patients. Histopathologic evaluation of liver biopsies showed massive hepatic necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and ductular proliferation in 8 patients, periportal edema in 6, edema of gallbladder wall in 5, regenerating nodules and fibrous septa consistent with cirrhotic pattern in 2, and regenerating nodules and necrotic areas in 2 patients. Conclusion: The most common MDCT findings in fulminant hepatic failure were diffuse reduction in hepatic attenuation and ascites. Massive hepatic necrosis was the most common histopathologic finding.

  2. MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. The MR and clinical findings in six patients (M:F=3D4:2;adult:child=3D3:3) with spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma were reviewed. Five patients without any predisposing factor which might cause the condition and one with acute myelogenous leukemia were included. Emergency surgery was performed in two patients, and the other four were managed conservatively. The epidural lesion involved between three and seven vertebrae (mean:4.5), and relative to the spinal cord was located in the posterior-lateral (n=3D4), anterior (n=3D1), or right lateral (n=3D1) area. The hematoma was isointense (n=3D1) or hyperintense (n=3D5) with spinal cord on T1-weighted images, and hypointense (n=3D2) or hyperintense (n=3D4) on T2-weighted images. It was completely absorbed in four of five patients who underwent follow-up MR imaging, but not changed in one. The clinical outcome of these patients was complete recovery (n=3D4), spastic cerebral palsy (n=3D1), or unknown (n=3D1). Because of the lesion's characteristic signal intensity; MR imaging is very useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. (author)

  3. MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sam Soo [Seoul City Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Hyun Beom [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2000-01-01

    To describe the MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. The MR and clinical findings in six patients (M:F=3D4:2;adult:child=3D3:3) with spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma were reviewed. Five patients without any predisposing factor which might cause the condition and one with acute myelogenous leukemia were included. Emergency surgery was performed in two patients, and the other four were managed conservatively. The epidural lesion involved between three and seven vertebrae (mean:4.5), and relative to the spinal cord was located in the posterior-lateral (n=3D4), anterior (n=3D1), or right lateral (n=3D1) area. The hematoma was isointense (n=3D1) or hyperintense (n=3D5) with spinal cord on T1-weighted images, and hypointense (n=3D2) or hyperintense (n=3D4) on T2-weighted images. It was completely absorbed in four of five patients who underwent follow-up MR imaging, but not changed in one. The clinical outcome of these patients was complete recovery (n=3D4), spastic cerebral palsy (n=3D1), or unknown (n=3D1). Because of the lesion's characteristic signal intensity; MR imaging is very useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. (author)

  4. Imaging findings of adiposis dolorosa vs. massive localized lymphedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle M.; Bernard, Stephanie A.; Bennett, Jennifer [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Walker, Eric A. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Adiposis dolorosa (Dercum's disease) is a condition of benign, painful subcutaneous lipomatous lesions associated with weakness, endocrine and lipid abnormalities, and mental disturbances. There is little information documenting the cross-sectional imaging findings that differentiate it from lipomatous and neoplastic soft tissue masses, or massive localized lymphedema. The purpose of this study was to provide a radiological case series of adiposis dolorosa. A 10-year retrospective review of the picture archiving and communications system was performed. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed images to confirm and document imaging features, location, size, and patient demographics. Medical records were reviewed to characterize patients into three groups: one group met at least three of the four criteria of Dercum's syndrome, the second group met less than three criteria, and the third group had clinical diagnosis of cellulitis of the lower extremity. Seventeen cases (25 masses) of adiposis dolorosa were found, nine cases of which met at least three criteria of Dercum's syndrome. All cases in the first two groups demonstrated skin thickening and lymphedema of subcutaneous fat, which was fluid attenuation on CT and low or intermediate T1-weighted and high STIR/T2-weighted MR signal. Two cases with pathology showed mild fatty infiltration with fibrous septa, and the third case showed massive localized lymphedema. The third group of ten cellulitis patients demonstrated non-mass-like subcutaneous edema with similar CT attenuation and MR signal characteristics to the first two groups, but differed by the presence of post-contrast enhancement and non-mass-like appearance in 90 %. Imaging findings of adiposis dolorosa and massive localized lymphedema overlap, as do the symptoms and pathological features. Due to the mass-like engorgement of the soft tissues and pain, patients will often undergo imaging to exclude neoplasm or infection. Knowledge of these

  5. Small airway disease after mycoplasma pneumonia in children: HRCT findings and correlation with radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of small airway abnormalities after mycoplasma pneumonia and correlate them with the findings of chest radiography performed during the acute and follow-up phases of the condition. We retrospectively evaluated HRCT and chest radiographic findings of 18 patients with clinical diagnosis of small airway disease after mycoplasma pneumonia (M:F=8:10, mean age: 8.3 years, mean time interval after the initial infection; 26 menths). We evaluated the lung parenchymal and bronchial abnormalities on HRCT (n=18). In addition, presence of air-trapping was assessed on expiratory scans (n=13). The findings of HRCT were correlated with those of chest radiography performed during the acute phase of initial infection (n=15) and at the time of CT examination (n=18), respectively. HRCT revealed lung parenchymal abnormalities in 13 patients (72%). A mosaic pattern of lung attenuation was noted in ten patients (10/18, 56%) and air-trapping on expiratory scans was observed in nine (9/13), 69%). In nine of 14 (64%) with negative findings at follow-up chest radiography, one or both of the above parenchymal abnormalities was observed at HRCT. In four patients (27%), parenchymal abnormalities were seen at HRCT in areas considered normal at acute-phase chest radiography. Bronchiectasis or ateclectasis was observed in eight (44%) and four (22%) patients, respectively, at HRCT. The CT features of Swyer-James syndrome such as a unilateral hyperlucent lung with reduced lung volume and attenuated vessels were noted in two patients(11%). HRCT can clearly demonstrate lung parenchymal and bronchial abnormalities of small airway disease after mycoplasma pneumonia in children

  6. A study of brain MRI findings in children with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging in the brain was performed in 293 patients with childhood-onset (<15 y.o.) epilepsy who had been classified into 4 groups, idiopathic localization-related epilepsy (ILRE), 78 patients; idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), 116 patients; symptomatic localization-related epilepsy (SLRE), 68 patients and symptomatic generalized epilepsy (SGE), 31 patients, with the Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndrome (1989 International League Against Epilepsy). The examination was performed with a 1.5 T magnet. One hundred twenty-five patients (42.7%) showed abnormal findings, and the incidence in each group was as follows: Idiopathic epilepsy: The rate of abnormal findings in the ILRE and IGE groups was 21.8% and 20.7%, respectively. Most of the abnormal findings were secondary changes, such as diffuse or localized brain atrophy. Of the congenital abnormalities, the main finding was arachnoid cyst. Symptomatic epilepsy: The rate of abnormality in the SLRE patients was 88.2%, and 85% of the findings were secondary changes, i.e., brain atrophy, or degeneration of the white matter. In the SGE group, the rate was 77.4%, with an almost equal percentage of congenital and secondary changes. Of 255 patients who were examined by electroencephalography (EEG) on the same day as MRI, about 50% showed a correlation between the EEG records and the MRI abnormalities. However, only 8 patients showed a correlation in localization between the EEG and MRI abnormalities. (author)

  7. A study of brain MRI findings in children with epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Sachiko; Sumida, Sawako; Muto, Ayako; Osawa, Makiko; Ono, Yuko [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan); Uchida, Moriyasu; Maruyama, Hiroshi

    2000-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging in the brain was performed in 293 patients with childhood-onset (<15 y.o.) epilepsy who had been classified into 4 groups, idiopathic localization-related epilepsy (ILRE), 78 patients; idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), 116 patients; symptomatic localization-related epilepsy (SLRE), 68 patients and symptomatic generalized epilepsy (SGE), 31 patients, with the Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndrome (1989 International League Against Epilepsy). The examination was performed with a 1.5 T magnet. One hundred twenty-five patients (42.7%) showed abnormal findings, and the incidence in each group was as follows: Idiopathic epilepsy: The rate of abnormal findings in the ILRE and IGE groups was 21.8% and 20.7%, respectively. Most of the abnormal findings were secondary changes, such as diffuse or localized brain atrophy. Of the congenital abnormalities, the main finding was arachnoid cyst. Symptomatic epilepsy: The rate of abnormality in the SLRE patients was 88.2%, and 85% of the findings were secondary changes, i.e., brain atrophy, or degeneration of the white matter. In the SGE group, the rate was 77.4%, with an almost equal percentage of congenital and secondary changes. Of 255 patients who were examined by electroencephalography (EEG) on the same day as MRI, about 50% showed a correlation between the EEG records and the MRI abnormalities. However, only 8 patients showed a correlation in localization between the EEG and MRI abnormalities. (author)

  8. Bone marrow MR imaging findings in disuse osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Marcelo R. de [Hospital Mae de Deus, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Wesselly, Michelle; Chung, Christine B.; Resnick, Donald [University of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2011-05-15

    To demonstrate MR imaging findings in the cortical and trabecular bone as well as marrow changes in patients with disuse osteoporosis (DO). Sixteen patients (14 men, 2 women, aged 27-86 years) with clinical and radiographic evidence of DO of a lower limb joint (10 knees, 6 ankles) with MR examination of the same joint performed within a 1-month period were selected, as well as 16 healthy volunteers (7 men, 9 women, aged 25-75 years, 10 knees and 6 ankles). MR imaging findings of the bone marrow were analyzed by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus regarding: diffuse or focal signal alteration, reinforcement of vertical or longitudinal trabecular lines, and presence of abnormal vascularization. All patients (100%,16/16) with DO presented MR imaging abnormalities of the bone marrow, such as: accentuation of vertical trabecular lines (50%, 8/16), presence of subchondral lobules of fat (37.5%, 6/16), presence of horizontal trabecular lines (31%, 5/16), prominence of bone vessels (25%, 4/16), and presence of dotted areas of high signal intensity on T2-weighted fat-suppressed sequences (12.5%, 2/16). Such MR findings did not appear in the control individuals. There are several MR imaging findings in bones with DO that range from accentuation of vertical and horizontal marrow lines, presence of subchondral lobules of fat, prominent bone vascularization and the presence of dotted foci of high signal intensity on T2-weighted fat-suppressed sequences. Recognition of these signs may prove helpful in the identification of DO as well as distinguishing these findings from other entities. (orig.)

  9. MR imaging findings in transient osteoporosis of the hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malizos, Konstantinos N. E-mail: kmalizos@otenet.gr; Zibis, Aristidis H.; Dailiana, Zoe; Hantes, Michael; Karahalios, Theophilos; Karantanas, Apostolos H

    2004-06-01

    Purpose: The authors sought to describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings including perfusion imaging, in association with the course of acute bone marrow oedema syndrome (aBMEs), in a group of patients with acute hip pain and a final diagnosis of transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH). Materials and methods: From 217 patients referred with a probable diagnosis of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head, we identified 42 patients who had clinical and radiographic findings not relevant to AVN. MR imaging examinations were performed on a 1.0T scanner. Perfusion imaging was performed in 20 patients. The bone marrow oedema (BME) was classified in four stages. In addition, the presence or absence of oedema in the subchondral area and the presence of other subchondral lesions were recorded. Acetabular bone marrow was also assessed for the presence of oedema. The quantitative measurements included: maximum size of the effusion, percentage of enhancement (PE) and time of peak enhancement of abnormal marrow compared to the first pass, on the perfusion images. Results: Osteopenia was present on plain radiographs in 87% of cases. The most common pattern of BME was extending to the femoral head and neck. Acetabulum was involved in 16.6%. In 22.6% the BME spared the subchondral region of the femoral head. There were two cases (4.7%) with subchondral changes. A joint effusion was noted in 33 of the 42 patients. On perfusion imaging, a delayed peak enhancement was noted in 20 patients between 40 and 65 s after the first pass of contrast. No patient had any evidence of femoral head collapse or change in sphericity on follow-up MRI. None of the patients developed avascular necrosis in a time frame of 18 months from the onset of the acute hip pain. Conclusion: The aBMEs MR imaging pattern varies and is most commonly appearing on X-rays as osteopenia. Absence of subcondral lesions, delayed peak enhancement of the abnormal marrow on perfusion images, and sparing of

  10. CT findings of palpable neck masses in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed this study to assess the value of CT in the differential diagnosis of palpable neck masses in children. We retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of the palpable neck masses in 30 children. The masses were proved histopathologically and classified into cystic, solid, and inflammatory mass and their CT findings were analyzed. Twelve cases were cystic masses, 4 were solid masses, and 14 were inflammatory lesions. Cystic masses included cystic lymphangiomas (n=6), branchial cleft cysts (n=3), thyroglossal duct cysts (n=2), and ranula (n=1). Cystic lymphangiomas showed insinuating appearances into adjacent structures and 4 cases occurred in the posterior cervical space. All branchial cleft cysts were round cystic masses with smooth wall and displaced the submandibular gland anteriorly and the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly. Two thyroglossal duct cysts occurred centrally adjacent to the hyoid bone and 1 ranula in the submental area. Solid masses were juvenile hemangioma, pleomorphic adenoma in submandibular gland, neurilemmoma, and fibromatosis colli. Juvenile hemangioma showed well-enhancing mass with indistinct margin and the other solid masses had well-defined margin with their characteristic location. Inflammatory lesions were abscess (n=4), deep neck infections with lymphadenopathy (n=4), submandibular gland inflammation (n=3), and tuberculous lymphadenitis (n=3) and they showed strand-like enhancement in adjacent subcutaneous tissues. Tuberculous lymphadenitis had multiple lymph node enlargement with internal low attenuation areas and showed less surrounding strand-like enhancement than suppurative lymphadenopathies. Most neck masses in infants and children were of congenital or inflammatory origin. CT is useful for the evaluation of the child presenting with a neck mass, because it can differentiate various forms of neck masses and is able to reveal the relationship of the masses to the adjacent structures with their characteristic location

  11. CT findings of palpable neck masses in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Sup; Chung, Won Mo; Seok, Eul Hye; Suh, Chang Hae; Chung, Won Kyun [College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    We performed this study to assess the value of CT in the differential diagnosis of palpable neck masses in children. We retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of the palpable neck masses in 30 children. The masses were proved histopathologically and classified into cystic, solid, and inflammatory mass and their CT findings were analyzed. Twelve cases were cystic masses, 4 were solid masses, and 14 were inflammatory lesions. Cystic masses included cystic lymphangiomas (n=6), branchial cleft cysts (n=3), thyroglossal duct cysts (n=2), and ranula (n=1). Cystic lymphangiomas showed insinuating appearances into adjacent structures and 4 cases occurred in the posterior cervical space. All branchial cleft cysts were round cystic masses with smooth wall and displaced the submandibular gland anteriorly and the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly. Two thyroglossal duct cysts occurred centrally adjacent to the hyoid bone and 1 ranula in the submental area. Solid masses were juvenile hemangioma, pleomorphic adenoma in submandibular gland, neurilemmoma, and fibromatosis colli. Juvenile hemangioma showed well-enhancing mass with indistinct margin and the other solid masses had well-defined margin with their characteristic location. Inflammatory lesions were abscess (n=4), deep neck infections with lymphadenopathy (n=4), submandibular gland inflammation (n=3), and tuberculous lymphadenitis (n=3) and they showed strand-like enhancement in adjacent subcutaneous tissues. Tuberculous lymphadenitis had multiple lymph node enlargement with internal low attenuation areas and showed less surrounding strand-like enhancement than suppurative lymphadenopathies. Most neck masses in infants and children were of congenital or inflammatory origin. CT is useful for the evaluation of the child presenting with a neck mass, because it can differentiate various forms of neck masses and is able to reveal the relationship of the masses to the adjacent structures with their characteristic location.

  12. The spectrum of benign esophageal lesions: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Kyung Mi; Lee, Kyung Soo; Lee, Soon Jin; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Tae Sung; Han, Dae Hee; Shim, Young Mog [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-01

    Benign esophageal lesions occur in various diseases. Barium studies are useful for the evaluation of mucosal surface lesions but provide little information about the extramucosal extent of disease. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, on the other hand, permit the assessment of wall thickness, mediastinal involvement, adjacent lymphadenopathy, and distant spread. In diseases such as fibrovascular polyps, duplication cysts, scleroderma, trauma, caustic esophagitis, hiatal hernia, esophageal diverticulum, achalasia, and paraesophageal varices, the findings of imaging studies are specific, obviating the need for further invasive diagnostic work-up. The advent of helical computed tomography and its volume data set allows the acquisition of multiplanar images, and magnetic resonance imaging is useful both for this and for tissue characterization. Thus, multiplanar cross-sectional imaging further extends the role of imaging modalities to the evaluation of benign esophageal lesions. Through an awareness of the multiplanar cross-sectional appearances of various benign esophageal lesions, the radiologist can play an important role in the detection, diagnosis, further diagnostic planning, and treatment of the diseases in which they occur.

  13. Radiologic and clinical findings of mycoplasma pneumonia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycoplasma Pneumonia is a cause of primary atypical pneumonia, but it is asymptomatic mostly or may cause of only mild symptoms. School-aged children experienced high attack rate and manifestation if 'unusual pneumonia' are noted. So authors reviewed clinical and radiological features of 110 cases of serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumonia in hospitalized children between November 1984 and January 1987 retrospectively. The results were as follows ; 1. The sex distribution was 57:53 (1.1:1) in male to female ratio and 47% of them were 5 though 8 years old of age with peak incidence between 5 and 6 years old of age. 2. The symptoms were cough, fever, and sore throat in descending order of frequency and mean symptom duration before admission was 8.1 day. The prevalent season was earlier winter. 3. The radiologic findings were air-space consolidation with lobar, segmental distribution in 68%, interstitial infiltration in 12%, bronchopneumonia in 12%, chronic bronchitis pattern in 3.6%, normal in 4.5%, hilar LN enlargement in 37%, pleural effusion in 12%. 4. Radiologic resolution period was usually 10 days around (4-25 days) and after complete recovery, scarring change or calcification was not seen. 5. Extrapulmonary manifestations were uncommon but hepatitis, hematuria, skin rash, gastroenteritis, myocarditis, otitis media occurred. 6. With administration of tetracyclin and erythromycin, clinical and radiologic responses were promptly seen

  14. Ticks and tick paralysis: imaging findings on cranial MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tick paralysis is an acute, progressive, and potentially fatal muscle paralysis secondary to a toxin secreted by a pregnant tick during a bite. Although tick bites can occur anywhere on the body, ticks are frequently overlooked on the scalp because of overlying hair. Children with acute neurologic symptoms frequently undergo MR scanning that may incidentally reveal the offending tick. Timely identification and removal of the tick leads to rapid recovery from tick paralysis. We report the MRI findings at 1.5 T of tick paralysis with an attached tick. (orig.)

  15. Ticks and tick paralysis: imaging findings on cranial MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Michael S.; Fordham, Lynn Ansley [University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, UNC School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, NC (United States); Hamrick, Harvey J. [University of North Carolina Hospitals, Department of Pediatrics, Chapel Hill (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Tick paralysis is an acute, progressive, and potentially fatal muscle paralysis secondary to a toxin secreted by a pregnant tick during a bite. Although tick bites can occur anywhere on the body, ticks are frequently overlooked on the scalp because of overlying hair. Children with acute neurologic symptoms frequently undergo MR scanning that may incidentally reveal the offending tick. Timely identification and removal of the tick leads to rapid recovery from tick paralysis. We report the MRI findings at 1.5 T of tick paralysis with an attached tick. (orig.)

  16. Brain MR imaging in children with psychomotor developmental delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Toshinori; Korogi, Yukunori; Sakamoto, Yuji; Furusawa, Mitsuhiro; Hamatake, Satoshi; Takahashi, Mutsumasa (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-06-01

    Fifty-two patients with developmental delay of unknown cause underwent MR imaging of the brain. Their ages ranged from 5 months to 22 years, with a mean of 2.2 years. Thirty-seven (71%) had positive MR findings, including nine with congenital malformation, nine with atrophy, six with white matter lesion, five with delayed myelination, five with atrophy and delayed myelination, two with acquired injury of corpus callosum, and one with ulegyria. Congenital malformations obtained included holoprosencephaly, polymicrogyria, dysgenesis of corpus callosum, hypoplasia of cerebellum, and tuberous sclerosis. Abnormal MR findings were frequently observed both in the children with neurologic physical findings and in generally retarded children, while in the children with suspected autism, MR imaging did not demonstrate any abnormalities. Of 24 patients with epilepsy, abnormal MR findings were obtained in 17 patients (71%). The frequency of white matter lesion and atrophy was slightly higher in the patients with epilepsy. However, no significant correlations were found between MR findings and the presence of epilepsy. Also, no significant correlations were obtained between MR findings and the degree of developmental quotient (DQ). Severely injured cases did not necessarily show abnormal findings on MRI. (author).

  17. Brain MR imaging in children with psychomotor developmental delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-two patients with developmental delay of unknown cause underwent MR imaging of the brain. Their ages ranged from 5 months to 22 years, with a mean of 2.2 years. Thirty-seven (71%) had positive MR findings, including nine with congenital malformation, nine with atrophy, six with white matter lesion, five with delayed myelination, five with atrophy and delayed myelination, two with acquired injury of corpus callosum, and one with ulegyria. Congenital malformations obtained included holoprosencephaly, polymicrogyria, dysgenesis of corpus callosum, hypoplasia of cerebellum, and tuberous sclerosis. Abnormal MR findings were frequently observed both in the children with neurologic physical findings and in generally retarded children, while in the children with suspected autism, MR imaging did not demonstrate any abnormalities. Of 24 patients with epilepsy, abnormal MR findings were obtained in 17 patients (71%). The frequency of white matter lesion and atrophy was slightly higher in the patients with epilepsy. However, no significant correlations were found between MR findings and the presence of epilepsy. Also, no significant correlations were obtained between MR findings and the degree of developmental quotient (DQ). Severely injured cases did not necessarily show abnormal findings on MRI. (author)

  18. Metastatic meningioma: positron emission tomography CT imaging findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, C

    2010-12-01

    The imaging findings of a case of metastasing meningioma are described. The case illustrates a number of rare and interesting features. The patient presented with haemoptysis 22 years after the initial resection of an intracranial meningioma. CT demonstrated heterogeneous masses with avid peripheral enhancement without central enhancement. Blood supply to the larger lesion was partially from small feeding vessels from the inferior pulmonary vein. These findings correlate with a previously published case in which there was avid uptake of fluoro-18-deoxyglucose peripherally with lesser uptake centrally. The diagnosis of metastasing meningioma was confirmed on percutaneous lung tissue biopsy.

  19. Metastatic meningioma: positron emission tomography CT imaging findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, C; O'Connor, O J; O'Regan, K N; Keohane, C; Dineen, J; Hinchion, J; Sweeney, B; Maher, M M

    2010-01-01

    The imaging findings of a case of metastasing meningioma are described. The case illustrates a number of rare and interesting features. The patient presented with haemoptysis 22 years after the initial resection of an intracranial meningioma. CT demonstrated heterogeneous masses with avid peripheral enhancement without central enhancement. Blood supply to the larger lesion was partially from small feeding vessels from the inferior pulmonary vein. These findings correlate with a previously published case in which there was avid uptake of fluoro-18-deoxyglucose peripherally with lesser uptake centrally. The diagnosis of metastasing meningioma was confirmed on percutaneous lung tissue biopsy. PMID:21088084

  20. A comprehensive review of imaging findings in human cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Bargavee; Aggarwal, Neeti; Makhaik, Sushma; Sood, Ramgopal

    2016-04-01

    Cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease most commonly affecting brain, eye and muscles, causing significant morbidity. Transmitted by faeco-oral route, this disease was endemic in many developing countries; it is now seen worldwide due to globalisation. Manifestations are produced by the mass effect of the parasite and by the immune response mounted by the host on the parasite. There are myriad clinical features and imaging findings. Radiological features depend on the number, stage and location of the parasite and associated complications. Knowledge of radiological findings is necessary to make an accurate diagnosis of this pleomorphic disease. PMID:26903229

  1. A comprehensive review of imaging findings in human cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Bargavee; Aggarwal, Neeti; Makhaik, Sushma; Sood, Ramgopal

    2016-04-01

    Cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease most commonly affecting brain, eye and muscles, causing significant morbidity. Transmitted by faeco-oral route, this disease was endemic in many developing countries; it is now seen worldwide due to globalisation. Manifestations are produced by the mass effect of the parasite and by the immune response mounted by the host on the parasite. There are myriad clinical features and imaging findings. Radiological features depend on the number, stage and location of the parasite and associated complications. Knowledge of radiological findings is necessary to make an accurate diagnosis of this pleomorphic disease.

  2. Imaging findings in posterior instability of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posterior shoulder instability refers to the symptoms and signs resulting from excessive posterior translation of the humerus. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the radiological modality of choice in the diagnostic assessment of posterior instability. Computed tomography (CT) is useful in the evaluation of osseous abnormalities associated with posterior instability. A detailed description of the posterior osseous and labroligamentous abnormalities has evolved recently, and many variant lesions of the posteroinferior labrum and/or capsular structures have been described. As the recommended surgical management of lesions associated with posterior instability is a lesion-specific approach, awareness of the specific lesions that have been described in association with posterior instability helps in pre-surgical planning. The purpose of this article is to review the classification of, and injury mechanisms leading to, posterior shoulder instability and to describe imaging findings associated with posterior instability, with emphasis on MR imaging. (orig.)

  3. Sacrococcygeal yolk sac carcinoma: imaging findings during treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaste, S.C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, 332 N. Lauderdale, P. O. Box 318, Memphis, TN 38101-0318 (United States)]|[Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Bridges, J.O. [Department of Hematology-Oncology, St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38101 (United States); Marina, N.M. [Department of Hematology-Oncology, St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38101 (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Sacrococcygeal teratomas and their malignant counterparts (germ cell tumors) are the most common solid tumors in neonates. Prompt diagnosis is essential because the frequency of malignant transformation increases from 10-20 % in neonates to 67 % in patients over 2 months of age. Cross-sectional imaging has largely replaced surgical exploration for staging these tumors and assessing their response to chemotherapy. Radiologists must be familiar with changes in the imaging findings of these tumors during and after treatment so that they can advise clinicians regarding the efficacy of therapy and the presence or absence of recurrent disease. From our study, magnetic resonance imaging appears to be a better modality for assessing sacral invasion and metastases and distinguishing fibrotic masses from recurrent tumor. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. MR imaging findings of anterior interosseous nerve lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Andrew J. [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Salonen, David C. [University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Anastakis, Dimitri J. [University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Plastic Surgery, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    To study and characterise the MR imaging findings of lesions of the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the forearm of ten patients referred to our institution with suspected AIN lesions were retrospectively studied. Five healthy volunteers with normal forearm MRI findings formed a control group. Two musculoskeletal radiologists assessed the forearm musculature for oedema in the distribution of the AIN, median, posterior interosseous and radial nerves on T2-weighted (T2W) fat-saturated sequences. T1-weighted (T1W) images were assessed and graded for the presence of muscle atrophy and fatty involution. Six patients had undergone surgical exploration; five of these had surgically confirmed AIN compression. Four patients had diagnoses other than AIN compression made on imaging features. Of the cases of proven AIN compression, oedema within the pronator quadratus (PQ) muscle was identified in all cases. PQ atrophy and fatty involution were seen in three (43%) surgically confirmed cases. Cases 2 and 3 also demonstrated oedema in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP)1 and FDP2 muscles. These cases also showed oedema in the flexor-carpi radialis (FCR) and FDP3/FDP4 muscles, respectively. The four cases of non-AIN compression demonstrated muscle oedema patterns that were atypical for the AIN distribution. They included a rupture of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon, brachial neuritis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and compression of the proximal median nerve. MRI is a useful investigation in the diagnostic workup of AIN syndrome. AIN syndrome is likely when there is diffuse oedema of AIN innervated muscles on T2W fat-saturated images. The most reliable sign of an AIN lesion is oedema within the PQ. Oedema in the flexor carpi radialis, FDP3 and FDP4, although not in the classical distribution of the AIN, does not preclude the diagnosis of AIN syndrome. (orig.)

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a comment, please complete the following form: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Images × Image Gallery ... Recommend RadiologyInfo to a friend Send to (friend's e-mail address): From (your name): Your e-mail ...

  6. Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Macey, Paul M.; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Harper, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Chronic Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durak, A. C.; Coskun, A.; Yikilmaz, A.; Erdogan, F.; Mavili, E.; Guven, M. [Hospital of Erciyes Univ., Kayseri (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To define the cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the chronic stage of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in patients with and without neuropsychiatric sequelae. Material and Methods: Eight patients who had neither symptoms nor neurological sequelae and eight patients with neuropsychiatric sequelae were included in the study. Patients aged between 9 to 57 (mean 32.2 years). All patients had been comatose at initial admittance and awoke after normobaric 100% oxygen therapy within 1-7 days. In this study, the patients were being examined with routine cranial MRI between 1 and 10 years (mean 3.4 years) after exposure to CO. Results: The most common finding was bilateral symmetric hyperintensity of the white matter, which was more significant in the centrum semiovale, with relative sparing of the temporal lobes and anterior parts of the frontal lobes on T2-weighted and FLAIR images in all patients. Cerebral cortical atrophy was seen in 10 patients; mild atrophy of cerebellar hemispheres in 8; and vermian atrophy in 11. Corpus callosum was atrophic in one patient. Bilateral globus pallidus lesions were seen in three patients. The lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Conclusion: Patients with severe CO intoxication may develop persistent cerebral changes independently of their neuropsychiatric findings in the chronic stage. They may present with characteristic MRI findings as described here, even if asymptomatic. The history of CO exposure is therefore helpful for recognizing and interpreting the MRI findings of chronic stage CO intoxication.

  8. Pulmonary fungal infection: Imaging findings in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histoplasmosis is the most common endemic mycosis in North America, and is followed by coccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis. Although the majority of these infections in immunocompetent persons are self-limited, some patients can develop severe pneumonitis or various forms of chronic pulmonary infection. Cryptococcoci, Aspergillus, Candidas, and Mucorals are ubiquitous organisms, which may affect immunocompromised patients. Specific imaging findings can be expected, depending on the organisms involved, underlying patients' conditions (immune status), and specific situations after immune depleting procedures

  9. Pulmonary fungal infection: Imaging findings in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Semin [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Soo [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kyungs.lee@samsung.com; Yi, Chin A [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myung Jin [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Sung [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joungho [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    Histoplasmosis is the most common endemic mycosis in North America, and is followed by coccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis. Although the majority of these infections in immunocompetent persons are self-limited, some patients can develop severe pneumonitis or various forms of chronic pulmonary infection. Cryptococcoci, Aspergillus, Candidas, and Mucorals are ubiquitous organisms, which may affect immunocompromised patients. Specific imaging findings can be expected, depending on the organisms involved, underlying patients' conditions (immune status), and specific situations after immune depleting procedures.

  10. Castleman disease of the neck: CT and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xin-hua [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Song, Hao-ming [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Tongji Hospital, Shanghai 200065 (China); Liu, Qing-yu [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510120 (China); Cao, Yun [Department of Pathology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Li, Guo-hong [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Zhang, Wei-dong, E-mail: dongw.z@163.com [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Objective: To characterize the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of Castleman disease of the neck. Methods: The imaging findings of 21 patients with Castleman disease of the neck were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 21 patients, 16 underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT scans; 5 underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI scans. Results: The unenhanced CT images showed isolated or multiple well-defined homogenous mild hypodensity lesions in fifteen cases, and a heterogeneous nodule with central areas of mild hypodensity in one case. Calcification was not observed in any of the patients. In five patients, MR T1-weighted images revealed well-defined, homogeneous isointense or mild hyperintense lesions to the muscle; T2-weighted images showed these as intermediate hyperintense. Sixteen cases showed intermediate to marked homogeneous enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT or MR T1-weighted images. Of the other five cases that underwent double-phase CT scans, four showed mild or intermediate heterogeneous enhancement at the arterial phase, and homogeneous intermediate or marked enhancement at the venous phase; the remaining case showed mild and intermediate ring-enhancement with a central non-enhanced area at the arterial and venous phases, respectively. Conclusion: Castleman disease of the neck can be characterized as solitary or multiple well-defined, mild hypodensity or homogeneous intense lesions on plain CT/MR scans, and demonstrates intermediate and marked enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT/MR scans. On double-phase CT scans, Castleman disease often demonstrates mild enhancement at the arterial phase, and gradually uniform enhancement at venous phase. Double-phase enhanced CT or MRI may help to differentiate Castleman disease from other diseases.

  11. Castleman disease of the neck: CT and MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To characterize the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of Castleman disease of the neck. Methods: The imaging findings of 21 patients with Castleman disease of the neck were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 21 patients, 16 underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT scans; 5 underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI scans. Results: The unenhanced CT images showed isolated or multiple well-defined homogenous mild hypodensity lesions in fifteen cases, and a heterogeneous nodule with central areas of mild hypodensity in one case. Calcification was not observed in any of the patients. In five patients, MR T1-weighted images revealed well-defined, homogeneous isointense or mild hyperintense lesions to the muscle; T2-weighted images showed these as intermediate hyperintense. Sixteen cases showed intermediate to marked homogeneous enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT or MR T1-weighted images. Of the other five cases that underwent double-phase CT scans, four showed mild or intermediate heterogeneous enhancement at the arterial phase, and homogeneous intermediate or marked enhancement at the venous phase; the remaining case showed mild and intermediate ring-enhancement with a central non-enhanced area at the arterial and venous phases, respectively. Conclusion: Castleman disease of the neck can be characterized as solitary or multiple well-defined, mild hypodensity or homogeneous intense lesions on plain CT/MR scans, and demonstrates intermediate and marked enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT/MR scans. On double-phase CT scans, Castleman disease often demonstrates mild enhancement at the arterial phase, and gradually uniform enhancement at venous phase. Double-phase enhanced CT or MRI may help to differentiate Castleman disease from other diseases

  12. Placenta accreta: spectrum of US and MR imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, W Christopher; Corteville, Jane E; Shah, Rajiv R

    2008-01-01

    Placenta accreta (PA) encompasses various types of abnormal placentation in which chorionic villi attach directly to or invade the myometrium. PA is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and is now the most common reason for emergent postpartum hysterectomy. Its prevalence has risen tenfold in the United States over the past 50 years, primarily due to the increasing percentage of pregnant patients undergoing primary and repeat cesarean sections. Placenta previa and previous cesarean section are the two most important known risk factors for PA. Accurate prenatal identification of affected pregnancies allows optimal obstetric management. Ultrasonography (US) remains the diagnostic standard, and routine US examination at 18-20 weeks gestation affords an ideal opportunity to screen for the disorder. Placental lacunae and abnormal color Doppler imaging patterns are the most helpful US markers for PA. In recent years, there has been increased interest in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the evaluation of PA, since it can provide information on depth of invasion and more clearly depict posterior placentas. The most reliable MR imaging findings are uterine bulging, heterogeneous placenta, and placental bands. Focal interruptions in the hypointense myometrial border may also be helpful. PA is a clinical and diagnostic challenge that is being encountered with increasing frequency. Clinicians should be aware of the clinical issues, risk factors, and imaging findings associated with PA to facilitate optimal case management. PMID:19001647

  13. Scirrhous hepatocellular carcinoma displaying atypical findings on imaging studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soo Ryang Kim; Susumu Imoto; Taisuke Nakajima; Kenji Ando; Keiji Mita; Katsumi Fukuda; Ryo Nishikawa; Yu-ichiro Koma; Toshiyuki Matsuoka; Masatoshi Kudo; Yoshitake Hayashi

    2009-01-01

    We describe a 15-mm scirrhous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a 60-year-old man with B-type cirrhosis. Ultrasound disclosed a 15-mm hypoechoic nodule in segment 7. Contrast-enhanced US revealed heterogeneous, not diffuse, hypervascularity in the early phase and a defect in the Kupffer phase. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed a heterogeneous hypervascular nodule in the early phase and a low-density area in the late phase. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed iso- to hypointensity at T1 and high intensity at T2-weighted sequences. Contrast-enhanced MRI also revealed a heterogeneous hypervascular nodule in the early phase and washout in the late phase. Super-paramagnetic iron oxide-MRI revealed a hyperintense nodule. CT during hepatic arteriography and CT during arterial portography revealed heterogeneous hyperattenuation and a perfusion defect, respectively. Based on these imaging findings the nodule was diagnosed as a mixed well-differentiated and moderately-differentiated HCC. Histologically, the nodule was moderately-differentiated HCC characterized by typical cytological and structural atypia with dense fibrosis. Immunohistochemically, the nodule was positive for heterochromatin protein 1 and alpha-smooth muscle actin, and negative for cytokeratin 19. From the above findings, the nodule was diagnosed as scirrhous HCC. Clinicians engaged in hepatology should exercise caution with suspected scirrhous HCC when imaging studies reveal atypical findings, as shown in our case on the basis of chronic liver disease.

  14. Nuclear imaging for musculoskeletal infections in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent bone scanning for possible osteomyelitis at the Naval Regional Medical Center (Portsmouth, VA, U.S.A.) between 1980 and 1983. Among 63 children, there were 20 sites of osteomyelitis. They were able to conclude that a high proportion of neonates with septic arthritis will have osteomyelitis and that bone scan is not helpful in this age group. Nuclear imaging of the foot was less reliable than imaging of the remainder of the extremities. The bone scan can be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in certain children, but is not a substitute for an accurate clinical examination and appropriate workup

  15. Nuclear imaging for musculoskeletal infections in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herndon, W.A.; Alexieva, B.T.; Schwindt, M.L.; Scott, K.N.; Shaffer, W.O.

    1985-05-01

    The authors retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent bone scanning for possible osteomyelitis at the Naval Regional Medical Center (Portsmouth, VA, U.S.A.) between 1980 and 1983. Among 63 children, there were 20 sites of osteomyelitis. They were able to conclude that a high proportion of neonates with septic arthritis will have osteomyelitis and that bone scan is not helpful in this age group. Nuclear imaging of the foot was less reliable than imaging of the remainder of the extremities. The bone scan can be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in certain children, but is not a substitute for an accurate clinical examination and appropriate workup.

  16. Nuclear imaging for musculoskeletal infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, W A; Alexieva, B T; Schwindt, M L; Scott, K N; Shaffer, W O

    1985-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent bone scanning for possible osteomyelitis at the Naval Regional Medical Center (Portsmouth, VA, U.S.A.) between 1980 and 1983. Among 63 children, there were 20 sites of osteomyelitis. We were able to conclude that a high proportion of neonates with septic arthritis will have osteomyelitis and that bone scan is not helpful in this age group. Nuclear imaging of the foot was less reliable than imaging of the remainder of the extremities. The bone scan can be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in certain children, but is not a substitute for an accurate clinical examination and appropriate workup.

