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Sample records for children imaging findings

  1. Primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children: imaging findings

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    Dann, Phoebe H.; Amodio, John B.; Rivera, Rafael; Fefferman, Nancy R. [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York (United States)

    2005-02-01

    We report the imaging findings of two recent cases of primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children with a clinical presentation mimicking acute appendicitis. Primary bacterial peritonitis is rare in the absence of underlying systemic disease. Although it has been described in the pediatric literature, the imaging findings have not been described in the radiological literature to the best of our knowledge. With imaging playing an increasing role in the evaluation of appendicitis in children, it is important for the radiologist to be familiar with this inflammatory process. (orig.)

  2. Primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the imaging findings of two recent cases of primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children with a clinical presentation mimicking acute appendicitis. Primary bacterial peritonitis is rare in the absence of underlying systemic disease. Although it has been described in the pediatric literature, the imaging findings have not been described in the radiological literature to the best of our knowledge. With imaging playing an increasing role in the evaluation of appendicitis in children, it is important for the radiologist to be familiar with this inflammatory process. (orig.)

  3. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging findings in children with myocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Guiying; Yang Xi; Su Ying; Xu Jimin; Wen Zhaoying

    2014-01-01

    Background Myocarditis is a common,potentially life-threatening disease that presents a wide rang of symptoms in children,as an important underlying etiology of other myocardial diseases such as dilated and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.The incidence of nonfatal myocarditis is probably greater than that of the one actually diagnosed,which is the result of the challenges of establishing the diagnosis in standard clinical settings.Currently,no single clinical or imaging finding confirms the diagnosis of myocarditis with absolute certainty.Historically,clinical exam,electrocardiogram (ECG),serology and echocardiography had an unsatisfactory diagnostic accuracy in myocarditis.Endomyocardial biopsy remains as a widely accepted standard,but may not be suitable for every patient,especially for those with less severe disease.Our aim was to find the changes in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging of children with myocarditis diagnosed by clinical criteria.Methods We studied 25 children (18 male,7 female; aged from 5-17 years) with diagnosed myocarditis by clinical criteria.CMR included function analyses,T2-weighted imaging,T1-weighted imaging before and after i.v.gadolinium injection (early gadolinium enhancement (EGE) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)).Results The T2 ratio was elevated in 21 children (84%,11 in anterolateral (44%),5 in inferolateral (20%),and 5 in septum (20%)),EGE was present in 9 children (36%,3 in anterolateral (12%),4 in inferolateral (20%),and 2 in septum (8%)),and LGE was present in 5 children (20%,2 in anterolateral (8%),1 in inferolateral (4%),1 in septum (4%),and 1 in midwall of left ventricular (LV) wall).In 9 children (36%),two (or more) out of three sequences (T2,EGE,LGE) were abnormal.Conclusions The CMR findings in children with clinically diagnosed myocarditis vary within the groups,including regional or global myocardial signal increase in T2-weighted images,EGE and LGE in T1

  4. Imaging findings in children with proliferative disorders following multivisceral transplantation

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    Hryhorczuk, Anastasia L. [Tufts Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Kim, Heung Bae [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Harris, Marian H.; Vargas, Sara O. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Zurakowski, David [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Departments of Radiology and Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Multivisceral transplantation represents an important treatment option for children with intestinal failure. The attendant immunosuppression can lead to a spectrum of cellular proliferations including benign and malignant smooth muscle tumors and lymphoproliferative disorders, many related to cellular dysregulation from Epstein-Barr virus infection. The purpose of this study is to investigate the rates of post-transplantation proliferative disorders among children with multivisceral transplantation and to characterize the imaging and pathological features of these disorders. We identified all consecutive children who underwent multivisceral transplant from August 2004 to October 2011 with at least 27 months of clinical and imaging follow-up. We reviewed medical records to determine the underlying causes of the multivisceral transplant, age at transplantation, onset of neoplasm development, and outcome. Two pediatric radiologists reviewed all imaging studies independently and diagnosis of disease was made by consensus interpretation. Pathological specimens were reviewed for histopathological findings of post-transplantation neoplasm in this pediatric patient population. The study population consisted of 14 consecutive pediatric patients (7 boys and 7 girls; mean age 26 months, range 4-113 months). Of these 14 children, 4 (29%) developed histologically confirmed post-transplant neoplasms at a mean time of 2.4 years after multivisceral transplantation. Types of neoplasms included post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in three (21%) and Epstein-Barr-virus-associated smooth muscle tumor in two (14%). (One child developed both neoplasms following transplantation). Both children with smooth muscle tumor associated with Epstein-Barr virus presented with characteristic hypointense solid masses with peripheral rim enhancement on cross-sectional imaging studies. The mortality rate of children who developed post-transplant neoplasms was higher than that of those

  5. Imaging findings in children with proliferative disorders following multivisceral transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multivisceral transplantation represents an important treatment option for children with intestinal failure. The attendant immunosuppression can lead to a spectrum of cellular proliferations including benign and malignant smooth muscle tumors and lymphoproliferative disorders, many related to cellular dysregulation from Epstein-Barr virus infection. The purpose of this study is to investigate the rates of post-transplantation proliferative disorders among children with multivisceral transplantation and to characterize the imaging and pathological features of these disorders. We identified all consecutive children who underwent multivisceral transplant from August 2004 to October 2011 with at least 27 months of clinical and imaging follow-up. We reviewed medical records to determine the underlying causes of the multivisceral transplant, age at transplantation, onset of neoplasm development, and outcome. Two pediatric radiologists reviewed all imaging studies independently and diagnosis of disease was made by consensus interpretation. Pathological specimens were reviewed for histopathological findings of post-transplantation neoplasm in this pediatric patient population. The study population consisted of 14 consecutive pediatric patients (7 boys and 7 girls; mean age 26 months, range 4-113 months). Of these 14 children, 4 (29%) developed histologically confirmed post-transplant neoplasms at a mean time of 2.4 years after multivisceral transplantation. Types of neoplasms included post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in three (21%) and Epstein-Barr-virus-associated smooth muscle tumor in two (14%). (One child developed both neoplasms following transplantation). Both children with smooth muscle tumor associated with Epstein-Barr virus presented with characteristic hypointense solid masses with peripheral rim enhancement on cross-sectional imaging studies. The mortality rate of children who developed post-transplant neoplasms was higher than that of those

  6. Methylmalonic acidemia: brain imaging findings in 52 children and a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is an autosomal-recessive inborn error of metabolism. To recognize the CT and MR brain sectional imaging findings in children with MMA. Brain imaging studies (47 MR and 5 CT studies) from 52 children were reviewed and reported by a neuroradiologist. The clinical data were collected for each patient. The most common findings were ventricular dilation (17 studies), cortical atrophy (15), periventricular white matter abnormality (12), thinning of the corpus callosum (8), subcortical white matter abnormality (6), cerebellar atrophy (4), basal ganglionic calcification (3), and myelination delay (3). The brain images in 14 patients were normal. Radiological findings of MMA are nonspecific. A constellation of common clinical and radiological findings should raise the suspicion of MMA. (orig.)

  7. Methylmalonic acidemia: brain imaging findings in 52 children and a review of the literature

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    Radmanesh, Alireza [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Zaman, Talieh [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Metabolic Disorders, Tehran (Iran); Ghanaati, Hossein [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Tehran (Iran); Molaei, Sanaz [Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Tehran (Iran); Robertson, Richard L. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Zamani, Amir A. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is an autosomal-recessive inborn error of metabolism. To recognize the CT and MR brain sectional imaging findings in children with MMA. Brain imaging studies (47 MR and 5 CT studies) from 52 children were reviewed and reported by a neuroradiologist. The clinical data were collected for each patient. The most common findings were ventricular dilation (17 studies), cortical atrophy (15), periventricular white matter abnormality (12), thinning of the corpus callosum (8), subcortical white matter abnormality (6), cerebellar atrophy (4), basal ganglionic calcification (3), and myelination delay (3). The brain images in 14 patients were normal. Radiological findings of MMA are nonspecific. A constellation of common clinical and radiological findings should raise the suspicion of MMA. (orig.)

  8. Non-cardiovascular findings in clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in children

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    Ghadimi Mahani, Maryam [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Morani, Ajaykumar C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Lu, Jimmy C.; Dorfman, Adam L. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Providence Hospital and Medical Centers, Department of Graduate Medical Education, Southfield, MI (United States); Jeph, Sunil [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Geisinger Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Danville, PA (United States); Agarwal, Prachi P. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-04-15

    With increasing use of pediatric cardiovascular MRI, it is important for all imagers to become familiar with the spectrum of non-cardiovascular imaging findings that can be encountered. This study aims to ascertain the prevalence and nature of these findings in pediatric cardiovascular MRIs performed at our institution. We retrospectively evaluated reports of all cardiovascular MRI studies performed at our institute from January 2008 to October 2012 in patients younger than18 years. Most studies (98%) were jointly interpreted by a pediatric cardiologist and a radiologist. We reviewed the electronic medical records of all cases with non-cardiovascular findings, defined as any imaging finding outside the cardiovascular system. Non-cardiovascular findings were classified into significant and non-significant, based on whether they were known at the time of imaging or they required additional workup or a change in management. In 849 consecutive studies (mean age 9.7 ± 6.3 years), 145 non-cardiovascular findings were found in 140 studies (16.5% of total studies). Overall, 51.0% (74/145) of non-cardiovascular findings were in the abdomen, 30.3% (44/145) were in the chest, and 18.6% (27/145) were in the spine. A total of 19 significant non-cardiovascular findings were observed in 19 studies in individual patients (2.2% of total studies, 47% male, mean age 5.9 ± 6.7 years). Significant non-cardiovascular findings included hepatic adenoma, arterially enhancing focal liver lesions, asplenia, solitary kidney, pelvicaliectasis, renal cystic diseases, gastric distention, adrenal hemorrhage, lung hypoplasia, air space disease, bronchial narrowing, pneumomediastinum and retained surgical sponge. Non-cardiovascular findings were seen in 16.5% of cardiovascular MRI studies in children, of which 2.2% were clinically significant findings. Prevalence and nature of these non-cardiovascular findings are different from those reported in adults. Attention to these findings is important

  9. Neurostructural imaging findings in children with post-traumatic stress disorder: brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; de Araújo, Celia Maria; de Lacerda, Acioly Luiz Tavares; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Kaufman, Joan

    2009-02-01

    Child maltreatment has been associated with different psychiatric disorders. Studies on both animals and humans have suggested that some brain areas would be directly affected by severe psychological trauma. The pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to be related to a complex interaction involving genetic and environmental factors. Advanced neuroimaging techniques have been used to investigate neurofunctional and neurostructural abnormalities in children, adolescents, and adults with PTSD. This review examined structural brain imaging studies that were performed in abused and traumatized children, and discusses the possible biological mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of PTSD, the implications and future directions for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Published reports in refereed journals were reviewed by searching Medline and examining references of the articles related to structural neuroimaging of PTSD. Structural MRI studies have been performed in adults and children to evaluate the volumetric brain alterations in the PTSD population. In contrast with studies involving adults, in which hippocampus volumetric reduction was the most consistent finding, studies involving children and adolescents with PTSD have demonstrated smaller medial and posterior portions of the corpus callosum. PMID:19154207

  10. Postoperative imaging findings in children with auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplant (APOLT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyala, Rama S; Martinez, Mercedes; Lobritto, Steven J; Kato, Tomoaki; Ruzal-Shapiro, Carrie

    2016-07-01

    Auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplant (APOLT) is a treatment technique for people who have acute hepatic failure secondary to fulminant hepatic failure and might ultimately recover normal liver function. This surgical procedure is complicated, involving the placement of a liver graft while maintaining viability of the remaining native portion of the liver. This method allows the native liver to recover hepatic function, therefore eliminating the need for long-term immunosuppression, as is typically needed in post-transplant settings. Postoperative imaging in these cases can be challenging given the complex anatomy, specifically the vascular anastomosis. Therefore it is important for radiologists and clinicians to be aware of the anatomy as well as the variable imaging appearances of the liver. We review the imaging findings in children who have undergone auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplant (APOLT). PMID:26867605

  11. Imaging findings of the brain abnormalities in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of children during and after treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the imaging abnormalities of the brain observed during and after treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia. The study group consisted of 30 patients (male : female=19 : 11 ; mean age, 64 months) with acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia during the previous ten-year period who had undergone prophylaxis of the central nervous system. Irrespective of the CNS symptoms, base-line study of the brain involving CT and follow-up CT or MRI was undertaken more than once. We retrospectively evaluated the imaging findings, methods of treatment, associated CNS symptoms, and the interval between diagnosis and the time at which brain abnormalities were revealed by imaging studies. In 15 (50% ; male : female=9 : 6 ; mean age, 77 months) of 30 patients, brain abnormalities that included brain atrophy (n=9), cerebral infarctions (n=4), intracranial hemorrhage (n=1), mineralizing microangiopathy (n=2), and periventricular leukomalacia (n=3) were seen on follow-up CT or MR images. In four of nine patients with brain atrophy, imaging abnormalities such as periventricular leukomalacia (n=2), infarction (n=1) and microangiopathy (n=1) were demonstrated. Fourteen of the 15 patients underwent similar treatment ; the one excluded had leukemic cells in the CSF. Six patients had CNS symptoms. In the 15 patients with abnormal brain imaging findings, the interval between diagnosis and the demonstration of brain abnormalities was between one month and four years. After the cessation of treatment, imaging abnormalities remained in all patients except one with brain atrophy. Various imaging abnormalities of the brain may be seen during and after the treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia and persist for a long time. In children with this condition, the assessment of brain abnormalities requires follow-up study of the brain

  12. Imaging findings of the brain abnormalities in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of children during and after treatment

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    Lee, Kyung Joo; Lee, Seung Rho; Park, Dong Woo; Joo, Kyung Bin; Kim, Jang Wook; Hahm, Chang Kok; Kim, Ki Joong; Lee, Hahng [College of Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-01

    We evaluated the imaging abnormalities of the brain observed during and after treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia. The study group consisted of 30 patients (male : female=19 : 11 ; mean age, 64 months) with acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia during the previous ten-year period who had undergone prophylaxis of the central nervous system. Irrespective of the CNS symptoms, base-line study of the brain involving CT and follow-up CT or MRI was undertaken more than once. We retrospectively evaluated the imaging findings, methods of treatment, associated CNS symptoms, and the interval between diagnosis and the time at which brain abnormalities were revealed by imaging studies. In 15 (50% ; male : female=9 : 6 ; mean age, 77 months) of 30 patients, brain abnormalities that included brain atrophy (n=9), cerebral infarctions (n=4), intracranial hemorrhage (n=1), mineralizing microangiopathy (n=2), and periventricular leukomalacia (n=3) were seen on follow-up CT or MR images. In four of nine patients with brain atrophy, imaging abnormalities such as periventricular leukomalacia (n=2), infarction (n=1) and microangiopathy (n=1) were demonstrated. Fourteen of the 15 patients underwent similar treatment ; the one excluded had leukemic cells in the CSF. Six patients had CNS symptoms. In the 15 patients with abnormal brain imaging findings, the interval between diagnosis and the demonstration of brain abnormalities was between one month and four years. After the cessation of treatment, imaging abnormalities remained in all patients except one with brain atrophy. Various imaging abnormalities of the brain may be seen during and after the treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia and persist for a long time. In children with this condition, the assessment of brain abnormalities requires follow-up study of the brain.

  13. Imaging findings in 512 children following all-terrain vehicle injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injuries related to all-terrain vehicle (ATV) use by children have increased in recent years, and the pattern of these injuries is not well known among radiologists. Our purpose was to identify different radiologically diagnosed injuries in children suffering ATV-related trauma and determine associations among various injuries as well as between injuries and outcome. The study included 512 consecutive children suffering from ATV injuries treated at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. All imaging studies were reviewed and correlated with injury frequency and outcome using multivariate analysis. Head injuries occurred in 244 children (48%) and in five of six deaths. Calvarial skull fractures occurred in 104 children and were associated with brain, subdural and epidural injuries. Brain and orbit injuries were associated with long-term disability. A total of 227 extremity fractures were present in 172 children (34%). The femur was the most commonly fractured bone. Nine children had partial foot amputations. Multiorgan injuries occurred in nearly half of the 97 children with torso injuries. Determinants for long-term disability or death were head injuries (odds ratio 3.4) and extremity fractures (odds ratio 3.3). Head and extremity injuries are the two most common injuries in children suffering ATV injuries and are associated with long-term disability. ATV use by children is dangerous and is a significant threat to child safety. (orig.)

  14. Chest Imaging Findings in Hospitalized Children with H1N1 Influenza

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    Sevgi Pekcan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to review the radiological findings and to find new prognostic factors that determine the need for pediatric intensive care unit (PICU in children with swine-origin influenza (H1N1 virus infection. Methods: Chest X-ray (CXR and computed tomography (CT findings of 18 children with laboratory-confirmed H1N1 infection (9 boys, 9 girls with a median age of 34 (1–216 months were retrospectively evaluated. Results: CXRs were performed in 15 (83.3% and thorax CT in 7 (38.8% children. Abnormal findings were detected in 60% of the patients who underwent CXR and 85.7% of the patients who underwent thorax CT. Radiological findings were mostly diffuse, bilateral, and asymmetric. Ground-glass opacity (GGO (66.6% was the leading abnormality and was followed by reticulation (38.8%, nodules (27.7%, consolidation only (16.6%, tree-in-bud pattern (11.1%, consolidation with GGO (5.5%, and septal lines (5.5%. Lymphadenopathy (22.2%, air trapping (5.5%, and parenchymal band (5.5% were other recorded findings. CXR was found to be insufficient to detect subpleural nodules, lymphadenopathies, and sometimes GGO. Only existence of nodules (p=0.04 affected the need for PICU admission. Conclusion: The most common radiological findings in children with H1N1 infection were bilateral, asymmetric GGO with or without associated multifocal areas of consolidation. CXR was insufficient to detect subpleural nodules, lymphadenopathies, and sometimes GGO. The existence of nodules is a bad prognostic factor in determining the need for PICU admission.

  15. Hepatic involvement of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children - imaging findings of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

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    Shi, Yingyan; Qiao, Zhongwei; Gong, Ying; Yang, Haowei; Li, Guoping; Pa, Mier [Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Xia, Chunmei [Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Physiology and Pathophysiology Department, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disease that occurs mainly in children, and hepatic involvement is generally a poor prognostic factor. To describe CT and MRI findings of hepatic involvement of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children, especially the abnormal bile duct manifestation on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Thirteen children (seven boys, six girls; mean age 28.9 months) were diagnosed with disseminated Langerhans cell histiocytosis. They underwent CT (n = 5) or MRI (n = 4), or CT and MRI examinations (n = 4) to evaluate the liver involvement. Periportal abnormalities presented as band-like or nodular lesions on CT and MRI in all 13 children. The hepatic parenchymal lesions were found in the peripheral regions of the liver in seven children, including multiple nodules on MRI (n = 6), and cystic-like lesions on CT and MRI (n = 3). In 11 of the 13 children the dilatations of the bile ducts were observed on CT and MRI. Eight of the 13 children underwent MR cholangiopancreatography, which demonstrated stenoses or segmental stenoses with slight dilatation of the central bile ducts, including the common hepatic duct and its first-order branches. The peripheral bile ducts in these children showed segmental dilatations and stenoses. Stenosis of the central bile ducts revealed by MR cholangiopancreatography was the most significant finding of liver involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children. (orig.)

  16. Hepatic involvement of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children - imaging findings of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disease that occurs mainly in children, and hepatic involvement is generally a poor prognostic factor. To describe CT and MRI findings of hepatic involvement of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children, especially the abnormal bile duct manifestation on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Thirteen children (seven boys, six girls; mean age 28.9 months) were diagnosed with disseminated Langerhans cell histiocytosis. They underwent CT (n = 5) or MRI (n = 4), or CT and MRI examinations (n = 4) to evaluate the liver involvement. Periportal abnormalities presented as band-like or nodular lesions on CT and MRI in all 13 children. The hepatic parenchymal lesions were found in the peripheral regions of the liver in seven children, including multiple nodules on MRI (n = 6), and cystic-like lesions on CT and MRI (n = 3). In 11 of the 13 children the dilatations of the bile ducts were observed on CT and MRI. Eight of the 13 children underwent MR cholangiopancreatography, which demonstrated stenoses or segmental stenoses with slight dilatation of the central bile ducts, including the common hepatic duct and its first-order branches. The peripheral bile ducts in these children showed segmental dilatations and stenoses. Stenosis of the central bile ducts revealed by MR cholangiopancreatography was the most significant finding of liver involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children. (orig.)

  17. Popliteal cysts in children: prevalence, appearance and associated findings at MR imaging

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    De Maeseneer, M.; Debaere, C.; Desprechins, B.; Osteaux, M. (Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Jette (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology)

    1999-08-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Baker's cysts on MR images in a paediatric orthopaedic population, to investigate the association of Baker's cyst with joint fluid and joint disorders in children, and to compare the MR appearance of Baker's cysts in children with that previously reported in adults. Materials and methods. Reports from 393 MR studies of the knee performed in children aged from 1 to 17 years were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of a Baker's cyst, joint effusion, meniscal tear, anterior cruciate ligament tear, or any other joint disorder. Results. A Baker's cyst was identified in 6.3 % (25/393) of patients. The MR images and clinical charts of patients with a Baker's cyst were reviewed. None of the 25 patients with a Baker's cyst had an associated anterior cruciate ligament tear or meniscal tear. Two patients had osteochondritis dissecans and two others had synovial disease (infection and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis). Joint fluid was demonstrated in 16 % (4/25) of patients with a Baker's cyst. There was no statistically significant association between presence of a Baker's cyst and presence of joint fluid. Conclusions. Baker's cyst is less prevalent in a paediatric orthopaedic population than in an adult population. In children, it seems that Baker's cyst is seldom associated with joint fluid, meniscal tear, or anterior cruciate ligament tear. On MR images, a communication between the Baker's cyst and the joint was not demonstrated in any of the patients. In addition, the presence of debris and cyst leakage was not observed. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs.

  18. Term and Preterm Children with Cerebral Palsy: Etiology, Clinic and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Adın, Sait; Aslan, Mehmet; DOĞAN, Metin; Yakıncı, Cengiz; Alkan, Alpay

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a frequent neurologic disease of term and preterm neonates. The disorder has various causes and the etiology, clinical manifestations and radiological screening findings are different in term and preterms. Thirty six preterm and 66 term CP patients aged between 6 months-16 years were evaluated in this study and were compared according to their etiology, clinical manifestation and cerebral Magnetic Resonance Imagıng (MRI) findings statistically. Material and Met...

  19. MR imaging findings and MR criteria for instability in osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the elbow is an uncommon cause of elbow pain in adolescents and occurs at different locations in the elbow joint. Early diagnosis and treatment may prevent surgery. The aim of the study is to describe the MR imaging features of OCD at initial imaging, and to correlate these findings with surgical findings of stability and instability with arthroscopic findings as the reference standard. Methods: Patients were identified through a keyword search of the radiology information system from 2000 to 2009. Twenty-five patients (26 elbows) with OCD of the elbow were identified (age 10.4–18 years, mean age 14 years). MR studies were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists in consensus to define MR imaging findings and to determine the presence of previously described MR imaging criteria for OCD instability (i.e., high T2 signal rim, surrounding cysts, high T2 signal fracture line, fluid-filled osteochondral defect). Sensitivity of the individual and combined criteria was calculated. Results: OCD occurred in the capitellum in 24 patients (92%), in the trochlea in 2 patients (8%) and radial head in 1 patient (4%). Loose bodies were identified in 11 (42%) patients. Eighteen patients demonstrated MRI findings in keeping with unstable lesions. In all 11 patients who had surgery the surgical findings of instability correlated with the MRI findings. When combined, the MR criteria were 100% sensitive for instability of OCD lesions of the elbow. Conclusion: The vast majority of OCD of the elbow occurs in the capitellum. When used together, the MR criteria for instability were 100% sensitive for evaluation OCD lesions of the elbow.

  20. Intrathoracic gossypiboma: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report three cases of intrathoracic foreign body that is defined as a cotton matrix mass, mostly retained surgical sponge, a rare complication of a thoracic surgery. The patients were evaluated by chest radiography and computed tomography with the imaging findings confirmed after thoracotomy and anatomopathological study. The mainly imaging findings consisted of intrathoracic masses in patients with previous thoracic surgery that return to hospital with lower respiratory tract symptoms in different period after surgery procedure. The three cases were related with a brief review of the literature. (author)

  1. Lyme disease-related intracranial hypertension in children: clinical and imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramgopal, Sriram; Obeid, Rawad; Zuccoli, Giulio; Cleves-Bayon, Catalina; Nowalk, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-borne infection that is endemic to multiple areas of the United States. Patients with LD may present with sign and symptoms of intracranial hypertension (IH). The objective of this study is to evaluate the history, clinical findings, CSF analysis, and brain imaging results in pediatric patients with increased intracranial pressure secondary to LD. A retrospective database search was performed using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 9/10 codes to identify patients diagnosed with LD and IH between 2004 and 2014 at a tertiary referral pediatric hospital. Clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging data for each patient were reviewed. Seven patients met inclusion criteria; mean age was 9.6 years (standard deviation 4.0 years); 4/7 patients were male. Average body mass index was 18.8 kg/m(2) (standard deviation 3.0 kg/m(2)). Fever was present in four patients. Four had a history of LD related erythema migrans. All had elevated CSF opening pressure with leukocytosis and lymphocytic predominance. MRI obtained in six patients showed contrast enhancement of various cranial nerves. Tentorial enhancement was noted in all patients. In addition, patients had widening of the optic nerve sheath (ONS), optic nerve protrusion, and flattening of the posterior globe consistent with increased intracranial pressure. All patients had resolution of their symptoms after initiation of antibiotic therapy. In endemic areas, LD should be included in the differential of IH. MRI can help distinguish IH due to LD from its idiopathic form due to the presence of tentorial and cranial nerve enhancement in the former in addition to abnormal CSF showing leukocytosis with lymphocyte predominance. PMID:26739381

  2. Imaging findings of recurrent acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and young adults, with emphasis on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common of all childhood malignancies. Current remission rates approach 80%. Recurrent disease can present in a wide variety of ways. MR imaging plays a crucial role in the detection of disease relapse. Because other disorders can mimic recurrence of leukemia, it is important for the radiologist to judge recurrence from non-recurrence accurately in order to avoid unnecessary testing and emotional stress on the patient and family. (orig.)

  3. Findings of autopsy imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described is the outline of autopsy imaging (Ai) by CT, MRI and ultrasonography (US) as the reading of the postmortem images is becoming important for radiologist on site. The present major Ai modality is CT, where the cause of death can be identified in most cases of injuries like that by traffic accident, and of intracranial hemorrhagic lesions. It is difficult for CT alone to determine the cause due to acute heart failure, for which Ai by enhanced CT (2-min heart massage during the intravenous infusion of a contrast agent) has been introduced. CT findings in Ai are varied according to the death cause, anabiotic treatment conducted and postmortem changes. The second item includes the gastrointestinal tract dilation, rib fracture, pneumo- or hemo-thorax, bruise or rupture, and intravascular gas, and the third, the blood hypostasis, which emphasizing the shadow at the gravity-loaded portions in Ai CT. MRI signals vary dependently on the temperature and the inversion time should be shortened to suppress the cerebrospinal signal at Ai of the cold body like that stored in a refrigerator. US can detect clear, macroscopic morphological changes and the portable machine has been in practice at autopsy onsite. As sound speed depends on the temperature in water, Ai US images are obscure relative to living body due to the low temperature. Authors think the problem to identify the cause of death will be mostly solved in Japan when radiological technologists more actively participate in Ai. (K.T.)

  4. Cat scratch disease: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious lymphadenitis frequently occurring in children and adolescents. We present the magnetic resonance imaging findings of two patients with this disease. In both cases, lymphadenopathy was characterized by extensive stranding of the surrounding soft tissues, consistent with the inflammatory nature of this condition. Magnetic resonance imaging can be diagnostic and may obviate the need for invasive means of evaluation in patients suspected of having cat scratch disease. (orig.)

  5. MR imaging findings of endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Cornelius, Rebecca; Cunnane, Mary Beth; Golnik, Karl; Morales, Humberto

    2016-04-01

    Endophthalmitis is a sight-threatening ophthalmologic emergency. The clinical diagnosis is often challenging, and delayed diagnosis may exacerbate the poor visual prognosis. B-scan ultrasonography or spectral domain optical coherence tomography are imaging aids at the clinician's office. Cross-sectional imaging such as CT and particularly MRI can also help in the assessment of disease extent or complications. MR imaging findings are rarely described in the literature. Here, we discuss the spectrum of imaging findings of endophthalmitis and correlate them with key anatomic and pathophysiologic details of the globe. Early disease is often subtle on MR imaging with thick uveal enhancement, while advanced disease demonstrates retinal/choroidal detachment, vitreal exudates and peribulbar inflammation. Other noninfectious inflammatory diseases of the globe can show similar findings; however, MR diffusion-weighted images help identify infectious exudates and evaluate response to therapy. Knowledge of the spectrum of imaging findings of this disease is important for radiologists and help in the management decision process. PMID:26915896

  6. Postmortem perianal findings in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, J; Reay, D; Siebert, J; Stephens, B G; Wirtz, S

    1996-12-01

    The postmortem finding of anal dilation or an exposed pectinate line in children who have died under suspicious circumstances continues to raise the concern of possible sexual abuse. The following multicenter, collaborative study was designed to help address that question. Sixty-five subjects, ranging in age from birth to 17 years, were autopsied at three different sites. A standard protocol along with 35-mm cameras were used to record the results. Thirty-eight (58%) subjects were boys, and 27 (42%) were girls. Forty-two (65%) were white, 10 (15%) African-American, five (8%) Asian, three (5%) white Hispanic and five (8%) other. Fifty-seven (88%) were in Tanner stage I of secondary sexual development. Thirty-four (52%) died of natural causes, 26 (40%) from accidental injuries, three (5%) from other causes, and four (6%) as a result of a homicide. Forty-eight subjects (74%) had some dilation of the anal sphincters. In 21 children (32%), the entire anal canal, including the rectal ampulla, could be visualized. In another 21 (32%) subjects, the pectinate line was exposed. Only the outer portion of the anal canal opened in six children (10%), whereas 17 (26%) had no dilatation of the anus. Anal laxity led to flattened skin folds in 50 (77%), a shallow anal canal in 40 (62%), the exposure of both the pectinate line in 38 (59%), and the anal mucosa in 24 (37%). Venous congestion was present in 14 (22%), venous pooling in three (5%), erythema in six (9%), and increased pigmentation in eight (12%). Funneling was found in two (3%). Blood was present in three (5%), and an abrasion was discovered in one (2%). No fissures, lacerations, hemorrhoids, or scars were found in any of the children. Anal orifice size varied with the age of the child, the amount of traction applied to the buttocks, and a history of a CNS injury at the time of death. It is suggested, finally, that anal dilatation alone cannot be used a marker for prior sexual abuse and the exposure of the pectinate line

  7. Imaging findings of biliary hamartomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Qin Zheng; Bo Zhang; Masatoshi Kudo; Hirokazu Onda; Tatsuo Inoue

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the imaging findings of biliary hamartomas (von Meyenburg complexes, VMCs) and discuss the differential diagnosis with other related diseases.METHODS: Imaging findings of biliary hamartomas on ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)and hepatobiliary scintigraphy were retrospectively analyzed in six patients.RESULTS: On ultrasound images, five of the six cases showed multiple small hyper- and hypo-echoic lesions with comet-tail echoes, especially when magnified by US with the usage of zoom function. In all the six cases,multiple tiny hypodense lesions less than 10 mm in diameter were revealed as scattered throughout the liver with no enhancement on CT. These tiny lesions were demonstrated to be hyper- and hypo-intensity on T2- and TI-weighed images, respectively, in three patients who underwent MRI examinations. MRCP was performed in two patients, and clearly showed multiple tiny irregular- and round-shaped hyper-intensity lesions.MRCP and hepatobiliary scintigraphy showed normal appearances of intra- and extra-hepatic bile ducts in two and one patients, respectively.CONCLUSION: Imaging modalities are useful in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of VMCs. A correct diagnosis might be obtained when typical imaging findings are present even without a histological confirmation.

  8. Fibrolipomatous hamartoma: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Maeseneer, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Jaovisidha, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Lenchik, L. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Witte, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Baptist Memorial Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Schweitzer, M.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sartoris, D.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Resnick, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Objective. To analyze the MR imaging features of fibrolipomatous hamartoma (FLH) of nerves. Design and patients. MR imaging studies from six patients (three men and three women) were retrospectively reviewed by three musculoskeletal radiologists. In four patients, a biopsy of the nerve lesion was performed. In two patients, biopsy data were unavailable and the diagnosis was based on the clinical history combined with the MR imaging findings. Results and conclusion. MR imaging demonstrated fusiform nerve enlargement that was caused by fatty proliferation and thickening of nerve bundles. Nerve bundles appeared as serpentine tubular structures, hypointense on both T1- and T2-weighted images. The degree of fatty proliferation varied among patients. In addition, significant variation in the distribution of fat along the course of the nerves was noted. In three patients, FLH followed the branching pattern of the nerves, a characteristic pathologic finding. In two patients, intramuscular fat deposition (biceps and tibialis posterior muscles) was present. MR imaging findings of FLH are typical, allowing a confident diagnosis. The variation of fatty proliferation among patients and involved nerves as well as the tendency of the abnormalities to follow the branching pattern of the nerves is well demonstrated with MR imaging. FLH may present as an isolated nerve lesion, may be associated with intramuscular fat deposition, or may occur as a feature of macrodystrophia lipomatosa (MDL). (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Imaging findings of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To define the imaging patterns of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP). The demographic, clinical, and imaging findings of 21 cases of pathologically proven XGP in 20 patients (bilateral in one) were evaluated. The findings of ultrasonography and CT were retrospectively evaluated with regard to distribution and extent of the disease, kidney size, the presence of calculi, hydronephrosis, and renal function. The findings were assessed by two radiologists, who established a consensus. Imaging and pathologic findings were compared. Sixteen of the 20 patients were female, and 19 were adults. Their age ranged from 3 to 16 (mean, 45) years. In all patients except one, the disease was unilateral (right: left =3D 13 :16). In one patient, XGP was bilateral, and there were thus 21 cases. Seventeen (81%) of these were diffuse, and four (19%) were focal; extrarenal extension occurred in 13 cases (62%), among which ipsilateral pleural effusion was noted in two. The kidney was enlarged diffusely in 12 cases (57%), and focally in three (14%); urinary calculi were present in 16 cases (76%), with staghorn calculi in four of these; and hydronephrosis occurred in 17 (81%). Impairment of ipsilateral renal function was noted in 13 cases (62%). Clinical findings of inflammation such as fever, pyuria, bacteriuria, or leucocytosis were noted in all patients. In addition to nephromegaly, renal function impairment, and urinary obstruction due to calculi, which are typical features of XGP, the condition may also show variable imaging findings. If the images obtained in the case of a middle-aged woman with clinical findings of urinary infection are atypical, we believe that XGP should be included in the differential diagnosis. (author)

  10. Imaging findings of splenic hamartoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ri-Sheng Yu; Shi-Zheng Zhang; Jian-Ming Hua

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess CT and MR manifestations and their diagnostic value in splenic hamartoma with review of literatures.METHODS: We described a woman who was accidentally found to have a splenic tumor by ultrasound of the abdomen.CT and MR findings of this splenic hamartoma were proved by pathology retrospectively.RESULTS: The CT and MR findings in this case included a ball-like mass with homogeneous mild-hypodensity lesions on non-enhanced CT scans or isointensity on T1-weighted images and mild hypointensity on T2-weighted images,progressive homogeneous enhancement on multiple-phase spiral CT and MR enhanced scans, and isodense enhancement on delayed post-contrast CT scans and obvious hyperintensity relative to the spleen on delayed MR images.CONCLUSION: Splenic hamartoma has some specific radiological features. However, the diagnosis of this disease must be based on dinical features and confirmed by pathology.

  11. Imaging Findings of Congestive Hepatopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Michael L; Fenstad, Eric R; Poterucha, Joseph T; Hough, David M; Young, Phillip M; Araoz, Philip A; Ehman, Richard L; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K

    2016-01-01

    Congestive hepatopathy (CH) refers to hepatic abnormalities that result from passive hepatic venous congestion. Prolonged exposure to elevated hepatic venous pressure may lead to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Liver dysfunction and corresponding clinical signs and symptoms typically manifest late in the disease process. Recognition of CH at imaging is critical because advanced liver fibrosis may develop before the condition is suspected clinically. Characteristic findings of CH on conventional images include dilatation of the inferior vena cava and hepatic veins; retrograde hepatic venous opacification during the early bolus phase of intravenous contrast material injection; and a predominantly peripheral heterogeneous pattern of hepatic enhancement due to stagnant blood flow. Extensive fibrosis can be seen in chronic or severe cases. Hyperenhancing regenerative nodules that may retain hepatobiliary contrast agents are often present. Magnetic resonance (MR) elastography can show elevated liver stiffness and may be useful in evaluation of fibrosis in CH because it can be incorporated easily into routine cardiac MR imaging. Preliminary experience with MR elastography suggests its future use in initial evaluation of patients suspected of having CH, for monitoring of disease, and for assessment after therapy. To facilitate appropriate workup and treatment, radiologists should be familiar with findings suggestive of CH at radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, MR imaging, and MR elastography. In addition, knowledge of underlying pathophysiology, comparative histologic abnormalities, and extrahepatic manifestations is useful to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and suggest appropriate additional diagnostic testing. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27284758

  12. Painful Heel: MR Imaging Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Sanei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Heel pain is a common and frequently disabling clinical complaint that may be caused by a broad spectrum of osseous or soft-tissue disorders. "nThese disorders are classified on the basis of anatomic origin and predominant location of heel pain to foster a better understanding of this complaint. The disorders include plantar fascial lesions (fasciitis, rupture, fibromatosis, xanthoma, tendinous (tendonitis, tenosynovitis, osseous lesions (fractures, bone bruises, osteomyelitis, tumors, bursal lesions (retrocalcaneal bursitis, retroachilleal bursitis, tarsal tunnel syndrome, and heel plantar fat pad abnormalities. With its superior soft-tissue contrast resolution and multiplanar capability, magnetic resonance (MR imaging can help determine the cause of heel pain and help assess the extent and severity of the disease in ambiguous or clinically equivocal cases. Careful analysis of MR imaging findings and correlation of these findings with patient history and findings at physical examination can suggest a specific diagnosis in most cases. The majority of patients with heel pain can be successfully treated conservatively, but in cases requiring surgery (eg, plantar fascia rupture in competitive athletes, deeply infiltrating plantar fibromatosis, masses causing tarsal tunnel syndrome, MR imaging is especially useful in planning surgical treatment by showing the exact location and extent of the lesion

  13. Inflammatory Changes of the Lumbar Spine in Children and Adolescents With Enthesitis-Related Arthritis: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Vendhan, K.; Sen, D; Fisher, C; Ioannou, Y.; Hall-Craggs, M A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe and profile abnormalities of the lumbar spine in a cohort of patients with enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) as compared to a control group of adolescents with mechanical back pain. Methods We performed a retrospective review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lumbar spine scans of 79 patients (58 cases, 21 controls). The study was covered by institutional review board approval and informed consent was obtained for review of all clinical investigations. Images were rev...

  14. Imaging findings of tarsal chondroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analysis the imaging features of the chondroblastoma in the tarsal bone. Methods: The locations of 134 cases of pathologically confirmed chondroblastoma were retrospectively analyzed. Eleven of them were in tarsal bones and their X-ray and CT findings were analyzed. Results: Of the 11 cases of tarsal chondroblastoma, 6 were in talus, 3 were in calcaneus and 2 cases were in navicular bones. They were examined by the X-ray and 5 cases had additional CT scans. The common locations were the posterior portion of the talus and calcaneus. The X-ray findings included expansive destruction (10/11), mild osteosclerosis (11/11), bone ridge (9/11), articular facet destruction (7/11) and spot or patching calcification (6/11). The imaging findings of CT included articular facets destruction (5/5), bone ridge (5/5) and spot or patching calcification (2/5). Conclusion: The talus and the calcaneus are the frequently involved location of tarsal chondroblastoma. Its X-ray and CT findings are characteristic but not exclusive. (authors)

  15. Post-therapeutic imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollice, Saverio, E-mail: saveriopollice@hotmail.it [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, “L. Bonomo Hospital”, 76123 Andria, BT (Italy); Muto, Mario, E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Department of Neuroradiology, “Cardarelli Hospital”, Naples (Italy); Scarabino, Tommaso, E-mail: tscarabino@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, “L. Bonomo Hospital”, 76123 Andria, BT (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • This study is the result of collaboration between neuroradiologists and neurosurgeons. • Comparison between neuroimaging techniques to better evaluate the complications after treatment of the spin. • Evaluation of the imaging features of complications and definition of follow-up. - Abstract: Any surgical approach modifies the normal anatomical and functional arrangement of the segmental spine which is aimed, therefore image interpretation cannot ignore a correct set of knowledge in the field of anatomy, pathophysiology, drug compliance, interventional radiology and surgery. Neuroradiological imaging has an important role before surgery to direct the surgeon or interventional radiologist during the operation, both in post-surgery, where imaging examination can rightly evaluate properties and effects of the treatment and can detect potential complications as infections, abscess, bleeding, exuberant scar, mobilization and rupture of devices. The available methods of imaging are the X-rays (XR) made at least in two projections, Computed Tomography (CT) with MPR (multiplanar) and VR (volume rendering) reconstruction, and Magnetic Resonance (MR), often performed before and after contrast media injection. Imaging assessment of spine after surgery is complex and depends upon several factors, including surgical procedures and disease for which it was performed; biomechanical of the underlying cortical and cancellous bone findings; conditions of muscles, intervertebral disk and ligaments; time since surgery procedures; duration and nature of the post-surgical syndrome. Depending upon several factors, one or a combination of complementary imaging modalities (X-rays, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance) may be required to evaluate effectiveness of the treatment; to demonstrate any clinically relevant abnormality at the treated region and adjacent structures (complications such as inflammation, abscesses, bleeding and misplacement of the device); to

  16. Imaging findings of avalanche victims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Alexandra B.; Grosse, Claudia A.; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Zimmermann, Heinz [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Trauma and Emergency Medicine, Berne (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    Skiing and hiking outside the boundaries remains an attractive wilderness activity despite the danger of avalanches. Avalanches occur on a relatively frequent basis and may be devastating. Musculoskeletal radiologists should be acquainted with these injuries. Fourteen avalanche victims (11 men and 3 women; age range 17-59 years, mean age 37.4 years) were air transported to a high-grade trauma centre over a period of 2 years. Radiographs, CT and MR images were prospectively evaluated by two observers in consensus. Musculoskeletal findings (61%) were more frequent than extraskeletal findings (39%). Fractures were most commonly seen (36.6%), involving the spine (14.6%) more frequently than the extremities (9.8%). Blunt abdominal and thoracic trauma were the most frequent extraskeletal findings. A wide spectrum of injuries can be found in avalanche victims, ranging from extremity fractures to massive polytrauma. Asphyxia remains the main cause of death along with hypoxic brain injury and hypothermia. (orig.)

  17. Symmetric imaging findings in neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Learning objectives: to make a list of diseases and syndromes which manifest as bilateral symmetric findings on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging; to discuss the clinical and radiological differential diagnosis for these diseases; to explain which of these conditions necessitates urgent therapy and when additional studies and laboratory can precise diagnosis. There is symmetry in human body and quite often we compare the affected side to the normal one but in neuroradiology we might have bilateral findings which affected pair structures or corresponding anatomic areas. It is very rare when clinical data prompt diagnosis. Usually clinicians suspect such an involvement but Ct and MRI can reveal symmetric changes and are one of the leading diagnostic tool. The most common location of bilateral findings is basal ganglia and thalamus. There are a number of diseases affecting these structures symmetrically: metabolic and systemic diseases, intoxication, neurodegeneration and vascular conditions, toxoplasmosis, tumors and some infections. Malformations of cortical development and especially bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria requires not only exact report on the most affected parts but in some cases genetic tests or combination with other clinical symptoms. In the case of herpes simplex encephalitis bilateral temporal involvement is common and this finding very often prompt therapy even before laboratory results. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PReS) and some forms of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy can lead to symmetric changes. In these acute conditions MR plays a crucial role not only in diagnosis but also in monitoring of the therapeutic effect. Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 or type 2 can demonstrate bilateral optic glioma combined with spinal neurofibroma and bilateral acoustic schwanoma respectively. Mirror-image aneurysm affecting both internal carotid or middle cerebral arteries is an example of symmetry in

  18. Abdominal Burkitt lymphoma in children : CT finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the CT findings of Burkitt's lymphoma involving the abdomen in children We retrospectively analyzed the abdominal CT of ten children who presented with abdominal symptom. They were confirmed by operation in two cases and by fine needle aspiration biopsy in eight to be suffering from Burkitt's lymphoma. We also abdominal ultrasonography(USG)(n=10) and carried out small bowel follow-through examination(SBS)(n=5). Analyses focused on features of the abdominal mass : bowel wall thickening, ascites, lymphadenopathy, and the involvement of intra-abdominal solid organ. Abdominal CT at the time of presentation showed a huge conglomerated mass encasing segments of small bowel and also peripherally displacing bowel loops(n=9), bowel wall thickening(n=10), and ascites(n=10). In three of these cases, we were able to see tumor necrosis and cavity formation. Extensive infiltration into mesenteric fat and obliteration of tissue plane made it impossible to identify on CT the margin of the tumor and the presence of mesenteric lymphadenopathy. In four patients, sonography showed enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes(15-20mm), and in three, retroperitoneal lymph nodes(5mm, 10mm, 12mm in long dimension) were detected on CT and USG. Abdominal CT can reveal the characteristic imaging features of Burkitt's lymphoma in children. These are a huge conglomerate mass with or without cavity formation, that encases the small bowel and infiltrates the mesentery, ascites, and the relatively spared retroperitoneal lymph nodes

  19. Abdominal Burkitt lymphoma in children : CT finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jae Uoo; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Ahn, Hyo Seop; Shin, Hee Young [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chi Sung [Seoul City Boramae Hospital Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To evaluate the CT findings of Burkitt's lymphoma involving the abdomen in children We retrospectively analyzed the abdominal CT of ten children who presented with abdominal symptom. They were confirmed by operation in two cases and by fine needle aspiration biopsy in eight to be suffering from Burkitt's lymphoma. We also abdominal ultrasonography(USG)(n=10) and carried out small bowel follow-through examination(SBS)(n=5). Analyses focused on features of the abdominal mass : bowel wall thickening, ascites, lymphadenopathy, and the involvement of intra-abdominal solid organ. Abdominal CT at the time of presentation showed a huge conglomerated mass encasing segments of small bowel and also peripherally displacing bowel loops(n=9), bowel wall thickening(n=10), and ascites(n=10). In three of these cases, we were able to see tumor necrosis and cavity formation. Extensive infiltration into mesenteric fat and obliteration of tissue plane made it impossible to identify on CT the margin of the tumor and the presence of mesenteric lymphadenopathy. In four patients, sonography showed enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes(15-20mm), and in three, retroperitoneal lymph nodes(5mm, 10mm, 12mm in long dimension) were detected on CT and USG. Abdominal CT can reveal the characteristic imaging features of Burkitt's lymphoma in children. These are a huge conglomerate mass with or without cavity formation, that encases the small bowel and infiltrates the mesentery, ascites, and the relatively spared retroperitoneal lymph nodes.

  20. Bacterial meningitis in children. MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Toshibumi; Ishii, Kiyoshi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Onuma, Takehide [Sendai City Hospital (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    We analyzed MRI findings for 17 children with bacterial meningitis. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images revealed meningeal enhancement at the basal cistern and/or the convex surface of the brain in 15 cases. Cerebral infarcts were found in the distribution of perforating and/or medullary arteries in four cases. In one neonatal case, venous infarction with hemorrhagic transformation was evident. Communicating hydrocephalus was noted in three cases, subdural effusion in two, subdural empyema in one, and encephalitis in one. In one neonatal case ventriculitis was found. We conclude that MRI is useful for the evaluation of the active inflammatory process of the meninges and the identification of the focal lesions in central nervous system complications. (author)

  1. [Typical findings of maltreated children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, E; Zinka, B; Schneider, K; Penning, R; Eisenmenger, W

    2006-06-15

    Childhood maltreatment manifests in a variety of forms and the underlying causes are manifold. In contrast to other offences involving physical injury, reporting behavior has, statistically speaking, remained unchanged. Patterns of injury must first be established and documented, and this involves a complete examination of the child's body. Depending on the constellation of findings, a radiological diagnosis is usually necessary. When all the findings have been collected, the further steps to be taken--where indicated a report to the police--must be discussed. All the evidence must be recorded, and photos obtained of all externally visible injuries before they fade. It is not the task of the physician to develop criminalistic ambitions, for example, by grilling (a parent) on the cause of the injuries. However, he/she has a duty to do everything necessary to protect the well-being of the child. PMID:16850804

  2. Imaging findings of retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Woo; Kim, Seung Hyup; Kim, Sun Ho; Moon, Min Hoan; Park, Byung Kwan; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Se Hyung; Jung, Sung Il [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    To characterize the typical radiologic appearance of ganglioneuromas of the adrenal gland and extra-adrenal retroperitoneum. The findings of diagnostic imaging studies (CT, n=5; ultrasound, n=1) involving six patients aged 19-58 years with pathologically proven ganglioneuroma were retrospectively analyzed by three radiologist in terms of the lesions, size, shape, margin, location, CT attenuation (unenhanced/contrast-enhanced), necrosis, calcification, relationship with adjacent vessels, and US echogenicity. The maximum diameter of the six tumors ranged from 10 to 14 (mean, 11.3) cm, and the margin was well-defined in all cases. The homogeneous or slightly heterogeneous attenuation demonstrated at unenhanced CT was less than that of muscle. Dense nodular calcification was present in one case. At contrast-enhanced CT, enhancement was poor (n=5), mild and septum-like, or delayed, heterogeneous and focal (n=3), or involved subtle foci (n=1). In no case was there evidence of necrosis or hemorrhage. Local invasion was absent, but adjacent vascular encasement (n=2) or displacement (n=2) occurred. Ultrasonic examination demonstrated low echogenicity and mild heterogeneity (n=1). A ganglioneuroma is an uncommon benign neural crest tumor which should be included in the differential diagnosis of a retroperitoneal mass which presents as a well-defined tumor, tend to encase or displace adjacent major blood vessels, and shows low attenuation at unenhanced CT and poor or septum-like focal enhancement at contrast-enhanced CT.