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns and infants. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  18. Imaging fungal infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike M; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of

  19. Radiological considerations in von Hippel-Lindeau disease: imaging findings and the review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Hippel Lindau disease is an autosomal dominant multisystem/multitumoral cancer disease diagnosed by clinical, radiologic and genetic findings. Its prevalence has been estimated to be of 1/36000 inhabitants. The tumours can be benign or malignant. We represent MR findings of a family with ten children. Mother and five siblings had von Hippel-Lindau disease. Radiologic imaging is very important for the early diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic patients. Diagnosing it early is important because the tumours in von Hippel Lindau disease are treatable. Also, an early detection allows the patient’s survival and quality of life. A multidisciplinary team approach is important in screening

  20. Hippocampal sclerosis: correlation of MR imaging findings with surgical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Han, Moon Hee; Park, Sung Ho; Nam, Hyun Woo; Choi, Kyu Ho; Cho, Woo Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    Atrophy and a high T2 signal of the hippocampus are known to be the principal MR imaging findings of hippocampal sclerosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not individual MRI findings correlate with surgical outcome in patients with this condition. Preoperative MR imaging findings in 57 consecutive patients with pathologically-proven hippocampal sclerosis who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy and were followed-up for 24 months or more were retrospectively reviewed, and the results were compared with the postsurgical outcome (Engel classification). The MR images included routine sagittal T1-weighted and axial T2-weighted spin-echo images, and oblique coronal T1-weighted 3D gradient-echo and T2-weighted 2D fast spin-echo images obtained on either a 1.5 T or 1.0 T unit. The images were visually evaluated by two neuroradiologists blinded to the outcome; their focus was the presence or absence of atrophy and a high T2 hippocampal signal. Hippocampal atrophy was seen in 96% of cases (55/57) [100% (53/53) of the good outcome group (Engel class I and II), and 50% (2/4) of the poor outcome group (class III and IV)]. A high T2 hippocampal signal was seen in 61% of cases (35/57) [62% (33/53) of the good outcome group and 50% (2/4) of the poor outcome group]. All 35 patients with a high T2 signal had hippocampal atrophy. 'Normal' hippocampus, as revealed by MR imaging, occurred in 4% of patients (2/57), both of whom showed a poor outcome (Engel class III). The presence or absence of hippocampal atrophy correlated well with surgical outcome (p<0.01). High T2 signal intensity did not, however, significantly correlate with surgical outcome (p>0.05). Compared with a high T2 hippocampal signal, hippocampal atrophy is more common and correlates better with surgical outcome. For the prediction of this, it thus appears to be the more useful indicator.

  1. US findings of metacarpophalangeal joints in children with idiopathic juvenile arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmazyn, Boaz [Riley Hospital for Children, Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Bowyer, Suzanne L.; Murphy Schmidt, Kara; Ballinger, Susan H.; Beam, Thuy T. [Indiana University, Pediatric Rheumatology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Buckwalter, Kenneth [University Hospital, Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Ying, Jun [University of Cincinnati, Biostatistics, Institute for the Study of Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2007-05-15

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common cause of chronic arthritis in children, with frequent involvement of the metacarpophalangeal joints (MCPJ). To compare US findings with those of radiography and clinical examination. All MCPJs in 20 children with JIA (17 females, median age 9.7 years, range 3.6 to 16.8 years) were evaluated clinically and imaged with gray-scale and color Doppler US, and 90 MCPJs were also imaged radiographically. Each MCPJ was graded on physical examination from 0 (normal) to 4 (severe) by the patient's rheumatologist. US demonstrated abnormalities in 64 of 200 MCPJs (32.0%), including pannus vascularity and/or tenosynovitis in 55 joints (27.5%) (pannus vascularity in 43, tenosynovitis in 40) and bone destruction in 25 joints (12.5%). Overall, US abnormalities and physical examination scores were significantly associated (P < 0.001). However, interobserver agreement between US and clinical evaluation was poor (kappa 0.1) and between US and radiography was only fair (kappa 0.4). US of the MCPJ in children with JIA can demonstrate cartilage thinning, bone erosions, and pannus vascularity. Abnormal US findings are significantly correlated with severity of disease as evaluated clinically. (orig.)

  2. Localized hypertrophic neuropathy of the sciatic nerve in children: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, Adrien; Treguier, Catherine; Bruneau, Bertrand; Marin, Franck; Gandon, Yves; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hopital Sud, 16 Boulevard de Bulgarie, BP 90347, Rennes cedex 2 (France); Riffaud, Laurent [University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France); Violas, Philippe [University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France); Michel, Anne [University Hospital, Department of Neurological Functional Explorations, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France)

    2012-08-15

    Localized hypertrophic neuropathy (LHN) of the sciatic nerve in children is a rare condition characterized by a painless neurological deficit in the sciatic nerve territory. To demonstrate the role of MRI using a specific protocol and describe the primary findings in LHN. Imaging in four children (age 2 years to 12 years) is presented. All children presented with lower limb asymmetry. Three had a steppage gait. LHN was confirmed by electrophysiological studies and by MRI of the whole sciatic nerve with a dedicated protocol covering the lumbar spine and the lower limb. There were four direct MRI findings: (1) linear and focal hypertrophy with progressive enlargement of a peripheral nerve or plexus diameter, (2) abnormal hyperintensity of the nerve on T2-weighted images, (3) preserved fascicular configuration, and (4) variable enhancement after intravenous gadolinium administration. In addition there were atrophy and fatty infiltration of innervated muscles. MRI was helpful for determining the extent of lesions and in excluding peripheral nerve compression or tumour. MRI of the whole sciatic nerve is the method of choice for diagnosing LHN of the sciatic nerve. (orig.)

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to have your child drink several glasses of water, depending on the child's size, two hours prior ... improve the quality of the images. A clear water-based gel is applied to the area of ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate blood flow through arteries and veins in the ... the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate the: appendix stomach/ pylorus liver gallbladder spleen pancreas ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care physician, or to the ... by: Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical ...

  6. Inverted papilloma: CT and MR imaging findings in correlation with histologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Ki Nam; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Jeong Hun; Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Hye Sook [Maryknoll General Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); No, Hwan Jung [Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To evaluate CT and MR findings suggestive of inverted papilloma by correlation with pathologic finding. The CT(n=16) and MR(n=8) findings of 22 pathologically proven cases of inverted papilloma in the sinonasal cavity were retrospectively reviewed with reference to location of tumor, density/signal intensity, contrast enhanced appearance, shape and cleft air shadow at the free margin of tumors, and mass effect. These findings and pathologic findings were then correlated. All 22 tumors were located in the unilateral nasal cavity and extended into the maxillary sinus(n=17), choana(n=10), ethmoid sinus (n=8), nasopharynx(n=7), nasal vestibule(n=5) or frontal sinus(n=1). All CT scans showed that the density of tumor masses was similar to adjacent muscle. Precontrast CT scans showed no visible 'striations' within the tumor mass, but postcontrast scans revealed 'striations' of varying degree in six of nine cases. CT scans showed that the free margin of tumors was serrated(n=13) or lobulated(n=5), and in 13 cases cleft air shadow of varying shape was noted. All MR scans showed 'striations' with intermediate/slightly high signal intensity on T1WI and intermediate/high on T2WI within tumor masses, which were more prominent on postcontrast scans. On MR, the free margin of tumors was seen to be serrated(n=5) lobulated(n=4), or smooth(n=1), but cleft air shadow was detected. The 'striations'seen on postcontrast CT and MR images and the cleft air shadow with a serrated appearance seen on CT images at the free margin of tumors suggested the presence of inverted papilloma in the sinonasal cavity.

  7. Infantile fibrosarcoma: Magnetic resonance imaging findings in six cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canale, Sandra [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France)], E-mail: canalesandra@yahoo.com; Vanel, Daniel [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli, 1/10 via di Barbiano, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Couanet, Dominique [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Patte, Catherine [Department of Pediatrics, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Caramella, Caroline; Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively review magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features in a series of six infantile fibrosarcomas to find out if MR can suggest this unusual diagnosis and to highlight the value of MR during and following treatment. Materials and methods: The records of six cases of histologically proven infantile fibrosarcoma were retrieved from the files of our cancer center. All imaging data available were consensually reviewed by two radiologists. Results: There were five females and one male (age range at diagnosis, 0-12 months; mean, 6 months). The most common finding was a well-circumscribed single mass in five patients (83%). All tumors had arisen on limbs; at their proximal or distal extremity or at the root of the limb. The masses were 9 cm large in mean diameter. The initial tumor signal was isointense to muscle on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences. All masses were well circumscribed and half of them contained internal fibrous septa. The internal signal was homogeneous in three patients and heterogeneous in the three others. An intense enhancement was seen in all three contrast-enhanced exams available; heterogeneous in two cases and homogeneous in one. Osseous erosion was observed in only one patient who was the only one with distant metastasis. After treatment (chemotherapy and very limited surgery), tumors had totally disappeared, leaving muscle fat infiltration in two patients and subcutaneous fat hypertrophy in one patient. Conclusion: Although imaging findings are not specific of infantile fibrosarcoma, this diagnosis could be suggested when MR imaging depicts a large well-circumscribed mass arising in a limb at birth or during the neonatal period. This mass is sometimes heterogeneous and septate and exhibits an isointense T1- and hyperintense T2-weighted signals and strong enhancement. MR is also the technique of choice for follow-up during treatment which consists nowadays almost exclusively in chemotherapy.

  8. Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyo Soon; Jeong, Seo In; Choi, You Ri; Kim, Jin Woong; Lee, Ji Shin; Park, Min Ho [Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Kuzmiak, Cherie M. [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To analyze the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast. MR images were retrospectively evaluated in 14 patients (age range: 37-67, mean age: 49 years) with pathologically confirmed invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast. The enhancement type (mass/non-mass), shape, margin, contrast enhancement, and time-intensity curve pattern on the dynamic study were correlated with the histopathologic features. Associated findings, such as edema, nipple change, skin change and enlarged axillary lymph nodes were also studied. The most common features of the masses were irregular shape (12 of 14 patients, 85.8%) and irregular or spiculated margin (11 of 14 patients, 78.7%). The contrast enhancement was heterogeneous in 11 patients (78.7%), rim enhancement in 2 cases (14.2%), and homogeneous in one patient (7.1%). The predominant kinetic pattern was rapid increase (14 of 14, 100%) in the initial phase and washout (11 of 14, 78.7%) in the delayed phase. Associated non-mass like enhancement was shown in 4 patients, representing ductal carcinoma in situ. MR imaging helped detect additional sites of cancer other than the index lesion in 3 patients (21.4%). Enlarged axillary lymphadenopathy was identified in 7 of the 14 patients (50%). Invasive micropapillary carcinoma appears as a mass with an irregular shape, irregular or spiculated margin and heterogeneous enhancement on MR imaging. Though these findings are not specific and are also observed with other breast malignancies, invasive micropapillary carcinoma frequently showed multiple lesions, accompanying non-mass enhancement and axillary lymph node enlargement.

  9. INTRACRANIAL MENINGIOMAS - MR IMAGING FINDINGS IN 30 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonthu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To present the magnetic resonance imaging findings of 30 cases of intracranial meningiomas diagnosed in a single institute. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with contrast is the modality of choice for diagnosis of meningiomas. Objective of this study was to describe typical and atypical locations and findings of intracranial meningiomas on magnetic resonance imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted at Department of Radiology, Government General Hospital, Kakinada from January 2013 to August 2014 over a period of 20 months. 30 patients of intracranial meningiomas of 15-75 years’ age group were studied. RESULTS A higher incidence noted in females. Most of the tumours are solitary. The most common sites of occurrence are the cerebral convexities, parasagittal location/falx, posterior fossa, sphenoid ridge, olfactory groove. Majority were typical (WHO grade 1 in 96.6%, only 3.4% were atypical (WHO grade 2. Most of the tumours showed low signal on T1- (60% and high signal on T2- (68% and FLAIR (69% weighted images. Also, the lesions showed heterogeneous signal on T1 (60%, T2 (68% and FLAIR (64% sequences. After contrast administration, 67% of the tumours presented intense and 33% showed moderate and heterogenous enhancement. The most common sites of occurrence are the cerebral convexities, parasagittal location/falx, posterior fossa, sphenoid ridge, olfactory groove and others accounting for 33.3%, 20%, 20%, 10%, 6.7%, 10% respectively. Areas of vasogenic oedema around the tumours were seen in 33% of the cases. Twenty percent of the cases showed bone infiltration, and the dural tail sign was seen in 56% of the tumours. CONCLUSION The diagnosis of meningioma is usually straightforward except when it presents in unusual locations and with atypical imaging characteristics. MRI is the modality of choice for diagnosis as well as for predicting the success of its complete removal.

  10. Ganglion cysts in the paediatric wrist: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of published literature on ganglion cysts in children has been from a surgical perspective, with no dedicated radiologic study yet performed. Our aim was to assess the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of ganglion cysts in a series of paediatric MR wrist examinations. Ninety-seven consecutive paediatric MR wrist examinations were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of ganglion cysts. Only those studies with wrist ganglia were included. Cysts were assessed for location, size, internal characteristics and secondary effect(s). Forty-one ganglion cysts (2-32 mm in size) were seen in 35/97 (36%) patients (24 female, 11 male), mean age: 13 years 11 months (range: 6 years 3 months-18 years). The majority were palmar (63.4%) with the remainder dorsal. Of the cysts, 43.9% were related to a wrist ligament(s), 36.6% to a joint and 17.1% to the triangular fibrocartilage complex. Of the patients, 91.4% had wrist symptoms: pain (n=29, 82.9%), swelling (n=7, 20%) and/or palpable mass (n=4, 11.4%); 71.4% patients had significant additional wrist abnormalities. Ganglion cysts were frequently found in children referred for wrist MRI. (orig.)

  11. Ganglion cysts in the paediatric wrist: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, Jennifer; Bartlett, Murray [Royal Children' s Hospital, Medical Imaging Department, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    The majority of published literature on ganglion cysts in children has been from a surgical perspective, with no dedicated radiologic study yet performed. Our aim was to assess the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of ganglion cysts in a series of paediatric MR wrist examinations. Ninety-seven consecutive paediatric MR wrist examinations were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of ganglion cysts. Only those studies with wrist ganglia were included. Cysts were assessed for location, size, internal characteristics and secondary effect(s). Forty-one ganglion cysts (2-32 mm in size) were seen in 35/97 (36%) patients (24 female, 11 male), mean age: 13 years 11 months (range: 6 years 3 months-18 years). The majority were palmar (63.4%) with the remainder dorsal. Of the cysts, 43.9% were related to a wrist ligament(s), 36.6% to a joint and 17.1% to the triangular fibrocartilage complex. Of the patients, 91.4% had wrist symptoms: pain (n=29, 82.9%), swelling (n=7, 20%) and/or palpable mass (n=4, 11.4%); 71.4% patients had significant additional wrist abnormalities. Ganglion cysts were frequently found in children referred for wrist MRI. (orig.)

  12. MRI findings in 6 cases of children by inadvertent ingestion of diphenoxylate-atropine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Lianxiang [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute , No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Lin Xiangtao, E-mail: yishui1982@126.com [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Cao Jinfeng [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute , No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Wang Xueyu [Division of Pediatrics, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021 (China); Wu Lebin [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Compound diphenoxylate (diphenoxylate-atropine) poisoning can cause toxic encephalopathy in children, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in this condition has not been reported. This study is to analyze brain MRI findings and to investigate the relations between MRI features and possible pathophysiological changes in children. Methods: Six children accidentally swallowed compound diphenoxylate, 4 males, 2 females, aged 20-46 months, average 33 months. Quantity of ingested diphenoxylate-atropine was from 6 to 30 tablets, each tablet contains diphenoxylate 2.5 mg and atropine 0.025 mg. These patients were referred to our hospital within 24 h after diphenoxylate-atropine ingestion, and underwent brain MRI scan within 24-72 h after emergency treatment. The characteristics of conventional MRI were analyzed. Results: These pediatric patients had various symptoms of opioid intoxication and atropine toxicity. Brain MRI showed abnormal low signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and abnormal high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging in bilateral in all cases; abnormal high signal intensity on T1WI, T2WI and FLAIR in 4 cases. Encephalomalacia was observed in 3 cases during follow-up. Conclusion: In the early stage of compound diphenoxylate poisoning in children, multiple extensive edema-necrosis and hemorrhagic-necrosis focus were observed in basic nucleus, pallium and cerebellum, these resulted in the corresponding brain dysfunction with encephalomalacia. MRI scan in the early stage in this condition may provide evidences of brain impairment, and is beneficial for the early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis assessment.

  13. Radiological findings in autistic and developmentally delayed children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.; Grond, J. van der; Durston, S.; Nievelstein, R.J.; Witkamp, T.; Daalen, E. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Engeland, H.V.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of brain abnormalities in a group of young children with developmental disorders, specifically including children that came to the attention of a child psychiatrist before the age of 3 years. METHODS: Forty-five children participated in a

  14. Nasal polyps with metaplastic ossification: CT and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yi Kyung; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Eunhee; Kim, Sung Tae [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jinna [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Seung-Kyu [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Young-Hyeh [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Metaplastic ossification is a rare event in nasal polyps. The purpose of this study was to review the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of nasal polyps with metaplastic ossification. CT (n = 5) and MR (n = 3) images of five patients (four men and one woman; mean age, 59 years) with surgically proven nasal polyp with metaplastic ossification were retrospectively reviewed. The location and morphologic characteristics of metaplastic ossification were documented as well. All lesions were seen as lobulated (n = 3), ovoid (n = 1), or dumbbell-shaped (n = 1) benign-looking masses with a mean size of 3.7 cm (range, 2.4-6.5 cm), located unilaterally in the posterior nasal cavity and nasopharynx (n = 2), posterior nasoethmoidal tract (n = 2), and maxillary sinus and nasal cavity (n = 1). Compared with the brain stem, the soft tissue components of all lesions demonstrated isoattenuation on precontrast CT scans, slight hypointensity on T1-weighted MR images, and hyperintensity on T2-weighted MR images. On contrast-enhanced MR images, heterogeneous enhancement with marked peripheral enhancement was seen in two and homogeneous moderate enhancement in one. All lesions contained centrally located radiodense materials on CT scans, the shape of which was multiple clustered in three, single nodular in one, and single large lobulated in one. Although rare, metaplastic ossification can occur within nasal polyps. The possibility of its diagnosis may be raised when one sees a benign-looking sinonasal mass with centrally located radiodense materials on CT scans. MR imaging may be useful when mycetoma or inverted papilloma cannot be ruled out on CT scans. (orig.)

  15. Cerebellar disorders: clinical/radiologic findings and modern imaging tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario; Habas, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar disorders, also called cerebellar ataxias, comprise a large group of sporadic and genetic diseases. Their core clinical features include impaired control of coordination and gait, as well as cognitive/behavioral deficits usually not detectable by a standard neurologic examination and therefore often overlooked. Two forms of cognitive/behavioral syndromes are now well identified: (1) the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome, which combines an impairment of executive functions, including planning and working memory, deficits in visuospatial skills, linguistic deficiencies such as agrammatism, and inappropriate behavior; and (2) the posterior fossa syndrome, a very acute form of cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome occurring essentially in children. Sporadic ataxias include stroke, toxic causes, immune ataxias, infectious/parainfectious ataxias, traumatic causes, neoplasias and paraneoplastic syndromes, endocrine disorders affecting the cerebellum, and the so-called "degenerative ataxias" (multiple system atrophy, and sporadic adult-onset ataxias). Genetic ataxias include mainly four groups of disorders: autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxias, autosomal-dominant ataxias (spinocerebellar ataxias and episodic ataxias), mitochondrial disorders, and X-linked ataxias. In addition to biochemical studies and genetic tests, brain imaging techniques are a cornerstone for the diagnosis, clinicoanatomic correlations, and follow-up of cerebellar ataxias. Modern radiologic tools to assess cerebellar ataxias include: functional imaging studies, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, volumetric studies, and tractography. These complementary methods provide a multimodal appreciation of the whole long-range cerebellar network functioning, and allow the extraction of potential biomarkers for prognosis and rating level of recovery after treatment. PMID:27432679

  16. MR of the pituitary in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome: size determination and imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is an unusual genetic disorder characterized by short stature, obesity, hypogonadism, hypotonia, cognitive impairment, and dysmorphic facies. There is an interstitial deletion of the proximal long arm of chromosome 15 in about 70% of patients. Some of these clinical features suggest a central hypothalamic/pituitary dysfunction, and recent investigations have demonstrated a marked impairment in spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion. We studied 15 GH-deficient PWS patients by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether there was a diminution in the gross morphological size of the anterior pituitary gland, the site of GH synthesis. We also set out to catalog the pertinent imaging findings in this patient population. Our results indicate that this is the first report documenting pituitary size by MRI in PWS patients. No statistically significant difference was found in the height of the anterior pituitary gland in PWS patients compared with either normal children or children with isolated GH deficiency. An interesting imaging finding is that three of 15 patients (20%) demonstrated complete absence of the posterior pituitary bright spot (PPBS), and a fourth patient demonstrated a small PPBS. These observations reflect an objective physiologic disturbance in the hypothalamus. The clinical and radiologic implications of these findings are discussed. (orig.)

  17. MR of the pituitary in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome: size determination and imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L. [Dept. of Radiology, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY (United States); Angulo, M. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Div. of Endocrinology and Genetics, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY (United States); Price, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY (United States); Taneja, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is an unusual genetic disorder characterized by short stature, obesity, hypogonadism, hypotonia, cognitive impairment, and dysmorphic facies. There is an interstitial deletion of the proximal long arm of chromosome 15 in about 70% of patients. Some of these clinical features suggest a central hypothalamic/pituitary dysfunction, and recent investigations have demonstrated a marked impairment in spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion. We studied 15 GH-deficient PWS patients by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether there was a diminution in the gross morphological size of the anterior pituitary gland, the site of GH synthesis. We also set out to catalog the pertinent imaging findings in this patient population. Our results indicate that this is the first report documenting pituitary size by MRI in PWS patients. No statistically significant difference was found in the height of the anterior pituitary gland in PWS patients compared with either normal children or children with isolated GH deficiency. An interesting imaging finding is that three of 15 patients (20%) demonstrated complete absence of the posterior pituitary bright spot (PPBS), and a fourth patient demonstrated a small PPBS. These observations reflect an objective physiologic disturbance in the hypothalamus. The clinical and radiologic implications of these findings are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... barium exams, CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a setting. Large patients are more difficult to image by ultrasound because greater amounts of tissue attenuate (weaken) the sound waves as they pass deeper into the body. top of page This page was reviewed on June ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gallbladder spleen pancreas intestines kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be used to help ... that is being examined to the transducer (the device used to examine the patient), as well ... is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... your doctor if there are specific instructions for eating and drinking prior to the exam. Your child ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician ... scans, your doctor may ask you to withhold food and drink for several hours before your child's ...

  2. Gastrointestinal tract imaging in children: current techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiorns, Melanie P. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Imaging of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in children continues to evolve, with new techniques, both radiological and non-radiological, being added to the repertoire. This article provides a summary of current imaging techniques of the GI tract (primarily the upper GI tract) and the relationship between those techniques. It covers the upper GI series and other contrast studies, US, CT and MRI. Note is also made of the contribution now made by capsule endoscopy (CE). Abdominal emergency imaging is not covered in this article. (orig.)

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging findings compared with histological findings of the labrum in hip osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanezaki, Shiho; Nakamura, Shigeru; Matsushita, Takashi [Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Asako; Osawa, Marie [Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    Patients with disorders such as acetabular dysplasia or femoroacetabular impingement are at risk of developing hip osteoartbritis. Assessment of the cartilage and labrum in the hip joint based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been challenging because of the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) due to its deep location, ball and socket structure, and small volume of those structures compared with the whole joint size. To achieve better imaging assessment, direct MR. arthrography (d-MRA) and other techniques such as T2* mapping, T2 mapping, Tlrho, and delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI (dGEMRIC) have been developed along with the increasing use of high-field MRI. In patients with no apparent osteoarthritic changes such as joint space narrowing or osteophyte and subchondral cyst formation on radiographs, these techniques can detect early cartilage or labral damage. A recently developed semiquantitative MRI-based scoring system for hip osteoarthritis includes evaluation of the labrum, and its application as a potential therapeutic monitoring tool is anticipated. The labrum shows pathological changes such as macroscopic hypertrophy and histological degeneration in hip osteoartbritis, but the pathological background is not well understood when evaluated by MRI. Kubo et al. compared radial MRI findings with histological changes of the labrum in ll hips with osteoarthritis using 1.5-T MRJ and found that fibrous separation and mucoid deposition occurred in the labrum with a ''diffuse high signal'' or ''obscure'' pattern. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have demonstrated a correlation between MRI fmdings and histological evidence of the severity of degeneration of the labrum. We hypothesized that radially reconstructed images of the acetabular labrum acquired by 3-T MRI can depict degenerative changes of the labrum. In this study, we sought to determine the correlation between MRI and histological findings of the

  4. MR Imaging Findings in Xp21.2 Duplication Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Matthew T; Helman, Guy; Gropman, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    Xp21.2 duplication syndrome is a rare genetic disorder of undetermined prevalence and clinical relevance. As the use of chromosomal microarray has become first line for the work-up of childhood developmental delay, more gene deletions and duplications have been recognized. To the best of our knowledge, the imaging findings of Xp21.2 duplication syndrome have not been reported. We report a case of a 33 month-old male referred for developmental delay that was found to have an Xp21.2 duplication containing IL1RAPL1 and multiple midline brain malformations.

  5. Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma of the Abdomen: the Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Lee, Soon Jin; Song, Hye Jong [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma is a rare neoplasm that originates from follicular dendritic cells in lymphoid follicles. This disease usually involves the lymph nodes, and especially the head and neck area. Rarely, extranodal sites may be affected, including tonsil, the oral cavity, liver, spleen and the gastrointestinal tract. We report here on the imaging findings of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma of the abdomen that involved the retroperitoneal lymph nodes and colon. It shows as a well-defined, enhancing homogenous mass with internal necrosis and regional lymphadenopathy.

  6. MR imaging findings of acetabular dysplasia in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Steven; Connell, David [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Radiology Department, London, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Miocevic, Miranda; Malara, Frank; Pike, Jonathan [Victoria House Hospital, Radiology Department, Melbourne (Australia); Young, David [Melbourne Orthopaedic Group, Orthopaedic Surgery, Melbourne (Australia)

    2006-06-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging in the identification of labral and articular cartilage lesions in patients with acetabular dysplasia. Pre-operative MR imaging was performed on 27 hips in 25 consecutive patients (16 males, 9 females, age range 19-52 years, mean age 31.2 years) with radiographic evidence of acetabular dysplasia (centre-edge angle of Wiberg <20 degrees). The average duration of symptoms was 16.2 months. Two musculoskeletal radiologists assessed MR images in consensus for the presence of abnormality involving the acetabular labrum and adjacent acetabular articular cartilage. A high resolution, non-arthrographic technique was used to assess the labrum and labral chondral transitional zone. Surgical correlation was obtained in all cases by a single surgeon experienced in hip arthroscopy and ten patients with normal hip MRI were included to provide a control group. The acetabular labra in the dysplastic hips demonstrated abnormal signal intensity, and had an elongated appearance when compared with the control group (mean length 10.9 mm vs 6.4 mm). Morphological appearances in the labra included surface irregularity, fissures and cleft formation. MR imaging correctly identified the severity of chondral abnormality in 24 of 27 hips (89%) when compared with arthroscopic findings. MR imaging demonstrates an elongated labrum, focal intra-substance signal change and irregularity and fissuring of the margins in patients with acetabular dysplasia. Abnormality is also identified at the labral chondral transitional zone, where fissuring, focal clefts, chondral deficiency and subchondral cyst formation may be apparent. A high-resolution, non-arthrographic technique can provide an accurate preoperative assessment and evaluate the presence of premature osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  7. Imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamo, Leonor; Meuli, Reto [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Vial, Yvan [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Gengler, Carole [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Pathology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    Congenital lung malformations are increasingly detected before birth. However, bronchial atresia is rarely identified in utero and not always recognized in neonates. There are two types of atresia: (1) proximal, located at the level of the mainstem or the proximal lobar bronchi, which is extremely rare and usually lethal during pregnancy, causing a tremendous volume increase of the distal involved lung with secondary hypoplasia of the normal lung, and (2) peripheral, located at the segmental/subsegmental bronchial level, which may present as an isolated lesion or as part of a complex congenital malformation. Prenatal findings are mostly nonspecific. Postnatal exams show overinflated lung areas and focal bronchial dilations. The typical fluid-filled bronchoceles are not always observed in neonates but develop progressively in the first months of life. This pictorial essay describes the spectrum of imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants. (orig.)

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Small Patella Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung-Soo; Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Park, Noh-Hyuck; Chang, Jun-Hee; Ban, Yun-Seong; Song, Sang-Heon

    2016-03-01

    Small patella syndrome (SPS) is characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the patella and pelvic girdle abnormalities, including bilateral absence or delayed ossification of the ischiopubic junction and infra-acetabular axe-cut notches. Here, we report a case of SPS in a 26-year-old female. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed a small patella with thick eccentric non-ossified patellar cartilage and femoral trochlear dysplasia with hypoplastic patellar undersurface. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MRI findings in SPS. MRI findings could be clinically relevant because elongation of the medial patellofemoral ligament and trochlear dysplasia with eccentric non-ossified patellar cartilage might lead to patellofemoral maltracking with an osteochondral lesion or acute dislocation or an extensor mechanism injury. Though the patient presented in this case report only had a gastrocnemius injury at the origin site, physicians should carefully examine abnormalities with MRI when an SPS patient has a trauma to the knee. PMID:26955616

  9. Imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital lung malformations are increasingly detected before birth. However, bronchial atresia is rarely identified in utero and not always recognized in neonates. There are two types of atresia: (1) proximal, located at the level of the mainstem or the proximal lobar bronchi, which is extremely rare and usually lethal during pregnancy, causing a tremendous volume increase of the distal involved lung with secondary hypoplasia of the normal lung, and (2) peripheral, located at the segmental/subsegmental bronchial level, which may present as an isolated lesion or as part of a complex congenital malformation. Prenatal findings are mostly nonspecific. Postnatal exams show overinflated lung areas and focal bronchial dilations. The typical fluid-filled bronchoceles are not always observed in neonates but develop progressively in the first months of life. This pictorial essay describes the spectrum of imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants. (orig.)

  10. Factors Affecting Children's Judgement of Culturally Deviant Acts: Findings from an International School in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuki, Aya; Tanaka, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between perceptions of culturally deviant acts and multicultural experiences of elementary-school children attending an international school in Japan. Findings indicated that children judged a Japanese harsher than a foreigner, irrespective of the children's age. It was also found that younger children were…

  11. Incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmod Kalsotra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tinnitus is "a sound in one ear or both ears, such as buzzing, ringing, or whistling, occurring without an external stimulus." Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a well-established, cost-effective investigation for the patients with tinnitus. Aim: The purpose of the study was to define the frequency of incidental findings on MRI scans, of patients with a history of tinnitus but with normal clinical examination, audiometry and otoacoustic emissions. Materials and Methods: A total of 62 patients were enrolled for the present study with a history of gradually increasing tinnitus and normal clinical ENT examination. All these patients underwent MRI scan to find out any lesion that would cause tinnitus. Results and Conclusion: In the present study, evaluation of MRI scans of 62 patients with gradually increasing tinnitus was done, with ipsilateral vestibular schwannoma and neurofibromatosis II being diagnosed in 1 patient (1.61% each. Incidental findings were demonstrated in 26 cases (41.93%; with 8 cases (12.90% of white matter lesions, 5 cases (8.66% of vascular anomalies, 3 cases (4.83% of arachnoid cyst, 2 cases (3.22% of empty sella, 4 cases (6.45% of sinus involvement, 2 cases (3.22% of cerebral atrophy and 2 cases (3.22% of vascular infarcts, though none of these findings were serious and neither warranted an urgent surgical intervention but a few cases required assessment by other specialties and were referred accordingly.

  12. Second Malignancy in Pediatric Patients: Imaging Findings and Differential Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tayari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic advances in the treatment of pediatric neoplasms have improved the prognosis but have also increased the risk of developing rare second malignancies."nPrimary neoplasms which are often associated with second malignancies include lymphoma, retinoblas-toma, medulloblastoma and leukemia. The most common second malignancies are central nervous system (CNS tumors, sarcomas, thyroid and parathyroid gland carcinoma and leukemia, particularly acute myeloblastic leukemia. Genetic predisposition, chemotherapy, and especially radiation therapy are included as pathogenic factors in second malignancies. We know all survivors of childhood cancer should have lifelong follow-up, preferably with US, magnetic resonance imaging and other procedures with no ionizing radiation. A new progressive lesion may represent recurrence of the primitive neoplastic process, late radiation injury, or more infrequently, a second malignancy. Differential diagnosis may be very difficult and the outcome is often fatal. "nTreatment protocols should be modified to reduce the risk of second malignancies without compromising the effectiveness of initial therapy. "nClinicians should individualize treatment for patients who are genetically predisposed. In addition, radiologists should be familiar with the long-term consequences of antineoplastic therapy."nIn a report of new England journal of medicine in 2007, 357:227-2284 by Dr. Brenner and Hall, 2% of all carcinomas in U.S.A are due to more use of CT exam and children are three to four times more sensitive to ionization radiation. "nSo all the radiologists and clinicians should be aware of the complications and should recommend follow up exams in children who have had previous treatments for such carcinomas.

  13. Missed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Assessment of early imaging findings on prediagnostic magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Seong Hyun, E-mail: sh6453.kim@samsung.com; Kim, Young Kon; Song, Kyoung Doo; Lee, Soon Jin; Choi, Dongil

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • MR imaging was superior to CT for the detection of early PDAC. • A focal lesion with no MPD interruption is common MR finding of early PDAC. • A mean volume doubling time of early PDAC was about five months. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate the early imaging findings and growth rate of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and to assess whether MR imaging detects early PDAC better than CT. Materials and methods: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived the requirement for informed consent. Twenty-two patients were included, and two radiologists, by consensus, assessed the presence of focal lesions, interruption of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), MPD dilatation, and pancreatitis, volume doubling time (VDT) of PDAC on prediagnostic MR imaging. Two other observers independently reviewed three image sets (CT images, unenhanced MR images, and unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MR images) for the detection of early PDAC. Paired Wilcoxon signed rank test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used for statistical analyses. Results: In 20 (90.9%) patients, prediagnostic MR exams showed abnormality, and all of them showed focal lesions on the first abnormal prediagnostic MR exams. Thirteen lesions (65%) showed no MPD interruption and one lesion (5%) was accompanied by pancreatitis. The mean VDT of PDAC was 151.7 days (range, 18.3–417.8 days). Diagnostic performance of unenhanced MR images (Az, 0.971–0.989) and combined unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MR images (Az, 0.956–0.963) was significantly better than that of CT images (Az, 0.565–0.583; p < 0.01) for both observers, Conclusion: The most common early imaging finding of PDAC on prediagnostic MR exams was a focal lesion with no MPD interruption with a mean volume doubling time of five months. MR imaging was superior to CT for the detection of early PDAC.

  14. Radiation myelopathy in over-irradiated patients: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonso, E.R. [Radiology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Gregorio, M.A. de [Radiology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Mateo, P. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Esco, R. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Bascon, N. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Morales, F. [Neurology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Bellosta, R. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Lopez, P. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Gimeno, M. [Hospital Miguel Servet, Zaragoza (Spain); Roca, M. [Radiology Service, Hospital Miguel Servet, E-50 009 Zaragoza (Spain); Villavieja, J.L. [Radiology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain)

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this work is to report the MRI findings in patients with radiation myelopathy due to accidental local over-irradiation syndrome. Eight patients (seven males and one female) were suffering from over-irradiation syndrome as a result of treatments from a malfunctioning linear electron accelerator. The mean accidental estimated dose was 136 Gy delivered to the ``open-neck`` (seven cases) and to the thoracic wall (one case), during a mean of 5.4 sessions (range 1-9 sessions). Paresthesia and weakness in the upper extremities were the earliest symptoms (87.5 %), with evolution to paralysis in all patients. No patient is alive (mean survival time 64 days). In all cases MRI was negative for neurologic lesions in the acute phase (< 90 days from irradiation; Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system). Late signs of radiation myelitis manifested as high-intensity signals on T2-weighted images in three patients, and as Gd-DTPA enhancement of T1-weighted images in one case. Autopsies performed on four patients who died in acute phase showed morphologic alterations in white matter: edema in 75 %, and necrosis and glial reaction as well as obliterative vasculitis in all cases. In cases of over-irradiation, MRI may be normal in acute phase even if the patients have severe neurologic deficit, as positive MRI findings appear only in delayed radiation myelitis. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Renal cell carcinoma: histological classification and correlation with imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common histological type of cancer in the Western world and has shown a sustained increase in its prevalence. The histological classification of RCCs is of utmost importance, considering the significant prognostic and therapeutic implications of its histological subtypes. Imaging methods play an outstanding role in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of RCC. Clear cell, papillary and chromophobe are the most common histological subtypes of RCC, and their preoperative radiological characterization, either followed or not by confirmatory percutaneous biopsy, may be particularly useful in cases of poor surgical condition, metastatic disease, central mass in a solitary kidney, and in patients eligible for molecular targeted therapy. New strategies recently developed for treating renal cancer, such as cryo and radiofrequency ablation, molecularly targeted therapy and active surveillance also require appropriate preoperative characterization of renal masses. Less common histological types, although sharing nonspecific imaging features, may be suspected on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data. The present study is aimed at reviewing the main clinical and imaging findings of histological RCC subtypes. (author)

  16. CEREBRAL HYDATID DISEASE: CT AND MR IMAGING FINDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cerebral hydatid disease is very rare, representing only 2% of all cerebral space occupying lesions even in the countries where the disease is endemic. The aim of this paper is to describe the characteristic features of cerebral hydatid disease in computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODS: Here is a case 25yr/m who presented to neurosurgery OPD with complaints of headache, vomiting, right sided weakness and seizures for 2 weeks. CT and MRI were the imaging modalities to reach the diagnosis which was pathologically confirmed postoperatively as hydatid disease. RESULTS: CT and MR imaging findings of E. granulosus lesions were well defined, smooth thin-walled, spherical, homogeneous cystic lesions with no contrast enhancement, no calcification, and no surrounding oedema. CONCLUSION: Although cystic cerebral hydatid disease is well demonstrated by CT and MR examinations, CT is superior in detecting calcification in the cyst, when present, MR is better in demonstrating cyst capsule, detecting multiplicity and defining the anatomic relationship of the lesion with the adjacent structures, and it is more helpful in surgical planning.