  3. Imaging findings of retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterize the typical radiologic appearance of ganglioneuromas of the adrenal gland and extra-adrenal retroperitoneum. The findings of diagnostic imaging studies (CT, n=5; ultrasound, n=1) involving six patients aged 19-58 years with pathologically proven ganglioneuroma were retrospectively analyzed by three radiologist in terms of the lesions, size, shape, margin, location, CT attenuation (unenhanced/contrast-enhanced), necrosis, calcification, relationship with adjacent vessels, and US echogenicity. The maximum diameter of the six tumors ranged from 10 to 14 (mean, 11.3) cm, and the margin was well-defined in all cases. The homogeneous or slightly heterogeneous attenuation demonstrated at unenhanced CT was less than that of muscle. Dense nodular calcification was present in one case. At contrast-enhanced CT, enhancement was poor (n=5), mild and septum-like, or delayed, heterogeneous and focal (n=3), or involved subtle foci (n=1). In no case was there evidence of necrosis or hemorrhage. Local invasion was absent, but adjacent vascular encasement (n=2) or displacement (n=2) occurred. Ultrasonic examination demonstrated low echogenicity and mild heterogeneity (n=1). A ganglioneuroma is an uncommon benign neural crest tumor which should be included in the differential diagnosis of a retroperitoneal mass which presents as a well-defined tumor, tend to encase or displace adjacent major blood vessels, and shows low attenuation at unenhanced CT and poor or septum-like focal enhancement at contrast-enhanced CT

  4. Antibiotic susceptibility and imaging findings of the causative microorganisms responsible for acute urinary tract infection in children: a five-year single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Yoon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : We studied the differences in the antibiotic susceptibilities of the microorganisms that causeing urinary tract infections (UTI in children to obtain useful information on appropriate drug selection for childhood UTI. Methods : We retrospectively analyzed the antibiotic susceptibilities of 429 microorganisms isolated from 900 patients diagnosed with UTI in the Department of Pediatrics, Chungbuk National University Hospital, from 2003 to 2008. Results : The most common causative microorganisms for UTI were Escherichia coli (81.4%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.4%, Enterobacter spp. (1.7%, and Proteus spp. (0.4%. E. coli showed relatively high susceptibility as compared to imipenem (100%, amikacin (97.7%, aztreonam (97.9%, cefepime (97.7%, and ceftriaxone (97.1%, while it showed relatively low susceptibility to gentamicin (GM (79.0%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX (68.7%, ampicillin/sulbactam (33.0%, and ampicillin (AMP (28.6%. There were no significant differences in the image findings for causative microorganisms. Conclusion : Gram-negative organisms showed high susceptibility to amikacin and third-generation cephalosporins, and low susceptibility to AMP, GM, and TMP/SMX. Therefore, the use of AMP or TMP/SMX as the first choice in empirical and prophylactic treatment of childhood UTI in Korea should be reconsidered and investigated further.

  5. Imaging Findings of Hip Joint Tuberculosis of Children%小儿髋关节结核的影像学表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈久尊; 何家维; 郭安娜; 严志汉; 陈伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨小儿髋关节结核的影像学表现.方法 回顾性分析24例小儿髋关节结核病例的X线、CT、MRI影像资料.结果 病变多累及单侧关节,男孩多见,早期主要表现关节囊和周围软组织肿胀,关节腔积液,病变进展到中后期,主要表现骨质巯松,髋臼及股骨头骨骺破坏,冷脓肿形成并呈流注样扩散,肉芽组织形成,晚期表现为股骨头坏死,关节畸形、脱位及强直等.结论 MRI对于髋关节早期软组织病变,关节积液、脓肿,以及软骨破坏等敏感,X线片对于整体观察骨质疏松、骨质破坏,及关节脱位等有价值,CT能发现细微的骨破坏病灶及死骨等,3种检查方法合理选择,有助于病变早期诊断和长期随访观察.%Objective To study the imaging findings of hip joint tuberculosis of children. Methods Imaging data of X - ray, CT and MRI of 24 cases with hip joint tuberculosis of children were analyzed retrospectively. Results Lesions involeved more than a single, more in boys. Early main manifestations were the swelling of the joint capsule and the soft tissue around and the articular cavity effusion. When disease progressing to later period, the main manife stations were osteoporosis, the destruction of acetabulum and osteoepiphysis of caput femoris, the formation of cold abscess spreading like flow column samples and the formation of granulation tissue. The late manifestations were the necrosis of caput femoris, the joint deformities, dislocation and stiffness and so on. Conclusion MRI is a sensitive examination in the early soft tissue lesions, the joint effusion, abscess and the destruction of cartilage. X - ray is an valuable examination in osteoporosis, bone destruction and dislocation of joint. CT can discover the tiny lesions of bone destruction, sequestrum and so on. A reasonable choice of these three examinations is in favor of the early diagnosis of lesions and long - term follow - up.

  6. Ophthalmological findings in children and adolescents with Silver Russell Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson Gronlund, Marita; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Aring, Eva; Kraemer, Maria; Hellstrom, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To evaluate ophthalmological findings in children with Silver Russell Syndrome (SRS). Methods: An ophthalmological evaluation including visual acuity (VA), refraction, strabismus, near point of convergence (NPC), slit-lamp examination, ophthalmoscopy, axial length measurements, and full-field electroretinogram was performed on 18 children with SRS (8 girls, 10 boys; mean age 11.6 years). Fundus photographs were taken for digital image analysis. Data were compared ...

  7. Cutaneous findings of nutritional deficiencies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goskowicz, M; Eichenfield, L F

    1993-08-01

    Nutritional deficiencies may be associated with a variety of cutaneous findings in children. This review emphasizes new developments relating to cutaneous findings of nutritional deficiencies. Zinc deficiency, acrodermatitis enteropathica, and acrodermatitis enteropathica-like eruptions are seen with a variety of conditions including cystic fibrosis, anorexia nervosa, and breastfeeding. Similar cutaneous findings not related to zinc deficiency may also occur with such metabolic disorders as methylmalonic aciduria, multiple carboxylase deficiency, essential fatty acid deficiency and other amino acid deficiencies. Vitamin K deficiency is associated with hemorrhagic disease of the newborn and coagulopathy. Vitamin A deficiency presents with a variety of systemic findings and distinctive dermatologic findings. Acute vitamin A deficiency may be seen in children infected with measles and is associated with more severe disease. The systemic and cutaneous findings of vitamin C deficiency, scurvy, are discussed. PMID:8374671

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in adnexial torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trindade, Ronald Meira Castro; Quadros, Marianne Siquara de [Hospital Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa], e-mail: rtrindade@einstein.br; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb; Rosemberg, Michelle; Racy, Marcelo de Castro Jorge; Tachibana, Adriano [Hospital Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao [Hospital Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Imaging Service

    2010-01-15

    Adnexial torsion is an unusual event, but a major cause of abdominal pain in women. It is often associated with ovarian tumor or cyst, but can occur in normal ovaries, especially in children. The twisting of adnexial structures may involve the ovary or tube, but frequently affects both. In most cases, it is unilateral, with slight predilection for the right size. In imaging findings, increased ovarian volume and adnexial masses are observed, with reduced or absent vascularisation. In cases of undiagnosed or untreated complete twist, hemorrhagic necrosis may occur leading to complications; in that, peritonitis is the most frequent. Early diagnosis helps preventing irreversible damage with conservative treatment, thereby saving the ovary. Limitations in performing physical examination, possible inconclusive results in ultrasound and exposure to radiation in computed tomography makes magnetic resonance imaging a valuable tool in emergency assessment of gynecological diseases. The objective of this study was to report two confirmed cases of adnexial twist, emphasizing the contribution of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of this condition. (author)

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in adnexial torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnexial torsion is an unusual event, but a major cause of abdominal pain in women. It is often associated with ovarian tumor or cyst, but can occur in normal ovaries, especially in children. The twisting of adnexial structures may involve the ovary or tube, but frequently affects both. In most cases, it is unilateral, with slight predilection for the right size. In imaging findings, increased ovarian volume and adnexial masses are observed, with reduced or absent vascularisation. In cases of undiagnosed or untreated complete twist, hemorrhagic necrosis may occur leading to complications; in that, peritonitis is the most frequent. Early diagnosis helps preventing irreversible damage with conservative treatment, thereby saving the ovary. Limitations in performing physical examination, possible inconclusive results in ultrasound and exposure to radiation in computed tomography makes magnetic resonance imaging a valuable tool in emergency assessment of gynecological diseases. The objective of this study was to report two confirmed cases of adnexial twist, emphasizing the contribution of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of this condition. (author)

  10. Imaging findings of perineal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The perineum is defined as the region of body below the pelvic diaphragm that lies within the boundaries of the pelvic outlet. It is the region which is home to pathologic conditions which include primary tumors, neoplasms of adjacent organs with secondary involvement, congenital or acquired cystic lesions and inflammatory lesions. In this article, we describe CT and MR imaging anatomy and various pathologic processes that affect this anatomic region, with a brief discussion. Emphasis is given to imaging features that help to characterize specific lesions

  11. Imaging findings of perineal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Rae; Park, Hae Won; Kook, Shin Ho; Lee, Chang Suk [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    The perineum is defined as the region of body below the pelvic diaphragm that lies within the boundaries of the pelvic outlet. It is the region which is home to pathologic conditions which include primary tumors, neoplasms of adjacent organs with secondary involvement, congenital or acquired cystic lesions and inflammatory lesions. In this article, we describe CT and MR imaging anatomy and various pathologic processes that affect this anatomic region, with a brief discussion. Emphasis is given to imaging features that help to characterize specific lesions.

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) abdominal ultrasound imaging produces pictures ...

  13. Cervical myelopathy: magnetic imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    69 patients with clinical signs of cervical myelopathy were examined using magnetic imaging (T1- and T2-suspended tomograms of the sagittal and transverse section using a device with 0.04 T field intensity). Vertebral disk hernias were revealed in 35 patients, compression of the spinal cord with metastases into vertebral body in 2, extramedullary tumor in 11, intramedullary tumor in 9, and syringomyelia in 12 patients. T2-suspended tomograms proved to be more informative due to their higher sensitivity to aqueous content. T1-suspended tomograms help assess the degree of spinal cord compression and the direction of the disk protrusion. Magnetic imaging is an informative method used for objective identification of the cases of myelopathy of cervical localization

  14. A spectrum of neuroradiological findings in children with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Weon, Young Cheol [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2007-11-15

    Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare multisystem disorder. CNS involvement is a frequent and poor prognostic component. Better neuroradiological surveillance may be beneficial for patient management and outcome. To describe various neuroradiological findings in nine patients with HLH with an emphasis on correlation with disease activity and treatment response. Between 1996 and 2007, nine children with HLH with CNS involvement were identified in a single centre. Neuroradiological findings from CT, MRI, and proton MR spectroscopy, and the clinical records of the nine children were retrospectively reviewed. The frequency, distribution, characteristics of abnormal neuroradiological findings and changes during follow-up were correlated with clinical findings. Initial abnormal findings included multiple nodular or ring-enhancing parenchymal lesions, a laminated pattern of nodular parenchymal lesions on T2-weighted images, leptomeningeal enhancement, confluent parenchymal lesions, mild ventriculomegaly, and diffuse brain oedema. On follow-up imaging studies, haemorrhagic transformation and atrophy were seen where brain parenchymal lesions had been previously. These abnormal neuroradiological findings showed good correlation with clinical findings. Proton MR spectroscopy also demonstrated typical changes of metabolites during the course of the disease. A spectrum of neuroradiological findings in children with HLH is well matched with the clinical course of the disease and, therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the findings is useful to monitor disease activity and treatment responses. (orig.)

  15. Fungal myositis in children: serial ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin Soo [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children. Eleven lesions caused by fungal myositis and occurring in six children were included in this study. Eight lesions in five children were histopathologically proven and the other three were clinically diagnosed. Serial ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of size, location, margin, internal echotexture and adjacent cortical change occurring during the follow-up period ranging from five days to two months. Three patients (50%) had multiple lesions. The sites of involvment were the thigh (n=4), calf (n=3), chest wall (n=2), abdominal wall (n=1) and forearm (n=1). Initially, diffuse muscular swelling was revealed, with ill-defined hypoechoic lesions confined to the muscle layer (n=8). Follow-up examination of eight lesions over a period of 5-10 days showed that round central echogenic lesions were surrounded by previous slightly echogenic lesions (n=6, 75%). Long-term follow-up of five lesions over a two-month period revealed periosteal thickening in one case (20%), and the peristence of echogenic solid nodules in four (80%). Pathologic examination showed that the central lesions correlated with a fungus ball and the peripheral slightly echogenic lesions corresponded to hematoma and necrosis. Serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children revealed relatively constant features in each case. In particular, the findings of muscular necrosis and a fungus ball over a period of 5-14 days were thought to be characteristic.

  16. Costomammary Hydatid Disease: Imaging Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Durur-Subasi, Irmak; Akcay, Mufide Nuran; Demirci, Elif; Subasi, Mahmut; Eroglu, Atilla; Alper, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    A suspicious non-calcified mass found during mammography that appears to be solid on sonography may represent a malignant lesion, such as an invasive ductal, mucinous or medullary carcinoma, or an uncommon benign lesion, such as a phylloides tumour, tubular adenoma, fat necrosis, adenosis or haemangioma. We report a case of hydatid disease with rib and breast involvement. Breast MRI findings are discussed. To our knowledge there have been no previous reported cases of primary breast and rib h...

  17. Infantile encephalitic beriberi: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiamine deficiency in infants is still encountered in developing countries. It may present with acute neurological manifestations of infantile encephalitic beriberi. To review brain MRI findings in infantile encephalitic beriberi from a single institution. A retrospective review of MRI scans in 22 infants with acute-onset beriberi encephalopathy was carried out. Hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted images were seen symmetrically in the putamen in all patients, in the caudate nuclei in 16/22 (73%), the thalami in 7/22 (32%) and the globi pallidi in 3/22 (14%) of the infants. Altered signal intensity lesions in the cerebral cortex were seen in 7/22 (32%). The mammillary bodies were seen in one infant and the periaqueductal gray matter in two. There was restricted diffusion in 14/22 (64%), and 6/8 children with no evidence of restriction had been imaged ≥10 days after presentation. MR spectroscopy showed increased lactate peak in 6/8 infants (75%). Recognition of symmetrical T2-W hyperintense lesions in the basal ganglia with restricted diffusion and prominent lactate peak may allow early diagnosis of encephalitic beriberi in at-risk infants. (orig.)

  18. Infantile encephalitic beriberi: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wani, Nisar A. [Government Medical College Srinagar, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Jammu and Kashmir, Pin (India); Qureshi, Umar A.; Ahmad, Kaiser; Ahmad, Waseem [Government Medical College Srinagar, Department of Pediatrics, Jammu and Kashmir (India); Jehangir, Majid [Government Medical College Srinagar, Department of Radiology, Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    2016-01-15

    Thiamine deficiency in infants is still encountered in developing countries. It may present with acute neurological manifestations of infantile encephalitic beriberi. To review brain MRI findings in infantile encephalitic beriberi from a single institution. A retrospective review of MRI scans in 22 infants with acute-onset beriberi encephalopathy was carried out. Hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted images were seen symmetrically in the putamen in all patients, in the caudate nuclei in 16/22 (73%), the thalami in 7/22 (32%) and the globi pallidi in 3/22 (14%) of the infants. Altered signal intensity lesions in the cerebral cortex were seen in 7/22 (32%). The mammillary bodies were seen in one infant and the periaqueductal gray matter in two. There was restricted diffusion in 14/22 (64%), and 6/8 children with no evidence of restriction had been imaged ≥10 days after presentation. MR spectroscopy showed increased lactate peak in 6/8 infants (75%). Recognition of symmetrical T2-W hyperintense lesions in the basal ganglia with restricted diffusion and prominent lactate peak may allow early diagnosis of encephalitic beriberi in at-risk infants. (orig.)

  19. Correlation of Imaging Findings with Pathologic Findings of Sclerosing Adenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bo Bae; Shu, Kwang Sun [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mammographic and sonographic findings of pure sclerosing adenosis. We retrospectively reviewed the mammographic and sonographic findings in 40 cases of pure sclerosing adenosis confirmed by core needle biopsy (n = 23), vacuum-assisted biopsy (n = 7), excision biopsy (n = 9), and lumpectomy (n = 1) from January 2002 to March 2010. All imaging findings were analyzed according to the American College of Radiology (ACR) breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS). Radiologic features were correlated with pathologic findings. Although most mammograms showed negative findings (57%), calcification was the most common abnormal finding of sclerosing adenosis. On sonography, the most common finding was a circumscribed oval hypoechoic mass without posterior features (78%). Most masses showed BI-RADS category 3, (75%, 27/36). Five cases showed categories 4 or 5 (14%, 5/36). Most mammographic and sonographic findings of sclerosing adenosis are non-specific and non-pathognomonic, even though sometimes sclerosing adenosis can be radiologically or histopathologically confused with malignancy

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of the abdomen ... limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  1. CT findings in children with Meckel diverticulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Doug E.; Donnelly, Lane F. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kim, Yong-Woo [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Approximately 0.04% of the general population will present with a complication related to Meckel diverticulum. The classic teaching is that symptomatic children with Meckel diverticulum present with painless rectal bleeding and are evaluated with a radionuclide scan. Our subjective experience is that we see children with Meckel diverticulum who present with abdominal pain and are evaluated by CT. We reviewed the findings on CT in children with pathologically proven Meckel diverticulum to identify characteristic patterns of presentation. Databases were searched (2004-2008) for all children who had a pathologic diagnosis of Meckel diverticulum and a CT scan performed prior to surgery. Demographics, pathology, and CT features were reviewed. CT features reviewed included: soft-tissue stranding, abnormal calcifications, bowel obstruction, free air, free peritoneal fluid, cystic mass, intussusception, obvious lead point, location, and whether a normal appendix was identified. The frequency of Meckel diverticulum encountered on CT scans was compared to that found during the same period of time on technetium pertechnetate studies. The review identified 16 subjects (mean age 9.5 years, M:F 9:7). CT findings included: soft-tissue stranding in nine (56%), small-bowel obstruction (SBO) in nine (56%), intussusception in three (19%), free fluid in ten (63%), cystic mass in four (25%), calcification in none (0%), free air in one (6%), and no abnormalities in two (13%). A normal appendix was identified in only five children (31%). There were three basic patterns of presentation of abnormalities: SBO only in five, intussusception with SBO in three, or cystic mass with inflammatory stranding in four (one with SBO). Also, 2.3 times more Meckel diverticulum was encountered on CT than on technetium pertechnetate studies. Meckel diverticulum is currently more commonly encountered in children on CT performed for abdominal pain than on technetium pertechnetate studies. There are three

  2. CT findings in children with Meckel diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 0.04% of the general population will present with a complication related to Meckel diverticulum. The classic teaching is that symptomatic children with Meckel diverticulum present with painless rectal bleeding and are evaluated with a radionuclide scan. Our subjective experience is that we see children with Meckel diverticulum who present with abdominal pain and are evaluated by CT. We reviewed the findings on CT in children with pathologically proven Meckel diverticulum to identify characteristic patterns of presentation. Databases were searched (2004-2008) for all children who had a pathologic diagnosis of Meckel diverticulum and a CT scan performed prior to surgery. Demographics, pathology, and CT features were reviewed. CT features reviewed included: soft-tissue stranding, abnormal calcifications, bowel obstruction, free air, free peritoneal fluid, cystic mass, intussusception, obvious lead point, location, and whether a normal appendix was identified. The frequency of Meckel diverticulum encountered on CT scans was compared to that found during the same period of time on technetium pertechnetate studies. The review identified 16 subjects (mean age 9.5 years, M:F 9:7). CT findings included: soft-tissue stranding in nine (56%), small-bowel obstruction (SBO) in nine (56%), intussusception in three (19%), free fluid in ten (63%), cystic mass in four (25%), calcification in none (0%), free air in one (6%), and no abnormalities in two (13%). A normal appendix was identified in only five children (31%). There were three basic patterns of presentation of abnormalities: SBO only in five, intussusception with SBO in three, or cystic mass with inflammatory stranding in four (one with SBO). Also, 2.3 times more Meckel diverticulum was encountered on CT than on technetium pertechnetate studies. Meckel diverticulum is currently more commonly encountered in children on CT performed for abdominal pain than on technetium pertechnetate studies. There are three

  3. Pseudomembranous colitis: CT findings in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectrum of nodular haustral thickening and an 'accordion' pattern have been reported as specific features of pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) in adults. A retrospective review of nine patients with PMC was performed to assess whether this spectrum of CT findings also occurred in children. In four girls and five boys, CT scans were performed within 3 days of a positive stool toxin assay for Clostridium difficile. Documented CT abnormalities included nodular haustral thickening, the 'accordion' pattern, colonic wall thickening, ascites, and pericolonic edema. These results were then correlated as to their impact on the clinical outcome. Circumferential colon wall thickening was identified in 7/9 (78%) patients (mean thickening 14.5 mm). Nodular haustral thickening was identified in 4/9 (44%) and the 'accordion' pattern in 2/9 (22%). Other findings included pericolonic edema in 3/9 (33%) and ascites in 1/9 (11%). Wall thickening was confined to the left colon and rectum in 2/9 (22%), to the right colon in 2/9 (22%), and involved the whole colon in 3/9 (33%). Although CT findings associated with PMC in children may be suggestive for this diagnosis, CT is less specific than laboratory and clinical findings. (orig.)

  4. Pseudomembranous colitis: CT findings in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blickman, J.G. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Boland, G.W.L. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Cleveland, R.H. [The Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Bramson, R.T. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Lee, M.J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    A spectrum of nodular haustral thickening and an `accordion` pattern have been reported as specific features of pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) in adults. A retrospective review of nine patients with PMC was performed to assess whether this spectrum of CT findings also occurred in children. In four girls and five boys, CT scans were performed within 3 days of a positive stool toxin assay for Clostridium difficile. Documented CT abnormalities included nodular haustral thickening, the `accordion` pattern, colonic wall thickening, ascites, and pericolonic edema. These results were then correlated as to their impact on the clinical outcome. Circumferential colon wall thickening was identified in 7/9 (78%) patients (mean thickening 14.5 mm). Nodular haustral thickening was identified in 4/9 (44%) and the `accordion` pattern in 2/9 (22%). Other findings included pericolonic edema in 3/9 (33%) and ascites in 1/9 (11%). Wall thickening was confined to the left colon and rectum in 2/9 (22%), to the right colon in 2/9 (22%), and involved the whole colon in 3/9 (33%). Although CT findings associated with PMC in children may be suggestive for this diagnosis, CT is less specific than laboratory and clinical findings. (orig.)

  5. Pediatric renal leukemia: spectrum of CT imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kidneys are a site of extramedullary leukemic disease that can be readily detected by CT. To demonstrate the spectrum of CT findings in children with renal leukemic involvement. Twelve children were identified retrospectively as having renal leukemic involvement by contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen. Contrast-enhanced CT images through the kidneys of each patient were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists. Pertinent imaging findings and renal lengths were documented. The electronic medical record was accessed to obtain relevant clinical and pathologic information. Five patients with renal leukemic involvement presented with multiple bilateral low-attenuation masses, while three patients demonstrated large areas of wedge-shaped and geographic low attenuation. Four other patients presented with unique imaging findings, including a solitary unilateral low-attenuation mass, solitary bilateral low-attenuation masses, multiple bilateral low-attenuation masses including unilateral large conglomerate masses, and bilateral areas of ill-defined parenchymal low attenuation. Two patients showed unilateral nephromegaly, while eight other patients showed bilateral nephromegaly. Two patients had normal size kidneys. Two patients had elevated serum creatinine concentrations at the time of imaging. Renal leukemic involvement in children can present with a variety of CT imaging findings. Focal renal abnormalities as well as nephromegaly are frequently observed. Most commonly, renal leukemic involvement does not appear to impair renal function. (orig.)

  6. MRI findings in 100 epileptic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain were retrospectively reviewed in 100 consecutive pediatric patients with epilepsy in relation to the type of epilepsy and prognosis. There were 65 boys and 35 girls, ranging in age from 3 months to 25 years. Among 100 patients, 67 (a total of 102 lesions) showed abnormal findings on MRI. Morphological abnormalities, including ventricular enlargement, atrophy and malformation, were seen in 54 patients. Periventricular (n=14), frontal (n=3), temporal (n=8) and occipital (n=7) areas were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. According to the type of epilepsy, MRI abnormality was seen in 34 (61%) of 56 patients with partial seizures and 33 (76%) of 44 patients with generalized seizures. When associated with cerebral palsy and mental retardation, the incidence of MRI abnormality was high. There was no sigificant correlation between MRI findings and prognosis. (N.K.)

  7. Retroperitoneal fibrosis : spectrum of imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a fibroproliferative process involving the retroperitoneum. It may be idiopathic or can be caused by methysergide ingestion, perianeurysmal inflammation, a leaking aneurysm, urinoma or irradiation. The symptoms and signs of retroperitoneal fibrosis are variable, and for diagnosis, imaging is therefore essential. The typical imaging findings is a fibrotic lesion in front of the lower vertebrae with ureteral obstruction. Atypical lesions, however, may occur in other parts of the retroperitoneum. The aim of this report is to describe the clinical features and various imaging findings of retroperitoneal fibrosis

  8. MR imaging findings of trigger thumb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chen, Karen C.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, Radiology Service, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Trigger finger (or trigger thumb), also known as sclerosing tenosynovitis, is a common clinical diagnosis that rarely presents for imaging. Because of this selection bias, many radiologists may not be familiar with the process. Furthermore, patients who do present for imaging frequently have misleading examination indications. To our knowledge, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of trigger thumb have not been previously reported in the literature. In this article, we review the entity of trigger thumb, the anatomy involved, and associated imaging findings, which include flexor pollicis longus tendinosis with a distinct nodule, A1 pulley thickening, and tenosynovitis. In addition, in some cases, an abnormal Av pulley is apparent. In the rare cases of trigger finger that present for MR imaging, accurate diagnosis by the radiologist can allow initiation of treatment and avoid further unnecessary workup. (orig.)

  9. Radiographic findings in late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia: helpful imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzzafar, Sofia; Swischuk, Leonard E.; Jadhav, Siddharth P. [University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Galveston, TX (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Imaging findings in delayed presentation of congenital diaphragmatic hernia can be confusing and misleading, resulting in a delay in diagnosis. To evaluate the often puzzling plain film findings of late-presenting CDH in an effort to determine whether any of the findings could be helpful in arriving at an early diagnosis. We reviewed and documented the plain film findings and clinical data in eight patients seen during the last 20 years with late-presenting CDH. IRB exempt status was obtained in this study. There were five boys and three girls. The age range was 4 months to 12 years with a mean of 2.4 years. Five children presented with acute respiratory problems while three presented with acute abdominal pain. Two children presented with both respiratory and abdominal findings and one also presented with hematemesis. Two children had radiographic findings that were not difficult to analyze while the remaining six had findings that posed initial diagnostic problems. Although not common, late-presenting CDH can result in confusing plain film radiographic findings and a delay in diagnosis. We found that the most important finding in analyzing these radiographs is in evaluating the location and position of the gastric bubble with the more common left-side hernias. (orig.)

  10. Neuroimaging findings in children with retinopathy-confirmed cerebral malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe brain CT findings in retinopathy-confirmed, paediatric cerebral malaria. Materials and methods: In this outcomes study of paediatric cerebral malaria, a subset of children with protracted coma during initial presentation was scanned acutely. Survivors experiencing adverse neurological outcomes also underwent a head CT. All children had ophthalmological examination to confirm the presence of the retinopathy specific for cerebral malaria. Independent interpretation of CT images was provided by two neuroradiologists. Results: Acute brain CT findings in three children included diffuse oedema with obstructive hydrocephalus (2), acute cerebral infarctions in multiple large vessel distributions with secondary oedema and herniation (1), and oedema of thalamic grey matter (1). One child who was reportedly normal prior to admission had parenchymal atrophy suggestive of pre-existing CNS injury. Among 56 survivors (9-84 months old), 15 had adverse neurologic outcomes-11/15 had a follow-up head CT, 3/15 died and 1/15 refused CT. Follow-up head CTs obtained 7-18 months after the acute infection revealed focal and multifocal lobar atrophy correlating to regions affected by focal seizures during the acute infection (5/11). Other findings were communicating hydrocephalus (2/11), vermian atrophy (1/11) and normal studies (3/11). Conclusions: The identification of pre-existing imaging abnormalities in acute cerebral malaria suggests that population-based studies are required to establish the rate and nature of incidental imaging abnormalities in Malawi. Children with focal seizures during acute cerebral malaria developed focal cortical atrophy in these regions at follow-up. Longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate mechanisms of CNS injury and death in this common fatal disease.

  11. Neuroimaging findings in children with retinopathy-confirmed cerebral malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potchen, Michael J. [Michigan State University, Department of Radiology, 184 Radiology Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1303 (United States)], E-mail: mjp@rad.msu.edu; Birbeck, Gretchen L. [Michigan State University, International Neurologic and Psychiatric Epidemiology Program, 324 West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)], E-mail: Gretchen.Birbeck@ht.msu.edu; DeMarco, J. Kevin [Michigan State University, Department of Radiology, 184 Radiology Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1303 (United States)], E-mail: jkd@rad.msu.edu; Kampondeni, Sam D. [University of Malawi, Department of Radiology, Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre (Malawi)], E-mail: kamponde@msu.edu; Beare, Nicholas [St. Paul' s Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nbeare@btinternet.com; Molyneux, Malcolm E. [Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, College of Medicine (Malawi); School of Tropical Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mmolyneux999@google.com; Taylor, Terrie E. [Michigan State University, College of Osteopathic Medicine, B309-B West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); University of Malawi, College of Medicine, Blantyre Malaria Project, Blantyre (Malawi)], E-mail: taylort@msu.edu

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To describe brain CT findings in retinopathy-confirmed, paediatric cerebral malaria. Materials and methods: In this outcomes study of paediatric cerebral malaria, a subset of children with protracted coma during initial presentation was scanned acutely. Survivors experiencing adverse neurological outcomes also underwent a head CT. All children had ophthalmological examination to confirm the presence of the retinopathy specific for cerebral malaria. Independent interpretation of CT images was provided by two neuroradiologists. Results: Acute brain CT findings in three children included diffuse oedema with obstructive hydrocephalus (2), acute cerebral infarctions in multiple large vessel distributions with secondary oedema and herniation (1), and oedema of thalamic grey matter (1). One child who was reportedly normal prior to admission had parenchymal atrophy suggestive of pre-existing CNS injury. Among 56 survivors (9-84 months old), 15 had adverse neurologic outcomes-11/15 had a follow-up head CT, 3/15 died and 1/15 refused CT. Follow-up head CTs obtained 7-18 months after the acute infection revealed focal and multifocal lobar atrophy correlating to regions affected by focal seizures during the acute infection (5/11). Other findings were communicating hydrocephalus (2/11), vermian atrophy (1/11) and normal studies (3/11). Conclusions: The identification of pre-existing imaging abnormalities in acute cerebral malaria suggests that population-based studies are required to establish the rate and nature of incidental imaging abnormalities in Malawi. Children with focal seizures during acute cerebral malaria developed focal cortical atrophy in these regions at follow-up. Longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate mechanisms of CNS injury and death in this common fatal disease.

  12. Local complications of hydatid disease involving thoracic cavity: Imaging findings

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    Turgut, A.T. [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ahmettuncayturgut@yahoo.com; Altinok, T. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Topcu, S. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli University, Izmit (Turkey); Kosar, U. [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-04-15

    Hydatid disease, a worldwide zoonosis, is caused by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm. Although it can involve almost every organ of the body, lung involvement follows in frequency the hepatic infestation in adults and is the predominating site in children. Radiologically, hydatidosis usually demonstrates typical findings, but many patients are at risk of developing various complications of hydatid disease with atypical imaging findings and these are rarely described in the literature. In this pictorial review, the imaging features of local complications of hydatid disease involving the thorax including intrapulmonary or pleural rupture, infection of the ruptured cysts, reactions of the adjacent tissues, thoracic wall invasion and iatrogenic involvement of pleura are described. Additionally, imaging characteristics of transdiaphragmatic thoracic involvement of hepatic hydatid disease are presented. To prevent the development of subsequent catastrophic results, all radiologists need to be aware of the atypical imaging appearances of complications of pulmonary hydatid disease.

  13. Local complications of hydatid disease involving thoracic cavity: Imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydatid disease, a worldwide zoonosis, is caused by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm. Although it can involve almost every organ of the body, lung involvement follows in frequency the hepatic infestation in adults and is the predominating site in children. Radiologically, hydatidosis usually demonstrates typical findings, but many patients are at risk of developing various complications of hydatid disease with atypical imaging findings and these are rarely described in the literature. In this pictorial review, the imaging features of local complications of hydatid disease involving the thorax including intrapulmonary or pleural rupture, infection of the ruptured cysts, reactions of the adjacent tissues, thoracic wall invasion and iatrogenic involvement of pleura are described. Additionally, imaging characteristics of transdiaphragmatic thoracic involvement of hepatic hydatid disease are presented. To prevent the development of subsequent catastrophic results, all radiologists need to be aware of the atypical imaging appearances of complications of pulmonary hydatid disease.

  14. Infratentorial oligodendrogliomas: Imaging findings in six patients

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    Lee, In Ho; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Keon Ha; Jeon, Pyoung; Byun, Hong Sik (Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)), e-mail: femidas@naver.com; Suh, Yeon-Lim (Dept. of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea))

    2010-03-15

    Background: Oligodendrogliomas are primarily supratentorial tumors. However, infrequently, they can also arise from infratentorial structures. There are only limited numbers of radiological articles on the specific imaging findings of this entity. Purpose: To investigate the imaging findings of infratentorial oligodendrogliomas. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical records of six patients with pathologically proven infratentorial oligodendrogliomas between December 1994 and April 2008. Tumor location, circumscription, signal intensity (SI), enhancement pattern, the presence of restricted diffusion, and the change of the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) on MRI were evaluated. Results: In total, six patients (three male, three female; mean age 65 years, range 51-75 years) were included. The pathology revealed anaplastic oligodendrogliomas in all six patients. The location was cerebellum in four patients, medulla in one patient, and fourth ventricle and tegmentum in one patient. Three of them were of the infiltrative type, and the other three of the mass-forming type. The solid component of the tumors showed high SI (n=6) on FLAIR and T2-weighted images, and low (n=5) or iso (n=1) SI on T1-weighted images. All infiltrative lesions showed multifocal patchy enhancement, and mass-forming lesions showed heterogeneous enhancement (n=2) and diffuse homogeneous enhancement (n=1). Three patients had restricted diffusion, and one had leptomeningeal seeding. There was markedly increased rCBV on perfusion-weighted image (PWI) in one patient. Calcification or hemorrhage was not found. Tumor progression after operation, radiation therapy, gamma-knife surgery, or chemotherapy developed in five patients. Conclusion: Although infratentorial oligodendrogliomas did not show characteristic imaging findings, there was a tendency toward multifocal heterogeneous enhancement and absent or mild mass effect of

  15. MR findings of ADEM in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate MR characteristics of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in children, which was confirmed by clinical findings. The subjects were six patients, who were diagnosed by clinical findings. One subject had recurrence one year after clinical improvement leading to one additional care with the total of seven. The modes of viral infections were as follows; four cases of non-specific upper respiratory tract infection, one of E-B virus, one f Japanese-B-encephalitis vaccination, and one of upper respiratory infection in Bruton's disease. The Gd-DTPA enhanced scan was performed in all cases. MR findings were evaluated in anatomic location of the lesions, presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the temporal changes were also evaluated on follow-up MRI. There were multifocal high signal intensity lesions on T2WI in all cases. The location of lesions were basal ganglia in five, thalamus and brain stem in four, and cerebral gray and white matter and cerebellar white matter in three. Bilaterality was 77%. There were contrast enhancement in two of three cerebral cortical lesions and one of three white matter lesions. The size of lesions decreased on the first follow-up MRI which were done after 1 month in 4 cases, but new lesions were developed in two cases. On the second follow-up MRI which were done 2 months after, all lesions were decreased in size and there was no newly developed lesion. However, in one case who had recurrent similar symptom after 1 year, several new lesions developed on follow-up MRI, and it was comidened as a recurrence. The characteristic MR findings of ADEM were multifocal bilateral white and gray matter lesions which were high signal intensities on T2WI. The majority of lesions improved on follow-up MRI, but occasionally showed multiphasic pattern

  16. MR findings of ADEM in children

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    Goo, Dong Erk; Ko, Ki Young; Yoo, Shi Joon; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Suh, Dae Chul; Choi, Hyo Kyeong [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hae Young [Ewha University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choun Sik [Young Dong Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    To evaluate MR characteristics of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in children, which was confirmed by clinical findings. The subjects were six patients, who were diagnosed by clinical findings. One subject had recurrence one year after clinical improvement leading to one additional care with the total of seven. The modes of viral infections were as follows; four cases of non-specific upper respiratory tract infection, one of E-B virus, one f Japanese-B-encephalitis vaccination, and one of upper respiratory infection in Bruton's disease. The Gd-DTPA enhanced scan was performed in all cases. MR findings were evaluated in anatomic location of the lesions, presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the temporal changes were also evaluated on follow-up MRI. There were multifocal high signal intensity lesions on T2WI in all cases. The location of lesions were basal ganglia in five, thalamus and brain stem in four, and cerebral gray and white matter and cerebellar white matter in three. Bilaterality was 77%. There were contrast enhancement in two of three cerebral cortical lesions and one of three white matter lesions. The size of lesions decreased on the first follow-up MRI which were done after 1 month in 4 cases, but new lesions were developed in two cases. On the second follow-up MRI which were done 2 months after, all lesions were decreased in size and there was no newly developed lesion. However, in one case who had recurrent similar symptom after 1 year, several new lesions developed on follow-up MRI, and it was comidened as a recurrence. The characteristic MR findings of ADEM were multifocal bilateral white and gray matter lesions which were high signal intensities on T2WI. The majority of lesions improved on follow-up MRI, but occasionally showed multiphasic pattern.

  17. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging signs and clinical findings in follow-up examinations in children and juveniles with temporomandibular joint involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to analyze the extent to which pathological findings of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up examinations are correlated with clinical symptoms in patients with TMJ involvement in juvenile ideopathic arthritis (JIA) over time. Data from 34 patients with TMJ involvement in JIA was retrospectively examined. Shortly after two clinical examinations, the first MRI and the follow-up MRI were performed. The MRI examinations took place with 1.5 T MRI. In both MRI examinations alterations on the condyle (MRI1: 88 %, MRT2: 91 %) and contrast enhancement (MRT1: 76 %, MRT2 65 %) were found most frequently. TMJ pain (65 %) and lower mouth opening capacity (65 %) were the number one finding in the first clinical examination. A statistically significant correlation was found between the alterations on the condyle and TMJ pain (p = 0.025) and between the alterations on the condyle and lower mouth opening capacity (p = 0.019). By comparing the results of the first MRI with the results of the follow-up MRI, we identified a trend towards a progression of TMJ arthritis, while the clinical follow-up showed an improvement in most patients. We found a discrepancy between the progressive or stable trends of pathological findings in follow-up MRI and the decrease in clinical symptoms over time. Therefore, follow-up examination by MRI shows important information for correct evaluation about the stage of TMJ arthritis and about the need for treatment. Consequently, follow-up examination by MRI is an appropriate addition to clinical examination in the therapeutic concept. (orig.)

  18. Iron overload following bone marrow transplantation in children: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of post-transfusional iron overload in children after bone marrow transplantation by reviewing their magnetic resonance imaging (MR) findings. Materials and methods. We reviewed the abdominal MR studies of 13 children after autologous bone marrow transplantation. Nine of the children had also undergone MR prior to transplantation. Iron deposition in the liver, spleen and bone marrow was graded semi-quantitatively on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Serum ferritin levels and number of blood units given after bone marrow transplantation were recorded. Results. None of the pre-transplantation MR studies revealed iron overload. After bone marrow transplantation, three children showed normal liver and spleen. Iron overload in the liver was noted in ten patients (77 %), six of whom also showed iron overload in the spleen (46 %) and five in the bone marrow (38.5 %). The degree of hepatic iron overload was correlated significantly and splenic iron overload was correlated weakly with the number of blood transfusions (P 0.01 and P > 0.01, respectively), but neither was correlated with the serum ferritin level. Conclusion. Iron overload commonly accompanies bone marrow transplantation. The observed pattern of iron deposition, in which the spleen was uninvolved in 40 % of patients demonstrating iron overload, is not typical of post-transfusional hemochromatosis. (orig.)

  19. Imaging Findings of Primary Tubal Malignancy

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    Nam, Sang Been; Park, Jun Young; Park, Dong Hee; Kim, Kie Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyoung Sik [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    To describe the radiologic findings of primary tubal malignancy. This study described the imaging findings of 27 patients with 28 cases of primary tubal malignancy. Of the 27 patients examined, 23 underwent CT, 3 underwent MRI and 4 underwent ultrasonography. Image findings were analyzed according to size, proportion of cyst, shape, and associated findings of tumor. The mean tumor diameter was 5.3 cm (range 2.0-13.1 cm). According to proportion of cyst within the tumor, each case was categorized in one of the four types: 10 cases (35.7%) of type I ({>=} 75 of cystic portion), 2 cases (7.1%) of type II (50-75%), 3 cases (10.7%) of type III (25-50%) and 13 cases (46.4%) of type IV ({<=} 25%). According to the shape of the tumor, 7 cases (25%) were round, 12 cases (42.9%) were lobular, and 9 cases (32.1%) were tubular. Moreover, septa were observed in 8 cases (28.6%), wall thickening was observed in 13 cases (46.4%), and hydrosalpinx was observed in 11 cases (39.3%). The imaging findings of tubal cancer manifests from a solid to a cystic mass. It is a challenge to differentiate primary tubal cancer from ovarian cancer, but when it is associated with hydrosalpinx or the shape of the tumor is lobular or tubular, primary tubal cancer can be suggested as part of the differential diagnosis.

  20. Imaging of constipation in infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this review article are to present epidemiology, important definitions, clinical considerations, and etiologic and pathogenetic aspects of constipation in infants and children. Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the the anorectum are described. Special attention is given to the indications for diagnostic imaging, imaging techniques, and imaging findings with different causes of constipation. Other diagnostic modalities, such as anorectal manometry, electromyography, and biopsy techniques are briefly discussed. The central question as to whether diagnostic imaging is needed for the diagnostic workup of infants and children suffering from constipation can be answered affirmatively. Especially the combination of barium enema or defecography and anorectal manometry allows definition of those infants and children who do not need biopsy and surgery for Hirschsprung's disease. The special role of defecography in this context is underlined. (orig.)

  1. Imaging of constipation in infants and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotter, R. [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Graz (Austria)

    1998-03-01

    The aims of this review article are to present epidemiology, important definitions, clinical considerations, and etiologic and pathogenetic aspects of constipation in infants and children. Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the the anorectum are described. Special attention is given to the indications for diagnostic imaging, imaging techniques, and imaging findings with different causes of constipation. Other diagnostic modalities, such as anorectal manometry, electromyography, and biopsy techniques are briefly discussed. The central question as to whether diagnostic imaging is needed for the diagnostic workup of infants and children suffering from constipation can be answered affirmatively. Especially the combination of barium enema or defecography and anorectal manometry allows definition of those infants and children who do not need biopsy and surgery for Hirschsprung`s disease. The special role of defecography in this context is underlined. (orig.) With 8 figs., 1 tab., 73 refs.

  2. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor ; MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the characteristic MR imaging findings of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT). We retrospectively reviewed MR images and pathologic findings of seven patients (five male and two female, mean age 22) with surgically proven DNTs. We analyzed the location, size, configuration, signal intensity and contrast enhancement of nodules and accompanying calcifications, surrounding edema and calvarial changes. All tumors were located in the cortical and subcortical portions of the temporal lobes. Most tumors showed small well-demarcated gyriform cystic nodules with almost the same signal intensity as that of the cerebropinal fluid. Nodule margins were more sharply delineated on T2 than on T1-weighted images because on the former the peripheral portion of nodules shows high signal intensity. None of the patiens showed surrounding edema or mass effect. On contrast-enhanced study, one of five patients showed subtle peripheral enhancement. Two patients showed included dense calcified nodules adjacent to cystic nodules, and two showed overlying calvarial thinning. Multiple small gyriform intracortical cystic nodules and occasional dense nodular calcifications are the characteristic findings of DNTs, and these may be differentiated from other focal lesions in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with the help of MR imaging

  3. Pneumoconiosis: Comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

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    Chong, S.; Lee, K.S.; Chung, M.J.; Han, J.H.; Kwon, O.J.; Kim, T.S. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Samsung Medical Center

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  4. Pneumoconiosis: comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

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    Semin Chong; Kyung Soo Lee; Myung Jin Chung; Joungho Han; O. Jung Kwon; d Tae Sung Kim [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  5. MR imaging findings in patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively examined the MR imaging (MRI) findings in 144 patients with epilepsy (31 with temporal lobe epilepsy and 113 with other epilepsies). 110 cases (76.4%) showed abnormal findings such as spotty lesions in white matter, hippocampal atrophy and/or signal change, ventricular dilatation and/or deformity, developmental lesions, brain tumors and so on. Hippocampal atrophy and/or signal change was shown in 74.1% of temporal lobe epilepsy, a remarkably high percentage (p<0.01) compared with the other types of epilepsies (18.1%). This finding means that hippocampal lesions may play a large part in the cause of temporal lobe epilepsy. Investigation of the relationship between clinical term and abnormal findings revealed that the longer the clinical term, the large the number of hippocampal lesions, regardless of whether it is temporal lobe epilepsy or not. Thus hippocampal lesions may occur as a result of hypoxia accompanied with seizure. Therefore we recommend horizontal and/or vertical sections of hippocampus in MR imaging of all patients with epilepsy. Even though MR finding may reflect some secondary lesions, MRI will shed some light on the proper understanding of epilepsy. (author)

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in Kimura's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although early diagnosis of Kimura's disease, a rare chronic inflammatory disorder most commonly presenting with asymmetric swelling in the head and neck region, is helpful in avoiding unnecessary diagnostic tests and starting prompt treatment, only a few reports emphasized radiological findings in detail. Magnetic resonance imaging findings showing the infiltrative nature of the disease and diffuse loss of fat tissue even in nonpalpable normally appearing regions of the head and neck in a young man with Kimura's disease are presented in this report. (orig.)

  7. Imaging findings in acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis

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    Grassi, Caio Giometti; Diniz, Fabio de Vilhena; Garcia, Marcio Ricardo Taveira; Gomes, Regina Lucia Elia; Daniel, Mauro Miguel; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Imaging Dept.

    2011-09-15

    Acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis is a benign and rare condition that presents calcification of the superior oblique fibers of longus colli muscle with local inflammatory reaction. Such condition is one of the less common presentations of calcium hydroxyapatite deposition disease. Clinical signs are usually acute neck pain and odynophagia, and it may be misdiagnosed as retropharyngeal abscess, spondylodiscitis or traumatic injury. The imaging findings in calcific prevertebral tendinitis are pathognomonic. The knowledge of such findings is extremely important to avoid unnecessary interventions in a patient presenting a condition with a good response to conservative treatment. (author)

  8. Imaging findings in acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis is a benign and rare condition that presents calcification of the superior oblique fibers of longus colli muscle with local inflammatory reaction. Such condition is one of the less common presentations of calcium hydroxyapatite deposition disease. Clinical signs are usually acute neck pain and odynophagia, and it may be misdiagnosed as retropharyngeal abscess, spondylodiscitis or traumatic injury. The imaging findings in calcific prevertebral tendinitis are pathognomonic. The knowledge of such findings is extremely important to avoid unnecessary interventions in a patient presenting a condition with a good response to conservative treatment. (author)

  9. Imaging findings of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 15-year-old girl was referred to a dentist complaining of parageusia, bad taste in the mouth, which started 9 months ago. Panoramic X-ray and non-enhanced computed tomography scan revealed multiple bilateral unilocular cysts in the mandible and maxilla, along with calcification of anterior part of the falx cerebri. She was eventually diagnosed with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome based on imaging and histopathologic finding of keratocystic odontogenic tumor

  10. Imaging findings in renal hydatid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to describe the image findings of renal hydatid disease, especially on MR. Four cases of echinococcal involvement of the kidney were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had intravenous urography (IVU) and US performed. Computed tomography examination was available in three patients and MR in two cases. Intravenous urography demonstrated communication of the cyst to the collecting system in one case. Ultrasound revealed multicystic appearance in three cases and unilocular in one case. Computed tomography demonstrated unilocular thick-walled or multilocular cysts with well-defined walls, calcified in one case. In multilocular cysts the CT densities of the fluid of daughter cysts was significantly lower than the fluid of mother cysts. This typical appearance was present in three of our cases. The presence of a hypointense rim and a multicystic appearance were distinctive in MR imaging. The combined findings of these different imaging modalities aid greatly in establishing the correct diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is of value in determining the presence of a characteristic rim and enables the evaluation of anatomical relationships. (orig.)

  11. Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma: novel MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe novel MR imaging features, and clinical characteristics of soft tissue angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH) at presentation, local recurrence, and metastases. We described the MRI findings of six cases of histologically proven AFH. Pathologic findings, clinical presentation, and outcome were reviewed. Lesions were primarily cystic. At initial presentation, tumors were surrounded by low signal intensity fibrous pseudocapsule. High signal intensity consistent with the lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate was seen in T2-weighted and post-contrast images as a rim over the hypointense pseudocapsule (double rim sign). High signal intensity infiltrating tumoral cords extended into adjacent tissues, through pseudocapsular defects on T2-weighted and post-contrast images. The cystic component and tumor cell nodularity were demonstrated at post-contrast images. Clinically, lesions were often thought to be benign, underwent marginal resection, developed local recurrence, and one developed second recurrence consisting of metastases. Recurrent tumors appeared as multiple masses, misinterpreted as post-surgical changes. An intramuscular recurrence demonstrated double rim and infiltrating margin. A predominantly well-circumscribed, primarily cystic mass with double-rim and marginal infiltration on MRI suggests the possibility of AFH, in particular in child or young adult. Inclusion of these novel observations in AFH differential diagnosis may have a significant impact on treatment and prevention of recurrence. (orig.)

  12. Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma: novel MR imaging findings

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    Martinez, Salutario J.; Vinson, Emily N. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Moreno, Courtney Coursey [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States); Dodd, Leslie G. [University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Brigman, Brian E. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-05-15

    To describe novel MR imaging features, and clinical characteristics of soft tissue angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH) at presentation, local recurrence, and metastases. We described the MRI findings of six cases of histologically proven AFH. Pathologic findings, clinical presentation, and outcome were reviewed. Lesions were primarily cystic. At initial presentation, tumors were surrounded by low signal intensity fibrous pseudocapsule. High signal intensity consistent with the lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate was seen in T2-weighted and post-contrast images as a rim over the hypointense pseudocapsule (double rim sign). High signal intensity infiltrating tumoral cords extended into adjacent tissues, through pseudocapsular defects on T2-weighted and post-contrast images. The cystic component and tumor cell nodularity were demonstrated at post-contrast images. Clinically, lesions were often thought to be benign, underwent marginal resection, developed local recurrence, and one developed second recurrence consisting of metastases. Recurrent tumors appeared as multiple masses, misinterpreted as post-surgical changes. An intramuscular recurrence demonstrated double rim and infiltrating margin. A predominantly well-circumscribed, primarily cystic mass with double-rim and marginal infiltration on MRI suggests the possibility of AFH, in particular in child or young adult. Inclusion of these novel observations in AFH differential diagnosis may have a significant impact on treatment and prevention of recurrence. (orig.)