  17. Renal cell carcinoma: histological classification and correlation with imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muglia, Valdair F., E-mail: fmuglia@fmrp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CCIFM/FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica. Faculdade de Medicina; Prando, Adilson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Hospital Vera Cruz, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Imaginologia

    2015-05-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common histological type of cancer in the Western world and has shown a sustained increase in its prevalence. The histological classification of RCCs is of utmost importance, considering the significant prognostic and therapeutic implications of its histological subtypes. Imaging methods play an outstanding role in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of RCC. Clear cell, papillary and chromophobe are the most common histological subtypes of RCC, and their preoperative radiological characterization, either followed or not by confirmatory percutaneous biopsy, may be particularly useful in cases of poor surgical condition, metastatic disease, central mass in a solitary kidney, and in patients eligible for molecular targeted therapy. New strategies recently developed for treating renal cancer, such as cryo and radiofrequency ablation, molecularly targeted therapy and active surveillance also require appropriate preoperative characterization of renal masses. Less common histological types, although sharing nonspecific imaging features, may be suspected on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data. The present study is aimed at reviewing the main clinical and imaging findings of histological RCC subtypes. (author)

  18. Multidetector CT findings of splenic artery aneurysm in children with chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splenic artery aneurysm (SAA) is a well-known complication of chronic liver disease and portal hypertension in adults. The incidence of SAA in children undergoing selective hepatic angiography prior to liver transplantation is reported as 4%, but there are few systematic studies. To investigate the SAAs detected by multidetector CT angiography (MDCTA) among children with chronic liver disease. A total of 124 children (71 girls, 53 boys; mean age 118 months; age range 5 days to 204 months) with chronic liver disease underwent MDCTA to display the vascular anatomy and any vascular complications during the pretransplantation period. Of these children, 23 also underwent coeliac angiography. The digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and MDCTA findings were compared. SAAs were detected in 13 children (10.4%); none was detectable by US. All patients had more than one aneurysm; ten patients had more than three. In all except one patient, the SAAs were located only in the intraparenchymal branches of the splenic artery; in one patient they were located in the intraparenchymal segment and in the distal third of the splenic artery. The mean size of the aneurysms was 6.5 mm (range 2.5-18 mm). All patients with aneurysms had splenomegaly and vascular collaterals. Nine of the children with SAAs had portal vein pathologies (two occlusions, two stenoses, five dilatations). A statistically significant difference existed with regard to the size of spleen (P < 0.05) and patient age (P < 0.05) between children with SAAs and children without SAAs. There was an increased risk of SAAs in patients with portal vein pathologies. In 19 patients without SAAs on MDCTA, no SAAs were seen on DSA. It is likely that the incidence of SAA in children with chronic liver disease will increase with improved survival of children with long-standing portal hypertension and chronic liver disease. MDCTA with multiplanar reconstruction is a noninvasive and effective means of imaging paediatric patients with

  19. Respiratory syncytial virus-related encephalitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion-weighted study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Arim; Suh, Sang-il; Seol, Hae-Young [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Gyu-Ri; Lee, Nam-Joon [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Eun, Baik-Lin [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen causing acute respiratory infection in children. Herein, we describe the incidence and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of RSV-related encephalitis, a major neurological complication of RSV infection. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging findings of the patients over the past 7 years who are admitted to our medical center and are tested positive for RSV-RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. In total, 3,856 patients were diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis, and 28 of them underwent brain MRI for the evaluation of neurologic symptoms; 8 of these 28 patients had positive imaging findings. Five of these 8 patients were excluded because of non-RSV-related pathologies, such as subdural hemorrhage, brain volume loss due to status epilepticus, periventricular leukomalacia, preexisting ventriculomegaly, and hypoxic brain injury. The incidence of RSV-related encephalitis was as follows: 3/3,856 (0.08 %) of the patients are positive for RSV RNA, 3/28 (10.7 %) of the patient underwent brain MRI for neurological symptom, and 3/8 (37.5 %) of patients revealed abnormal MR findings. The imaging findings were suggestive of patterns of rhombenmesencephalitis, encephalitis with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and limbic encephalitis. They demonstrated no diffusion abnormality on diffusion-weighted image and symptom improvement on the follow-up study. Encephalitis with RSV bronchiolitis occurs rarely. However, on brain MRI performed upon suspicion of neurologic involvement, RSV encephalitis is not infrequently observed among the abnormal MR findings and may mimic other viral and limbic encephalitis. Physicians should be aware of this entity to ensure proper diagnosis and neurologic care of RSV-positive patients. (orig.)

  20. Mazes and Maps: Can Young Children Find Their Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirout, Jamie J.; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2014-01-01

    Games provide important informal learning activities for young children, and spatial game play (e.g., puzzles and blocks) has been found to relate to the development of spatial skills. This study investigates 4- and 5-year-old children's use of scaled and unscaled maps when solving mazes, asking whether an important aspect of spatial…

  1. Globus pallidus high-signal lesions: A predominant MRI finding in children with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lesions of the brain, recognized as unidentified bright objects (UBOs, are commonly observed as areas of increased T2-weighted signal intensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. Identification of these lesions is not currently encompassed in the National Institute of Health (NIH diagnostic criteria for NF1. Objective: We aimed to determine the prevalence of UBOs in children with NF1 and identify areas of the brain that are commonly affected by these lesions, allowing us to evaluate whether UBOs should be included in the diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of NF1. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the cranial MRI scans of 22 children who had been diagnosed with sporadic or familial NF1 in accordance with the criteria established by NIH. UBOs were present in 81% of the children with NF1. Results: These lesions have a predilection for specific areas of the brain, including the globus pallidus (72%, cerebellum (66%, brainstem (27% and cerebral hemispheres (16%. The prevalence of UBOs identified varied significantly with age and sex; they were infrequent in children less than 4 years of age but were common in those aged between 4 and 12 years of age. UBOs were more commonly seen in males (66.6% compared with females (33.3%. Repeat MRI scan on a subset of these patients with UBOs did not show any significant changes despite a worsening in clinical symptoms. Conclusion and Discussion: We have shown that UBOs are a common finding in children with NF1, and are most prevalent between the ages of 4 and 12 years. Many sites of the brain are affected by these lesions, most notably the globus pallidus and the cerebellum. Further research must be conducted to elucidate the significance of UBOs in patients with NF1 and whether these lesions have any utility in the clinical detection of NF1.

  2. MR imaging of anterior cruciate ligament injury: associated findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors investigated the associated findings and their value in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in MR image. The knee MR images of 47 patients with ACL injury (complete;24, partial;23) and 61 patients with normal ACL confirmed by the knee arthroscopy or operation were reviewed retrospectively. The degree of anterior translocation of tibia and the degree of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) buckling were evaluated. The prevalence and pattern of associated adjacent bone, ligament and meniscus injuries were studied. The means(± 2 standard errors) of anterior translocation were different significantly in statistical analysis (ρ < 0.001, student t-test) between injury group (7.51 ± 1.16 mm) and normal group (-0.56 ± 0.92mm). In the level of 5mm of anterior translocation for the criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 78.7%, 89.5%, 84.3% for each. The means of PCL buckling ratio were also different statistically between injury group(0.23 ± 0.02) and normal group(0.17 ± 0.01)(ρ < 0.001). In the level of 0.20 for diagnostic criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 71.4%, 83.6%, 78.4% for each. Thirty one medial meniscus tear (66%), thirteen lateral meniscus tear (28%), ten medial collateral ligament injury (28%), one PCL injury(2%) were associated with ACL injury. The twenty nine bone marrow changes were found in twenty patients (43%) which included acutely injured seven patients. In acute cases, the bone marrow changes were depicted as diffuse or focal high signal intensity lesions in lateral femoral or tibial condyles in contrast to the changes in chronic cases depicted as focal low signal intensity lesions in variable location. Lateral femoral condylar notch depression were found in nine patients (19%) and avulsion fractures of anterior tibial spine in four patients(9%). The associated findings with ACL injury (anterior translocation, buckling of PCL, associated bone, ligament and

  3. Distal humeral physeal injuries in child abuse: MR imaging and ultrasonography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distal humeral physeal injuries, in particular, fracture-separation of the distal humeral epiphysis, can be seen in abused infants. Detection of physeal injury in an infant of toddler may indicate the possibility of unsuspected abuse, particularly when an appropriate history explaining the circumstance of the fracture is lacking. In addition, the extent of injury can be difficult to characterize on plain radiographs. Ultrasonography (US) and MR imaging (MRI) may be of value in diagnosis and may obviate the need for intraoperative arthrography. We present MRI findings in three abused children with distal humeral physeal injuries. Sonographic correlation is also presented in one case. (orig.)

  4. Imaging of Chest Wall Lesions in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hekmatnia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chest wall lesions in childhood include a wide range of pathologies; Benign lesions include lipoma, neurofibroma, lymphangioma, hemangioma, and mesenchymal hamartoma."nMalignant lesions include Neuroblastoma, Rhabdo-myosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and Askin tumor."nSystemic diseases such as leukemia, lymphoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and also infections such as tuberculosis, and actinomycosis may also cause chest wall lesions."nThe imaging characteristics of these lesions are re-viewed, but only a minority of the lesions shows diagnostic imaging features, and most of lesions re-quire biopsy and histopathological examination for "ndefinitive diagnosis."nThe role of different modalities is discussed with an emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging for demonstrating lesion morphology and local spread. Computed tomography and neuclear medicine being used mainly to assess remote disease."nIn this lecture, we discuss about imaging of chest wall lesions in children.

  5. Extracardiac findings detected by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyttenbach, Rolf; Medioni, Nathalie; Santini, Paolo [Ospedale San Giovanni Bellinzona (EOC), Department of Radiology, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Vock, Peter [University Hospital Bern, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt [University Hospital Bern, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Spitalzentrum Biel AG, Department of Radiology, Biel (Switzerland)

    2012-06-15

    To determine the prevalence and importance of extracardiac findings (ECF) in patients undergoing clinical CMR and to test the hypothesis that the original CMR reading focusing on the heart may underestimate extracardiac abnormalities. 401 consecutive patients (mean age 53 years) underwent CMR at 1.5 T. Main indications were ischaemic heart disease (n = 183) and cardiomyopathy (n = 164). All CMR sequences, including scout images, were reviewed with specific attention to ECF in a second reading by the same radiologist who performed the first clinical reading. Potentially significant findings were defined as abnormalities requiring additional clinical or radiological follow-up. 250 incidental ECF were detected, of which 84 (34%) had potentially significant ECF including bronchial carcinoma (n = 1), lung consolidation (n = 7) and abdominal abnormalities. In 166 CMR studies (41%) non-significant ECF were detected. The number of ECF identified at second versus first reading was higher for significant (84 vs. 47) and non-significant (166 vs. 36) findings (P < 0.00001). About one fifth of patients undergoing CMR were found to have potentially significant ECF requiring additional work-up. The second dedicated reading detected significantly more ECF compared with the first clinical reading emphasising the importance of active search for extracardiac abnormalities when evaluating CMR studies. circle Many patients undergoing cardiac MR have significant extracardiac findings (ECF) circle These impact on management and require additional work-up. circle Wide review of scout and cine sequences will detect most ECFs. circle Education of radiologists is important to identify ECFs on CMR studies. (orig.)

  6. Imaging findings of juvenile xanthogranuloma of the penis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, Ray K. [Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States); Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (United States); Choudhary, Arabinda K. [Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a rare benign self-limiting lesion presenting in early childhood. It is the commonest variant of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis and usually presents as a cutaneous mass. It might have a systemic component and also might be associated with other conditions, notably neurofibromatosis and juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia. Penile masses are unusual in childhood and we describe a case of JXG involving the penis. Although four cases of JXG of the penis have been reported in the literature, this is the first with imaging of the penile lesion. We discuss the clinical and radiological findings, differential diagnosis and management of these cases. High awareness of these lesions in the differential diagnosis of penile masses presenting in early childhood is important to avoid potentially unnecessary ablative genital surgery. Careful assessment should also be made for any systemic involvement and for associated pathologies. (orig.)

  7. Resilience in highly stressed urban children: concepts and findings.

    OpenAIRE

    Cowen, E. L.; Wyman, P. A.; Work, W. C.

    1996-01-01

    The Rochester Child Resilience Project is a coordinated set of studies of the correlates and antecedents of outcomes relating to resilience among profoundly stressed urban children. The studies have been conducted over the course of the past decade. Based on child test data, parent, teacher, and self ratings of child adjustment, and in-depth individual interviews with parents and children, a cohesive picture has developed of child and family milieu variables that consistently differentiate ch...

  8. Magnetic resonanse imaging findings of redundant nerve roots syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Taşdemir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of our study was to determinethe findings of redundant nerve roots syndrome (RNRSin lumbar stenosis by magnetic resonance (MR imaging.Materials and methods: A total of 8906 lumber MR imagingwere evaluated, retrospectively. RNRS were definedas a tortuosity of elongated nerve roots in the subarachnoidspace accompanied by spinal stenosis whichdetermined by images of MR. A total of 8 patients weredefined as RNRS.Results: Six of RNRS patients are female. The averageage of the 8 patients who were defined as RNRS byMRI was 70.0±15.0 (range, 39-87 years. The anteriorposteriorand transverse diameter of the spinal canal wasmeasured. The mean of the anterior-posterior diameter(mm and transverse diameter (mm of the spinal canalwere 11.50±2.0 mm (range; 8.0-14.0 mm 8.4 mm and8.37±0.51 mm (range; 8.0-9.0 mm, respectively.Conclusion: In patients with spinal stenosis and RNRSshould also be considered.

  9. Atypical Findings of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh KARIMZADEH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available How to cite this article: Karimzadeh P, Bakhshandeh Bali MK, Nasehi MM, Taheri Otaghsara SM, Ghofrani M. Atypical Findings of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Children. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012;6(4:17-22. AbstractObjectiveGuillain-Barre syndrome (GBS is an immune-mediated polyneuropathy that occurs mostly after  prior infection. The diagnosis of this syndrome is dependent heavily on the history and examination, although cerebrospinal fluid analysis and electrodiagnostic testing usually confirm the diagnosis. This is a retrospective study which was performed to investigate the atypical features of GBS.Materials & MethodsThirty three patients (21/63.6% males and 12/36.4% females with GBS were retrospectively studied and prospectively evaluated at the Child Neurology institute of Mofid Children Hospital of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences between May 2011 and September 2012.ResultsThe mean age was 5.4 years (range, 1.5-10.5.Twenty one patients (87.9 % had previous history of infections. Eight patients (24.2% admitted with atypical symptoms like upper limb weakness (3%, ptosis (3%, neck stiffness (3%, inability to stand (proximal weakness (9.1%, headache (3% and dysphagia (3%.According to disease process, weakness was ascending in 26 (78.8%, descending in 5 (15.2% and static in 2 (6.1% patients. Cranial nerve involvement was found in 8(24.3% children, most commonly as facial palsy in 3 (9.1%.ConclusionIn this study, 24.3% of our patients presented with atypical symptoms of GBS as upper limb weakness, ptosis, neck stiffness, inability to stand (proximal weakness, headache and dysphagia References:Hughes RA, Cornblath DR. Guillain-Barré syndrome. Lancet. 2005 Nov 5;366(9497:1653-66.McGillicuddy DC, Walker O, Shapiro NI, Edlow JA. Guillain-Barré syndrome in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2006 Apr;47(4:390-3.Cosi V, Versino M. Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neurol Sci. 2006;27(Suppl 1:S47-51.Hughes RA, Cornblath DR. Guillain

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging findings and neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonates with urea-cycle defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunz AC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anna Catherine Gunz,1 Karen Choong,2 Murray Potter,3 Elka Miller4 1Division of Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, University of Ottawa, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 4Diagnostic Imaging Department, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, ON, Canada Abstract: The urea-cycle functions to facilitate ammonia excretion, a disruption of which results in the accumulation of toxic metabolites. The neurological outcome of neonatal-onset urea-cycle defects (UCDs is poor, and there are no good predictors of prognosis beyond ammonia levels at presentation. The role of neuroimaging in the prognosis of neonatal-onset UCDs is unclear. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of two patients with neonatal-onset UCDs (argininosuccinic aciduria and citrullinemia at presentation and at 2-year follow-up, and present a review of the literature on neuroimaging in this age-group. We observed two potentially significant distinct patterns of cerebral involvement on MRI: (1 a central and focal pattern of involvement limited to the basal ganglia, perirolandic regions, and internal capsule; and (2 diffuse involvement of the cerebral cortex, internal capsule, basal ganglia, and variably thalami and brain stem. Patients with more diffuse findings tended to have higher serum glutamine peaks and worse neurological outcomes, while those with central involvement, aggressive acute management, and early liver transplantation tended to have better outcomes. We propose that MRI imaging of the brain may have prognostic value following presentation with neonatal UCDs, particularly in identifying patients at risk for poor outcome. The role and timing of follow-up neuroimaging is currently unclear. Further collaborative studies are necessary to evaluate whether patterns of MRI findings vary with specific UCD

  11. CT findings for blebs and bullae in children with spontaneous pneumothorax and comparison with findings in normal age-matched controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous pneumothorax (SPTX) is a relatively common condition. In patients with SPTX, CT has been advocated to identify blebs and bullae (BB) to help in management planning. The study was designed to assess our experience with CT evaluation for underlying BB in children with SPTX as compared to normal controls. Forty-three children (mean age 16 years, range 13-19 years) with 50 SPTX events with both chest radiographs and CT scans were reviewed. CT findings were compared with those seen in 29 age- and gender-matched controls without SPTX. The parameters evaluated included size, number, location, and ipsi-/contralateral BB; apical lines; and surgical correlation. In the study group, BB were identified in 14 imaged events (28%) (size 2.5-45 mm, one to six BB) with contralateral BB in 11 of the 14 (78.6%). All BB were confined to the apices. BB were sometimes difficult to differentiate from ''apical lines'' - a suspected normal variant seen in 28 imaged events (56%). Of blebs seen at surgery, 59% were identified on CT, and there were no false-positive CT findings. In the control group, no BB were identified but ''apical lines'' were seen in eight children (28%). BB were seen by CT in 28% of imaged events in children with SPTX and were always confined to the apices. When present, BB were commonly bilateral (78.6%). BB should not be confused with ''apical lines,'' which were not only seen in 56% of imaged events in the SPTX group but also in 28% of the normal controls. (orig.)

  12. CT findings for blebs and bullae in children with spontaneous pneumothorax and comparison with findings in normal age-matched controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Carolina V.A.; Donnelly, Lane F. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Warner, Brad W. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Spontaneous pneumothorax (SPTX) is a relatively common condition. In patients with SPTX, CT has been advocated to identify blebs and bullae (BB) to help in management planning. The study was designed to assess our experience with CT evaluation for underlying BB in children with SPTX as compared to normal controls. Forty-three children (mean age 16 years, range 13-19 years) with 50 SPTX events with both chest radiographs and CT scans were reviewed. CT findings were compared with those seen in 29 age- and gender-matched controls without SPTX. The parameters evaluated included size, number, location, and ipsi-/contralateral BB; apical lines; and surgical correlation. In the study group, BB were identified in 14 imaged events (28%) (size 2.5-45 mm, one to six BB) with contralateral BB in 11 of the 14 (78.6%). All BB were confined to the apices. BB were sometimes difficult to differentiate from ''apical lines'' - a suspected normal variant seen in 28 imaged events (56%). Of blebs seen at surgery, 59% were identified on CT, and there were no false-positive CT findings. In the control group, no BB were identified but ''apical lines'' were seen in eight children (28%). BB were seen by CT in 28% of imaged events in children with SPTX and were always confined to the apices. When present, BB were commonly bilateral (78.6%). BB should not be confused with ''apical lines,'' which were not only seen in 56% of imaged events in the SPTX group but also in 28% of the normal controls. (orig.)

  13. MR imaging findings of medial tibial crest friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klontzas, Michail E., E-mail: miklontzas@gmail.com; Akoumianakis, Ioannis D., E-mail: ioannis.akoumianakis@gmail.com; Vagios, Ilias, E-mail: iliasvagios@gmail.com; Karantanas, Apostolos H., E-mail: akarantanas@gmail.com

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Medial tibial condyle bone marrow edema (BME), associated with soft tissue edema (STe) surrounding the medial collateral ligament, was incidentally observed in MRI examinations of young and athletic individuals. The aim of the present study was to 1. Prospectively investigate the association between these findings and coexistence of localized pain, and 2. Explore the possible contribution of the tibial morphology to its pathogenesis. Methods: The medial tibial condyle crest was evaluated in 632 knee MRI examinations. The angle and depth were measured by two separate evaluators. The presence of STe and BME was recorded. A third evaluator blindly assessed the presence of pain at this site. Results: BME associated with STe was found in 24 patients (with no history of previous trauma, osteoarthritis, tumor or pes anserine bursitis). The mean crest angle was 151.3° (95%CI 147.4–155.3°) compared to 159.4° (95%CI 158.8–160°) in controls (Mann–Whitney test, P < 0.0001). MRI findings were highly predictive of localized pain (sensitivity 92% specificity 99%, Fisher's exact test, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Friction at the medial tibial condyle crest is a painful syndrome. MRI is a highly specific and sensitive imaging modality for its diagnosis.

  14. Imaging of American football injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)

  15. Imaging of American football injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Unsell, Bryan J. [Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base, Department of Radiology, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-12-15

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)

  16. Anterolateral ankle impingement: findings and diagnostic accuracy with ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to evaluate the findings and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in antero-lateral ankle impingement (ALI) with clinical and arthroscopic correlation. Seventeen elite footballers with chronic ankle pain were referred for ultrasound with a clinical diagnosis of ALI (n = 8) or a control condition (n = 9; lateral mechanical instability, osteochondral defect, intra-articular bodies and osteoarthritis). Ultrasound examination included the antero-lateral gutter for abnormal synovial tissue (synovitic lesion), lateral ligament integrity, tibiotalar joint and osseous spurs of the distal tibia and talus. Ultrasound findings were correlated with subsequent arthroscopic appearance. Ultrasound examination detected a synovitic mass in the antero-lateral gutter in all 8 footballers with clinical ALI (100%) and in 2 patients with a control diagnosis (22%). Arthroscopic correlation of antero-lateral synovitis and fibrosis was present in all 10 cases (100%). The synovitic lesion was seen at ultrasound as a nodular soft tissue mass of mixed echogenicity within the antero-lateral gutter, which extruded anteriorly with manual compression of the distal fibula against the tibia. Increased blood supply was detected using power Doppler imaging in only 1 patient. The synovitic lesion measured >10 mm in its maximum dimension in 7 footballers with clinical ALI and <10 mm in the control group. Additional ultrasound findings in patients with abnormal antero-lateral synovial tissue included an anterior talofibular ligament injury in all patients (n = 10), a tibiotalar joint effusion (n = 6) and osseous spurs (n = 4). Antero-lateral synovitic tissue was accurately identified at ultrasound in the absence of an effusion (n = 4). No synovitic lesion was detected at ultrasound or arthroscopy in the remaining 7 patients with a control diagnosis. Ultrasound is accurate in detecting synovitic lesions within the antero-lateral gutter, demonstrating associated ligamentous injuries and in

  17. Anterolateral ankle impingement: findings and diagnostic accuracy with ultrasound imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, C.L.; Wilson, D.J. [Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Radiology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Coltman, T.P. [Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    The objective was to evaluate the findings and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in antero-lateral ankle impingement (ALI) with clinical and arthroscopic correlation. Seventeen elite footballers with chronic ankle pain were referred for ultrasound with a clinical diagnosis of ALI (n = 8) or a control condition (n = 9; lateral mechanical instability, osteochondral defect, intra-articular bodies and osteoarthritis). Ultrasound examination included the antero-lateral gutter for abnormal synovial tissue (synovitic lesion), lateral ligament integrity, tibiotalar joint and osseous spurs of the distal tibia and talus. Ultrasound findings were correlated with subsequent arthroscopic appearance. Ultrasound examination detected a synovitic mass in the antero-lateral gutter in all 8 footballers with clinical ALI (100%) and in 2 patients with a control diagnosis (22%). Arthroscopic correlation of antero-lateral synovitis and fibrosis was present in all 10 cases (100%). The synovitic lesion was seen at ultrasound as a nodular soft tissue mass of mixed echogenicity within the antero-lateral gutter, which extruded anteriorly with manual compression of the distal fibula against the tibia. Increased blood supply was detected using power Doppler imaging in only 1 patient. The synovitic lesion measured >10 mm in its maximum dimension in 7 footballers with clinical ALI and <10 mm in the control group. Additional ultrasound findings in patients with abnormal antero-lateral synovial tissue included an anterior talofibular ligament injury in all patients (n = 10), a tibiotalar joint effusion (n = 6) and osseous spurs (n = 4). Antero-lateral synovitic tissue was accurately identified at ultrasound in the absence of an effusion (n = 4). No synovitic lesion was detected at ultrasound or arthroscopy in the remaining 7 patients with a control diagnosis. Ultrasound is accurate in detecting synovitic lesions within the antero-lateral gutter, demonstrating associated ligamentous injuries and in

  18. Inner ear anomalies causing congenital sensorineural hearing loss: CT and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Paik, Sang Hyun; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Joh, Joon Hee; Park, Jai Soung; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kim, Shi Chan [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Buchon(Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Many congenital dysplasias of the osseous labyrinth have been identified, and the differential diagnosis of these dysplasias is essential for delivering proper patient management. We retrospectively reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of 20 children who had congenital sensorineural hearing loss. The children included cases of enlarged vestibular aqueduct and endolymphatic sac (n=8), aplasia of the semicircular canal (n=4), lateral semicircular canal-vestibule dysplasia (n=3), common cavity malformations with a large vestibule (n=1), cochlear hypoplasia (n=1), Mondini's dysplasia with large vestibular aqueduct (n=1), Mondini's dysplasia with a large vestibule (n=1), and small internal auditory canal (n=1). Six cases were unilateral. Nine cases had combined deformities, and nine cased had cochlear implants. CT was performed with a 1.0-mm thickness in the direct coronal and axial sections with using bone algorithms. MR was performed with a temporal 3D T2 FSE 10-mm scan and with routine brain images. We describe here the imaging features for the anomalies of the inner ear in patients suffering from congenital sensorineural hearing loss.

  19. Anatomic basis, imaging findings and significance of nasopharynx raphe space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To advance the conception of nasopharynx raphe space (NRS) on imaging, and to introduce its CT and MR appearances as well as significance. Methods: Nasopharyngeal axial plain scans were performed in 43 cases of normal CT group and 36 cases of normal MRI group, nasopharyngeal coronal CT and MR scans in 5 cases of the CT group and 5 cases of MR group, and nasopharyngeal posterior wall thin-slice sagittal MR scans in 7 cases of the MRI group. Two cases of axial nasopharynx specimens were used for comparison. CT and MR scans were performed in 30 patients with proven nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) . Then, imaging findings of retro-nasopharyngeal soft tissue were observed and analyzed in detail. Results: NRS was between two longus capitis muscle or longus coli muscle, rear of pharyngeal posterior wall, and in front of occipital bone and cervical vertebrae. NRS included part of nasopharynx raphe, retro-pharyngeal space, danger space, prevertebral space, and the fascia of these spaces, as well as with the fibrous connective tissue, fat, and lymph nodes and so on. On CT, NRS displayed as triangular inhomogeneous low density, in midline of which showed isopyknic thick or thin line named nasopharynx raphe and occasionally showed obscurity. Nasopharynx raphe divided NRS into symmetric two halves. On MRI, NRS displayed as triangular inhomogeneous high signal intensity and various thickness of low signal intensity in the midline called nasopharynx raphe. NRS could be displayed in the level between clivus and palatum durum in most cases and extended down to pharynx level in some individual. On coronal images, NRS could be displayed as longitudinal strip or inverse trapezoidal shape. In 30 cases with NPC, symmetry of NRS was displayed in 14 cases, in which 1 case showed involvement of prevertebral muscles. Asymmetrical narrowing or disappearing of NRS was detected in 16 cases, in which 14 cases showed involvement of prevertebral muscles. Conclusion: It is suitable that

  20. "Finding a Life" among Undocumented Congolese Refugee Children in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    The majority of undocumented Congolese refugee children living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, experience extreme poverty and social exclusion, harassment and discrimination. Their fear of deportation, forcible removal to refugee camps and imprisonment is coupled with a strong feeling that they are unwelcome in Tanzania. These realities require that…

  1. Central nervous system involvement of leukemia and systemic lymphoma in children. CT and MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to retrospectively evaluate CT and MR findings of central nervous system (CNS) involvement of leukemia and systemic lymphoma in children. Over a 12-year period, sixty-five patients with leukemia and fifteen patients with systemic lymphoma underwent cerebral CT and/or MR imaging. Nine patients were diagnosed as CNS involvement of leukemia and lymphoma. The CT and MR abnormalities in these patients were correlated with the findings of histology, cerebrospinal fluid cytology, and/or treatment. The age of the patients ranged from 0 to 15 years old. They consisted of 6 boys and 3 girls. The CT examinations were performed before and after contrast administration. MR examinations were performed on a 1.5-T unit, and T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton density-weighted images were obtained using spin-echo or fast spin-echo sequences. Tumor masses were present in seven with leukemia, and in two with malignant lymphoma. On the CT scan, tumor masses were hyperdense with contrast enhancement. On the MR images, their signals were variable. In all of nine patients, tumor masses were contiguous with a meningeal surface. Postcontrast T1-weighted images were valuable in demonstrating meningeal infiltration. Tumoral hemorrhage was found in two patients. In a patient with tumor at the superior sagittal sinus, venous infarct was observed. CNS leukemic and lymphomatous masses are almost hyperdense on the CT and they are characteristically contiguous with a meningeal surface. MR imaging was valuable in demonstrating meningeal infiltration. (K.H.)

  2. PET/CT imaging in lung cancer: indications and findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of PET/CT imaging in the work-up and management of patients with lung cancer has greatly increased in recent decades. The ability to combine functional and anatomical information has equipped PET/CT to look into various aspects of lung cancer, allowing more precise disease staging and providing useful data during the characterization of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. In addition, the accuracy of PET/CT has been shown to be greater than is that of conventional modalities in some scenarios, making PET/CT a valuable noninvasive method for the investigation of lung cancer. However, the interpretation of PET/CT findings presents numerous pitfalls and potential confounders. Therefore, it is imperative for pulmonologists and radiologists to familiarize themselves with the most relevant indications for and limitations of PET/CT, seeking to protect their patients from unnecessary radiation exposure and inappropriate treatment. This review article aimed to summarize the basic principles, indications, cancer staging considerations, and future applications related to the use of PET/CT in lung cancer.

  3. Angiographic findings in 2 children with cerebral paragonimiasis with hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Chen, Jingyu; Miao, Hongpin; Li, Fei; Feng, Hua; Zhu, Gang

    2013-05-01

    Hemorrhagic events associated with cerebral paragonimiasis are not rare, especially in children and adolescents; however, angiographic evidence of cerebrovascular involvement has not been reported. The authors describe angiographic abnormalities of the cerebral arteries seen in 2 children in whom cerebral paragonimiasis was associated with hemorrhagic stroke. The patients presented with acute intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography revealed a beaded appearance and long segmental narrowing of arteries, consistent with arteritis. In both patients, involved vessels were seen in the area of the hemorrhage. The vascular changes and the hemorrhage, together with new lesions that developed close to the hemorrhage and improved after praziquantel treatment, were attributed to paragonimiasis. Further study of the frequency and mechanism of hemorrhagic cerebrovascular complications associated with cerebral paragonimiasis is needed.

  4. Recent Findings in Social Phobia among Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hitchcock, Carla A.; Chavira, Denise A.; Stein, Murray B.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood social phobia (SP) is common and associated with varying forms of impairment. The cause of social anxiety disorder is often complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Shyness in young children may be a possible precursor to social anxiety later in life, although not the sole antecedent. Current assessment of childhood social anxiety includes psychometrically sound self report and clinician administered measures either specifically targeting SP disorder or including t...

  5. Gymnastics injuries and imaging in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injuries of children participating in gymnastics are seen less often than in more popular sports. Patterns of injury are predictable based upon sex, age and level of intensity of training and competition. More injuries are seen in girls than in boys, and the great majority of early adolescents who compete have wrist pain. Some otherwise quiescent congenital spine anomalies may be uncovered by the stress of gymnastics maneuvers and present with low back pain. In addition to diagnosis of injuries, imaging can be used to guide analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapy in some injured athletes. Parents whose children wish to participate in gymnastics should understand that fewer injuries occur in the child enjoying recreational gymnastics than in competing gymnasts. More gymnastics injuries are found in very competitive athletes training at higher levels. (orig.)

  6. Gymnastics injuries and imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Marc S. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Injuries of children participating in gymnastics are seen less often than in more popular sports. Patterns of injury are predictable based upon sex, age and level of intensity of training and competition. More injuries are seen in girls than in boys, and the great majority of early adolescents who compete have wrist pain. Some otherwise quiescent congenital spine anomalies may be uncovered by the stress of gymnastics maneuvers and present with low back pain. In addition to diagnosis of injuries, imaging can be used to guide analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapy in some injured athletes. Parents whose children wish to participate in gymnastics should understand that fewer injuries occur in the child enjoying recreational gymnastics than in competing gymnasts. More gymnastics injuries are found in very competitive athletes training at higher levels. (orig.)

  7. Multi-national findings on radiation protection of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews issues of radiation protection in children in 52 low-resource countries. Extensive information was obtained through a survey by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); wide-ranging information was available from 40 countries and data from the other countries pertained to frequency of pediatric CT examinations. Of note is that multi-detector CT (MDCT) was available in 77% of responses to the survey, typically nodal centers in these countries. Nearly 75% of these scanners were reported to have dose displays. The pediatric CT usage was lower in European facilities as compared to Asian and African facilities, where usage was twice as high. The most frequently scanned body part was the head. Frequent use of 120 kVp was reported in children. The ratio of maximum to minimum CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) values varied between 15 for abdomen CT in the age group 5-10 years and 100 for chest CT in the age group w or CTDIvol values in children that were double those of adults for head and chest examination and 50% higher for abdomen examination. Patient dose records were kept in nearly half of the facilities, with the highest frequency in Europe (55% of participating facilities), and in 49% of Asian, 36% of Latin American and 14% of African facilities. The analysis of the first-choice examinations in seven clinical conditions showed that practice was in accordance with guidelines for only three of seven specified clinical conditions. (orig.)

  8. Pediatric imaging essentials. Radiography, ultrasound, CT, and MRI in neonates and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For all radiologists treating infants and children, knowledge of best practices in pediatric imaging is essential to safely obtaining high-quality images and achieving accurate diagnoses. This practical text covers current guidelines and key topics in the field, including choice of modality, equipment and dosages, child-specific diseases, typical imaging findings, differential diagnostic aspects and safety factors. This book is invaluable for all clinicians and radiologists who diagnose and manage this sensitive population. Special features: - Explores the use of all standard imaging modalities in children as compared to adults, especially with regard to ultrasound, CT, and MRI - Supplies more than 600 high-quality images to help in interpreting findings, including imaging of suspected child abuse - Shows how to adapt examination protocols and equipment requirements for the specialized needs of pediatric patients - Describes important safety protection measures in children utilizing the ALARA principle of radiation exposure (''As Low As Reasonably Achievable'') - Summarizes a wide array of pediatric diseases and disorders in a concise, checklist format, including clinical features, imaging findings, differential diagnosis, associated syndromes, and treatment recommendations - Includes lists of indications, summary tables, imaging protocols, case studies, and quiz questions to test your knowledge This book provides a fundamental understanding of imaging in infants and children and is an ideal, practice-oriented reference for residents, fellows in pediatric radiology, and general radiologists. It is also written for pediatricians, pediatric surgeons, and other interested doctors and specialists who want to know more about imaging specifics in the pediatric age group.

  9. Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and demonstrate how disturbed systems can interact to produce aberrant regulation during autonomic challenges. Understanding autonomic dysfunction in various illnesses reveals mechanisms that potentially lead to interventions in the impairments. The objectives here are to: 1 describe the fMRI neuroimaging methodology for assessment of autonomic neural control, 2 outline the widespread, lateralized distribution of function in autonomic sites in the normal brain which includes structures from the neocortex through the medulla and cerebellum, 3 illustrate the importance of the time course of neural changes when coordinating responses, and how those patterns are impacted in conditions of sleep-disordered breathing, and 4 highlight opportunities for future research studies with emerging methodologies. Methodological considerations specific to autonomic testing include timing of challenges relative to the underlying fMRI signal, spatial resolution sufficient to identify autonomic brainstem nuclei, blood pressure and blood oxygenation influences on the fMRI signal, and the sustained timing, often measured in minutes of challenge periods and recovery. Key findings include the lateralized nature of autonomic organization, which is reminiscent of asymmetric motor, sensory and language pathways. Testing brain function during autonomic challenges demonstrate closely-integrated timing of responses in connected brain areas during autonomic challenges, and the involvement with

  10. Mitochondrial diabetes in children: seek and you will find it.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mazzaccara

    Full Text Available Maternally Inherited Diabetes and Deafness (MIDD is a rare form of diabetes due to defects in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. 3243 A>G is the mutation most frequently associated with this condition, but other mtDNA variants have been linked with a diabetic phenotype suggestive of MIDD. From 1989 to 2009, we clinically diagnosed mitochondrial diabetes in 11 diabetic children. Diagnosis was based on the presence of one or more of the following criteria: 1 maculopathy; 2 hearing impairment; 3 maternal heritability of diabetes/impaired fasting glucose and/or hearing impairment and/or maculopathy in three consecutive generations (or in two generations if 2 or 3 members of a family were affected. We sequenced the mtDNA in the 11 probands, in their mothers and in 80 controls. We identified 33 diabetes-suspected mutations, 1/33 was 3243A>G. Most patients (91% and their mothers had mutations in complex I and/or IV of the respiratory chain. We measured the activity of these two enzymes and found that they were less active in mutated patients and their mothers than in the healthy control pool. The prevalence of hearing loss (36% vs 75-98% and macular dystrophy (54% vs 86% was lower in our mitochondrial diabetic adolescents than reported in adults. Moreover, we found a hitherto unknown association between mitochondrial diabetes and celiac disease. In conclusion, mitochondrial diabetes should be considered a complex syndrome with several phenotypic variants. Moreover, deafness is not an essential component of the disease in children. The whole mtDNA should be screened because the 3243A>G variant is not as frequent in children as in adults. In fact, 91% of our patients were mutated in the complex I and/or IV genes. The enzymatic assay may be a useful tool with which to confirm the pathogenic significance of detected variants.

  11. Mitochondrial diabetes in children: seek and you will find it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaccara, Cristina; Iafusco, Dario; Liguori, Rosario; Ferrigno, Maddalena; Galderisi, Alfonso; Vitale, Domenico; Simonelli, Francesca; Landolfo, Paolo; Prisco, Francesco; Masullo, Mariorosario; Sacchetti, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Maternally Inherited Diabetes and Deafness (MIDD) is a rare form of diabetes due to defects in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). 3243 A>G is the mutation most frequently associated with this condition, but other mtDNA variants have been linked with a diabetic phenotype suggestive of MIDD. From 1989 to 2009, we clinically diagnosed mitochondrial diabetes in 11 diabetic children. Diagnosis was based on the presence of one or more of the following criteria: 1) maculopathy; 2) hearing impairment; 3) maternal heritability of diabetes/impaired fasting glucose and/or hearing impairment and/or maculopathy in three consecutive generations (or in two generations if 2 or 3 members of a family were affected). We sequenced the mtDNA in the 11 probands, in their mothers and in 80 controls. We identified 33 diabetes-suspected mutations, 1/33 was 3243A>G. Most patients (91%) and their mothers had mutations in complex I and/or IV of the respiratory chain. We measured the activity of these two enzymes and found that they were less active in mutated patients and their mothers than in the healthy control pool. The prevalence of hearing loss (36% vs 75-98%) and macular dystrophy (54% vs 86%) was lower in our mitochondrial diabetic adolescents than reported in adults. Moreover, we found a hitherto unknown association between mitochondrial diabetes and celiac disease. In conclusion, mitochondrial diabetes should be considered a complex syndrome with several phenotypic variants. Moreover, deafness is not an essential component of the disease in children. The whole mtDNA should be screened because the 3243A>G variant is not as frequent in children as in adults. In fact, 91% of our patients were mutated in the complex I and/or IV genes. The enzymatic assay may be a useful tool with which to confirm the pathogenic significance of detected variants.

  12. Clinical Features and Echocardiographic Findings in Children with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Blesneac

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, one of the most common inherited cardiomyopathies, is a heterogeneous disease resulting from sarcomeric protein mutations, with an incidence in the adult population of 1:500. Current information on the epidemiology and outcomes of this disease in children is limited. Methods: Thirty-four children diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the Pediatric Cardiology Department from Tîrgu Mureș were evaluated concerning familial and personal history, clinical, paraclinical and therapeutic aspects. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was defined by the presence of a hypertrophied, non-dilated ventricle, in the absence of a cardiac or systemic disease that could produce ventricular hypertrophy. Results: The youngest diagnosed child was a neonate, a total of 10 patients being diagnosed until 1 year of age. In 6 cases a positive familial history was found. Noonan syndrome was found in 2 cases. Only 21 patients were symptomatic, the predominant symptoms being shortness of breath on exertion with exercise limitations. Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction was present in 21 cases (61.7%. Twenty-four patients were on β-blocking therapy, while 4 patients underwent septal myectomy. Conclusions: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a heterogeneous disorder in terms of evolution, age of onset, type and extent of hypertrophy, and the risk of sudden death. It can affect children of any age. There is a need for a complex evaluation, including familial and personal anamnesis, clinical examination, electrocardiogram and echocardiography of all patients. It is highly important to develop screening strategies, including genetic testing, for an early diagnosis, especially in asymptomatic patients with a positive familial background

  13. Osteoma of long bone: an expanding spectrum of imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, Barry Glenn; Pytel, Peter; Moore, Drew D; Stacy, Gregory Scott

    2015-05-01

    Osteoma of long bone is an extremely rare, benign bone-forming surface lesion with the largest published case series consisting of only 14 patients. The most important and often most difficult lesion to differentiate from osteoma of long bone radiographically is parosteal osteosarcoma, which is a rare, low-grade surface osteosarcoma with the potential for dedifferentiation. Reports of imaging studies of osteoma of long bone depict a well-defined ossified mass arising from the surface of the diaphysis or metadiaphysis of a long bone. A characteristic feature is the homogeneity of the mass, with uniform density near or equal to that of cortical bone from the base of the lesion to its periphery. The 45-year-old female in this case presented with left hip fullness and was subsequently found to have a proximal femoral osteoma, which was unique in that it contained large fatty marrow spaces that corresponded to bands of relatively low density on plain radiography and computed tomography, giving it a heterogeneous appearance atypical of osteoma of long bone. Furthermore, the osteoma reported here was associated with a small but separate nodular focus of ossification in the adjacent soft tissue. These findings led to a presumptive diagnosis of parosteal osteosarcoma with a local soft tissue metastasis or satellite nodule resulting in radical resection of the tumor. Definitive diagnosis of osteoma was made on histology of both the parent lesion and ossified nodule as no neoplastic spindle cell proliferation was present to establish a diagnosis of low-grade osteosarcoma. This represents, to the best of our knowledge, the first such presentation of osteoma of long bone.

  14. Investigations and findings in children with spina-bifida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingmueller, V.; Rutz, A.

    1982-06-01

    Physicians from different fields work together in the care of spina-liefide children. A central position occupy the pediatric physician as a primary reference person and the pediatric radiologist. There has to be a free exchange of ideas and thoughts between them. That is why anyone of them has to know the problems of the other. For the radiologist this means, that he or she has to acquire detailed knowledge of the desease symptoms and of the therapeutic possibilities, so that he or she will be able to work on a diagnostic that is suited for the particular patient.

  15. Investigations and findings in children with spina-bifida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicians from different fields work together in the care of spina-liefide children. A central position occupy the pediatric physician as a primary reference person and the pediatric radiologist. There has to be a free exchange of ideas and thoughts between them. That is why anyone of them has to know the problems of the other. For the radiologist this means, that he or she has to acquire detailed knowledge of the desease symptoms and of the therapeutic possibilities, so that he or she will be able to work on a diagnostic that is suited for the particular patient. (orig.)

  16. Incidental enchondromas at knee magnetic resonance imaging: intraobserver and interobserver agreement and prevalence of imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Akemi Nakamura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate intra- and interobserver agreement in the identification of incidental enchondromas at knee magnetic resonance imaging, and to assess the prevalence of imaging findings. Materials and Methods Retrospective study reviewing 326 knee magnetic resonance images acquired in the period between November 2009 and September 2010. The images were independently and blindly analyzed by two specialists in musculoskeletal radiology, with the objective of identifying incidental enchondromas, presence of foci with signal similar to bone marrow and foci of signal absence suggestive of calcifications within the enchondromas. Inter- and intraobserver agreements were analyzed. Results Eleven lesions compatible with enchondromas (3.3% were identified. The interobserver agreement for the presence of enchondroma was high. Prevalence of foci of bone marrow signal inside the enchondromas was of 54.55%, and foci suggestive of calcification corresponded to 36.36%. The intraobserver agreement for foci of bone marrow signal in enchondromas was perfect, and interobserver agreement was high. Conclusion The prevalence of incidental enchondromas in the current study was compatible with data in the literature. Excellent agreement was observed in the identification of enchondromas and in the assessment of imaging findings. A higher prevalence of fat signal foci was observed as compared with signal absence suggestive of calcifications.

  17. MR imaging findings in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven patients (aged 19-37) with temporal lobe epilepsy were evaluated by 1.5-T MR imaging. The MR imaging followed a negative CT examination. All patients underwent ictal and interictal, depth electrode EEG recording, carotid arteriography with amytol test, neuropsychological testing, subsequent unilateral temporal lobectomy, and pathologic correlation. MR images were retrospectively reviewed and correlated. MR images in ten patients showed a small temporal lobe on the abnormal side. Abnormal signal intensity was not found within the temporal lobe despite the use of coronal and axial long TR (2,500 msec) and short and long TE(30 and 80 msec) studies

  18. Atypical Findings of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh KARIMZADEH

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveGuillain-Barre syndrome (GBS is an immune-mediated polyneuropathy that occurs mostly after prior infection. The diagnosis of this syndrome is dependent heavily on the history and examination, although cerebrospinal fluid analysis and electrodiagnostic testing usually confirm the diagnosis. This is a retrospective study which was performed to investigate the atypical features of GBS.Materials & MethodsThirty three patients (21/63.6% males and 12/36.4% females with GBS were retrospectively studied and prospectively evaluated at the Child Neurology institute of Mofid Children Hospital of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences between May 2011 and September 2012.ResultsThe mean age was 5.4 years (range, 1.5-10.5.Twenty one patients (87.9 % had previous history of infections. Eight patients (24.2% admitted with atypical symptoms like upper limb weakness (3%, ptosis (3%, neck stiffness (3%, inability to stand (proximal weakness (9.1%, headache (3% and dysphagia (3%.According to disease process, weakness was ascending in 26 (78.8%, descending in 5 (15.2% and static in 2 (6.1% patients. Cranial nerve involvement was found in 8(24.3% children, most commonly as facial palsy in 3 (9.1%.ConclusionIn this study, 24.3% of our patients presented with atypical symptoms of GBS as upper limb weakness, ptosis, neck stiffness, inability to stand (proximal weakness, headache and dysphagia

  19. Imaging characteristics of hepatocellular adenoma compared with pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -intense signal on the T1WI and hyper-intense signal on the T2WI with fat suppression sequences. There were 3 patients with an atypical adenoma type. One patient appeared uniform hypo-density on the non-enhanced CT and hyper-density on the hepatic arterial-dominant phase and became iso-dense on the portal venous phase. On the delay phase, it was slightly hyper-dense. Two out of the three lesions showed isointense and one hypo-intense signal on the in-phase T1WI, and hypo-intense, hyper-intense, and iso-intense signal on the T2WI with fat suppression sequences,respectively. Two patients examined on all phases of post-contrast MRI scans. The result was similar to the CT findings. Conclusion: The imaging features of hepatocellular adenoma are closely associated with pathological characteristics. (authors)

  20. Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome revisited: imaging and clinical findings in pre- and postpubertal girls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, Lorna P.; Guillerman, R.P. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Boswell, Hillary B. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Gynecology, Houston, TX (United States); Crotty, Eric J.; O' Hara, Sara M.; Birkemeier, Krista L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-05-15

    In 1960 Van Wyk and Grumbach described a syndrome of juvenile hypothyroidism, precocious puberty and ovarian enlargement. These findings undergo complete regression with thyroid hormone replacement therapy. This diagnosis can be made on the basis of imaging findings and thyroid function analysis, avoiding surgery. To relate the distinctive clinical and imaging features and putative pathophysiological mechanism of a series of patients with Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome (VWGS). Patients with VWGS diagnosed at two large children's hospitals over a 6-year period beginning in 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. A literature review was also conducted. Five female patients were diagnosed with cystic ovarian enlargement and hypothyroidism at ages ranging from 9 to 17 years. Isosexual precocious puberty was found in prepubescent patients. Associated findings included delayed bone age, ascites, and pleural and pericardial effusions. Ovarian cyst involution occurred following treatment of the hypothyroidism. The association of primary hypothyroidism with cystic ovarian enlargement and precocious puberty is important to recognize. In the absence of suspected ovarian torsion, surgery is unnecessary, as cyst regression occurs after appropriate thyroid hormone replacement. Noncompliance with hormone replacement therapy should be considered when cystic ovarian enlargement is noted in patients with a history of hypothyroidism. (orig.)

  1. Intraocular lymphoma after cardiac transplantation: Magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yi Kyung; Kim, Hyung Jin; Woo, Kyung In; Kim, Yoon Duck [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    We report a case of intraocular lymphoma in a 65-year-old man, 15 months after cardiac transplantation. On Magnetic Resonance (MR) images, the iris and the anterior chamber of the right eye were found to be involved with an enhancing soft-tissue lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first case of post-transplantation intraocular lymphoma evaluated with MR imaging.

  2. Adnexal torsion: MR imaging findings of viable ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of torsed ovarian cystic tumor, in which contrast-enhanced high-resolution MR images accurately contributed to the diagnosis of torsion despite the lack of symptoms and to the preoperative evaluation of viability of the edematous ovary. Accurate preoperative assessment by MR images and prompt conservative surgical approach succeeded in salvaging the involved ovary. (orig.)

  3. Review of diffusion tensor imaging and its application in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion MRI is an imaging technique that uses the random motion of water to probe tissue microstructure. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can quantitatively depict the organization and connectivity of white matter. Given the non-invasiveness of the technique, DTI has become a widely used tool for researchers and clinicians to examine the white matter of children. This review covers the basics of diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging and discusses examples of their clinical application in children. (orig.)

  4. Review of diffusion tensor imaging and its application in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorona, Gregory A. [Children' s Hospital of Richmond at Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Radiology, Richmond, VA (United States); Berman, Jeffrey I. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Diffusion MRI is an imaging technique that uses the random motion of water to probe tissue microstructure. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can quantitatively depict the organization and connectivity of white matter. Given the non-invasiveness of the technique, DTI has become a widely used tool for researchers and clinicians to examine the white matter of children. This review covers the basics of diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging and discusses examples of their clinical application in children. (orig.)

  5. Study on CT findings and electroencephalographic findings in severely handicapped children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Masao; Nishimura, Masaaki; Kachi, Shozo; Sugimoto, Kimiyuki; Saito, Msahiko; Yamada, Shigeaki; Kameyama, Yoshio; Tanaka, Minoru; Hiraizumi, Yasuhisa

    1987-11-01

    Sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) and computed tomographic (CT) features were examined in 40 institutionalized severely handicapped persons. Cranial CT appearance fell into five major types: (I) no abnormal findings (n=2), (II) generalized brain atrophy (n=16), (III) diffuse parenchymal disturbance (n=10), (IV) brain malformation (n=4), and (V) localized brain disturbance (n=8). In the I group, one person had normal EEG findings as well, but another person had the presence of focal spikes without spindles on EEG. Five of the II group had no abnormal EEG findings; ten had abnormality in basic waves and/or localized paroxysmal waves; and one had generalized spike-and-slow wave complex. All persons in the III group had flattening or disappearance of spindle waves. In the IV group, two persons with cerebral malformation and one with linear nevus sebaceous syndrome in association with hypoplasia of the cerebral hemisphere had abnormality in basic waves and localized paroxysmal waves. In the remaining one person with deficit of vermis cerebelli, there was no EEG abnormality. Among the last group of persons, there was no EEG abnormality corresponding to CT features. (Namekawa, K).

  6. A study on CT findings and electroencephalographic findings in severely handicapped children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) and computed tomographic (CT) features were examined in 40 institutionalized severely handicapped persons. Cranial CT appearance fell into five major types: (I) no abnormal findings (n=2), (II) generalized brain atrophy (n=16), (III) diffuse parenchymal disturbance (n=10), (IV) brain malformation (n=4), and (V) localized brain disturbance (n=8). In the I group, one person had normal EEG findings as well, but another person had the presence of focal spikes without spindles on EEG. Five of the II group had no abnormal EEG findings; ten had abnormality in basic waves and/or localized paroxysmal waves; and one had generalized spike-and-slow wave complex. All persons in the III group had flattening or disappearance of spindle waves. In the IV group, two persons with cerebral malformation and one with linear nevus sebaceous syndrome in association with hypoplasia of the cerebral hemisphere had abnormality in basic waves and localized paroxysmal waves. In the remaining one person with deficit of vermis cerebelli, there was no EEG abnormality. Among the last group of persons, there was no EEG abnormality corresponding to CT features. (Namekawa, K)

  7. Evaluation of the MR imaging findings of ankylosing spondylitis involving the thoracolumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Kyoon; Choi, Jeong Yeol [Chosun Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Park, Jin Gyoon [Chonnam Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-02-01

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of ankylosing spondylitis involving the thoracolumbar spine. We retrospectively analyzed MR imaging findings in ten patients with ankylosing spondylitis involving the thoracolumbar spine. All were male and ranged in age from 24 to 47 (mean, 33) years. MR images were obtained using a 1.5T imager, and signal intensity changes of vertebral bodies were evaluated on sagittal T1- and T2-weighted images. Plain radiographic findings were also evaluated. Characteristics MR imaging findings of ankylosing spondylitis involving the thoracolumbar vertebral bodies were focal signal intensity changes at the corners and along the anterior borders of the vertebral bodies. (author). 19 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Lymphoma of uterine cervix: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaan, Daniel; Constantino, Carolina Pesce Lamas; Souza, Rodrigo Canellas de, E-mail: daniel.kanaan@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Parente, Daniella Braz [Instituto D' Or de Pesquisa e Ensino, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    Lymphoma of the cervix is a rare disease. About 1.0% to 1.5% of extranodal lymphomas originates in the female genital tract. The clinical presentation of this condition is nonspecific and magnetic resonance imaging is important for diagnostic elucidation. The present report describes the case of a 80-year-old patient with lumbar pain, whose magnetic resonance imaging showed a large uterine mass. The final diagnosis was lymphoma. (author)

  9. Calcaneal tendon: imaging findings; Tendao calcaneo: avaliacao por imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montandon, Cristiano; Fonseca, Cristiano Rezio; Montandon Junior, Marcelo Eustaquio [Colegio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: crismontandon@hotmail.com; Lobo, Leonardo Valadares; Ribeiro, Flavia Aparecida de Souza; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem e Anatomia Patologica

    2003-12-01

    We reviewed the radiological and clinical features of 23 patients with calcaneal tendon diseases, who were submitted to ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. The objective of this study was to characterize the lesions for a precise diagnosis of calcaneal tendon injuries. A wide range of calcaneal tendon diseases include degenerative lesions, inflammation of the peritendinous tissue such as peritendinitis and bursitis, and rupture. Imaging methods are essential in the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of calcaneal tendon diseases. (author)

  10. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbing, Willem A. [Erasmus Medical Centre - Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Paediatrics (Division of Cardiology), Sp-2.429, P.O. Box 2060, CB, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Ouhlous, Mohamed [Erasmus Medical Centre - Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    MRI is an important additional tool in the diagnostic work-up of children with congenital heart disease. This review aims to summarise the role MRI has in this patient population. Echocardiography remains the main diagnostic tool in congenital heart disease. In specific situations, MRI is used for anatomical imaging of congenital heart disease. This includes detailed assessment of intracardiac anatomy with 2-D and 3-D sequences. MRI is particularly useful for assessment of retrosternal structures in the heart and for imaging large vessel anatomy. Functional assessment includes assessment of ventricular function using 2-D cine techniques. Of particular interest in congenital heart disease is assessment of right and single ventricular function. Two-dimensional and newer 3-D techniques to quantify flow in these patients are or will soon become an integral part of quantification of shunt size, valve function and complex flow patterns in large vessels. More advanced uses of MRI include imaging of cardiovascular function during stress and tissue characterisation of the myocardium. Techniques used for this purpose need further validation before they can become part of the daily routine of MRI assessment of congenital heart disease. (orig.)

  11. Upper Airway Volume Segmentation Analysis Using Cine MRI Findings in Children with Tracheostomy Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Bradley L.; Abbott, M. Bret; Donnelly, Lane F.; Dardzinski, Bernard J.; Poe, Stacy A.; Kalra, Maninder; Amin, Raouf S.; Cotton, Robin T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States)

    2007-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the airway dynamics of the upper airway as depicted on cine MRI in children with tracheotomy tubes during two states of airflow through the upper airway. Sagittal fast gradient echo cine MR images of the supra-glottic airway were obtained with a 1.5T MRI scanner on seven children with tracheotomy tubes. Two sets of images were obtained with either the tubes capped or uncapped. The findings of the cine MRI were retrospectively reviewed. Volume segmentation of the cine images to compare the airway volume change over time (mean volume, standard deviation, normalized range, and coefficient of variance) was performed for the capped and uncapped tubes in both the nasopharynx and hypopharynx (Signed Rank Test). Graphical representation of the airway volume over time demonstrates a qualitative increased fluctuation in patients with the tracheotomy tube capped as compared to uncapped in both the nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal regions of interest. In the nasopharynx, the mean airway volume (capped 2.72 mL, uncapped 2.09 mL, p = 0.0313), the airway volume standard deviation (capped 0.42 mL, uncapped 0.20 mL, p = 0.0156), and the airway volume range (capped 2.10 mL, uncapped 1.09 mL, p = 0.0156) were significantly larger in the capped group of patients. In the hypopharynx, the airway volume standard deviation (capped 1.54 mL, uncapped 0.67 mL, p = 0.0156), and the airway volume range (capped 6.44 mL, uncapped 2.93 mL, p = 0.0156) were significantly larger in the capped tubes. The coefficient of variance (capped 0.37, uncapped 0.26, p = 0.0469) and the normalized range (capped 1.52, uncapped 1.09, p = 0.0313) were significantly larger in the capped tubes. There is a statistically significant change in airway dynamics in children with tracheotomy tubes when breathing via the airway as compared to breathing via the tracheotomy tube.

  12. Image findings of a tailgut cyst. Case report and short review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiadas, V T; Koutoulidis, V; Primetis, H; Ladopoulos, Ch; Moulopoulos, L A; Gouliamos, A; Vlahos, L

    2005-01-01

    We present a case of retrorectal hamartoma (tailgut cyst). Imaging findings on ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, pathologic findings, as well as the diagnostic pitfalls during the patient's management are documented. As it is a rare lesion with a non specific clinical presentation, it is usually misdiagnosed. Our aim is to present image characteristics of these lesions in all modalities and include retrorectal hamartomas in our differential diagnosis in patients with lesions with similar image findings. PMID:15991544

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging findings after rectus femoris transfer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the knee flexor and extensor tendons after bilateral rectus femoris transfer and hamstring lengthening surgery in five patients (10 limbs) with cerebral palsy. Three-dimensional models of the path of the transferred tendon were constructed in all cases. MR images of the transferred and lengthened tendons were examined and compared with images from ten non-surgical subjects. The models showed that the path of the transferred rectus femoris tendon had a marked angular deviation near the transfer site in all cases. MR imaging demonstrated irregular areas of low signal intensity near the transferred rectus femoris and around the hamstrings in all subjects. Eight of the ten post-surgical limbs showed evidence of fluid near or around the transferred or lengthened tendons. This was not observed in the non-surgical subjects. Thus, MR imaging of patients with cerebral palsy after rectus femoris transfer and hamstring-lengthening surgery shows evidence of signal intensity and contour changes, even several years after surgery. (orig.)

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging findings after rectus femoris transfer surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, Garry E. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Asakawa, Deanna S.; Blemker, Silvia S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Delp, Scott L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    We describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the knee flexor and extensor tendons after bilateral rectus femoris transfer and hamstring lengthening surgery in five patients (10 limbs) with cerebral palsy. Three-dimensional models of the path of the transferred tendon were constructed in all cases. MR images of the transferred and lengthened tendons were examined and compared with images from ten non-surgical subjects. The models showed that the path of the transferred rectus femoris tendon had a marked angular deviation near the transfer site in all cases. MR imaging demonstrated irregular areas of low signal intensity near the transferred rectus femoris and around the hamstrings in all subjects. Eight of the ten post-surgical limbs showed evidence of fluid near or around the transferred or lengthened tendons. This was not observed in the non-surgical subjects. Thus, MR imaging of patients with cerebral palsy after rectus femoris transfer and hamstring-lengthening surgery shows evidence of signal intensity and contour changes, even several years after surgery. (orig.)

  15. Post-contrast FLAIR MR imaging of the brain in children: normal and abnormal intracranial enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Choi, Choong-Gon [Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnap-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-12-01

    To describe the normally enhancing intracranial structures on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI and evaluate the usefulness of postcontrast FLAIR images of the brain in the assessment of enhancing lesions by comparing postcontrast FLAIR imaging with postcontrast T1-weighted (T1-W) imaging in children. In 218 children, 249 pre- and postcontrast FLAIR MRI examinations of the brain were obtained consecutively between August 2001 and April 2002. The normally enhancing intracranial structures on FLAIR imaging were assessed in 77 MRI studies of 74 children who showed normal intracranial imaging findings. In 86 MRI studies in 68 children who showed enhancing intracranial lesions, lesion conspicuity on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was compared with that on postcontrast T1-W imaging for all lesions (n=107), intra-axial lesions (n=40), or extra-axial lesions (n=67). The normally enhancing intracranial structures on FLAIR MRI were the choroid plexus (99%, 76/77), pituitary stalk (84%, 65/77), pineal gland (71%, 55/77), dural sinuses (26%, 20/77), and cortical veins (9%, 7/77). Of all the enhancing lesions, lesion conspicuousness on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was better than postcontrast T1-weighted imaging in 42, equal in 28, and worse in 37. Of 40 intra-axial lesions, lesion conspicuousness on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was better in 6, equal in 10, and worse in 24. Of 67 extra-axial lesions, lesion conspicuity on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was better in 36, equal in 18, and worse in 13. Conspicuousness of extra-axial lesions was significantly better than that of intra-axial lesions on postcontrast FLAIR imaging (P<0.001). The choroid plexus, pituitary stalk, pineal gland, dural sinuses, and cortical veins show normal enhancement on postcontrast FLAIR MRI in children, and postcontrast FLAIR imaging appears better than postcontrast T1-W imaging in the assessment of extra-axial enhancing lesions in children. (orig.)

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging in children with acute hip pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranner, G.; Ebner, F.; Fotter, R.; Justich, E. (Graz Univ. (Austria). Radiologische Klinik); Linhart, W. (Graz Univ. (Austria). Kinderklinik)

    1989-11-01

    45 children presenting with acute hip pain were prospectively evaluated with conventional radiography, radioisotope bone scan, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The final diagnoses were transient synovitis (n=17), septic arthritis (n=2), Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD, n=13), epiphyseal dysplasia (n=2), other conditions (n=4), and normal findings (n=7). In the work-up MRI provided more morphologic information than other techniques and enlarged the diagnostic possibilities. It was the only imaging technique able to give an early indication of bone marrow involvement in systemic diseases. For the early diagnosis of LCPD, MRI was as sensitive as isotope bone scan and more precise than conventional radiography. In the follow-up of LCPD patients MRI was not able to indicate the start of revascularisation of the necrotic area, which bone scans showed reliably in six patients: But MRI provided excellent evaluation of the position, form and size of the femoral head and the surrounding soft tissues. (orig.).

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in giant cell arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, N M; Morgan, M L; Almarzouqi, S J; Lee, A G

    2016-05-01

    PurposeGiant cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic vasculitis that affects medium-to-large-caliber arteries. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential as involvement of the ophthalmic artery or its branches may cause blindness. Radiographic findings may be variable and non-specific leading to delay in diagnosis. We conducted a review of the literature on neuroimaging findings in GCA and present a retrospective case series from tertiary-care ophthalmic referral centers of three patients with significant neuroimaging findings in biopsy-proven GCA.MethodsRetrospective case series of biopsy-proven GCA cases with neuroimaging findings at the Department of Ophthalmology, Blanton Eye Institute, Houston Methodist Hospital between 2010-2015 were included in this study. Literature search was conducted using Google Scholar and Medline search engines between the years 1970 and 2015.ResultsWe report findings of optic nerve enhancement, optic nerve sheath enhancement, and the first description in the English-language ophthalmic literature, to our knowledge, of chiasmal enhancement in biopsy-proven GCA. We describe four main categories of neuroimaging findings that may be seen in GCA from our series and from past cases in the literature.DiscussionIt is essential that clinicians be aware of the possible radiographic findings in GCA. Appropriate and prompt treatment should not be delayed based upon these findings. PMID:26915748

  18. Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis: spectrum of thoracic imaging findings in the adult patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare disease characterized by alveolar capillary haemorrhage resulting in deposition and accumulation of haemosiderin in the lungs. Although its precise pathophysiology remains unclear, several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the aetiology of the disorder, including autoimmune, environmental, allergic, and genetic theories. IPH is typically diagnosed in childhood, usually before the age of 10 years; however, this entity may be encountered in older patients given the greater awareness of the diagnosis, availability and utilization of advanced imaging techniques, and improved treatment and survival. The classic presentation of IPH consists of the triad of haemoptysis, iron-deficiency anaemia, and pulmonary opacities on chest radiography. The diagnosis is usually confirmed via bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), at which time haemosiderin-laden macrophages referred to as siderophages, considered pathognomonic for IPH, may be identified. However, lung biopsy may ultimately be necessary to exclude other disease processes. For children with IPH, the disease course is severe and the prognosis is poor. However, adults generally have a longer disease course with milder symptoms and the prognosis is more favourable. Specific imaging features, although non-specific in isolation, may be identified on thoracic imaging studies, principally chest radiography and CT, depending on the phase of disease (acute or chronic). Recognition of these findings is important to guide appropriate clinical management

  19. The Effectiveness of Supermarket Posters in Helping to Find Missing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, James Michael; Arnal, Jack; Hicks, Jason L.

    2009-01-01

    One approach used to help find missing children is to place posters of them at the exits of supermarkets. The present research addresses the question of how effective that approach is likely to be. Posters of 8 missing children were displayed on a bulletin board at a cooperating grocery store. Customers leaving the store completed a survey and…

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Early Spondylodiscitis: Interpretive Challenges and Atypical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Jeong A; Lee, In Sook; Suh, Hie Bum; Song, You Seon; Song, Jong Woon

    2016-01-01

    MR findings of early infectious spondylodiscitis are non-specific and may be confused with those of other conditions. Therefore, it is important to recognize early MR signs of conditions, such as inappreciable cortical changes in endplates, confusing marrow signal intensities of vertebral bodies, and inflammatory changes in paraspinal soft tissues, and subligamentous and epidural spaces. In addition, appreciation of direct inoculation, such as in iatrogenic spondylodiscitis may be important, because the proportion of patients who have undergone recent spine surgery or a spinal procedure is increasing. In this review, the authors focus on the MR findings of early spondylodiscitis, atypical findings of iatrogenic infection, and the differentiation between spondylodiscitis and other disease entities mimicking infection. PMID:27587946

  1. Cerebral MRI of very low birth weight children at 6 years of age compared with the findings at 1 year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skranes, J.S. [Department of Pediatrics and Neonatal Medicine, University Hospital of Trondheim (Norway)]|[Department of Pediatrics, Central Hospital of Aust-Agder, Sykehusvn 1, N-4800 Arendal (Norway); Nilsen, G.; Smevik, O. [MR Center, Medical Section, University Hospital of Trondheim (Norway); Vik, T. [Department of Community Medicine and General Practice, University of Trondheim (Norway); Brubakk, A.M. [Department of Pediatrics and Neonatal Medicine, University Hospital of Trondheim (Norway)

    1998-06-01

    Background. We have previously reported the results of cerebral MRI examinations in an unselected year cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at one year of corrected age. Twenty-one (78 %) of 27 infants had abnormal myelination, mainly in the central occipital white matter (COWM) and in the centrum semiovale (CS), seen on T2-weighted images. Twelve infants had irregular and dilated lateral ventricles. We speculated whether these findings indicated perinatal periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Only two infants had completely normal MRI at age 1 year. Objective. To determine whether the abnormal myelination seen at 1 year of age, was still present, either as delayed myelination or as gliosis caused by perinatal PVL. Materials and methods. In the present study, we report the results of follow-up cerebral MRI in 20 of these infants at 6 years of age. Results. Most of the children with MRI deviations at 1 year still had abnormalities at 6 years. Abnormal myelination in the central occipital white matter combined with abnormalities in the CS or with ventricular dilatation at age 1 year, presented as gliosis in 12 of 13 children at 6 years of age. Abnormalities solely in the COWM at age 1 year had normalised in two of five children and persisted as delayed myelination in three at age 6 years. Gliotic changes in periventricular white matter were found in 12 of 20 children (60 %). Areas most affected were the CS (11 children) and the COWM (9 children). Delayed myelination in COWM was found in six children (30 %), combined with gliosis in CS in three children. Twelve infants had ventricular dilatation both at 1 and 6 years of age. Conclusions. The MRI correlates of PVL, i. e. gliosis and ventricular dilatation, are common findings on cerebral MRI at 6 years of age in VLBW infants. (orig.) With 5 figs., 2 tabs., 18 refs.

  2. Brain MR imaging finding in patients with central vertigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chun Keun; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, You Me; Cha, Min Jung; Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Jae Il; Lee, Geun Ho; Rhee, Chung Koo; Park, Hyun Min [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-11-01

    To investigate brain lesions and their locations in patients with central vertigo, as seen on MR imaging. We retrospectively reviewed MR images of 85 patients with central type vertigo diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms and vestibular function test(VFT), and analyzed lesions fand their locations. Those located along the known central vestibular pathway were included in our study. In 29 of 85 patients(34%), lesions considered to be associated with central vertigo were detected on MR imaging. These included infarction(18 patients), hemorrhage(5), tumor(2), cavernous angioma(1), cerebellopontine angle cyst(1), tuberous sclerosis(1) and olivopontocerebellar atrophy (1);they were located in the parietal lobe(6 patients), the lateral medulla(5), the pons(5), the middle cerebellar peduncle(4), the corona radiata(3), and the cerebellar vermis(3). Thirty-eight cases showed high signal intensity lesions in deep cerebral matter, the basal ganglia, and pons but these were considered to be unrelated to central vertigo. MR imaging could be a useful tool for the evaluation of patients with central vertigo.=20.

  3. Ultrasound and MR imaging findings of vulvar leiomyoma: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiomyomas are common benign neoplasms that can occur at any anatomical site containing smooth muscle, though most originate in the female genital tract. Leiomyomas of the vulval perineum are, however, very rare. We report the ultrasonographic (US) and MR imagings of a vulvar leiomyoma, and briefly review the literature

  4. Ultrasound and MR imaging findings of vulvar leiomyoma: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jin Hee; Woo, Seong Ku; Kim, Sang Pyu [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    Leiomyomas are common benign neoplasms that can occur at any anatomical site containing smooth muscle, though most originate in the female genital tract. Leiomyomas of the vulval perineum are, however, very rare. We report the ultrasonographic (US) and MR imagings of a vulvar leiomyoma, and briefly review the literature.

  5. Statistical techniques to find similar objects in images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, I K

    2003-10-16

    One problem in similarity-based object retrieval (SBOR) is how to define and estimate the similarity between two objects. In this paper we present a shape similarity measure based on thin-plate splines, and compare its performance with several other measures used in SBOR. We evaluate the methods on both artificial and real images.

  6. Imaging findings of unusual intra- and extrahepatic portosystemic collaterals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, K. [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, Yamaguchi (Japan)], E-mail: itokatsu@med.kawasaki-m.ac.jp; Fujita, T.; Shimizu, A.; Sasaki, K.; Tanabe, M.; Matsunaga, N. [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    We describe unusual portosystemic shunts demonstrated using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including gallbladder varices, aberrant left gastric vein to left portal vein collaterals, intrahepatic and transhepatic portosystemic venous shunt, and mesenteric varices. Familiarity with the CT and MRI features of unusual portosystemic shunts will help in making the correct diagnosis for affected patients.

  7. Radiological Findings in Children with Acute Pneumonia: Age More Important Than Infectious Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate whether radiological findings and healing time in children with pneumonia are correlated to etiologic agent. Material and Methods: A total of 346 children with radiologically verified acute pneumonia, and with accomplished serological tests for bacteria and viruses, were included in the study. Five etiological groups were analysed: children with bacterial etiology only, with viral etiology only, with mixed bacterial and viral etiology, with Mycoplasma only, and children with no etiology. Results: The chest films of each etiological group were analysed and the findings were correlated to the children's age. The radiological findings did not differ between the etiological groups. Radiological findings correlated significantly with the patient's age. The radiological healing frequency at check-up X-ray was found to be significantly lower in children with mixed bacterial and viral etiology compared to children in each of the other groups and to the material as a whole. Conclusion: Conclusions about the etiology could not be drawn from the chest X-ray findings

  8. Radiological Findings in Children with Acute Pneumonia: Age More Important Than Infectious Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, H.; Mortensson, W.; Eriksson, M.; Finkel, Y.; Forsgren, M.; Leinonen, M. [Astrid Lindgren' s Children' s Hospital, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Depts. of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatrics

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether radiological findings and healing time in children with pneumonia are correlated to etiologic agent. Material and Methods: A total of 346 children with radiologically verified acute pneumonia, and with accomplished serological tests for bacteria and viruses, were included in the study. Five etiological groups were analysed: children with bacterial etiology only, with viral etiology only, with mixed bacterial and viral etiology, with Mycoplasma only, and children with no etiology. Results: The chest films of each etiological group were analysed and the findings were correlated to the children's age. The radiological findings did not differ between the etiological groups. Radiological findings correlated significantly with the patient's age. The radiological healing frequency at check-up X-ray was found to be significantly lower in children with mixed bacterial and viral etiology compared to children in each of the other groups and to the material as a whole. Conclusion: Conclusions about the etiology could not be drawn from the chest X-ray findings.

  9. Thoracic Imaging Findings of Collagen Vascular Diseases: A CT Study

    OpenAIRE

    Karam, Mehrdad Bakhshayesh; Peivareh, Hamideh; Mosadegh, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Background Collagen vascular diseases (CVDs) are well known causes of pulmonary involvement, leading to significant morbidity. The purpose of this study was to identify several thoracic computed tomographic findings of CVDs. Materials and Methods The study included 56 patients (15 males and 41 females) with histopathologically and clinically proven CVDs who were identified retrospectively. The presence, extent and distribution of various CT findings were evaluated by a radiologist. Results Lu...

  10. Decidualized Ovarian Endometrioma in a Pregnant Woman Mimicking Ovarian Malignancy: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonographic Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izza Rozalli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Decidualized ovarian endometrioma is a rare phenomenon in pregnancy, which can mimic ovarian malignancy in imaging and often poses a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of a large ruptured decidualized ovarian endometrioma in a 15 weeks gestation patient, and we will describe the imaging characteristics (ultrasonography and MR imaging findings and the histopathological findings (macro- and microscopically.

  11. Decidualized Ovarian Endometrioma in a Pregnant Woman Mimicking Ovarian Malignancy: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonographic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izza Rozalli, Faizatul; Rahmat, Kartini; Fadzli, Farhana; Boylan, Colm; Deb, Pratima

    2015-10-01

    Decidualized ovarian endometrioma is a rare phenomenon in pregnancy, which can mimic ovarian malignancy in imaging and often poses a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of a large ruptured decidualized ovarian endometrioma in a 15 weeks gestation patient, and we will describe the imaging characteristics (ultrasonography and MR imaging findings) and the histopathological findings (macro- and microscopically). PMID:26715980

  12. Decidualized Ovarian Endometrioma in a Pregnant Woman Mimicking Ovarian Malignancy: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonographic Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Izza Rozalli; Rahmat; Fadzli; Boylan; Deb

    2015-01-01

    Decidualized ovarian endometrioma is a rare phenomenon in pregnancy, which can mimic ovarian malignancy in imaging and often poses a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of a large ruptured decidualized ovarian endometrioma in a 15 weeks gestation patient, and we will describe the imaging characteristics (ultrasonography and MR imaging findings) and the histopathological findings (macro- and microscopically).

  13. MR imaging findings of high-voltage electrical burns in the upper extremities: correlation with angiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyung Kyu; Kang, Ik Won; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Min, Seon Jung; Han, You Mi (Dept. of Radiology, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Suh, Kyung Jin (Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk Univ. College of Medicine, Gyeongju Hospital, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)), email: kyungjin.suh@gmail.com; Choi, Min Ho (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-02-15

    Background: A high-voltage electrical burn is often associated with deep muscle injuries. Hidden, undetected deep muscle injuries have a tendency for progressive tissue necrosis, and this can lead to major amputations or sepsis. MRI has excellent soft tissue contrast and it may aid in differentiating the areas of viable deep muscle from the areas of non-viable deep muscle. Purpose: To describe the MR imaging findings of a high-voltage electrical burn in the upper extremity with emphasis on the usefulness of the gadolinium-enhanced MRI and to compare the MR imaging findings with angiography. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies of six patients with high-voltage electrical burns who underwent both MRI and angiography at the burn center of our hospital from January 2005 to December 2009. The imaging features were evaluated for the involved locations, the MR signal intensity of the affected muscles, the MR enhancement pattern, the involved arteries and the angiographic findings (classified as normal, sluggish flow, stenosis or occlusion) of the angiography of the upper extremity. We assessed the relationship between the MR imaging findings and the angiographic findings. Results: The signal intensities of affected muscles were isointense or of slightly high signal intensity as compared with the adjacent unaffected skeletal muscle on the T1-weighted MR images. Affected muscles showed heterogenous high signal intensity relative to the adjacent unaffected skeletal muscle on the T2- weighted images. The gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images showed diffuse inhomogeneous enhancement or peripheral rim enhancement of the affected muscles. The angiographic findings of the arterial injuries showed complete occlusion in three patients, severe stenosis in two patients and sluggish flow in one patient. Of these, the five patients with complete occlusion or severe stenosis on angiography showed non-perfused and non-viable areas of edematous muscle on

  14. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings in carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) of two patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning demonstrated white matter and cortical hyperintensities. In one patient, the changes on the FLAIR sequence were more subtle than those on DWI. The DWI abnormality in this patient represented true restriction. In the second patient, repeated exposure to CO caused restricted diffusion. DWI may be helpful for earlier identification of the changes of acute CO poisoning. (orig.)

  15. Avulsion Fractures of the Knee: Imaging Findings and Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Sanei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The knee is an intricate joint with numerous tendinous, ligamentous, and meniscal attachments, which make it particularly vulnerable to complex injuries after trauma. A variety of avulsion fractures of the knee can occur, including Segond and reverse Segond fractures; avulsions of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments; arcuate complex avulsion; iliotibial band avulsion; avulsions of the biceps femoris, semimembranous, and quadriceps tendons; Sinding-Larsen-Johansson syndrome; and Osgood- Schlatter disease. These fractures often have a subtle appearance at conventional radiography, which is typically the first imaging modality performed in these cases. Advanced imaging modalities, particularly magnetic resonance imaging, are helpful and can provide valuable additional information for adequately defining the extent of damage. The onus is on the radiologist to identify the pattern of injury and to understand the substantial underlying damage that it frequently represents. Conveying this information to the referring clinician is crucial and represents the first step toward additional evaluation and probable orthopedic referral. By recognizing the significance of these injuries at initial presentation, radiologists can facilitate appropriate patient work-up and prevent the chronic morbidity associated with delayed treatment.