  13. Imaging Finding in 222 Patients with Vestibular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zahiri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Vestibular Schwannoma is the most common cranial schwannoma with gradually produce sensorineural deafness. In this study we observed the effect of Gamma Knife therapy for control of this type of schwannoma."nPatients and Methods: We observed imaging findings of 250 patients with vestibular schwannoma from September 2003 to October 2007. We performed the Gamma Knife with C model (Elekta Company for the treatment and control of the tumor."nResults: The minimum age of our patients was 14 years and maximum age was 90 years. Twenty six patients was N.F.2, and female to male ratio was 2/1. The most common imaging finding was loss of central contrast enhancement in contrast MRI beginning after nine months after Gamma Knife. Loss of volume and cystic changes were other imaging findings and regrowth of tumor was seen in same case. After three years follow up, tumor control, tumor regression, and tumor enlargement were seen in 85%, 10%, and 5% of our patients respectively."nConclusion: Gamma Knife should be considered as a suitable treatment option for the treatment of Vestibular Schwannoma.

  14. Penile epithelioid sarcoma: MR imaging findings

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    Sirikci, A.; Bayram, M.; Demirci, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, Gaziantep (Turkey); Bakir, K. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, Gaziantep (Turkey); Sarica, K. [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, Gaziantep (Turkey)

    1999-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 38-year-old man with epithelioid sarcoma of the penis is presented. It started as a firm, painless and slowly growing nodule at the base of his penis 6 months previously which caused pain radiating to the testis during coitus. It has been well known that sarcomas may well mimic reactive processes. Initial presentation of epithelioid sarcoma may provoke considerable diagnostic difficulty, and its differentiation from benign lesions, such as Peyronie`s disease and chronic inflammation, may be a clinical problem. In our present report the MR findings are compared with those of the epithelioid sarcomas of various locations reported in the literature and differential diagnosis of the entity is discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the MR findings of the epithelioid sarcoma of penis. (orig.) With 3 figs., 16 refs.

  15. Penile epithelioid sarcoma: MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 38-year-old man with epithelioid sarcoma of the penis is presented. It started as a firm, painless and slowly growing nodule at the base of his penis 6 months previously which caused pain radiating to the testis during coitus. It has been well known that sarcomas may well mimic reactive processes. Initial presentation of epithelioid sarcoma may provoke considerable diagnostic difficulty, and its differentiation from benign lesions, such as Peyronie's disease and chronic inflammation, may be a clinical problem. In our present report the MR findings are compared with those of the epithelioid sarcomas of various locations reported in the literature and differential diagnosis of the entity is discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the MR findings of the epithelioid sarcoma of penis. (orig.)

  16. MR imaging findings in neurofibromatosis type 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on neurofibromatosis 2(NF-2) (bilateral neurofibromatosis) that is an entity distinct from NF-1 (von Recklinghausen disease). While cranial MR findings have been described in these groups, there are no reports of the spinal findings in NF-2 separate from NF-1. Spinal MR findings in six NF-2 and six NF-1 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Sagittal T1-weighted images were obtained of the cervical (n = 10), thoracic (n = 9), and lumbar spine (n = 8) before and after administration of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). All NF-2 patients had enhancing intradural, extramedullary lesions (n = 5-35), consistent with neurofibromas or meningiomas. Three of six patients had enhancing intramedullary (IM) lesions, two of which were surgically confirmed as ependymomas

  17. Age-dependent MR imaging of the tibia in children up to two years of age. Findings in children without disease or treatment courses relating to the bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Since the beginning of bone marrow conversion presents with substantial differences as shown by anatomical or magnetic resonance studies, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate via MRI an age-dependent bone marrow conversion of the tibia in children of up to two years of age. Methods: We studied the bone marrows of the tibia in 24 children ranging from one month to two years by means of MRI. T1-weighted SE-sequences were used. Children who suffered from diseases affecting the bone marrow were excluded. A retrospective analysis of the MR images was performed. Result: A gradual increase of signal intensity could be demonstrated in the epiphyses and the diaphysis of the tibia beginning shortly after birth. During the first two years of life a further increase of signal intensity could be observed in these regions, progressing through metaphyses up to the growthplates. Conclusion: First signs of bone marrow conversion can be detected in the tibia shortly after birth. Bone marrow infiltration in the tibia is expected to be recognised by MRI from this time onward. (orig.)

  18. Renal imaging in children with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwit Rahmawati; Heru Muryawan; Farah Prabowo

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney failure is a cause of death in children. Diagnosing chronic kidney disease is often made by clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and ultrasonography or other imaging tests. Early detection of chronic kidney disease is needed for education and management of the disease. Objective To describe renal imaging findings and mortality in children with chronic kidney disease. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on children with kidney diseases who were in...

  19. MR imaging findings of acute gouty arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and MR imaging features of acute gouty arthritis and to define the characteristic findings that would be helpful for differentiating acute gouty arthritis from septic arthritis. The authors retrospectively studied seven patients who suffered from acute gouty arthritis. The MR imaging findings were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists who focused on joint effusion, subchondral bone erosion, bone marrow edema, synovial thickening (regular and even, or irregular and nodular), and the soft tissue changes (edema or abscess). The clinical records of the patients were reviewed with regard to age and gender, the clinical presentation and the laboratory findings (serum uric acid, WBC, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and synovial fluid culture). The patients consisted of six men and one woman whose mean age was 41 years (age range:24-65 years). The joints involved were the knee (n=6), and ankle (n=1). Two patients had medical histories of gouty attacks that involved the first metatarsophalangeal joint. In six cases, the serum uric acid level during acute attacks was elevated. In all the patients, the affected joint became swollen, hot, erythematous and extremely tender, and this was accompanied by a high ESR and a high C-reactive protein level at the time of presentation. The results of Gram stain and culture of the synovial fluid were negative. In all patients, the MR images showed large amounts of joint effusion, thick irregular and nodular synovial thickening and soft tissue edema without subchondral bone erosions and soft tissue abscess. In one case, subchondral bone marrow edema of the medial femoral condyle was present. In five cases, there were multiple low signal foci in the joint on the spin-echo T2-weighted MR image. Even though the MR imaging findings of acute gouty arthritis are nonspecific, it should be considered as a possible diagnosis when a large amount of joint effusion

  20. Polysomnography Findings in Children with Williams Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Arens, R.; J. Sharman; Pack, A

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Parents of children with Williams Syndrome (WS) often report that their children have sleep difficulties. A prior study of 7 WS subjects at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) supported an association between WS and periodic limb movements in sleep, as well as increased wake time, less time in sleep stages 1 and 2, and more time in sleep stages 3 and 4 than control subjects (Arens et al. 1998). We wanted to expand the analysis of sleep in children with WS w...

  1. MR imaging findings of Kienboeck's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings and gadolinium enhancing patterns of Kienboeck's disease. Thirteen patients with Kienbock's disease were included in this study. T1 and T2 or T2 weighted images(WI) were taken in all patients and gadolinium enhancement was performed in six patients. We compared MR signal intensity of lunates with that of normal bone marrow. MR imaging findings and stages according to Lichtman's classification were correlateds and we evaluated the enhancing patterns of the lunates and synovia. Stage II was found in five patients, stage III in seven, and stage IV in one. T1WIs showed low or focal iso signal intensity in all patients. T2WI showed low signal intensity in three patients and focal iso or focal high signal intensity in ten. There were no significant correlations between the signal intensity of lunates and stages. Synovial enhancement was detected in five patients. In four, the areas of focal iso or high signal intensity on T2WI were the enhanced areas of lunates. Kienbock's disease showed low signal intensity on T1WI in all patients and variable signal intensity on T2WI. There was no significant correlation between MR signal intensity and Lichtman's stage. Synovia and the areas of focal iso or high signal intensity on T2WI were frequently enhanced

  2. Imaging findings in congenital hepatic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhan, Okan [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: akhano@tr.net; Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Ergen, Bilge [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-01-15

    Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) is a rare congenital multisystemic disorder, mostly inherited in autosomal recessive fashion, primarily affecting renal and hepatobiliary systems. Main underlying process of the disease is the malformation of the ductal plate, the embryological precursor of the biliary system, and secondary biliary strictures and periportal fibrosis ultimately leading to portal hypertension. The natural course of the disease is highly variable ranging from minimally symptomatic disease to true cirrhosis of the liver. However, in most patients the most common manifestations of the diseases that are related to portal hypertension, particularly splenomegaly and bleeding varices. Many other disease processes may co-exist with the disease including Caroli's disease, choledochal cysts and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) reflecting the mulstisystemic nature of the disease. The associating biliary ductal disease led the authors to think that all these entities are a continuum and different reflections of the same underlying pathophysiological process. Although, conventional method of diagnosis of CHF is the liver biopsy the advent of imaging technologies and modalities, today, may permit the correct diagnosis in a non-invasive manner. Characteristic imaging features are generally present and recognition of these findings may obviate liver biopsy while preserving the diagnostic accuracy. In this article, it is aimed to increase the awareness of the practising radiologists to the imaging findings of this uncommon clinical disorder and trail the blaze for future articles relating to this issue.

  3. Imaging findings in congenital hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) is a rare congenital multisystemic disorder, mostly inherited in autosomal recessive fashion, primarily affecting renal and hepatobiliary systems. Main underlying process of the disease is the malformation of the ductal plate, the embryological precursor of the biliary system, and secondary biliary strictures and periportal fibrosis ultimately leading to portal hypertension. The natural course of the disease is highly variable ranging from minimally symptomatic disease to true cirrhosis of the liver. However, in most patients the most common manifestations of the diseases that are related to portal hypertension, particularly splenomegaly and bleeding varices. Many other disease processes may co-exist with the disease including Caroli's disease, choledochal cysts and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) reflecting the mulstisystemic nature of the disease. The associating biliary ductal disease led the authors to think that all these entities are a continuum and different reflections of the same underlying pathophysiological process. Although, conventional method of diagnosis of CHF is the liver biopsy the advent of imaging technologies and modalities, today, may permit the correct diagnosis in a non-invasive manner. Characteristic imaging features are generally present and recognition of these findings may obviate liver biopsy while preserving the diagnostic accuracy. In this article, it is aimed to increase the awareness of the practising radiologists to the imaging findings of this uncommon clinical disorder and trail the blaze for future articles relating to this issue

  4. Imaging in acute renal infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sty, J.R.; Wells, R.G.; Starshak, R.J.; Schroeder, B.A.

    1987-03-01

    Infection is the most common disease of the urinary tract in children, and various imaging techniques have been used to verify its presence and location. On retrospective analysis, 50 consecutive children with documented upper urinary tract infection had abnormal findings on renal cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc-glucoheptonate. The infection involved the renal poles only in 38 and the poles plus other renal cortical areas in eight. Four had abnormalities that spared the poles. Renal sonograms were abnormal in 32 of 50 children. Excretory urograms were abnormal in six of 23 children in whom they were obtained. Vesicoureteral reflux was found in 34 of 40 children in whom voiding cystourethrography was performed. These data show the high sensitivity of renal cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc-glucoheptonate in documenting upper urinary tract infection. The location of the abnormalities detected suggests that renal infections spread via an ascending mode and implies that intrarenal reflux is a major contributing factor.

  5. Imaging findings of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAI) is a pathologic entity which can lead to chronic symptoms of pain, reduced range of motion in flexion and internal rotation, and has been shown to correlate with degenerative arthritis of the hip. History, physical examination, and supportive radiographic findings such as evidence of articular cartilage damage, acetabular labral tearing, and early-onset degenerative changes can help physicians diagnose this entity. Several pathologic changes of the femur and acetabulum are known to predispose patients to develop FAI and recognition of these findings can ultimately lead to therapeutic interventions. The two basic mechanisms of impingement - cam impingement and pincer impingement - are based on the type of anatomic anomaly contributing to the impingement process. These changes can be found on conventional radiography, MR imaging, and CT examinations. However, the radiographic findings of this entity are not widely discussed and recognized by physicians. In this paper, we will introduce these risk factors, the proposed supportive imaging criteria, and the ultimate interventions that can help alleviate patients' symptoms. (orig.)

  6. Imaging findings of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beall, Douglas P.; Sweet, Clifford F.; Martin, Hal D.; Lastine, Craig L.; Grayson, David E.; Ly, Justin Q.; Fish, Jon R. [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Department of Radiologal Sciences, Oklahoma City (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAI) is a pathologic entity which can lead to chronic symptoms of pain, reduced range of motion in flexion and internal rotation, and has been shown to correlate with degenerative arthritis of the hip. History, physical examination, and supportive radiographic findings such as evidence of articular cartilage damage, acetabular labral tearing, and early-onset degenerative changes can help physicians diagnose this entity. Several pathologic changes of the femur and acetabulum are known to predispose patients to develop FAI and recognition of these findings can ultimately lead to therapeutic interventions. The two basic mechanisms of impingement - cam impingement and pincer impingement - are based on the type of anatomic anomaly contributing to the impingement process. These changes can be found on conventional radiography, MR imaging, and CT examinations. However, the radiographic findings of this entity are not widely discussed and recognized by physicians. In this paper, we will introduce these risk factors, the proposed supportive imaging criteria, and the ultimate interventions that can help alleviate patients' symptoms. (orig.)

  7. Imaging findings in fetal diaphragmatic abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging plays a key role in the detection of a diaphragmatic pathology in utero. US is the screening method, but MRI is increasingly performed. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is by far the most often diagnosed diaphragmatic pathology, but unilateral or bilateral eventration or paralysis can also be identified. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration can be located in the diaphragm and, exceptionally, diaphragmatic tumors or secondary infiltration of the diaphragm from tumors originating from an adjacent organ have been observed in utero. Congenital abnormalities of the diaphragm impair normal lung development. Prenatal imaging provides a detailed anatomical evaluation of the fetus and allows volumetric lung measurements. The comparison of these data with those from normal fetuses at the same gestational age provides information about the severity of pulmonary hypoplasia and improves predictions about the fetus's outcome. This information can help doctors and families to make decisions about management during pregnancy and after birth. We describe a wide spectrum of congenital pathologies of the diaphragm and analyze their embryological basis. Moreover, we describe their prenatal imaging findings with emphasis on MR studies, discuss their differential diagnosis and evaluate the limits of imaging methods in predicting postnatal outcome. (orig.)

  8. Imaging findings in fetal diaphragmatic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamo, Leonor; Gudinchet, François; Meuli, Reto

    2015-12-01

    Imaging plays a key role in the detection of a diaphragmatic pathology in utero. US is the screening method, but MRI is increasingly performed. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is by far the most often diagnosed diaphragmatic pathology, but unilateral or bilateral eventration or paralysis can also be identified. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration can be located in the diaphragm and, exceptionally, diaphragmatic tumors or secondary infiltration of the diaphragm from tumors originating from an adjacent organ have been observed in utero. Congenital abnormalities of the diaphragm impair normal lung development. Prenatal imaging provides a detailed anatomical evaluation of the fetus and allows volumetric lung measurements. The comparison of these data with those from normal fetuses at the same gestational age provides information about the severity of pulmonary hypoplasia and improves predictions about the fetus's outcome. This information can help doctors and families to make decisions about management during pregnancy and after birth. We describe a wide spectrum of congenital pathologies of the diaphragm and analyze their embryological basis. Moreover, we describe their prenatal imaging findings with emphasis on MR studies, discuss their differential diagnosis and evaluate the limits of imaging methods in predicting postnatal outcome. PMID:26255159

  9. Imaging findings in fetal diaphragmatic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamo, Leonor; Gudinchet, Francois [University Hospital Center of Lausanne, Unit of Radiopediatrics, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Meuli, Reto [University Hospital Center of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    Imaging plays a key role in the detection of a diaphragmatic pathology in utero. US is the screening method, but MRI is increasingly performed. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is by far the most often diagnosed diaphragmatic pathology, but unilateral or bilateral eventration or paralysis can also be identified. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration can be located in the diaphragm and, exceptionally, diaphragmatic tumors or secondary infiltration of the diaphragm from tumors originating from an adjacent organ have been observed in utero. Congenital abnormalities of the diaphragm impair normal lung development. Prenatal imaging provides a detailed anatomical evaluation of the fetus and allows volumetric lung measurements. The comparison of these data with those from normal fetuses at the same gestational age provides information about the severity of pulmonary hypoplasia and improves predictions about the fetus's outcome. This information can help doctors and families to make decisions about management during pregnancy and after birth. We describe a wide spectrum of congenital pathologies of the diaphragm and analyze their embryological basis. Moreover, we describe their prenatal imaging findings with emphasis on MR studies, discuss their differential diagnosis and evaluate the limits of imaging methods in predicting postnatal outcome. (orig.)

  10. Antibiotic susceptibility and imaging findings of the causative microorganisms responsible for acute urinary tract infection in children: a five-year single center study

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Eun Yoon; Wun Kon Kim; Jin Seok Lee; Kyeong-Seob Shin; Tae-Sun Ha

    2011-01-01

    Purpose : We studied the differences in the antibiotic susceptibilities of the microorganisms that causeing urinary tract infections (UTI) in children to obtain useful information on appropriate drug selection for childhood UTI. Methods : We retrospectively analyzed the antibiotic susceptibilities of 429 microorganisms isolated from 900 patients diagnosed with UTI in the Department of Pediatrics, Chungbuk National University Hospital, from 2003 to 2008. Results : The most common causative mic...

  11. Imaging findings of primary retroperitoneal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoki, Takuya; Oka, Takaji [Osaka National Hospital (Japan); Nakamura, Hironobu; Okumura, Akihiko

    1999-03-01

    A retrospective study was conducted in 26 primary retroperitoneal tumors which had been histologically proved (5 leiomyosarcomas, 7 neurogenic tumors, 3 malignant fibrous histiocytomas, 4 liposarcomas, 5 malignant lymphomas, one lipoma, and one synovial sarcoma). The object of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of imaging findings in differentiation of the tumors. In case of neurogenic tumor, its location and CT density provided a better characterization of the tumor. The pattern of spread and relatively homogeneous interior can frequently suggest the likelihood of malignant lymphoma. Lipoma and most types of liposarcoma can be diagnosed on the basis of their lipid element. Apart from these tumors, few retroperitoneal tumors have imaging features that allow them to be histologically distinguished from other types. (author)

  12. Environmental lung diseases: Clinical and imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental lung diseases are caused by exposure to adverse environmental conditions, such as atmospheric pressure changes or the ingestion or inhalation of toxic agents. The development of environmental lung diseases depends on the intensity and duration of exposure, the physiological and biological susceptibility of the host, and the toxic effects of the adverse environmental conditions encountered. A combination of clinical features, related exposure history, imaging findings, and a review of previous reports that support an association between exposure and the disease process is required for diagnosis

  13. Imaging findings of Hoffa's fat pad herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, Nancy A.; Khwaja, Asef [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Epelman, Monica [Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Orlando, FL (United States); Callahan, Michael J. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-04-15

    We report the radiologic findings of herniation of Hoffa's fat pad through a defect in the lateral patellar retinaculum in young children who presented with painless masses visible by ultrasound (US) only with flexion of the knee. Six children, between the ages of 1-8 years, presented with an anterolateral knee mass that was not tender and was only seen and palpable with knee flexion. An US was performed in all patients, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 2 patients and knee radiographs in 1 patient. US imaging displayed focal herniation of Hoffa's fat pad within the infrapatellar region through a defect of the lateral retinaculum, visible only during dynamic imaging when the knee was in flexion. MRI performed in knee extension did not demonstrate a mass; however, it revealed a focal defect in the lateral retinaculum in the region of the abnormality. Radiographs were normal. Focal herniation of Hoffa's fat pad is an uncommon cause of an anterolateral knee mass in young children. When a knee mass is only identified in flexion, focal fat herniation through a defect in the retinaculum should be suspected and a dynamic US should be performed. (orig.)

  14. Imaging findings of Hoffa's fat pad herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the radiologic findings of herniation of Hoffa's fat pad through a defect in the lateral patellar retinaculum in young children who presented with painless masses visible by ultrasound (US) only with flexion of the knee. Six children, between the ages of 1-8 years, presented with an anterolateral knee mass that was not tender and was only seen and palpable with knee flexion. An US was performed in all patients, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 2 patients and knee radiographs in 1 patient. US imaging displayed focal herniation of Hoffa's fat pad within the infrapatellar region through a defect of the lateral retinaculum, visible only during dynamic imaging when the knee was in flexion. MRI performed in knee extension did not demonstrate a mass; however, it revealed a focal defect in the lateral retinaculum in the region of the abnormality. Radiographs were normal. Focal herniation of Hoffa's fat pad is an uncommon cause of an anterolateral knee mass in young children. When a knee mass is only identified in flexion, focal fat herniation through a defect in the retinaculum should be suspected and a dynamic US should be performed. (orig.)

  15. Imaging findings in idiopathic pelvic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two patients presented with ureteric obstruction, and voiding symptoms and constipation, respectively, and were examined by means of intravenous urography and computed tomography. One patient was additionally examined by means of MR tomography. After CT (performed in both patients) and MRT (performed in one patient) had shown a diffuse, contrast-enhancing, infiltrating process in the small pelvis with infiltration of adjacent organs and vessels, surgical biopsy proved the diagnosis of idopathic pelvic fibrosis. Extension of retroperitoneal fibrosis below the pelvic rim is very rare. Clinical symptoms of pelvic fibrosis are variable and imaging findings may lead to a broad list of differential diagnoses. We present two patients with idiopathic pelvic fibrosis and discuss radiological findings and differential diagnoses of this rare disease. (orig.)

  16. Oral findings in children with celiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    ERTEKİN, Vildan; SÜMBÜLLÜ, Muhammed Akif; Tosun, Mahya Sultan

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether Turkish children with celiac disease (CD) show dental enamel defects (DEDs), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), teeth missing, and xerostomia, and to compare the results with age- and sex-matched healthy children. Materials and methods: The oral cavity was explored in 81 patients with CD (mean age 8.7 ± 3.7 years; age range 2.5 to 17 years) and in 20 healthy controls. Enamel defects, teeth missing, RAS, and xerostomia were established. Results: Forty-three (53....

  17. Ultrasonographic findings in thymic lymphoma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sonographic manifestations of thymic involvement by T lymphoblastic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma/leukaemia in 6 children are presented. The criteria which may help in its differentiation from a normal thymus gland are reviewed. Hypoechoic and non-homogeneous large masses are the most typical presentation of thymic infiltration. Fixity of tumour and compression of surrounding structures are the most important associated signs with pleural and pericardial effusions. In children, ultrasonography of the mediastinum can play a role by establishing the nature of anterior masses. (orig.)

  18. Apophysitis of the lower limbs: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apophyses are secondary ossification centers that appear during growth. These ossification centers are under traction forces because of insertion of muscles and ligaments. When traction stress become greater in magnitude and frequency irritation of physis (growth plate) may occur resulting in apophysitis. Apophysitis injuries typically occur in active adolescents and usually presents as peri-articular pain associated with growth, skeletal immaturity, repetitive microtrauma and muscle-tendon imbalance. The most common types of apophysitis of the include Osgood-Schlatter disease (tibial tuberosity), apophysitis of the hip (iliac crest, ischial tuberosity), Sever's disease (posterior calcaneus), Sindig-Larsen-Johansson syndrome (inferior patella), and Iselin's disease (fifth metarsal base). The aim of this study was to show the main magnetic resonance imaging and X-rays findings in patients with these diseases and to discuss the frequent differential diagnosis. (author)

  19. Histiocytic disorders of the chest: imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jitesh; Kanne, Jeffrey P; Meyer, Cristopher A; Pipavath, Sudhakar N J; Schmidt, Rodney A; Swanson, Jonathan O; Godwin, J David

    2015-01-01

    Histiocytic disorders of the chest comprise a broad spectrum of diseases. The lungs may be involved in isolation or as part of systemic disease. Some of these disorders are primary and have unknown etiology, and others result from a histiocytic response to a known cause. Among primary histiocytic disorders, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is the most common; others include Erdheim-Chester disease and Rosai-Dorfman disease. Adult PLCH occurs almost exclusively in adults aged 20-40 years who smoke. Pediatric PLCH is extremely rare and typically occurs as part of multisystemic disease. Erdheim-Chester disease affects middle-aged and older adults; thoracic involvement usually occurs as part of systemic disease. Rosai-Dorfman disease affects children and young adults and manifests as painless cervical lymphadenopathy. Examples of secondary histiocytic disorders are storage diseases such as Gaucher disease, Niemann-Pick disease, and Fabry disease; pneumoconiosis such as silicosis and coal workers' pneumoconiosis; and infections such as Whipple disease and malakoplakia. These disorders are characterized at histopathologic examination on the basis of infiltration of alveoli or the pulmonary interstitium by histiocytes, which are a group of cells that includes macrophages and dendritic cells. Dendritic cells are a heterogeneous group of nonphagocytic antigen-presenting immune cells. Immunohistochemical markers help to distinguish among various primary histiocytic disorders. Characteristic radiologic findings in the appropriate clinical context may obviate biopsy to establish a correct diagnosis. However, in the absence of these findings, integration of clinical, pathologic, and radiologic features is required to establish a diagnosis. PMID:25763722

  20. The clinical study on the relationship between growth hormone secretion and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging findings in children with short stature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between pituitary size evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pituitary function was studied in 104 boys and 81 girls with short stature. Eighteen boys and 10 girls had normal secretion of growth hormone (GH) based on growth hormone provocative tests. Their height and volume of pituitary gland with normal anatomy were significantly correlated with their age. The pituitary height of girls was higher than that of boys. Sixty boys and 29 girls had growth hormone deficiency (GHD), and 3 boys of them had multiple pituitary deficiencies (MPHD) with pituitary interruption syndrome (transected pituitary stalk, severe small anterior lobe, ectopic posterior lobe). Pituitary height of the groups with GHD were almost less than normal groups. Thirteen girls with Turner syndrome out of 81 girls with short stature showed no difference in pituitary height compared to normal girls. (author)

  1. MR imaging findings in spring ligament insufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, L. [Department of Radiology, MRI, CCC Building, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3800 Reservoir Road, NW, Washington, DC 20007-2197 (United States); Gentili, A. [UCLA Department of Radiological Sciences, West Los Angeles VA Medical Center, CA (United States); Cracchiolo, A. [UCLA Department of Orthopedic Surgery, UCLA Center for the Health Sciences, 10833 LeConte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Objective. Spring ligament insufficiency is associated with chronic posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, and may constitute an indication for surgical repair or reconstruction. This study examines the accuracy of MRI for the diagnosis of insufficiency of the spring ligament. Design and patients. Two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists independently scored the MRI findings in 13 cases of surgically proven spring ligament insufficiency and in 18 control subjects, using a standardized scoring system. Results. Insufficiency of the spring ligament was associated with increased signal heterogeneity on short TE spin echo images, and an increase in the thickness of the medial portion of the ligament. The sensitivity of MRI for the diagnosis of spring ligament insufficiency was 54-77%, while the specificity was 100%. MRI assessment of the plantar portion of the spring ligament was unreliable (kappa=0.33), but the assessment of global ligament integrity was substantially reproducible (kappa=0.76). Conclusion. The medial portion of the spring ligament can be reliably assessed on routine MRI. The findings of spring ligament insufficiency on MRI are only moderately sensitive but highly specific. (orig.) With 6 figs., 1 tab., 9 refs.

  2. Imaging features of juxtacortical chondroma in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Stephen F. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Juxtacortical chondroma is a rare benign bone lesion in children. Children usually present with a mildly painful mass, which prompts diagnostic imaging studies. The rarity of this condition often presents a diagnostic challenge. Correct diagnosis is crucial in guiding surgical management. To describe the characteristic imaging findings of juxtacortical chondroma in children. We identified all children who were diagnosed with juxtacortical chondroma between 1998 and 2012. A single experienced pediatric radiologist reviewed all diagnostic imaging studies, including plain radiographs, CT, MR and bone scans. Seven children (5 boys and 2 girls) with juxtacortical chondroma were identified, ranging in age from 6 years to 16 years (mean 12.3 years). Mild pain and a palpable mass were present in all seven children. Plain radiographs were available in 6/7, MR in 7/7, CT in 4/7 and skeletal scintigraphy in 5/7 children. Three lesions were located in the proximal humerus, with one each in the distal radius, distal femur, proximal tibia and scapula. Radiographic and CT features deemed highly suggestive of juxtacortical chondroma included cortical scalloping, underlying cortical sclerosis and overhanging margins. MRI features consistent with juxtacortical chondroma included isointensity to skeletal muscle on T1, marked hyperintensity on T2 and peripheral rim enhancement after contrast agent administration. One of seven lesions demonstrated intramedullary extension, and 2/7 showed adjacent soft-tissue edema. Juxtacortical chondroma is an uncommon benign lesion in children with characteristic features on plain radiographs, CT and MR. Recognition of these features is invaluable in guiding appropriate surgical management. (orig.)

  3. Ophthalmologic Findings in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Kurt; Kemal Türkyılmaz; Adem Gül

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a chronic disease which is seen in early childhood, i.e. in the first two years of life. It is a non-progressive disorder resulting from a defect or lesion in the immature brain and thus leading to posture and movement disorders. The reason for facing high rates of ophthalmologic problems in CP cases is that visual functions are covered in a large area in the brain. While vision defect in the normal population ranges from 4 to 5%, this rate in children with CP ...

  4. Characterization of spinal findings in children and adults with neurofibromatosis type 1 enrolled in a natural history study using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Rosa; Dombi, Eva; Akshintala, Srivandana; Baldwin, Andrea; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2015-01-01

    To characterize spinal abnormalities in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). NF1 patients with at least one spine MRI were selected from participants prospectively enrolled in the National Cancer Institute NF1 Natural History Study. Data were analyzed retrospectively. Ninety-seven patients (38 females, median age 14.2 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.6) had baseline imaging of the spine, and 26 patients (27 %) had one follow-up spine MRI (follow up time 2.5 years, SD 1.1, range 0.7-4.7). Seventy-eight patients (80 %) had spinal neurofibromas, with rising frequency from 70 % in patients younger than 10 years to 80 % in patients aged 10-18 years to 89 % in individuals older than 18 years of age. At baseline, 33/97 patients (34 %) had MRI changes consistent with spinal cord compression that was most prevalent at the cervical (43 %) and lumbar spine region (40 %). Seven of nine patients with progression of their spinal neurofibromas developed cord compression. Paraspinal plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) were present in 77/97 patients (79 %), of which 68 patients (88 %) had concomitant spinal neurofibromas. Spinal curvature abnormality was present in 50/97 patients (51 %, 20 females, median age 14.6 years, SD 7.6). Patients with paraspinal PNs had six-fold higher odds of developing spinal curvature abnormalities compared to patients without PN (OR = 5.9, 95 % CI 1.81 to 19.44, p = 0.0033). A total of 58/97 patients (60 %, median age 16.1 years, SD 7.8, range 4.8-48.2 years) presented with neurologic abnormalities that progressed in 12/26 patients (46 %). Substantial spinal neurofibroma and paraspinal PN burden was observed in our study population, which represents a selective group of patients with specifically more severe tumor involvement than the general NF1 population. Occurrence and progression of spinal neurofibromas on repeat evaluations highlight the need for longitudinal clinical monitoring in patients with known

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No To submit ... facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments ...

  6. Oral findings of Down syndrome children in Chennai city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asokan Sharath

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the common oral findings and anomalies of Down syndrome (DS children in Chennai city, India. Materials and Methods: Among the 130 DS children examined, 102 children aged 15 years and below were included in the study. There were 57 male children and 45 female children in the total study sample. A specially prepared case record was used to record the following findings in each child: a brief family and personal history; anomalies of soft tissues, teeth, occlusion, and temporomandibular joint. Age wise and sex wise comparisons of the findings were done. Results: About 97 children (95% had the habit of regular tooth brushing. Everted lower lip (66%, retained primary teeth (31%, and midface deficiency (76% were the most commonly seen soft tissue, dental, and occlusion anomalies, respectively. Conclusions: Midface deficiency was the most common orofacial anomaly seen in these children, followed by everted lower lip and retained primary teeth. Almost all the children had a regular tooth brushing habit. All the children examined were offered free dental treatment in our dental college.

  7. Abdominal ultrasonographic findings of Yersiniosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To review abdominal ultrasonography in Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis(YP) infection. From June 1993 through June 1994, abdominal ultrasonograms were reviewed in 36 patients with YP infection. The age of patients was from 4 to 14 years. A diagnosis of YP infection was made on the basis of isolation of YP from stool (n=15/36, 41.7%) and by documenting at least a minimum agglutination antibody titer of 1;160 or greater (n=34/36, 94.4%). Abdominal US findings were identified in 33/36 (91.7%) of patients with YP infection. US abnormalities included right lower quadrant abdominal lymphadenopathy in 28/36 (77.8%) of cases: increased bilateral renal cortical echogenecity with renal enlargement, 11/36 (30.6%) of cases:hepatosplenomegaly, 6/36 (16.7%) of cases: bowel wall thickening in termnal ileum and cecum, 4/36 (11.1%) of cases:and ascites, 2/36 (5.5%) of cases. Three patients revealed no abdominal sonographic finding. We conclude that abdominal US can help in the diagnosis of YP infection when US demonstrates multiple right lower quadrant abdominal lymphadenopathy, increased renal cortical echogenecity with renal enlargement, hepatosplenomegaly, intestinal wall thickening or ascites

  8. Computer Vision Tools for Finding Images and Video Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    Computer vision offers a variety of techniques for searching for pictures in large collections of images. Appearance methods compare images based on the overall content of the image using certain criteria. Finding methods concentrate on matching subparts of images, defined in a variety of ways, in hope of finding particular objects. These ideas…

  9. Imaging findings in craniofacial childhood rhabdomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the commonest paediatric soft-tissue sarcoma constituting 3-5% of all malignancies in childhood. RMS has a predilection for the head and neck area and tumours in this location account for 40% of all childhood RMS cases. In this review we address the clinical and imaging presentations of craniofacial RMS, discuss the most appropriate imaging techniques, present characteristic imaging features and offer an overview of differential diagnostic considerations. Post-treatment changes will be briefly addressed. (orig.)

  10. Imaging findings in craniofacial childhood rhabdomyosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freling, Nicole J.M.; Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Centre, Radiology Department, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Merks, Johannes H.M. [Academic Medical Centre, Paediatric Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Saeed, Peerooz [Academic Medical Centre, Orbital Surgery and Ophthalmology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Balm, Alfons J.M. [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Head and Neck Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bras, Johannes [Academic Medical Centre, Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pieters, Bradley R. [Academic Medical Centre, Radiotherapy, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Adam, Judit A. [Academic Medical Centre, Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the commonest paediatric soft-tissue sarcoma constituting 3-5% of all malignancies in childhood. RMS has a predilection for the head and neck area and tumours in this location account for 40% of all childhood RMS cases. In this review we address the clinical and imaging presentations of craniofacial RMS, discuss the most appropriate imaging techniques, present characteristic imaging features and offer an overview of differential diagnostic considerations. Post-treatment changes will be briefly addressed. (orig.)

  11. Children's perceptions of eating and body image

    OpenAIRE

    S. Robinson

    1999-01-01

    Concerns about children's eating problems such as obesity, unhealthy eating, dieting and eating disorders have been rising in recent years because of their detrimental effects on children's health. By exploring nine year old children's perceptions of body image, their perceptions of the link between body size and food, and their perceptions of the control of children's eating, this study seeks to contribute to an understanding of why children may develop these eating problems. 98 children u...

  12. Document imaging finding niche in petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical disk-based document imaging systems can reduce operating costs, save office space, and improve access to necessary information for petroleum companies that have extensive records in various formats. These imaging systems help solve document management problems to improve technical and administrative operations. Enron Gas Pipeline Group has installed a document imaging system for engineering applications to integrate records stored on paper, microfilm, or computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems. BP Exploration Inc. recently implemented a document imaging system for administrative applications. The company is evaluating an expansion of the system to include engineering and technical applications. The petroleum industry creates, acquires, distributes, and retrieves enormous amounts of data and information, which are stored on multiple media, including paper, microfilm, and electronic formats. There are two main factors responsible for the immense information storage requirements in the petroleum industry

  13. Cystic and Cavitary Lung Lesions in Children: Radiologic Findings with Pathologic Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Odev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of diseases produce focal or multiple thin-walled or thick-walled air- or fluid-containing cysts or cavitary lung lesions in both infants and children. In infants and children, there is a spectrum of focal or multifocal cystic and cavitary lung lesions including congenital lobar emphysema, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, pleuropulmonary blastoma, bronchogenic cyst, pulmonary sequestration, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, airway diseases, infectious diseases (bacterial infection, fungal infection, etc., hydatid cysts, destroid lung, and traumatic pseudocyst. For the evaluation of cystic or cavitary lung lesion in infants and children, imaging plays an important role in accurate early diagnosis and optimal patient management. Therefore, a practical imaging approach based on the most sensitive and least invasive imaging modality in an efficient and cost-effective manner is paramount. We reviewed the conventional radiographs and computed tomography findings of the most common cystic and cavitary lung lesions in infants and children.

  14. CT findings in children with blunt trauma in the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated CT findings in 19 children with blunt injuries in the spleen. CT demonstrated laceration of the spleen in 7 children, rupture of the spleen in 7, and splenic hematoma in 5. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in 3 children, of whom 1 was treated by arterial embolization. Laparotomy was performed in 3 children (15.8%) other than the 3 showing contrast medium leakage; hemostasis by compression was performed in 1 with laceration, and splenectomy in 2 with rupture. Late splenic rupture or abscess did not occur in any child. One child (5.3%) died of complicating injuries. Many of children with blunt splenic injuries can be successfully treated with conservative treatment, and CT scanning is useful for evaluating the degree of splenic injuries and complicating injuries. (author)

  15. Brain CT findings of severely multiple handicapped children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain CT were performed in 63 severely multiple handicapped children (30 males and 33 females) ranging in age from 2 to 21 years. Abnormal findings including ventricular dilatation and cortical atrophy were detected in 56 of the patients (88.9%). There was no specific finding for athetosis type cerebral palsy. There was no constant relationship between underlying diseases and CT findings.(Namekawa, K.)

  16. Chest Radiography Findings in Primary Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Milković, Đurđica; Richter, Darko; Zoričić-Letoja, Ivka; Raos, Miljenko; Koncul, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Plain chest radiography plays a major role in the diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary tuberculosis in childhood. The aim of our study was to investigate the distribution of characteristic chest radiographic findings at diagnosis in children with pulmonary tuberculosis. The age of the patients and the type and localization of radiographic changes at admission were retrospectively analyzed. We reviewed chest radiographs in 204 children admitted from January 1, 1991 until June 30, 1994 for newl...

  17. Hepatic hemangiosarcoma: imaging findings and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor of the liver that usually presents with nonspecific symptoms in elderly men. We present four cases of hepatic hemangiosarcoma and discuss the imaging characteristics of this entity. Our series shows that this tumor is not uncommon in younger patients with no associated risk factors such as previous exposure to thorotrast or vinyl chloride. Our experiences on a limited number of patients suggests that the combined use of angiography and dual-phase helical CT provides a better identification of the tumor and its complications. Analysis of imaging studies in patients with hepatic hemangiosarcoma reveals hypervascular lesions. Common complications were portal vein thrombosis, Budd-Chiari syndrome, as well as arterio-venous or arterio-portal shunts. Due to the vascularity of the tumor, percutaneous liver biopsy is hazardous. (orig.)

  18. Intracranial metastases: spectrum of MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Eun Ja; Lee, Yong Seok [Department of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang-shi (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ejl1048@hanmail.net; Kim, Mi Sung; Park, No Hyuck [Department of Radiology, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Myongji Hospital, Goyang-shi (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee-Jin [Department of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); II, Sung Park [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Intracranial metastatic lesions arise through a number of routes. Therefore, they can involve any part of the central nervous system and their imaging appearances vary. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in lesion detection, lesion delineation, and differentiation of metastases from other intracranial disease processes. This article is a reasoned pictorial review illustrating the many faces of intracranial metastatic lesions based on the location - intra-axial metastases, calvarial metastases, dural metastases, leptomeningeal metastases, secondary invasion of the meninges by metastatic disease involving the calvarium and skull base, direct or perineural intracranial extension of head and neck neoplasm, and other unusual manifestations of intracranial metastases. We also review the role of advanced MRI to distinguish metastases from high-grade gliomas, tumor-mimicking lesions such as brain abscesses, and delayed post-radiation changes in radiosurgically treated patients.

  19. Imaging of haemodialysis: renal and extrarenal findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrassi, Ferruccio; Quaia, Emilio; Martingano, Paola; Cavallaro, Marco; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2015-06-01

    Electrolyte alterations and extra-renal disorders are quite frequent in patients undergoing haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. The native kidneys may be the site of important pathologies in patients undergoing dialysis, especially in the form of acquired renal cystic disease with frequent malignant transformation. Renal neoplasms represents an important complication of haemodialysis-associated acquired cystic kidney disease and imaging surveillance is suggested. Extra-renal complications include renal osteodistrophy, brown tumours, and thoracic and cardiovascular complications. Other important fields in which imaging techniques may provide important informations are arteriovenous fistula and graft complications. Teaching points • Renal neoplasms represent a dreaded complication of haemodialysis.• In renal osteodystrophy bone resorption typically manifests along the middle phalanges.• Brown tumours are well-defined lytic lesions radiographically, possibly causing bone expansion.• Vascular calcifications are very common in patients undergoing haemodialysis.• Principal complications of the AV fistula consist of thrombosis, aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms. PMID:25680325

  20. Metanephric Adenoma: clinical, imaging, and histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Marchini, Giovanni Scala, E-mail: fabio_torri@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Urologica; Campos, Rodrigo Sousa Madeira [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Urologia; Gil, Antonio Otero [Instituto Dante Pazanezzi, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Metanephric adenoma (MA), also designated nephrogenic nephroma or renal epithelial tumor resembling immature nephron, has just been recently recognized as a special type of benign renal epithelial tumor. Only few reports are found in the literature regarding this rare renal tumor. The purpose of this paper is to describe our clinical, imaging and histological / immunohistochemical observations of MA diagnosed in two patients and compare these data to previous information reported in medical databases (author)

  1. Metanephric Adenoma: clinical, imaging, and histological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metanephric adenoma (MA), also designated nephrogenic nephroma or renal epithelial tumor resembling immature nephron, has just been recently recognized as a special type of benign renal epithelial tumor. Only few reports are found in the literature regarding this rare renal tumor. The purpose of this paper is to describe our clinical, imaging and histological / immunohistochemical observations of MA diagnosed in two patients and compare these data to previous information reported in medical databases (author)

  2. Polyorchidism: Sonographic and Magnetic Resonance Image Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oner, A. Y.; Sahin, C.; Pocan, S.; Kizilkaya, E. [Gazi Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-11-01

    Polyorchidism is a rare congenital anomaly frequently associated with maldescent testis, hernia, and torsion. Reports in the literature show an increased risk of testicular malignancy in the presence of polyorchidism. This entity has characteristic sonographic features and the diagnosis is often made on the basis of sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging might also be used for the diagnosis, but is more helpful in cases associated with cryptorchism or neoplasia. A conservative approach is the treatment of choice in uncomplicated cases.

  3. Polyorchidism: Sonographic and Magnetic Resonance Image Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyorchidism is a rare congenital anomaly frequently associated with maldescent testis, hernia, and torsion. Reports in the literature show an increased risk of testicular malignancy in the presence of polyorchidism. This entity has characteristic sonographic features and the diagnosis is often made on the basis of sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging might also be used for the diagnosis, but is more helpful in cases associated with cryptorchism or neoplasia. A conservative approach is the treatment of choice in uncomplicated cases

  4. Neuroradiologic findings in children with mitochondrial disorder: correlation with mitochondrial respiratory chain defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinna; Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Dong Ik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Eung Yeop [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Young-Mock; Lee, Joon Soo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Epilepsy Clinics, Severance Children' s Hospital, Brain Research Institute, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Heung Dong [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Epilepsy Clinics, Severance Children' s Hospital, Brain Research Institute, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul (Korea)

    2008-08-15

    Mitochondrial disorders are a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting energy metabolism that can present at any age with a wide variety of clinical symptoms. We investigated brain magnetic resonance (MR) findings in 40 children with defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complex and correlated them with the type of MRC defects. Enrolled were 40 children with MRC defects in biochemical enzyme assay of the muscle specimen. Twenty-one children were found to have classical syndromes of mitochondrial disorders and 19 children presented nonspecific mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. Their brain MR imaging findings were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with the biochemical defect in the MRC complex. Children with MRC defects showed various neuroradiologic features on brain MR imaging that resulted from a complex genetic background and a heterogeneous phenotype. Rapid progression of atrophy involving all structures of the brain with variable involvement of deep gray and white matter are the most frequent MR findings in children with MRC defects in both classical syndromes of mitochondrial disorder and nonspecific mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. The type of biochemical defect in the MRC complex enzyme did not correlate with brain MR findings in child patients. (orig.)

  5. Neuroradiologic findings in children with mitochondrial disorder: correlation with mitochondrial respiratory chain defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitochondrial disorders are a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting energy metabolism that can present at any age with a wide variety of clinical symptoms. We investigated brain magnetic resonance (MR) findings in 40 children with defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complex and correlated them with the type of MRC defects. Enrolled were 40 children with MRC defects in biochemical enzyme assay of the muscle specimen. Twenty-one children were found to have classical syndromes of mitochondrial disorders and 19 children presented nonspecific mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. Their brain MR imaging findings were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with the biochemical defect in the MRC complex. Children with MRC defects showed various neuroradiologic features on brain MR imaging that resulted from a complex genetic background and a heterogeneous phenotype. Rapid progression of atrophy involving all structures of the brain with variable involvement of deep gray and white matter are the most frequent MR findings in children with MRC defects in both classical syndromes of mitochondrial disorder and nonspecific mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. The type of biochemical defect in the MRC complex enzyme did not correlate with brain MR findings in child patients. (orig.)

  6. Incidental Cardiac Findings on Thoracic Imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kok, Hong Kuan

    2013-02-07

    The cardiac structures are well seen on nongated thoracic computed tomography studies in the investigation and follow-up of cardiopulmonary disease. A wide variety of findings can be incidentally picked up on careful evaluation of the pericardium, cardiac chambers, valves, and great vessels. Some of these findings may represent benign variants, whereas others may have more profound clinical importance. Furthermore, the expansion of interventional and surgical practice has led to the development and placement of new cardiac stents, implantable pacemaker devices, and prosthetic valves with which the practicing radiologist should be familiar. We present a collection of common incidental cardiac findings that can be readily identified on thoracic computed tomography studies and briefly discuss their clinical relevance.

  7. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Andreas Braun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases.

  8. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of health care. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases. (author)

  9. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Avila [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros, E-mail: braunrich@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (InRad/HC/FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas. Institutlo de Radiologia

    2016-03-15

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of health care. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases. (author)

  10. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases.

  11. Multiple fetuses in fetu:imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetus in fetu is an extremely rare developmental abnormality secondary to abnormal embryogenesis in a diamniotic monochorionic pregnancy. It occurs when a vertebrate fetus is enclosed within the abdomen of a normally developing fetus. This report describes the prospective diagnosis of fetus in fetu by findings on a plain radiograph and CT scan. At surgery, two fetus in fetu were discovered. (orig.)

  12. Multiple fetuses in fetu:imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Krishna V.; Vinaya, Kikkeri; Maximin, Suresh; Barrerras, Jose [Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, Staten Island, NY 10310 (United States); Haller, Jack O. [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Velchek, Francesca [Department of Pediatric Surgery, St. Vincent' s Hospital, Staten Island, NY 10310 (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Fetus in fetu is an extremely rare developmental abnormality secondary to abnormal embryogenesis in a diamniotic monochorionic pregnancy. It occurs when a vertebrate fetus is enclosed within the abdomen of a normally developing fetus. This report describes the prospective diagnosis of fetus in fetu by findings on a plain radiograph and CT scan. At surgery, two fetus in fetu were discovered. (orig.)

  13. Multiple fetuses in fetu:imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Krishna V; Vinaya, Kikkeri; Haller, Jack O; Maximin, Suresh; Barrerras, Jose; Velchek, Francesca

    2003-01-01

    Fetus in fetu is an extremely rare developmental abnormality secondary to abnormal embryogenesis in a diamniotic monochorionic pregnancy. It occurs when a vertebrate fetus is enclosed within the abdomen of a normally developing fetus. This report describes the prospective diagnosis of fetus in fetu by findings on a plain radiograph and CT scan. At surgery, two fetus in fetu were discovered. PMID:12497241

  14. Imaging findings of measles pneumonia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To illustrate the chest radiography and MSCT findings of measles pneumonia in adults. Methods: One hundred and sixty three measles patients underwent chest radiography, MSCT was performed in 3 of them. Measles pneumonia was confirmed in 10 patients (6.13%). Results: Eight of 10 patients had abnormal appearances in initial chest radiography. The characteristic chest radiographic findings were ground-glass opacities (n=6) and bronchial wall thickening (n=2). MSCT showed bilateral multiple ground-glass opacities in 1 patient, unilateral patchy ground-glass opacities with lobular distribution in the right upper lung in 2 patients. Conclusions: Familiarizing with radiographic and MSCT appearances of measles pneumonia in adults is very important for the differential diagnosis and appropriate management of measles pneumonia. Normal initial chest radiography cannot exclude the involvement of the lungs. (authors)

  15. MR imaging findings in cesarean scar pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze MRI findings of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP). Methods: The MR findings in 18 patients who were diagnosed as CSP by surgery from March 2010 to November 2011 were retrospectively analyzed, and comparison was made between the MRI findings and surgical results. Results: All Gestational sacs (18) were clearly detected by MRI. Among the 18 cases,gestational sac presented as cystic mass with smooth margin located within the scar of uterine wall at the lower anterior uterus in 16 cases. In 2 of the 16 cases, gestational sac was found within the myometrium, whereas in the remaining 14 cases, gestational sac was found partially within the myometrium with extension into the uterine cavity. The anterior wall of isthmus uteri became thinner. In the remaining 2 of the 18 cases, gestational sac presented as irregular, multilobolated mass, growing deep into the myometrium as well as into the uterine cavity. On T2WI, the mass showed heterogeneous signal intensity. A small amount of hemorrhage within the mass and uterine cavity could be seen on T1WI. An enhancing solid component with a heterogeneous mass could be seen. All gestational sacs in 18 cases were located at or adjacent to the previous cesarean scar. In the area of cesarean scar,the signal of the uterine wall was disconnected, with focal indentation or thinning and the previous cesarean scar exhibited hypointensity on both T1WI and T2WI. Conclusion: CSP has its unique findings on MRI, these specific features can provide useful information in the management of CSP. (authors)

  16. Sinusitis: imaging findings before and after treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Learning objectives: To present the possibilities of Computed Tomography (CT) as a gold standard for investigation of inflammatory sinunasal diseases. The role of CT is very important in acute rhinosinuitis when sign and symptom suggest complication and in chronic sinusitis, especially before endonasal sinus surgery, for postoperative assessment and in cases of recurrences. As this method allows optimal differentiation of the air, bone and soft tissues it is able to achieve an exact visualization of a particular anatomic structures. The best representation in coronal plane of ostiomeatal unit OMU/maxillary sinus ostia, infundibulum, hiatus semilunaris, and the middle nasal turbinate and lateral nasal wall, and in axial plane of the relation: ethmoidal cells:orbit and sphenoidal sinus:internal carotid artery, are one of the biggest advantages of CT. This examination displayed not only the regional anatomy and the spread of the inflammation in the sinuses and adjacent regions, but also aided the operator in his choice of surgical approach. As CT is the best imaging modality in the evaluation of the paranasal sinuses, the question about the radiation dose became very important. The dose was reduced to protect the eye lenses, with no loss of image quality and no signification noise increase. There are many different techniques and recommendations for the CT study of the sinuses, but still no definite idea about the optimal technique for investigation in this region. This is the aim of the lecture - to develop an optimal study for preoperative and postoperative CT examination of the paranasal sinuses

  17. Neuroradiological findings in perinatally HIV-infected children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neuroradiological studies (CT, MRI, angiography) in 21 children with perinatal HIV infection were reviewed retrospectively. No patient showed an intracranial mass lesion; after intravenous contrast medium application there was no case with disturbed blood-brain barrier. Common non-specific findings were atrophy and delayed myelination. In 7 cases atrophy was combined with multifocal nearly symmetric white matter lesions, which characteristically spared the U-fibres. Further findings included an intramedullary ring-shaped structure in the cervical cord, an AIDS-associated vasculopathy and symmetric calcifications in the basal ganglia. The spectrum of neuroradiological findings in paediatric AIDS patients differs from that in adults. Knowledge of these age-specific findings is important because the number of HIV-infected children is rising. (orig.)

  18. The Children's Hearings Project Research Findings. A Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Sally E.; And Others

    Since 1980 the Children's Hearings Project (CHP) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, has offered status offenders and their families mediation as an alternative to the courts. This report describes CPH's origins and summarizes the results of an extensive research study conducted during the first 2 years of its operation. The key findings were: (1)…

  19. Imaging findings of solitary fibrous tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the imaging characteristics of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Methods: This study included 11 cases with SFT proved by pathological results. The imaging manifestations were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed in comparison with surgical and pathological results. Among them, 8 patients underwent CT plain scan (1/8) or enhanced scan (7/8), 4 patients underwent MR plain scan (2/4) or enhanced scan (2/4), and only 1 patient underwent both CT and MR scan. Results: (1) SFT were located in the thoracic cavity(2/11), abdominal and pelvis (5/11), and somatic soft tissues (4/11). The average tumor size was 11.8 cm (2.5 to 23.0 cm). Among them, 4 tumors were round or ellipse, and 7 tumors were irregular. Eight tumors had well-defined contours,and the others showed ill-defined contours. (2) On CT scan, all SFTs showed inhomogeneous density with low density areas. Calcification was seen in I case,and hemorrhagic foci were detected in 2 cases. (3) On MR scan, all SFTs showed intermediate signal intensity on T1WI. Three tumors were slightly hyperintense and the other was hypointense on T2WI. All of them were rich of vascular signal voids. Three tumors,including 2 tumors with scattered long T1 and T2 signal and 1 tumor in the liver with hyperintense haemorrhage, displayed inhomogeneous mixed signal.One tumor in the orbit showed homogeneous signal. (4) On enhanced scan, 9 tumors showed irregular enhancement with multiple circuitous vessels in the arterial phase, and continuous or progressive enhancement with patch non-enhanced areas in the venous phase. (5) Histologically, SFTs were composed of juxtaposed hyper- and hypo-cellular spindle cells, dense collagenous stroma and numerous thin-walled blood vessels with a staghorn configuration. Conclusion: The possibility of SFT should be considered when a single soft tissue mass with sharp border, inhomogeneous density is detected, especially with inhomogeneous enhancement maintaining in the venous phase

  20. Finding Interesting Images in Albums using Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Vaiapury

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Commercial systems such as Flickr display interesting photos from their collection as an interaction mechanism for sampling the collection. It purely relies on social activity analysis for determining the notion of interestingness. We propose an alternative technique based on content analysis for finding interesting photos in a collection. We use a combination of visual attention models and an interactive feedback mechanism to compute interestingness. A differentiating feature of our approach is the ability to customize the set of interesting photos depending upon the individual interest. Also, we incorporate non-identical duplicate detection as a mechanism to strengthen the surprise factor among the potentially interesting set of candidate photos. We have implemented the system and conducted a user study whose results are promising. This proposed work presents a variant on query by example integrating user relevance feedback to choose “interesting” photos.

  1. Crohn's disease lymphadenopathy: MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess mesenteric lymph nodes in patients with different Crohn's disease subtypes identified on MR Enteroclysis. Materials and methods: Thirty-four patients, categorized into three different Crohn's disease subgroups, underwent MR Enteroclysis. A high resolution coronal true FISP sequence with fat saturation was applied to assess mesenteric lymph node anatomic distribution, size and shape. Their enhancement ratio (ER) was calculated by dividing signal intensity of each node to signal intensity of nearby vessel on T1 weighted FLASH images, acquired 75 s after intravenous administration of gadolinium. A one-way analysis of variance statistical test was applied to investigate any significant differences regarding mean ER among different disease subgroups. Results: Two hundred and eighty-three mesenteric lymph nodes were assessed, 231 in patients with active inflammatory (AI) disease, 36 in patients with fibrostenotic (FS) and 16 in patients with fistulizing/perforating (FP) disease. Maximum and minimum diameters were 3.2 and 0.3 cm, respectively. 75% of the lymph nodes presented with an oval shape. The majority were identified as being ileocolic (34%) and paracolic (31%). AI subgroup lymph nodes presented with the highest mean ER (0.783 ± 0.17) followed by FP (0.706 ± 0.1) and FS subgroup (0.652 ± 0.17) lymph nodes. The differences in mean values of ER of mesenteric lymph nodes between AI and FS subtypes were statistically significant (p < 0.0001), while mean ER between nodes of FP and the other two subtypes did not present statistically significant differences. Conclusion: ER of mesenteric lymph nodes identified on MR Enteroclysis may vary across different subtypes of Crohn's disease. Such differences may be valuable in clinical practice.

  2. Acute appendicitis in children: ultrasound and CT findings in negative appendectomy cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To decrease the negative appendectomy rate in children, knowledge of the misleading imaging findings on US and CT in negative appendicitis cases is important. To evaluate the negative appendectomy rate and describe the imaging findings of US and CT that lead radiologists to misdiagnose acute appendicitis in children. From 2007 to 2013, 374 children operated for suspected appendicitis were proved to either have acute appendicitis (n = 348) or to be negative for appendicitis (n = 26) on pathological reports. Negative appendectomy rates were compared among imaging modalities, age groups and genders. We retrospectively reviewed US and CT findings from negative appendectomy cases. The overall negative appendectomy rate was 7.0% (26/374). There were no statistically significant differences among the subgroups. The most common misleading presentations on US were sonographic tenderness (9/16, 56%) and non-compressibility (9/16, 56%). The most common misleading finding on CT were the presence of an appendicolith or hyperdense feces (5/12, 42%). Periappendiceal fat inflammation was observed in only one case of negative appendicitis on US and on CT. Radiologists can misdiagnose children with equivocal diameters of appendices as having acute appendicitis when sonographic tenderness or non-compressibility is present on US and when an appendicolith or hyperdense feces is noted on CT. The possibility of negative appendicitis should be borne in mind when periappendiceal fat inflammation is absent or minimal in indeterminate cases. (orig.)

  3. Acute appendicitis in children: ultrasound and CT findings in negative appendectomy cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Choi, Young Hun; Kim, Woo Sun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, In-One [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To decrease the negative appendectomy rate in children, knowledge of the misleading imaging findings on US and CT in negative appendicitis cases is important. To evaluate the negative appendectomy rate and describe the imaging findings of US and CT that lead radiologists to misdiagnose acute appendicitis in children. From 2007 to 2013, 374 children operated for suspected appendicitis were proved to either have acute appendicitis (n = 348) or to be negative for appendicitis (n = 26) on pathological reports. Negative appendectomy rates were compared among imaging modalities, age groups and genders. We retrospectively reviewed US and CT findings from negative appendectomy cases. The overall negative appendectomy rate was 7.0% (26/374). There were no statistically significant differences among the subgroups. The most common misleading presentations on US were sonographic tenderness (9/16, 56%) and non-compressibility (9/16, 56%). The most common misleading finding on CT were the presence of an appendicolith or hyperdense feces (5/12, 42%). Periappendiceal fat inflammation was observed in only one case of negative appendicitis on US and on CT. Radiologists can misdiagnose children with equivocal diameters of appendices as having acute appendicitis when sonographic tenderness or non-compressibility is present on US and when an appendicolith or hyperdense feces is noted on CT. The possibility of negative appendicitis should be borne in mind when periappendiceal fat inflammation is absent or minimal in indeterminate cases. (orig.)

  4. Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy in Children; Clinical and Electrophysiologic Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Hasan Tonekaboni

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the electrophysiologic findings of Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS in children and their relation with clinical progress of the disease. Methods:Twenty-three children with GBS were evaluated between 2005 and 2007. Electrophysiologic evaluations were performed at admission and one month later. Findings: Five patients needed respirator, 15 were bedridden, 1 developed recurrence 6 months later, and 2 experienced chronic GBS. The most common findings included: decreased amplitude of muscle action potential (CMAP (96%, increased distal latency (74%, increased F wave latency (69%, and decreased nerve conduction velocity (NCV (61%. Sensory nerve conduction (evaluating sural nerve was normal in 78% of the cases. These measures did not significantly change after 1 month. Conclusion:Electrodiagnostic evaluations are helpful at the primary stages of GBS for diagnosis. Fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves showing denervation and axonal injury are presentative of longer duration of the disease and a worse prognosis.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in anterolateral impingement of the ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To demonstrate the MR imaging findings of anterolateral impingement (ALI) of the ankle.Design and patients. Nine patients with a history of ankle inversion injury and chronic lateral ankle pain were imaged with MR imaging, and the findings correlated with the results of arthroscopy. Three additional patients with clinically suspected ALI of the ankle were also included. Ankle MR imaging studies from 20 control patients in whom ALI was not suspected clinically were examined for similar findings to the patient group.Results. MR imaging findings in the patients with ALI included a soft tissue signal mass in the anterolateral gutter of the ankle in 12 of 12 (100%) cases, corresponding to the synovial hypertrophy and soft tissue mass found at arthroscopy in the nine patients who underwent arthroscopy. Disruption, attenuation, or marked thickening of the anterior talofibular ligament was seen in all cases. Additional findings included signs of synovial hypertrophy elsewhere in the tibiotalar joint in seven of 12 patients (58%) and bony and cartilaginous injuries to the tibiotalar joint in five of 12 (42%). None of the control patients demonstrated MR imaging evidence of a soft tissue mass in the anterolateral gutter.Conclusions. ALI of the ankle is a common cause for chronic lateral ankle pain. It has been well described in the orthopedic literature but its imaging findings have not been clearly elucidated. The MR imaging findings, along with the appropriate clinical history, can be used to direct arthroscopic examination and subsequent debridement. (orig.)

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in anterolateral impingement of the ankle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, L.K. III.; Cooperman, A.E. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Helms, C.A. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Speer, K.P. [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To demonstrate the MR imaging findings of anterolateral impingement (ALI) of the ankle.Design and patients. Nine patients with a history of ankle inversion injury and chronic lateral ankle pain were imaged with MR imaging, and the findings correlated with the results of arthroscopy. Three additional patients with clinically suspected ALI of the ankle were also included. Ankle MR imaging studies from 20 control patients in whom ALI was not suspected clinically were examined for similar findings to the patient group.Results. MR imaging findings in the patients with ALI included a soft tissue signal mass in the anterolateral gutter of the ankle in 12 of 12 (100%) cases, corresponding to the synovial hypertrophy and soft tissue mass found at arthroscopy in the nine patients who underwent arthroscopy. Disruption, attenuation, or marked thickening of the anterior talofibular ligament was seen in all cases. Additional findings included signs of synovial hypertrophy elsewhere in the tibiotalar joint in seven of 12 patients (58%) and bony and cartilaginous injuries to the tibiotalar joint in five of 12 (42%). None of the control patients demonstrated MR imaging evidence of a soft tissue mass in the anterolateral gutter.Conclusions. ALI of the ankle is a common cause for chronic lateral ankle pain. It has been well described in the orthopedic literature but its imaging findings have not been clearly elucidated. The MR imaging findings, along with the appropriate clinical history, can be used to direct arthroscopic examination and subsequent debridement. (orig.)

  7. MR imaging findings suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscal, Eyal; De Guzman, Marietta M.; Myones, Barry L. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine and Pediatric Rheumatology Center, Houston, TX (United States); Traipe, Elfrides; Hunter, Jill V. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Brey, Robin L. [University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Department of Neurology, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Endothelial damage, hypertension and cytotoxic medications may serve as risk factors for the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in systemic lupus erythematosus. There have been few case reports of these findings in pediatric lupus patients. We describe clinical and neuroimaging findings in children and adolescents with lupus and a PRES diagnosis. We identified all clinically acquired brain MRIs of lupus patients at a tertiary care pediatric hospital (2002-2008). We reviewed clinical features, conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of patients with gray- and white-matter changes suggestive of vasogenic edema and PRES. Six pediatric lupus patients presenting with seizures and altered mental status had MRI findings suggestive of PRES. In five children clinical and imaging changes were seen in conjunction with hypertension and active renal disease. MRI abnormalities were diffuse and involved frontal regions in five children. DWI changes reflected increased apparent diffusivity coefficient (unrestricted diffusion in all patients). Clinical and imaging changes significantly improved with antihypertensive and fluid management. MRI changes suggestive of vasogenic edema and PRES may be seen in children with active lupus and hypertension. The differential diagnosis of seizures and altered mental status should include PRES in children, as it does in adults. (orig.)

  8. MR imaging findings suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endothelial damage, hypertension and cytotoxic medications may serve as risk factors for the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in systemic lupus erythematosus. There have been few case reports of these findings in pediatric lupus patients. We describe clinical and neuroimaging findings in children and adolescents with lupus and a PRES diagnosis. We identified all clinically acquired brain MRIs of lupus patients at a tertiary care pediatric hospital (2002-2008). We reviewed clinical features, conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of patients with gray- and white-matter changes suggestive of vasogenic edema and PRES. Six pediatric lupus patients presenting with seizures and altered mental status had MRI findings suggestive of PRES. In five children clinical and imaging changes were seen in conjunction with hypertension and active renal disease. MRI abnormalities were diffuse and involved frontal regions in five children. DWI changes reflected increased apparent diffusivity coefficient (unrestricted diffusion in all patients). Clinical and imaging changes significantly improved with antihypertensive and fluid management. MRI changes suggestive of vasogenic edema and PRES may be seen in children with active lupus and hypertension. The differential diagnosis of seizures and altered mental status should include PRES in children, as it does in adults. (orig.)

  9. Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism Have Similar Neuroradiological Abnormal Findings as Healthy Ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Rachmiel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the neuroradiological findings of children with congenital hypothyroidism (CHT compared to healthy controls (HC. Patients and Methods. Thirty children with CHT, mean age 12.5 ± 1.6 years, 14 (44.8% males, were compared with 38 HC mean age 11.7 ± 1.7 years, 16 (45.7% males. Clinical data were collected from medical charts and questionnaires seeking information on family history, birth and perinatal period events, medications, and overall health history. Neurocognitive function was assessed for global intelligence, visual and verbal memory, and executive functioning using standardized tests. Neuroimaging was performed using 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging and assessed by two pediatric radiologists. Results. Children with CHT had a similar proportion of incidental findings as did the children in the HC group, at 43.3% and 39.5%, respectively, . Abnormalities of the sellar region were reported in 13.3% of CHT group and 7.9% of HC group, . Other incidental findings included cerebellar ectopia, choroidal fissure and pineal cysts, and multiple increased signal intensity foci. Neuroradiological findings were not associated with clinical and neurocognitive abnormalities. Conclusion. Neuroimaging of children with CHT demonstrated a similar incidence of structural abnormalities as in the healthy population. There is no association between those findings and neurocognitive function.

  10. Cognitive and behavioral findings in children taking theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, C T; DuHamel, T R; Weimer, L; Shapiro, G G; Pierson, W E; Bierman, C W

    1988-01-01

    In a prior pilot study involving six children, we noted improved memory and concentration and improved behavior when these children were switched from theophylline to cromolyn sodium therapy. We now report the findings in 29 children (24 boys and five girls), aged 7 to 12 years. In this study, a double-blind, double-dummy randomized design was used so that half the subjects continued to receive theophylline and the other half was actually switched from theophylline to cromolyn sodium therapy. Assessment again consisted of the revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, the Selective Reminding test, the Benton Visual Retention test, Stroop tests I and II, and the Child Behavior Checklist. The group receiving placebo theophylline/active cromolyn sodium therapy demonstrated greater improvement on all tests of memory and concentration, with greatest significance for the Stroop test (p less than 0.03 by analysis of covariance). There were also significant correlations between length of time theophylline was taken and scores on the depression (p less than 0.03) and the obsessive-compulsive (p less than 0.04) subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist. These results support the findings of the previous pilot study but, in addition, raise concern about depression and anxiety as possible long-term side effects of long-term theophylline therapy. PMID:3123538

  11. Calcified cervical intervertebral disc in children: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleus pulposus calcification in children (CCIDC) is relatively rare but well known clinical syndrome, usually localized at the level of cervical spine. More than hundred and fifty cases have been reported in the literature with an increasing number of new reports in the last decade. The disease entity has been attributed to trauma, inflammation , or increased hydrostatic pressure with the disc, but the exact etiology still remains uncertain. The prognosis of disc calcification in children is good. As a rule pain resolves and there is a spontaneous resorption. Although the benign nature of the disease has been emphasized by many authors, herniation of the calcified nucleus pulposus through ruptured annulus fibrosus may occasionally occur. This rare but potentially serious complication with radiological signs of extradural space occupying lesion rises the question of eventual operative therapy. In several cases which have been reported in literature remission of symptoms occurred with conservative treatment. Radiological investigations are important for the diagnosis, evaluation of extent and follow-up of the disease. Radiography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used. The first radiologic examination is standard radiography of the cervical spine. An addition of oblique views suggested before introduction of CT for better presentation of eventual protrusion (extrusion) of calcified discs material into the region of the intervertebral foramen (nerve root comprehension). Since frequently multilevel disc calcifications have been reported some authors suggest standard radiography of the whole spine. Radiography clearly demonstrates nucleus pulposus calcifications, which are round, oval flattened or fragmented. Radiographic appearances are to some extent reminiscent of discographic findings in normal or degenerated disc. Affected disc spaces may be slightly expanded indicating possibility of increased intradiscal pressure. Some of the

  12. Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain George Hightower searches for genetic mutations that affect HIV's ability to infect the brain. Read Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry and Biochemistry Enzymes, Molecular Probes, Metabolic ...

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of proliferating trichilemmal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of proliferative trichilemmal tumor (PTT), a rare benign tumor of the scalp. MR imaging showed a well-margined mass with isointense signal on T1-weighted images and heterogeneous mixed intensity signal on T2-weighted images After i.v. administration of contrast material, the mass showed significant enhancement, with small portions remaining unenhanced. It was considered that these findings reflected the pathological characteristics of PTT, which consists of solid lobules and cystic cavities. (orig.)

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of proliferating trichilemmal tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Imanaka, Kazufumi; Hayashi, Masahiko; Kuwata, Yoichiro [Nishi-Kobe Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Kobe (Japan); Hashimoto, Kimio [Nishi-Kobe Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Kobe (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University Graduate school of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kobe (Japan)

    2005-06-01

    We report the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of proliferative trichilemmal tumor (PTT), a rare benign tumor of the scalp. MR imaging showed a well-margined mass with isointense signal on T{sub 1}-weighted images and heterogeneous mixed intensity signal on T{sub 2}-weighted images After i.v. administration of contrast material, the mass showed significant enhancement, with small portions remaining unenhanced. It was considered that these findings reflected the pathological characteristics of PTT, which consists of solid lobules and cystic cavities. (orig.)

  15. MR imaging of symptomatic neurocutaneous melanosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurocutaneous melanosis is a syndrome consisting of cutaneous nevi and melanocytosis of the leptomeninges. Over a 5-year period (1989-1994) we evaluated with MR imaging the central nervous system of five children with a confirmed histologic diagnosis of neurocutaneous melanosis. The children ranged in age from 7 to 10 years and consisted of two girls and three boys. They all had multiple pigmented skin lesions (cutaneous nevi) and presented with seizures, signs of raised intracranial pressure, cranial nerve palsies and/or myelopathy. The MR studies were performed with T1-weighted, T2-weighted and T1-weighted post-gadolinium images of the brain in addition to T1-weighted post-gadolinium images of the entire spine. The MR findings in all the children consisted of marked, diffuse enhancement of thickened leptomeninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord which was only demonstrated on the post-gadolinium T1-weighted images and mild to moderate hydrocephalus. We present our MR findings and compare these findings with other imaging findings in the literature. Our findings represent part of a spectrum of imaging abnormalities seen in patients with neurocutaneous melanosis. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab

  16. Structural and functional imaging: Particularities in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiron, C.; Hertz-Pannier, L. [Hop Necker Enfants Malad, INSERM, Serv Neuropediat, U663, F-75015 Paris (France); Chiron, C.; Hertz-Pannier, L. [UnivParis 05, F-75005 Paris (France); Chiron, C.; Hertz-Pannier, L. [CEA, I2BM, Neurospin, SHFJ, F-91191 Orsay (France)

    2008-07-01

    Surgery of partial epilepsies in childhood has largely benefited from the recent advances of imaging techniques, which carry a triple goal: (1) to contribute to the localization of the epilepsy onset zone, (2) to detect and delineate an underlying lesion, and (3) to study the spatial relationship between the epileptogenic zone and the neighboring functional cortex, in order to select patients and plan the resection. This noninvasive pre-surgical imaging workup must be compared to clinical and electrical data to estimate the postoperative prognosis, while invasive techniques such as SEEG, cortical stimulations, and IAT often remain indispensable in difficult cases, i.e., in cryptogenic epilepsies. As in adults, advances in MRI allow us to detect more and more subtle underlying lesions, but this requires repeating MR studies during early childhood and using adapted sequence parameters to account for ongoing myelination. Ictal SPECT and PET imaging prove especially useful in planning depth electrode placement when video-EEG is not contributive, when MRI looks normal or shows multiple abnormalities, or in cases of discrepant findings. Multimodal imaging greatly enhances the sensitivity of all of these techniques. Finally, functional MRI of motor and language functions provide noninvasive cortical mapping of essential functions, using age-adapted paradigms, in cooperating children from age five to six and from IQs around 60. (authors)

  17. Sexualized images of children on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quayle, Ethel; Jones, Terry

    2011-03-01

    Despite an increase in research on child abuse images and sex offender risk, we still lack specific data about the characteristics of the children found within these images. Such data would assist us with understanding the exploitation of children through abusive images and the choice of images by offenders. We accessed sexualized child images submitted to the Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre (CEOP) in the United Kingdom. In 1998, CEOP developed a database (ChildBase) of child abuse images gathered from police seizures across the United Kingdom. This database is continually updated and is operationally used to identify victims. We randomly selected 10% of the 247,950 images, submitted during 2005-2009, and sorted them into the following categories: gender, age, and ethnic group (White, Asian, Black, and Hispanic/Latino). Codes (n = 24,550) were analyzed using frequencies and cross-tabulations in relation to gender, age, and racial group. The odds of the abuse images being female versus male were about 4 to 1, and the odds of the images being of White children versus non-White children were about 10 to 1 (9.805). There was a significant gender difference in age distribution of all the children within the images. The limitations of this study are also discussed along with possible implications and recommendations for future research. PMID:21349829

  18. Human fascioliasis: MR imaging findings of hepatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to describe MR imaging findings of liver lesions in human fascioliasis. The MR imaging of the liver was performed in 29 patients with fascioliasis. Seventeen patients were women and 12 were men, with a mean age of 47.5 years (age range 17-75 years). Hepatic lesions were grouped into five types based on their signal characteristics. Three patients had normal imaging findings. One or more lesions were observed in the other 26 patients. The lesion types and the frequency of appearances were as follows: hyperintensity of the liver capsule on T2-weighted images (n=16, 55.2%); ill-defined slightly hyperintense areas on T2-weighted images (n=18, 62.1%); lesions which were hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images (n=10, 34.5%); hypointense on T1-weighted images and centrally hypo- or hyperintense, surrounded by peripherally less hyperintense area on T2-weighted images (n=4, 13.8%); and hypointense foci or ill-defined hypointense areas on T1- and T2-weighted images (n=10, 34.5%). We describe the MR imaging features of the disease. Our findings may help the differential diagnosis in which fascioliasis should be added to the list. (orig.)

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body ... children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns and ...

  20. BCGitis and BCGosis in children with primary immunodeficiency - imaging characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrot, Shai; Soudack, Michalle [Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ramat-Gan (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Barkai, Galia [Sheba Medical Center, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit, Safra Children' s Hospital, Tel-Hashomer (Israel); Ben-Shlush, Aviva [Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ramat-Gan (Israel)

    2016-02-15

    When administered to an immune-compromised patient, BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guerin) can cause disseminated and life-threatening infections. To describe the imaging findings in children with primary immunodeficiency and BCG-related infections. We reviewed the imaging findings of children with primary immunodeficiency treated at a children's hospital during 2012-2014 with localized or disseminated BCG infection. Imaging modalities included US, CT and radiography. Nine children with primary immunodeficiency had clinical signs of post-vaccination BCGitis; seven of these children showed disseminated disease and two showed only regional lesions with characteristic ipsilateral lymphadenopathy. Overall, lymphadenopathy was the most prevalent feature (n = 8) and characteristically appeared as a ring-enhancing hypodense (CT) or hypoechoic (US) lesion. Visceral involvement with multiple abscesses appeared in the spleen (n = 2), liver (n = 1) and bones (n = 1). All lesions regressed following appropriate anti-tuberculosis treatment. BCG infection needs to be considered in children with typical findings and with suspected primary immunodeficiency. (orig.)

  1. BCGitis and BCGosis in children with primary immunodeficiency - imaging characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When administered to an immune-compromised patient, BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guerin) can cause disseminated and life-threatening infections. To describe the imaging findings in children with primary immunodeficiency and BCG-related infections. We reviewed the imaging findings of children with primary immunodeficiency treated at a children's hospital during 2012-2014 with localized or disseminated BCG infection. Imaging modalities included US, CT and radiography. Nine children with primary immunodeficiency had clinical signs of post-vaccination BCGitis; seven of these children showed disseminated disease and two showed only regional lesions with characteristic ipsilateral lymphadenopathy. Overall, lymphadenopathy was the most prevalent feature (n = 8) and characteristically appeared as a ring-enhancing hypodense (CT) or hypoechoic (US) lesion. Visceral involvement with multiple abscesses appeared in the spleen (n = 2), liver (n = 1) and bones (n = 1). All lesions regressed following appropriate anti-tuberculosis treatment. BCG infection needs to be considered in children with typical findings and with suspected primary immunodeficiency. (orig.)

  2. Medulloblastoma: atypical CT and MRI findings in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eran, Ayelet; Ozturk, Arzu; Aygun, Nafi; Izbudak, Izlem [Division of Neuroradiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Posterior fossa mass lesions in children usually present a diagnostic challenge despite their high frequency and the limited number of differential diagnostic possibilities. Consideration of medulloblastoma within the differential diagnosis of such lesions mandates an aggressive surgical approach as residual tumor is a known risk factor for poor prognosis. Preoperative imaging of the entire neuroaxis is critical given the high propensity of drop metastases. In this pictorial presentation, we review and demonstrate less common features of medulloblastomas to facilitate diagnosis in challenging cases. (orig.)

  3. Leukoencephalopathy following CNS prophylaxis therapy in pediatric leukemia : MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings and the usefulness of MR imaging in the diagnosis and follow-up leukoencephalopathy following CNS prophylaxis therapy in pediatric leukemia. We retrospectively evaluated the MR imaging findings of eight children with white matter abnormalities on MR out of seventeen acute leukemic patients with various neuropsychiatric symptoms who received intrathecal methotrexate administration, with or without cranial irradiation. In all cases, initial MR was performed within a week of the onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Follow-up MR was performed one to sixteen months after initial study, and the MR imaging findings were compared with the initial findings. The initial MR imaging findings were classified into three categories : focal or multifocal white matter abnormalities (3/8), and diffuse white matter abnormalities without enhancement (3/8), and diffuse white matter abnormalities with enhancement (2/8). At follow-up MR, diffuse or focal atrophic changes were noted in all children. White matter abnormalities improved in two out of three patients with focal or multifocal white matter abnormalities. In five with diffuse white matter abnormalities, the extent of these showed no significant change, but contrast enhancement was markedly reduced in two children in whom diffuse white matter abnormalities with enhancement had been demonstrated. In pediatric leukemia, the MR imaging findings of leukoencephalopathy following CNS prophylaxis therapy are variable, but are specific with the clinical history of neuropsychiatric symptoms after intrathecal methotrexate administration, with or without cranial irradiation. The MR imaging is valuable in the diagnosis and follow-up of leukoencephalopathy following CNS prophylaxis therapy in pediatric leukemia

  4. Low-Functioning Autism and Nonsyndromic Intellectual Disability: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbetta, Alessandra; Bulgheroni, Sara; Contarino, Valeria Elisa; Chiapparini, Luisa; Esposito, Silvia; Annunziata, Silvia; Riva, Daria

    2015-10-01

    Previous neuroradiologic studies reported a high incidence of abnormalities in low-functioning autistic children. In this population, it is difficult to know which abnormality depends on autism itself and which is related to intellectual disability associated with autism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of neuroradiologic abnormalities in low-functioning autistic children compared to Intellectual Quotient and age-matched nonsyndromic children, using the same set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. MRI was rated as abnormal in 44% of autistic and 54% of children with intellectual disability. The main results were mega cisterna magna in autism and hypoplastic corpus callosum in intellectual disability. These abnormalities are morphologically visible signs of altered brain development. These findings, more frequent than expected, are not specific to the 2 conditions. Although MRI cannot be considered mandatory, it allows an in-depth clinical assessment in nonsyndromic intellectual-disabled and autistic children. PMID:25895913

  5. Adenomyosis induced by tamoxifen. Magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commonly, tamoxifen treatment in postmenopausal breast cancer patients is associated with endometrial changes, basically endometrial proliferation and/or polyps. On rare occasions, uterine adenomyosis have been described on the literature. These patients presented similar imaging findings to those described on fertile women. The main purpose of this report is to describe MR imaging findings on two postmenopausal women with breast carcinoma. Both presented uterine adenomyosis changes inducer by their adjuvant tamoxifen treatment. (Author) 6 refs

  6. Sickle cell anemia: a review of the imaging findings

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado, E.; Paixão, P; Schmitt, W; Penha, D; Carvalho, F; Tavares, A.

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia - a review of the imaging findings LEARNING OBJECTIVES: To review and describe the manifestations of sickle cell anemia, focusing on the typical imaging findings in the most frequent affected organs. BACKGROUND: Sickle cell anemia is an autosomal recessive genetic condition characterized by a defective form of hemoglobin (hemoglobin S), which promotes the aggregation and distortion of red blood cells. Anemia results from the rapid removal of the abnormal red ...

  7. Ischemic-anoxic insults in children leading to iron accumulation in the basal ganglia: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MR imaging appearances of normal brain iron distribution and increased iron deposition in several degenerative disorders have been previously reported. The authors describe the MR imaging findings (0.3-T imaging system) in three children, aged 2-6 years, with previous ischemic-anoxic events and subsequent resuscitations. On T2- weighted images (repetition time/echo time [msec] = 2,000/84) areas of decreased signal intensity were seen that involved the basal ganglia (three patients) and adjacent white matter (two patients), consistent with iron deposition; areas of hyperintensity were seen in the periventricular and/or subcortical white matter. These findings suggest that abnormal levels of iron accumulate in the basal ganglia after peripheral ischemic damage

  8. MR findings of synovial disease in children and young adults: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synovial diseases in children can be classified into normal structures as potential sources of pathology (synovial folds: plicae, infrapatellar fat pad clefts); noninfectious synovial proliferation (juvenile idiopathic arthritis, hemophilic arthropathy, lipoma arborescens, synovial osteochondromatosis, pigmented villonodular synovitis, reactive synovitis), and infectious synovial proliferation, deposition disease, vascular malformations, malignancy (including metastasis) and intra-articular/periarticular cysts and cyst-like structures (ganglia). Familiarity with characteristic MR imaging findings of synovial diseases in children and young adults will enable a more confident diagnosis for earlier intervention and directed therapy. The first part of this paper will cover potential pathology of normal synovial structures as well as noninfectious synovial proliferation. (orig.)

  9. MR findings of synovial disease in children and young adults: Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Merrow, Arnold C.; Emery, Kathleen H. [Cincinnati Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, In-One [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Synovial diseases in children can be classified into normal structures as potential sources of pathology (synovial folds: plicae, infrapatellar fat pad clefts); noninfectious synovial proliferation (juvenile idiopathic arthritis, hemophilic arthropathy, lipoma arborescens, synovial osteochondromatosis, pigmented villonodular synovitis, reactive synovitis), and infectious synovial proliferation, deposition disease, vascular malformations, malignancy (including metastasis) and intra-articular/periarticular cysts and cyst-like structures (ganglia). Familiarity with characteristic MR imaging findings of synovial diseases in children and young adults will enable a more confident diagnosis for earlier intervention and directed therapy. The first part of this paper will cover potential pathology of normal synovial structures as well as noninfectious synovial proliferation. (orig.)

  10. CT findings of pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of our study was to study the CT findings of cryptococcosis in immunocompetent children. Methods: CT scan and clinical data of 21 immunocompetent children with proven pulmonary cryptococcosis were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results: The CT scans demonstrated 1 mm subpleural nodule in the lingula of left lung in 1 patient and multiple nodules in 20 patients.Of 20 patients with multiple nodules, peripheral or subpleural distribution was found in 12 patients,and diffuse distribution in 8 patients. Of 20 patients with multiple nodules,Nodules of < 10 mm was found in 18 patients,< 3 mm in 14 patients, and > 10 mm in 2 patients. Round nodular with smooth margin was detected in 15 of 20 patients with multiple nodules. Lymphadenopathy was found in 17 patients including 3 patients with mild contrast enhancement and 2 patients with circular enhancement. Extrapulmonary lesions distributing in liver, spleen, kidney, and the nervous system were found in 14 patients. In follow-up, 1 patient died and 20 patients fully recovered. Conclusions: Pulmonary multiple nodules with lymphadenopathy is the characteristic CT findings in immunocompetent children with pulmonary cryptococcosis which is prone to involve multiple extra-pulmonary organs. (authors)

  11. Imaging Findings of Brain Death on 3-Tesla MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate the usefulness of 3-tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), T2*-weighted gradient recalled echo (GRE), and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in diagnosing brain death. Magnetic resonance imaging findings for 10 patients with clinically verified brain death (group I) and seven patients with comatose or stuporous mentality who did not meet the clinical criteria of brain death (group II) were retrospectively reviewed. Tonsilar herniation and loss of intraarterial flow signal voids (LIFSV) on T2WI were highly sensitive and specific findings for the diagnosis of brain death (p < 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively). DWI, TOF-MRA, and GRE findings were statistically different between the two groups (p = 0.015, 0.029, and 0.003, respectively). However, cortical high signal intensities in T2WI and SWI findings were not statistically different between the two group (p = 0.412 and 1.0, respectively). T2-weighted imaging, DWI, and MRA using 3T MRI may be useful for diagnosing brain death. However, SWI findings are not specific due to high false positive findings.

  12. MRI findings in acute idiopathic transverse myelopathy in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Albuquerque-Jonathan, Glenda; Hewlett, Richard [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, University of Cape Town and School of Child and Adolescent Health, Klipfontein Road, Cape Town (South Africa); Wilmshurst, Jo [Department of Paediatric Neurology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, University of Cape Town and School of Child and Adolescent Health, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2003-09-01

    To describe the clinical and MRI findings in three children with acute idiopathic myelopathy (AIM). Retrospective review of the clinical presentation, MRI findings and outcome of three patients diagnosed with acute idiopathic transverse myelitis. Of note was the swift onset of symptoms in all patients, without any preceding illness or history of vaccination in two of the patients, and the rapid resolution of symptoms on steroid therapy in all the patients. MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensity and patchy enhancement with gadolinium, but the extensive cord involvement did not correlate with the severity of presentation or outcome. Our findings do not support that MRI evidence alone of diffuse myelopathy is a predictor of poor outcome in childhood AIM. (orig.)

  13. MRI findings in acute idiopathic transverse myelopathy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the clinical and MRI findings in three children with acute idiopathic myelopathy (AIM). Retrospective review of the clinical presentation, MRI findings and outcome of three patients diagnosed with acute idiopathic transverse myelitis. Of note was the swift onset of symptoms in all patients, without any preceding illness or history of vaccination in two of the patients, and the rapid resolution of symptoms on steroid therapy in all the patients. MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensity and patchy enhancement with gadolinium, but the extensive cord involvement did not correlate with the severity of presentation or outcome. Our findings do not support that MRI evidence alone of diffuse myelopathy is a predictor of poor outcome in childhood AIM. (orig.)

  14. Cranial MR imaging of abused children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of intracranial sequelae of child abuse has important clinical and legal implications. CT findings are often subtle or nonspecific. Acutely, a small interhemispheric subdural hematoma (IHSDH) is seen, which may be difficult to distinguish from the falx. In chronic or recurrent abuse, ventricular dilatation and extracerebral fluid collections are encountered that may be difficult to distinguish from atrophy. Four abused children underwent MR imaging and, in each case, MR demonstrated the nature and extent of abnormalities with greater accuracy than CT. In acute abuse (two cases), the IHSDH was diagnosed with greater confidence than on CT, and convexity subdural collections were identified which could not be detected on CT. In chronic abuse (two cases) the subdural location of extracerebral collections and the extent of parenchymal damage was better appreciated on MR than CT

  15. Renal imaging in children with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwit Rahmawati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Chronic kidney failure is a cause of death in children. Diagnosing chronic kidney disease is often made by clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and ultrasonography or other imaging tests. Early detection of chronic kidney disease is needed for education and management of the disease. Objective To describe renal imaging findings and mortality in children with chronic kidney disease. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on children with kidney diseases who were inpatients at Dr. Kariadi Hospital from January 2008 to June 2011. Data were taken from medical records. Chronic kidney disease was confirmed by clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and radiologic imaging. Renal ultrasound findings were determined by the radiologist responsible at that time. Results were presented as frequency distributions. Results Of 37 chronic kidney disease cases, 27 were males and 10 were females. Subjects’ most common complaints were dyspnea (7 out of 37 and edema (30 out of 37. Renal ultrasound imaging of subjects with chronic kidney disease yielded the following findings: reduced cortico-medullary differentiation (30 out of 37, bilateral echogenic kidneys (21 out of 37, reduced renal cortex thickness (4 out of 37 and small-sized kidneys (4 out of 37. Eight of the 37 children died. These 8 subjects had the following radiologic imaging findings: both kidneys appeared small in size (4 out of 8, reduced ‘renal cortex’ thickness (4 out of 8, echogenic kidneys (6 out of 8, and reduced cortico-medullary differentiation (8 out of 8. Conclusion Renal ultrasound imaging of pediatric subjects with chronic kidney disease revealed findings of reduced cortico-medullary differentiation, bilateral echogenic kidneys, reduced renal cortex thickness, and small kidneys bilaterally. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:193-9.].

  16. Etic aspects of childrens body image

    OpenAIRE

    Bokaová, Katarína

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with marketing communication focused on children, particulary with the impact on children's body image. It reflects the regulation of advertising in terms of legal and ethical issues. It seeks to examine the manipulability of children in decision-making process and the impact of advertising and media on their healthy development. The role of the thesis is to highlight the importance of careful monitoring of the marketing development and its negative impact on childr...

  17. MDCT Findings of Traumatic Adrenal Injury in Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Jee Eun; Ryu, Il; Kim, Jin Joo; Choi, Hye Young [Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    We wanted to evaluate the MDCT findings and concomitant injuries of traumatic adrenal injury in children. Among 375 children who had undergone a MDCT scan for abdominal trauma during the recent five years at our institution, 27 children who had revealed adrenal injury on their CT scan were included in the study. We retrospectively evaluated the causes of the trauma, the patterns of adrenal injury, the associated CT findings and the concomitant injuries of the other organs in the abdomen. We identified 27 children (7.5%) (17 boys and 10 girls, mean age: 9.9 years, range: 2-18 years) with adrenal injury. The causes of adrenal injury were a traffic accident for 20 patients (74%), falls for four patients (15%) and blunt trauma for three patients (11%). The right adrenal gland was injured in 20 patients (74%), while the left adrenal gland was injured in three patients and bilateral involvement was noted in four patients. The patterns of adrenal injury were round or oval shaped hematoma in 23 lesions (74%), irregular hemorrhage with obliterating the gland in six lesions (19%) and active extravasation of contrast material from the adrenal region in two lesions (7%). Concomitant injuries were noted in 22 patients (81%), including 15 patients with liver laceration (56%), 11 patients with lung contusion (41%) and nine patients with renal injury (33%). The frequency of adrenal injury was 7.5%. The right adrenal gland was more frequently involved. Concomitant organ injury was noted 81% of the patients and the most frequently involved organ was the liver (56%)

  18. Correlation between histopathological findings and MR imaging of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the prostate gland was performed in 8 patients with cancer prior to radical prostectomy or pelvic exenteration and 3 healthy volunteers. To investigate the imaging of prostatic cancer by MR, we compared the signal intensity on T2-weighted images with histopathological findings. Firstly, the area ratio of the glandular lumen or vascular lumen to the whole area of a field of a stained prostatic gland section viewed at a 100-fold magnification, and signal intensity on T2-weighted images were measured. Then, correlations were estimated between the glandular lumen ratio and signal intensity on preoperative MR images, and between the vascular lumen ratio and signal intensity. Tissues with large glandular lumens showed high intensity on T2-weighted images. No relation was observed between the signal intensity and vascular lumen ratio. The signal intensity on T2-weighted images seemed to be correlated with the glandular lumen ratio in the prostatic gland. (author)

  19. Fulminant hepatic failure in children: Etiology, histopathology and MDCT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to determine the etiologies, histopathology and MDCT findings of children with fulminant hepatic failure admitted to our institution. Materials and methods: Between June 2004 and November 2006, 15 children with fulminant hepatic failure who underwent MDCT were included retrospectively in this study. Twelve patients had liver biopsies. The patients were divided into three groups as hyperacute (Group I), acute (Group II) and subacute (Group III) depending on onset of hepatic encephalopathy. Results: Hepatitis A in 4 patients, non-A, non-E hepatitis in 4; mushroom poisoning in 3; fulminant Wilson's disease in 2; autoimmune hepatitis in 1; and both hepatitis B and toxic hepatitis (with leflunomide treatment) in 1 patient were detected. MDCT of all three groups revealed diffuse reduction in hepatic attenuation in 11 patients; ascites in 9; periportal edema in 6; edema of gallbladder wall in 6; splenomegaly in 6; heterogeneous hepatic parenchyma in 6; hepatomegaly in 3; irregular contours of liver in 2; multiple micronodules in 1 and necrotic areas and regeneration in liver parenchyma in 2 patients. Histopathologic evaluation of liver biopsies showed massive hepatic necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and ductular proliferation in 8 patients, periportal edema in 6, edema of gallbladder wall in 5, regenerating nodules and fibrous septa consistent with cirrhotic pattern in 2, and regenerating nodules and necrotic areas in 2 patients. Conclusion: The most common MDCT findings in fulminant hepatic failure were diffuse reduction in hepatic attenuation and ascites. Massive hepatic necrosis was the most common histopathologic finding.

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides real-time images, images that are renewed continuously, it also ...

  1. Evaluation of Tl-201 SPECT imaging findings in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Ozyurt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare with histopathological findings the findings of prostate cancer imaging by SPECT method using Tl-201 as a tumor seeking agent. Methods: The study comprised 59 patients (age range 51-79 years, mean age 65.3 ± 6.8 years who were planned to have transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS-guided biopsies due to suspicion of prostate cancer between April 2011 and September 2011. Early planar, late planar and SPECT images were obtained for all patients. Scintigraphic evaluation was made in relation to uptake presence and patterns in the visual assessment and to Tumor/Background (T/Bg ratios for both planar and SPECT images in the quantitative assessment. Histopathological findings were compatible with benign etiology in 36 (61% patients and malign etiology in 23 (39% patients. Additionally, comparisons were made to evaluate the relationships between uptake patterns,total PSA values and Gleason scores. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between the benign and malignant groups in terms of uptake in planar and SPECT images and T/Bg ratios and PSA values. No statistically significant difference was found between uptake patterns of planar and SPECT images and Gleason scores in the malignant group. Conclusions: SPECT images were superior to planar images in the comparative assessment. Tl-201 SPECT imaging can provide an additional contribution to clinical practice in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and it can be used in selected patients.

  2. Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia- Imaging findings in 19 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Goudarzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP,formely called pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, is a serious disease in immunocompromised patients, particularly those with AIDS. However, many patients with this disease are unaware of their HIV serostatus, requiring early and prompt diagnosis of the disease. Early chest radiographic findings of PJP may be subtle or equivocal. On the other hand, advances in the treatment and prevention of the disease is associated with an increased rate of atypical manifestations, so it is important for radiologists to be familiar with the spectrum of imaging findings of the entity. The first report on imaging findings of PJP in a group of Iranian patients is presented. 

  3. Atypical Findings of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Children

    OpenAIRE

    KARIMZADEH, Parvaneh; Mohammadkazem BAKHSHANDEH BALI; Mohammad Mahdi Nasehi; Seyedeh Mohaddese Taheri Otaghsara; Mohammad Ghofrani

    2013-01-01

    How to cite this article: Karimzadeh P, Bakhshandeh Bali MK, Nasehi MM, Taheri Otaghsara SM, Ghofrani M. Atypical Findings of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Children. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012;6(4):17-22. AbstractObjectiveGuillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated polyneuropathy that occurs mostly after  prior infection. The diagnosis of this syndrome is dependent heavily on the history and examination, although cerebrospinal fluid analysis and electrodiagnostic testing usually conf...

  4. Brodie's abscess in pediatric patients : MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the characteristic MR imaging findings of Brodie's abscess in pediatric patients. We retrospectively reviewed 17 pediatric patients with surgically-proven or clinically and radiologically diagnosed Brodie's abscess who had undergone T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences, T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequence and gadolinum enhanced MR imaging. The MR imaging findings were analysed and classified according to the signal characteristics of the abscess and surrounding bone marrow. The MR imaging findings of Brodie's abscess could be classified as one of three types, as follows : Type I (10/17) was seen as a target appearance with four layers;i.e. a center with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images; an inner rim of high signal intensity, as compared with muscle on both T1- and T2-weighted images with intense contrast enhancement;an outer rim of low signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images, and a peripheral halo of low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and variable signal intensity on T2-weighted images. In type II (4/17), there was no distinction between the center and the inner rim on T1-weighted images, but a clear distinction on contrast enhanced images by intense enhancement of the inner rim. In type III (3/17), there was no distinction between the center and the inner rim on either T1-weighted or contrast enhanced images, due to diffuse enhancement of the lesions. Additional findings of Brodie's abscess include epiphyseal plate violation (8/17), linear or tubular sinus tracts (7/17), inflammatory reaction or edema of surrounding soft tissue (7/17), periosteal reaction (1/17), and pyogenic arthritis (1/17). MR imaging is a useful diagnostic tool for the characterization and determination of the extent of Brodie's abscess. Contrast enhanced MR imaging is particularly valuable for the evaluation of type II lesions

  5. What are children's trusts? Early findings from a national survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, M.O.; Reading, R; Husbands, C.; O'Brien, M.; Thoburn, J.; Shemilt, I; Watson, J.; N. Jones; Haynes, R; Mugford, M

    2006-01-01

    Background: The Children Act 2004 and National Service Framework for Children, Young People and Maternity Services require fuller integration of health, education and social services for children and young people in England and Wales. The UK government supported the establishment of 35 experimental children's trust pathfinders (henceforth called children's trusts) in England. Methods: A questionnaire was completed by managers in all 35 children's trusts a year after their start. Children'...