  16. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puvaneswary, M.; Floate, D. [John Hunter Hospital, NewCastle, NSW (Australia). Departments of Medical Imaging and Neurology; Harper, C. [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Neuropathology

    1999-02-01

    Rapidly progressive dementia in an adult with findings of bilateral, symmetric high signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences and normal findings on T1-weighted sequences predominantly in the deep grey matter is suggestive of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). The peripheral cortex may be involved, as it was in the present case. The absence of subcortical periventricular white matter high signal intensity suggests that symmetric high signal intensities within the basal ganglia and cortical grey matter are more likely to be due to a degenerative process rather than due to ischaemia, infection or tumour. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 17 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Postmortem cardiac imaging in fetuses and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Andrew M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Cardiorespiratory Division, Level 7, Old Nurses Home, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Arthurs, Owen J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Fetal and pediatric cardiac autopsies have a crucial role in the counseling of parents with regard to both the cause of death of their child and the implications of such findings for future pregnancies, as well as for quality assurance of antenatal screening programs and antemortem diagnostic procedures. Postmortem imaging allows an opportunity to investigate the heart in situ prior to dissection, and both postmortem CT and postmortem MRI have shown excellent accuracy in detecting the majority of clinically significant cardiac lesions in the perinatal and pediatric population. As less-invasive autopsy becomes increasingly popular, clinical guidelines for maximal diagnostic yield in specific circumstances can be developed. (orig.)

  18. Finding Terrestrial Planets Using Eighth-Order Image Masks

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchner, M J; Ge, J; Kuchner, Marc J.; Crepp, Justin; Ge, Jian

    2004-01-01

    We offer a new series of image masks for coronagraphy that are insensitive to pointing errors and other low-spatial frequency optical aberrations. For a modest cost in throughput, these ``eighth-order'' band-limited masks would allow the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) to operate with a pointing accuracy of no better than that of the Hubble Space Telescope. We also provide eighth-order notch filter masks that offer the same robustness to pointing errors and should be relatively easy to construct: binary masks and graded masks with moderate optical density requirements.

  19. Cervical spine and crystal-associated diseases: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feydy, Antoine; Chevrot, Alain; Drape, Jean-Luc [Hopital Cochin, Service de Radiologie B, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Liote, Frederic [Hopital Lariboisiere, Federation de Rhumatologie, Paris (France); Carlier, Robert [Hopital Raymond Poincare, Radiologie, Garches (France)

    2006-02-01

    The cervical spine may be specifically involved in crystal-associated arthropathies. In this article, we focus on the three common crystals and diseases: hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition disease, and monosodium urate crystals (gout). The cervical involvement in crystal-associated diseases may provoke a misleading clinical presentation with acute neck pain, fever, or neurological symptoms. Imaging allows an accurate diagnosis in typical cases with calcific deposits and destructive lesions of the discs and joints. Most of the cases are related to CPPD or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition; gout is much less common. (orig.)

  20. MR imaging findings in early osteoarthritis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karachalios, Theofilos E-mail: kar@med.uth.gr; Zibis, Aristidis; Papanagiotou, Panagiotis; Karantanas, Apostolos H.; Malizos, Konstantinos N.; Roidis, Nikolaos

    2004-06-01

    Purpose: To carry out a modern diagnostic survey among patients with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of early osteoarthritis of the knee. Materials and methods:A magnetic resonance imaging survey was performed on 70 patients (82 knees) with a mean age of 59 years. (range, 40-71 years) who had chronic knee pain, clinical diagnosis of early osteoarthritis of the knee and conventional knee radiographs classified as 1 and 2 on the Kellgren-Lawrence scale. Results: A variety of different disorders was found; degenerative meniscal lesions with or without ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament in 70.7% of the knees, osteonecrosis of the femoral and tibial condyles in 9.75%, osteophytes and degenerative articular cartilage lesions in 8.54%, transient osteoporosis in 2.44% and benign neoplasms and cysts in 6.1%. Conclusions: The existence of such a heterogenous group of disorders in these 'early osteoarthritic knees' may explain failures in treatment and it may justify a modern MRI imaging approach to proper diagnosis.

  1. Repfinder: Finding approximately repeated scene elements for image editing

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming-Ming

    2010-07-26

    Repeated elements are ubiquitous and abundant in both manmade and natural scenes. Editing such images while preserving the repetitions and their relations is nontrivial due to overlap, missing parts, deformation across instances, illumination variation, etc. Manually enforcing such relations is laborious and error-prone. We propose a novel framework where user scribbles are used to guide detection and extraction of such repeated elements. Our detection process, which is based on a novel boundary band method, robustly extracts the repetitions along with their deformations. The algorithm only considers the shape of the elements, and ignores similarity based on color, texture, etc. We then use topological sorting to establish a partial depth ordering of overlapping repeated instances. Missing parts on occluded instances are completed using information from other instances. The extracted repeated instances can then be seamlessly edited and manipulated for a variety of high level tasks that are otherwise difficult to perform. We demonstrate the versatility of our framework on a large set of inputs of varying complexity, showing applications to image rearrangement, edit transfer, deformation propagation, and instance replacement. © 2010 ACM.

  2. Incidental cardiac findings on computed tomography imaging of the thorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Gendi Hossam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of pulmonary pathology with computed tomography also allows visualisation of the heart and major vessels. We sought to explore whether clinically relevant cardiac pathology could be identified on computed tomography pulmonary angiograms (CTPA requested for the exclusion of pulmonary embolism (PE. 100 consecutive CT contrast-enhanced pulmonary angiograms carried out for exclusion of PE at a single centre were assessed retrospectively by two cardiologists. Findings Evidence of PE was reported in 5% of scans. Incidental cardiac findings included: aortic wall calcification (54%, coronary calcification (46%, cardiomegaly (41%, atrial dilatation (18%, mitral annulus calcification (15%, right ventricular dilatation (11%, aortic dilatation (8% and right ventricular thrombus (1%. Apart from 3 (3% reports describing cardiomegaly, no other cardiac findings were described in radiologists' reports. Other reported pulmonary abnormalities included: lung nodules (14%, lobar collapse/consolidation (8%, pleural effusion (2%, lobar collapse/consolidation (8%, emphysema (6% and pleural calcification (4%. Conclusions CTPAs requested for the exclusion of PE have a high yield of cardiac abnormalities. Although these abnormalities may not have implications for acute clinical management, they may, nevertheless, be important in long-term care.

  3. Very Young Children's Body Image: Bodies and Minds under Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbeck, David; Drummond, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In recent years research has recognised that notions of body image, body image ideals and body dissatisfaction develop much earlier than was once thought. Forty-seven children (25 male; 22 female) aged between 5 and 6 years were interviewed on three occasions over 12 months regarding their perceptions of body image. The interviews revealed…

  4. The plantar fasciotomy: MR imaging findings in asymptomatic volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J.S.; Ashman, C. [Ohio State Univ. Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States); Smith, G.; Kaeding, C. [Ohio State Univ. Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Objective. To determine the postoperative appearance of the plantar fascia on MR imaging after a fasciotomy has been performed, and to compare the postsurgical appearance of the fascia after an open and endoscopic procedure.< rate at head-abs-p1.lf>Design and patients. Fifteen asymptomatic volunteers (12 women, 3 men; age range 22-49 years, mean age 33 years) with prior fasciotomies for treatment of longstanding plantar fasciitis were studied. Fourteen volunteers had a unilateral release and one volunteer had bilateral releases, allowing for assessment of 16 ankles. Eight fasciotomies were performed through an open incision and eight were performed endoscopically. The average time between surgery and imaging was 24 months (range 11-46 months). The site of surgery was established from the operative reports. Proton density (PD)-weighted and T2-weighted images in three orthogonal planes were obtained on a 1.5-T magnet. In eight studies, T1-weighted sagittal and STIR sagittal images were included. The fascia in each ankle was assessed for morphology and signal intensity. Perifascial soft tissues and bone marrow were assessed for edema. Preoperative MR studies were available in five volunteers.< rate at head-abs-p1.lf>Results. There was no apparent difference in the postoperative appearance of the ankle after an open or endoscopic procedure except for scar formation in the subcutaneous fat which was common after an open procedure (P<0.05). Three ankles had a gap in the fascia (one open, two endoscopic). The plantar fascia measured a mean of 7.0 mm (range 5-10 mm) at the fasciotomy, and 8.3 mm (range 6-12 mm) at the enthesis. At the fasciotomy, 11 of 13 ankles had an indistinct deep contour and 9 of 13 had an indistinct superficial contour. At the enthesis, 13 of 16 ankles had an indistinct deep contour and 6 of 16 had an indistinct superficial contour. Compared with preoperative MR studies there was an average reduction in the fascial thickness at the enthesis of 14

  5. Imaging findings of biliary and nonbiliary complications following laparoscopic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin-Young; Kim, Joo Hee; Lim, Joon Seok; Oh, Young Taik; Kim, Ki Whang [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Myeong-Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Institute of Gastroenterology, Seoul (Korea); Park, Mi-Suk [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-09-15

    Laparoscopic techniques are evolving for a wide range of surgical procedures although they were initially confined to cholecystectomy and exploratory laparoscopy. Recently, surgical procedures performed with a laparoscope include splenectomy, adrenalectomy, gastrectomy, and myomectomy. In this article, we review the spectrum of complications and illustrate imaging features of biliary and nonbiliary complications after various laparoscopic surgeries. Biliary complications following laparoscopic cholecystectomy include bile ductal obstruction, bile leak with bile duct injury, dropped stones in the peritoneal cavity, retained CBD stone, and port-site metastasis. Nonbiliary complications are anastomotic leakage after partial gastrectomy, gangrenous cholecystitis after gastrectomy, hematoma at the anastomotic site following gastrectomy, gastric infarction after gastrectomy, port-site metastasis after gastrectomy, hematoma after splenectomy, renal infarction after adrenalectomy, and active bleeding after myomectomy of the uterus. (orig.)

  6. Clinical and Imaging Findings in an Infant With Zika Embryopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culjat, Marko; Darling, Stephen E; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Ching, Natascha; Kumar, Mukesh; Min, Sarah K; Wong, Rupa; Grant, Leon; Melish, Marian E

    2016-09-15

    Recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks have been associated with an increased incidence of neonatal microcephaly. Subsequently, tropism for the brain was established in human fetal brain tissue. We present the first congenital ZIKV infection in the United States, confirmed by high ZIKV immunoglobulin M antibody titers in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The phenotypic characteristics of the patient fall within fetal brain disruption sequence, suggesting impaired brain development in the second half of gestation. Brain imaging revealed an almost agyric brain with diffuse parenchymal calcifications, hydrocephalus ex vacuo, and cerebellar hypoplasia. Ophthalmologic examination revealed macular pigment stippling and optic nerve atrophy. Liver, lungs, heart, and bone marrow were not affected. The patient had progressive neurologic deterioration in the first month of life. The discovery of ZIKV infection in human fetal brain tissue along with serologic confirmation proves the vertical transmission of ZIKV. Therefore, ZIKV has joined the group of congenital infections. PMID:27193747

  7. A retrospective review of pituitary MRI findings in children on growth hormone therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Sarah L.; Lawrence, Sarah [University of Ottawa, Division of Endocrinology, Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa (Canada); Laffan, Eoghan [Children' s University Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Dublin 1 (Ireland)

    2012-07-15

    Patients with congenital hypopituitarism might have the classic triad of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, which consists of: (1) an interrupted or thin pituitary stalk, (2) an absent or ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP), and (3) anterior pituitary hypoplasia or aplasia. To examine the relationship between pituitary anatomy and the degree of hormonal dysfunction. This study involved a retrospective review of MRI findings in all children diagnosed with congenital growth hormone deficiency from 1988 to 2010 at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital. Of the 52 MRIs reviewed in 52 children, 26 children had normal pituitary anatomy and 26 had one or more elements of the classic triad. Fourteen of fifteen children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies had structural anomalies on MRI. Twelve of 37 children with isolated growth hormone deficiency had an abnormal MRI. Children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies were more likely to have the classic triad than children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. A normal MRI was the most common finding in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. (orig.)

  8. A retrospective review of pituitary MRI findings in children on growth hormone therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with congenital hypopituitarism might have the classic triad of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, which consists of: (1) an interrupted or thin pituitary stalk, (2) an absent or ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP), and (3) anterior pituitary hypoplasia or aplasia. To examine the relationship between pituitary anatomy and the degree of hormonal dysfunction. This study involved a retrospective review of MRI findings in all children diagnosed with congenital growth hormone deficiency from 1988 to 2010 at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital. Of the 52 MRIs reviewed in 52 children, 26 children had normal pituitary anatomy and 26 had one or more elements of the classic triad. Fourteen of fifteen children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies had structural anomalies on MRI. Twelve of 37 children with isolated growth hormone deficiency had an abnormal MRI. Children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies were more likely to have the classic triad than children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. A normal MRI was the most common finding in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. (orig.)

  9. Children's and Young People's Reading in 2013: Findings from the 2013 National Literacy Trust's Annual Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This report outlines findings about children's and young people's reading from our fourth annual literacy survey conducted in November/December 2013. 29,422 young people aged eight to 16 participated. Some of the key findings for 2013 include: (1) Levels of reading enjoyment have improved for the first time since 2005 (see Figure 2, p. 9); (2)…

  10. Imaging Findings of Liposuction with an Emphasis on Postsurgical Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Je Sung; Chung, Yong Eun; Baek, Song-Ee; Chung, Sung Phil; Kim, Myeong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Liposuction is one of the most frequently performed cosmetic surgeries worldwide for reshaping the body contour. Although liposuction is minimally invasive and relatively safe, it is a surgical procedure, and it carries the risk of major and minor complications. These complications vary from postoperative nausea to life-threatening events. Common complications include infection, abdominal wall injury, bowel herniation, bleeding, haematoma, seroma, and lymphoedema. Life-threatening complications such as necrotizing fasciitis, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism have also been reported. In this paper, we provide a brief introduction to liposuction with the related anatomy and present computed tomography and ultrasonography findings of a wide spectrum of postoperative complications associated with liposuction.

  11. Imaging findings of liposuction with an emphasis on postsurgical complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Je Sung; Chung, Sung Phil; Kim, Myeong Jin [Dept. of mergency Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong Eun; Baek, Song Ee [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Liposuction is one of the most frequently performed cosmetic surgeries worldwide for reshaping the body contour. Although liposuction is minimally invasive and relatively safe, it is a surgical procedure, and it carries the risk of major and minor complications. These complications vary from postoperative nausea to life-threatening events. Common complications include infection, abdominal wall injury, bowel herniation, bleeding, haematoma, seroma, and lymphoedema. Life-threatening complications such as necrotizing fasciitis, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism have also been reported. In this paper, we provide a brief introduction to liposuction with the related anatomy and present computed tomography and ultrasonography findings of a wide spectrum of postoperative complications associated with liposuction.

  12. Imaging findings of acute abdomen with intraperitoneal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Ji Seon; Kim, Mi Young; Koo, Jin Hoi; Cho, Soon Gu; Suh, Chang Hae [Inha Univ. College of Medicine, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    Acute abdomen caused by abdominal tuberculosis is a rare manifestation, and includes bleeding of a gastric or ileal ulcer, obstruction of the small bowel by an adhesive band, perforation of the ileum, ileocolic intussusception and fistula, and mesenteric abscesses caused by necrotic lymph nodes. The clinical and radiologic features of these complicated tuberculosis may mimic other acute abdominal diseases. Although not definitive, careful evaluation of the radiologic findings of the bowel wall, mesenteric fat infiltration, and lymph node enlargement may provide useful diagnostic clues to the presence of acute abdomen due to tuberculosis.

  13. Oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe: magnetic resonance imaging findings in the first six years of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho-Neto, Arnolfo de; Ono, Sergio Eiji; Cardoso, Georgina de Melo; Santos, Mara Lucia Schmitz Ferreira; Celidonio, Izabela [Hospital Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: ono.sergio@gmail.com

    2009-06-15

    treatment includes cataract extraction, glaucoma control, physical and speech therapy, drugs addressed to behavioral problems and correction of the renal (tubular acidosis) and consequent bone diseases (rickets). Life span rarely exceeds 40 years. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may show two patterns of lesions: hyperintensities on T2-weighted images, and periventricular cystic lesions. The present case reports these findings in a time interval of 4 years, showing that initially the hyperintensities are seen, and afterwards, the cystic images. This pattern would help the radiologist and pediatric neurologist to reinforce the clinical diagnosis, as these patterns of images can be seen in other conditions. (author)

  14. Aberrant left brachiocephalic vein: CT imaging findings and embryologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography was utilized to evaluate aberrant left brachiocephalic vein (ALBCV), an infrequently discussed congenital vascular anomaly among Chinese people. Associated vascular variation and possible embryonic correlation are discussed. Since 1990, a total of 14 cases of ALBCV have been reported in patients receiving CT scan of chest, and was mainly an incidental diagnosis. One case was confirmed angiographically and two others were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Emphasis was placed on the entry of the azygos vein into the superior vena cava (SVC), the length of the SVC, and the presence of other cardiovascular abnormalities. Of the 14 cases of ALBCV, the level of azygos vein entry was higher than the origin of the SVC in 7 cases: 4 were approximately the same level and 3 were lower. The average length of the SVC was approximately 5.6 cm shorter than that of the general population, which is approximately 7.0 cm. Three cases had associated vascular anomaly. Most cases of ALBCV had azygos vein drainage level higher than or equal to the origin of the SVC. Right-sided aorta is one of the causes giving rise to the ALBCV during embryonic development. The CT scan remains a definitive diagnostic modality for ALBCV. (orig.)

  15. CT and MR imaging findings of palatal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroki, E-mail: hkato@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki, E-mail: masa_gif@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Makita, Hiroki, E-mail: makitah@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Kato, Keizo, E-mail: keizo@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Hatakeyama, Daijiro, E-mail: hatakeya@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Shibata, Toshiyuki, E-mail: shibat@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke, E-mail: kmizuta@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Aoki, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: aoki@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    Palatal tumors commonly arise from the minor salivary glands, and benign tumors account for approximately half of all minor salivary gland tumors. Minor salivary gland tumors have an affinity for the posterior hard palate and soft palate and virtually never arise in the midline, probably because of the distribution of palatal salivary glands. The majority of benign salivary gland tumors of the palate are pleomorphic adenomas, while the most common malignant salivary gland tumor is adenoid cystic carcinoma, followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma. Epithelial tumors frequently arise from the soft palate. The majority of benign epithelial tumors of the palate are papillomas, while most malignant epithelial tumors are squamous cell carcinomas. Various types of mesenchymal tumors, including fibromas, lipomas, schwannomas, neurofibromas, hemangiomas, and lymphangiomas, also involve the palate. This article describes the CT and MR findings of benign and malignant palatal tumors.

  16. Discordant findings of dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy in children with multi-detector row computed tomography-proven acute pyelonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongmin Lee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN is often difficult, as its clinical and biological manifestations are non-specific in children. If not treated quickly and adequately, however, APN may cause irreversible renal damage, possibly leading to hypertension and chronic renal failure. We were suspecting the diagnostic value of 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scan by experiences and so compared the results of DMSA scan to those of multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT. Methods : We retrospectively selected and analyzed 81 patients who were diagnosed as APN by MDCT during evaluation of their acute abdomen in emergency room and then received DMSA scan also for the diagnostic work-up of APN after admission. We evaluated the results of imaging studies and compared the diagnostic value of each method by age groups, &lt;2 years (n=45 and ?#242; years (n=36. Results : Among total 81 patients with MDCT-proven APN, DMSA scan was diagnostic only in 55 children (68%, while the remaining 26 children (32% showed false negative normal findings. These 26 patients were predominantly male and most of them, 19 (73.1% were &lt;2 years of age. Conclusion : DMSA scan holds obvious limitation compared to MDCT in depicting acute inflammatory lesions of kidney in children with APN, especially in early childhood less than 2 years of age. MDCT showed hidden lesions of APN, those were undetectable through DMSA scan in children.

  17. The Clinical Characteristics and Imaging Findings of Morning Glory Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun HU

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the features of CT, ultrasonography and fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA) of morning glory syndrome, the data on CT, A/B-scan ultrasonography and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) were retrospectively analyzed in 8 cases of morning glory syndrome (MGS).Among those cases, 6 were examined with CT, 4 with FFA and 8 with A/B-scan ultrasonography.Results showed that the characteristics of CT, A/B-scan ultrasonography and FFA in MGS included:(1) The attachment spot of optic nerve became thin and vitreous body protruded to the posterior wall of eyeball with a spherical shape on CT image; (2) in the early period of FFA, hypofluorescence appeared on the optic, the abnormal arteriae and veins around the optic papilla were displayed clearly and in the late period, optic disc was stained with fluorescein; (3) on B-scan ultrasonogram, the vitreous cavity extended to the posterior pole and optic papilla, and projected to the basal part of muscle cones and thus the posterior part of vitreous cavity looked like an upside-down bottleneck. Sometimes the echogenic band of retinal detachment could also be seen. On A-scan ultrasonogram, both vitreous cavity and bottleneck showed no ultrasonic echoes and presented a base line without any evident wave crest. It is concluded that CT, A/B-scan ultrasonography and FFA could show the imageological features of MGS from different aspects, which helps clinicians to differentiate it from other diseases such as optic disc coloboma. CT and A/B-scan ultrasonography, in particular, are considered to be reliable imageological methods for the accurate diagnosis of MGS and are superior to the traditional techniques.

  18. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children: A spectrum of radiologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a well known entity in adults but is exceedingly rare in children. It is better described in adults than in children. We describe the current understanding of PLCH in children and a spectrum of radiological findings of PLCH in the paediatric population. On high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), PLCH may have variable appearance depending on the stage of disease, ranging from small interstitial nodular opacities to multiple thin/thick walled cysts (often bizarre in shape), eventually leading to marked parenchymal fibrosis and honeycomb pattern. CT finding of PLCH is similar in adult and paediatric populations with the exception that lung base near the costophrenic angle is spared in adults but almost always involved in children.

  19. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children: A spectrum of radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bano, Shahina, E-mail: dr_shahinaindia@yahoo.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Hospitals, New Delhi 110001 (India); Chaudhary, Vikas, E-mail: dr_vikaschaudhary@yahoo.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) Model Hospital, Gurgaon 122001, Haryana (India); Narula, Mahender Kaur, E-mail: narulamk@gmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Hospitals, New Delhi 110001 (India); Anand, Rama, E-mail: rama_home@yahoo.co.in [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Hospitals, New Delhi 110001 (India); Venkatesan, Bhuvaneswari, E-mail: venkatesanbhuvana@yahoo.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Hospitals, New Delhi 110001 (India); Mandal, Shramana, E-mail: shramana@hotmail.co.in [Department of Pathology, Govind Ballabh Pant Hospital, New Delhi 110002 (India); Majumdar, Kaushik, E-mail: drkaushik.m@gmail.com [Department of Pathology, Govind Ballabh Pant Hospital, New Delhi 110002 (India)

    2014-01-15

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a well known entity in adults but is exceedingly rare in children. It is better described in adults than in children. We describe the current understanding of PLCH in children and a spectrum of radiological findings of PLCH in the paediatric population. On high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), PLCH may have variable appearance depending on the stage of disease, ranging from small interstitial nodular opacities to multiple thin/thick walled cysts (often bizarre in shape), eventually leading to marked parenchymal fibrosis and honeycomb pattern. CT finding of PLCH is similar in adult and paediatric populations with the exception that lung base near the costophrenic angle is spared in adults but almost always involved in children.

  20. Striated nephrogram as an incidental finding in MRI examination of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly striated contrast pattern of the kidneys occasionally appears in abdominal MRI examinations of children following the administration of gadolinium. As this phenomenon is well known but has not yet been explicitly described in literature, we investigated how frequently and in which clinical context this occurred. 855 abdominal MRI examinations with contrast media of 362 children between 2006 and 2014 were analysed retrospectively. A striated renal parenchyma was found in a total of nine children and eleven examinations (1.3 % of examinations) and did only occur at a field strength of 3 Tesla. Of these children, seven had previously had tumors and chemotherapy. In two children there was no evidence of a previously serious condition with medications or a kidney disease. All of them had a normal renal function. A noticeably striated nephrogram in the later phase of an MRI examination following administration of gadolinium may appear as an incidental finding in examinations at 3 Tesla without pathological relevance.

  1. Children's and Young People's Reading Today: Findings from the 2011 National Literacy Trust's Annual Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christina

    2012-01-01

    This research was funded by law firm Slaughter and May and carried out with 21,000 children and young people across the UK. One of its key findings is that children and young people are reading less as their lives get more crowded. In 2005 the researchers found that four young people in 10 read daily outside of class. This research carried out at…

  2. Imaging and clinical findings in large endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesling, Sabrina [University of Halle, Department of Radiology, E-Grube-Street 40, D-06097 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: sabrina.koesling@medizin.uni-halle.de; Rasinski, Christine [University of Halle, Department of Otorhinolaryngology (Germany); Amaya, Beatrice [University of Halle, Department of Radiology, E-Grube-Street 40, D-06097 Halle (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    Objective: Large endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome (LEDS) is known as the most common kind of inner ear malformations, which is radiologically detectable. Nevertheless, nowadays many questions are not fully cleared and LEDS is relatively unknown among general radiologists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of LEDS in the own patient population and to present our experiences regarding imaging findings, clinical presentation and follow up. Materials and methods: Based on a complete recording of all patients, sent from ENT department to radiology, we identified all radiological diagnosed cases of inner ear malformations including LEDS and all patients in whom an inner ear malformation was clinically suspected. The retrospective study included clinical records, HR-CT and MRI performed between 1994 and 2002. Results: Among 169 patients (338 ear), 17 of patients (median age: 12 years) and 28 ears, respectively, had enlarged endolymphatic structures. In 10 patients - 6% - (15 ears), no other abnormalities were detected, called isolated LEDS, seven patients showed additional inner ear abnormalities. One patient showed a labyrinthine hemorrhage after sudden hearing loss. Audiometric data revealed sensorineural hearing loss in 22 ears, deafness in 5 ears and normal hearing in 1 case of 28 ears. In 10 (67%) of 15 ears with isolated LEDS, the hearing loss was downward-fluctuating progressive. Twelve patients (eight with isolated LEDS) had partly repeated sudden hearing losses. A trigger for worsening of hearing was found in five patients. A correlation between the severity of morphological changes on imaging and the degree of hearing disturbances could not be detected. Only four young patients underwent a radiological examination within the first or second year after onset of hearing loss. Three patients received a cochlear implant. Conclusions: LEDS might be the cause of progressive hearing loss and repeated acute hearing losses in children and young

  3. Barriers to healthy eating: Findings from the focus groups with older people and children/adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazbare, Laura; Bech-Larsen, Tino

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify barriers to healthy eating among older people and children/adolescents. Method: Four focus groups; two with older people and two with children/adolescents were conducted in Denmark. The focus groups were moderated to discuss the experienced......, absence of observable direct immediate results, social impact (for older people - the impact of family members and social image; for children and adolescents - the influence of parents and peers). For children and adolescents, availability and temptation of unhealthy foods and unavailability of good...... and palatable healthy foods appeared to be significant implementation barriers. Older people tended to emphasize that their eating habits, craving for unhealthy food and practical issues hindered healthy eating. In general, in the absence of health problems (and, in some cases, in the presence of illnesses...

  4. Classifications,symptoms and imaging findings of 195 cases confirmed by biopsy or postoperative pathology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董秦雯

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarize and analyze the classifications,symptoms,imaging findings of the cerebral space occupying lesions which confirmed by biopsy or postoperative pathology.Methods The classifications,symptoms,imaging findings of 195 cases who visited the Neurology Department of Naval General Hospital were analyzed by retrospective study.Results Classifications:among the 86 neoplastic lesions(NL),there were 49

  5. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging findings in a patient with trigeminal ganglineuroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seul Kee; Jeong, Min Young; Kang, Heoung Keun; Yoon, Woong [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    A case of intracranial ganglioneuroma arising from the trigeminal nerve in the pontine and cerebellopontine angle cistern, in a 44-year-old female, is presented with an emphasis on diffusion-weighted imaging findings. We will discuss on how the tumor in the very unusual location should be differentiated particularly focused on diffusion-weighted imaging findings.

  6. MR imaging findings in granular cell tumor of the neurohypophysis: a difficult preoperative diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, A.; Arias, M.; Brasa, J. [Unidad de Resonancia Magnetica (MEDTEC), Hospital Xeral-Cies, Vigo (Spain); Paramo, C. [Servicio de Endocrinologia, Hospital Xeral-Cies, Vigo (Spain); Conde, C. [Servicio de Neurocirugia, Hospital Xeral-Cies, Vigo (Spain); Fernandez, R. [Servicio de Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Xeral-Cies, Vigo (Spain)

    2000-12-01

    Granular cell tumor is a rare neoplasm arising within the neurohypophysis. We describe the MR imaging findings in two symptomatic patients. In one patient with history of panhypopituitarism, MR images showed a large sellar and suprasellar mass. The other patient presented with acute loss of vision in her left eye, and MR images showed a suprasellar mass with compression of the optic chiasm. (orig.)

  7. Pediatric imaging essentials. Radiography, ultrasound, CT, and MRI in neonates and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, Michael (ed.) [Graz University Hospital (Austria). Div. of Pediatric Radiology

    2014-03-01

    For all radiologists treating infants and children, knowledge of best practices in pediatric imaging is essential to safely obtaining high-quality images and achieving accurate diagnoses. This practical text covers current guidelines and key topics in the field, including choice of modality, equipment and dosages, child-specific diseases, typical imaging findings, differential diagnostic aspects and safety factors. This book is invaluable for all clinicians and radiologists who diagnose and manage this sensitive population. Special features: - Explores the use of all standard imaging modalities in children as compared to adults, especially with regard to ultrasound, CT, and MRI - Supplies more than 600 high-quality images to help in interpreting findings, including imaging of suspected child abuse - Shows how to adapt examination protocols and equipment requirements for the specialized needs of pediatric patients - Describes important safety protection measures in children utilizing the ALARA principle of radiation exposure (''As Low As Reasonably Achievable'') - Summarizes a wide array of pediatric diseases and disorders in a concise, checklist format, including clinical features, imaging findings, differential diagnosis, associated syndromes, and treatment recommendations - Includes lists of indications, summary tables, imaging protocols, case studies, and quiz questions to test your knowledge This book provides a fundamental understanding of imaging in infants and children and is an ideal, practice-oriented reference for residents, fellows in pediatric radiology, and general radiologists. It is also written for pediatricians, pediatric surgeons, and other interested doctors and specialists who want to know more about imaging specifics in the pediatric age group.

  8. Hip arthropathy in a patient with primary hemochromatosis: MR imaging findings with pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papakonstantinou, Olympia [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego (United States); University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Mohana-Borges, Aurea V.R.; Campell, Loretta; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, Department of Pathology, San Diego, California (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Arthropathy is a major clinical manifestation in primary hemochromatosis, typically affecting the metacarpophalangeal joints. Hip arthropathy is not uncommon, with radiologic features resembling osteoarthritis or calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease. We describe the MR imaging findings of the hip in a patient with severe hip arthropathy and primary hemochromatosis and correlate them with the histopathologic findings. MR imaging showed severe degenerative changes, with large subchondral cysts and subchondral sclerosis in the femoral head and acetabulum. There was conspicuous correlation between MR imaging and pathologic findings of the resected femoral head. However, MR imaging failed to reveal intra-articular iron. (orig.)

  9. Hip arthropathy in a patient with primary hemochromatosis: MR imaging findings with pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Mohana-Borges, Aurea V R; Campell, Loretta; Trudell, Debra; Haghighi, Parviz; Resnick, Donald

    2005-03-01

    Arthropathy is a major clinical manifestation in primary hemochromatosis, typically affecting the metacarpophalangeal joints. Hip arthropathy is not uncommon, with radiologic features resembling osteoarthritis or calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease. We describe the MR imaging findings of the hip in a patient with severe hip arthropathy and primary hemochromatosis and correlate them with the histopathologic findings. MR imaging showed severe degenerative changes, with large subchondral cysts and subchondral sclerosis in the femoral head and acetabulum. There was conspicuous correlation between MR imaging and pathologic findings of the resected femoral head. However, MR imaging failed to reveal intra-articular iron. PMID:15316682

  10. Hip arthropathy in a patient with primary hemochromatosis: MR imaging findings with pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthropathy is a major clinical manifestation in primary hemochromatosis, typically affecting the metacarpophalangeal joints. Hip arthropathy is not uncommon, with radiologic features resembling osteoarthritis or calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease. We describe the MR imaging findings of the hip in a patient with severe hip arthropathy and primary hemochromatosis and correlate them with the histopathologic findings. MR imaging showed severe degenerative changes, with large subchondral cysts and subchondral sclerosis in the femoral head and acetabulum. There was conspicuous correlation between MR imaging and pathologic findings of the resected femoral head. However, MR imaging failed to reveal intra-articular iron. (orig.)

  11. Findings at brain MRI in children with dengue fever and neurological symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Ruchi; Garg, Bhavya [Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India)

    2016-01-15

    Dengue is a flavivirus of the genus arbovirus with four serotypes, from DEN 1 to DEN 4. There has been an increase in incidence of dengue infection in children in the tropics and subtropics. Dengue has a variable clinical presentation, with many patients being asymptomatic. Its clinical manifestations in children vary from fever and arthralgia to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We describe MRI findings in children with neurological involvement including dengue encephalopathy, acute hypoxic injury and dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalopathy is usually secondary to multisystem derangement such as shock, hepatitis, coagulopathy and concurrent bacterial infection and is relatively common. Dengue encephalitis from direct neuronal invasion is rare. Nonspecific changes are seen on brain MRI in dengue infection. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as outcome do not necessarily correspond with brain MRI findings. (orig.)

  12. Findings at brain MRI in children with dengue fever and neurological symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dengue is a flavivirus of the genus arbovirus with four serotypes, from DEN 1 to DEN 4. There has been an increase in incidence of dengue infection in children in the tropics and subtropics. Dengue has a variable clinical presentation, with many patients being asymptomatic. Its clinical manifestations in children vary from fever and arthralgia to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We describe MRI findings in children with neurological involvement including dengue encephalopathy, acute hypoxic injury and dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalopathy is usually secondary to multisystem derangement such as shock, hepatitis, coagulopathy and concurrent bacterial infection and is relatively common. Dengue encephalitis from direct neuronal invasion is rare. Nonspecific changes are seen on brain MRI in dengue infection. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as outcome do not necessarily correspond with brain MRI findings. (orig.)

  13. Findings at brain MRI in children with dengue fever and neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Ruchi; Garg, Bhavya

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a flavivirus of the genus arbovirus with four serotypes, from DEN 1 to DEN 4. There has been an increase in incidence of dengue infection in children in the tropics and subtropics. Dengue has a variable clinical presentation, with many patients being asymptomatic. Its clinical manifestations in children vary from fever and arthralgia to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We describe MRI findings in children with neurological involvement including dengue encephalopathy, acute hypoxic injury and dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalopathy is usually secondary to multisystem derangement such as shock, hepatitis, coagulopathy and concurrent bacterial infection and is relatively common. Dengue encephalitis from direct neuronal invasion is rare. Nonspecific changes are seen on brain MRI in dengue infection. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as outcome do not necessarily correspond with brain MRI findings.

  14. Findings at brain MRI in children with dengue fever and neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Ruchi; Garg, Bhavya

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a flavivirus of the genus arbovirus with four serotypes, from DEN 1 to DEN 4. There has been an increase in incidence of dengue infection in children in the tropics and subtropics. Dengue has a variable clinical presentation, with many patients being asymptomatic. Its clinical manifestations in children vary from fever and arthralgia to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We describe MRI findings in children with neurological involvement including dengue encephalopathy, acute hypoxic injury and dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalopathy is usually secondary to multisystem derangement such as shock, hepatitis, coagulopathy and concurrent bacterial infection and is relatively common. Dengue encephalitis from direct neuronal invasion is rare. Nonspecific changes are seen on brain MRI in dengue infection. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as outcome do not necessarily correspond with brain MRI findings. PMID:26216156

  15. Energy and nutrient intakes of young children in the UK: findings from the Gemini twin cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrad, H; Llewellyn, C H; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Johnson, L; Jebb, S A; Wardle, J

    2016-05-28

    Data on the diets of young children in the UK are limited, despite growing evidence of the importance of early diet for long-term health. We used the largest contemporary dietary data set to describe the intake of 21-month-old children in the UK. Parents of 2336 children aged 21 months from the UK Gemini twin cohort completed 3-d diet diaries in 2008/2009. Family background information was obtained from questionnaires completed 8 months after birth. Mean total daily intakes of energy, macronutrients (g and %E) and micronutrients from food and beverages, including and excluding supplements, were derived. Comparisons with UK dietary reference values (DRV) were made using t tests and general linear regression models, respectively. Daily energy intake (kJ), protein (g) and most micronutrients exceeded DRV, except for vitamin D and Fe, where 96 or 84 % and 70 or 6 % of children did not achieve the reference nutrient intake or lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI), respectively, even with supplementation. These findings reflect similar observations in the smaller sample of children aged 18-36 months in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. At a population level, young children in the UK are exceeding recommended daily intakes of energy and protein, potentially increasing their risk of obesity. The majority of children are not meeting the LRNI for vitamin D, largely reflecting inadequate use of the supplements recommended at this age. Parents may need more guidance on how to achieve healthy energy and nutrient intakes for young children. PMID:27093345

  16. Energy and nutrient intakes of young children in the UK: findings from the Gemini twin cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrad, H; Llewellyn, C H; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Johnson, L; Jebb, S A; Wardle, J

    2016-05-28

    Data on the diets of young children in the UK are limited, despite growing evidence of the importance of early diet for long-term health. We used the largest contemporary dietary data set to describe the intake of 21-month-old children in the UK. Parents of 2336 children aged 21 months from the UK Gemini twin cohort completed 3-d diet diaries in 2008/2009. Family background information was obtained from questionnaires completed 8 months after birth. Mean total daily intakes of energy, macronutrients (g and %E) and micronutrients from food and beverages, including and excluding supplements, were derived. Comparisons with UK dietary reference values (DRV) were made using t tests and general linear regression models, respectively. Daily energy intake (kJ), protein (g) and most micronutrients exceeded DRV, except for vitamin D and Fe, where 96 or 84 % and 70 or 6 % of children did not achieve the reference nutrient intake or lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI), respectively, even with supplementation. These findings reflect similar observations in the smaller sample of children aged 18-36 months in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. At a population level, young children in the UK are exceeding recommended daily intakes of energy and protein, potentially increasing their risk of obesity. The majority of children are not meeting the LRNI for vitamin D, largely reflecting inadequate use of the supplements recommended at this age. Parents may need more guidance on how to achieve healthy energy and nutrient intakes for young children.

  17. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  18. Body Image and Physical Activity in British Secondary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J.; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan; Jones, Marc V.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between children's body image and physical activity and examined any variation in these variables. Two hundred and seventy seven British secondary school children aged 11 to 14 (mean age [plus or minus] SD = 12.5 [plus or minus] 0.8 years) participated in this study. Results indicated no significant…

  19. CT, MRI, and FDG-PET/CT imaging findings of abdominopelvic desmoplastic small round cell tumors: Correlation with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Weidong, E-mail: dongw.z@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 651 Dongfengdong Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China) and Department of Radiology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Li Chuanxing, E-mail: lichuanh@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 651 Dongfengdong Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Department of Radiology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Liu Qingyu, E-mail: liu.qingyu@163.com [Department of Radiology, No. 2 Affiliated Hospital, 107 Yanjiangxi Road, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510120 (China); Hu Yingying, E-mail: yingyinghu1981@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 651 Dongfengdong Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China) and Department of Radiology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Cao Yun, E-mail: caoyun@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 651 Dongfengdong Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Huang Jinhua, E-mail: drhuangjh@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 651 Dongfengdong Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China) and Department of Radiology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To analyze computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT imaging features of abdominopelvic desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) and to improve the diagnostic efficacy of these techniques for the detection of such tumor. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 7 cases of abdominopelvic DSRCT confirmed by histopathologic analysis. Among the 7 patients, 5 patients had undergone CT scanning, 2 of which were also examined with FDG-PET/CT imaging, and 2 had undergone MRI. Unenhanced and contrast-enhanced examinations were performed in all patients, and 2 patients had also undergone dynamic CT contrast-enhanced examinations. Image characteristics, such as shape, size, number, edge, attenuation, and intensity of each lesion before and after contrast enhancement were analyzed and compared with the pathomorphology of the tumors. Results: Multiple large masses in the abdominopelvis were detected in 6 cases, and a large mass in the pelvis was detected in 1 case. Six cases showed largest mass in pelvis, and 1 case in mesentery. None of the masses had a definite organ origin. CT showed soft tissue masses with patchy foci of hypodense areas. MR T1-weighted images revealed lesions with mild hypointense areas and patchy hypointense areas in 2 cases and lesions with patchy hyperintense areas in 1 case. T2-weighted images showed lesions with mixed isointense and hyperintense areas in 1 case and lesions with mixed hypointense, isointense, and hyperintense areas in another. Contrast-enhanced CT and T1-weighted images showed mildly heterogeneous enhancement of the lesions. Other associated findings included peritoneal seeding (n = 3), peritoneal effusions (n = 3), hepatic metastasis (n = 2), bone metastasis (n = 1), and mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy (n = 4). FDG-PET/CT showed multiple nodular foci of increased metabolic activity in the abdominopelvic masses, in the hepatic and

  20. A High-Recall Self-Improving Web Crawler That Finds Images Using Captions

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Neil C.

    2002-01-01

    Finding multimedia objects to meet some need is considerably harder on the World Wide Web than finding text because content-based retrieval of multimedia is much harder than text retrieval and caption text is inconsistently placed. We describe a Web "crawler" and caption filter MARIE-4 we have developed that searches the Web to find text likely to be image captions and its associated image objects. Rather than examining a few features like existing systems, it uses broad set of crite...

  1. CT findings of plastic bronchitis in children after a Fontan operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Jhang, Won Kyoung; Kim, Young Hwee; Ko, Jae Kon; Park, In Sook [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Park, Jeong-Jun; Yun, Tae-Jin; Seo, Dong-Man [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2008-09-15

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare cause of acute obstructive respiratory failure in children. Life-threatening events are much more frequent in patients with repaired cyanotic congenital heart disease, and most frequent following a Fontan operation. Commonly, the diagnosis is not made until bronchial casts are expectorated. Detailed CT findings in plastic bronchitis have not been described. To describe the CT findings in plastic bronchitis in children after a Fontan operation. Three children with plastic bronchitis after a Fontan operation were evaluated by chest CT. Bronchial casts were spontaneously expectorated and/or extracted by bronchoscopy. Airway and lung abnormalities seen on CT were analyzed in the three children. CT demonstrated bronchial casts in the central airways with associated atelectasis and consolidation in all children. The affected airways were completely or partially obstructed by the bronchial casts without associated bronchiectasis. The airway and lung abnormalities rapidly improved after removal of the bronchial casts. CT can identify airway and lung abnormalities in children with plastic bronchitis after a Fontan operation. In addition, CT can be used to guide bronchoscopy and to monitor treatment responses, and thereby may improve clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  2. CT findings of plastic bronchitis in children after a Fontan operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare cause of acute obstructive respiratory failure in children. Life-threatening events are much more frequent in patients with repaired cyanotic congenital heart disease, and most frequent following a Fontan operation. Commonly, the diagnosis is not made until bronchial casts are expectorated. Detailed CT findings in plastic bronchitis have not been described. To describe the CT findings in plastic bronchitis in children after a Fontan operation. Three children with plastic bronchitis after a Fontan operation were evaluated by chest CT. Bronchial casts were spontaneously expectorated and/or extracted by bronchoscopy. Airway and lung abnormalities seen on CT were analyzed in the three children. CT demonstrated bronchial casts in the central airways with associated atelectasis and consolidation in all children. The affected airways were completely or partially obstructed by the bronchial casts without associated bronchiectasis. The airway and lung abnormalities rapidly improved after removal of the bronchial casts. CT can identify airway and lung abnormalities in children with plastic bronchitis after a Fontan operation. In addition, CT can be used to guide bronchoscopy and to monitor treatment responses, and thereby may improve clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  3. Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings in Danish children hospitalized with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Sofie Kathrine; Rosenfeldt, Vibeke; Vestergaard, Hanne;

    2015-01-01

    were included (n = 95). RESULTS: Children aged 1-2 years were the age group most commonly hospitalized with acute EBV infection (27% of the cohort), followed by teenagers aged 14-15 years (23%). Fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, tonsillitis and fatigue were the most common physical findings overall....... Dividing the children into three age groups (0-4 years, 5-10 years and 11-15 years) revealed that the oldest age groups significantly more often suffered from headache, tonsillitis, sore throat, abdominal pain and nausea. Young children typically presented with a runny nose, fever, fatigue and cervical....... METHODS: All immunocompetent children hospitalized at Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen between 2002 and 2013, who presented with clinical features that prompted a laboratory test for EBV, and who tested positive by presence of EBV-specific antibodies, heterophile antibodies or a positive EBV PCR...

  4. Intussusception in children: Comparison between ultrasound diagnosis and operation findings in a tropical developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usang E Usang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intussusception is one of the more common causes of intestinal obstruction in children. The diagnosis may be based mainly on clinical features; however, there are no classic signs and symptoms that are common to all cases. This study reports our experience at US diagnosis and operation findings of children with intussusceptions in a tropical developing economy. Materials and Methods: This was an 8 years retrospective review of intussusceptions in children in a tertiary health facility in a tropical developing country from January 2004 to December 2011. Results: Twenty-five out of 41 children (M:F = 2.2:1 admitted with intussusceptions within the period were studied. The median age was 6.0 ± 5.57 months (range 3 months- 7 years. US positively diagnosed intussusceptions in 20 (80% cases. Conclusion: US can increase diagnostic confidence in intussusceptions.

  5. Novel approach to improve molecular imaging research: Correlation between macroscopic and molecular pathological findings in patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Ingrid, E-mail: i.boehm@uni-bonn.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, ZARF Project, Center for Molecular Imaging Research MBMB, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Currently, clinical research approaches are sparse in molecular imaging studies. Moreover, possible links between imaging features and pathological laboratory parameters are unknown, so far. Therefore, the goal was to find a possible relationship between imaging features and peripheral blood cell apoptosis, and thereby to present a novel way to complement molecular imaging research. Materials and methods: The investigation has been done in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototype of an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan involvement, autoantibody production, and disturbed apoptosis. Retrospectively, radiological findings have been compared to both autoantibody findings and percentage apoptotic blood cells. Results: Two SLE groups could be identified: patients with normal (annexin V binding < 20%), and with increased apoptosis (annexin V binding > 20%) of peripheral blood cells. The frequency of radiological examinations in SLE patients significantly correlated with an increased percentage of apoptotic cells (p < 0.005). In patients with characteristic imaging findings (e.g. lymph node swelling, pleural effusion) an elevated percentage of apoptotic cells was present. In contrast SLE-patients with normal imaging findings or uncharacteristic results of minimal severity had normal percentages of apoptotic blood cells. Conclusion: This correlation between radiographic findings and percentage of apoptotic blood cells provides (1) further insight into pathological mechanisms of SLE, (2) will offer the possibility to introduce apoptotic biomarkers as molecular probes for clinical molecular imaging approaches in future to early diagnose organ complaints in patients with SLE, and (3) is a plea to complement molecular imaging research by this clinical approach.

  6. Oral Reading Skills of Children with Oral Language (Word-Finding) Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Diane J.; Newman, Rochelle S.

    2007-01-01

    We examined how children with and without oral language (word-finding) difficulties (WFD) perform on oral reading (OR) versus silent reading recognition (SRR) tasks when reading the same words and how lexical factors influenced OR accuracy, error patterns, and nature of miscues. Primary-grade students were administered an experimental reading…

  7. Clinical and laboratory findings in 220 children with recurrent abdominal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Gijsbers; M.A. Benninga; H.R. Büller

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the clinical and laboratory findings in children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP). Methods: Consecutive patients with RAP (Apley criteria), age 4-16 years, referred to a secondary medical centre were evaluated by a standardized history, physical examination and laboratory test

  8. Clinical and para clinical findings in the children with tyrosinemia referring for liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Dehghani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: This study described clinical and laboratory findings in the children with HT1 who had referred for liver transplantation because of end-stage liver disease from all over country, which indicates delay in diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Considering the results of this study, newborn screening for this disease is highly suggested.

  9. 34 CFR 300.131 - Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child find for parentally-placed private school...-placed private school children with disabilities. (a) General. Each LEA must locate, identify, and..., elementary schools and secondary schools located in the school district served by the LEA, in accordance...

  10. Avulsion fractures of the anterior inferior iliac spine: spectrum of imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avulsive injuries of the pelvic aphophyses are relatively common among 13-18 year old athletes, particularly among soccer players in Brazil. Diagnosis is made upon clinical and imaging findings. These lesions show three distinct phases: acute, repair and consolidation phases. Although acute and consolidation phases usually represent no diagnostic challenge, the repair phase may appear as an aggressive process on diagnostic images simulating neoplasic lesions. In this paper, the authors present the imaging findings of patients with avulsion of the anterior inferior iliac spine on plain radiographs, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, emphasizing the typical features of the three evolutive phases of these lesions. (author)

  11. Radiographic and MR Imaging Findings of the Spine after Bisphosphonate Treatment, in a Child with Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Papakonstantinou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are employed with increasing frequency in various pediatric disorders, mainly associated with osteoporosis. After cessation of bisphosphonate treatment in children, skeletal radiologic changes have been documented including dense metaphyseal lines of the long bones and “bone in bone” appearance of the vertebrae. However, the evolution of these radiographic changes has not been fully explored. We describe the MR imaging appearance of the spine that, to our knowledge, has not been previously addressed in a child with idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis who had received bisphosphonates and emphasize the evolution of the radiographic findings of the spine and pelvis over a four-year period.

  12. Bilateral renal lymphangiectasia: radiological findings by ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbanna, Khaled Youssef; Almutairi, Badr M; Zidan, Ahmed Touni

    2015-01-01

    Renal lymphangiectasia is a rare benign condition of the kidney without specific clinical presentations. Classic imaging findings are described in literature. Here, we present a case of renal lymphangiectasia with history of bilateral flank pain and abnormal renal function tests. The radiological appearance on ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) showed features of bilateral renal lymphangiectasia but the patient refused invasive procedure for aspiration of the cysts. So, follow-up of the patient was done by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Imaging findings of our case on US, CT, and MRI are discussed along with details of the additional finding of dilated retroperitoneal lymphatic channels, cisterna chyli, as well as the thoracic duct.

  13. Clinical findings and white matter abnormalities seen on diffusion tensor imaging in adolescents with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skranes, J; Vangberg, T R; Kulseng, S; Indredavik, M S; Evensen, K A I; Martinussen, M; Dale, A M; Haraldseth, O; Brubakk, A-M

    2007-03-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) children are at high risk of perinatal white matter injury, which, when subtle, may not be seen using conventional magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between clinical findings and fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements in white matter of adolescents born prematurely with VLBW was studied in 34 subjects (age = 15 years, birth weight children semistructured interview, the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rating scale IV. Overall functioning was scored on the children's global assessment scale. DTI scans were performed for calculation of FA maps and areas of significant differences in mean FA values between subjects and controls were compared with their clinical data. The VLBW children had reduced FA values in the internal and external capsule, corpus callosum and superior, middle superior and inferior fasciculus. Within this group of children, visual motor and visual perceptual deficits were associated with low FA values in the external capsule, posterior part of the internal capsule and in the inferior fasciculus. Children with low IQ had low FA values in the external capsule and inferior and middle superior fasciculus. Fine motor impairment was related to low FA values in the internal and external capsule and superior fasciculus. Eight VLBW children with inattention symptoms or a diagnosis of ADHD had significantly lower FA values in several areas. Mild social deficits correlated with reduced FA values in the external capsule and superior fasciculus. We conclude that DTI was able to detect differences in FA between VLBW adolescents and controls in several white matter areas at risk of periventricular leucomalacia in VLBW newborns. Our results show that low FA values in these areas were associated with perceptual, cognitive, motor and mental health impairments. These conclusions indicate that perinatal injury of white matter tracts persist with clinical significance in

  14. Incidental findings are frequent in young healthy individuals undergoing magnetic resonance imaging in brain research imaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Siebner, Hartwig R; Deuschl, Günther;

    2010-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about how to handle incidental findings (IF) detected in healthy individuals who participate in research-driven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. There are currently no established guidelines regarding their management.......There is an ongoing debate about how to handle incidental findings (IF) detected in healthy individuals who participate in research-driven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. There are currently no established guidelines regarding their management....

  15. Spectrum of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Appearances of Juvenile Temporomandibular Joints (TMJ) in Non-Rheumatic Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzaribachev, N. (Dept. of Hematology, Oncology, and General Pediatrics, Univ. Children' s Hospital, Eberhard-Karls-Univ., Tuebingen (Germany)). e-mail. tzari@o2online.de; Fritz, J. (Russell H. Morgan Dept. of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Horger, M. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-Univ., Tuebingen (Germany))

    2009-12-15

    Background: Temporomandibular joints (TMJ) are frequently involved in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the only modality for an early diagnosis. However, only very few data exist on the appearance of contrast-enhanced MRI of normal juvenile TMJ. Purpose: To define the spectrum of normal MRI findings of juvenile TMJ, and to assess a possible overlap with findings typical for active synovitis in JIA. Material and Methods: 96 children (192 TMJ), 51 boys and 45 girls with a median age of 7.8 years (range 3-13 years), underwent a head MRI. The presence of autoimmune disease, including JIA, was excluded via chart history, available laboratory findings, and the absence of known typical pathological MRI changes (degree of synovial enhancement, hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images in the synovia or bone marrow, and morphologic changes of the mandibular condyle) of the TMJ affected by JIA. Results: In 90 (94%) children, the TMJ showed no MRI abnormalities compatible with arthritis. In three children (3%), the only abnormal MRI finding was a small bilateral joint effusion. A further three children (3%) had a mild synovial enhancement seen on both axial and coronal MR planes in one child and only in the axial plane in the other two children. Signal hyperintensity on T2-weighted images and other corresponding characteristics of TMJ inflammation were lacking in all these six patients. Conclusion: The vast majority of juvenile TMJ in non-rheumatic children shows no MRI abnormalities. Exceptions, including a discrete enhancement of the synovial membrane (3%) or small joint effusions (3%), can occur in a minority of patients, but none of them are accompanied by other signs of inflammation or morphological changes of the TMJ

  16. Spectrum of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Appearances of Juvenile Temporomandibular Joints (TMJ) in Non-Rheumatic Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Temporomandibular joints (TMJ) are frequently involved in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the only modality for an early diagnosis. However, only very few data exist on the appearance of contrast-enhanced MRI of normal juvenile TMJ. Purpose: To define the spectrum of normal MRI findings of juvenile TMJ, and to assess a possible overlap with findings typical for active synovitis in JIA. Material and Methods: 96 children (192 TMJ), 51 boys and 45 girls with a median age of 7.8 years (range 3-13 years), underwent a head MRI. The presence of autoimmune disease, including JIA, was excluded via chart history, available laboratory findings, and the absence of known typical pathological MRI changes (degree of synovial enhancement, hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images in the synovia or bone marrow, and morphologic changes of the mandibular condyle) of the TMJ affected by JIA. Results: In 90 (94%) children, the TMJ showed no MRI abnormalities compatible with arthritis. In three children (3%), the only abnormal MRI finding was a small bilateral joint effusion. A further three children (3%) had a mild synovial enhancement seen on both axial and coronal MR planes in one child and only in the axial plane in the other two children. Signal hyperintensity on T2-weighted images and other corresponding characteristics of TMJ inflammation were lacking in all these six patients. Conclusion: The vast majority of juvenile TMJ in non-rheumatic children shows no MRI abnormalities. Exceptions, including a discrete enhancement of the synovial membrane (3%) or small joint effusions (3%), can occur in a minority of patients, but none of them are accompanied by other signs of inflammation or morphological changes of the TMJ

  17. Clinical and Para Clinical Findings in the Children with Tyrosinemia Referring for Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mohsen Dehghani; Mahmood Haghighat; Mohammad Hadi Imanieh; Hossein Karamnejad; Abdorrasoul Malekpour

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase enzyme. This disease manifests with severe liver and kidney impairment and is associated with an increased risk of liver cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical, laboratory, imaging, and histopathologic characteristics in the children with HT1 who had referred for liver transplantation. Methods: The present retrospecti...

  18. MR imaging findings of neurosarcoidosis of the gasserian ganglion: an unusual presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the MR imaging findings of an unusual case of neurosarcoidosis of the gasserian ganglion associated with trigeminal neuralgia. No other neurological or extraneurological localization was found. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass in the Meckel's diverticulum that was isointense on T1-weighted images and hypointense on T2-weighted images. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging showed heterogeneous enhancement. Although rare, sarcoid infiltration of the gasserian ganglion must be considered in the differential diagnosis of an isolated mass in this localization in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. (orig.)

  19. MR imaging findings of neurosarcoidosis of the gasserian ganglion: an unusual presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Mercedes; Iglesias, Alfonso; Vila, Oscar; Brasa, Jose [Unidad de Resonancia Magnetica (MEDTEC), Hospital Xeral-Cies, 36204 Vigo (Spain); Conde, Cesareo [Servicio de Neurocirugia, Hospital Xeral-Cies, 36204 Vigo (Spain)

    2002-11-01

    We report the MR imaging findings of an unusual case of neurosarcoidosis of the gasserian ganglion associated with trigeminal neuralgia. No other neurological or extraneurological localization was found. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass in the Meckel's diverticulum that was isointense on T1-weighted images and hypointense on T2-weighted images. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging showed heterogeneous enhancement. Although rare, sarcoid infiltration of the gasserian ganglion must be considered in the differential diagnosis of an isolated mass in this localization in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. (orig.)

  20. CT findings of children with acute leukemia with special reference to 5 cases of leukoencephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Haruo; Akiyama, Yuichi; Takao, Tatsuo; Ito, Masatoshi; Nakano, Shozo (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1983-10-01

    CT scans of the brain were taken 122 times in 43 children with acute leukemia. CT evidence of cerebral atrophy was seen in 58.1% (25/43) of the children. Of the children who were studied during initial antileukemic therapy, such as remission-induction therapy and CNS prophylaxis, 67.7% (21/31) also had CT evidence of cerebral atrophy. This high incidence was considered mainly due to the administration of the glucocorticoid hormone during the remission-induction therapy. Leukoencephalopathy developed in 11.6% (5/43) of the children. These 5 cases had CNS leukemia, systemic or intrathecal methotrexate administration, or CNS irradiation; the common factor was intrathecal methotrexate administration. Low-density areas in the cerebral white matter, ventricular dilatation, and intracerebral calcification were found on CT. The distribution of these areas was symmetrical (periventricular lucency), asymmetrical, or focal. Only 2 of these 5 children had intracerebral calcification; they survived more than 5 years after the onset of acute leukemia. CT was useful in evaluating 2 other asymptomatic children with low-density areas in the cerebral white matter. This finding was suggestive of preclinical or subclinical leukoencephalopathy.

  1. Physical Examination Findings Among Children and Adolescents With Obesity: An Evidence-Based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Sarah; Lazorick, Suzanne; Hampl, Sarah; Skelton, Joseph A; Wood, Charles; Collier, David; Perrin, Eliana M

    2016-02-01

    Overweight and obesity affects 1 in 3 US children and adolescents. Clinical recommendations have largely focused on screening guidelines and counseling strategies. However, the physical examination of the child or adolescent with obesity can provide the clinician with additional information to guide management decisions. This expert-based review focuses on physical examination findings specific to children and adolescents with obesity. For each physical examination element, the authors define the finding and its prevalence among pediatric patients with obesity, discuss the importance and relevance of the finding, describe known techniques to assess severity, and review evidence regarding the need for additional evaluation. The recommendations presented represent a comprehensive review of current evidence as well as expert opinion. The goal of this review is to highlight the importance of conducting a targeted physical examination during pediatric weight management visits.

  2. Symmetrical central tegmental tract (CTT) hyperintense lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central tegmental tract (CTT) is mainly the extrapyramidal tract connecting between the red nucleus and the inferior olivary nucleus. There are only a few case reports describing CTT abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children. Our purpose was to evaluate the frequency of CTT lesions and their characteristics on MRI, and to correlate the MR imaging findings with clinical features. We reviewed retrospectively the MR images of 392 children (215 boys and 177 girls) ranging in age from 1 to 6 years. To evaluate symmetrical CTT hyperintense lesions, we defined a CTT lesion as an area of bilateral symmetrical hyperintensity in the tegmentum pontis on both T2-weighted images and diffusion-weighted images in more than two slices. We measured the ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) values of symmetrical CTT hyperintensity, and compared them with those of children without CTT abnormality. CTT lesions were detected in 20 (5.1%) of the 392 children. The mean ADC value for these 20 children was significantly lower than that of the normal CTT (p<0.001). On MR imaging, other than CTT lesions, associated parenchymal lesion included: none (n=6); other abnormalities, including periventricular leukomalacia (n=3); thin corpus callosum (n=3); ventricular dilatation (n=2); encephalopathy (n=2). Clinically, cerebral palsy was the most frequent clinical diagnosis (n=6), accounting for 30%, which was significantly more frequent than the prevalence of cerebral palsy among children without CTT lesions (13%) (n<0.05). CTT lesions were detected in 5.1% of all the children examined. Cerebral palsy was the most frequent clinical diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Symmetrical central tegmental tract (CTT) hyperintense lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Shoko; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Akira [Kyoto City Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kyoto (Japan); Aida, Noriko [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Kyoto (Japan); Okano, Souzo; Matsushita, Hiroko [Kyoto City Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Kyoto (Japan); Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko; Yoshida, Naoko; Hirota, Haruyo [St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    The central tegmental tract (CTT) is mainly the extrapyramidal tract connecting between the red nucleus and the inferior olivary nucleus. There are only a few case reports describing CTT abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children. Our purpose was to evaluate the frequency of CTT lesions and their characteristics on MRI, and to correlate the MR imaging findings with clinical features. We reviewed retrospectively the MR images of 392 children (215 boys and 177 girls) ranging in age from 1 to 6 years. To evaluate symmetrical CTT hyperintense lesions, we defined a CTT lesion as an area of bilateral symmetrical hyperintensity in the tegmentum pontis on both T2-weighted images and diffusion-weighted images in more than two slices. We measured the ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) values of symmetrical CTT hyperintensity, and compared them with those of children without CTT abnormality. CTT lesions were detected in 20 (5.1%) of the 392 children. The mean ADC value for these 20 children was significantly lower than that of the normal CTT (p<0.001). On MR imaging, other than CTT lesions, associated parenchymal lesion included: none (n=6); other abnormalities, including periventricular leukomalacia (n=3); thin corpus callosum (n=3); ventricular dilatation (n=2); encephalopathy (n=2). Clinically, cerebral palsy was the most frequent clinical diagnosis (n=6), accounting for 30%, which was significantly more frequent than the prevalence of cerebral palsy among children without CTT lesions (13%) (n<0.05). CTT lesions were detected in 5.1% of all the children examined. Cerebral palsy was the most frequent clinical diagnosis. (orig.)

  4. The use of MR imaging and spectroscopy of the brain in children investigated for developmental delay: What is the most appropriate imaging strategy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Batty, Ruth; Raghavan, Ashok; Connolly, Daniel J.A. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Warren, Daniel; Hart, Anthony [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sharrard, Mark [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatrics, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Mordekar, Santosh R. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Developmental delay is a common problem in paediatric practice and many children with developmental delay are referred for MR imaging. Our study was performed as part of a continuing audit process to optimise our MR protocol and case selection. We performed MR imaging and spectroscopy protocol on 157 children with developmental delay. We analysed the effect of these interventions by looking at the overall detection rate of relevant pathology and in particular subgroups of the children. 71% of the children had normal MR imaging, 10% had non-specific findings and 19% had specific abnormalities on MR imaging. The overall risk of having a specific structural abnormality with isolated developmental was 7.5% but if other neurological symptoms/signs were present the risk was 28%. Two children had abnormal spectroscopic findings, one with tuberous sclerosis and the other with absent brain creatine. Case selection for MR imaging is important in children with developmental delay. The best strategies for selecting children for MR are either; not performing MR with developmental delay in one domain only or performing MR with developmental delay in three or four domains or if there are other neurological features. (orig.)

  5. The use of MR imaging and spectroscopy of the brain in children investigated for developmental delay: What is the most appropriate imaging strategy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developmental delay is a common problem in paediatric practice and many children with developmental delay are referred for MR imaging. Our study was performed as part of a continuing audit process to optimise our MR protocol and case selection. We performed MR imaging and spectroscopy protocol on 157 children with developmental delay. We analysed the effect of these interventions by looking at the overall detection rate of relevant pathology and in particular subgroups of the children. 71% of the children had normal MR imaging, 10% had non-specific findings and 19% had specific abnormalities on MR imaging. The overall risk of having a specific structural abnormality with isolated developmental was 7.5% but if other neurological symptoms/signs were present the risk was 28%. Two children had abnormal spectroscopic findings, one with tuberous sclerosis and the other with absent brain creatine. Case selection for MR imaging is important in children with developmental delay. The best strategies for selecting children for MR are either; not performing MR with developmental delay in one domain only or performing MR with developmental delay in three or four domains or if there are other neurological features. (orig.)

  6. Syringomyelia in mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome): imaging findings following bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hite, S.H. [Department of Radiology, Box 292, University of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Krivit, W. [Department of Pediatrics and Institute for Human Genetics, University of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Haines, S.J. [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Whitley, C.B. [Department of Pediatrics and Institute for Human Genetics, University of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1997-09-01

    We present the imaging findings in a patient with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome) who developed holocord syringomyelia. This represents the only reported case of syrinx formation in a child with MPS VI. Clinical, neurologic and spinal magnetic resonance imaging findings are presented. The patient has maintained a stable clinical and neurologic course over the period following allogeneic bone marrow transplant. (orig.). With 3 figs.

  7. Syringomyelia in mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome): imaging findings following bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the imaging findings in a patient with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome) who developed holocord syringomyelia. This represents the only reported case of syrinx formation in a child with MPS VI. Clinical, neurologic and spinal magnetic resonance imaging findings are presented. The patient has maintained a stable clinical and neurologic course over the period following allogeneic bone marrow transplant. (orig.). With 3 figs

  8. Imaging findings of CT and MIRI of Os supratalare: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Jeong; Kim, Okhwa [Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The os supratalare is quite a rare accessory ossicle of the ankle and the foot. We present imaging findings of a symptomatic os supratalare in a 21-year-old woman with a painful bump of the dorsal aspect on her hind foot. CT and MRI are helpful to distinguish this accessory ossicle from a fracture or an osteochondroma. Knowledge of imaging findings and clinical significances of os supratalare will be helpful for accurate diagnosis and appropriate management.

  9. Spinal pilocytic astrocytoma: MR imaging findings at first presentation and following surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horger, M., E-mail: marius.horger@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Ritz, R. [Department of Neurosurgery, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Beschorner, R. [Institute for Brain Research, Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Calwerstr. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Fenchel, M.; Naegele, T.; Danz, S.; Ernemann, U. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: The objective of this article is to describe MR imaging findings of spinal cord pilocytic astrocytomas at first presentation and following neurosurgery and to discuss briefly some of the most common differential diagnoses. Conclusion: MR imaging findings in medullary pilocytic astrocytomas consist generally of focal or diffuse cord-enlarging masses that are irregularly shaped, accompanied by cystic elements and hydromyelia, present different degrees of contrast enhancement, high water diffusivity and a propensity for the thoracic and cervical cord.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Tamoxifen-Associated Uterine Muellerian Adenosarcoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soh, E.; Eleti, A.; Jimenez-Linan, M.; Arends, M. J.; Latimer, J.; Sala, E. (Depts. of Radiology, Pathology, and Gynaecological Oncology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    2008-09-15

    Muellerian adenosarcoma of the uterus is a rare biphasic tumor, which was first described in 1974. Recent studies have suggested an association with tamoxifen therapy, but there have been few reports with detailed imaging findings. We present a case with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of this rare tumor in a woman who received long-term tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer. In addition, myometrial invasion was detected more accurately with MRI compared to ultrasound in this one single case

  11. A case of dialysis-related amyloidosis of the hip and cervical spine: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyung Kyu; Kang, Ik Won; Min, Seon Jung; Cho, Seong Whi; Kim, Seok Woo; Jang, Woo Young [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seon Joo [Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kyung Jin [Dankook University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-05-15

    Dialysis-related amyloidosis is a complication of long-term hemodialysis and it is characterized by the accumulation of {beta} 2-microglobulin in the osteoarticular structures. We describe here the imaging findings of a case of dialysis-related amyloidosis involving the hip and cervical spine in a 62-year-old woman who received long-term dialysis. We focus here on the CT and MR imaging findings of the cervical spine and we include a review of the relevant literatures.

  12. MR imaging findings of extraovarian endocervical mucinous borderline tumors arising from pelvic endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, Dong Myung; Rha, Sung Eun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon; Kim, Mee Ran [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    We report MR imaging findings of a rare case of endocervical mucinous borderline tumor (MBT) involving the cul-de-sac and left fallopian tube arising from extensive pelvic endometriosis with pathologic correlation in a 35-year-old woman presented with vague pelvic pain. Endocervical MBT is a type of endometriosis-associated carcinoma. Imaging findings of endocervical MBT are unilocular or oligolocular cystic lesions with enhancing mural nodules, which are different from those of the more common intestinal type MBT.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of lung infections in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, Ville; Ruuskanen, Olli [Turku University Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Turku (Finland); Svedstroem, Erkki [Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Turku (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    The advantages and limitations of MRI in lung infections in children have not been well established. This article illustrates the MRI findings in children with pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and other pathogens. Lung parenchymal, pleural, and lymph node abnormalities are well characterized by MRI. Loculation of pleural fluid is detected in children with empyema. Contrast enhancement may be useful in the differentiation of active inflammation from noninflammatory changes. MRI can be particularly useful in the follow-up of children with chronic pulmonary diseases. (orig.)

  14. Medulloblastoma: correlation among findings of conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonte, Mariana Vieira de Melo da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lucato, Leandro Tavares; Reed, Umbertina Conti; Leite, Claudia da Costa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia]. E-mail: mvmfonte@uol.com.br; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Reed, Umbertina Conti [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia; Rosemberg, Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Patologia

    2008-11-15

    To correlate imaging findings of medulloblastomas at conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, comparing them with data in the literature. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging studies of nine pediatric patients with histologically confirmed medulloblastomas (eight desmoplastic medulloblastoma, and one giant cell medulloblastoma) were retrospectively reviewed, considering demographics as well as tumors characteristics such as localization, morphology, signal intensity, contrast-enhancement, dissemination, and diffusion-weighted imaging and spectroscopy findings. In most of cases the tumors were centered in the cerebellar vermis (77.8%), predominantly solid (88.9%), hypointense on T 1-weighted images and intermediate/hyperintense on T 2-FLAIR-weighted images, with heterogeneous enhancement (100%), tumor dissemination/extension (77.8%) and limited water molecule mobility (100%). Proton spectroscopy acquired with STEAM technique (n = 6) demonstrated decreased Na a / Cr ratio (83.3%) and increased Co/Cr (100%) and ml/Cr (66.7%) ratios; and with PRESS technique (n = 7) demonstrated lactate peak (57.1%). Macroscopic magnetic resonance imaging findings in association with biochemical features of medulloblastomas have been useful in the differentiation among the most frequent posterior fossa tumors. (author)

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of osteoid osteoma of the proximal femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, Michele; Minutoli, Fabio; Pandolfo, Ignazio; Vinci, Sergio; Blandino, Alfredo [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Messina, Policlinico ' ' G. Martino' ' , Via Consolare Valeria, 98100, Messina (Italy); D' Andrea, Letterio [Department of Orthopedics, University of Messina, Policlinico ' ' G. Martino' ' , Via Consolare Valeria, 98100, Messina (Italy)

    2004-09-01

    Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a benign bone tumor whose main radiological finding is nidus. OO of the proximal femur can also result in non-specific findings such as hip joint effusion, perinidal bone marrow edema and soft tissue mass. Since the nidus may be difficult to identify with MR, these non-specific findings can lead to erroneous diagnosis. Therefore, MR imaging technique should be optimized in order to identify nidus. Since MR imaging has assumed increasing importance in the evaluation of disorders of the hip, radiologists must be aware of the spectrum of findings of OO of the proximal femur. The aim of this pictorial review is to show the MR imaging findings of intra-articular and extra-articular OO of the proximal femur. (orig.)

  16. Imaging findings in a distinct lethal inherited arteriopathy syndrome associated with a novel mutation in the FBLN4 gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeshkannan, Ramiah; Kulkarni, Chinmay; Moorthy, Srikanth [Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, AIMS, Department of Radiology, Ernakulam (India); Kappanayil, Mahesh [Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, AIMS, Department of pediatric cardiology, Ernakulam (India); Nampoothiri, Sheela [Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, AIMS, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Ernakulam (India); Malfait, Fransiska; Paepe, Anne de [Ghent University Hospital, Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-08-15

    We present the imaging findings of a newly identified lethal arteriopathy associated with a novel mutation in the gene encoding fibulin-4, occurring in a distinct community from southern India. A total of 31 children from a distinct population subgroup who presented with characteristic arterial dilatation and tortuosity were studied. All children except one belonged to unrelated families from an ethno-religious group (Muslim) from the northern coastal belt of southern India. CT angiography was performed in 30 children and contrast MRA in one. Impressive dilatation and elongation of ascending aorta, arch, descending aorta and main pulmonary arteries with characteristic narrowing of aortic isthmus were seen in all patients. Stenosis of arch branches, abdominal visceral branches and pulmonary artery branches was observed in 21 (68 %), 23 (62.5 %) and 20 (65 %) patients respectively. Genetic studies revealed an identical mutation in exon 7 of the FBLN4 gene. On follow-up, 27 of them had died before the age of 3 years and only two children were alive after the age of 4 years. FBLN4-associated vasculopathy is a highly lethal disease characterized by severe aneurysmal dilatation of thoracic aorta, its branches and pulmonary arteries with stenoses at typical locations. (orig.)

  17. MR imaging of the gastro-intestinal tract in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging (MRI) is an established method for the evaluation of particularly inflammatory bowel disease in adults, as well as for acute abdominal pain in pregnant women. Despite the fact that MRI is ideally suited for the evaluation of children the method is still not established in these patients. The value of MRI in Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and appendicitis as well as intestinal tumors and malformations has been documented in children. There will be more indications in the future depending on the development of new imaging techniques, faster sequences, stronger gradients and increasing availability. Furthermore, the radiologist's attention must be drawn to decrease the radiation burden in children and to replace ionizing techniques especially in chronic disease with the need for repeated follow-up studies and in younger children. This review will discuss some general considerations for the use of MRI in evaluating the paediatric gastro-intestinal tract

  18. MR imaging of the gastro-intestinal tract in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoermann, Marcus [Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital, Department of General and Paediatric Radiology, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: marcus.hoermann@meduniwien.ac.at

    2008-11-15

    MR imaging (MRI) is an established method for the evaluation of particularly inflammatory bowel disease in adults, as well as for acute abdominal pain in pregnant women. Despite the fact that MRI is ideally suited for the evaluation of children the method is still not established in these patients. The value of MRI in Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and appendicitis as well as intestinal tumors and malformations has been documented in children. There will be more indications in the future depending on the development of new imaging techniques, faster sequences, stronger gradients and increasing availability. Furthermore, the radiologist's attention must be drawn to decrease the radiation burden in children and to replace ionizing techniques especially in chronic disease with the need for repeated follow-up studies and in younger children. This review will discuss some general considerations for the use of MRI in evaluating the paediatric gastro-intestinal tract.

  19. Sexual Abuse against Children. Preliminary Findings of the Investigation Conducted in May 2008, by Gallup Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN M. RĂDULESCU

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse against minors has become in the last decades an important social issue for specialists in several countries, including Romania. Although sexual victimization rates in various countries appear to have declined beginning with 1993,there is still a greater probability for children and teenagers to suffer from sexual aggression rather than adults. Despite the increased preoccupation with the issue of sexual abuse against children and the new knowledge acquired in this field, several aspects have been left unsolved, among which that of the accuracy of data collected and underrepresented statistics. This study is a preliminary analysis of the main findings of the investigation conducted in May 2008, by the Gallup Institute, at the request of the Institute of Sociology of the Romanian Academy and whose object was, among others, sexual abuse against children in Romania.

  20. Computed tomographic findings in children with spastic diplegia; Correlation with the severity of their motor abnormality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokochi, Kenji; Horie, Masayo; Inukai, Kazuhisa; Kito, Hideyuki (Seirei-Mikatabara General Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan)); Shimabukuro, Satoshi; Kodama, Kazuo

    1989-08-01

    Computed tomographic findings of 46 children with spastic diplegia examined at nine months to three years of age corrected for preterm births were analyzed. Both the size of the lateral ventricles measured by the width of the anterior horns, and the volume of the extracerebral low-density areas were enlarged in some patiens. Both enlargements did not, however, correlate to the severity of the motor abnormality in the patients. The low-density areas of the periventricular white matter, especially adjacent to the trigone, were reduced in many children, probably due to the atrophy of the cerebral white matter having periventricular leukomalacia. The anterior expansion of the white matter reduction from the trigone corresponded to the severer motor abnormality in the children with spastic diplegia. (author).

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with peroneal tendinopathy and peroneal tenosynovitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Smet, Arthur de [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Mukharjee, Rajat [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Statistics, Madison, WI (United States)

    2007-02-15

    To compare the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of a group of patients with clinically diagnosed peroneal tendonopathy and peroneal tenosynovitis with the MR imaging findings of a control group of patients with no clinical evidence of peroneal tendon disorder. The MR examinations of 24 patients with symptomatic peroneal tendinopathy or peroneal tenosynovitis and 70 patients with no clinical evidence of peroneal tendon disorder were retrospectively reviewed to determine the presence or absence of four MR imaging findings: 1) predominantly or uniform intermediate signal intensity within the peroneal tendons on one or more axial proton density-weighted images, 2) predominantly or uniform intermediate signal intensity within the peroneal tendons on three consecutive axial proton density-weighted images, 3) intermediate T2 signal intensity within the peroneal tendons, and 4) circumferential fluid within the common peroneal tendon sheath greater than 3 mm in maximal width. The sensitivity and specificity of these MR imaging findings for determining the presence or absence or symptomatic peroneal tendinopathy or peroneal tenosynovitis were calculated. The sensitivity of MR imaging findings 1, 2, 3, and 4 for determining the presence of peroneal tendinopathy or peroneal tenosynovitis were 92%, 92%, 50%, and 17% respectively. The specificity of MR imaging findings 1, 2, 3, and 4 for determining the absence of peroneal tendinopathy or peroneal tenosynovitis were 57%, 79%, 93%, and 100% respectively. The presence of predominantly or uniform intermediate signal intensity within the peroneal tendons on three consecutive axial proton density-weighted images is a highly sensitive and moderately specific indicator of symptomatic peroneal tendinopathy. The presence of intermediate T2 signal within the peroneal tendons, and the presence of circumferential fluid within the peroneal tendon sheath greater than 3 mm in maximal width, are highly specific indicators of peroneal

  2. Real-time progressive hyperspectral image processing endmember finding and anomaly detection

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chein-I

    2016-01-01

    The book covers the most crucial parts of real-time hyperspectral image processing: causality and real-time capability. Recently, two new concepts of real time hyperspectral image processing, Progressive Hyperspectral Imaging (PHSI) and Recursive Hyperspectral Imaging (RHSI). Both of these can be used to design algorithms and also form an integral part of real time hyperpsectral image processing. This book focuses on progressive nature in algorithms on their real-time and causal processing implementation in two major applications, endmember finding and anomaly detection, both of which are fundamental tasks in hyperspectral imaging but generally not encountered in multispectral imaging. This book is written to particularly address PHSI in real time processing, while a book, Recursive Hyperspectral Sample and Band Processing: Algorithm Architecture and Implementation (Springer 2016) can be considered as its companion book. Includes preliminary background which is essential to those who work in hyperspectral ima...