  6. Relationship Between Migraine and Abnormal EEG Findings in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibe NEJAD BIGLARI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Nejad Biglari H, Rezayi A, Nejad Biglari H, Alizadeh M, Ahmadabadi F. Relationship Between Migraine and Abnormal EEG Findings in Children. Iran J Child Neurol 2012; 6(3: 21-24.ObjectiveMigraine is a disabling illness that causes absence from school andaffects the quality of life. It has been stated that headache may representan epileptic event. EEG abnormality is a prominent finding in children with migraine. The aim of this study was to evaluate EEG abnormalities in children with migraine.Materials & MethodsTwo-hundred twenty-eight children were enrolled into the study. Evaluation and following of cases was performed by one physician, paraclinical tests were used to increase the accuracy. The study wasconducted under the supervision of pediatric neurology masters and theselected cases were from different parts of the country.ResultsComparing EEG abnormalities in different types of migraine revealed that there is an association between them. There was also a significant difference between EEG abnormalities in different types of aura. Migraine type was associated with the patient’s age. Sleep disorders were more common in patients with a positive family history of seizure.ConclusionOur study disclosed migraine as a common problem in children with abnormalities present in approximately 20% of the patients. Migraine and abnormal EEG findings are significantly associated.ReferencesOttman, R, Lipton RB, Comorbidity of migraine and epilepsy. Neurology 1994 Nov;44(11:2105-10.Haut SR, Bigal ME, Lipton RB. Chronic disorders with episodic manifestations: focus on epilepsy and migraine.Lancet Neurol 2006 Feb;5(2:148-57.Piccinelli P, Borgatti R, Nicoli F, Calcagno P, Bassi MT,Quadrelli M et al. Relationship between migraine and epilepsy in pediatric age. Headache 2006 Mar;46(3:413-21.Hauser WA, Annegers JF, Anderson VE. Epidemiology and the genetics of epilepsy. Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis 1983;61:267-94.Yankovsky AE

  7. Hepatic cavernous hemangioma in cirrhotic liver: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To document the imaging findings of hepatic cavernous hemangioma detected in cirrhotic liver. The imaging findings of 14 hepatic cavernous hemangiomas in ten patients with liver cirrhosis were retrospectively analyzed. A diagnosis of hepatic cavernous hemangioma was based on the findings of two or more of the following imaging studies: MR, including contrast-enhanced dynamic imaging (n=10), dynamic CT (n=4), hepatic arteriography (n=9), and US (n=10). The mean size of the 14 hepatic hemangioma was 0.9 (range, 0.5-1.5) cm in the longest dimension. In 11 of these (79%), contrast-enhanced dynamic CT and MR imaging showed rapid contrast enhancement of the entire lesion during the early phase, and hepatic arteriography revealed globular enhancement and rapid filling-in. On contrast-enhanced MR images, three lesions (21%) showed partial enhancement until the 5-min delayed phases. US indicated that while three slowly enhancing lesions were homogeneously hyperechoic, 9 (82%) of 11 showing rapid enhancement were not delineated. The majority of hepatic cavernous hemangiomas detected in cirrhotic liver are small in size, and in many, hepatic arteriography and/or contrast-enhanced dynamic CT and MR imaging demonstrates rapid enhancement. US, however, fails to distinguish a lesion of this kind from its cirrhotic background. (author)

  8. Imaging findings and cerebral perfusion in arterial ischemic stroke due to transient cerebral arteriopathy in children; Achados de imagem e perfusao arterial cerebral em acidente vascular cerebral isquemico devido a arteriopatia transitoria em crianca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa Junior, Alcino Alves, E-mail: alcinojr@uol.com.br [Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ellovitch, Saada Resende de Souza [Neuropediatria, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pincerato, Rita de Cassia Maciel [Hospital Samaritano, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    We report the case of a 4-year-old female child who developed an arterial ischemic stroke in the left middle cerebral artery territory, due to a proximal stenosis of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, most probably related to transient cerebral arteriopathy of childhood. Computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, perfusion magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance angiography are presented, as well as follow-up by magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance angiography exams. Changes in cerebral perfusion and diffusion-perfusion mismatch call attention. As far as we know, this is the first report of magnetic resonance perfusion findings in transient cerebral arteriopathy. (author)

  9. Intracranial tuberculosis in children : CT findings before and after treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the CT findings of intracranial tuberculosis in children at initial stage and during follow-up after treatment. We evaluated 25 patients who were diagnosed by CSF analysis or response to anti-tuberculous medication as suffering from intracranial tuberculosis. There were 13 boys and 12 girls aged between 4 months and 14 years. Twenty-five initial and sixty-three follow-up CT scans were retrospectively analyzed. We evaluated the pattern of cisternal enhancement, the locations of infarction, and the presence of calcification and parenchymal granuloma. The changes of hydrocephalus and related complications, as well as cisternal abnormality during anti-tuberculous medication were also evaluated. The initial findings on CT scan were hydrocephalus(75%), cisternal obliteration in precontrast study(64%), thick-line or ring-shaped cisternal enhancement on postcontrast study(44%), infarctions(32%), calcifications(32%), periventricular edema(28%), and parenchymal granulomas(16%). On follow-up CT scan, hydrocephalus and cisternal enhancement had decreased to 35% and 82%, respectively, and the granulomas had changed to calcified nodules(100%). Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt or external ventricular drainage was needed in nine patient, and ventriculitis or complication of shunt procedure developed in four. Intracranial tuberculosis in children presented predominantly as meningitis involving basal cisterns and was associated with hydrocephalus. Infarction and calcification may be seen as parenchymal lesion. In spite of medical treatment, drainage was needed in about half the patients. During this treatment, the resolution of hydrocephalus, decreased cisternal enhancement, and calcification of the granlomas were seen

  10. Imaging findings of Castleman disease of the abdomen and pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The purpose of this work was to analysis the most suggestive imaging findings of Castleman disease in the abdomen and pelvis and to improve the recognition of this rare disease. Methods: Ten patients with pathologically proved Castleman disease in the abdomen (n=9) and pelvis (n=1) were included in this study. Patients were 18-56 yeas old (mean=40); 7 were men and 3 women. Imaging findings (CT and MRI, n=4; only CT, n=4; only MRI, n=2) were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with clinical and pathologic findings. Results: The lesions were divided into localized (n=9) and disseminated (n=1) group. The pathologic subtypes of all 9 cases of localized disease were hyaline vascular type. Imaging findings showed a single large mass in six and a single dominant mass with small satellite nodules in three. On plain CT images, the lesions manifested as homogeneous soft masses, which is isoattenuating to muscle. After intravenous injection of contrast media, most of the masses enhanced sharply (5/7) with the attenuation similar to large arteries at arterial phase and delay scans. On MR imaging, the lesions also were homogenous and had isointense or slightly low signal intensity compared with that of muscle on T1 weighted images and high signal intensity on T2 weighted images, and showed contrast enhancement in a similar pattern to contrast enhanced CT. After intravenous injection of contrast media, areas of central lower radial attenuation in the mass were noted in 4 cases of large masses ( > 5 cm) and proved to be fibrotic component pathologically. The pathologic subtypes of 1 cases of disseminated disease was plasma cell type. Imaging findings showed several well-defined nodules lied in the retroperitoneal zone that enhanced sharply with the attenuation similar to large arteries after intravenous injection of contrast media. Conclusion: Imaging findings of Castleman disease in the abdomen and pelvis are closely associated with its pathology. The most

  11. The format of children's mental images: Evidence from mental scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Marina C; Maras, Katie L; Robinson, Elizabeth J; Thomas, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the development and format of children's mental images. Children (4-, 5-, 6-7-, 8-9-, and 11-year-olds) and adults (N=282) viewed a map of a fictitious island containing various landmarks and two misleading signposts, indicating that some equidistant landmarks were different distances apart. Five-year-olds already revealed the linear time-distance scanning effect, previously shown in adults (Experiments 1 and 2): They took longer to mentally scan their image of the island with longer distances between corresponding landmarks, indicating the depictive format of children's mental images. Unlike adults, their scanning times were not affected by misleading top-down distance information on the signposts until age 8 (Experiment 1) unless they were prompted to the difference from the outset (Experiment 2). Findings provide novel insights into the format of children's mental images in a mental scanning paradigm and show that children's mental images can be susceptible to top-down influences as are adults'. PMID:27239749

  12. Atypical Imaging Findings in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Afravi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The incidence of primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSL is increasing. Timely diagnosis of PCNSL can lead to proper therapeutic management. There are some atypical imaging findings that may easily be misdiagnosed as other pathologic processes such as infectious and demyelinative diseases. As a result, histopathologic diagnosis is necessary for all suspected lesions."nPatients and Methods: In this research we studied 120 cases of PCNSL over the past 16 years. Some of them had atypical imaging findings, suggesting many differential diagnoses. Having said that, stereotactic biopsy was performed for all cases and the diagnosis was proved."nResults: We selected some interesting cases with atypical imaging findings of PCNSL, which were unlikely to be diagnosed without histopathologic evaluation. "nConclusion: PCNSL must be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis for other brain lesions. Histopathologic diagnosis is necessary for prompt management.

  13. HRCT findings of asthmatic children under maintenance therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Park, Jai Soung; Goo, Dong Erk; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Pyun, Bok Yang [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the HRCT findings of bronchial asthma during maintenance bronchodilator therapy and to determine whether there were irreversible bronchial changes occurred in pediatric patients with this condition. HRCT findings of the lung in 21 asthmatic children (14 boys and 7 girls aged between 3.5 and 13.8 (mean: 7.7) years) who were receiving maintenance bronchodilator therapy were retrospectively studied. At the time of CT examination, 16 were receiving nonsteroid bronchodilator therapy only, and five were receiving both bronchodilator and steroid therapy. Thirteen patients were defined as allergic and eight were nonallergic. The clinical severity of chronic asthma was graded as severe in seven cases, and moderate in 14. The duration of the disease ranged from 4 months to 6 years (mean 3.2 years). HRCT was performed in 19 cases for evaluation of the atelectasis, hyperinflation, and prominent bronchovascular bundles seen on plain radiographs, and in two cases for evaluation following acute exacerbation. A CT W-2000 scanner (Hitachi Medical Co. Tokyo, Japan) was used during the end inspiratory phase, and in addition, ten patients were scanned during the expiratory phase. Scans were reviewed for evidence of bronchial thickening, bronchiectasis, emphysema, abnormal density, mucus plugs, and other morphological abnormalities. The presence of bronchial wall thickening or air trapping was evaluated according to the duration, severity and type of asthma. Among the 21 patients, 7 (33.3%) had normal HRCT findings, while in 14 (66.7%), bronchial wall thickening was demonstrated. Eleven of the 14 patients with bronchial wall thickening(78.6%) also had air trapping. No patient was suffering from bronchiectasis or emphysema. There were no statistically significant correlations between the presence of bronchial wall thickening or air trapping and the duration of the disease, its severity, or type of asthma. There was, however, a statistically

  14. Clinical findings in children with cutaneous anthrax in eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbayram, Sinan; Doğan, Murat; Akgün, Cihangir; Peker, Erdal; Bektaş, M Selçuk; Kaya, Avni; Caksen, Hüseyin; Oner, Ahmet Faik

    2010-01-01

    Anthrax is a zoonosis produced by Bacillus anthracis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical findings, therapy, and outcome in children with cutaneous anthrax (CA). Data on age, gender, occupation, clinical symptoms and findings, location and type of lesions, clinical history, laboratory findings, treatment, and outcome were recorded from patients' medical records, retrospectively. The study included 65 patients between 1 month and 18 years old (9.0±4.0 years), 37 patients (56.9%) were male and 28 (43.1%) were female. Most of the patients (89.1%) were admitted in summer and autumn (panthrax edema was noted in 36 (55.3%) patients, anthrax pustule in 27 (41.5%), and anthrax edema and anthrax pustule in two (3%) patients. Gram staining and culture was positive for B. anthracis in 35 (53.8%) patients, and only Gram staining was positive in 10 (15.4%) patients. In the remaining 20 (30.8%) patients, the diagnosis was made by clinical findings. Because the anthrax outbreak in Turkey was associated with slaughtering or milking of ill cows, sheep, or goats, and handling raw meat without taking any protective measures, persons in the community must be educated about using personal protective equipment during slaughtering of animals and handling of meat and skins. PMID:21083757

  15. MR imaging findings of spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report magnetic resonance imaging findings of massive spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by repeated lumbar punctures during spinal anesthesia in a 36-year-old man. The signal intensities of spinal SAH were similar to those of the conus medullaris on both T1-and T2-weighted spin-echo images. Although spinal SAH is hardly recognized on MR, spinal SAH of sufficient amount may cause alteration of the cerebrospinal fluid signal

  16. MR imaging findings of patients with mesial temporal sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. We retrospectively reviewed the MR imaging findings of 116 patients diagnosed by MRI as suffering from mesial temporal sclerosis. In 18 of these, the condition was also histologically proven. Among the 116 patients, volume loss of the hippocampus was found in 95 (81.9%) and signal changes of the hippocampus in 53 (45.7%). Decreased signal intensity in the hippocampus on T1-weighted images was found in 13 (11.2%) and increased signal on T2-weighted images in 50 (43.1%). Signal abnormality in the hippocampus on both T1- and T2-weighted images was found in ten, and associated extrahippocampal abnormalities, as follows, in 20 (17.2%): atrophy of fornix (n=3D10), atrophy of the mammillary body (n=3D8), atrophy of the amygdala (n=3D10), atrophy or increased T2 signal intensity of the anterior thalamic nuclei (n=3D2), atrophy of the cingulate gyrus (n=3D2), atrophy or increased signal intensity of the anterior temporal lobe (n=3D8), and cerebral hemiatrophy (n=3D4). A high T2 signal and atrophy of the hippocampus are the most common and important MRI findings of mesial temporal sclerosis. Other abnormal findings, if any, which may be found in extrahippocampal structures such as the fornix, mammillary body and temporal lobe, should, however, also be carefully observed. (author)

  17. Imaging Findings in Symptomatic Patients with Femoral Diaphyseal Stress Injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorou, S.J.; Theodorou, D.J.; Resnick, D. [Univ. of California, San Diego Medical Center, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the imaging findings seen in symptomatic patients with stress injuries of the femoral diaphysis. Material and Methods: Seven patients (5 F, 2 M, age range 16 to 56 years, mean 38 years) underwent imaging evaluation of the symptomatic lower extremity due to an insidious onset of thigh or groin pain unrelated to trauma. Imaging studies included radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in seven patients, bone scintigraphy in five, and computed tomography (CT) in three. Results: Radiographs depicted three frank fractures in two patients, and revealed findings of stress injury in six patients. Available scintigraphic and CT findings were abnormal. On MR images, a solitary fracture was seen in two patients; two patients presented with bilateral stress fractures of the femoral diaphysis; and all seven patients had the imaging features of stress injury. Femoral diaphyseal stress fractures (n=6) appeared as linear regions of T1- and T2-weighted low signal intensity, surrounded by diffuse bone marrow edema. Three of the six frank fractures, with an evident fracture line, were longitudinal and parallel to the cortical surface. Conclusion: Femoral diaphyseal stress fractures are often inconspicuous with conventional radiography. MRI depicts the changes of stress injury in the femoral diaphysis, and is particularly useful in documenting the presence, morphology, and extent of fracture(s), information valuable for definitive diagnosis and appropriate management.

  18. Imaging Findings in Symptomatic Patients with Femoral Diaphyseal Stress Injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the imaging findings seen in symptomatic patients with stress injuries of the femoral diaphysis. Material and Methods: Seven patients (5 F, 2 M, age range 16 to 56 years, mean 38 years) underwent imaging evaluation of the symptomatic lower extremity due to an insidious onset of thigh or groin pain unrelated to trauma. Imaging studies included radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in seven patients, bone scintigraphy in five, and computed tomography (CT) in three. Results: Radiographs depicted three frank fractures in two patients, and revealed findings of stress injury in six patients. Available scintigraphic and CT findings were abnormal. On MR images, a solitary fracture was seen in two patients; two patients presented with bilateral stress fractures of the femoral diaphysis; and all seven patients had the imaging features of stress injury. Femoral diaphyseal stress fractures (n=6) appeared as linear regions of T1- and T2-weighted low signal intensity, surrounded by diffuse bone marrow edema. Three of the six frank fractures, with an evident fracture line, were longitudinal and parallel to the cortical surface. Conclusion: Femoral diaphyseal stress fractures are often inconspicuous with conventional radiography. MRI depicts the changes of stress injury in the femoral diaphysis, and is particularly useful in documenting the presence, morphology, and extent of fracture(s), information valuable for definitive diagnosis and appropriate management

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... between the transducer and the skin that can block the sound waves from passing into your body. ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... real-time images, images that are renewed continuously, it also can be used to guide procedures such ... of a testicle limiting proper blood flow into it. top of page How should we prepare? Your ...

  1. Fulminant hepatic failure in children: Etiology, histopathology and MDCT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakir, Banu [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: banutopcu@yahoo.com; Kirbas, Ismail [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: drismailk@yahoo.com; Demirhan, Beyhan [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pathology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: beyhand@baskent-ank.edu.tr; Tarhan, Nefise Cagla [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: caglat@gmail.com; Bozkurt, Alper [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: abozkurt78@hotmail.com; Ozcay, Figen [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: fozcay@baskent.edu.tr; Coskun, Mehmet [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: mcoskun@baskent-ank.edu.tr

    2009-11-15

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to determine the etiologies, histopathology and MDCT findings of children with fulminant hepatic failure admitted to our institution. Materials and methods: Between June 2004 and November 2006, 15 children with fulminant hepatic failure who underwent MDCT were included retrospectively in this study. Twelve patients had liver biopsies. The patients were divided into three groups as hyperacute (Group I), acute (Group II) and subacute (Group III) depending on onset of hepatic encephalopathy. Results: Hepatitis A in 4 patients, non-A, non-E hepatitis in 4; mushroom poisoning in 3; fulminant Wilson's disease in 2; autoimmune hepatitis in 1; and both hepatitis B and toxic hepatitis (with leflunomide treatment) in 1 patient were detected. MDCT of all three groups revealed diffuse reduction in hepatic attenuation in 11 patients; ascites in 9; periportal edema in 6; edema of gallbladder wall in 6; splenomegaly in 6; heterogeneous hepatic parenchyma in 6; hepatomegaly in 3; irregular contours of liver in 2; multiple micronodules in 1 and necrotic areas and regeneration in liver parenchyma in 2 patients. Histopathologic evaluation of liver biopsies showed massive hepatic necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and ductular proliferation in 8 patients, periportal edema in 6, edema of gallbladder wall in 5, regenerating nodules and fibrous septa consistent with cirrhotic pattern in 2, and regenerating nodules and necrotic areas in 2 patients. Conclusion: The most common MDCT findings in fulminant hepatic failure were diffuse reduction in hepatic attenuation and ascites. Massive hepatic necrosis was the most common histopathologic finding.

  2. Intrathoracic gossypiboma: imaging findings; Corpo estranho intratoracico: achados radiologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosalen Junior, Roberto Antonio; Bosi, Thiago Carneiro da Cunha; Souza, Luis Ronan Marquez Ferreira de; Andrade, Fernando Coelho Goulart de; Candido, Daniela; Lopes, Gesner Pereira; Melo, Ana Lucia Kefalas Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba, MG (Brazil). Disciplina de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: thibosi@uol.com.br; Fatureto, Marcelo Cunha [Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba, MG (Brazil). Disciplina de Cirurgia Toracica

    2006-10-15

    The authors report three cases of intrathoracic foreign body that is defined as a cotton matrix mass, mostly retained surgical sponge, a rare complication of a thoracic surgery. The patients were evaluated by chest radiography and computed tomography with the imaging findings confirmed after thoracotomy and anatomopathological study. The mainly imaging findings consisted of intrathoracic masses in patients with previous thoracic surgery that return to hospital with lower respiratory tract symptoms in different period after surgery procedure. The three cases were related with a brief review of the literature. (author)

  3. CT and MR imaging findings of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: correlation with pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuto, R.; Kiyosue, H.; Komatsu, E.; Matsumoto, S.; Mori, H. [Oita Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Kawano, K. [Oita Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of First Surgery; Kondo, Y.; Yokoyama, S. [Oita Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of First Pathology

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate CT and MRI findings in xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) and to correlate the imaging findings with various pathologic parameters. The study included 13 patients with histopathologically confirmed XGC. The CT (n=13) and MRI (n=5) obtained in these patients were evaluated retrospectively. On CT, low-attenuation areas in the wall of XGC correlated with foam and inflammatory cells or necrosis and/or abscess in XGC. Areas of iso- to slightly high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, showing slight enhancement at early phase and strong enhancement at last phase on dynamic study, corresponded with areas of abundant xanthogranulomas. Areas with very high signal intensity on T2-weighted images without enhancement corresponded with necrosis and/or abscesses. Luminal surface enhancement (LSE) of gallbladder wall represented preservation of the epithelial layer. The early-enhanced areas of the liver bed on dynamic CT and MR images corresponded with accumulation of inflammatory cells and abundant fibrosis. Our results indicate that CT and MRI findings correlate well with the histopathologic findings of XGC.

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Please note ... you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Diffuse Lymphangiomatosis: Neuroradiological Manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, A.; Yousem, D.M. [Russell H. Morgan Dept. of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-07-15

    We report magnetic resonance (MR) findings in a patient with histologically proven lymphangiomatosis with a history of chylothorax, diffuse lung infiltrates, spinal involvement, cystic lesions of the mediastinum, and mesentery thickening. The patient also had diffuse infiltration of the right brachial plexus, with similar imaging findings as the spinal lesions. Although osseous and extraosseous involvement may be seen frequently with lymphangiomatosis, involvement of the brachial plexus has not been previously reported.

  6. The magnetic resonance image findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is rare disease of breast. Clinically and radiologically it may mimic breast carcinoma. We report a case of a 34-year old female patient with the diagnosis, concentrating on magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings and its clinical application. There have been other reports on MRI findings in this entity in the radiological literature, but in our case report clinical, cytological, pathological and radiological correlations are also provided. (author)

  7. Small airway disease after mycoplasma pneumonia in children: HRCT findings and correlation with radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of small airway abnormalities after mycoplasma pneumonia and correlate them with the findings of chest radiography performed during the acute and follow-up phases of the condition. We retrospectively evaluated HRCT and chest radiographic findings of 18 patients with clinical diagnosis of small airway disease after mycoplasma pneumonia (M:F=8:10, mean age: 8.3 years, mean time interval after the initial infection; 26 menths). We evaluated the lung parenchymal and bronchial abnormalities on HRCT (n=18). In addition, presence of air-trapping was assessed on expiratory scans (n=13). The findings of HRCT were correlated with those of chest radiography performed during the acute phase of initial infection (n=15) and at the time of CT examination (n=18), respectively. HRCT revealed lung parenchymal abnormalities in 13 patients (72%). A mosaic pattern of lung attenuation was noted in ten patients (10/18, 56%) and air-trapping on expiratory scans was observed in nine (9/13), 69%). In nine of 14 (64%) with negative findings at follow-up chest radiography, one or both of the above parenchymal abnormalities was observed at HRCT. In four patients (27%), parenchymal abnormalities were seen at HRCT in areas considered normal at acute-phase chest radiography. Bronchiectasis or ateclectasis was observed in eight (44%) and four (22%) patients, respectively, at HRCT. The CT features of Swyer-James syndrome such as a unilateral hyperlucent lung with reduced lung volume and attenuated vessels were noted in two patients(11%). HRCT can clearly demonstrate lung parenchymal and bronchial abnormalities of small airway disease after mycoplasma pneumonia in children

  8. CT findings of palpable neck masses in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed this study to assess the value of CT in the differential diagnosis of palpable neck masses in children. We retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of the palpable neck masses in 30 children. The masses were proved histopathologically and classified into cystic, solid, and inflammatory mass and their CT findings were analyzed. Twelve cases were cystic masses, 4 were solid masses, and 14 were inflammatory lesions. Cystic masses included cystic lymphangiomas (n=6), branchial cleft cysts (n=3), thyroglossal duct cysts (n=2), and ranula (n=1). Cystic lymphangiomas showed insinuating appearances into adjacent structures and 4 cases occurred in the posterior cervical space. All branchial cleft cysts were round cystic masses with smooth wall and displaced the submandibular gland anteriorly and the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly. Two thyroglossal duct cysts occurred centrally adjacent to the hyoid bone and 1 ranula in the submental area. Solid masses were juvenile hemangioma, pleomorphic adenoma in submandibular gland, neurilemmoma, and fibromatosis colli. Juvenile hemangioma showed well-enhancing mass with indistinct margin and the other solid masses had well-defined margin with their characteristic location. Inflammatory lesions were abscess (n=4), deep neck infections with lymphadenopathy (n=4), submandibular gland inflammation (n=3), and tuberculous lymphadenitis (n=3) and they showed strand-like enhancement in adjacent subcutaneous tissues. Tuberculous lymphadenitis had multiple lymph node enlargement with internal low attenuation areas and showed less surrounding strand-like enhancement than suppurative lymphadenopathies. Most neck masses in infants and children were of congenital or inflammatory origin. CT is useful for the evaluation of the child presenting with a neck mass, because it can differentiate various forms of neck masses and is able to reveal the relationship of the masses to the adjacent structures with their characteristic location

  9. CT findings of palpable neck masses in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Sup; Chung, Won Mo; Seok, Eul Hye; Suh, Chang Hae; Chung, Won Kyun [College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    We performed this study to assess the value of CT in the differential diagnosis of palpable neck masses in children. We retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of the palpable neck masses in 30 children. The masses were proved histopathologically and classified into cystic, solid, and inflammatory mass and their CT findings were analyzed. Twelve cases were cystic masses, 4 were solid masses, and 14 were inflammatory lesions. Cystic masses included cystic lymphangiomas (n=6), branchial cleft cysts (n=3), thyroglossal duct cysts (n=2), and ranula (n=1). Cystic lymphangiomas showed insinuating appearances into adjacent structures and 4 cases occurred in the posterior cervical space. All branchial cleft cysts were round cystic masses with smooth wall and displaced the submandibular gland anteriorly and the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly. Two thyroglossal duct cysts occurred centrally adjacent to the hyoid bone and 1 ranula in the submental area. Solid masses were juvenile hemangioma, pleomorphic adenoma in submandibular gland, neurilemmoma, and fibromatosis colli. Juvenile hemangioma showed well-enhancing mass with indistinct margin and the other solid masses had well-defined margin with their characteristic location. Inflammatory lesions were abscess (n=4), deep neck infections with lymphadenopathy (n=4), submandibular gland inflammation (n=3), and tuberculous lymphadenitis (n=3) and they showed strand-like enhancement in adjacent subcutaneous tissues. Tuberculous lymphadenitis had multiple lymph node enlargement with internal low attenuation areas and showed less surrounding strand-like enhancement than suppurative lymphadenopathies. Most neck masses in infants and children were of congenital or inflammatory origin. CT is useful for the evaluation of the child presenting with a neck mass, because it can differentiate various forms of neck masses and is able to reveal the relationship of the masses to the adjacent structures with their characteristic location.

  10. Cerebral Fat Embolism: Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PURPOSE: To demonstrate the diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and the follow-up MRI findings, of cerebral fat embolism in the acute stage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The initial DWI and clinical findings of six patients with cerebral fat embolism were retrospectively evaluated. The finding of DWI with a b-value of 1000 s/mm2 (b=1000) was compared with that of DWI with a b-value of 0 s/mm2 (b=0). In three patients who underwent follow-up MRI, the interval change of the lesion on T2-weighted images was investigated. RESULTS: The characteristic DWI finding of cerebral fat embolism in the acute stage was multiple, hyperintense, dot-like lesions disseminated in the brain. These lesions were distributed dominantly in the bilateral border-zone areas. Some lesions had an ancillary location including the cortex, deep white matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. The lesions were more intense and numerous in DWI (b=1000) than in DWI (b=0). The findings on the follow-up T2-weighted images were multiple confluent hyperintense lesions in the white matter with progression since the initial MRI. CONCLUSION: DWI could be a sensitive tool for detecting cerebral fat embolism in the acute phase. It is recommended that DWI be included in the initial evaluation of cerebral fat embolism with MRI

  11. Sporadic meningioangiomatosis: imaging findings with histopathologic correlations in seven patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Tae Yeon; Kim, Ji Hye; Yoo, So-Young; Eo, Hong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Yeon-Lim; Ahn, Soomin [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Meningioangiomatosis (MA) is a rare benign cerebral lesion. We aimed to evaluate the CT and MR features of sporadic MA, with a focus on the correlation between imaging and histopathologic findings. CT (n = 7) and MR (n = 8) images of eight patients (6 men and 2 women; mean age, 12.8 years; range, 4-22 years) with pathologically proven MA were retrospectively reviewed. After dividing the MA lesions according to their distribution into cortical and subcortical white matter components, the morphologic characteristics were analyzed and correlated with histopathologic findings in seven patients. CT and MR images showed cortical (n = 4, 50 %) and subcortical white matter (n = 7, 88 %) components of MA. All four cortical components revealed hyperattenuation on CT scan and T1 isointensity/T2 hypointensity on MR images, whereas subcortical white matter components showed hypoattenuation on CT scan and T1 hypointensity/T2 hyperintensity on MR images. Two cortical components (25 %) demonstrated enhancement and one subcortical white matter component demonstrated cystic change. Seven cases were available for imaging-histopathologic correlation. In all seven cases, the cortex was involved by MA and six patients (86 %) showed subcortical white matter involvement by MA. There were excellent correlations between the imaging and histopathologic findings in subcortical white matter components, and the accuracy was 100 % (seven of seven); whereas there were poor correlations in cortical components, and the accuracy was 43 % (three of seven). The cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter were concomitantly involved by MA. Subcortical white matter components of MA were more apparent than cortical components on CT and MR imaging. (orig.)

  12. A study of brain MRI findings in children with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging in the brain was performed in 293 patients with childhood-onset (<15 y.o.) epilepsy who had been classified into 4 groups, idiopathic localization-related epilepsy (ILRE), 78 patients; idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), 116 patients; symptomatic localization-related epilepsy (SLRE), 68 patients and symptomatic generalized epilepsy (SGE), 31 patients, with the Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndrome (1989 International League Against Epilepsy). The examination was performed with a 1.5 T magnet. One hundred twenty-five patients (42.7%) showed abnormal findings, and the incidence in each group was as follows: Idiopathic epilepsy: The rate of abnormal findings in the ILRE and IGE groups was 21.8% and 20.7%, respectively. Most of the abnormal findings were secondary changes, such as diffuse or localized brain atrophy. Of the congenital abnormalities, the main finding was arachnoid cyst. Symptomatic epilepsy: The rate of abnormality in the SLRE patients was 88.2%, and 85% of the findings were secondary changes, i.e., brain atrophy, or degeneration of the white matter. In the SGE group, the rate was 77.4%, with an almost equal percentage of congenital and secondary changes. Of 255 patients who were examined by electroencephalography (EEG) on the same day as MRI, about 50% showed a correlation between the EEG records and the MRI abnormalities. However, only 8 patients showed a correlation in localization between the EEG and MRI abnormalities. (author)

  13. Radiologic and clinical findings of mycoplasma pneumonia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycoplasma Pneumonia is a cause of primary atypical pneumonia, but it is asymptomatic mostly or may cause of only mild symptoms. School-aged children experienced high attack rate and manifestation if 'unusual pneumonia' are noted. So authors reviewed clinical and radiological features of 110 cases of serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumonia in hospitalized children between November 1984 and January 1987 retrospectively. The results were as follows ; 1. The sex distribution was 57:53 (1.1:1) in male to female ratio and 47% of them were 5 though 8 years old of age with peak incidence between 5 and 6 years old of age. 2. The symptoms were cough, fever, and sore throat in descending order of frequency and mean symptom duration before admission was 8.1 day. The prevalent season was earlier winter. 3. The radiologic findings were air-space consolidation with lobar, segmental distribution in 68%, interstitial infiltration in 12%, bronchopneumonia in 12%, chronic bronchitis pattern in 3.6%, normal in 4.5%, hilar LN enlargement in 37%, pleural effusion in 12%. 4. Radiologic resolution period was usually 10 days around (4-25 days) and after complete recovery, scarring change or calcification was not seen. 5. Extrapulmonary manifestations were uncommon but hepatitis, hematuria, skin rash, gastroenteritis, myocarditis, otitis media occurred. 6. With administration of tetracyclin and erythromycin, clinical and radiologic responses were promptly seen

  14. Imaging findings of neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CT, MR, and diffusion-weighted initial and follow-up imaging findings in neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) encephalitis were assessed. The clinical, laboratory and imaging findings in 12 patients (eight girls and four boys) with proven neonatal HSV-2 encephalitis with follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. Patterns of brain involvement and distribution of lesions were studied and the contribution of diffusion-weighted imaging to the imaging diagnosis of this disease was explored. A total of 24 CT and 22 MRI studies were performed with a mean follow-up time of 38 months. Neonatal HSV-2 encephalitis can be multifocal or limited to only the temporal lobes, brainstem, or cerebellum. The deep gray matter structures were involved in 57% of patients, and hemorrhage was seen in more than half of the patients. CT images were normal or showed mild abnormalities in the early stages of the disease. Conventional MR images may be normal in the early stages of the disease. Lesions were initially seen only by diffusion-weighted imaging in 20% of the patients and this modality showed a substantially more extensive disease distribution in an additional 50% of patients. In 40% of patients, watershed distribution ischemic changes were observed in addition to areas of presumed direct herpetic necrosis. Neonatal HSV-2 encephalitis has a variable imaging appearance. Diffusion-weighted MRI is an important adjunct in the imaging evaluation of this disease. Watershed distribution ischemia in areas remote from the primary herpetic lesions may be seen. (orig.)

  15. Brain MR imaging in children with psychomotor developmental delay

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    Hirai, Toshinori; Korogi, Yukunori; Sakamoto, Yuji; Furusawa, Mitsuhiro; Hamatake, Satoshi; Takahashi, Mutsumasa (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-06-01

    Fifty-two patients with developmental delay of unknown cause underwent MR imaging of the brain. Their ages ranged from 5 months to 22 years, with a mean of 2.2 years. Thirty-seven (71%) had positive MR findings, including nine with congenital malformation, nine with atrophy, six with white matter lesion, five with delayed myelination, five with atrophy and delayed myelination, two with acquired injury of corpus callosum, and one with ulegyria. Congenital malformations obtained included holoprosencephaly, polymicrogyria, dysgenesis of corpus callosum, hypoplasia of cerebellum, and tuberous sclerosis. Abnormal MR findings were frequently observed both in the children with neurologic physical findings and in generally retarded children, while in the children with suspected autism, MR imaging did not demonstrate any abnormalities. Of 24 patients with epilepsy, abnormal MR findings were obtained in 17 patients (71%). The frequency of white matter lesion and atrophy was slightly higher in the patients with epilepsy. However, no significant correlations were found between MR findings and the presence of epilepsy. Also, no significant correlations were obtained between MR findings and the degree of developmental quotient (DQ). Severely injured cases did not necessarily show abnormal findings on MRI. (author).

  16. Brain MR imaging in children with psychomotor developmental delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-two patients with developmental delay of unknown cause underwent MR imaging of the brain. Their ages ranged from 5 months to 22 years, with a mean of 2.2 years. Thirty-seven (71%) had positive MR findings, including nine with congenital malformation, nine with atrophy, six with white matter lesion, five with delayed myelination, five with atrophy and delayed myelination, two with acquired injury of corpus callosum, and one with ulegyria. Congenital malformations obtained included holoprosencephaly, polymicrogyria, dysgenesis of corpus callosum, hypoplasia of cerebellum, and tuberous sclerosis. Abnormal MR findings were frequently observed both in the children with neurologic physical findings and in generally retarded children, while in the children with suspected autism, MR imaging did not demonstrate any abnormalities. Of 24 patients with epilepsy, abnormal MR findings were obtained in 17 patients (71%). The frequency of white matter lesion and atrophy was slightly higher in the patients with epilepsy. However, no significant correlations were found between MR findings and the presence of epilepsy. Also, no significant correlations were obtained between MR findings and the degree of developmental quotient (DQ). Severely injured cases did not necessarily show abnormal findings on MRI. (author)

  17. MR imaging finding of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Gyee; Kang, Heoung Keun; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Cho, Yong Ho; Jang, Nam Kyu [Chonnam Univ. Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    We describe a case of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis in which there was close correlation between MR and histopathological finding and review the previous literature. On both T1- and T2-weighted MR images, multiple gallstones and diffuse wall thickening of the gallbladder were seen, with multiple hyperintense intramural nodules. The nodules were pathologically confirmed as xanthogranuloma.

  18. Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings of spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas with pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas with pathologic correlation and to determine whether these schwannomas share the imaging features of schwannomas in the peripheral nerves. The MRIs of 17 cases of pathologically proven spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas were reviewed retrospectively, and cystic changes, enhancement, and intratumoral hemorrhage of the tumors were evaluated. Imaging features known to be common findings of schwannoma in the peripheral nerves, such as encapsulation, the target sign, the fascicular sign, and visualization of entering or exiting nerve rootlets, were also evaluated. The histopathology of the tumors was correlated with the MRI findings. Cystic changes were detected in 14 cases by MRI and in 16 cases by pathology. The most common pattern of enhancement was a thick peripheral septal pattern (70.59%). Intratumoral hemorrhage was detected in four cases on MRI, but in all cases on pathology. Encapsulation was observed in all cases. The fascicular sign was seen in only four cases, and thickening of an exiting rootlet was visualized in one case. None of the cases showed the target sign. Spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas were typical encapsulated cystic tumors and had few imaging features of schwannomas in the peripheral nerves

  19. Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings of spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas with pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeo Ju; Park, In Suh; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Choi, Suk Jin; Kim, Youn Jeong; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Ha Young; Kim, Woo Chul; Han, Jun Gu; Cho, Soon Gu [Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas with pathologic correlation and to determine whether these schwannomas share the imaging features of schwannomas in the peripheral nerves. The MRIs of 17 cases of pathologically proven spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas were reviewed retrospectively, and cystic changes, enhancement, and intratumoral hemorrhage of the tumors were evaluated. Imaging features known to be common findings of schwannoma in the peripheral nerves, such as encapsulation, the target sign, the fascicular sign, and visualization of entering or exiting nerve rootlets, were also evaluated. The histopathology of the tumors was correlated with the MRI findings. Cystic changes were detected in 14 cases by MRI and in 16 cases by pathology. The most common pattern of enhancement was a thick peripheral septal pattern (70.59%). Intratumoral hemorrhage was detected in four cases on MRI, but in all cases on pathology. Encapsulation was observed in all cases. The fascicular sign was seen in only four cases, and thickening of an exiting rootlet was visualized in one case. None of the cases showed the target sign. Spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas were typical encapsulated cystic tumors and had few imaging features of schwannomas in the peripheral nerves.

  20. Cerebellopontine angle lipomas: magnetic resonance imaging findings in two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Rafael S. [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Brito, Cecilia Castelo Branco [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina; Carvalho, Gustavo A. [Clinica Bambina, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Neurocirurgia; Hospital Silvestre, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Domingues, Romeu C. [Clinicas CDPI e Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil); Gasparetto, Emerson L. [Clinicas CDPI e Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Vestibular schwannomas and meningiomas are the most common lesions of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA), accounting for approximately 85-90% of the tumors seen in this location. Lipomas are rare at this topography, representing about 0.15% of the CPA lesions. These tumors are mal developmental masses that arise from abnormal differentiation of the meninx primitive. Clinically, CPA lipomas can cause slowly progressive neurological symptoms and signs affecting cranial nerves or brain stem. Because these lesions usually are strongly attached to the surrounding structures, any surgical attempts of complete resection can result in neural or vascular damage, reinforcing the importance of the pre-operative imaging diagnosis. Although the CT findings of CPA lipomas can be typical, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, especially the fat suppression sequences, had improved the identification of these lesions. We aimed to report two patients with a CPA lipoma, emphasizing the MR imaging findings. (author)

  1. Retroperitoneal schwannoma: diagnostic imaging findings in 5 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the different imaging findings (US, CT and MRI) in retroperitoneal schwannoma. Materials and methods: 5 patients (3 male and 2 females) with a diagnosis of retroperitoneal schwannoma were retrospectively evaluated. Ages ranged from 33 to 63 years (means 54 years). The images (US, CT and MR) were analyzed and correlated to histopathologic results. Results: The most frequent clinical finding was abdominal pain (60%). A presumptive diagnosis prior to surgery was suggested in 3/5 cases that had well-defined masses with a predominant cystic appearance. All patients underwent surgery with tumoral resection. Only 2 patients (40%) had recurrence within a three years period of follow-up. Conclusion: Retroperitoneal schwannoma is an infrequent tumor. In our series, no pathognomotic features were observed on US, CT or MRI. However, 3/5 tumors showed high signal intensity on T2-weighted images due to cystic areas. (author)

  2. Spectrum of MR imaging findings of peripheral neurofibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PURPOSE: Accurate assessment of peripheral neurofibromas (NFs) in all neurofibromatosis forms (type I, II, and segmental) critically influences clinical management. This paper assesses the spectrum of MR manifestations of peripheral NFs. MR studies of 16 patients with peripheral NFs (plexiform in 13, sacromas in five) were retrospectively analyzed for size, signal appearance, and signs of NF malignant degeneration by comparing signal intensities with that of muscle. MR findings were compared with findings of CT (n = 8) and histopathology (n = 14). All NFs were hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. On T2-weighted images, MFs displayed a target appearance (center of low and rim of higher signal intensity) in 14 patients. With CT, no target sign or other attenuation differences were depicted

  3. Perianal complications of Crohn disease: MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to revisit anal anatomy, to explain surgical terminology in perianal complications of Crohn disease, and to show the MR imaging findings of perianal fistulas and abscesses. To this end more than 200 patients were studied using surface coils (Helmholtz; phased array) at 1.0 and 1.5 T. Transverse and coronal T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained. Parks' classification was used to describe perianal abscesses and fistulas. This pictorial essay shows the normal anal anatomy and pathologic findings such as subcutaneous, para-anal, ischiorectal, intersphincteric, and supralevatoric abscesses and fistulas. MR imaging with surface coils is well suited to showing the anal anatomy and to reliably describing perianal abscesses and fistulas according to surgical terminology. (orig.). With 16 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Liver imaging findings of Wilson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpinar, Erhan [Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Akhan, Okan [Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: akhano@tr.net

    2007-01-15

    Wilson's disease is a rare, autosomal-recessive inherited disorder of copper metabolism resulting in accumulation of copper in liver. The form of liver disease varies, depending on the severity of the disease at the time of diagnosis and pathological findings include fatty changes, acute hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis and occasionally fulminant hepatic necrosis. Liver imaging findings reflect a wide range of physiopathological processes of the disease and also demonstrate the associated findings of cirrhosis in cases with advanced disease.

  5. Epidermoid Cyst of the Testicle: Unusual Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidermoid cyst of the testis is an uncommon benign tumor that can be treated by organ-preserving surgery when diagnosed preoperatively. Although some sonographic characteristics may be suggestive of epidermoid cysts, sonography is not completely diagnostic. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings may provide support for the diagnosis of epidermoid cysts. The MRI findings of testicular epidermoid cysts have been reported as either bull's eye or target in appearance, or with signal intensity characteristics more typical of a cystic lesion. In this paper, we present typical sonographic and unusual MRI findings of a testicular epidermoid cyst

  6. Noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II: spectrum of imaging findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has evolved into an effective imaging technique for the evaluation of coronary artery disease in selected patients. Two distinct advantages over other noninvasive cardiac imaging methods include its ability to directly evaluate the coronary arteries and to provide a unique opportunity to evaluate for alternative diagnoses by assessing the extracardiac structures, such as the lungs and mediastinum, particularly in patients presenting with the chief symptom of acute chest pain. Some centers reconstruct a small field of view (FOV) cropped around the heart but a full FOV (from skin to skin in the area irradiated) is obtainable in the raw data of every scan so that clinically relevant noncardiac findings are identifiable. Debate in the scientific community has centered on the necessity for this large FOV. A review of noncardiac structures provides the opportunity to make alternative diagnoses that may account for the patient\\'s presentation or to detect important but clinically silent problems such as lung cancer. Critics argue that the yield of biopsy-proven cancers is low and that the follow-up of incidental noncardiac findings is expensive, resulting in increased radiation exposure and possibly unnecessary further testing. In this 2-part review we outline the issues surrounding the concept of the noncardiac read, looking for noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part I focused on the pros and cons for and against the practice of identifying noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II illustrates the imaging spectrum of cardiac CT appearances of benign and malignant noncardiac pathology.

  7. Extrafetal Findings on Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Pictorial Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelman, Monica; Merrow, Arnold C; Guimaraes, Carolina V; Victoria, Teresa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A; Kline-Fath, Beth M

    2015-12-01

    Although US is the mainstay of fetal imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an invaluable adjunct in recent years. MRI offers superb soft tissue contrast that allows for detailed evaluation of fetal organs, particularly the brain, which enhances understanding of disease severity. MRI can yield results that are similar to or even better than those of US, particularly in cases of marked oligohydramnios, maternal obesity, or adverse fetal positioning. Incidentally detected extrafetal MRI findings are not uncommon and may affect clinical care. Physicians interpreting fetal MRI studies should be aware of findings occurring outside the fetus, including those structures important for the pregnancy. A systematic approach is necessary in the reading of such studies. This helps to ensure that important findings are not missed, appropriate clinical management is implemented, and unnecessary follow-up examinations are avoided. In this pictorial essay, the most common extrafetal abnormalities are described and illustrated. PMID:26614136

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a comment, please complete the following form: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Images × Image Gallery ... Recommend RadiologyInfo to a friend Send to (friend's e-mail address): From (your name): Your e-mail ...

  9. MRI findings in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency and nature of MRI lesions in children with neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), 50 patients aged 8 to 16 years were evaluated prospectively with cranial MRI. Forty-one children were asymptomatic with respect to central nervous system pathology, and 50% were macrocephalic. Sixteen patients (32%) had normal MRI examinations. Thirty-two patients (64%) had high intensity lesions of T2-weighted images and 16 patients (32%) had hyperintense lesions on T1-weighted images. Seven patients (14%) had ventricular dilatation (associated with increased intracranial pressure in 2) and 11 patients (22%) had optic pathway lesions (optic glioma in 7). MRI was superior to CT in differentiating optic sheath thickening and optic nerve tortuosity from optic glioma in four patients. An intracranial tumour (ependymoma) and sphenoid wing dysplasia were evident in individual patients. Findings previously unreported in NF1 included an aqueductal web resulting in hydrocephalus, intracular neurofibroma resulting in retinal detachment, and asymptomatic enlargement of the septum pellucidum. T1 and T2 signal abnormalities in isolation were not associated with neurological deficits or the occurrence of macrocephaly, and all lesions that required intervention were suspected clinically. Macrocephaly in the absence of increased intracranial pressure or accelerated head growth is not an indication for neuroimaging in children with NF1. However, the majority of children (68%) had disease-specific abnormalities and thus MRI may provide a useful adjunct to clinical evaluation in the diagnosis of equivocal cases. (orig.)

  10. MRI findings in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Es, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Paramatta (Australia); North, K.N. [Dept. of Neurology, Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Paramatta (Australia); McHugh, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Paramatta (Australia); De Silva, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Paramatta (Australia)

    1996-07-01

    To determine the frequency and nature of MRI lesions in children with neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), 50 patients aged 8 to 16 years were evaluated prospectively with cranial MRI. Forty-one children were asymptomatic with respect to central nervous system pathology, and 50% were macrocephalic. Sixteen patients (32%) had normal MRI examinations. Thirty-two patients (64%) had high intensity lesions of T2-weighted images and 16 patients (32%) had hyperintense lesions on T1-weighted images. Seven patients (14%) had ventricular dilatation (associated with increased intracranial pressure in 2) and 11 patients (22%) had optic pathway lesions (optic glioma in 7). MRI was superior to CT in differentiating optic sheath thickening and optic nerve tortuosity from optic glioma in four patients. An intracranial tumour (ependymoma) and sphenoid wing dysplasia were evident in individual patients. Findings previously unreported in NF1 included an aqueductal web resulting in hydrocephalus, intracular neurofibroma resulting in retinal detachment, and asymptomatic enlargement of the septum pellucidum. T1 and T2 signal abnormalities in isolation were not associated with neurological deficits or the occurrence of macrocephaly, and all lesions that required intervention were suspected clinically. Macrocephaly in the absence of increased intracranial pressure or accelerated head growth is not an indication for neuroimaging in children with NF1. However, the majority of children (68%) had disease-specific abnormalities and thus MRI may provide a useful adjunct to clinical evaluation in the diagnosis of equivocal cases. (orig.)

  11. Nuclear imaging for musculoskeletal infections in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent bone scanning for possible osteomyelitis at the Naval Regional Medical Center (Portsmouth, VA, U.S.A.) between 1980 and 1983. Among 63 children, there were 20 sites of osteomyelitis. They were able to conclude that a high proportion of neonates with septic arthritis will have osteomyelitis and that bone scan is not helpful in this age group. Nuclear imaging of the foot was less reliable than imaging of the remainder of the extremities. The bone scan can be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in certain children, but is not a substitute for an accurate clinical examination and appropriate workup

  12. Imaging fungal infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike M; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns and infants. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  14. Localized hypertrophic neuropathy of the sciatic nerve in children: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Localized hypertrophic neuropathy (LHN) of the sciatic nerve in children is a rare condition characterized by a painless neurological deficit in the sciatic nerve territory. To demonstrate the role of MRI using a specific protocol and describe the primary findings in LHN. Imaging in four children (age 2 years to 12 years) is presented. All children presented with lower limb asymmetry. Three had a steppage gait. LHN was confirmed by electrophysiological studies and by MRI of the whole sciatic nerve with a dedicated protocol covering the lumbar spine and the lower limb. There were four direct MRI findings: (1) linear and focal hypertrophy with progressive enlargement of a peripheral nerve or plexus diameter, (2) abnormal hyperintensity of the nerve on T2-weighted images, (3) preserved fascicular configuration, and (4) variable enhancement after intravenous gadolinium administration. In addition there were atrophy and fatty infiltration of innervated muscles. MRI was helpful for determining the extent of lesions and in excluding peripheral nerve compression or tumour. MRI of the whole sciatic nerve is the method of choice for diagnosing LHN of the sciatic nerve. (orig.)

  15. Localized hypertrophic neuropathy of the sciatic nerve in children: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, Adrien; Treguier, Catherine; Bruneau, Bertrand; Marin, Franck; Gandon, Yves; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hopital Sud, 16 Boulevard de Bulgarie, BP 90347, Rennes cedex 2 (France); Riffaud, Laurent [University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France); Violas, Philippe [University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France); Michel, Anne [University Hospital, Department of Neurological Functional Explorations, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France)

    2012-08-15

    Localized hypertrophic neuropathy (LHN) of the sciatic nerve in children is a rare condition characterized by a painless neurological deficit in the sciatic nerve territory. To demonstrate the role of MRI using a specific protocol and describe the primary findings in LHN. Imaging in four children (age 2 years to 12 years) is presented. All children presented with lower limb asymmetry. Three had a steppage gait. LHN was confirmed by electrophysiological studies and by MRI of the whole sciatic nerve with a dedicated protocol covering the lumbar spine and the lower limb. There were four direct MRI findings: (1) linear and focal hypertrophy with progressive enlargement of a peripheral nerve or plexus diameter, (2) abnormal hyperintensity of the nerve on T2-weighted images, (3) preserved fascicular configuration, and (4) variable enhancement after intravenous gadolinium administration. In addition there were atrophy and fatty infiltration of innervated muscles. MRI was helpful for determining the extent of lesions and in excluding peripheral nerve compression or tumour. MRI of the whole sciatic nerve is the method of choice for diagnosing LHN of the sciatic nerve. (orig.)

  16. MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sam Soo [Seoul City Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Hyun Beom [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2000-01-01

    To describe the MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. The MR and clinical findings in six patients (M:F=3D4:2;adult:child=3D3:3) with spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma were reviewed. Five patients without any predisposing factor which might cause the condition and one with acute myelogenous leukemia were included. Emergency surgery was performed in two patients, and the other four were managed conservatively. The epidural lesion involved between three and seven vertebrae (mean:4.5), and relative to the spinal cord was located in the posterior-lateral (n=3D4), anterior (n=3D1), or right lateral (n=3D1) area. The hematoma was isointense (n=3D1) or hyperintense (n=3D5) with spinal cord on T1-weighted images, and hypointense (n=3D2) or hyperintense (n=3D4) on T2-weighted images. It was completely absorbed in four of five patients who underwent follow-up MR imaging, but not changed in one. The clinical outcome of these patients was complete recovery (n=3D4), spastic cerebral palsy (n=3D1), or unknown (n=3D1). Because of the lesion's characteristic signal intensity; MR imaging is very useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. (author)

  17. MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. The MR and clinical findings in six patients (M:F=3D4:2;adult:child=3D3:3) with spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma were reviewed. Five patients without any predisposing factor which might cause the condition and one with acute myelogenous leukemia were included. Emergency surgery was performed in two patients, and the other four were managed conservatively. The epidural lesion involved between three and seven vertebrae (mean:4.5), and relative to the spinal cord was located in the posterior-lateral (n=3D4), anterior (n=3D1), or right lateral (n=3D1) area. The hematoma was isointense (n=3D1) or hyperintense (n=3D5) with spinal cord on T1-weighted images, and hypointense (n=3D2) or hyperintense (n=3D4) on T2-weighted images. It was completely absorbed in four of five patients who underwent follow-up MR imaging, but not changed in one. The clinical outcome of these patients was complete recovery (n=3D4), spastic cerebral palsy (n=3D1), or unknown (n=3D1). Because of the lesion's characteristic signal intensity; MR imaging is very useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. (author)

  18. PYNPOINT: an image processing package for finding exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Adam; Quanz, Sascha P.

    2012-12-01

    We present the scientific performance results of PYNPOINT, our Python-based software package that uses principal component analysis to detect and estimate the flux of exoplanets in two-dimensional imaging data. Recent advances in adaptive optics and imaging technology at visible and infrared wavelengths have opened the door to direct detections of planetary companions to nearby stars, but image processing techniques have yet to be optimized. We show that the performance of our approach gives a marked improvement over what is presently possible using existing methods such as LOCI. To test our approach, we use real angular differential imaging (ADI) data taken with the adaptive optics-assisted high resolution near-infrared camera NACO at the VLT. These data were taken during the commissioning of the apodizing phase plate (APP) coronagraph. By inserting simulated planets into these data, we test the performance of our method as a function of planet brightness for different positions on the image. We find that in all cases PYNPOINT has a detection threshold that is superior to that given by our LOCI analysis when assessed in a common statistical framework. We obtain our best improvements for smaller inner working angles (IWAs). For an IWA of ˜0.29 arcsec we find that we achieve a detection sensitivity that is a factor of 5 better than LOCI. We also investigate our ability to correctly measure the flux of planets. Again, we find improvements over LOCI, with PYNPOINT giving more stable results. Finally, we apply our package to a non-APP data set of the exoplanet β Pictoris b and reveal the planet with high signal-to-noise. This confirms that PYNPOINT can potentially be applied with high fidelity to a wide range of high-contrast imaging data sets.

  19. Imaging findings of adiposis dolorosa vs. massive localized lymphedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle M.; Bernard, Stephanie A.; Bennett, Jennifer [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Walker, Eric A. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Adiposis dolorosa (Dercum's disease) is a condition of benign, painful subcutaneous lipomatous lesions associated with weakness, endocrine and lipid abnormalities, and mental disturbances. There is little information documenting the cross-sectional imaging findings that differentiate it from lipomatous and neoplastic soft tissue masses, or massive localized lymphedema. The purpose of this study was to provide a radiological case series of adiposis dolorosa. A 10-year retrospective review of the picture archiving and communications system was performed. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed images to confirm and document imaging features, location, size, and patient demographics. Medical records were reviewed to characterize patients into three groups: one group met at least three of the four criteria of Dercum's syndrome, the second group met less than three criteria, and the third group had clinical diagnosis of cellulitis of the lower extremity. Seventeen cases (25 masses) of adiposis dolorosa were found, nine cases of which met at least three criteria of Dercum's syndrome. All cases in the first two groups demonstrated skin thickening and lymphedema of subcutaneous fat, which was fluid attenuation on CT and low or intermediate T1-weighted and high STIR/T2-weighted MR signal. Two cases with pathology showed mild fatty infiltration with fibrous septa, and the third case showed massive localized lymphedema. The third group of ten cellulitis patients demonstrated non-mass-like subcutaneous edema with similar CT attenuation and MR signal characteristics to the first two groups, but differed by the presence of post-contrast enhancement and non-mass-like appearance in 90 %. Imaging findings of adiposis dolorosa and massive localized lymphedema overlap, as do the symptoms and pathological features. Due to the mass-like engorgement of the soft tissues and pain, patients will often undergo imaging to exclude neoplasm or infection. Knowledge of these

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to have your child drink several glasses of water, depending on the child's size, two hours prior ... improve the quality of the images. A clear water-based gel is applied to the area of ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care physician, or to the ... by: Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate blood flow through arteries and veins in the ... the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate the: appendix stomach/ pylorus liver gallbladder spleen pancreas ...

  3. Joint attention revisited: Finding strengths among children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Sarah; Watson, Linda R

    2016-07-01

    Differences in joint attention are prominent for some children with autism and are often used as an indicator of the disorder. This study examined the joint attention competencies of young children with autism who demonstrated joint attention ability and compared them to children with developmental delays. A total of 40 children with autism and developmental delays were matched pairwise based on mental and chronological age. Videos of children engaging in play were coded for the frequency and forms (eye contact, gestures, affect, etc.) of joint attention. Additionally, concurrent language was compared among children with autism (N = 32) by their joint attention ability. Children with autism spectrum disorder entered into joint attention significantly less often than children with developmental delays, but once engaged used the forms of joint attention similarly. For the matched pairs, there were no differences in language, but the children with autism who used joint attention had significantly better language than children with autism who did not (even after controlling for mental age). There is a group of young children with autism who can use joint attention but do so at lower frequencies than children with developmental delays. Possible reasons include difficulty disengaging attention and limited intrinsic social motivation to share. Adult persistence is recommended to encourage joint attention. PMID:26148983

  4. MR imaging findings in transient osteoporosis of the hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The authors sought to describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings including perfusion imaging, in association with the course of acute bone marrow oedema syndrome (aBMEs), in a group of patients with acute hip pain and a final diagnosis of transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH). Materials and methods: From 217 patients referred with a probable diagnosis of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head, we identified 42 patients who had clinical and radiographic findings not relevant to AVN. MR imaging examinations were performed on a 1.0T scanner. Perfusion imaging was performed in 20 patients. The bone marrow oedema (BME) was classified in four stages. In addition, the presence or absence of oedema in the subchondral area and the presence of other subchondral lesions were recorded. Acetabular bone marrow was also assessed for the presence of oedema. The quantitative measurements included: maximum size of the effusion, percentage of enhancement (PE) and time of peak enhancement of abnormal marrow compared to the first pass, on the perfusion images. Results: Osteopenia was present on plain radiographs in 87% of cases. The most common pattern of BME was extending to the femoral head and neck. Acetabulum was involved in 16.6%. In 22.6% the BME spared the subchondral region of the femoral head. There were two cases (4.7%) with subchondral changes. A joint effusion was noted in 33 of the 42 patients. On perfusion imaging, a delayed peak enhancement was noted in 20 patients between 40 and 65 s after the first pass of contrast. No patient had any evidence of femoral head collapse or change in sphericity on follow-up MRI. None of the patients developed avascular necrosis in a time frame of 18 months from the onset of the acute hip pain. Conclusion: The aBMEs MR imaging pattern varies and is most commonly appearing on X-rays as osteopenia. Absence of subcondral lesions, delayed peak enhancement of the abnormal marrow on perfusion images, and sparing of

  5. Ticks and tick paralysis: imaging findings on cranial MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tick paralysis is an acute, progressive, and potentially fatal muscle paralysis secondary to a toxin secreted by a pregnant tick during a bite. Although tick bites can occur anywhere on the body, ticks are frequently overlooked on the scalp because of overlying hair. Children with acute neurologic symptoms frequently undergo MR scanning that may incidentally reveal the offending tick. Timely identification and removal of the tick leads to rapid recovery from tick paralysis. We report the MRI findings at 1.5 T of tick paralysis with an attached tick. (orig.)

  6. Ticks and tick paralysis: imaging findings on cranial MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Michael S.; Fordham, Lynn Ansley [University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, UNC School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, NC (United States); Hamrick, Harvey J. [University of North Carolina Hospitals, Department of Pediatrics, Chapel Hill (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Tick paralysis is an acute, progressive, and potentially fatal muscle paralysis secondary to a toxin secreted by a pregnant tick during a bite. Although tick bites can occur anywhere on the body, ticks are frequently overlooked on the scalp because of overlying hair. Children with acute neurologic symptoms frequently undergo MR scanning that may incidentally reveal the offending tick. Timely identification and removal of the tick leads to rapid recovery from tick paralysis. We report the MRI findings at 1.5 T of tick paralysis with an attached tick. (orig.)

  7. Choroid plexus tumours: classification, MR imaging findings and pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroid plexus tumours (CPTs) are extremely rare intraventricular neoplasms and are prone to bleeding during surgery. The purpose of this study was to summarise the MR imaging characteristics of 13 CPT cases. Magnetic resonance images of 13 patients (six men and seven women; mean age 21.1 years) with pathologically proved CPTs were retrospectively reviewed. MR findings of the tumours were evaluated, with emphasis on their location, size, shape, internal architecture, margin and pattern and degree of enhancement. Differences in signal intensity characteristics were also investigated on MR images and analysed according to histological subtypes. Lesions were in the lateral ventricles (n=7), fourth ventricle (n=5) and cisterna magna (n=1), with a mean size of 5.0cm (range 2.0–7.9 cm). The tumour parenchyma was a mixture of nodular or patchy areas of inhomogeneous isointense to slightly hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images. On postcontrast MR images, all lesions, except for one, had moderate to marked contrast enhancement. Multiple tortuous areas of 'flow void' signal extended through all the tumours except for two. A thin capsule could be seen in six cases. Observation of large intraventricular tumours with inhomogeneity on T2-weighted images and flow void is suggestive of CPTs. Checking for signs of a thin capsule, extensive peritumoural oedema and necrosis may be useful when classifying CPTs.

  8. The spectrum of benign esophageal lesions: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Kyung Mi; Lee, Kyung Soo; Lee, Soon Jin; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Tae Sung; Han, Dae Hee; Shim, Young Mog [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-01

    Benign esophageal lesions occur in various diseases. Barium studies are useful for the evaluation of mucosal surface lesions but provide little information about the extramucosal extent of disease. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, on the other hand, permit the assessment of wall thickness, mediastinal involvement, adjacent lymphadenopathy, and distant spread. In diseases such as fibrovascular polyps, duplication cysts, scleroderma, trauma, caustic esophagitis, hiatal hernia, esophageal diverticulum, achalasia, and paraesophageal varices, the findings of imaging studies are specific, obviating the need for further invasive diagnostic work-up. The advent of helical computed tomography and its volume data set allows the acquisition of multiplanar images, and magnetic resonance imaging is useful both for this and for tissue characterization. Thus, multiplanar cross-sectional imaging further extends the role of imaging modalities to the evaluation of benign esophageal lesions. Through an awareness of the multiplanar cross-sectional appearances of various benign esophageal lesions, the radiologist can play an important role in the detection, diagnosis, further diagnostic planning, and treatment of the diseases in which they occur.

  9. The spectrum of benign esophageal lesions: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benign esophageal lesions occur in various diseases. Barium studies are useful for the evaluation of mucosal surface lesions but provide little information about the extramucosal extent of disease. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, on the other hand, permit the assessment of wall thickness, mediastinal involvement, adjacent lymphadenopathy, and distant spread. In diseases such as fibrovascular polyps, duplication cysts, scleroderma, trauma, caustic esophagitis, hiatal hernia, esophageal diverticulum, achalasia, and paraesophageal varices, the findings of imaging studies are specific, obviating the need for further invasive diagnostic work-up. The advent of helical computed tomography and its volume data set allows the acquisition of multiplanar images, and magnetic resonance imaging is useful both for this and for tissue characterization. Thus, multiplanar cross-sectional imaging further extends the role of imaging modalities to the evaluation of benign esophageal lesions. Through an awareness of the multiplanar cross-sectional appearances of various benign esophageal lesions, the radiologist can play an important role in the detection, diagnosis, further diagnostic planning, and treatment of the diseases in which they occur

  10. Imaging findings of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia presenting in extremities: correlation with pathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Joo; Choo, Hye Jung; Park, Ji Sung; Park, Yeong-Mi; Eun, Choong Ki [Pusan Paik Hospital, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Inje University, Pusan (Korea); Hong, Sung Hwan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Hwang, Ji Young [Ewha Womans University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Lee, In Sook [Pusan National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Pusan (Korea); Lee, Jongmin [Kyungpook National University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea); Jung, Soo-Jin [Pusan Paik Hospital, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Inje University, Pusan (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) findings of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH) arising in extremities. Six patients with IPEH confirmed by surgical resection were reviewed retrospectively. Before resection, 3 patients underwent both MRI and US and 3 patients underwent only MRI. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed MR/US imaging results and correlated them with pathological features. The 6 IPEHs were diagnosed as 4 mixed forms and 2 pure forms. The pre-existing pathology of four mixed forms was intramuscular or intermuscular hemangioma. By MRI, the mixed form of IPEH (n = 4) revealed iso- to slightly high signal intensity containing nodule-like foci of high signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and high signal intensity-containing nodule-like foci of low signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI). The pure form of IPEH (n = 2) showed homogeneous iso- signal intensity on T1WI and high and low signal intensity containing nodule-like foci of low signal intensity on T2WI. On gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed T1WI, 50% of cases (n = 3: mixed forms) revealed peripheral, septal, and central enhancement. The other IPEHs (n = 3: 1 mixed and 2 pure forms) showed peripheral and septal enhancement or only peripheral enhancement. By US, two mixed forms of IPEH showed well-defined hypoechoic masses containing hyperechoic septa and central portion with vascularities. One pure form of IPEH was a homogeneous hypoechoic mass with septal and peripheral vascularities on color Doppler imaging. The foci of high signal intensity on T1WI, foci of low signal intensity on T2WI, and non-enhancing portions on MRI and the hypoechoic portion on US were histopathologically correlated with thrombi and the peripheral/septal or central enhancing areas on MRI, hyperechoic septa and the central portion on US, and septal/central or peripheral vascularities on color Doppler imaging corresponded to hypertrophic papillary epithelium and

  11. Imaging findings of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia presenting in extremities: correlation with pathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) findings of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH) arising in extremities. Six patients with IPEH confirmed by surgical resection were reviewed retrospectively. Before resection, 3 patients underwent both MRI and US and 3 patients underwent only MRI. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed MR/US imaging results and correlated them with pathological features. The 6 IPEHs were diagnosed as 4 mixed forms and 2 pure forms. The pre-existing pathology of four mixed forms was intramuscular or intermuscular hemangioma. By MRI, the mixed form of IPEH (n = 4) revealed iso- to slightly high signal intensity containing nodule-like foci of high signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and high signal intensity-containing nodule-like foci of low signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI). The pure form of IPEH (n = 2) showed homogeneous iso- signal intensity on T1WI and high and low signal intensity containing nodule-like foci of low signal intensity on T2WI. On gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed T1WI, 50% of cases (n = 3: mixed forms) revealed peripheral, septal, and central enhancement. The other IPEHs (n = 3: 1 mixed and 2 pure forms) showed peripheral and septal enhancement or only peripheral enhancement. By US, two mixed forms of IPEH showed well-defined hypoechoic masses containing hyperechoic septa and central portion with vascularities. One pure form of IPEH was a homogeneous hypoechoic mass with septal and peripheral vascularities on color Doppler imaging. The foci of high signal intensity on T1WI, foci of low signal intensity on T2WI, and non-enhancing portions on MRI and the hypoechoic portion on US were histopathologically correlated with thrombi and the peripheral/septal or central enhancing areas on MRI, hyperechoic septa and the central portion on US, and septal/central or peripheral vascularities on color Doppler imaging corresponded to hypertrophic papillary epithelium and

  12. Anciliary findings of anterior cruciate ligament injuries on MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two MR findings have been noted in patients with documented anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries: a cartilaginous defect in lateral femoral condyle and a posterosuperior bulge in the synovium adjacent to the proximal third of the ACL. The purpose of this paper is to assess the specificity of these findings, comparing a randomly chosen population with a group of patients with proved ACL ruptures. Twenty-three patients without any ACL abnormality on MR images were compared with a group of 22 patients with ACL lesions. Every ACL lesion was confirmed either arthroscopically or surgically. The control group included subjects with normal knees and various knee injuries

  13. Metastatic meningioma: positron emission tomography CT imaging findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, C

    2010-12-01

    The imaging findings of a case of metastasing meningioma are described. The case illustrates a number of rare and interesting features. The patient presented with haemoptysis 22 years after the initial resection of an intracranial meningioma. CT demonstrated heterogeneous masses with avid peripheral enhancement without central enhancement. Blood supply to the larger lesion was partially from small feeding vessels from the inferior pulmonary vein. These findings correlate with a previously published case in which there was avid uptake of fluoro-18-deoxyglucose peripherally with lesser uptake centrally. The diagnosis of metastasing meningioma was confirmed on percutaneous lung tissue biopsy.

  14. Imaging Findings of Palpable Benign Masses in the Axilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Youk, Ji Hyun; Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    The most common pathologic conditions in the axilla are the diseases related to lymph nodes, of which the most serious condition is a malignant lesion such as the metastatic lymphadenopathy or lymphoma. However, various benign conditions in the axilla have been reported and some of them show characteristic imaging findings which allow presumptive diagnosis to be made without invasive procedures. We review various conditions of benign axillary mass and illustrate typical findings in this essay. Sonography can evaluate the axillary area easily and immediately performed sonography-guided core needle biopsy is also useful when the axillary mass does not have typical benign features

  15. A comprehensive review of imaging findings in human cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Bargavee; Aggarwal, Neeti; Makhaik, Sushma; Sood, Ramgopal

    2016-04-01

    Cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease most commonly affecting brain, eye and muscles, causing significant morbidity. Transmitted by faeco-oral route, this disease was endemic in many developing countries; it is now seen worldwide due to globalisation. Manifestations are produced by the mass effect of the parasite and by the immune response mounted by the host on the parasite. There are myriad clinical features and imaging findings. Radiological features depend on the number, stage and location of the parasite and associated complications. Knowledge of radiological findings is necessary to make an accurate diagnosis of this pleomorphic disease. PMID:26903229

  16. Radiological considerations in von Hippel-Lindeau disease: imaging findings and the review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Hippel Lindau disease is an autosomal dominant multisystem/multitumoral cancer disease diagnosed by clinical, radiologic and genetic findings. Its prevalence has been estimated to be of 1/36000 inhabitants. The tumours can be benign or malignant. We represent MR findings of a family with ten children. Mother and five siblings had von Hippel-Lindau disease. Radiologic imaging is very important for the early diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic patients. Diagnosing it early is important because the tumours in von Hippel Lindau disease are treatable. Also, an early detection allows the patient’s survival and quality of life. A multidisciplinary team approach is important in screening

  17. MR imaging findings of anterior interosseous nerve lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Andrew J. [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Salonen, David C. [University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Anastakis, Dimitri J. [University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Plastic Surgery, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    To study and characterise the MR imaging findings of lesions of the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the forearm of ten patients referred to our institution with suspected AIN lesions were retrospectively studied. Five healthy volunteers with normal forearm MRI findings formed a control group. Two musculoskeletal radiologists assessed the forearm musculature for oedema in the distribution of the AIN, median, posterior interosseous and radial nerves on T2-weighted (T2W) fat-saturated sequences. T1-weighted (T1W) images were assessed and graded for the presence of muscle atrophy and fatty involution. Six patients had undergone surgical exploration; five of these had surgically confirmed AIN compression. Four patients had diagnoses other than AIN compression made on imaging features. Of the cases of proven AIN compression, oedema within the pronator quadratus (PQ) muscle was identified in all cases. PQ atrophy and fatty involution were seen in three (43%) surgically confirmed cases. Cases 2 and 3 also demonstrated oedema in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP)1 and FDP2 muscles. These cases also showed oedema in the flexor-carpi radialis (FCR) and FDP3/FDP4 muscles, respectively. The four cases of non-AIN compression demonstrated muscle oedema patterns that were atypical for the AIN distribution. They included a rupture of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon, brachial neuritis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and compression of the proximal median nerve. MRI is a useful investigation in the diagnostic workup of AIN syndrome. AIN syndrome is likely when there is diffuse oedema of AIN innervated muscles on T2W fat-saturated images. The most reliable sign of an AIN lesion is oedema within the PQ. Oedema in the flexor carpi radialis, FDP3 and FDP4, although not in the classical distribution of the AIN, does not preclude the diagnosis of AIN syndrome. (orig.)

  18. Imaging findings in posterior instability of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posterior shoulder instability refers to the symptoms and signs resulting from excessive posterior translation of the humerus. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the radiological modality of choice in the diagnostic assessment of posterior instability. Computed tomography (CT) is useful in the evaluation of osseous abnormalities associated with posterior instability. A detailed description of the posterior osseous and labroligamentous abnormalities has evolved recently, and many variant lesions of the posteroinferior labrum and/or capsular structures have been described. As the recommended surgical management of lesions associated with posterior instability is a lesion-specific approach, awareness of the specific lesions that have been described in association with posterior instability helps in pre-surgical planning. The purpose of this article is to review the classification of, and injury mechanisms leading to, posterior shoulder instability and to describe imaging findings associated with posterior instability, with emphasis on MR imaging. (orig.)

  19. Sacrococcygeal yolk sac carcinoma: imaging findings during treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaste, S.C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, 332 N. Lauderdale, P. O. Box 318, Memphis, TN 38101-0318 (United States)]|[Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Bridges, J.O. [Department of Hematology-Oncology, St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38101 (United States); Marina, N.M. [Department of Hematology-Oncology, St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38101 (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Sacrococcygeal teratomas and their malignant counterparts (germ cell tumors) are the most common solid tumors in neonates. Prompt diagnosis is essential because the frequency of malignant transformation increases from 10-20 % in neonates to 67 % in patients over 2 months of age. Cross-sectional imaging has largely replaced surgical exploration for staging these tumors and assessing their response to chemotherapy. Radiologists must be familiar with changes in the imaging findings of these tumors during and after treatment so that they can advise clinicians regarding the efficacy of therapy and the presence or absence of recurrent disease. From our study, magnetic resonance imaging appears to be a better modality for assessing sacral invasion and metastases and distinguishing fibrotic masses from recurrent tumor. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. On children's images and geometrical literacy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuřina, F.; Tichá, Marie; Hošpesová, A.

    Rzeszow : Wydawnictwo Universytetu Rzieszowkiego, 2009, s. 53-64. ISBN 978-83-7338-473-6 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA406/08/0710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : mathematical education * 6-years old children * geometrical images * geometrical literacy Subject RIV: AM - Education

  1. Pulmonary fungal infection: Imaging findings in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histoplasmosis is the most common endemic mycosis in North America, and is followed by coccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis. Although the majority of these infections in immunocompetent persons are self-limited, some patients can develop severe pneumonitis or various forms of chronic pulmonary infection. Cryptococcoci, Aspergillus, Candidas, and Mucorals are ubiquitous organisms, which may affect immunocompromised patients. Specific imaging findings can be expected, depending on the organisms involved, underlying patients' conditions (immune status), and specific situations after immune depleting procedures

  2. Pulmonary fungal infection: Imaging findings in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Semin [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Soo [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kyungs.lee@samsung.com; Yi, Chin A [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myung Jin [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Sung [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joungho [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    Histoplasmosis is the most common endemic mycosis in North America, and is followed by coccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis. Although the majority of these infections in immunocompetent persons are self-limited, some patients can develop severe pneumonitis or various forms of chronic pulmonary infection. Cryptococcoci, Aspergillus, Candidas, and Mucorals are ubiquitous organisms, which may affect immunocompromised patients. Specific imaging findings can be expected, depending on the organisms involved, underlying patients' conditions (immune status), and specific situations after immune depleting procedures.

  3. Myositis Ossificans of Psoas Muscle: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myositis ossificans is a benign, localized, self-limiting ossifying soft tissue mass with unknown pathogenesis. It may be confused with a malignant tumor of bone or soft tissues, especially in the early stages of the disease. In this report, we present a case of myositis ossificans affecting unilateral psoas muscle, which to our knowledge is a very uncommon location. There was no history of trauma. We describe the imaging findings and clues to early diagnosis of myositis ossificans

  4. Susac syndrome: a case report and PET imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielman, Charlotte; Laureys, Guy; Meurs, Alfred; Bissay, Veronique; Ebinger, Guy

    2009-09-01

    We describe the case of a twenty-year-old woman with subacute encephalopathy, who subsequently developed hearing loss and ophtalmopathy. The clinical triad and typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid analysis led to the diagnosis of Susac syndrome. Brain positron emission tomography showed abnormalities which are comparable with other types of central nervous system vasculitis, and distinct from those found in multiple sclerosis. PMID:19902818

  5. Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Macey, Paul M.; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Harper, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and ...

  6. Castleman disease of the neck: CT and MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To characterize the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of Castleman disease of the neck. Methods: The imaging findings of 21 patients with Castleman disease of the neck were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 21 patients, 16 underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT scans; 5 underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI scans. Results: The unenhanced CT images showed isolated or multiple well-defined homogenous mild hypodensity lesions in fifteen cases, and a heterogeneous nodule with central areas of mild hypodensity in one case. Calcification was not observed in any of the patients. In five patients, MR T1-weighted images revealed well-defined, homogeneous isointense or mild hyperintense lesions to the muscle; T2-weighted images showed these as intermediate hyperintense. Sixteen cases showed intermediate to marked homogeneous enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT or MR T1-weighted images. Of the other five cases that underwent double-phase CT scans, four showed mild or intermediate heterogeneous enhancement at the arterial phase, and homogeneous intermediate or marked enhancement at the venous phase; the remaining case showed mild and intermediate ring-enhancement with a central non-enhanced area at the arterial and venous phases, respectively. Conclusion: Castleman disease of the neck can be characterized as solitary or multiple well-defined, mild hypodensity or homogeneous intense lesions on plain CT/MR scans, and demonstrates intermediate and marked enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT/MR scans. On double-phase CT scans, Castleman disease often demonstrates mild enhancement at the arterial phase, and gradually uniform enhancement at venous phase. Double-phase enhanced CT or MRI may help to differentiate Castleman disease from other diseases

  7. Placenta accreta: spectrum of US and MR imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, W Christopher; Corteville, Jane E; Shah, Rajiv R

    2008-01-01

    Placenta accreta (PA) encompasses various types of abnormal placentation in which chorionic villi attach directly to or invade the myometrium. PA is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and is now the most common reason for emergent postpartum hysterectomy. Its prevalence has risen tenfold in the United States over the past 50 years, primarily due to the increasing percentage of pregnant patients undergoing primary and repeat cesarean sections. Placenta previa and previous cesarean section are the two most important known risk factors for PA. Accurate prenatal identification of affected pregnancies allows optimal obstetric management. Ultrasonography (US) remains the diagnostic standard, and routine US examination at 18-20 weeks gestation affords an ideal opportunity to screen for the disorder. Placental lacunae and abnormal color Doppler imaging patterns are the most helpful US markers for PA. In recent years, there has been increased interest in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the evaluation of PA, since it can provide information on depth of invasion and more clearly depict posterior placentas. The most reliable MR imaging findings are uterine bulging, heterogeneous placenta, and placental bands. Focal interruptions in the hypointense myometrial border may also be helpful. PA is a clinical and diagnostic challenge that is being encountered with increasing frequency. Clinicians should be aware of the clinical issues, risk factors, and imaging findings associated with PA to facilitate optimal case management. PMID:19001647

  8. Endometriosis of the liver: Findings in imaging diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endometriosis of the liver is an extremely rare disease. To our knowledge, no more than three such cases were so far mentioned in the relevant literature. Moreover, we understand that nmr findings to prove the presence of hepatic endometriosis have not yet been described. We consider nmr imaging to be a suitable tool to establish a presumptive, if not firm, diagnosis of hepatic endometriosis. A sign strongly suggestive of the disorder is the irregular pattern of blood constituents of different ages that can invariably be visualized using this method. Due to the great amounts of free methaemoglobin found in subacute haemorrhages in increase insignal intensity can be observed for T1-weighted and T2-weighted SE sequences. The residues of former bleedings into the stroma, which are histologically confirmed by haemosiderin deposits, account for the greatly diminished signal intensity in T1-weighted images. An unusual finding here was the comparatively high signal intensity observed for T2-weighted images in those areas, where signals were practically absent in T1-weighted images. In our opinion, this can be explained by scattered subacute bleedings, which are probably too small in amount to produce signals in T1-weighted pictures. (orig./MG)

  9. Factors Affecting Children's Judgement of Culturally Deviant Acts: Findings from an International School in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuki, Aya; Tanaka, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between perceptions of culturally deviant acts and multicultural experiences of elementary-school children attending an international school in Japan. Findings indicated that children judged a Japanese harsher than a foreigner, irrespective of the children's age. It was also found that younger children were…

  10. Scirrhous hepatocellular carcinoma displaying atypical findings on imaging studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soo Ryang Kim; Susumu Imoto; Taisuke Nakajima; Kenji Ando; Keiji Mita; Katsumi Fukuda; Ryo Nishikawa; Yu-ichiro Koma; Toshiyuki Matsuoka; Masatoshi Kudo; Yoshitake Hayashi

    2009-01-01

    We describe a 15-mm scirrhous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a 60-year-old man with B-type cirrhosis. Ultrasound disclosed a 15-mm hypoechoic nodule in segment 7. Contrast-enhanced US revealed heterogeneous, not diffuse, hypervascularity in the early phase and a defect in the Kupffer phase. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed a heterogeneous hypervascular nodule in the early phase and a low-density area in the late phase. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed iso- to hypointensity at T1 and high intensity at T2-weighted sequences. Contrast-enhanced MRI also revealed a heterogeneous hypervascular nodule in the early phase and washout in the late phase. Super-paramagnetic iron oxide-MRI revealed a hyperintense nodule. CT during hepatic arteriography and CT during arterial portography revealed heterogeneous hyperattenuation and a perfusion defect, respectively. Based on these imaging findings the nodule was diagnosed as a mixed well-differentiated and moderately-differentiated HCC. Histologically, the nodule was moderately-differentiated HCC characterized by typical cytological and structural atypia with dense fibrosis. Immunohistochemically, the nodule was positive for heterochromatin protein 1 and alpha-smooth muscle actin, and negative for cytokeratin 19. From the above findings, the nodule was diagnosed as scirrhous HCC. Clinicians engaged in hepatology should exercise caution with suspected scirrhous HCC when imaging studies reveal atypical findings, as shown in our case on the basis of chronic liver disease.

  11. Imaging of round pneumonia and mimics in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, Ricardo; Palani, Rajaneeshankar; Matapathi, Uma M.; Wu, Yen-Ying [Miami Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Various diseases in the pediatric age group can present as an intrathoracic rounded opacity on a chest radiograph. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to emphasize the imaging appearance of round pneumonia, an entity that occurs especially in the pediatric population. Additional pathologies with similar chest radiographic appearances are also presented. The diagnosis of round pneumonia should be made in children who have the typical clinical presentation along with chest radiographs demonstrating the characteristic findings. (orig.)

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gallbladder spleen pancreas intestines kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be used to help ... that is being examined to the transducer (the device used to examine the patient), as well ... is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... your doctor if there are specific instructions for eating and drinking prior to the exam. Your child ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician ... scans, your doctor may ask you to withhold food and drink for several hours before your child's ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... barium exams, CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a setting. Large patients are more difficult to image by ultrasound because greater amounts of tissue attenuate (weaken) the sound waves as they pass deeper into the body. top of page This page was reviewed on June ...

  16. PynPoint: An Image Processing Package for Finding Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Amara, Adam

    2012-01-01

    We present the scientific performance results of PynPoint, our Python-based software package that uses principle component analysis to detect and estimate the flux of exoplanets in two dimensional imaging data. Recent advances in adaptive optics and imaging technology at visible and infrared wavelengths have opened the door to direct detections of planetary companions to nearby stars, but image processing techniques have yet to be optimized. We show that the performance of our approach gives a marked improvement over what is presently possible using existing methods such as LOCI. To test our approach, we use real angular differential imaging (ADI) data taken with the adaptive optics assisted high resolution near-infrared camera NACO at the VLT. These data were taken during the commissioning of the apodising phase plate (APP) coronagraph. By inserting simulated planets into these data, we test the performance of our method as a function of planet brightness for different positions on the image. We find that in...

  17. Hippocampal sclerosis: correlation of MR imaging findings with surgical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Han, Moon Hee; Park, Sung Ho; Nam, Hyun Woo; Choi, Kyu Ho; Cho, Woo Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    Atrophy and a high T2 signal of the hippocampus are known to be the principal MR imaging findings of hippocampal sclerosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not individual MRI findings correlate with surgical outcome in patients with this condition. Preoperative MR imaging findings in 57 consecutive patients with pathologically-proven hippocampal sclerosis who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy and were followed-up for 24 months or more were retrospectively reviewed, and the results were compared with the postsurgical outcome (Engel classification). The MR images included routine sagittal T1-weighted and axial T2-weighted spin-echo images, and oblique coronal T1-weighted 3D gradient-echo and T2-weighted 2D fast spin-echo images obtained on either a 1.5 T or 1.0 T unit. The images were visually evaluated by two neuroradiologists blinded to the outcome; their focus was the presence or absence of atrophy and a high T2 hippocampal signal. Hippocampal atrophy was seen in 96% of cases (55/57) [100% (53/53) of the good outcome group (Engel class I and II), and 50% (2/4) of the poor outcome group (class III and IV)]. A high T2 hippocampal signal was seen in 61% of cases (35/57) [62% (33/53) of the good outcome group and 50% (2/4) of the poor outcome group]. All 35 patients with a high T2 signal had hippocampal atrophy. 'Normal' hippocampus, as revealed by MR imaging, occurred in 4% of patients (2/57), both of whom showed a poor outcome (Engel class III). The presence or absence of hippocampal atrophy correlated well with surgical outcome (p<0.01). High T2 signal intensity did not, however, significantly correlate with surgical outcome (p>0.05). Compared with a high T2 hippocampal signal, hippocampal atrophy is more common and correlates better with surgical outcome. For the prediction of this, it thus appears to be the more useful indicator.

  18. Inverted papilloma: CT and MR imaging findings in correlation with histologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Ki Nam; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Jeong Hun; Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Hye Sook [Maryknoll General Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); No, Hwan Jung [Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To evaluate CT and MR findings suggestive of inverted papilloma by correlation with pathologic finding. The CT(n=16) and MR(n=8) findings of 22 pathologically proven cases of inverted papilloma in the sinonasal cavity were retrospectively reviewed with reference to location of tumor, density/signal intensity, contrast enhanced appearance, shape and cleft air shadow at the free margin of tumors, and mass effect. These findings and pathologic findings were then correlated. All 22 tumors were located in the unilateral nasal cavity and extended into the maxillary sinus(n=17), choana(n=10), ethmoid sinus (n=8), nasopharynx(n=7), nasal vestibule(n=5) or frontal sinus(n=1). All CT scans showed that the density of tumor masses was similar to adjacent muscle. Precontrast CT scans showed no visible 'striations' within the tumor mass, but postcontrast scans revealed 'striations' of varying degree in six of nine cases. CT scans showed that the free margin of tumors was serrated(n=13) or lobulated(n=5), and in 13 cases cleft air shadow of varying shape was noted. All MR scans showed 'striations' with intermediate/slightly high signal intensity on T1WI and intermediate/high on T2WI within tumor masses, which were more prominent on postcontrast scans. On MR, the free margin of tumors was seen to be serrated(n=5) lobulated(n=4), or smooth(n=1), but cleft air shadow was detected. The 'striations'seen on postcontrast CT and MR images and the cleft air shadow with a serrated appearance seen on CT images at the free margin of tumors suggested the presence of inverted papilloma in the sinonasal cavity.

  19. Imaging findings of synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteomyelitis syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the imaging characteristics of SAPHO syndrome in 11 cases. Methods: Clinical features and imaging findings from 11 patients (6 male, 5 female, 28 to 68 years old) with SAPHO syndrome were analyzed retrospectively Including DR in 9 cases, CT in 10 cases, MRI and radioisotope scanning in 3 cases. Results: Multi-bones of anterior chest wall disorders were shown in 9 cases on DR images including superior sternum, anterior first rib and clavicle hyperostosis. Bony fusion and bony bridge were also seen in these cases. Hyperostosis osteosclerosis, bone destruction and bony fusion of sternoclavicular articulation and first rib were shown on CT images in 9 cases. Osteosclerosis of the joint between manubrium and midsternum was seen in 1 case on CT image. The sign of flying sea gull was seen in 2 cases on axial anterior chest wall CT images. The disorders of anterior chest wall were bilateral in 8 cases and unilateral in 2 cases. Sacroiliitis and osteomyelitis of ilium were found accompanied in 1 case. Osteomyelitis of thoracic vertebrae were found in 2 cases, while sclerosing osteitis of lumbar vertebrae and osteoarthritis of bilateral hands were observed respectively in 1 case. The thicken soft tissue surround clavicle head, thoracic vertebra disease with long T1, jumbly T2 and high fat suppression signal, long T1 and short T2 signal under sacroiliac joint were shown on MRI. Radioisotope scanning displayed higher radioactive uptake of radionuclides, with T shape in sternoclavicular area in 3 cases. Conclusions: Multi-bones of anterior chest wall involvement was the common imaging characteristics in 11 patients. Sacroiliitis, osteomyelitis of' vertebrae and ilium, sclerosing osteitis, ostearthritis of hand could be seen in some cases. (authors)

  20. Internet literacy among children and young people: findings from the UK Children Go Online project

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Sonia; Bober, Magdalena; Helsper, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    Within an overall focus on media literacy, the present report examines the internet literacy of children and young people aged 9-19, based on the UKCGO survey findings. We examine the relations among the three main dimensions of media or internet literacy (access, understanding and creation), showing how developing online expertise increases online opportunities and, it turns out, also increases online risks. We also ask what difference parental regulation of children’s internet use makes, re...

  1. Infantile fibrosarcoma: Magnetic resonance imaging findings in six cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To retrospectively review magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features in a series of six infantile fibrosarcomas to find out if MR can suggest this unusual diagnosis and to highlight the value of MR during and following treatment. Materials and methods: The records of six cases of histologically proven infantile fibrosarcoma were retrieved from the files of our cancer center. All imaging data available were consensually reviewed by two radiologists. Results: There were five females and one male (age range at diagnosis, 0-12 months; mean, 6 months). The most common finding was a well-circumscribed single mass in five patients (83%). All tumors had arisen on limbs; at their proximal or distal extremity or at the root of the limb. The masses were 9 cm large in mean diameter. The initial tumor signal was isointense to muscle on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences. All masses were well circumscribed and half of them contained internal fibrous septa. The internal signal was homogeneous in three patients and heterogeneous in the three others. An intense enhancement was seen in all three contrast-enhanced exams available; heterogeneous in two cases and homogeneous in one. Osseous erosion was observed in only one patient who was the only one with distant metastasis. After treatment (chemotherapy and very limited surgery), tumors had totally disappeared, leaving muscle fat infiltration in two patients and subcutaneous fat hypertrophy in one patient. Conclusion: Although imaging findings are not specific of infantile fibrosarcoma, this diagnosis could be suggested when MR imaging depicts a large well-circumscribed mass arising in a limb at birth or during the neonatal period. This mass is sometimes heterogeneous and septate and exhibits an isointense T1- and hyperintense T2-weighted signals and strong enhancement. MR is also the technique of choice for follow-up during treatment which consists nowadays almost exclusively in chemotherapy.

  2. Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyo Soon; Jeong, Seo In; Choi, You Ri; Kim, Jin Woong; Lee, Ji Shin; Park, Min Ho [Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Kuzmiak, Cherie M. [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To analyze the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast. MR images were retrospectively evaluated in 14 patients (age range: 37-67, mean age: 49 years) with pathologically confirmed invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast. The enhancement type (mass/non-mass), shape, margin, contrast enhancement, and time-intensity curve pattern on the dynamic study were correlated with the histopathologic features. Associated findings, such as edema, nipple change, skin change and enlarged axillary lymph nodes were also studied. The most common features of the masses were irregular shape (12 of 14 patients, 85.8%) and irregular or spiculated margin (11 of 14 patients, 78.7%). The contrast enhancement was heterogeneous in 11 patients (78.7%), rim enhancement in 2 cases (14.2%), and homogeneous in one patient (7.1%). The predominant kinetic pattern was rapid increase (14 of 14, 100%) in the initial phase and washout (11 of 14, 78.7%) in the delayed phase. Associated non-mass like enhancement was shown in 4 patients, representing ductal carcinoma in situ. MR imaging helped detect additional sites of cancer other than the index lesion in 3 patients (21.4%). Enlarged axillary lymphadenopathy was identified in 7 of the 14 patients (50%). Invasive micropapillary carcinoma appears as a mass with an irregular shape, irregular or spiculated margin and heterogeneous enhancement on MR imaging. Though these findings are not specific and are also observed with other breast malignancies, invasive micropapillary carcinoma frequently showed multiple lesions, accompanying non-mass enhancement and axillary lymph node enlargement.

  3. Imaging findings in phyllodes tumors of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the radiological appearance and pathological features of breast phyllodes tumors (PTs), and to enhance the recognition of the tumor. Materials and methods: Clinical and imaging findings were retrospectively reviewed in 24 women with PTs confirmed by surgical pathology. All of the 24 patients had preoperative MRI and sonography, and 10 had preoperative mammography. Results: The histologic findings were benign, borderline and malignant PTs in 16.7% (4/24), 45.8% (11/24) and 37.5% (9/24) of cases, respectively. The tumor size (p = 0.001), irregular shape on sonographic imaging (p = 0.039), internal non-enhanced septations (p = 0.009), silt-like changes in enhanced images (p = 0.006) and signal changes from T2-weighted to enhanced images on MRI (p = 0.001) correlated significantly with the histologic grade; the BI-RADS category of the MRI could reflect the PT's histologic grade with a correlation coefficient of 0.440 (p = 0.031). If the category BI-RADS ≥4a was considered to be a suspicious malignant lesion, the diagnostic accuracy of mammography, US and MRI would be 70% (7/10), 62.5% (15/24) and 95.8% (23/24), respectively. Conclusion: The tumor size and several US and MRI findings can be used to help preoperatively determine the histologic grade of breast PTs. When a patient presents with a progressively enlarging, painless breast mass, MRI should be recommended first.

  4. Infantile fibrosarcoma: Magnetic resonance imaging findings in six cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canale, Sandra [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France)], E-mail: canalesandra@yahoo.com; Vanel, Daniel [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli, 1/10 via di Barbiano, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Couanet, Dominique [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Patte, Catherine [Department of Pediatrics, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Caramella, Caroline; Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively review magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features in a series of six infantile fibrosarcomas to find out if MR can suggest this unusual diagnosis and to highlight the value of MR during and following treatment. Materials and methods: The records of six cases of histologically proven infantile fibrosarcoma were retrieved from the files of our cancer center. All imaging data available were consensually reviewed by two radiologists. Results: There were five females and one male (age range at diagnosis, 0-12 months; mean, 6 months). The most common finding was a well-circumscribed single mass in five patients (83%). All tumors had arisen on limbs; at their proximal or distal extremity or at the root of the limb. The masses were 9 cm large in mean diameter. The initial tumor signal was isointense to muscle on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences. All masses were well circumscribed and half of them contained internal fibrous septa. The internal signal was homogeneous in three patients and heterogeneous in the three others. An intense enhancement was seen in all three contrast-enhanced exams available; heterogeneous in two cases and homogeneous in one. Osseous erosion was observed in only one patient who was the only one with distant metastasis. After treatment (chemotherapy and very limited surgery), tumors had totally disappeared, leaving muscle fat infiltration in two patients and subcutaneous fat hypertrophy in one patient. Conclusion: Although imaging findings are not specific of infantile fibrosarcoma, this diagnosis could be suggested when MR imaging depicts a large well-circumscribed mass arising in a limb at birth or during the neonatal period. This mass is sometimes heterogeneous and septate and exhibits an isointense T1- and hyperintense T2-weighted signals and strong enhancement. MR is also the technique of choice for follow-up during treatment which consists nowadays almost exclusively in chemotherapy.

  5. Ganglion cysts in the paediatric wrist: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of published literature on ganglion cysts in children has been from a surgical perspective, with no dedicated radiologic study yet performed. Our aim was to assess the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of ganglion cysts in a series of paediatric MR wrist examinations. Ninety-seven consecutive paediatric MR wrist examinations were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of ganglion cysts. Only those studies with wrist ganglia were included. Cysts were assessed for location, size, internal characteristics and secondary effect(s). Forty-one ganglion cysts (2-32 mm in size) were seen in 35/97 (36%) patients (24 female, 11 male), mean age: 13 years 11 months (range: 6 years 3 months-18 years). The majority were palmar (63.4%) with the remainder dorsal. Of the cysts, 43.9% were related to a wrist ligament(s), 36.6% to a joint and 17.1% to the triangular fibrocartilage complex. Of the patients, 91.4% had wrist symptoms: pain (n=29, 82.9%), swelling (n=7, 20%) and/or palpable mass (n=4, 11.4%); 71.4% patients had significant additional wrist abnormalities. Ganglion cysts were frequently found in children referred for wrist MRI. (orig.)

  6. Ganglion cysts in the paediatric wrist: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, Jennifer; Bartlett, Murray [Royal Children' s Hospital, Medical Imaging Department, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    The majority of published literature on ganglion cysts in children has been from a surgical perspective, with no dedicated radiologic study yet performed. Our aim was to assess the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of ganglion cysts in a series of paediatric MR wrist examinations. Ninety-seven consecutive paediatric MR wrist examinations were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of ganglion cysts. Only those studies with wrist ganglia were included. Cysts were assessed for location, size, internal characteristics and secondary effect(s). Forty-one ganglion cysts (2-32 mm in size) were seen in 35/97 (36%) patients (24 female, 11 male), mean age: 13 years 11 months (range: 6 years 3 months-18 years). The majority were palmar (63.4%) with the remainder dorsal. Of the cysts, 43.9% were related to a wrist ligament(s), 36.6% to a joint and 17.1% to the triangular fibrocartilage complex. Of the patients, 91.4% had wrist symptoms: pain (n=29, 82.9%), swelling (n=7, 20%) and/or palpable mass (n=4, 11.4%); 71.4% patients had significant additional wrist abnormalities. Ganglion cysts were frequently found in children referred for wrist MRI. (orig.)

  7. Multidetector CT findings of splenic artery aneurysm in children with chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splenic artery aneurysm (SAA) is a well-known complication of chronic liver disease and portal hypertension in adults. The incidence of SAA in children undergoing selective hepatic angiography prior to liver transplantation is reported as 4%, but there are few systematic studies. To investigate the SAAs detected by multidetector CT angiography (MDCTA) among children with chronic liver disease. A total of 124 children (71 girls, 53 boys; mean age 118 months; age range 5 days to 204 months) with chronic liver disease underwent MDCTA to display the vascular anatomy and any vascular complications during the pretransplantation period. Of these children, 23 also underwent coeliac angiography. The digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and MDCTA findings were compared. SAAs were detected in 13 children (10.4%); none was detectable by US. All patients had more than one aneurysm; ten patients had more than three. In all except one patient, the SAAs were located only in the intraparenchymal branches of the splenic artery; in one patient they were located in the intraparenchymal segment and in the distal third of the splenic artery. The mean size of the aneurysms was 6.5 mm (range 2.5-18 mm). All patients with aneurysms had splenomegaly and vascular collaterals. Nine of the children with SAAs had portal vein pathologies (two occlusions, two stenoses, five dilatations). A statistically significant difference existed with regard to the size of spleen (P < 0.05) and patient age (P < 0.05) between children with SAAs and children without SAAs. There was an increased risk of SAAs in patients with portal vein pathologies. In 19 patients without SAAs on MDCTA, no SAAs were seen on DSA. It is likely that the incidence of SAA in children with chronic liver disease will increase with improved survival of children with long-standing portal hypertension and chronic liver disease. MDCTA with multiplanar reconstruction is a noninvasive and effective means of imaging paediatric patients with

  8. MR of the pituitary in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome: size determination and imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is an unusual genetic disorder characterized by short stature, obesity, hypogonadism, hypotonia, cognitive impairment, and dysmorphic facies. There is an interstitial deletion of the proximal long arm of chromosome 15 in about 70% of patients. Some of these clinical features suggest a central hypothalamic/pituitary dysfunction, and recent investigations have demonstrated a marked impairment in spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion. We studied 15 GH-deficient PWS patients by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether there was a diminution in the gross morphological size of the anterior pituitary gland, the site of GH synthesis. We also set out to catalog the pertinent imaging findings in this patient population. Our results indicate that this is the first report documenting pituitary size by MRI in PWS patients. No statistically significant difference was found in the height of the anterior pituitary gland in PWS patients compared with either normal children or children with isolated GH deficiency. An interesting imaging finding is that three of 15 patients (20%) demonstrated complete absence of the posterior pituitary bright spot (PPBS), and a fourth patient demonstrated a small PPBS. These observations reflect an objective physiologic disturbance in the hypothalamus. The clinical and radiologic implications of these findings are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Neuroimaging findings in 41 low-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbetta, Alessandra; Bulgheroni, Sara; Contarino, Valeria; Chiapparini, Luisa; Esposito, Silvia; Vago, Chiara; Riva, Daria

    2014-12-01

    The data on the rate of brain imaging abnormalities in autistic spectrum disorders are still inconsistent. A recent study on patients with high-functioning autism found that approximately 90% of children had normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans whereas an unexpected high rate of MRI abnormalities was reported in 77 nonsyndromic autistic children with or without intellectual disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of neuroradiologic findings in low-functioning autistic children compared to controls matched for age. Minor brain abnormalities were found in 44% of patients and 22% of controls. Our main result is the high rate of mega cisterna magna in autistic patients. High rate of minor neuroradiologic abnormalities in low-functioning autistic patients could contribute to the research about the various endophenotypes and complete the clinical assessment of children with autistic spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. PMID:24346312

  10. Finding of region of interest in radioisotope scintigraphy's images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is about some problems, which arise, when physicians try to make diagnosis, using information from pictures, which are obtained at radioisotope scintigraphy. The algorithm of obtaining pictures' sets (called GFR) is described in this paper. The possible mistakes in diagnosis are also described. One reason of the mistakes is wrong detection the investigated organ's location. The new method is suggested for detection of organ's location in radioisotope scintigraphy's images' sets. Using of dynamic curves of pixels' intensities is suggested for solving of this problem. It is shown, why using of maximums of such curves is impossible for finding of the investigated organ's location in radioisotope scintigraphy's images sets. The using of integral expression is suggested to solve the problem. The suggested method allows finding and selecting of investigated organ's location in image's sequences (correction is not available in the existing methods). The results of using this method are present. The method can work fully automatically or with manual setting of threshold. (authors)

  11. Mazes and Maps: Can Young Children Find Their Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirout, Jamie J.; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2014-01-01

    Games provide important informal learning activities for young children, and spatial game play (e.g., puzzles and blocks) has been found to relate to the development of spatial skills. This study investigates 4- and 5-year-old children's use of scaled and unscaled maps when solving mazes, asking whether an important aspect of spatial…

  12. MR imaging appearances of Schwannoma. Correlation with pathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral schwannomas are nerve sheath neoplasms that consist of focal proliferation of Schwann cells. We reviewed the MRI findings in 17 patients with pathologically proved peripheral schwannomas. When compared with the signal intensity of muscle, that of the mass was isointense or hyperintense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense in all 17 tumors on T2-weighted images. All of the masses showed heterogeneous enhancement following the intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA on T1-weighted images. On T1-weighted images, hyperintensity was observed in the tumors that contained predominantly hypercellular Antoni type A tissue, while isointensity was observed in the tumors that contained predominantly hypocellular Antoni type B tissue. Relatively high signal intensity seen on T2-weighted images and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images was observed in the tumors that contained predominantly Antoni type B tissue when compared with the signal intensity of tumors that contained predominantly Antoni type A tissue. A capsule was pathologically identified in 15 of 17 tumors. MRI correctly identified the presence of a capsule in 11 of 15 tumors and the absence of a capsule in one of 2 tumors. Thus the diagnostic accuracy was 71% (12/17). The cause of 4 false negative results appeared to be a hemorrhage or cystic change around the peripheral portion of the tumor, and it appeared to be a chemical artifact in one false positive result. Thus the appearance of MRI may suggest the cellular type of schwannoma, Antoni type A or B. However, prediction of the presence or absence of tumor capsule may be relatively difficult with MRI. (author)

  13. Nasal polyps with metaplastic ossification: CT and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yi Kyung; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Eunhee; Kim, Sung Tae [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jinna [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Seung-Kyu [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Young-Hyeh [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Metaplastic ossification is a rare event in nasal polyps. The purpose of this study was to review the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of nasal polyps with metaplastic ossification. CT (n = 5) and MR (n = 3) images of five patients (four men and one woman; mean age, 59 years) with surgically proven nasal polyp with metaplastic ossification were retrospectively reviewed. The location and morphologic characteristics of metaplastic ossification were documented as well. All lesions were seen as lobulated (n = 3), ovoid (n = 1), or dumbbell-shaped (n = 1) benign-looking masses with a mean size of 3.7 cm (range, 2.4-6.5 cm), located unilaterally in the posterior nasal cavity and nasopharynx (n = 2), posterior nasoethmoidal tract (n = 2), and maxillary sinus and nasal cavity (n = 1). Compared with the brain stem, the soft tissue components of all lesions demonstrated isoattenuation on precontrast CT scans, slight hypointensity on T1-weighted MR images, and hyperintensity on T2-weighted MR images. On contrast-enhanced MR images, heterogeneous enhancement with marked peripheral enhancement was seen in two and homogeneous moderate enhancement in one. All lesions contained centrally located radiodense materials on CT scans, the shape of which was multiple clustered in three, single nodular in one, and single large lobulated in one. Although rare, metaplastic ossification can occur within nasal polyps. The possibility of its diagnosis may be raised when one sees a benign-looking sinonasal mass with centrally located radiodense materials on CT scans. MR imaging may be useful when mycetoma or inverted papilloma cannot be ruled out on CT scans. (orig.)