  3. Clinical presentation and biochemical findings children with glycogen storage disease type 1A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the clinical pattern of presentation and biochemical characteristics of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1a in children at a tertiary referral centre. Study Design: Descriptive/ cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pediatric, division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology of the Children's hospital, Lahore over a period of 11 years. Patients and Methods: Confirmed cases of glycogen storage disease (clinical plus biochemical findings consistent with GSD 1a and proven on liver biopsy) were enrolled in this study from neonatal age till 18 years. Data was retrieved from files and electronic record for these cases. Diagnosis was made on the basis of history, clinical findings including hepatomegaly, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypoglycemia and hyperuricemia (if present). Diagnosis was confirmed on liver biopsy. Patients with other storage disorders and benign and malignant tumours were excluded from the study. Results: Total patients included in the study were 360 with male to female ratio of 1.25:1. Median age at the time of diagnosis was 25.6 months (age range from one month to 18 years). Most common presentation was abdominal distension (83%) followed by failure to thrive (69%) and recurrent wheezing and diarrhoea (44%) each. Seizures were present in only 1/3rd of children. Other presentations included vomiting, respiratory distress, altered sensorium, nephrocalcinosis, epistaxis and hypothyroidism. Few patients around 11% presented with acute hepatitis and later were diagnosed as GSD. Significant hepatomegaly was evident in almost all patients but nephromegaly was present in only 5.5% patients. All children had marked hypertriglyceridemia but cholesterol levels were raised in 1/3rd of children. A large majority of children had deranged ALT more than 2 times of normal and around 38% children had marked anemia. Significant hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis was documented in around 1/3rd of children

  4. Obesity in Children and Adolescents: Health Effects and Imaging Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faguy, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are pandemic health problems, not just among the adult population, but in children and adolescents as well. This article presents information on the prevalence, causes, prevention, and treatment of overweight and obesity in young people, with particular focus on the medical and psychological complications associated with the diseases. In addition, the challenges of imaging the obese pediatric population are discussed, and public policy changes that could help reverse obesity trends in children and adolescents are introduced.

  5. Genetic polymorphisms affecting susceptibility to mercury neurotoxicity in children: summary findings from the Casa Pia Children's Amalgam clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, James S; Heyer, Nicholas J; Russo, Joan E; Martin, Michael D; Farin, Federico M

    2014-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) is neurotoxic, and children may be particularly susceptible to this effect. A current major challenge is identification of children who may be uniquely susceptible to Hg toxicity because of genetic predisposition. We examined the possibility that common genetic variants that are known to affect neurologic functions or Hg handling in adults would modify the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg exposure in children. Three hundred thirty subjects who participated as children in the recently completed Casa Pia Clinical Trial of Dental Amalgams in Children were genotyped for 27 variants of 13 genes that are reported to affect neurologic functions and/or Hg disposition in adults. Urinary Hg concentrations, reflecting Hg exposure from any source, served as the Hg exposure index. Regression modeling strategies were employed to evaluate potential associations between allelic status for individual genes or combinations of genes, Hg exposure, and neurobehavioral test outcomes assessed at baseline and for 7 subsequent years during the clinical trial. Among boys, significant modification of Hg effects on neurobehavioral outcomes over a broad range of neurologic domains was observed with variant genotypes for 4 of 13 genes evaluated. Modification of Hg effects on a more limited number of neurobehavioral outcomes was also observed for variants of another 8 genes. Cluster analyses suggested some genes interacting in common processes to affect Hg neurotoxicity. In contrast, significant modification of Hg effects on neurobehavioral functions among girls with the same genotypes was substantially more limited. These observations suggest increased susceptibility to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg among children, particularly boys, with genetic variants that are relatively common to the general human population. These findings advance public health goals to identify factors underlying susceptibility to Hg toxicity and may contribute to strategies for preventing

  6. MR imaging findings of retinal hemorrhage in a case of nonaccidental trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retinal hemorrhage is a well-recognized manifestation of child abuse found in many babies with shaken baby syndrome. The presence of retinal hemorrhage is generally associated with more severe neurological damage and a worse clinical outcome. MR imaging findings of retinal hemorrhages are not well described in the pediatric literature. We present a 6-month-old boy with new-onset seizures, subdural hemorrhage and bilateral retinal hemorrhages that were detected by MRI and confirmed by indirect ophthalmoscopy. This case demonstrates the MR imaging findings of retinal hemorrhages and the importance of radiologists being able to recognize these specific imaging features. (orig.)

  7. MR imaging findings of retinal hemorrhage in a case of nonaccidental trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinok, Deniz; Saleem, Sheena; Smith, Wilbur [Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Pediatric Imaging, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhang, Zaixiang [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Markman, Lisa [Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Child Protection Team, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Retinal hemorrhage is a well-recognized manifestation of child abuse found in many babies with shaken baby syndrome. The presence of retinal hemorrhage is generally associated with more severe neurological damage and a worse clinical outcome. MR imaging findings of retinal hemorrhages are not well described in the pediatric literature. We present a 6-month-old boy with new-onset seizures, subdural hemorrhage and bilateral retinal hemorrhages that were detected by MRI and confirmed by indirect ophthalmoscopy. This case demonstrates the MR imaging findings of retinal hemorrhages and the importance of radiologists being able to recognize these specific imaging features. (orig.)

  8. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: cerebral ischemia is not the only fetal MR imaging finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a complication of monochorionic/diamniotic twin pregnancies. An imbalance of blood flow occurs through placental anastomoses, causing potentially significant morbidity and mortality in both twins. Although the sonographic findings of TTTS are well documented, we believe that MR imaging is a valuable adjunct. We describe the fetal MR imaging findings associated with TTTS. From 2003 to 2005, 37 consecutive MR imaging studies were performed on multiple-gestation pregnancies. Of the 37, 25 were consistent with TTTS, correlated and confirmed by sonographic criteria. MR fetal abnormalities were documented. Cerebral ischemia, which could not be demonstrated by sonography, was delineated well by MR imaging. New findings noted on fetal MR imaging were enlargement of cerebral venous sinuses in both twins, dilatation of the renal collecting system in the recipient, lung lesions in the recipient and cerebral malformations in the donor. MR imaging is an important adjunct in TTTS imaging. Its benefit over sonography is its clear definition of cerebral pathology, which is important for intervention and counseling. The new findings, particularly in the urinary tract and cerebral venous sinuses, also help support the diagnosis of TTTS and might reveal additional consequences of the altered hemodynamics that occur in TTTS. (orig.)

  9. Imaging diagnosis--magnetic resonance imaging findings in a dog with sequential brain infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Alison C; Caine, Abby; Rodriguez, Sue B; Cherubini, Giunio B

    2012-01-01

    An adult greyhound was evaluated on three occasions for acute, intracranial neurologic signs. Based on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, there were T2-hyperintense and T1-hypointense, noncontrast enhancing lesions in the cerebellum, and brain stem. Using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), the lesions were characterized initially by restricted water diffusion. The presumptive diagnosis on each occasion was acute ischemic cerebrovascular accident leading to infarction. This allowed us to characterize the changes in appearance of infarcted neural tissue on the standard MR sequences over time, and to confirm that the DWI could be successfully used in low-field imaging. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound. PMID:22731883

  10. Sonographic findings of the internal jugular vein valve in normal children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the sonographic findings of the valve in the internal jugular vein in normal children. Seventy children (5-15 years, average age 10.8 years, 36 boys and 34 girls) were recruited for the study. The number of cusps, length and insertion sites of the valve in the internal jugular vein was examined. Sex differences were investigated, in addition to the symmetry of the valves found in both of the veins. In all children, valve was found in either one or both internal jugular veins. Sixteen percents of the children had valve on one side only, while eighty four percents showed on both sides. All the one side were found on the right side only. Nine percents of the valves in the internal jugular veins of the children were bicuspid and ninety one percents were unicuspid. The length of the cusps was on the average, 7.59 ± 2.77 mm. The insertion of the cusps was on the average, 6.75 ± 2.59 mm (range: 0-12.0 mm), proximal to the confluence of the subclavian and internal jugular veins to form the brachiocephalic vein. There was no significant statistical difference of the number of cusps, length and insertion sites of the valves on both sides and sex distinction. A valve in internal jugular vein is identified in all cases on ultrasonography. There was no significant statistical difference of the number of cusps, length and insertion sites of the valves on both sides and sex distinction.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in primary lymphoma of the liver: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilaj Fatmir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary lymphoma of the liver is an extremely rare finding, with the few such cases reported in the literature to date describing indeterminate imaging findings, being focused more on computed tomography. To the best of our knowledge, there is no prior report describing magnetic resonance imaging scan findings with such a lesion. In the case reported here, magnetic resonance imaging gave us the opportunity to ascertain the correct diagnosis, confirmed by histopathology, thus avoiding unnecessary surgery or other treatments. Although this condition is rare, knowledge of magnetic resonance imaging findings will be invaluable for radiologists and other medical subspecialties that may face such cases in the future in helping to provide adequate management for affected patients. Case presentation A focal lesion was incidentally detected by ultrasound in a 75-year-old asymptomatic Albanian man being treated for benign hypertrophy of prostate. Chest and abdomen computed tomography scans did not reveal any abnormal findings besides a solid focal lesion on the right lobe of the liver and a mild homogenous enlargement of the prostate gland. Subsequently, magnetic resonance imaging of the upper abdomen was performed for better characterization of this lesion. Our patient was free of symptoms and his laboratory test results were normal. Conclusions The magnetic resonance imaging scan results showed some distinctive features that helped us to make the correct diagnosis, and were thus very important in helping us provide the correct treatment for our patient.

  12. Imaging findings of multiple infantile hepatic hemangioma associated with cardiac insufficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Jing Ye; Yin-Can Shao; Qiang Shu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infantile hepatic hemangioma (IHH) as a benign liver tumor in infancy and childhood is commonly associated with high output cardiac failure. The present study aims to describe the imaging findings in a patient who was diagnosed as having multiple IHH with congestive cardiac insuffi ciency. Methods: The imaging findings and clinical manifestations of the patient with multiple IHH associated with cardiac insuffi ciency were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Ultrasonography showed multiple intrahepatic lesions with mixed echoes and markedly expanded hepatic veins and the inferior vena cava of the patient. Echocardiography revealed right heart insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension. Contrast-enhanced MRI showed early mild enhancement of lesions and more obvious delayed enhancement. The patient died after combined therapy of surgery and hormone. Conclusions: The imaging findings of multiple IHH associated with cardiac insufficiency are typical and diagnostic. Early imaging assessment may facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  13. Acute pelvic inflammatory disease: pictorial essay focused on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was aimed at describing key computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with acute abdominal pain derived from pelvic inflammatory disease. Two radiologists consensually selected and analyzed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies performed between January 2010 and December 2011 in patients with proven pelvic inflammatory disease leading to presentation of acute abdomen. Main findings included presence of intracavitary fluid collections, anomalous enhancement of the pelvic excavation and densification of adnexal fat planes. Pelvic inflammatory disease is one of the leading causes of abdominal pain in women of childbearing age and it has been increasingly been diagnosed by means of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging supplementing the role of ultrasonography. It is crucial that radiologists become familiar with the main sectional imaging findings in the diagnosis of this common cause of acute abdomen (author)

  14. Acute pelvic inflammatory disease: pictorial essay focused on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febronio, Eduardo Miguel; Rosas, George de Queiroz; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPMUnifesp), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    The present study was aimed at describing key computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with acute abdominal pain derived from pelvic inflammatory disease. Two radiologists consensually selected and analyzed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies performed between January 2010 and December 2011 in patients with proven pelvic inflammatory disease leading to presentation of acute abdomen. Main findings included presence of intracavitary fluid collections, anomalous enhancement of the pelvic excavation and densification of adnexal fat planes. Pelvic inflammatory disease is one of the leading causes of abdominal pain in women of childbearing age and it has been increasingly been diagnosed by means of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging supplementing the role of ultrasonography. It is crucial that radiologists become familiar with the main sectional imaging findings in the diagnosis of this common cause of acute abdomen (author)

  15. Parasellar meningiomas: magnetic resonance imaging findings; Meningiomas parasselares: aspectos na ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Alair Augusto S.M.D. dos; Fontes, Cristina Asvolinsque P. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Moreira, Denise Madeira [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Andreiuolo, Pedro Angelo [Hospital Santa Cruz, Beneficencia Portuguesa de Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia; Oliveira, Fernando Barros de; Teixeira, Ricardo Tostes D.; Correa, Saul Orlando C. [Instituto de Pos-graduacao Medica Carlos Chagas (IPGMCC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-02-01

    We reviewed 22 cases of patients with parasellar meningiomas evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in private clinics of the cities of Niteroi and Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Our aim was to characterize the imaging findings in this type of tumor. MRI scanners with 0.5 and 1.0 Tesla magnets were used for the acquisition of multiplanar T1-weighted (pre-and post-gadolinium administration) and T2-weighted images. The main symptoms observed were headache and visual disturbances. Hyperprolactinaemia was observed in only one patient. The most frequent imaging finding was a parasellar mass which appeared hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, and enhanced intensively after gadolinium administration. MRI is useful to demonstrate the lesion and to asses the damage to adjacent structures, particularly when the patient presents visual disturbances due to involvement of the cavernous sinuses. (author)

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging in children with unilateral hearing loss: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara eRachakonda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Language acquisition was assumed to proceed normally in children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL since they have one functioning ear. However, children with UHL score poorly on speech-language tests and have higher rates of educational problems compared to normal hearing (NH peers. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is an imaging modality used to measure microstructural integrity of brain white matter. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate differences in fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD in hearing- and non-hearing-related structures in the brain between children with UHL and their NH siblings. Study Design: Prospective observational cohortSetting: Academic medical center.Subjects and Methods: 61 children were recruited, tested and imaged. 29 children with severe-to-profound UHL were compared to 20 siblings with NH using IQ and oral language testing, and MRI with DTI. 12 children had inadequate MRI data. Parents provided demographic data and indicated whether children had a need for an individualized educational program (IEP or speech therapy (ST. DTI parameters were measured in auditory and non-auditory regions of interest (ROIs. Between-group comparisons were evaluated with non-parametric tests. Results: Lower FA of left lateral lemniscus was observed for children with UHL compared to their NH siblings, as well as trends towards differences in other auditory and nonauditory regions. Correlation analyses showed associations between several DTI parameters and outcomes in children with UHL. Regression analyses revealed relationships between educational outcome variables and several DTI parameters, which may provide clinically useful information for guidance of speech therapy. Discussion/Conclusion: White matter microstructural patterns in several brain regions are preserved despite unilateral rather than bilateral auditory input which contrasts with findings in patients with bilateral hearing loss.

  17. Unexpected findings at imaging: Predicting frequency in various types of studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumbreras, Blanca [Public Health Department, Miguel Hernandez University (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (Spain)], E-mail: blumbreras@umh.es; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel [Radiodiagnostic Department, San Juan Hospital, 03550 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: gonzalez_isa@gva.es; Lorente, Ma Fernanda [Radiodiagnostic Department, San Juan Hospital, 03550 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: MARFERLORENTE@telefonica.net; Calbo, Jorge [Radiodiagnostic Department, San Juan Hospital, 03550 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: jocalma@hotmail.com; Aranaz, Jesus [Preventive Medicine Department, San Juan Hospital, 03550 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: aranaz_jes@gva.es; Hernandez-Aguado, Ildefonso [Public Health Department, Miguel Hernandez University (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (Spain)], E-mail: ihernandez@umh.es

    2010-04-15

    Objective: The objective was to evaluate the prevalence and associated variables of unsuspected findings from imaging tests in clinical practice. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study of patients referred for an imaging test in 2006. Two independent radiologists classified the imaging tests according to the presence or absence of an unexpected finding in relation with the causes that prompted the test (kappa = 0.95). A thorough chart review of these patients was carried out as a quality control. Results: Out of 3259 patients in the study, 488 revealed unsuspected findings (15.0%). The prevalence of abnormal findings varied according to age: from 20.4% (150/734) in the over 74-group to 9.0% (76/847) in the under 43-group. The largest prevalence was in the category of infectious diseases (14/49, 28.6%) and in CT (260/901, 28.9%) and ultrasound (138/668, 20.7%). Studies showing moderate clinical information on the referral form were less likely to show unexpected findings than those with null or minor information (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.36-0.73). Conclusion: Clinicians should expect the frequency of diseases detectable by imaging to increase in the future. Further research with follow-up of these findings is needed to estimate the effect of imaging technologies on final health outcomes.

  18. Unexpected findings at imaging: Predicting frequency in various types of studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The objective was to evaluate the prevalence and associated variables of unsuspected findings from imaging tests in clinical practice. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study of patients referred for an imaging test in 2006. Two independent radiologists classified the imaging tests according to the presence or absence of an unexpected finding in relation with the causes that prompted the test (kappa = 0.95). A thorough chart review of these patients was carried out as a quality control. Results: Out of 3259 patients in the study, 488 revealed unsuspected findings (15.0%). The prevalence of abnormal findings varied according to age: from 20.4% (150/734) in the over 74-group to 9.0% (76/847) in the under 43-group. The largest prevalence was in the category of infectious diseases (14/49, 28.6%) and in CT (260/901, 28.9%) and ultrasound (138/668, 20.7%). Studies showing moderate clinical information on the referral form were less likely to show unexpected findings than those with null or minor information (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.36-0.73). Conclusion: Clinicians should expect the frequency of diseases detectable by imaging to increase in the future. Further research with follow-up of these findings is needed to estimate the effect of imaging technologies on final health outcomes.

  19. Intraventricular tuberculoma. Report of four cases in children. [CT scan findings described

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthier, M.; Sierra, J.; Leiguarda, R.

    1987-03-01

    Four cases of intraventricular tuberculoma (IVT) in children are here reported. In none of the patients was there clinical evidence pointing to the intraventricular location. CT scan findings comprised three stages of development, namely: immature, mature and old. Ependymal attachment and asymmetric hydrocephalus were present in three cases, meningitis in two and ependymitis in one. Septum pellucidum traction was clearly observed in two patients, strongly supporting an adhesive process characteristic of intraventricular tuberculosis. Following specific treatment, the tuberculomas remitted partially or entirely.

  20. MR imaging of the spine in children with spina bifida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty infants and children with spina bifida were examined as outpatients with spinal MR imaging. Studies were performed using a 0.6-T imager and a surface coil. These examinations were performed in patients previously operated on who had progressive neurologic symptoms and in newly diagnosed patients to exclude lipomyeloschisis, low-lying cord, diastematomyelia, or syringomyelia. Predominantly T1-weighted sequences were obtained in at least two orthogonal planes with a 5-mm section thickness. Eighteen patients had a low-lying spinal cord. Six patients had syringomyelia, usually lumbar. Five patients had intraspinal lipomas, and three had diastematomyelia. MR imaging was diagnostic in 17 instances. Patient motion or severe kyphoscoliosis comprised three examinations. MR imaging is the screening examination of choice in children with spina bifida

  1. Non-cardiac findings on coronary computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Marc; Schnapauff, Dirk; Teige, Florian; Hamm, Bernd [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology, Chariteplatz 1, P.O. Box 10098, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Both multislice computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are emerging as methods to detect coronary artery stenoses and assess cardiac function and morphology. Non-cardiac structures are also amenable to assessment by these non-invasive tests. We investigated the rate of significant and insignificant non-cardiac findings using CT and MRI. A total of 108 consecutive patients suspected of having coronary artery disease and without contraindications to CT and MRI were included in this study. Significant non-cardiac findings were defined as findings that required additional clinical or radiological follow-up. CT and MR images were read independently in a blinded fashion. CT yielded five significant non-cardiac findings in five patients (5%). These included a pulmonary embolism, large pleural effusions, sarcoid, a large hiatal hernia, and a pulmonary nodule (>1.0 cm). Two of these significant non-cardiac findings were also seen on MRI (pleural effusions and sarcoid, 2%). Insignificant non-cardiac findings were more frequent than significant findings on both CT (n = 11, 10%) and MRI (n = 7, 6%). Incidental non-cardiac findings on CT and MRI of the coronary arteries are common, which is why images should be analyzed by radiologists to ensure that important findings are not missed and unnecessary follow-up examinations are avoided. (orig.)

  2. Comparing the Preoperative Ultrasound and Intraoperative Findings of Inguinal Hernia in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Eshraghi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, repair of inguinal hernia is one of the most common pediatric operations performed. Inguinal hernia is a type of ventral hernia that occurs when an intra-abdominal structure, such as the bowel or omentum, protrudes through a defect in the abdominal wall. Proper diagnosis and timed treatment of inguinal hernias are of very important significance. Considering the high prevalence of pediatric inguinal hernias, it is pivotal to employ an easily-performed, non-invasive and accurate modality for the diagnosis; and ultrasonography seems to fit the criteria. Also ultrasonography can be used as a tool for probing the contralateral probable hernias in unilateral cases. This study aimed at comparing the preoperative ultrasonography and intra-operative findings of inguinal hernia in children. "nMaterials and Methods: In a cross-sectional setting, children aged 0-14 years with the probable diagnosis of inguinal hernia referred to Tabriz Children's Hospital were recruited during a 24-month period. All the children were evaluated preoperatively with ultrasonography of the groin (with a linear 7.5 MHZ probe at rest and during crying or upright position. The findings of ultrasonography of the affected side and the contralateral region were compared with the intra-operational findings. Accordingly, diagnostic efficiency of ultrasonography in children's inguinal hernias and probable involvement of the contralateral side was determined. "nResults: One hundred and twenty three patients, 106 males and 17 females with the mean age of 18.53±25.64 months (10 day to 12 years were enrolled in the study. One hundred and eighteen (95.9% patients underwent surgery and revealed to have a true inguinal hernia. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of preoperative ultrasonography was 97%, 98.8%, 99.4%, 99.1% and 97.6%, respectively. The specificity and accuracy of ultrasonography in the

  3. Typhoid fever in young children in Bangladesh: clinical findings, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Khanam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Children bear a large burden of typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi in endemic areas. However, immune responses and clinical findings in children are not well defined. Here, we describe clinical and immunological characteristics of young children with S. Typhi bacteremia, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated strains.As a marker of recent infection, we have previously characterized antibody-in-lymphocyte secretion (TPTest during acute typhoid fever in adults. We similarly assessed membrane preparation (MP IgA responses in young children at clinical presentation, and then 7-10 days and 21-28 days later. We also assessed plasma IgA, IgG and IgM responses and T cell proliferation responses to MP at these time points. We compared responses in young children (1-5 years with those seen in older children (6-17 years, adults (18-59 years, and age-matched healthy controls.We found that, compared to age-matched controls patients in all age cohorts had significantly more MP-IgA responses in lymphocyte secretion at clinical presentation, and the values fell in all groups by late convalescence. Similarly, plasma IgA responses in patients were elevated at presentation compared to controls, with acute and convalescent IgA and IgG responses being highest in adults. T cell proliferative responses increased in all age cohorts by late convalescence. Clinical characteristics were similar in all age cohorts, although younger children were more likely to present with loss of appetite, less likely to complain of headache compared to older cohorts, and adults were more likely to have ingested antibiotics. Multi-drug resistant strains were present in approximately 15% of each age cohort, and 97% strains had resistance to nalidixic acid.This study demonstrates that S. Typhi bacteremia is associated with comparable clinical courses, immunologic responses in various age cohorts, including in young children, and that TPTest

  4. Acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis: Findings on non-enhanced MR imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoMing Zhang; Xiao-Bing Tian; Zhi-Song Feng; Qiong-Hui Zhao; Chun-Ming Xiao; Donald G Mitchell; Jian Shu; Nan-Lin Zeng; Xiao-Xue Xu; Jun-Yang Lei

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the appearances of acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis (IEP) on non-enhanced MR imaging.METHODS: A total of 53 patients with IEP diagnosed by clinical features and laboratory findings were underwent MR imaging. MR imaging sequences included fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) fat saturation axial T1-weighted imaging, gradient echo T1-weighted (in phase), single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) T2-weighted, respiratory triggered (R-T) T2-weighted with fat saturation, and MR cholangiopancreatography. Using the MR severity score index, pancreatitis was graded as mild (0-2 points),moderate (3-6 points) and severe (7-10 points).RESULTS: Among the 53 patients, IEP was graded as mild in 37 patients and as moderate in 16 patients.Forty-seven of 53 (89%) patients had at least one abnormality on MR images. Pancreas was hypointense relative to liver on FSPGR T1-weighted images in 18.9%of patients, and hyperintense in 25% and 30% on SSFSE T2-weighted and R-T T2-weighted images, respectively.The prevalences of. the findings of IEP on R-T T2-weighted images were, respectively, 85% for pancreatic fascial plane, 77% for left renal fascial plane, 55% for peripancreatic fat stranding, 42% for right renal fascial plane, 45% for perivascular fluid, 40% for thickened pancreatic lobular septum and 25% for peripancreatic fluid, which were markedly higher than those on inphase or SSFSE T2-weighted images (P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: IEP primarily manifests on nonenhanced MR images as thickened pancreatic fascial plane, left renal fascial plane, peripancreatic fat stranding, and peripancreatic fluid. R-T T2-weighted imaging is more sensitive than in-phase and SSFSE T2-weighted imaging for depicting IEP.

  5. Early imaging findings in germ cell tumors arising from the basal ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So Mi [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kyungpook National University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In-One; Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, Woo Sun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyun-Hae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ewha Woman' s University Mokdong Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); You, Sun Kyoung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chungnam National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    It is difficult to diagnosis early stage germ cell tumors originating in the basal ganglia, but early recognition is important for better outcome. To evaluate serial MR images of basal ganglia germ cell tumors, with emphasis on the features of early stage tumors. We retrospectively reviewed serial MR images of 15 tumors in 14 children and young adults. We categorized MR images of the tumors as follows: type I, ill-defined patchy lesions (<3 cm) without cyst; type II, small mass lesions (<3 cm) with cyst; and type III, large lesions (≥3 cm) with cyst. We also assessed temporal changes of the MR images. On the initial images, 8 of 11 (73%) type I tumors progressed to types II or III, and 3 of 4 (75%) type II tumors progressed to type III. The remaining 4 tumors did not change in type. All type II tumors (5/5, 100%) that changed from type I had a few tiny cysts. Intratumoral hemorrhage was observed even in the type I tumor. Ipsilateral hemiatrophy was observed in most of the tumors (13/15, 87%) on initial MR images. As tumors grew, cystic changes, intratumoral hemorrhage, and ipsilateral hemiatrophy became more apparent. Early stage basal ganglia germ cell tumors appear as ill-defined small patchy hyperintense lesions without cysts on T2-weighted images, are frequently associated with ipsilateral hemiatrophy, and sometimes show microhemorrhage. Tumors develop tiny cysts at a relatively early stage. (orig.)

  6. Early imaging findings in germ cell tumors arising from the basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is difficult to diagnosis early stage germ cell tumors originating in the basal ganglia, but early recognition is important for better outcome. To evaluate serial MR images of basal ganglia germ cell tumors, with emphasis on the features of early stage tumors. We retrospectively reviewed serial MR images of 15 tumors in 14 children and young adults. We categorized MR images of the tumors as follows: type I, ill-defined patchy lesions (<3 cm) without cyst; type II, small mass lesions (<3 cm) with cyst; and type III, large lesions (≥3 cm) with cyst. We also assessed temporal changes of the MR images. On the initial images, 8 of 11 (73%) type I tumors progressed to types II or III, and 3 of 4 (75%) type II tumors progressed to type III. The remaining 4 tumors did not change in type. All type II tumors (5/5, 100%) that changed from type I had a few tiny cysts. Intratumoral hemorrhage was observed even in the type I tumor. Ipsilateral hemiatrophy was observed in most of the tumors (13/15, 87%) on initial MR images. As tumors grew, cystic changes, intratumoral hemorrhage, and ipsilateral hemiatrophy became more apparent. Early stage basal ganglia germ cell tumors appear as ill-defined small patchy hyperintense lesions without cysts on T2-weighted images, are frequently associated with ipsilateral hemiatrophy, and sometimes show microhemorrhage. Tumors develop tiny cysts at a relatively early stage. (orig.)

  7. Imaging of the elbow in children with wrist fracture: an unnecessary source of radiation and use of resources?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golding, Lauren P. [Wake Forest University Baptist Health, Department of Radiology, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Triad Radiology Associates, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Yasin, Yousef; Singh, Jasmeet; Anthony, Evelyn [Wake Forest University Baptist Health, Department of Radiology, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Gyr, Bettina M. [Wake Forest University Baptist Health, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Gardner, Alison [Wake Forest University Baptist Health, Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Anecdotally accepted practice for evaluation of children with clinically suspected or radiographically proven wrist fracture in many urgent care and primary care settings is concurrent imaging of the forearm and elbow, despite the lack of evidence to support additional images. These additional radiographs may be an unnecessary source of radiation and use of health care resources. Our study assesses the necessity of additional radiographs of the forearm and elbow in children with wrist injury. We reviewed electronic medical records of children 17 and younger in whom wrist fracture was diagnosed in the emergency department. We identified the frequency with which additional radiographs of the proximal forearm and distal humerus demonstrated another site of acute injury. We identified 214 children with wrist fracture. Of those, 129 received additional radiographs of the elbow. Physical examination findings proximal to the wrist were documented in only 16 (12%) of these 129 children. A second injury proximal to the wrist fracture was present in 4 (3%) of these 129 children, all of whom exhibited physical examination findings at the elbow. No fractures were documented in children with a negative physical examination of the elbow. Although elbow fractures occasionally complicate distal forearm fractures in children, our findings indicate that a careful physical evaluation of the elbow is sufficient to guide further radiographic investigation. Routine radiographs of both the wrist and elbow in children with distal forearm fracture appear to be unnecessary when an appropriate physical examination is performed. (orig.)

  8. Imaging of the elbow in children with wrist fracture: an unnecessary source of radiation and use of resources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anecdotally accepted practice for evaluation of children with clinically suspected or radiographically proven wrist fracture in many urgent care and primary care settings is concurrent imaging of the forearm and elbow, despite the lack of evidence to support additional images. These additional radiographs may be an unnecessary source of radiation and use of health care resources. Our study assesses the necessity of additional radiographs of the forearm and elbow in children with wrist injury. We reviewed electronic medical records of children 17 and younger in whom wrist fracture was diagnosed in the emergency department. We identified the frequency with which additional radiographs of the proximal forearm and distal humerus demonstrated another site of acute injury. We identified 214 children with wrist fracture. Of those, 129 received additional radiographs of the elbow. Physical examination findings proximal to the wrist were documented in only 16 (12%) of these 129 children. A second injury proximal to the wrist fracture was present in 4 (3%) of these 129 children, all of whom exhibited physical examination findings at the elbow. No fractures were documented in children with a negative physical examination of the elbow. Although elbow fractures occasionally complicate distal forearm fractures in children, our findings indicate that a careful physical evaluation of the elbow is sufficient to guide further radiographic investigation. Routine radiographs of both the wrist and elbow in children with distal forearm fracture appear to be unnecessary when an appropriate physical examination is performed. (orig.)

  9. Young children reorient by computing layout geometry, not by matching images of the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ah; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2011-02-01

    Disoriented animals from ants to humans reorient in accord with the shape of the surrounding surface layout: a behavioral pattern long taken as evidence for sensitivity to layout geometry. Recent computational models suggest, however, that the reorientation process may not depend on geometrical analyses but instead on the matching of brightness contours in 2D images of the environment. Here we test this suggestion by investigating young children's reorientation in enclosed environments. Children reoriented by extremely subtle geometric properties of the 3D layout: bumps and ridges that protruded only slightly off the floor, producing edges with low contrast. Moreover, children failed to reorient by prominent brightness contours in continuous layouts with no distinctive 3D structure. The findings provide evidence that geometric layout representations support children's reorientation.

  10. The kidney in children with tyrosinemia: sonographic, CT and biochemical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forget, S.; Patriquin, H.B.; Dubois, J.; Lafortune, M. [Department of Medical Imaging Hopital Sainte-Justine, Que. (Canada); Merouani, A. [Department of Nephrology, Hopital Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Que. (Canada); Paradis, K. [Department of Gastroenterology, Hopital Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Que. (Canada); Russo, P. [Department of Pathology, Hopital Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Que. (Canada)

    1999-02-01

    Background. Tyrosinemia relates to a deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase and presents early in life with central nervous system and liver abnormalities. Renal function is often impaired. Little is known about the architecture and function of the kidneys. Objective. Imaging changes on US and CT are compared to the function of the kidneys in children with tyrosinemia, and followed after liver transplantation. Materials and methods. Renal sonography, CT and renal function tests in 32 children were reviewed. Renal length, volume, echogenicity and nephrocalcinosis were evaluated. Renal function was assessed by glomerular filtration rate, and the presence of aminoaciduria, acidosis and calciuria. Seventeen children had open renal biopsy during time of liver transplantation. Histology was reviewed. Statistical analyses relating renal structure to function were performed, and repeated after transplantation. Results. The kidneys were enlarged (47%), hyperechogenic (47%) and showed nephrocalcinosis (16%). There was delayed excretion of contrast medium at CT in 64%. Aminoaciduria was present in 82% of children, hypercalciuria in 67%, tubular acidosis in 59%, and low GFR in 48%. Delayed excretion of contrast was associated with low GFR (P<0.05). Renal biopsies showed dilated tubules (81%), interstitial fibrosis (56%), glomerulosclerosis (56%) and tubular atrophy (56%). During a mean observation period of 3 years following liver transplantation, GFR improved in 50 %, tubular acidosis in 50% and hypercalciuria in 70%. No change was noted in renal size or sonographic architecture. Conclusion. Renal architecture and function are abnormal in the majority of children with tyrosinemia. Liver transplantation improves renal function in about 50% of patients, but abnormal renal size and architecture persist. (orig.) With 5 figs., 21 refs.

  11. Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Brain and Cerebellum in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułak, Piotr; Maciorkowska, Elżbieta; Gościk, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are rarely used in the diagnosis of patients with cerebral palsy. The aim of present study was to assess the relationships between the volumetric MRI and clinical findings in children with cerebral palsy compared to control subjects. Materials and Methods. Eighty-two children with cerebral palsy and 90 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were collected. Results. The dominant changes identified on MRI scans in children with cerebral palsy were periventricular leukomalacia (42%) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (21%). The total brain and cerebellum volumes in children with cerebral palsy were significantly reduced in comparison to controls. Significant grey matter volume reduction was found in the total brain in children with cerebral palsy compared with the control subjects. Positive correlations between the age of the children of both groups and the grey matter volumes in the total brain were found. Negative relationship between width of third ventricle and speech development was found in the patients. Positive correlations were noted between the ventricles enlargement and motor dysfunction and mental retardation in children with cerebral palsy. Conclusions. By using the voxel-based morphometry, the total brain, cerebellum, and grey matter volumes were significantly reduced in children with cerebral palsy. PMID:27579318

  12. Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Brain and Cerebellum in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kułak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies are rarely used in the diagnosis of patients with cerebral palsy. The aim of present study was to assess the relationships between the volumetric MRI and clinical findings in children with cerebral palsy compared to control subjects. Materials and Methods. Eighty-two children with cerebral palsy and 90 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were collected. Results. The dominant changes identified on MRI scans in children with cerebral palsy were periventricular leukomalacia (42% and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (21%. The total brain and cerebellum volumes in children with cerebral palsy were significantly reduced in comparison to controls. Significant grey matter volume reduction was found in the total brain in children with cerebral palsy compared with the control subjects. Positive correlations between the age of the children of both groups and the grey matter volumes in the total brain were found. Negative relationship between width of third ventricle and speech development was found in the patients. Positive correlations were noted between the ventricles enlargement and motor dysfunction and mental retardation in children with cerebral palsy. Conclusions. By using the voxel-based morphometry, the total brain, cerebellum, and grey matter volumes were significantly reduced in children with cerebral palsy.

  13. Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Brain and Cerebellum in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciorkowska, Elżbieta; Gościk, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are rarely used in the diagnosis of patients with cerebral palsy. The aim of present study was to assess the relationships between the volumetric MRI and clinical findings in children with cerebral palsy compared to control subjects. Materials and Methods. Eighty-two children with cerebral palsy and 90 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were collected. Results. The dominant changes identified on MRI scans in children with cerebral palsy were periventricular leukomalacia (42%) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (21%). The total brain and cerebellum volumes in children with cerebral palsy were significantly reduced in comparison to controls. Significant grey matter volume reduction was found in the total brain in children with cerebral palsy compared with the control subjects. Positive correlations between the age of the children of both groups and the grey matter volumes in the total brain were found. Negative relationship between width of third ventricle and speech development was found in the patients. Positive correlations were noted between the ventricles enlargement and motor dysfunction and mental retardation in children with cerebral palsy. Conclusions. By using the voxel-based morphometry, the total brain, cerebellum, and grey matter volumes were significantly reduced in children with cerebral palsy. PMID:27579318

  14. Diagnostic imaging, preautopsy imaging and autopsy findings of 8 AIDS cases: a comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-jun; GAO Yan-qing; CHENG Jing-liang; ZHANG Yu-zhong

    2009-01-01

    Background Aquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) presents a challenge to medical researchers because of its unique pathological and clinical picture. The clinical data, particularly autopsy evidence, from China have failed to provide enough pathological and etiological evidence for AIDS diagnosis, which impairs the reliability of the diagnosis and our full understanding of the occurrence and development of AIDS complications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the imaging and pathologic characteristics of AIDS.Methods Autopsy, imaging and pathological data from 8 cases of AIDS were retrospectively analyzed. Routine CT scanning of different body parts was performed during their periods of hospitalization. Transverse CT scanning was conducted from the skull to the pelvis immediately after the occurrence of death. After routine formalin fixing, 7 cardevers were cross sectioned for autopsy in freezing state and 1 for gross autopsy. Tissues were obtained from each section and organs for pathological examinations.Results The autopsy data indicated the presence of parasitic infections, bacterial infections, fungal infections, and virus infections in AIDS patients. Pneumocystis pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, coccobacteria pneumonia, Aspergillus pneumonia, cytomegalovirus pneumonia, toxoplasma encephalitis, lymphoma and cerebrovascular diseases were found in these patients.Conclusions During the course of AIDS progression, the concurrent multiple infections as well as tumor development may result in multiple organ pathological changes and clinically complex symptoms that further complicate the imaging and pathological manifestations, thus resulting in difficult differential diagnosis. A combination of imaging data and autopsy data can help to clarify the diagnosis.