  14. Surgical transposition of the ovaries: Imaging findings in 14 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kier, R.; Chambers, S.K. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Pelvic radiation therapy for cervical or vaginal cancer often leads to ovarian failure. To remove the ovaries from the radiation portal and preserve their function, they can be transposed to the lateral abdomen. Serial imaging studies in 14 patients who had undergone ovarian transposition (five bilateral, nine unilateral) were reviewed. Images obtained included 32 CT scans, 20 sonograms, and one MR image. Most transposed ovaries were located along the paracolic gutters near the iliac crests, creating an extrinsic mass effect on adjacent bowel. Detection of surgical clips on the ovary on CT scans allowed confident recognition of all 19 transposed ovaries. Cysts in the transposed ovaries, noted on most imaging studies, did not correlate with complications of pain or hormonal dysfunction. In one case, a large physiologic cyst in a transposed ovary distorted the cecum and was mistaken for a mucocele of the appendix. In another case, a large ovarian cyst was thought to be tumor recurrence or a lymphocele. These findings indicate that although the transposed ovaries can be recognized on CT scans by the surgical clips attached to the ovaries, the appearance of the ovary does not predict reliably the development of complications.

  15. Surgical transposition of the ovaries: Imaging findings in 14 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelvic radiation therapy for cervical or vaginal cancer often leads to ovarian failure. To remove the ovaries from the radiation portal and preserve their function, they can be transposed to the lateral abdomen. Serial imaging studies in 14 patients who had undergone ovarian transposition (five bilateral, nine unilateral) were reviewed. Images obtained included 32 CT scans, 20 sonograms, and one MR image. Most transposed ovaries were located along the paracolic gutters near the iliac crests, creating an extrinsic mass effect on adjacent bowel. Detection of surgical clips on the ovary on CT scans allowed confident recognition of all 19 transposed ovaries. Cysts in the transposed ovaries, noted on most imaging studies, did not correlate with complications of pain or hormonal dysfunction. In one case, a large physiologic cyst in a transposed ovary distorted the cecum and was mistaken for a mucocele of the appendix. In another case, a large ovarian cyst was thought to be tumor recurrence or a lymphocele. These findings indicate that although the transposed ovaries can be recognized on CT scans by the surgical clips attached to the ovaries, the appearance of the ovary does not predict reliably the development of complications

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging findings compared with histological findings of the labrum in hip osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with disorders such as acetabular dysplasia or femoroacetabular impingement are at risk of developing hip osteoartbritis. Assessment of the cartilage and labrum in the hip joint based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been challenging because of the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) due to its deep location, ball and socket structure, and small volume of those structures compared with the whole joint size. To achieve better imaging assessment, direct MR. arthrography (d-MRA) and other techniques such as T2* mapping, T2 mapping, Tlrho, and delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI (dGEMRIC) have been developed along with the increasing use of high-field MRI. In patients with no apparent osteoarthritic changes such as joint space narrowing or osteophyte and subchondral cyst formation on radiographs, these techniques can detect early cartilage or labral damage. A recently developed semiquantitative MRI-based scoring system for hip osteoarthritis includes evaluation of the labrum, and its application as a potential therapeutic monitoring tool is anticipated. The labrum shows pathological changes such as macroscopic hypertrophy and histological degeneration in hip osteoartbritis, but the pathological background is not well understood when evaluated by MRI. Kubo et al. compared radial MRI findings with histological changes of the labrum in ll hips with osteoarthritis using 1.5-T MRJ and found that fibrous separation and mucoid deposition occurred in the labrum with a ''diffuse high signal'' or ''obscure'' pattern. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have demonstrated a correlation between MRI fmdings and histological evidence of the severity of degeneration of the labrum. We hypothesized that radially reconstructed images of the acetabular labrum acquired by 3-T MRI can depict degenerative changes of the labrum. In this study, we sought to determine the correlation between MRI and histological findings of the

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging findings compared with histological findings of the labrum in hip osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanezaki, Shiho; Nakamura, Shigeru; Matsushita, Takashi [Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Asako; Osawa, Marie [Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    Patients with disorders such as acetabular dysplasia or femoroacetabular impingement are at risk of developing hip osteoartbritis. Assessment of the cartilage and labrum in the hip joint based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been challenging because of the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) due to its deep location, ball and socket structure, and small volume of those structures compared with the whole joint size. To achieve better imaging assessment, direct MR. arthrography (d-MRA) and other techniques such as T2* mapping, T2 mapping, Tlrho, and delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI (dGEMRIC) have been developed along with the increasing use of high-field MRI. In patients with no apparent osteoarthritic changes such as joint space narrowing or osteophyte and subchondral cyst formation on radiographs, these techniques can detect early cartilage or labral damage. A recently developed semiquantitative MRI-based scoring system for hip osteoarthritis includes evaluation of the labrum, and its application as a potential therapeutic monitoring tool is anticipated. The labrum shows pathological changes such as macroscopic hypertrophy and histological degeneration in hip osteoartbritis, but the pathological background is not well understood when evaluated by MRI. Kubo et al. compared radial MRI findings with histological changes of the labrum in ll hips with osteoarthritis using 1.5-T MRJ and found that fibrous separation and mucoid deposition occurred in the labrum with a ''diffuse high signal'' or ''obscure'' pattern. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have demonstrated a correlation between MRI fmdings and histological evidence of the severity of degeneration of the labrum. We hypothesized that radially reconstructed images of the acetabular labrum acquired by 3-T MRI can depict degenerative changes of the labrum. In this study, we sought to determine the correlation between MRI and histological findings of the

  18. Painful Hip in Childhood; Imaging Approaches and Findings (an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mearadji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nA painful hip is a common clinical symptom of numerous joint, bone and soft tissue diseases, and is a diagnostic challenge especially for the consulting radiologist. "nThe use of imaging procedures must not only be adequate, but also convenient with low cost and low radiation dose. "nIn accordance to the frequency and incidence, a patient with a painful hip should be categorized in 3 age groups, namely 0-3, 3-10 and 10-15 years old. In the first years of life the most common finding is cox arthritis or trauma. In the second age group transient synovitis is the most common finding, followed by Perthes disease. Slipped capital femoral epiphysiolysis (SCFE and malignancies are most often observed in the third age group. Differentiation between acute onset and more chronic complaints is crucial for the diagnostic approach. "nSonography is the modality of choice in patients with a painful hip, especially in acute and non-traumatic conditions. Joint effusion with or without synovial thickening is easily recognized with sonography. The epiphyseal and metaphyseal deformities are detectable when compared with the unaffected hip. Sonographic measurement of upper leg muscle thickness can detect atrophy, which is a known complication of serious hip diseases such as Perthes disease, SCFE and some benign and malignant conditions. When joint effusion is seen without any muscle atrophy, transient synovitis can be confidentially diagnosed, and no further imaging is necessary. "nPlain radiography is indicated more in chronic conditions with painful hip as in Perthes disease and SCFE as well as other conditions with severe and complex clinical symptoms. "nMRI, CT and radionuclide study may be needed when ultrasound studies and plain radiographs are inconclusive. This may be the case in Perthes disease, osteoid osteoma, avascular necrosis and malignancies. "nExamples of imaging findings in patients with a painful hip will be shown based on my 25 years of

  19. Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma of the Abdomen: the Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Lee, Soon Jin; Song, Hye Jong [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma is a rare neoplasm that originates from follicular dendritic cells in lymphoid follicles. This disease usually involves the lymph nodes, and especially the head and neck area. Rarely, extranodal sites may be affected, including tonsil, the oral cavity, liver, spleen and the gastrointestinal tract. We report here on the imaging findings of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma of the abdomen that involved the retroperitoneal lymph nodes and colon. It shows as a well-defined, enhancing homogenous mass with internal necrosis and regional lymphadenopathy.

  20. Children of substance abusers: overview of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J L; Leff, M

    1999-05-01

    A relationship between parental substance abuse and subsequent alcohol problems in their children has been documented extensively. Children of alcoholics (COAs) are considered to be at high risk because there is a greater likelihood that they will develop alcoholism compared with a randomly selected child from the same community. COAs and children of other drug-abusing parents are especially vulnerable to the risk for maladaptive behavior because they have combinations of many risk factors present in their lives. The single most potent risk factor is their parent's substance-abusing behavior. This single risk factor can place children of substance abusers at biologic, psychologic, and environmental risk. Since the turn of the century, many reports have described the deleterious influence of parental alcoholism on their children. A series of studies measured mortality, physiology, and general health in the offspring of alcoholic parents and concluded that when mothers stopped drinking during gestation, their children were healthier. Today, research on COAs can be classified into studies of fetal alcohol syndrome, the transmission of alcoholism, psychobiologic markers of vulnerability, and psychosocial characteristics. Each of these studies hypothesizes that differences between COAs and children of nonalcoholics influence maladaptive behaviors later in life, such as academic failure or alcoholism. This research supports the belief that COAs are at risk for a variety of problems that may include behavioral, psychologic, cognitive, or neuropsychologic deficits. The vast literature on COAs far outweighs the literature on children of other drug abusers. Relatively little is known about children of heroin addicts, cocaine abusers, or polydrug abusers. Nonetheless, many researchers suggest that the children of addicted parents are at greater risk for later dysfunctional behaviors and that they, too, deserve significant attention to prevent intergenerational transmission of

  1. Imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamo, Leonor; Meuli, Reto [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Vial, Yvan [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Gengler, Carole [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Pathology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    Congenital lung malformations are increasingly detected before birth. However, bronchial atresia is rarely identified in utero and not always recognized in neonates. There are two types of atresia: (1) proximal, located at the level of the mainstem or the proximal lobar bronchi, which is extremely rare and usually lethal during pregnancy, causing a tremendous volume increase of the distal involved lung with secondary hypoplasia of the normal lung, and (2) peripheral, located at the segmental/subsegmental bronchial level, which may present as an isolated lesion or as part of a complex congenital malformation. Prenatal findings are mostly nonspecific. Postnatal exams show overinflated lung areas and focal bronchial dilations. The typical fluid-filled bronchoceles are not always observed in neonates but develop progressively in the first months of life. This pictorial essay describes the spectrum of imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants. (orig.)

  2. Imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital lung malformations are increasingly detected before birth. However, bronchial atresia is rarely identified in utero and not always recognized in neonates. There are two types of atresia: (1) proximal, located at the level of the mainstem or the proximal lobar bronchi, which is extremely rare and usually lethal during pregnancy, causing a tremendous volume increase of the distal involved lung with secondary hypoplasia of the normal lung, and (2) peripheral, located at the segmental/subsegmental bronchial level, which may present as an isolated lesion or as part of a complex congenital malformation. Prenatal findings are mostly nonspecific. Postnatal exams show overinflated lung areas and focal bronchial dilations. The typical fluid-filled bronchoceles are not always observed in neonates but develop progressively in the first months of life. This pictorial essay describes the spectrum of imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants. (orig.)

  3. MR imaging findings of acetabular dysplasia in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Steven; Connell, David [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Radiology Department, London, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Miocevic, Miranda; Malara, Frank; Pike, Jonathan [Victoria House Hospital, Radiology Department, Melbourne (Australia); Young, David [Melbourne Orthopaedic Group, Orthopaedic Surgery, Melbourne (Australia)

    2006-06-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging in the identification of labral and articular cartilage lesions in patients with acetabular dysplasia. Pre-operative MR imaging was performed on 27 hips in 25 consecutive patients (16 males, 9 females, age range 19-52 years, mean age 31.2 years) with radiographic evidence of acetabular dysplasia (centre-edge angle of Wiberg <20 degrees). The average duration of symptoms was 16.2 months. Two musculoskeletal radiologists assessed MR images in consensus for the presence of abnormality involving the acetabular labrum and adjacent acetabular articular cartilage. A high resolution, non-arthrographic technique was used to assess the labrum and labral chondral transitional zone. Surgical correlation was obtained in all cases by a single surgeon experienced in hip arthroscopy and ten patients with normal hip MRI were included to provide a control group. The acetabular labra in the dysplastic hips demonstrated abnormal signal intensity, and had an elongated appearance when compared with the control group (mean length 10.9 mm vs 6.4 mm). Morphological appearances in the labra included surface irregularity, fissures and cleft formation. MR imaging correctly identified the severity of chondral abnormality in 24 of 27 hips (89%) when compared with arthroscopic findings. MR imaging demonstrates an elongated labrum, focal intra-substance signal change and irregularity and fissuring of the margins in patients with acetabular dysplasia. Abnormality is also identified at the labral chondral transitional zone, where fissuring, focal clefts, chondral deficiency and subchondral cyst formation may be apparent. A high-resolution, non-arthrographic technique can provide an accurate preoperative assessment and evaluate the presence of premature osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  4. Imaging of Chest Wall Lesions in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hekmatnia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chest wall lesions in childhood include a wide range of pathologies; Benign lesions include lipoma, neurofibroma, lymphangioma, hemangioma, and mesenchymal hamartoma."nMalignant lesions include Neuroblastoma, Rhabdo-myosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and Askin tumor."nSystemic diseases such as leukemia, lymphoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and also infections such as tuberculosis, and actinomycosis may also cause chest wall lesions."nThe imaging characteristics of these lesions are re-viewed, but only a minority of the lesions shows diagnostic imaging features, and most of lesions re-quire biopsy and histopathological examination for "ndefinitive diagnosis."nThe role of different modalities is discussed with an emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging for demonstrating lesion morphology and local spread. Computed tomography and neuclear medicine being used mainly to assess remote disease."nIn this lecture, we discuss about imaging of chest wall lesions in children.

  5. Resilience in highly stressed urban children: concepts and findings.

    OpenAIRE

    Cowen, E. L.; Wyman, P. A.; Work, W. C.

    1996-01-01

    The Rochester Child Resilience Project is a coordinated set of studies of the correlates and antecedents of outcomes relating to resilience among profoundly stressed urban children. The studies have been conducted over the course of the past decade. Based on child test data, parent, teacher, and self ratings of child adjustment, and in-depth individual interviews with parents and children, a cohesive picture has developed of child and family milieu variables that consistently differentiate ch...

  6. Atypical Findings of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh KARIMZADEH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available How to cite this article: Karimzadeh P, Bakhshandeh Bali MK, Nasehi MM, Taheri Otaghsara SM, Ghofrani M. Atypical Findings of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Children. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012;6(4:17-22. AbstractObjectiveGuillain-Barre syndrome (GBS is an immune-mediated polyneuropathy that occurs mostly after  prior infection. The diagnosis of this syndrome is dependent heavily on the history and examination, although cerebrospinal fluid analysis and electrodiagnostic testing usually confirm the diagnosis. This is a retrospective study which was performed to investigate the atypical features of GBS.Materials & MethodsThirty three patients (21/63.6% males and 12/36.4% females with GBS were retrospectively studied and prospectively evaluated at the Child Neurology institute of Mofid Children Hospital of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences between May 2011 and September 2012.ResultsThe mean age was 5.4 years (range, 1.5-10.5.Twenty one patients (87.9 % had previous history of infections. Eight patients (24.2% admitted with atypical symptoms like upper limb weakness (3%, ptosis (3%, neck stiffness (3%, inability to stand (proximal weakness (9.1%, headache (3% and dysphagia (3%.According to disease process, weakness was ascending in 26 (78.8%, descending in 5 (15.2% and static in 2 (6.1% patients. Cranial nerve involvement was found in 8(24.3% children, most commonly as facial palsy in 3 (9.1%.ConclusionIn this study, 24.3% of our patients presented with atypical symptoms of GBS as upper limb weakness, ptosis, neck stiffness, inability to stand (proximal weakness, headache and dysphagia References:Hughes RA, Cornblath DR. Guillain-Barré syndrome. Lancet. 2005 Nov 5;366(9497:1653-66.McGillicuddy DC, Walker O, Shapiro NI, Edlow JA. Guillain-Barré syndrome in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2006 Apr;47(4:390-3.Cosi V, Versino M. Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neurol Sci. 2006;27(Suppl 1:S47-51.Hughes RA, Cornblath DR. Guillain

  7. Respiratory syncytial virus-related encephalitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion-weighted study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Arim; Suh, Sang-il; Seol, Hae-Young [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Gyu-Ri; Lee, Nam-Joon [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Eun, Baik-Lin [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen causing acute respiratory infection in children. Herein, we describe the incidence and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of RSV-related encephalitis, a major neurological complication of RSV infection. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging findings of the patients over the past 7 years who are admitted to our medical center and are tested positive for RSV-RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. In total, 3,856 patients were diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis, and 28 of them underwent brain MRI for the evaluation of neurologic symptoms; 8 of these 28 patients had positive imaging findings. Five of these 8 patients were excluded because of non-RSV-related pathologies, such as subdural hemorrhage, brain volume loss due to status epilepticus, periventricular leukomalacia, preexisting ventriculomegaly, and hypoxic brain injury. The incidence of RSV-related encephalitis was as follows: 3/3,856 (0.08 %) of the patients are positive for RSV RNA, 3/28 (10.7 %) of the patient underwent brain MRI for neurological symptom, and 3/8 (37.5 %) of patients revealed abnormal MR findings. The imaging findings were suggestive of patterns of rhombenmesencephalitis, encephalitis with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and limbic encephalitis. They demonstrated no diffusion abnormality on diffusion-weighted image and symptom improvement on the follow-up study. Encephalitis with RSV bronchiolitis occurs rarely. However, on brain MRI performed upon suspicion of neurologic involvement, RSV encephalitis is not infrequently observed among the abnormal MR findings and may mimic other viral and limbic encephalitis. Physicians should be aware of this entity to ensure proper diagnosis and neurologic care of RSV-positive patients. (orig.)

  8. Second Malignancy in Pediatric Patients: Imaging Findings and Differential Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tayari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic advances in the treatment of pediatric neoplasms have improved the prognosis but have also increased the risk of developing rare second malignancies."nPrimary neoplasms which are often associated with second malignancies include lymphoma, retinoblas-toma, medulloblastoma and leukemia. The most common second malignancies are central nervous system (CNS tumors, sarcomas, thyroid and parathyroid gland carcinoma and leukemia, particularly acute myeloblastic leukemia. Genetic predisposition, chemotherapy, and especially radiation therapy are included as pathogenic factors in second malignancies. We know all survivors of childhood cancer should have lifelong follow-up, preferably with US, magnetic resonance imaging and other procedures with no ionizing radiation. A new progressive lesion may represent recurrence of the primitive neoplastic process, late radiation injury, or more infrequently, a second malignancy. Differential diagnosis may be very difficult and the outcome is often fatal. "nTreatment protocols should be modified to reduce the risk of second malignancies without compromising the effectiveness of initial therapy. "nClinicians should individualize treatment for patients who are genetically predisposed. In addition, radiologists should be familiar with the long-term consequences of antineoplastic therapy."nIn a report of new England journal of medicine in 2007, 357:227-2284 by Dr. Brenner and Hall, 2% of all carcinomas in U.S.A are due to more use of CT exam and children are three to four times more sensitive to ionization radiation. "nSo all the radiologists and clinicians should be aware of the complications and should recommend follow up exams in children who have had previous treatments for such carcinomas.

  9. Imaging findings in primary intracranial atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Hemant; Shroff, Manohar [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hawkins, Cynthia [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Neuropathology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bouffet, Eric [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Neuro-Oncology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Rutka, James [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Neurosurgery, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-02-01

    Intracranial atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are rare and extremely aggressive neoplasms seen primarily in childhood. Imaging features are often considered non-specific. However, correct diagnosis of AT/RT is important because these tumors have a markedly different clinical prognosis and require more aggressive therapy. To determine the imaging features of AT/RT. We retrospectively analyzed imaging findings in 11 patients with primary intracranial AT/RT presenting over a period of 5 years. CT (n=11), MR (n=7), clinical (n=11) and pathological (n=11) features were evaluated. FISH analysis showing monosomy of chromosome 22 (absence of bcr 22q11 locus) was available for three patients. Immunohistochemical staining for INI-1 (BAF47) was performed on all tumors. There were 11 patients, 6 boys and 5 girls. The age of presentation varied from 1 month to 15 years (average age 3 years 8 months). Six tumors were located in the posterior fossa and five in the supratentorial compartment. The tumors showed a hyperdense solid component (64%) that showed moderate to marked enhancement with contrast medium. On MR imaging, the predominant signal pattern was isointensity on T1-weighted images (57%) and T2 shortening with heterogeneity on T2-weighted images (86%). All tumors were large in size (average 4.2 x 3.7 cm), and there was a tendency for calcification (36%), hemorrhage (46%), necrosis (46%) and perifocal edema (100%). There was also a high tendency for subarachnoid dissemination, with five patients (46%) demonstrating brain and/or spinal metastasis. At follow-up (n=7), six patients showed local recurrence. At the time of recurrence, all these patients showed extensive leptomeningeal spread of the disease in both intracranial and intraspinal compartments. There are no specific imaging features for intracranial AT/RT. But a high tendency toward large size, a hyperdense solid component on CT scan with calcification, hemorrhage, necrosis and subarachnoid spread suggest

  10. Upper abdominal trauma in children: imaging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred consecutive children with serious blunt upper-abdominal injury were evaluated prospectively to assess the accuracy and usefulness of emergency computed tomography (CT) compared with liver-spleen scintigraphy and sonography. Ninety-five hemodynamically stable patients were imaged. The results of this 20-month study indicated that CT has fewer false negatives and false positives than scintigraphy or sonography, that CT is useful in abdominal trauma, and that CT provides the most information of any single diagnostic imaging test commonly available

  11. Clinical feature and imaging findings of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the clinical features and imaging findings of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis (JAS) in order to improve the diagnosis and the prognosis of JAS. Methods: Twelve cases were analyzed retrospectively and 14 cases, who were followed-up averagely for 2.3 years, were analyzed prospectively. Initially 10 were diagnosed as Still's disease and four were diagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis. Photography was performed in all cases, CT scan was done in 18 cases, and MRI in 8 cases. Lower extremity big joint disorders were observed in all cases and the small joints were reserved. The abnormalities of the sacroiliac joint were revealed in the early stage in 12 cases. The results were analyzed statistically. Results: The age of preliminary diagnosis was 9.3 years in average. There were statistical correlation between the age of the first episode and severity of the disease. And there were statistical correlation between the course of the illness and severity of the disease. The large joints of the lower extremities were most commonly involved. Conclusion: There were characteristic clinical features and imaging findings in the JAS. Early diagnosis and treatment improve the prognosis

  12. Renal cell carcinoma: histological classification and correlation with imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muglia, Valdair F., E-mail: fmuglia@fmrp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CCIFM/FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica. Faculdade de Medicina; Prando, Adilson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Hospital Vera Cruz, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Imaginologia

    2015-05-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common histological type of cancer in the Western world and has shown a sustained increase in its prevalence. The histological classification of RCCs is of utmost importance, considering the significant prognostic and therapeutic implications of its histological subtypes. Imaging methods play an outstanding role in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of RCC. Clear cell, papillary and chromophobe are the most common histological subtypes of RCC, and their preoperative radiological characterization, either followed or not by confirmatory percutaneous biopsy, may be particularly useful in cases of poor surgical condition, metastatic disease, central mass in a solitary kidney, and in patients eligible for molecular targeted therapy. New strategies recently developed for treating renal cancer, such as cryo and radiofrequency ablation, molecularly targeted therapy and active surveillance also require appropriate preoperative characterization of renal masses. Less common histological types, although sharing nonspecific imaging features, may be suspected on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data. The present study is aimed at reviewing the main clinical and imaging findings of histological RCC subtypes. (author)

  13. CEREBRAL HYDATID DISEASE: CT AND MR IMAGING FINDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cerebral hydatid disease is very rare, representing only 2% of all cerebral space occupying lesions even in the countries where the disease is endemic. The aim of this paper is to describe the characteristic features of cerebral hydatid disease in computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODS: Here is a case 25yr/m who presented to neurosurgery OPD with complaints of headache, vomiting, right sided weakness and seizures for 2 weeks. CT and MRI were the imaging modalities to reach the diagnosis which was pathologically confirmed postoperatively as hydatid disease. RESULTS: CT and MR imaging findings of E. granulosus lesions were well defined, smooth thin-walled, spherical, homogeneous cystic lesions with no contrast enhancement, no calcification, and no surrounding oedema. CONCLUSION: Although cystic cerebral hydatid disease is well demonstrated by CT and MR examinations, CT is superior in detecting calcification in the cyst, when present, MR is better in demonstrating cyst capsule, detecting multiplicity and defining the anatomic relationship of the lesion with the adjacent structures, and it is more helpful in surgical planning.

  14. Renal cell carcinoma: histological classification and correlation with imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common histological type of cancer in the Western world and has shown a sustained increase in its prevalence. The histological classification of RCCs is of utmost importance, considering the significant prognostic and therapeutic implications of its histological subtypes. Imaging methods play an outstanding role in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of RCC. Clear cell, papillary and chromophobe are the most common histological subtypes of RCC, and their preoperative radiological characterization, either followed or not by confirmatory percutaneous biopsy, may be particularly useful in cases of poor surgical condition, metastatic disease, central mass in a solitary kidney, and in patients eligible for molecular targeted therapy. New strategies recently developed for treating renal cancer, such as cryo and radiofrequency ablation, molecularly targeted therapy and active surveillance also require appropriate preoperative characterization of renal masses. Less common histological types, although sharing nonspecific imaging features, may be suspected on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data. The present study is aimed at reviewing the main clinical and imaging findings of histological RCC subtypes. (author)

  15. Missed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Assessment of early imaging findings on prediagnostic magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Seong Hyun, E-mail: sh6453.kim@samsung.com; Kim, Young Kon; Song, Kyoung Doo; Lee, Soon Jin; Choi, Dongil

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • MR imaging was superior to CT for the detection of early PDAC. • A focal lesion with no MPD interruption is common MR finding of early PDAC. • A mean volume doubling time of early PDAC was about five months. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate the early imaging findings and growth rate of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and to assess whether MR imaging detects early PDAC better than CT. Materials and methods: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived the requirement for informed consent. Twenty-two patients were included, and two radiologists, by consensus, assessed the presence of focal lesions, interruption of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), MPD dilatation, and pancreatitis, volume doubling time (VDT) of PDAC on prediagnostic MR imaging. Two other observers independently reviewed three image sets (CT images, unenhanced MR images, and unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MR images) for the detection of early PDAC. Paired Wilcoxon signed rank test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used for statistical analyses. Results: In 20 (90.9%) patients, prediagnostic MR exams showed abnormality, and all of them showed focal lesions on the first abnormal prediagnostic MR exams. Thirteen lesions (65%) showed no MPD interruption and one lesion (5%) was accompanied by pancreatitis. The mean VDT of PDAC was 151.7 days (range, 18.3–417.8 days). Diagnostic performance of unenhanced MR images (Az, 0.971–0.989) and combined unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MR images (Az, 0.956–0.963) was significantly better than that of CT images (Az, 0.565–0.583; p < 0.01) for both observers, Conclusion: The most common early imaging finding of PDAC on prediagnostic MR exams was a focal lesion with no MPD interruption with a mean volume doubling time of five months. MR imaging was superior to CT for the detection of early PDAC.

  16. CT findings for blebs and bullae in children with spontaneous pneumothorax and comparison with findings in normal age-matched controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous pneumothorax (SPTX) is a relatively common condition. In patients with SPTX, CT has been advocated to identify blebs and bullae (BB) to help in management planning. The study was designed to assess our experience with CT evaluation for underlying BB in children with SPTX as compared to normal controls. Forty-three children (mean age 16 years, range 13-19 years) with 50 SPTX events with both chest radiographs and CT scans were reviewed. CT findings were compared with those seen in 29 age- and gender-matched controls without SPTX. The parameters evaluated included size, number, location, and ipsi-/contralateral BB; apical lines; and surgical correlation. In the study group, BB were identified in 14 imaged events (28%) (size 2.5-45 mm, one to six BB) with contralateral BB in 11 of the 14 (78.6%). All BB were confined to the apices. BB were sometimes difficult to differentiate from ''apical lines'' - a suspected normal variant seen in 28 imaged events (56%). Of blebs seen at surgery, 59% were identified on CT, and there were no false-positive CT findings. In the control group, no BB were identified but ''apical lines'' were seen in eight children (28%). BB were seen by CT in 28% of imaged events in children with SPTX and were always confined to the apices. When present, BB were commonly bilateral (78.6%). BB should not be confused with ''apical lines,'' which were not only seen in 56% of imaged events in the SPTX group but also in 28% of the normal controls. (orig.)

  17. CT findings for blebs and bullae in children with spontaneous pneumothorax and comparison with findings in normal age-matched controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Carolina V.A.; Donnelly, Lane F. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Warner, Brad W. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Spontaneous pneumothorax (SPTX) is a relatively common condition. In patients with SPTX, CT has been advocated to identify blebs and bullae (BB) to help in management planning. The study was designed to assess our experience with CT evaluation for underlying BB in children with SPTX as compared to normal controls. Forty-three children (mean age 16 years, range 13-19 years) with 50 SPTX events with both chest radiographs and CT scans were reviewed. CT findings were compared with those seen in 29 age- and gender-matched controls without SPTX. The parameters evaluated included size, number, location, and ipsi-/contralateral BB; apical lines; and surgical correlation. In the study group, BB were identified in 14 imaged events (28%) (size 2.5-45 mm, one to six BB) with contralateral BB in 11 of the 14 (78.6%). All BB were confined to the apices. BB were sometimes difficult to differentiate from ''apical lines'' - a suspected normal variant seen in 28 imaged events (56%). Of blebs seen at surgery, 59% were identified on CT, and there were no false-positive CT findings. In the control group, no BB were identified but ''apical lines'' were seen in eight children (28%). BB were seen by CT in 28% of imaged events in children with SPTX and were always confined to the apices. When present, BB were commonly bilateral (78.6%). BB should not be confused with ''apical lines,'' which were not only seen in 56% of imaged events in the SPTX group but also in 28% of the normal controls. (orig.)

  18. Imaging findings of primary synovial sarcoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the imaging characteristics of primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma and improve its diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Methods: The clinical, imaging and pathology findings of 5 patients were retrospectively analyzed. All 5 patients received X-ray and CT scan, 1 case had MRI and PET-CT examination. SYT-SSX fusion gene was analyzed in 4 patients using reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: All the 5 patients had solid mass in the lungs and their diameter were 5.3 to 15.7 cm. One was associated with pneumothorax and the others were with moderate pleural effusion. Peripheral tumors, which showed clear margin partly with inhomogeneous density, was found in CT scan. On the contrast-enhanced CT scan, 3 cases were inhomogeneous enhancement and 2 were circular enhancement. Pleural invasion or conglutination was detected in 5 patients. No hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis were seen in all eases. MRI showed intermediate signal on T1WI and heterogeneous on T2WI of one case with right upper lobe lesion and showed thick mural enhancement after Gadolinium enhancement. The adjacent chest wall, rib thoracic vertebra, vertebral canal and thoracic cord were invaded. PET-CT showed increased uptake of FDG (SUV=12.3) in tumors. The immunohistochemical examination of Vim, CK and EMA were positive and SYT-SSX gene was detected in 4 patients. Conclusions: There are some relatively specific imaging findings of primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma. However it is necessary for diagnosing the disease to combine pathology, immunohistochemistry and SYT-SSX gene detection. (authors)

  19. Imaging of American football injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)

  20. Imaging of American football injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Unsell, Bryan J. [Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base, Department of Radiology, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-12-15

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)

  1. EEG findings in fetal alcohol syndrome and Down syndrome children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, W M; Phillips, E L; Riley, E P; Ehlers, C L

    1996-01-01

    Results from previous studies evaluating the electroencephalograms (EEGs) of infants born to alcoholic mothers suggest that the neonatal EEG may be a sensitive measure of prenatal ethanol exposure. Few studies, however, have examined EEG records of adolescent children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The present study investigated the resting EEG recordings of 18 matched triads of FAS, Down syndrome, and normal control subjects. Significant reductions in mean power of the alpha frequencies (7.5-12 Hz) were seen for both clinical groups, however, each syndrome appeared to have distinct EEG spectral distributions. Down syndrome children overall had diffuse EEG slowing while the EEG records of the FAS children showed reduced power, particularly in the alpha frequencies in the absence of significant slow activity. In the Down syndrome children, significant decreases in alpha power was seen in posterior cortical regions, whereas FAS children were more affected in the left hemisphere. This study suggests that certain EEG variables may be helpful in characterizing the neurophysiology of FAS. PMID:8689990

  2. Distal humeral physeal injuries in child abuse: MR imaging and ultrasonography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distal humeral physeal injuries, in particular, fracture-separation of the distal humeral epiphysis, can be seen in abused infants. Detection of physeal injury in an infant of toddler may indicate the possibility of unsuspected abuse, particularly when an appropriate history explaining the circumstance of the fracture is lacking. In addition, the extent of injury can be difficult to characterize on plain radiographs. Ultrasonography (US) and MR imaging (MRI) may be of value in diagnosis and may obviate the need for intraoperative arthrography. We present MRI findings in three abused children with distal humeral physeal injuries. Sonographic correlation is also presented in one case. (orig.)

  3. Distal humeral physeal injuries in child abuse: MR imaging and ultrasonography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimkin, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Massachusetts, Medical Center, Worcester, MA (United States); Kleinman, P.K. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Massachusetts, Medical Center, Worcester, MA (United States); Teeger, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Massachusetts, Medical Center, Worcester, MA (United States); Spevak, M.R. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Massachusetts, Medical Center, Worcester, MA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Distal humeral physeal injuries, in particular, fracture-separation of the distal humeral epiphysis, can be seen in abused infants. Detection of physeal injury in an infant of toddler may indicate the possibility of unsuspected abuse, particularly when an appropriate history explaining the circumstance of the fracture is lacking. In addition, the extent of injury can be difficult to characterize on plain radiographs. Ultrasonography (US) and MR imaging (MRI) may be of value in diagnosis and may obviate the need for intraoperative arthrography. We present MRI findings in three abused children with distal humeral physeal injuries. Sonographic correlation is also presented in one case. (orig.)

  4. MR imaging of anterior cruciate ligament injury: associated findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors investigated the associated findings and their value in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in MR image. The knee MR images of 47 patients with ACL injury (complete;24, partial;23) and 61 patients with normal ACL confirmed by the knee arthroscopy or operation were reviewed retrospectively. The degree of anterior translocation of tibia and the degree of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) buckling were evaluated. The prevalence and pattern of associated adjacent bone, ligament and meniscus injuries were studied. The means(± 2 standard errors) of anterior translocation were different significantly in statistical analysis (ρ < 0.001, student t-test) between injury group (7.51 ± 1.16 mm) and normal group (-0.56 ± 0.92mm). In the level of 5mm of anterior translocation for the criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 78.7%, 89.5%, 84.3% for each. The means of PCL buckling ratio were also different statistically between injury group(0.23 ± 0.02) and normal group(0.17 ± 0.01)(ρ < 0.001). In the level of 0.20 for diagnostic criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 71.4%, 83.6%, 78.4% for each. Thirty one medial meniscus tear (66%), thirteen lateral meniscus tear (28%), ten medial collateral ligament injury (28%), one PCL injury(2%) were associated with ACL injury. The twenty nine bone marrow changes were found in twenty patients (43%) which included acutely injured seven patients. In acute cases, the bone marrow changes were depicted as diffuse or focal high signal intensity lesions in lateral femoral or tibial condyles in contrast to the changes in chronic cases depicted as focal low signal intensity lesions in variable location. Lateral femoral condylar notch depression were found in nine patients (19%) and avulsion fractures of anterior tibial spine in four patients(9%). The associated findings with ACL injury (anterior translocation, buckling of PCL, associated bone, ligament and

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging findings and neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonates with urea-cycle defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunz AC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anna Catherine Gunz,1 Karen Choong,2 Murray Potter,3 Elka Miller4 1Division of Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, University of Ottawa, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 4Diagnostic Imaging Department, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, ON, Canada Abstract: The urea-cycle functions to facilitate ammonia excretion, a disruption of which results in the accumulation of toxic metabolites. The neurological outcome of neonatal-onset urea-cycle defects (UCDs is poor, and there are no good predictors of prognosis beyond ammonia levels at presentation. The role of neuroimaging in the prognosis of neonatal-onset UCDs is unclear. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of two patients with neonatal-onset UCDs (argininosuccinic aciduria and citrullinemia at presentation and at 2-year follow-up, and present a review of the literature on neuroimaging in this age-group. We observed two potentially significant distinct patterns of cerebral involvement on MRI: (1 a central and focal pattern of involvement limited to the basal ganglia, perirolandic regions, and internal capsule; and (2 diffuse involvement of the cerebral cortex, internal capsule, basal ganglia, and variably thalami and brain stem. Patients with more diffuse findings tended to have higher serum glutamine peaks and worse neurological outcomes, while those with central involvement, aggressive acute management, and early liver transplantation tended to have better outcomes. We propose that MRI imaging of the brain may have prognostic value following presentation with neonatal UCDs, particularly in identifying patients at risk for poor outcome. The role and timing of follow-up neuroimaging is currently unclear. Further collaborative studies are necessary to evaluate whether patterns of MRI findings vary with specific UCD

  6. Finding Common Ground: How Faith Communities Support Children's Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Saundra

    Noting that faith communities play a vital role in connecting to families and children and often become involved in and supportive of education issues important in their local community, this document discusses the development of partnerships involving public schools and faith-based communities. The document compiles a series of talking points for…

  7. Democratic Life Skill 1: Guiding Children to Find a Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, Dan

    2012-01-01

    "Democratic life skills" are social-emotional capacities that children need to be productive citizens and healthy individuals in a modern, diverse society. The construct for these skills comes from many sources. One helpful source is Maslow's concept of two coexisting sets of motivational needs in each individual: one set for security, belonging,…

  8. Extracardiac findings detected by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyttenbach, Rolf; Medioni, Nathalie; Santini, Paolo [Ospedale San Giovanni Bellinzona (EOC), Department of Radiology, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Vock, Peter [University Hospital Bern, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt [University Hospital Bern, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Spitalzentrum Biel AG, Department of Radiology, Biel (Switzerland)

    2012-06-15

    To determine the prevalence and importance of extracardiac findings (ECF) in patients undergoing clinical CMR and to test the hypothesis that the original CMR reading focusing on the heart may underestimate extracardiac abnormalities. 401 consecutive patients (mean age 53 years) underwent CMR at 1.5 T. Main indications were ischaemic heart disease (n = 183) and cardiomyopathy (n = 164). All CMR sequences, including scout images, were reviewed with specific attention to ECF in a second reading by the same radiologist who performed the first clinical reading. Potentially significant findings were defined as abnormalities requiring additional clinical or radiological follow-up. 250 incidental ECF were detected, of which 84 (34%) had potentially significant ECF including bronchial carcinoma (n = 1), lung consolidation (n = 7) and abdominal abnormalities. In 166 CMR studies (41%) non-significant ECF were detected. The number of ECF identified at second versus first reading was higher for significant (84 vs. 47) and non-significant (166 vs. 36) findings (P < 0.00001). About one fifth of patients undergoing CMR were found to have potentially significant ECF requiring additional work-up. The second dedicated reading detected significantly more ECF compared with the first clinical reading emphasising the importance of active search for extracardiac abnormalities when evaluating CMR studies. circle Many patients undergoing cardiac MR have significant extracardiac findings (ECF) circle These impact on management and require additional work-up. circle Wide review of scout and cine sequences will detect most ECFs. circle Education of radiologists is important to identify ECFs on CMR studies. (orig.)

  9. Imaging findings of juvenile xanthogranuloma of the penis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, Ray K. [Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States); Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (United States); Choudhary, Arabinda K. [Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a rare benign self-limiting lesion presenting in early childhood. It is the commonest variant of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis and usually presents as a cutaneous mass. It might have a systemic component and also might be associated with other conditions, notably neurofibromatosis and juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia. Penile masses are unusual in childhood and we describe a case of JXG involving the penis. Although four cases of JXG of the penis have been reported in the literature, this is the first with imaging of the penile lesion. We discuss the clinical and radiological findings, differential diagnosis and management of these cases. High awareness of these lesions in the differential diagnosis of penile masses presenting in early childhood is important to avoid potentially unnecessary ablative genital surgery. Careful assessment should also be made for any systemic involvement and for associated pathologies. (orig.)

  10. Imaging findings of juvenile xanthogranuloma of the penis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a rare benign self-limiting lesion presenting in early childhood. It is the commonest variant of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis and usually presents as a cutaneous mass. It might have a systemic component and also might be associated with other conditions, notably neurofibromatosis and juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia. Penile masses are unusual in childhood and we describe a case of JXG involving the penis. Although four cases of JXG of the penis have been reported in the literature, this is the first with imaging of the penile lesion. We discuss the clinical and radiological findings, differential diagnosis and management of these cases. High awareness of these lesions in the differential diagnosis of penile masses presenting in early childhood is important to avoid potentially unnecessary ablative genital surgery. Careful assessment should also be made for any systemic involvement and for associated pathologies. (orig.)

  11. Central nervous system involvement of leukemia and systemic lymphoma in children. CT and MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to retrospectively evaluate CT and MR findings of central nervous system (CNS) involvement of leukemia and systemic lymphoma in children. Over a 12-year period, sixty-five patients with leukemia and fifteen patients with systemic lymphoma underwent cerebral CT and/or MR imaging. Nine patients were diagnosed as CNS involvement of leukemia and lymphoma. The CT and MR abnormalities in these patients were correlated with the findings of histology, cerebrospinal fluid cytology, and/or treatment. The age of the patients ranged from 0 to 15 years old. They consisted of 6 boys and 3 girls. The CT examinations were performed before and after contrast administration. MR examinations were performed on a 1.5-T unit, and T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton density-weighted images were obtained using spin-echo or fast spin-echo sequences. Tumor masses were present in seven with leukemia, and in two with malignant lymphoma. On the CT scan, tumor masses were hyperdense with contrast enhancement. On the MR images, their signals were variable. In all of nine patients, tumor masses were contiguous with a meningeal surface. Postcontrast T1-weighted images were valuable in demonstrating meningeal infiltration. Tumoral hemorrhage was found in two patients. In a patient with tumor at the superior sagittal sinus, venous infarct was observed. CNS leukemic and lymphomatous masses are almost hyperdense on the CT and they are characteristically contiguous with a meningeal surface. MR imaging was valuable in demonstrating meningeal infiltration. (K.H.)

  12. Magnetic resonanse imaging findings of redundant nerve roots syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Taşdemir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of our study was to determinethe findings of redundant nerve roots syndrome (RNRSin lumbar stenosis by magnetic resonance (MR imaging.Materials and methods: A total of 8906 lumber MR imagingwere evaluated, retrospectively. RNRS were definedas a tortuosity of elongated nerve roots in the subarachnoidspace accompanied by spinal stenosis whichdetermined by images of MR. A total of 8 patients weredefined as RNRS.Results: Six of RNRS patients are female. The averageage of the 8 patients who were defined as RNRS byMRI was 70.0±15.0 (range, 39-87 years. The anteriorposteriorand transverse diameter of the spinal canal wasmeasured. The mean of the anterior-posterior diameter(mm and transverse diameter (mm of the spinal canalwere 11.50±2.0 mm (range; 8.0-14.0 mm 8.4 mm and8.37±0.51 mm (range; 8.0-9.0 mm, respectively.Conclusion: In patients with spinal stenosis and RNRSshould also be considered.

  13. MR imaging findings of medial tibial crest friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klontzas, Michail E., E-mail: miklontzas@gmail.com; Akoumianakis, Ioannis D., E-mail: ioannis.akoumianakis@gmail.com; Vagios, Ilias, E-mail: iliasvagios@gmail.com; Karantanas, Apostolos H., E-mail: akarantanas@gmail.com

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Medial tibial condyle bone marrow edema (BME), associated with soft tissue edema (STe) surrounding the medial collateral ligament, was incidentally observed in MRI examinations of young and athletic individuals. The aim of the present study was to 1. Prospectively investigate the association between these findings and coexistence of localized pain, and 2. Explore the possible contribution of the tibial morphology to its pathogenesis. Methods: The medial tibial condyle crest was evaluated in 632 knee MRI examinations. The angle and depth were measured by two separate evaluators. The presence of STe and BME was recorded. A third evaluator blindly assessed the presence of pain at this site. Results: BME associated with STe was found in 24 patients (with no history of previous trauma, osteoarthritis, tumor or pes anserine bursitis). The mean crest angle was 151.3° (95%CI 147.4–155.3°) compared to 159.4° (95%CI 158.8–160°) in controls (Mann–Whitney test, P < 0.0001). MRI findings were highly predictive of localized pain (sensitivity 92% specificity 99%, Fisher's exact test, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Friction at the medial tibial condyle crest is a painful syndrome. MRI is a highly specific and sensitive imaging modality for its diagnosis.

  14. Retropharyngeal Tendinitis: Radiographic and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelineck, J.; Salomonsen, M.; Hviid, C. [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Radiology

    2006-10-15

    Purpose: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in retropharyngeal tendinitis. Material and methods: Within 1 year, four patients presenting with symptoms of retropharyngeal tendinitis were examined by radiography and MRI. Results: On MRI and radiographs, all patients had characteristic soft-tissue swellings and calcifications related to the tendon of the longus colli muscle situated inferior to the anterior arc of C1. MRI showed well-defined edema, with high signal in the retropharyngeal tissue anterior to C1-C5 on short T1 inversion recovery (STIR) sequences, low signal on T1-weighted sequences, and low signal in the calcification on both sequences. In addition, three patients had high signal intensity changes on STIR sequences in the atlantoaxial joint situated posterior to the anterior arc of C1. Conclusion: MRI is a sensitive and accurate method in the diagnosis of retropharyngeal tendinitis. A new finding in this condition is an effusion or synovitis in the anterior atlantoaxial joint. MRI is a valuable tool in differentiating retropharyngeal tendinitis from other diagnoses such as retropharyngeal abscess, pyogenic spondylitis, and spondyloarthropathy.

  15. Retropharyngeal Tendinitis: Radiographic and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in retropharyngeal tendinitis. Material and methods: Within 1 year, four patients presenting with symptoms of retropharyngeal tendinitis were examined by radiography and MRI. Results: On MRI and radiographs, all patients had characteristic soft-tissue swellings and calcifications related to the tendon of the longus colli muscle situated inferior to the anterior arc of C1. MRI showed well-defined edema, with high signal in the retropharyngeal tissue anterior to C1-C5 on short T1 inversion recovery (STIR) sequences, low signal on T1-weighted sequences, and low signal in the calcification on both sequences. In addition, three patients had high signal intensity changes on STIR sequences in the atlantoaxial joint situated posterior to the anterior arc of C1. Conclusion: MRI is a sensitive and accurate method in the diagnosis of retropharyngeal tendinitis. A new finding in this condition is an effusion or synovitis in the anterior atlantoaxial joint. MRI is a valuable tool in differentiating retropharyngeal tendinitis from other diagnoses such as retropharyngeal abscess, pyogenic spondylitis, and spondyloarthropathy

  16. Recent Findings in Social Phobia among Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hitchcock, Carla A.; Chavira, Denise A.; Stein, Murray B.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood social phobia (SP) is common and associated with varying forms of impairment. The cause of social anxiety disorder is often complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Shyness in young children may be a possible precursor to social anxiety later in life, although not the sole antecedent. Current assessment of childhood social anxiety includes psychometrically sound self report and clinician administered measures either specifically targeting SP disorder or including t...

  17. Multi-national findings on radiation protection of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews issues of radiation protection in children in 52 low-resource countries. Extensive information was obtained through a survey by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); wide-ranging information was available from 40 countries and data from the other countries pertained to frequency of pediatric CT examinations. Of note is that multi-detector CT (MDCT) was available in 77% of responses to the survey, typically nodal centers in these countries. Nearly 75% of these scanners were reported to have dose displays. The pediatric CT usage was lower in European facilities as compared to Asian and African facilities, where usage was twice as high. The most frequently scanned body part was the head. Frequent use of 120 kVp was reported in children. The ratio of maximum to minimum CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) values varied between 15 for abdomen CT in the age group 5-10 years and 100 for chest CT in the age group w or CTDIvol values in children that were double those of adults for head and chest examination and 50% higher for abdomen examination. Patient dose records were kept in nearly half of the facilities, with the highest frequency in Europe (55% of participating facilities), and in 49% of Asian, 36% of Latin American and 14% of African facilities. The analysis of the first-choice examinations in seven clinical conditions showed that practice was in accordance with guidelines for only three of seven specified clinical conditions. (orig.)

  18. Gymnastics injuries and imaging in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injuries of children participating in gymnastics are seen less often than in more popular sports. Patterns of injury are predictable based upon sex, age and level of intensity of training and competition. More injuries are seen in girls than in boys, and the great majority of early adolescents who compete have wrist pain. Some otherwise quiescent congenital spine anomalies may be uncovered by the stress of gymnastics maneuvers and present with low back pain. In addition to diagnosis of injuries, imaging can be used to guide analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapy in some injured athletes. Parents whose children wish to participate in gymnastics should understand that fewer injuries occur in the child enjoying recreational gymnastics than in competing gymnasts. More gymnastics injuries are found in very competitive athletes training at higher levels. (orig.)

  19. Gymnastics injuries and imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Marc S. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Injuries of children participating in gymnastics are seen less often than in more popular sports. Patterns of injury are predictable based upon sex, age and level of intensity of training and competition. More injuries are seen in girls than in boys, and the great majority of early adolescents who compete have wrist pain. Some otherwise quiescent congenital spine anomalies may be uncovered by the stress of gymnastics maneuvers and present with low back pain. In addition to diagnosis of injuries, imaging can be used to guide analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapy in some injured athletes. Parents whose children wish to participate in gymnastics should understand that fewer injuries occur in the child enjoying recreational gymnastics than in competing gymnasts. More gymnastics injuries are found in very competitive athletes training at higher levels. (orig.)