  15. The CT findings of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the abdominal cavity of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate CT diagnostic value of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the abdominal cavity of children. Methods: CT manifestations of 14 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the abdominal cavity of children were retrospectively analyzed. The patients included 8 boys and 6 girls, aging from 3-14 years. Ten cases were confirmed by operation and pathology, and 4 cases were confirmed by biopsy. Results: The main CT signs of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the abdominal cavity of children showed as follows: (1) 14 cases showed multiple huge irregular mass in abdominal cavity; (2) Bowel-wall thickened in 6 cases; (3) In 6 cases, enlarged mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymph nodes embodied the vessels of mesenteric and celiac trunk. This finding was so-called 'sandwich' sign; (4) Bowel demonstrated the sign of aneurysmal dilatation in 4 cases; (5) Two cases showed 'air-fluid level' sign in intestinal canal; (6) Three cases involved other adjacent abdominal organs, such as spleen in 1 case, kidney in 1 case, and liver in 1 case; (7) One case showed incomplete intestinal obstruction; (8) After contrast medium administration, the masses in 13 cases showed moderate enhancement; (9) Four cases showed ascites in abdominal cavity. Conclusion: CT is very useful for diagnosing and mapping the extension of non-Hodgkin' s lymphoma in the abdominal cavity of children

  16. The Impact of Teasing on Children's Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanski, Marion; Gullone, Eleonora

    2007-01-01

    Being teased about one's physical appearance in childhood has been found to have a strong impact on the way in which adolescent and adult women perceive their bodies. Teasing is also strongly related to self-esteem in children. However, little is known about the impact of teasing on the development of body image in childhood. Through a…

  17. Visual screening of muscle ultrasound images in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Verbeek, Renate J; Maurits, Natasha M; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Brouwer, Oebele F; den Dunnen, Wilfred F A; Burger, Huibert; Sival, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    In children, non-invasive muscle ultrasound (MU) imaging has become increasingly important for the detection of neuromuscular pathology, by either quantitative or visual assessment. MU quantification requires time, expertise and equipment. If application of visual MU screening provides reliable resu

  18. Ectopic pregnancy: pictorial essay focusing on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study is to describe key computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with acute abdominal pain caused by ectopic pregnancy. For this purpose, two radiologists consensually selected and analyzed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies performed in female patients with acute abdominal pain caused by proven ectopic pregnancy in the period between January 2010 and December 2011. The imaging diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is usually obtained by ultrasonography, however, with the increasing use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of patients with acute abdomen of gynecological origin it is necessary that the radiologist becomes familiar with the main findings observed at these diagnostic methods. (author)

  19. Ectopic pregnancy: pictorial essay focusing on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febronio, Eduardo Miguel; Rosas, George de Queiroz; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM-Unifesp), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Imaging Diagnosis; Cardia, Patricia Prando, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Centro Radiologico Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    The objective of the present study is to describe key computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with acute abdominal pain caused by ectopic pregnancy. For this purpose, two radiologists consensually selected and analyzed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies performed in female patients with acute abdominal pain caused by proven ectopic pregnancy in the period between January 2010 and December 2011. The imaging diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is usually obtained by ultrasonography, however, with the increasing use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of patients with acute abdomen of gynecological origin it is necessary that the radiologist becomes familiar with the main findings observed at these diagnostic methods. (author)

  20. Chest radiography and thoracic computed tomography findings in children who have family members with active pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The chest radiography and TCT findings in children who had contacted with adult family members with active pulmonary tuberculosis were compared. The contributions of thoracic computed tomography to the diagnosis of tuberculosis were investigated. Methods and material: The children who were 0-16 years old (n=173) and children of families with an adult member which was diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis were evaluated. The children were considered in two groups based on the absence (n=125) or presence (n=48) of complaints and/or ambiguous symptoms such as lack of appetite, mild cough, sweating, history of lung infection, low body weight and those with suspicious chest radiography findings (12 cases) were included in this study. Asymptomatic patients (n=125) did not undergo TCT. Patients who had positive PPD skin tests only received isoniazid. If the TCT demonstrated enlarged lymph nodes or parenchymal lesions, minimally active pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed and antituberculous treatment was given. Results and discussions: TCT revealed lymph node enlargement or parenchymal lesions in 39 children (81.2%). Of the 12 children whose CXRs revealed suspicious lymph node enlargement and/or infiltration, five had normal findings in TCT whereas the initial findings were confirmed in the remaining seven. These data suggest that there is a correlation between the presence of ambiguous symptoms in exposed children and TCT findings; chest radiography and TCT findings do not yield parallel findings. All the patients who received anti-TB treatment were resolved in the control examinations. Conclusion: In this study there is a correlation between presence of ambiguous symptoms and TCT findings, but the chest radiography and TCT findings do not yield harmony in exposed children with ambiguous symptoms (suspicious tuberculosis cases). These observations should be considered in children with symptoms similar to those of exposed children, but with no definite history of

  1. Chest trauma in children: current imaging guidelines and techniques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    Given the heterogeneous nature of pediatric chest trauma, the optimal imaging approach is tailored to the specific patient. Chest radiography remains the most important imaging modality for initial triage. The decision to perform a chest computed tomography scan should be based on the nature of the trauma, the child\\'s clinical condition, and the initial radiographic findings, taking the age-related pretest probabilities of serious injury into account. The principles of as low as reasonably achievable and Image Gently should be followed. The epidemiology and pathophysiology, imaging techniques, characteristic findings, and evidence-based algorithms for pediatric chest trauma are discussed.

  2. Start Your Search Engines. Part 2: When Image is Everything, Here are Some Great Ways to Find One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Anna; Mowers, Helen

    2008-01-01

    There is no doubt that Google is great for finding images. Simply head to its home page, click the "Images" link, enter criteria in the search box, and--voila! In this article, the authors share some of their other favorite search engines for finding images. To make sure the desired images are available for educational use, consider searching for…

  3. Ferritin Levels in Colombian Children: Findings from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey (ENSIN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Martínez-Torres, Javier; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Lobelo, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Low ferritin is associated with many adverse health outcomes and is highly prevalent worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe the key findings related to plasma ferritin levels to identify the prevalence and associated sociodemographic factors in a representative sample of children in Colombia, based on the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 6650 Colombian children between the ages of 5 and 12. Plasma ferritin levels were determined by chemiluminescence. Sociodemographic data was assessed by computer-assisted personal interview technology. All analyses were conducted considering the complex nature of the sample. Of the children assessed, 3.5% had low ferritin, defined as levels <12 µg/L. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed increased risks for low ferritin levels among black or Afro-Colombian ethnic group and for those living in the northern, western and southern regions of the country. In conclusion, a significant prevalence of anemia caused by low ferritin levels was found and various sociodemographic factors were associated with this finding in Colombia. Continued surveillance and implementation of interventions to improve dietary patterns among the identified high-risk groups should be considered. Implementing these recommendations can help reduce manifestations of iron deficiency (e.g., delays in infant and child development) and thus improve public health. PMID:27058547

  4. Intracranial extracerebral neuroglial heterotopia with parapharyngeal extension: pre-natal and post-natal imaging findings

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz-Filho, J R L; Torres, U S; Vaz-Oliani, D C M; A.S. Souza

    2012-01-01

    We report an unusual case of intracranial extracerebral neuroglial heterotopia (IENH) presenting with parapharyngeal extension. Neuroglial heterotopias are rarely reported pre-natally and, to our knowledge, there are no reported cases presenting pre-natal imaging findings of IENH with parapharyngeal extension. Because pre- and post-natal imaging studies are essential to diagnose IENH and plan surgical treatment, radiologists should be familiar with this rare condition.

  5. Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy: Diffusion MR Imaging and Localized Proton MR Spectroscopic Findings in Two Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Choi, Choong-Gon; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2003-01-01

    In this report, we describe the findings of diffusion MR imaging and proton MR spectroscopy in two infants with acute necrotizing encephalopathy in which there was characteristic symmetrical involvement of the thalami. Diffusion MR images of the lesions showed that the observed apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) decrease was more prominent in the first patient, who had more severe brain damage and a poorer clinical outcome, than in the second. Proton MR spectroscopy detected an increase in ...

  6. Emphasis on the MR imaging findings of brown tumor: a report of five cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Won Sun; Sung, Mi Sook; Chun, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Jee-Young; Lim, Hyun Wook; Lim, Yeon Soo; Yoo, Won Jong; Chung, Myung Hee [The Catholic University of Korea, College of Medicine, Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sosa-dong, Bucheon, Kyunggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun-Won [Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dongjak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kee-Haeng [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, Sosa-dong, Bucheon, Kyunggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Brown tumors are focal reactive osteolytic lesions that are encountered in patients with primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism, and these tumors have nonspecific magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings. However, there are only a few reports on MR imaging of brown tumors. The purpose of this study is to describe the spectrum of MR imaging findings of brown tumors. The MR imaging features of five patients with clinical and pathological evidence of brown tumor were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists. The patients had primary hyperparathyroidism, which was confirmed as parathyroid adenoma (n = 2) and parathyroid carcinoma (n = 3). The MR images were evaluated for the presence of solid or cystic portions, the signal intensity of the lesions, the contrast enhancement pattern and the presence of cortex destruction and fluid-fluid levels. Twelve bone lesions were detected on the MR images of five patients; three lesions in two patients, four lesions in one patient, and one lesion in two patients. The tumor was solid in three lesions, mixed solid and cystic in four, and cystic in five. All the solid lesions were accompanied by mixed lesions. Discontinuity of the cortex and adjacent soft-tissue enhancement were seen in all the solid lesions. Fluid-fluid levels were seen in two cases within the cystic component of the mixed lesions and cystic lesions. The five patients with brown tumor demonstrated a wide spectrum of MR imaging findings. There are few lesions that are osteolytic on the radiographs and that show a short T2 on MR imaging, such as brown tumor. Multiple cystic or mixed lesions are the expected findings of brown tumors. (orig.)

  7. Behind the Headlines: Media Representation of Children and Young People in Northern Ireland:Summary of Research Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Faith; McAlister, Siobhán; Scraton, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Funded by the Economic and Social Research Council this partnership project between the Childhood, Transition and Social Justice Initiative at Queen’s University and Include Youth focuses on the negative stereotyping of children and young people and the role and responsibilities of the media in the creation and transmission of negative images. Engaging with children, young people, organisations working with children and young people and media representatives, the project uses research evidenc...

  8. MR imaging findings of diffuse axonal injury: comparison of T2-weighted gradient images and T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seo Young; Lee, Ghi Jai; Kim, Jeong Seok; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    To compare T2-weighted images with spin-echo T1- and turbo spin-echo (TSE) T2-weighted images in patients with diffuse axonal injury(DAI). Using a 1.0T MR unit, SE T1-, TSE T2-, and and FLASH T2-weighted images were obtained from 69 patients with a history of head trauma. In 18MR images of 17 patients with imaging findings of DAI, T2-weighted images were retrospectively compared with SE T1- and TSE T2-weighted images. The interval between trauma and MR scan varied from 5 days to 24(mean, 11) months. Focusing on the number of lesions, and their location and signal intensity, as weel as associated findings, three images were simultaueously evaluated. In 18 MR images of 17 patients with MR imaging findings of DAI, 21 lesions were detected on T1-weighted images, 28 on TSE T2-weighted images, and 70 on T2-weighted images;the last of these revealed all lesions detected on the other two. Most lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images(17/21), hyperintense on TSE T2-weighted (21/28), and hypointense on T2-weighted (63/70). Common locations for DAI were the frontal lobe (n=3D35) and corpus callosum (n=3D22). Associated brain injuries were cortical contusion (n=3D5), brainstem injury (n=3D3), deep gray matter injury (n=3D2), and subdural hematoma(n=3D1). In patients with DAI. T2-weighted images can detect more lesions and associated petechial hemorrhage than can TSE T2-weighted images. This modality is thus useful for the evaluation of patients with head trauma.=20.

  9. Early diagnostic imaging findings in juvenile dogs with presumed diskospondylitis: 10 cases (2008-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirberger, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe early diagnostic imaging findings in juvenile dogs with diskospondylitis. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 10 client-owned dogs history, examination findings, diagnostic test results, and imaging procedures were reviewed. Archived diagnostic images were retrieved and retrospectively evaluated. Data analysis was descriptive. RESULTS All dogs were evaluated for signs of vertebral pain ≤ 3 weeks after treatment for blunt trauma, bite wounds, or systemic illness. The earliest radiographic change was a narrowed intervertebral disk space (found for 28 disk spaces ≤ 2 weeks after evaluation for signs of vertebral pain); subluxation of adjacent vertebrae was identified for 8 of 28 affected disks, either initially or within the following 2 weeks. Vertebral end plate lysis was not an initial radiographic feature but was evident in follow-up radiographs. Ultrasonographic and transverse, multiformatted, volume-rendered CT images were obtained for 5 and 4 dogs, respectively. Ultrasonographic changes included ventrally bulging hypoechoic material at the affected disk site and loss of typical normal reverberation artifact in 4 dogs; these were detected prior to radiographic changes in 2 dogs. Affected disks on volume-rendered CT images had altered coloration in 3 of 4 dogs, and this was identified prior to radiographic changes in 1 dog. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Juvenile dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of diskospondylitis had early imaging findings that were atypical, compared with the changes described for adult dogs with this condition. PMID:27556268

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients presenting with (sub)acute cerebellar ataxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Tanja [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Thomalla, Goetz [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany); Goebell, Einar [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Piotrowski, Anna [The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Yousem, David Mark [The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-02-17

    Acute or subacute cerebellar inflammation is mainly caused by postinfectious, toxic, neoplastic, vascular, or idiopathic processes and can result in cerebellar ataxia. Previous magnetic resonance (MR) studies in single patients who developed acute or subacute ataxia showed varying imaging features. Eighteen patients presenting with acute and subacute onset of ataxia were included in this study. Cases of chronic-progressive/hereditary and noncerebellar causes (ischemia, multiple sclerosis lesions, metastasis, bleedings) were excluded. MR imaging findings were then matched with the clinical history of the patient. An underlying etiology for ataxic symptoms were found in 14/18 patients (postinfectious/infectious, paraneoplastic, autoimmune, drug-induced). In two of five patients without MR imaging findings and three of eight patients with minimal imaging features (cerebellar atrophy, slight signal alterations, and small areas of restricted diffusion), adverse clinical outcomes were documented. Of the five patients with prominent MR findings (cerebellar swelling, contrast enhancement, or broad signal abnormalities), two were lost to follow-up and two showed long-term sequelae. No correlation was found between the presence of initial MRI findings in subacute or acute ataxia patients and their long-term clinical outcome. MR imaging was more flagrantly positive in cases due to encephalitis. (orig.)

  11. Intramedullary fat globules related to bone trauma: a new MR imaging finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Adelaine; Grando, Higor; Fliszar, Evelyne; Pathria, Mini; Resnick, Donald [UCSD Radiology, Musculoskeletal Division, San Diego, CA (United States); Chang, Eric Y. [UCSD Radiology, Musculoskeletal Division, San Diego, CA (United States); VA San Diego Healthcare System, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to describe intraosseous fat globules related to bone trauma that are detectable with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to define the relationship of this finding to fracture and bone contusion, to establish the frequency and associated findings. A proposed pathogenesis is presented. We retrospectively reviewed 419 knee MRI examinations in patients with a history of recent injury and MRI findings of fracture or bone contusion. As a control population, 268 knee MRI examinations in patients without MRI findings of recent bone injury were also reviewed. Eight of 419 (1.9 %) patients with acute or subacute knee injury with positive findings of osseous trauma on MRI demonstrated intraosseous fat globules. The mean age of patients with fat globules was greater than that of those without fat globules, and the finding was more commonly seen in women. Fat globules were hyperintense to the normal fatty marrow present elsewhere in the bone on TI-weighted imaging and had a surrounding halo of high signal intensity on fluid-sensitive imaging. Intramedullary fat globules related to bone injury visible on MRI are thought to be due to coalesced fat released by the necrosis of fatty marrow cells. The pathogenesis is supported by histologic studies of fat globules related to osteomyelitis, bone contusions and fractures. As the medullary cavity of long bones in older patients contains more fat than hematopoetic bone marrow, it is likely that this finding is more common with advancing age. (orig.)

  12. Imaging findings of various calvarial bone lesions witha focus on osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Young Hee; Moon, Won Jin; An, Hyeong Su; Cho, Joon [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Myung Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    In this review, we present computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of various calvarial lesions on the basis of their imaging patterns and list the differential diagnoses of the lesions. We retrospectively reviewed 256 cases of calvarial lesion (122 malignant neoplasms, 115 benign neoplasms, and 19 non-neoplastic lesions) seen in our institutions, and classified them into six categories based on the following imaging features: generalized skull thickening, focal skull thickening, generalized skull thinning, focal skull thinning, single lytic lesion, and multiple lytic lesions. Although bony lesions of the calvarium are easily identified on CT, bone marrow lesions are better visualized on MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging or fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging. Careful interpretation of calvarial lesions based on pattern recognition can effectively narrow a range of possible diagnoses.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of wrist: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysin Pourbagher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcomas (EMC are high grade malignant tumors that rarely involves wrist. Published reports about them are mostly based on conventional radiography, tomography and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings. We did not recognize any report of dynamic-contrast enhanced MRI so far. Herein, we present dynamic contrast enhanced and Diffusion Weighted MRI findings of a case with extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the wrist. In conclusion, EMC might show peripheral enhancement at early arterial phase and restricted diffusion on MRI. The knowledge of the imaging spectrum of the EMC might help us suggesting the diagnosis. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 374-378

  14. Chicks, like children, spontaneously reorient by three-dimensional environmental geometry, not by image matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ah; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2012-08-23

    Spatial reorientation by layout geometry occurs in numerous species, but its underlying mechanisms are debated. While some argue that navigating animals' sense of place is based on geometric computations over three-dimensional representations, others claim it depends on panoramic image-matching processes. Because children reorient by subtle three-dimensional perturbations of the terrain and not by salient two-dimensional brightness contours on surfaces or freestanding columns, children's sense of place cannot be explained by image matching. To test image-matching theories in a different species, the present experiment investigates the reorientation performance of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) in environments similar to those used with children. Chicks, like children, spontaneously reoriented by geometric relationships of subtle three-dimensional terrains, and not by salient two-dimensional brightness contours on surfaces or columns. These findings add to the evidence for homologous navigation systems in humans and other vertebrates, and they cast doubt on image-matching theories of reorientation in these species. PMID:22417791

  15. Focal electroencephalographic abnormalities and computerised tomography findings in children with seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, J; Appleton, R E; Carty, H; Beirne, M; Acomb, B A

    1993-01-01

    A persistent focal abnormality was observed in 157 (16%) electroencephalograms undertaken in 964 consecutive children with epileptic and non-epileptic seizures seen over one year. CT head scans were performed in 121 (77%) of the 157 children with a focus on the EEG; 26 (21%) showed an abnormality, and 21 (81%) of the abnormalities were localised. There was no difference in the proportion of abnormal scans associated with a delta or slow wave focus compared with a spike or sharp wave focus. An abnormal scan was uncommon after a single seizure. In only two patients (1.7% of all scans) did the findings on CT alter or greatly influence subsequent management. PMID:8482957

  16. The Small Bodies Imager Browser --- finding asteroid and comet images without pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, E.; Sykes, M.; Davis, D.; Neese, C.

    2014-07-01

    To facilitate accessing and downloading spatially resolved imagery of asteroids and comets in the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS), we have created the Small Bodies Image Browser. It is a HTML5 webpage that runs inside a standard web browser needing no installation (http://sbn.psi.edu/sbib/). The volume of data returned by spacecraft missions has grown substantially over the last decade. While this wealth of data provides scientists with ample support for research, it has greatly increased the difficulty of managing, accessing and processing these data. Further, the complexity necessary for a long-term archive results in an architecture that is efficient for computers, but not user friendly. The Small Bodies Image Browser (SBIB) is tied into the PDS archive of the Small Bodies Asteroid Subnode hosted at the Planetary Science Institute [1]. Currently, the tool contains the entire repository of the Dawn mission's encounter with Vesta [2], and we will be adding other datasets in the future. For Vesta, this includes both the level 1A and 1B images for the Framing Camera (FC) and the level 1B spectral cubes from the Visual and Infrared (VIR) spectrometer, providing over 30,000 individual images. A key strength of the tool is providing quick and easy access of these data. The tool allows for searches based on clicking on a map or typing in coordinates. The SBIB can show an entire mission phase (such as cycle 7 of the Low Altitude Mapping Orbit) and the associated footprints, as well as search by image name. It can focus the search by mission phase, resolution or instrument. Imagery archived in the PDS are generally provided by missions in a single or narrow range of formats. To enhance the value and usability of this data to researchers, SBIB makes these available in these original formats as well as PNG, JPEG and ArcGIS compatible ISIS cubes [3]. Additionally, we provide header files for the VIR cubes so they can be read into ENVI without additional processing. Finally

  17. Detection of postoperative residual cholesteatoma with delayed contrast-enhanced MR imaging: initial findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Marc T.; Heran, Francoise; Lafitte, Francois; Elmaleh-Berges, Monique; Piekarski, Jean-Daniel [Department of Medical Imaging, Fondation Ophthalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, 25, rue Manin, 75940 Paris (France); Ayache, Denis [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Fondation Ophthalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, 25, rue Manin, 75940 Paris (France); Alberti, Corinne [Department of Biostatistics, Hopital Saint-Louis, 1 Avenue Claude Vellefaux, 75010 Paris (France)

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the value of delayed contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo MR imaging in the detection of residual cholesteatoma in patients who have undergone canal wall-up tympanoplasty procedure. The MR imaging was obtained prior to revision surgery in 18 patients with opacity of the post-operative cavity at CT examination 12-18 months after canal wall-up tympanoplasty. In each patient the following was performed: precontrast T1- and T2-weighted images; and early and delayed contrast-enhanced axial and coronal T1-weighted imaging. Early and delayed MR imaging results were separately compared with surgical second-look findings. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were evaluated for early and delayed post-contrast MR imaging, compared with second-look surgery findings. A residual cholesteatoma was correctly identified in 8 of 9 cases with delayed contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging. Mean sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and interobserver agreement (evaluated by kappa statistics) were, respectively, 85.2, 92.6, 92.6%, and kappa=0.78 for the delayed contrast-enhanced MR imaging technique. The same parameters were, respectively, 96.3, 33.3, 60.6, and 0.30 for the early contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images. We conclude that delayed contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging is reliable for the detection of residual cholesteatomas of the middle ear in patients who have undergone canal wall-up tympanoplasty. (orig.)

  18. Vestibular migraine in children and adolescents: clinical findings and laboratory tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyra eLanghagen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vestibular migraine (VM is the most common cause of episodic vertigo in children. We summarize the clinical findings and of laboratory test results in a cohort of children and adolescents with VM. We discuss the limitations of current classification criteria for dizzy children. Methods: A retrospective chart analysis was performed on 118 children with suspected VM at a tertiary care center. Patients with complaints related to migraine and who presented with vertigo/dizziness were grouped in the following categories: (1 definite vestibular migraine (dVM; (2 probable vestibular migraine (pVM; (3 suspected vestibular migraine (sVM; (4 benign paroxysmal vertigo (BPV; and (5 migraine with/without aura (oM according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version. Results: The mean age of all patients was 12±3 years (range 3-18 years, 70 females. 36 patients (30% fulfilled criteria for dVM, 33 (28% for pVM, 34 (29% for sVM, 7 (6% for BPV, and 8 (7% for oM. Somatoform vertigo co-occurred in 27% patients. Episodic syndromes were reported in 8%; the family history of migraine was positive in 65%. Mild central ocular motor signs were found in 24% (most frequently horizontal saccadic pursuit. Laboratory tests showed that about 20% had pathological function of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex, and almost 50% had abnormal postural sway patterns. Conclusion: Patients with definite, probable, and suspected VM do not differ in the frequency of ocular motor, vestibular, or postural abnormalities. VM is the best explanation for their symptoms. It is essential to establish diagnostic criteria in clinical studies. In clinical practice, however, the most reasonable diagnosis should be made in order to begin treatment. Such a procedure also minimizes the fear of the parents and children, reduces the need to interrupt leisure time and school activities, and prevents the development of somatoform vertigo.

  19. Radiological Imaging Findings of a Case with Vertebral Osteoid Osteoma Leading to Brachial Neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Gokce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoid osteoma is a small, benign osteoblastic tumor consisting of a highly vascularized nidus of connective tissue surrounded by sclerotic bone. Three-quarters of osteoid osteomas are located in the long bones, and only 7-12% in the vertebral column. The classical clinical presentation of spinal osteoid osteoma is that of painful scoliosis. Other clinical features include nerve root irritation and night pain. Osteoid osteoma has characteristic computed tomography (CT findings. Because magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of the osteoid osteomas causing intense perinidal edema can be confusing, these patients should be evaluated with clinical findings and other imaging techniques. In this study, we present X-ray, CT, and MRI findings of a case with osteoid osteoma located in thoracic 1 vertebra left lamina and transverse process junction leading to brachial neuralgia symptoms.

  20. Branchial cleft anomalies: a pictorial review of embryological development and spectrum of imaging findings

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Ashok; Mankad, Kshitij; Offiah, Curtis; Childs, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The branchial arches are the embryological precursors of the face, neck and pharynx. Anomalies of the branchial arches are the second most common congenital lesions of the head and neck in children, with second branchial arch anomalies by far the most common. Clinically, these congenital anomalies may present as cysts, sinus tracts, fistulae or cartilaginous remnants with typical clinical and radiological findings. We review the normal embryological development of the branchial arche...

  1. Atypical imaging features of adrenal gland lesions in children – report of three cases and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differential diagnosis of adrenal pathology depends on the child’s age and imaging findings. Three children without clinical symptoms of neoplasm, with an adrenal lesion discovered on diagnostic ultrasound imaging. Laboratory tests for neoplasm were negative. The final diagnosis was based on histopathological examinations after surgical resection. 1. The value of diagnostic imaging and laboratory tests in differential diagnosis of adrenal gland lesions is limited. 2. Malignant tumors of adrenal glands should be taken into account in children. 3. Surgical resection should be considered in diagnostic algorithm of adrenal gland masses. 4. The final diagnosis is always based on histopathological examination

  2. Enterovirus 71-related encephalomyelitis: usual and unusual magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seonah; Suh, Sang-Il; Ha, Su Min; Seol, Hae-Young [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Byeon, Jung Hye; Eun, Baik-Lin [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Eun, So-Hee [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Most enterovirus (EV) 71 infections manifest as mild cases of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD)/herpangina with seasonal variations, having peak incidence during the summer. Meanwhile, EV 71 may involve the central nervous system (CNS), causing severe neurologic disease. In many cases, enteroviral encephalomyelitis involves the central midbrain, posterior portion of the medulla oblongata and pons, bilateral dentate nuclei of the cerebellum, and the ventral roots of the cervical spinal cord, and the lesions show hyperintensity on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our goal was to review usual and unusual magnetic resonance (MR) findings in CNS involvement of enteroviral infection. Among consecutive patients who had HFMD and clinically suspected encephalitis or myelitis and who underwent brain or spinal MR imaging, five patients revealed abnormal MR findings. Diffusion-weighted and conventional MR and follow-up MR images were obtained. From cerebrospinal fluid, stool, or nasopharyngeal swabs, EV 71 was confirmed in all patients. MR imaging studies of two patients showed hyperintensity in the posterior portion of the brainstem on T2-weighted and FLAIR images, which is the well-known MR finding of EV 71 encephalitis. The remaining three cases revealed unusual manifestations: leptomeningeal enhancement, abnormal enhancement along the ventral roots at the conus medullaris level without brain involvement, and hyperintensity in the left hippocampus on T2/FLAIR images. EV 71 encephalomyelitis shows relatively characteristic MR findings; therefore, imaging can be helpful in radiologic diagnosis. However, physicians should also be aware of unusual radiologic manifestations of EV 71. (orig.)

  3. Imaging Findings of Sonography and Computed Tomography for a Penile Leiomyosarcoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jin; Chung, Jae Joon; Yu, Jeong Sik; Kim, Joo Hee [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    We report the ultrasonographic and computed tomography (CT) findings of a deep type of penile leiomyosarcoma that helped characterize a penile mass along with a review of the published literature. Leiomyosarcoma of the penis is a very rare disease characterized by a lobulated, expansile, soft tissue mass in CT images, with peripheral rim enhancement and internal homogeneous low density. The ultrasonographic findings revealed a lobulated and heterogeneously hypoechoic solid mass at the distal tip of the penis.

  4. Rhabdomyolysis of the head and neck: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    OpenAIRE

    Mian, AZ; Saito, N; Sakai, O

    2011-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is rare in the head and neck. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential to prevent serious complications such as hyperkalaemia, acidosis, acute renal failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. We present a case of rhabdomyolysis of the head and neck. CT and MRI findings supported the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis with the patient's clinical and laboratory findings. While imaging is not crucial, it can aid in the detection of rhabdomyolysis and narrow the differential di...

  5. Diagnosis of intraductal spread of breast cancer by high-resolution MR imaging. Correlation between MR imaging and pathohistological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate pathohistological factors that affect the MR findings of intraductal spread (IDS) of breast cancer. The subjects of the present study were 42 breast cancer patients who were examined by MR imaging. Fat-suppressed high-resolution T1-weighted spin-echo images (350/13/1 (TR/TE/excitations), 16-cm FOV, 5-mm section thickness, and 512 x 256 matrix) were obtained one minute after the intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA. In this protocol, contrast determination time was 1 min 48 sec. Of the 42 cases, IDS was found to be located more than 1 cm from the primary focus in 22 cases (52%). Rates of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MR imaging for the detection of IDS were 82%, 80%, and 81%, respectively. The probable cause of misdiagnosis was parenchymal enhancement due to severe fibrocystic disease and normal menstrual cycle. In 21 of 42 cases, the MR findings were precisely correlated with the pathohistologic findings of almost the same cross-section. The MR findings of IDS varied greatly with observation of linear, band-like, branch-like, plate-like and minute ring enhancements. These findings closely reflected the size, aggregation pattern, and distribution of intraductal lesions. In particular, minute ring enhancement was only observed in 4 comedo-type lesions. This pattern of enhancement is considered to reflect elevated intraductal cellular density with necrosis in the central region. (author)

  6. Relationship between clinical findings of temporomandibular disorders and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and clinical findings of patients having symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, and to consider the possibility to grasp the internal derangement of the TMJ from clinical findings. Subjects were 80 patients who visited to ask orthodontic treatment 16 males and 64 females. The average age was 22 years and 4 months. We performed a investigation of both their previous and present illness. In addition, to decide the correct condition concerning the internal derangement of the TMJ, patients were given MRI examinations (G. E. medical system Signa 1.5 Tesla) before orthodontic treatment. Results were as follows: The three symptoms of temporomandibular disorders-noise, pain, and abnormal mandibular movement, were not related to constant disk displacement. It seemed difficult to infer and obtain the diagnosis of the condition of internal derangement of the TMJ only from clinical findings. In a dental clinics having no medical imaging instrument such as MRI, it was, however, considered that the following items will make it possible to define the condition of internal derangements of the TMJ from clinical findings. As to respects concerning clinical findings, it is necessary to consider the previous illness as well as present illness. TMJ noise indicates a higher relationship to the disk displacement in MRI findings. The temporomandibular joint with plural symptoms indicated a higher incidence of disk displacement examined by MR Imaging than that with a single symptom. (author)

  7. Liver MR Imaging in Children: Current Concepts and Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavhan, Govind B; Shelmerdine, Susan; Jhaveri, Kartik; Babyn, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is increasingly being used for comprehensive evaluation of liver diseases in children because of the lack of radiation and better lesion detection and characterization. Liver examination involves routine sequences such as T2-weighted, balanced steady-state free precession, and in-phase and out-of-phase sequences. Dynamic imaging is an essential component of liver examination to characterize focal lesions and involves capturing snapshots of the passage of contrast material in the arterial, portal venous, equilibrium, and sometimes hepatobiliary phases, generally by using T1-weighted three-dimensional gradient-echo sequences. Optimal arterial phase imaging is important for detection and characterization of hypervascular lesions. In the equilibrium phase, the concentration of contrast material is similar in the microvasculature and the extracellular interstitial space. Some superficial, spreading, inflammatory lesions are better seen on equilibrium phase images. Meticulous attention to intravenous access and use of an appropriate timing method are critical for successful dynamic imaging. Commonly used contrast media for liver imaging include gadolinium-based extracellular contrast agents and hepatobiliary contrast agents. A portion of hepatobiliary contrast agents such as gadoxetate and gadobenate is taken up by hepatocytes and excreted through bile. Hepatobiliary phase images acquired after hepatobiliary contrast agent administration are increasingly used to characterize liver lesions in children, such as focal nodular hyperplasia. Interpretation of liver MR images involves synthesis of information acquired from evaluation of background hepatic parenchyma, detection of lesions, and evaluation of signal intensity characteristics on images obtained with various sequences to arrive at a diagnosis or reasonable differential diagnoses. Understanding the appropriate technique, sequences, and contrast media when performing pediatric liver MR

  8. Immature teratoma of the ovary: correlation of MR imaging and pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to describe MR imaging findings of immature teratoma and to correlate imaging findings with histopathologic findings. The MR findings of ten patients (age range 12-29 years, mean age 19.0 years) with pathologically proven immature teratoma were retrospectively reviewed for tumor size, presence and characteristics of fatty content, presence and characteristics of solid components, and presence of ascites and implants. The MR findings were compared with gross (n=3) and microscopic (n=10) findings. Comparisons between relative amounts of solid components and histologic grades were evaluated by Spearman rank-order correlation. On MR images all lesions appeared to be fat-containing tumors with solid components consisting of numerous cysts of various sizes. Solid tissue exhibited a wide variety of signal intensities on T2-weighted images. Punctate foci of fat were identified in all lesions, whereas fatty fluid was observed only in two. Predominant fluid content exhibited signal intensities similar to simple fluid in nine lesions. Ascites was observed in six lesions, and peritoneal dissemination in three. Pathologic studies confirmed scattered foci of adipose tissue in the solid portions of all cases, and revealed numerous cystic structure formations in these solid components. The correlation coefficient between the amount of solid tissue and the tumor grade was not significant (rs=0.266). The MR images of immature teratoma tended to show aqueous fluids and the solid components consisting of numerous cysts with punctate foci of adipose tissue, whereas predominant fluid is sebaceous fluid in the vast majority of mature cystic teratomas. (orig.)

  9. Immature teratoma of the ovary: correlation of MR imaging and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoka, Toshihide; Koyama, Takashi; Konishi, Junji [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Togashi, Kaori; Fujiwara, Toshitaka [Hitachi Medical Corporation, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imageology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Higuchi, Toshihiro; Fujii, Shingo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Iwasa, Yoko [Laboratory of Anatomic Pathology, Kyoto University Hospital, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe MR imaging findings of immature teratoma and to correlate imaging findings with histopathologic findings. The MR findings of ten patients (age range 12-29 years, mean age 19.0 years) with pathologically proven immature teratoma were retrospectively reviewed for tumor size, presence and characteristics of fatty content, presence and characteristics of solid components, and presence of ascites and implants. The MR findings were compared with gross (n=3) and microscopic (n=10) findings. Comparisons between relative amounts of solid components and histologic grades were evaluated by Spearman rank-order correlation. On MR images all lesions appeared to be fat-containing tumors with solid components consisting of numerous cysts of various sizes. Solid tissue exhibited a wide variety of signal intensities on T2-weighted images. Punctate foci of fat were identified in all lesions, whereas fatty fluid was observed only in two. Predominant fluid content exhibited signal intensities similar to simple fluid in nine lesions. Ascites was observed in six lesions, and peritoneal dissemination in three. Pathologic studies confirmed scattered foci of adipose tissue in the solid portions of all cases, and revealed numerous cystic structure formations in these solid components. The correlation coefficient between the amount of solid tissue and the tumor grade was not significant (r{sub s}=0.266). The MR images of immature teratoma tended to show aqueous fluids and the solid components consisting of numerous cysts with punctate foci of adipose tissue, whereas predominant fluid is sebaceous fluid in the vast majority of mature cystic teratomas. (orig.)

  10. van der Knaap syndrome: MR imaging findings including FLAIR, diffusion imaging, and proton MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient is reported with diffuse leukoencephalopathy associated with cystic degeneration of the white matter of the brain (van der Knaap syndrome). The changes were studied by fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and diffusion-weighted MR imaging. The FLAIR sequence revealed suppressed signal of the cysts, and widespread high-signal white matter changes associated with thinned cortices. On diffusion-weighted MR imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values ranged from 3.0 x 10-3 to 2.7 x 10-3 mm2/s in the temporal cysts, similar to that of CSF. The ADC values within the parenchyma ranged between 2 x 10-3 and 2.1 x 10-3 mm2/s, a value falling between normal parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid, compared with a control group of three healthy subjects. The changes were also evaluated by proton MR spectroscopy, and were compared with a control group of 12 cases. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed apparently increased NAA/Cr ratios in most parts of the brain. The NAA/Cho ratios were either high or low, and the Cho/Cr ratios were increased or normal in different regions. (orig.)

  11. Impingement syndrome of the ankle following supination external rotation trauma: MR imaging findings with arthroscopic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffler, Gottfried J. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 350 Parnassus Avenue, Suite 150, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Department of Radiology, University Hospital Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, 8036 Graz (Austria); Tirman, Phillip F.J.; Stoller, David W. [San Francisco Magnetic Resonance Center, 3333 California Street, Suite 105, San Francisco, CA 94118 (United States); Genant, Harry K. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 350 Parnassus Avenue, Suite 150, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Ceballos, Cecar; Dillingham, Michael F. [Sports Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, 2884 Sand Hill Rd., Suite 110, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Our objective was to identify MR imaging findings in patients with syndesmotic soft tissue impingement of the ankle and to investigate the reliability of these imaging characteristics to predict syndesmotic soft tissue impingement syndromes of the ankle. Twenty-one ankles with chronic pain ultimately proven to have anterior soft tissue impingement syndrome were examined by MR imaging during January 1996 to June 2001. The MR imaging protocol included sagittal and coronal short tau inversion recovery (STIR), sagittal T1-weighted spin echo, axial and coronal proton-density, and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences. Nineteen ankles that underwent MR imaging during the same period of time and that had arthroscopically proven diagnosis different than impingement syndrome served as a control group. Fibrovascular scar formations distinct from the syndesmotic ligaments possibly related to syndesmotic soft tissue impingement were recorded. Arthroscopy was performed subsequently in all patients and was considered the gold standard. The statistical analysis revealed an overall frequency of scarred syndesmotic ligaments of 70% in the group with ankle impingement. Fibrovascular scar formations distinct from the syndesmotic ligaments presented with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and remained low to intermediate in signal intensity on T2-weighted MR imaging. Compared with arthroscopy, MR imaging revealed a sensitivity of 89%, a specificity of 100%, and a diagnostic accuracy of 93% for scarred syndesmotic ligaments. The frequency of scar formation distinct from the syndesmotic ligaments in patients with impingement syndrome of the ankle was not statistically significantly higher than in the control group. In contrast to that, anterior tibial osteophytes and talar osteophytes were statistically significantly higher in the group with anterior impingement than in the control group. Conventional MR imaging was found to be insensitive for the diagnosis of syndesmotic soft tissue

  12. Impingement syndrome of the ankle following supination external rotation trauma: MR imaging findings with arthroscopic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to identify MR imaging findings in patients with syndesmotic soft tissue impingement of the ankle and to investigate the reliability of these imaging characteristics to predict syndesmotic soft tissue impingement syndromes of the ankle. Twenty-one ankles with chronic pain ultimately proven to have anterior soft tissue impingement syndrome were examined by MR imaging during Januar