  20. Pediatric imaging essentials. Radiography, ultrasound, CT, and MRI in neonates and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For all radiologists treating infants and children, knowledge of best practices in pediatric imaging is essential to safely obtaining high-quality images and achieving accurate diagnoses. This practical text covers current guidelines and key topics in the field, including choice of modality, equipment and dosages, child-specific diseases, typical imaging findings, differential diagnostic aspects and safety factors. This book is invaluable for all clinicians and radiologists who diagnose and manage this sensitive population. Special features: - Explores the use of all standard imaging modalities in children as compared to adults, especially with regard to ultrasound, CT, and MRI - Supplies more than 600 high-quality images to help in interpreting findings, including imaging of suspected child abuse - Shows how to adapt examination protocols and equipment requirements for the specialized needs of pediatric patients - Describes important safety protection measures in children utilizing the ALARA principle of radiation exposure (''As Low As Reasonably Achievable'') - Summarizes a wide array of pediatric diseases and disorders in a concise, checklist format, including clinical features, imaging findings, differential diagnosis, associated syndromes, and treatment recommendations - Includes lists of indications, summary tables, imaging protocols, case studies, and quiz questions to test your knowledge This book provides a fundamental understanding of imaging in infants and children and is an ideal, practice-oriented reference for residents, fellows in pediatric radiology, and general radiologists. It is also written for pediatricians, pediatric surgeons, and other interested doctors and specialists who want to know more about imaging specifics in the pediatric age group.

  1. Inner ear anomalies causing congenital sensorineural hearing loss: CT and MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many congenital dysplasias of the osseous labyrinth have been identified, and the differential diagnosis of these dysplasias is essential for delivering proper patient management. We retrospectively reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of 20 children who had congenital sensorineural hearing loss. The children included cases of enlarged vestibular aqueduct and endolymphatic sac (n=8), aplasia of the semicircular canal (n=4), lateral semicircular canal-vestibule dysplasia (n=3), common cavity malformations with a large vestibule (n=1), cochlear hypoplasia (n=1), Mondini's dysplasia with large vestibular aqueduct (n=1), Mondini's dysplasia with a large vestibule (n=1), and small internal auditory canal (n=1). Six cases were unilateral. Nine cases had combined deformities, and nine cased had cochlear implants. CT was performed with a 1.0-mm thickness in the direct coronal and axial sections with using bone algorithms. MR was performed with a temporal 3D T2 FSE 10-mm scan and with routine brain images. We describe here the imaging features for the anomalies of the inner ear in patients suffering from congenital sensorineural hearing loss

  2. Anterolateral ankle impingement: findings and diagnostic accuracy with ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to evaluate the findings and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in antero-lateral ankle impingement (ALI) with clinical and arthroscopic correlation. Seventeen elite footballers with chronic ankle pain were referred for ultrasound with a clinical diagnosis of ALI (n = 8) or a control condition (n = 9; lateral mechanical instability, osteochondral defect, intra-articular bodies and osteoarthritis). Ultrasound examination included the antero-lateral gutter for abnormal synovial tissue (synovitic lesion), lateral ligament integrity, tibiotalar joint and osseous spurs of the distal tibia and talus. Ultrasound findings were correlated with subsequent arthroscopic appearance. Ultrasound examination detected a synovitic mass in the antero-lateral gutter in all 8 footballers with clinical ALI (100%) and in 2 patients with a control diagnosis (22%). Arthroscopic correlation of antero-lateral synovitis and fibrosis was present in all 10 cases (100%). The synovitic lesion was seen at ultrasound as a nodular soft tissue mass of mixed echogenicity within the antero-lateral gutter, which extruded anteriorly with manual compression of the distal fibula against the tibia. Increased blood supply was detected using power Doppler imaging in only 1 patient. The synovitic lesion measured >10 mm in its maximum dimension in 7 footballers with clinical ALI and <10 mm in the control group. Additional ultrasound findings in patients with abnormal antero-lateral synovial tissue included an anterior talofibular ligament injury in all patients (n = 10), a tibiotalar joint effusion (n = 6) and osseous spurs (n = 4). Antero-lateral synovitic tissue was accurately identified at ultrasound in the absence of an effusion (n = 4). No synovitic lesion was detected at ultrasound or arthroscopy in the remaining 7 patients with a control diagnosis. Ultrasound is accurate in detecting synovitic lesions within the antero-lateral gutter, demonstrating associated ligamentous injuries and in

  3. Anterolateral ankle impingement: findings and diagnostic accuracy with ultrasound imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, C.L.; Wilson, D.J. [Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Radiology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Coltman, T.P. [Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    The objective was to evaluate the findings and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in antero-lateral ankle impingement (ALI) with clinical and arthroscopic correlation. Seventeen elite footballers with chronic ankle pain were referred for ultrasound with a clinical diagnosis of ALI (n = 8) or a control condition (n = 9; lateral mechanical instability, osteochondral defect, intra-articular bodies and osteoarthritis). Ultrasound examination included the antero-lateral gutter for abnormal synovial tissue (synovitic lesion), lateral ligament integrity, tibiotalar joint and osseous spurs of the distal tibia and talus. Ultrasound findings were correlated with subsequent arthroscopic appearance. Ultrasound examination detected a synovitic mass in the antero-lateral gutter in all 8 footballers with clinical ALI (100%) and in 2 patients with a control diagnosis (22%). Arthroscopic correlation of antero-lateral synovitis and fibrosis was present in all 10 cases (100%). The synovitic lesion was seen at ultrasound as a nodular soft tissue mass of mixed echogenicity within the antero-lateral gutter, which extruded anteriorly with manual compression of the distal fibula against the tibia. Increased blood supply was detected using power Doppler imaging in only 1 patient. The synovitic lesion measured >10 mm in its maximum dimension in 7 footballers with clinical ALI and <10 mm in the control group. Additional ultrasound findings in patients with abnormal antero-lateral synovial tissue included an anterior talofibular ligament injury in all patients (n = 10), a tibiotalar joint effusion (n = 6) and osseous spurs (n = 4). Antero-lateral synovitic tissue was accurately identified at ultrasound in the absence of an effusion (n = 4). No synovitic lesion was detected at ultrasound or arthroscopy in the remaining 7 patients with a control diagnosis. Ultrasound is accurate in detecting synovitic lesions within the antero-lateral gutter, demonstrating associated ligamentous injuries and in

  4. Mitochondrial diabetes in children: seek and you will find it.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mazzaccara

    Full Text Available Maternally Inherited Diabetes and Deafness (MIDD is a rare form of diabetes due to defects in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. 3243 A>G is the mutation most frequently associated with this condition, but other mtDNA variants have been linked with a diabetic phenotype suggestive of MIDD. From 1989 to 2009, we clinically diagnosed mitochondrial diabetes in 11 diabetic children. Diagnosis was based on the presence of one or more of the following criteria: 1 maculopathy; 2 hearing impairment; 3 maternal heritability of diabetes/impaired fasting glucose and/or hearing impairment and/or maculopathy in three consecutive generations (or in two generations if 2 or 3 members of a family were affected. We sequenced the mtDNA in the 11 probands, in their mothers and in 80 controls. We identified 33 diabetes-suspected mutations, 1/33 was 3243A>G. Most patients (91% and their mothers had mutations in complex I and/or IV of the respiratory chain. We measured the activity of these two enzymes and found that they were less active in mutated patients and their mothers than in the healthy control pool. The prevalence of hearing loss (36% vs 75-98% and macular dystrophy (54% vs 86% was lower in our mitochondrial diabetic adolescents than reported in adults. Moreover, we found a hitherto unknown association between mitochondrial diabetes and celiac disease. In conclusion, mitochondrial diabetes should be considered a complex syndrome with several phenotypic variants. Moreover, deafness is not an essential component of the disease in children. The whole mtDNA should be screened because the 3243A>G variant is not as frequent in children as in adults. In fact, 91% of our patients were mutated in the complex I and/or IV genes. The enzymatic assay may be a useful tool with which to confirm the pathogenic significance of detected variants.

  5. Clinical Features and Echocardiographic Findings in Children with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Blesneac

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, one of the most common inherited cardiomyopathies, is a heterogeneous disease resulting from sarcomeric protein mutations, with an incidence in the adult population of 1:500. Current information on the epidemiology and outcomes of this disease in children is limited. Methods: Thirty-four children diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the Pediatric Cardiology Department from Tîrgu Mureș were evaluated concerning familial and personal history, clinical, paraclinical and therapeutic aspects. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was defined by the presence of a hypertrophied, non-dilated ventricle, in the absence of a cardiac or systemic disease that could produce ventricular hypertrophy. Results: The youngest diagnosed child was a neonate, a total of 10 patients being diagnosed until 1 year of age. In 6 cases a positive familial history was found. Noonan syndrome was found in 2 cases. Only 21 patients were symptomatic, the predominant symptoms being shortness of breath on exertion with exercise limitations. Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction was present in 21 cases (61.7%. Twenty-four patients were on β-blocking therapy, while 4 patients underwent septal myectomy. Conclusions: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a heterogeneous disorder in terms of evolution, age of onset, type and extent of hypertrophy, and the risk of sudden death. It can affect children of any age. There is a need for a complex evaluation, including familial and personal anamnesis, clinical examination, electrocardiogram and echocardiography of all patients. It is highly important to develop screening strategies, including genetic testing, for an early diagnosis, especially in asymptomatic patients with a positive familial background

  6. Investigations and findings in children with spina-bifida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicians from different fields work together in the care of spina-liefide children. A central position occupy the pediatric physician as a primary reference person and the pediatric radiologist. There has to be a free exchange of ideas and thoughts between them. That is why anyone of them has to know the problems of the other. For the radiologist this means, that he or she has to acquire detailed knowledge of the desease symptoms and of the therapeutic possibilities, so that he or she will be able to work on a diagnostic that is suited for the particular patient. (orig.)

  7. Investigations and findings in children with spina-bifida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingmueller, V.; Rutz, A.

    1982-06-01

    Physicians from different fields work together in the care of spina-liefide children. A central position occupy the pediatric physician as a primary reference person and the pediatric radiologist. There has to be a free exchange of ideas and thoughts between them. That is why anyone of them has to know the problems of the other. For the radiologist this means, that he or she has to acquire detailed knowledge of the desease symptoms and of the therapeutic possibilities, so that he or she will be able to work on a diagnostic that is suited for the particular patient.

  8. Anatomic basis, imaging findings and significance of nasopharynx raphe space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To advance the conception of nasopharynx raphe space (NRS) on imaging, and to introduce its CT and MR appearances as well as significance. Methods: Nasopharyngeal axial plain scans were performed in 43 cases of normal CT group and 36 cases of normal MRI group, nasopharyngeal coronal CT and MR scans in 5 cases of the CT group and 5 cases of MR group, and nasopharyngeal posterior wall thin-slice sagittal MR scans in 7 cases of the MRI group. Two cases of axial nasopharynx specimens were used for comparison. CT and MR scans were performed in 30 patients with proven nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) . Then, imaging findings of retro-nasopharyngeal soft tissue were observed and analyzed in detail. Results: NRS was between two longus capitis muscle or longus coli muscle, rear of pharyngeal posterior wall, and in front of occipital bone and cervical vertebrae. NRS included part of nasopharynx raphe, retro-pharyngeal space, danger space, prevertebral space, and the fascia of these spaces, as well as with the fibrous connective tissue, fat, and lymph nodes and so on. On CT, NRS displayed as triangular inhomogeneous low density, in midline of which showed isopyknic thick or thin line named nasopharynx raphe and occasionally showed obscurity. Nasopharynx raphe divided NRS into symmetric two halves. On MRI, NRS displayed as triangular inhomogeneous high signal intensity and various thickness of low signal intensity in the midline called nasopharynx raphe. NRS could be displayed in the level between clivus and palatum durum in most cases and extended down to pharynx level in some individual. On coronal images, NRS could be displayed as longitudinal strip or inverse trapezoidal shape. In 30 cases with NPC, symmetry of NRS was displayed in 14 cases, in which 1 case showed involvement of prevertebral muscles. Asymmetrical narrowing or disappearing of NRS was detected in 16 cases, in which 14 cases showed involvement of prevertebral muscles. Conclusion: It is suitable that

  9. Imaging of solid kidney tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen children aged 6 months to 12 years with 20 solid renal tumours; 13 Wilms' tumours (WT), 2 clear cell sarcomas of the kidney, 1 malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney and 2 cases of bilateral nephroblastomatosis with Wilms' tumour underwent evaluation with US, CT and MR imaging. Contrast-enhanced CT and non-enhanced MR were equally accurate in determining the size and origin of the tumour but were unreliable in separation of stages I, II and III. US could only accurately assess the size of the tumours. MR characteristics varied somewhat between WTs and non-WTs but contrast-enhanced MR imaging might be useful for separation of WTs from nephroblastomatosis. (orig.)

  10. Atypical Findings of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh KARIMZADEH

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveGuillain-Barre syndrome (GBS is an immune-mediated polyneuropathy that occurs mostly after prior infection. The diagnosis of this syndrome is dependent heavily on the history and examination, although cerebrospinal fluid analysis and electrodiagnostic testing usually confirm the diagnosis. This is a retrospective study which was performed to investigate the atypical features of GBS.Materials & MethodsThirty three patients (21/63.6% males and 12/36.4% females with GBS were retrospectively studied and prospectively evaluated at the Child Neurology institute of Mofid Children Hospital of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences between May 2011 and September 2012.ResultsThe mean age was 5.4 years (range, 1.5-10.5.Twenty one patients (87.9 % had previous history of infections. Eight patients (24.2% admitted with atypical symptoms like upper limb weakness (3%, ptosis (3%, neck stiffness (3%, inability to stand (proximal weakness (9.1%, headache (3% and dysphagia (3%.According to disease process, weakness was ascending in 26 (78.8%, descending in 5 (15.2% and static in 2 (6.1% patients. Cranial nerve involvement was found in 8(24.3% children, most commonly as facial palsy in 3 (9.1%.ConclusionIn this study, 24.3% of our patients presented with atypical symptoms of GBS as upper limb weakness, ptosis, neck stiffness, inability to stand (proximal weakness, headache and dysphagia

  11. PET/CT imaging in lung cancer: indications and findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of PET/CT imaging in the work-up and management of patients with lung cancer has greatly increased in recent decades. The ability to combine functional and anatomical information has equipped PET/CT to look into various aspects of lung cancer, allowing more precise disease staging and providing useful data during the characterization of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. In addition, the accuracy of PET/CT has been shown to be greater than is that of conventional modalities in some scenarios, making PET/CT a valuable noninvasive method for the investigation of lung cancer. However, the interpretation of PET/CT findings presents numerous pitfalls and potential confounders. Therefore, it is imperative for pulmonologists and radiologists to familiarize themselves with the most relevant indications for and limitations of PET/CT, seeking to protect their patients from unnecessary radiation exposure and inappropriate treatment. This review article aimed to summarize the basic principles, indications, cancer staging considerations, and future applications related to the use of PET/CT in lung cancer.

  12. Radiological findings in children with respiratory syncytial virus infection: Relationship to clinical and bacteriological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a frequent cause of bronchiolitis leading to acute admission to hospital in the winter months. A wide range of findings accompanies this disease and the appearances are seldom completely diagnostic. Associated bacterial co-infections are common and we have shown an association with atelectasis among patients with pathogenic bacteria in the nasopharynx. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with intracranial findings and enhancing, thickened cranial and spinal nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by chronically progressive or relapsing symmetric sensorimotor involvement. We describe the imaging findings in our patient. Magnetic resonance imaging showed presence of an intracranial white matter lesion and enhancing, thickened cranial and spinal nerves. This disorder has been described very infrequently in the radiology literature

  14. Review of diffusion tensor imaging and its application in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorona, Gregory A. [Children' s Hospital of Richmond at Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Radiology, Richmond, VA (United States); Berman, Jeffrey I. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Diffusion MRI is an imaging technique that uses the random motion of water to probe tissue microstructure. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can quantitatively depict the organization and connectivity of white matter. Given the non-invasiveness of the technique, DTI has become a widely used tool for researchers and clinicians to examine the white matter of children. This review covers the basics of diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging and discusses examples of their clinical application in children. (orig.)

  15. Review of diffusion tensor imaging and its application in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion MRI is an imaging technique that uses the random motion of water to probe tissue microstructure. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can quantitatively depict the organization and connectivity of white matter. Given the non-invasiveness of the technique, DTI has become a widely used tool for researchers and clinicians to examine the white matter of children. This review covers the basics of diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging and discusses examples of their clinical application in children. (orig.)

  16. Studies on CT findings and operation findings for acute appendicitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric CT findings of acute appendicitis were reviewed retrospectively. The subjects were 29 patients (15 boys and 14 girls with an average age of 8.2 years), consisting of 17 with necrotic, 8 with phlegmonous inflammatory, and 4 with catarrhal appendicitis. CT findings were compared with the degree of inflammation. CT revealed abscess in 64.7%, 12.5%, and 0% for necrotic, phlegmonous inflammatory, and catarrhal types, respectively, and 41.4% for all types. An enlarged appendicitis was shown on CT in 86.2% (25/29). Fecalithes were shown on CT in 67.7% (19/29), which was associated with necrotic and phlegmonous inflammatory types, but not with catarrhal type. The other CT findings included thickened paramesocolon of the right lower abdomen, undefined wall of the inner side of the cecum. Inflammation was relatively slight in cases of catarrhal appendicitis, Nine patients less than 5 years of age had phlegmonous inflammatory or necrotic appendicitis. CT allowed definitive diagnosis of appendicitis in 2 of 3 patients with necrotic type. Ct was considered to be very useful in the diagnosis of appendicitis. (N.K.)

  17. Study on CT findings and electroencephalographic findings in severely handicapped children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Masao; Nishimura, Masaaki; Kachi, Shozo; Sugimoto, Kimiyuki; Saito, Msahiko; Yamada, Shigeaki; Kameyama, Yoshio; Tanaka, Minoru; Hiraizumi, Yasuhisa

    1987-11-01

    Sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) and computed tomographic (CT) features were examined in 40 institutionalized severely handicapped persons. Cranial CT appearance fell into five major types: (I) no abnormal findings (n=2), (II) generalized brain atrophy (n=16), (III) diffuse parenchymal disturbance (n=10), (IV) brain malformation (n=4), and (V) localized brain disturbance (n=8). In the I group, one person had normal EEG findings as well, but another person had the presence of focal spikes without spindles on EEG. Five of the II group had no abnormal EEG findings; ten had abnormality in basic waves and/or localized paroxysmal waves; and one had generalized spike-and-slow wave complex. All persons in the III group had flattening or disappearance of spindle waves. In the IV group, two persons with cerebral malformation and one with linear nevus sebaceous syndrome in association with hypoplasia of the cerebral hemisphere had abnormality in basic waves and localized paroxysmal waves. In the remaining one person with deficit of vermis cerebelli, there was no EEG abnormality. Among the last group of persons, there was no EEG abnormality corresponding to CT features. (Namekawa, K).

  18. A study on CT findings and electroencephalographic findings in severely handicapped children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) and computed tomographic (CT) features were examined in 40 institutionalized severely handicapped persons. Cranial CT appearance fell into five major types: (I) no abnormal findings (n=2), (II) generalized brain atrophy (n=16), (III) diffuse parenchymal disturbance (n=10), (IV) brain malformation (n=4), and (V) localized brain disturbance (n=8). In the I group, one person had normal EEG findings as well, but another person had the presence of focal spikes without spindles on EEG. Five of the II group had no abnormal EEG findings; ten had abnormality in basic waves and/or localized paroxysmal waves; and one had generalized spike-and-slow wave complex. All persons in the III group had flattening or disappearance of spindle waves. In the IV group, two persons with cerebral malformation and one with linear nevus sebaceous syndrome in association with hypoplasia of the cerebral hemisphere had abnormality in basic waves and localized paroxysmal waves. In the remaining one person with deficit of vermis cerebelli, there was no EEG abnormality. Among the last group of persons, there was no EEG abnormality corresponding to CT features. (Namekawa, K)

  19. Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and demonstrate how disturbed systems can interact to produce aberrant regulation during autonomic challenges. Understanding autonomic dysfunction in various illnesses reveals mechanisms that potentially lead to interventions in the impairments. The objectives here are to: 1 describe the fMRI neuroimaging methodology for assessment of autonomic neural control, 2 outline the widespread, lateralized distribution of function in autonomic sites in the normal brain which includes structures from the neocortex through the medulla and cerebellum, 3 illustrate the importance of the time course of neural changes when coordinating responses, and how those patterns are impacted in conditions of sleep-disordered breathing, and 4 highlight opportunities for future research studies with emerging methodologies. Methodological considerations specific to autonomic testing include timing of challenges relative to the underlying fMRI signal, spatial resolution sufficient to identify autonomic brainstem nuclei, blood pressure and blood oxygenation influences on the fMRI signal, and the sustained timing, often measured in minutes of challenge periods and recovery. Key findings include the lateralized nature of autonomic organization, which is reminiscent of asymmetric motor, sensory and language pathways. Testing brain function during autonomic challenges demonstrate closely-integrated timing of responses in connected brain areas during autonomic challenges, and the involvement with

  20. The interpretation of urogenital findings in children with straddle injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, M D; Fitzmaurice, L; Knapp, J F; Mooney, D

    1994-01-01

    Because urogenital trauma frequently raises the question of sexual abuse, it is important to be able to relate the mechanism of injury to expected examination findings. This study was undertaken to characterize the trauma that results from straddling and correlate such injuries with the history, examination, and patient characteristics. The charts of 100 patients examined in an urban pediatric emergency department were reviewed; their conditions met the criteria of straddle injury--a blow to the perineum as a result of falling or striking a surface or an object with the force of one's own body weight. Ages ranged from 9 to 187 months (mean, 77.9; median, 67.2); 72% were female. Most injuries were minor lacerations and abrasions of the genitalia. Eleven percent had injury to the posterior fourchette. Hymenal and vaginal injuries were primarily caused by penetrating mechanisms. Five patients who presented with a history of straddling subsequently received the diagnosis of sexual assault based on disclosure by the patient or a witness and inconsistency of physical findings. There were no urethral or perianal injuries resulting from nonpenetrating straddle mechanisms. Straddle injuries include a variety of mostly minor urogenital injuries. Perianal, hymenal, or vaginal trauma suggests a penetrating mechanism, either unintentional or from sexual assault. An investigation for sexual assault should be initiated in the following cases: infants younger than 9 months of age; perianal, hymenal, or vaginal injury; extensive or severe injury; concurrent nonurogenital injuries; and whenever there is lack of correlation between history and physical findings. PMID:8120766

  1. Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome revisited: imaging and clinical findings in pre- and postpubertal girls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, Lorna P.; Guillerman, R.P. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Boswell, Hillary B. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Gynecology, Houston, TX (United States); Crotty, Eric J.; O' Hara, Sara M.; Birkemeier, Krista L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-05-15

    In 1960 Van Wyk and Grumbach described a syndrome of juvenile hypothyroidism, precocious puberty and ovarian enlargement. These findings undergo complete regression with thyroid hormone replacement therapy. This diagnosis can be made on the basis of imaging findings and thyroid function analysis, avoiding surgery. To relate the distinctive clinical and imaging features and putative pathophysiological mechanism of a series of patients with Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome (VWGS). Patients with VWGS diagnosed at two large children's hospitals over a 6-year period beginning in 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. A literature review was also conducted. Five female patients were diagnosed with cystic ovarian enlargement and hypothyroidism at ages ranging from 9 to 17 years. Isosexual precocious puberty was found in prepubescent patients. Associated findings included delayed bone age, ascites, and pleural and pericardial effusions. Ovarian cyst involution occurred following treatment of the hypothyroidism. The association of primary hypothyroidism with cystic ovarian enlargement and precocious puberty is important to recognize. In the absence of suspected ovarian torsion, surgery is unnecessary, as cyst regression occurs after appropriate thyroid hormone replacement. Noncompliance with hormone replacement therapy should be considered when cystic ovarian enlargement is noted in patients with a history of hypothyroidism. (orig.)

  2. Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome revisited: imaging and clinical findings in pre- and postpubertal girls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1960 Van Wyk and Grumbach described a syndrome of juvenile hypothyroidism, precocious puberty and ovarian enlargement. These findings undergo complete regression with thyroid hormone replacement therapy. This diagnosis can be made on the basis of imaging findings and thyroid function analysis, avoiding surgery. To relate the distinctive clinical and imaging features and putative pathophysiological mechanism of a series of patients with Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome (VWGS). Patients with VWGS diagnosed at two large children's hospitals over a 6-year period beginning in 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. A literature review was also conducted. Five female patients were diagnosed with cystic ovarian enlargement and hypothyroidism at ages ranging from 9 to 17 years. Isosexual precocious puberty was found in prepubescent patients. Associated findings included delayed bone age, ascites, and pleural and pericardial effusions. Ovarian cyst involution occurred following treatment of the hypothyroidism. The association of primary hypothyroidism with cystic ovarian enlargement and precocious puberty is important to recognize. In the absence of suspected ovarian torsion, surgery is unnecessary, as cyst regression occurs after appropriate thyroid hormone replacement. Noncompliance with hormone replacement therapy should be considered when cystic ovarian enlargement is noted in patients with a history of hypothyroidism. (orig.)

  3. Traumatic odontoid process synchondrosis fracture with atlantoaxial instability in a calf: clinical presentation and imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülsmeyer, Velia-Isabel; Flatz, Katharina; Putschbach, Katrin; Bechter, Martina Ramona; Weiler, Sebastian; Fischer, Andrea; Feist, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    A 6-week-old female Simmental calf was evaluated for acute non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Physical and laboratory examinations revealed no clinically relevant abnormalities. Neurological findings were consistent with acute, progressive and painful cervical myelopathy. Radiographs displayed a fractured odontoid process (dens axis) and vertebral step misalignment at the fracture site. A traumatic origin was suspected. Advanced diagnostic imaging was considered to allow better planning of potential surgical stabilisation and to exclude any additional lesions of the cervical vertebral column. However, during trailer transportation to the advanced diagnostic imaging and surgery site, the calf deteriorated neurologically and was humanely euthanised. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were performed immediately post-mortem for scientific reasons. The MRI examination reflected the radiographic findings and confirmed severe spinal cord compression at the fracture site. In addition, a T2W-hyperintense signal change within the paravertebral soft tissue dorsal to the fracture site was indicative of a traumatic event. CT identified the fracture site at the synchondrosis between the odontoid process and the body of the axis, and this finding was confirmed by post-mortem examination. Advanced diagnostic imaging and post-mortem examination did not identify any other cervical lesion. In summary, this calf was diagnosed with a traumatic odontoid process synchondrosis fracture, which has not been reported previously in calves but presents a challenging and well-known fracture type in young children. This case report indicates that the odontoid process synchondrosis is a potential predisposed injury site and that traumatic odontoid process synchondrosis fractures should be considered as a potential differential in calves with acute cervical pain and/or signs of a cervical myelopathy. PMID:25937919

  4. Upper Airway Volume Segmentation Analysis Using Cine MRI Findings in Children with Tracheostomy Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the airway dynamics of the upper airway as depicted on cine MRI in children with tracheotomy tubes during two states of airflow through the upper airway. Sagittal fast gradient echo cine MR images of the supra-glottic airway were obtained with a 1.5T MRI scanner on seven children with tracheotomy tubes. Two sets of images were obtained with either the tubes capped or uncapped. The findings of the cine MRI were retrospectively reviewed. Volume segmentation of the cine images to compare the airway volume change over time (mean volume, standard deviation, normalized range, and coefficient of variance) was performed for the capped and uncapped tubes in both the nasopharynx and hypopharynx (Signed Rank Test). Graphical representation of the airway volume over time demonstrates a qualitative increased fluctuation in patients with the tracheotomy tube capped as compared to uncapped in both the nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal regions of interest. In the nasopharynx, the mean airway volume (capped 2.72 mL, uncapped 2.09 mL, p = 0.0313), the airway volume standard deviation (capped 0.42 mL, uncapped 0.20 mL, p = 0.0156), and the airway volume range (capped 2.10 mL, uncapped 1.09 mL, p = 0.0156) were significantly larger in the capped group of patients. In the hypopharynx, the airway volume standard deviation (capped 1.54 mL, uncapped 0.67 mL, p = 0.0156), and the airway volume range (capped 6.44 mL, uncapped 2.93 mL, p = 0.0156) were significantly larger in the capped tubes. The coefficient of variance (capped 0.37, uncapped 0.26, p = 0.0469) and the normalized range (capped 1.52, uncapped 1.09, p = 0.0313) were significantly larger in the capped tubes. There is a statistically significant change in airway dynamics in children with tracheotomy tubes when breathing via the airway as compared to breathing via the tracheotomy tube

  5. Upper Airway Volume Segmentation Analysis Using Cine MRI Findings in Children with Tracheostomy Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Bradley L.; Abbott, M. Bret; Donnelly, Lane F.; Dardzinski, Bernard J.; Poe, Stacy A.; Kalra, Maninder; Amin, Raouf S.; Cotton, Robin T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States)

    2007-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the airway dynamics of the upper airway as depicted on cine MRI in children with tracheotomy tubes during two states of airflow through the upper airway. Sagittal fast gradient echo cine MR images of the supra-glottic airway were obtained with a 1.5T MRI scanner on seven children with tracheotomy tubes. Two sets of images were obtained with either the tubes capped or uncapped. The findings of the cine MRI were retrospectively reviewed. Volume segmentation of the cine images to compare the airway volume change over time (mean volume, standard deviation, normalized range, and coefficient of variance) was performed for the capped and uncapped tubes in both the nasopharynx and hypopharynx (Signed Rank Test). Graphical representation of the airway volume over time demonstrates a qualitative increased fluctuation in patients with the tracheotomy tube capped as compared to uncapped in both the nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal regions of interest. In the nasopharynx, the mean airway volume (capped 2.72 mL, uncapped 2.09 mL, p = 0.0313), the airway volume standard deviation (capped 0.42 mL, uncapped 0.20 mL, p = 0.0156), and the airway volume range (capped 2.10 mL, uncapped 1.09 mL, p = 0.0156) were significantly larger in the capped group of patients. In the hypopharynx, the airway volume standard deviation (capped 1.54 mL, uncapped 0.67 mL, p = 0.0156), and the airway volume range (capped 6.44 mL, uncapped 2.93 mL, p = 0.0156) were significantly larger in the capped tubes. The coefficient of variance (capped 0.37, uncapped 0.26, p = 0.0469) and the normalized range (capped 1.52, uncapped 1.09, p = 0.0313) were significantly larger in the capped tubes. There is a statistically significant change in airway dynamics in children with tracheotomy tubes when breathing via the airway as compared to breathing via the tracheotomy tube.

  6. Incidental enchondromas at knee magnetic resonance imaging: intraobserver and interobserver agreement and prevalence of imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Akemi Nakamura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate intra- and interobserver agreement in the identification of incidental enchondromas at knee magnetic resonance imaging, and to assess the prevalence of imaging findings. Materials and Methods Retrospective study reviewing 326 knee magnetic resonance images acquired in the period between November 2009 and September 2010. The images were independently and blindly analyzed by two specialists in musculoskeletal radiology, with the objective of identifying incidental enchondromas, presence of foci with signal similar to bone marrow and foci of signal absence suggestive of calcifications within the enchondromas. Inter- and intraobserver agreements were analyzed. Results Eleven lesions compatible with enchondromas (3.3% were identified. The interobserver agreement for the presence of enchondroma was high. Prevalence of foci of bone marrow signal inside the enchondromas was of 54.55%, and foci suggestive of calcification corresponded to 36.36%. The intraobserver agreement for foci of bone marrow signal in enchondromas was perfect, and interobserver agreement was high. Conclusion The prevalence of incidental enchondromas in the current study was compatible with data in the literature. Excellent agreement was observed in the identification of enchondromas and in the assessment of imaging findings. A higher prevalence of fat signal foci was observed as compared with signal absence suggestive of calcifications.

  7. PynPoint: An Image Processing Package for Finding Exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Amara, Adam; Quanz, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    We present the scientific performance results of PynPoint, our Python-based software package that uses principle component analysis to detect and estimate the flux of exoplanets in two dimensional imaging data. Recent advances in adaptive optics and imaging technology at visible and infrared wavelengths have opened the door to direct detections of planetary companions to nearby stars, but image processing techniques have yet to be optimized. We show that the performance of our approach gives ...

  8. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbing, Willem A. [Erasmus Medical Centre - Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Paediatrics (Division of Cardiology), Sp-2.429, P.O. Box 2060, CB, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Ouhlous, Mohamed [Erasmus Medical Centre - Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    MRI is an important additional tool in the diagnostic work-up of children with congenital heart disease. This review aims to summarise the role MRI has in this patient population. Echocardiography remains the main diagnostic tool in congenital heart disease. In specific situations, MRI is used for anatomical imaging of congenital heart disease. This includes detailed assessment of intracardiac anatomy with 2-D and 3-D sequences. MRI is particularly useful for assessment of retrosternal structures in the heart and for imaging large vessel anatomy. Functional assessment includes assessment of ventricular function using 2-D cine techniques. Of particular interest in congenital heart disease is assessment of right and single ventricular function. Two-dimensional and newer 3-D techniques to quantify flow in these patients are or will soon become an integral part of quantification of shunt size, valve function and complex flow patterns in large vessels. More advanced uses of MRI include imaging of cardiovascular function during stress and tissue characterisation of the myocardium. Techniques used for this purpose need further validation before they can become part of the daily routine of MRI assessment of congenital heart disease. (orig.)

  9. MR imaging findings in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven patients (aged 19-37) with temporal lobe epilepsy were evaluated by 1.5-T MR imaging. The MR imaging followed a negative CT examination. All patients underwent ictal and interictal, depth electrode EEG recording, carotid arteriography with amytol test, neuropsychological testing, subsequent unilateral temporal lobectomy, and pathologic correlation. MR images were retrospectively reviewed and correlated. MR images in ten patients showed a small temporal lobe on the abnormal side. Abnormal signal intensity was not found within the temporal lobe despite the use of coronal and axial long TR (2,500 msec) and short and long TE(30 and 80 msec) studies

  10. Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of skeletal muscle: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the imaging manifestations of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of skeletal muscle and improve the recognition of this rare disease. Methods: Five cases of primary non- Hodgkin lymphoma of skeletal muscle proved pathologically underwent imaging exam, including MRI and CT in 3 cases, only MRI in 1 case, only CT in 1 case, X-ray in 2 cases and bone scintigraphy in 2 cases. Results: Diffuse enlargements of involved muscle with presentation of overall configuration were observed in all five cases. All 4 cases manifested as homogeneous soft masses, which is isoattenuating to normal muscle on unenhanced CT images. After intravenous injection of contrast media, the masses enhanced homogeneously and slightly (2 cases) or moderately (1 case) on CT images. The lesions were homogenous and had isointense or slightly low signal intensity compared with that of uninvolved muscle on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. After intravenous injection of contrast media, all 2 cases enhanced homogeneously and moderately with the enhanced signal intensity of involved muscle greatly higher than that of uninvolved muscle on MR images. Two cases of X-ray plain showed no destruction of bone and 2 cases of bone scintigraphy exams showed increased radiotracer uptake of involved muscle with no infiltration of bone marrow. Conclusion: There are several characteristics on the imaging of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of skeletal muscle. MRI is the optimal imaging method for the diagnosis of this disease. (authors)

  11. Imaging characteristics of hepatocellular adenoma compared with pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -intense signal on the T1WI and hyper-intense signal on the T2WI with fat suppression sequences. There were 3 patients with an atypical adenoma type. One patient appeared uniform hypo-density on the non-enhanced CT and hyper-density on the hepatic arterial-dominant phase and became iso-dense on the portal venous phase. On the delay phase, it was slightly hyper-dense. Two out of the three lesions showed isointense and one hypo-intense signal on the in-phase T1WI, and hypo-intense, hyper-intense, and iso-intense signal on the T2WI with fat suppression sequences,respectively. Two patients examined on all phases of post-contrast MRI scans. The result was similar to the CT findings. Conclusion: The imaging features of hepatocellular adenoma are closely associated with pathological characteristics. (authors)

  12. Cerebral MRI of very low birth weight children at 6 years of age compared with the findings at 1 year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. We have previously reported the results of cerebral MRI examinations in an unselected year cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at one year of corrected age. Twenty-one (78 %) of 27 infants had abnormal myelination, mainly in the central occipital white matter (COWM) and in the centrum semiovale (CS), seen on T2-weighted images. Twelve infants had irregular and dilated lateral ventricles. We speculated whether these findings indicated perinatal periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Only two infants had completely normal MRI at age 1 year. Objective. To determine whether the abnormal myelination seen at 1 year of age, was still present, either as delayed myelination or as gliosis caused by perinatal PVL. Materials and methods. In the present study, we report the results of follow-up cerebral MRI in 20 of these infants at 6 years of age. Results. Most of the children with MRI deviations at 1 year still had abnormalities at 6 years. Abnormal myelination in the central occipital white matter combined with abnormalities in the CS or with ventricular dilatation at age 1 year, presented as gliosis in 12 of 13 children at 6 years of age. Abnormalities solely in the COWM at age 1 year had normalised in two of five children and persisted as delayed myelination in three at age 6 years. Gliotic changes in periventricular white matter were found in 12 of 20 children (60 %). Areas most affected were the CS (11 children) and the COWM (9 children). Delayed myelination in COWM was found in six children (30 %), combined with gliosis in CS in three children. Twelve infants had ventricular dilatation both at 1 and 6 years of age. Conclusions. The MRI correlates of PVL, i. e. gliosis and ventricular dilatation, are common findings on cerebral MRI at 6 years of age in VLBW infants. (orig.)

  13. Post-contrast FLAIR MR imaging of the brain in children: normal and abnormal intracranial enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Choi, Choong-Gon [Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnap-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-12-01

    To describe the normally enhancing intracranial structures on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI and evaluate the usefulness of postcontrast FLAIR images of the brain in the assessment of enhancing lesions by comparing postcontrast FLAIR imaging with postcontrast T1-weighted (T1-W) imaging in children. In 218 children, 249 pre- and postcontrast FLAIR MRI examinations of the brain were obtained consecutively between August 2001 and April 2002. The normally enhancing intracranial structures on FLAIR imaging were assessed in 77 MRI studies of 74 children who showed normal intracranial imaging findings. In 86 MRI studies in 68 children who showed enhancing intracranial lesions, lesion conspicuity on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was compared with that on postcontrast T1-W imaging for all lesions (n=107), intra-axial lesions (n=40), or extra-axial lesions (n=67). The normally enhancing intracranial structures on FLAIR MRI were the choroid plexus (99%, 76/77), pituitary stalk (84%, 65/77), pineal gland (71%, 55/77), dural sinuses (26%, 20/77), and cortical veins (9%, 7/77). Of all the enhancing lesions, lesion conspicuousness on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was better than postcontrast T1-weighted imaging in 42, equal in 28, and worse in 37. Of 40 intra-axial lesions, lesion conspicuousness on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was better in 6, equal in 10, and worse in 24. Of 67 extra-axial lesions, lesion conspicuity on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was better in 36, equal in 18, and worse in 13. Conspicuousness of extra-axial lesions was significantly better than that of intra-axial lesions on postcontrast FLAIR imaging (P<0.001). The choroid plexus, pituitary stalk, pineal gland, dural sinuses, and cortical veins show normal enhancement on postcontrast FLAIR MRI in children, and postcontrast FLAIR imaging appears better than postcontrast T1-W imaging in the assessment of extra-axial enhancing lesions in children. (orig.)

  14. Radiological Findings in Children with Acute Pneumonia: Age More Important Than Infectious Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate whether radiological findings and healing time in children with pneumonia are correlated to etiologic agent. Material and Methods: A total of 346 children with radiologically verified acute pneumonia, and with accomplished serological tests for bacteria and viruses, were included in the study. Five etiological groups were analysed: children with bacterial etiology only, with viral etiology only, with mixed bacterial and viral etiology, with Mycoplasma only, and children with no etiology. Results: The chest films of each etiological group were analysed and the findings were correlated to the children's age. The radiological findings did not differ between the etiological groups. Radiological findings correlated significantly with the patient's age. The radiological healing frequency at check-up X-ray was found to be significantly lower in children with mixed bacterial and viral etiology compared to children in each of the other groups and to the material as a whole. Conclusion: Conclusions about the etiology could not be drawn from the chest X-ray findings

  15. Radiological Findings in Children with Acute Pneumonia: Age More Important Than Infectious Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, H.; Mortensson, W.; Eriksson, M.; Finkel, Y.; Forsgren, M.; Leinonen, M. [Astrid Lindgren' s Children' s Hospital, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Depts. of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatrics

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether radiological findings and healing time in children with pneumonia are correlated to etiologic agent. Material and Methods: A total of 346 children with radiologically verified acute pneumonia, and with accomplished serological tests for bacteria and viruses, were included in the study. Five etiological groups were analysed: children with bacterial etiology only, with viral etiology only, with mixed bacterial and viral etiology, with Mycoplasma only, and children with no etiology. Results: The chest films of each etiological group were analysed and the findings were correlated to the children's age. The radiological findings did not differ between the etiological groups. Radiological findings correlated significantly with the patient's age. The radiological healing frequency at check-up X-ray was found to be significantly lower in children with mixed bacterial and viral etiology compared to children in each of the other groups and to the material as a whole. Conclusion: Conclusions about the etiology could not be drawn from the chest X-ray findings.

  16. Adnexal torsion: MR imaging findings of viable ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of torsed ovarian cystic tumor, in which contrast-enhanced high-resolution MR images accurately contributed to the diagnosis of torsion despite the lack of symptoms and to the preoperative evaluation of viability of the edematous ovary. Accurate preoperative assessment by MR images and prompt conservative surgical approach succeeded in salvaging the involved ovary. (orig.)

  17. Intraocular lymphoma after cardiac transplantation: Magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of intraocular lymphoma in a 65-year-old man, 15 months after cardiac transplantation. On Magnetic Resonance (MR) images, the iris and the anterior chamber of the right eye were found to be involved with an enhancing soft-tissue lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first case of post-transplantation intraocular lymphoma evaluated with MR imaging.

  18. Intraocular lymphoma after cardiac transplantation: Magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yi Kyung; Kim, Hyung Jin; Woo, Kyung In; Kim, Yoon Duck [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    We report a case of intraocular lymphoma in a 65-year-old man, 15 months after cardiac transplantation. On Magnetic Resonance (MR) images, the iris and the anterior chamber of the right eye were found to be involved with an enhancing soft-tissue lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first case of post-transplantation intraocular lymphoma evaluated with MR imaging.

  19. Functional hepatobiliary MR imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamrazi, Anobel; Vasanawala, Shreyas S. [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Clinical application efforts for the hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agent gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) have mainly been directed toward detection and characterization of various hepatic masses in the adult population. Here we report our initial experience with Gd-EOB-DTPA for evaluating congenital and acquired hepatobiliary pathologies in the pediatric population. Twenty-one consecutive children receiving Gd-EOB-DTPA for functional hepatobiliary evaluation at our institution were retrospectively identified with IRB approval. The use of Gd-EOB-DTPA was classified in each case as definite, potential, or no clinical utility, focusing on the clinical value gained beyond traditional noncontrast fluid-sensitive MR cholangiopancreatography (FS-MRCP) and other imaging modalities. Definite added value of Gd-EOB-DTPA was found in 12 patients, with potential value in 4 patients, and no value in 5 patients. Benefit was seen in cases of iatrogenic and non-iatrogenic biliary strictures, perihepatic fluid collections for biliary leak, hepatobiliary dysfunction in the absence of hyperbilirubinemia, and in the functional exclusion of cystic duct occlusion that can be seen in acute cholecystitis. This is the first reported series of children with Gd-EOB-DTPA and this early work suggests potential pediatric applications. (orig.)

  20. New partially parallel acquisition technique in cerebral imaging: preliminary findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In MRI applications where short acquisition time is necessary, the increase of acquisition speed is often at the expense of image resolution and SNR. In such cases, the newly developed parallel acquisition techniques could provide images without mentioned limitations and in reasonably shortened measurement time. A newly designed eight-channel head coil array (i-PAT coil) allowing for parallel acquisition of independently reconstructed images (GRAPPA mode) has been tested for its applicability in neuroradiology. Image homogeneity was tested in standard phantom and healthy volunteers. BOLD signal changes were studied in a group of six volunteers using finger tapping stimulation. Phantom studies revealed an important drop of signal even after the use of a normalization filter in the center of the image and an important increase of artifact power with reduction of measurement time strongly depending on the combination of acceleration parameters. The additional application of a parallel acquisition technique such as GRAPPA decreases measurement time in the range of about 30%, but further reduction is often possible only at the expense of SNR. This technique performs best in conditions in which imaging speed is important, such as CE MRA, but time resolution still does not allow the acquisition of angiograms separating the arterial and venous phase. Significantly larger areas of BOLD activation were found using the i-PAT coil compared to the standard head coil. Being an eight-channel surface coil array, peripheral cortical structures profit from high SNR as high-resolution imaging of small cortical dysplasias and functional activation of cortical areas imaged by BOLD contrast. In BOLD contrast imaging, susceptibility artifacts are reduced, but only if an appropriate combination of acceleration parameters is used. (orig.)

  1. Lymphoma of uterine cervix: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaan, Daniel; Constantino, Carolina Pesce Lamas; Souza, Rodrigo Canellas de, E-mail: daniel.kanaan@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Parente, Daniella Braz [Instituto D' Or de Pesquisa e Ensino, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    Lymphoma of the cervix is a rare disease. About 1.0% to 1.5% of extranodal lymphomas originates in the female genital tract. The clinical presentation of this condition is nonspecific and magnetic resonance imaging is important for diagnostic elucidation. The present report describes the case of a 80-year-old patient with lumbar pain, whose magnetic resonance imaging showed a large uterine mass. The final diagnosis was lymphoma. (author)

  2. Calcaneal tendon: imaging findings; Tendao calcaneo: avaliacao por imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montandon, Cristiano; Fonseca, Cristiano Rezio; Montandon Junior, Marcelo Eustaquio [Colegio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: crismontandon@hotmail.com; Lobo, Leonardo Valadares; Ribeiro, Flavia Aparecida de Souza; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem e Anatomia Patologica

    2003-12-01

    We reviewed the radiological and clinical features of 23 patients with calcaneal tendon diseases, who were submitted to ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. The objective of this study was to characterize the lesions for a precise diagnosis of calcaneal tendon injuries. A wide range of calcaneal tendon diseases include degenerative lesions, inflammation of the peritendinous tissue such as peritendinitis and bursitis, and rupture. Imaging methods are essential in the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of calcaneal tendon diseases. (author)

  3. Diagnostic imaging of limbs in children with acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate X-ray and MRI features of limbs in childhood acute leukemia. Methods: Thirteen children with acute leukemia in our pediatric hematology ward were recruited. All patients were pathologically diagnosed by bone marrow aspiration and complained of bone or joint pain in the first visit. Conventional X-ray and MRI examinations of algesic sites were performed before clinical treatment and after complete remission. MR images were obtained with SE-T1WI, SE-T2WI and T2WI-fat suppressed sequences and symmetrical bilateralism was requested while scanning. X-ray and MRI manifestations were evaluated and compared. Results: All 13 patients had received X-ray examinations. Among them, 6 had normal X-ray findings, whereas the other 7 (14 sites) showed various abnormalities including radiolucent metaphyseal bands (5 sites), periosteal reaction (3 sites), osteapenia (2 sites), mixed lesions (lysis- sclerosis, 1 site), and permeative pattern (3 sites). The number of patients for MRI examinations was 8 (11 sites). Among them, 6 (9 sites) showed bone marrow infiltration and bone marrow necrosis accompanied by normal X-ray findings, another 2 (2 sites) showed bone marrow infiltration associated with radiographic abnormalities of periosteal reaction and radiolucent metaphyseal bands. Four cases were followed up within 1 week when reached complete remission by chemotherapy. MR images features included reduced sizes of bone marrow infiltration lesions associated with increased signal intensity on T1WI, and disappearance of double-line sign on bone marrow necrosis accompanied by signal homogenization. However, the radiograph before and after treatment in the same cases did not differ significantly. Conclusions: MRI was earlier and more comprehensive in showing limbs bone marrow abnormality than radiogram in acute leukemia children with chief complaint of osteoarticular pains. MRI might be one of indicators in following up therapeutic effect for AL children with

  4. Image findings of a tailgut cyst. Case report and short review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiadas, V T; Koutoulidis, V; Primetis, H; Ladopoulos, Ch; Moulopoulos, L A; Gouliamos, A; Vlahos, L

    2005-01-01

    We present a case of retrorectal hamartoma (tailgut cyst). Imaging findings on ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, pathologic findings, as well as the diagnostic pitfalls during the patient's management are documented. As it is a rare lesion with a non specific clinical presentation, it is usually misdiagnosed. Our aim is to present image characteristics of these lesions in all modalities and include retrorectal hamartomas in our differential diagnosis in patients with lesions with similar image findings. PMID:15991544

  5. Single-system ureteroceles in infants and children: imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the clinical and imaging findings in children who have single-system ureteroceles.Materials and methods. We reviewed the urology records and imaging studies in 32 consecutive infants and children who were diagnosed in our department with single-system ureteroceles.Results. There were 35 ureteroceles in the 32 patients - 29 were unilateral (14 right-sided, 15 left-sided) and 3 were bilateral. Twenty-five patients were boys (78 %) and 7 girls. Mean age at presentation was 0.7 years (0-9.2 years). Prenatally detected hydronephrosis or cystic renal dysplasia was the most common presentation (24 patients). Four presented with urinary infection, 2 with abdominal mass, 1 had myelomeningocele, and 1 had hypospadias. Three patients also had multiple non-urologic, congenital anomalies. Thirty-three ureteroceles were intravesical, and 2 were ectopic to the bladder neck. Twenty-four ureteroceles were associated with ipsilateral hydroureteronephrosis and 10 with ipsilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney. One patient had a normal ipsilateral kidney and a contralateral multicystic dysplastic kidney. The ureterocele was identified on at least one imaging study in each patient. Sixteen ureteroceles (47 %) everted at VCUG, mimicking paraureteral diverticula. Other variations included ureterocele prolapse and inadvertent ureterocele catheterization (1 each).Conclusions. Single-system ureterocele is an important, although uncommon cause of hydronephrosis and renal dysplasia in infants and children. Single-system ureterocele is distinguished clinically from the more common duplex-system ureterocele by its frequent occurrence in boys and its association with multicystic dysplastic kidney. Because these ureteroceles are frequently small and have a propensity to evert at VCUG, they can be mistaken for paraureteral diverticula. (orig.)

  6. Single-system ureteroceles in infants and children: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerin, J.M.; Baker, D.R. [Dept. of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Casale, J.A. [Dept. of Urology, Indiana University Medical Center, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the clinical and imaging findings in children who have single-system ureteroceles.Materials and methods. We reviewed the urology records and imaging studies in 32 consecutive infants and children who were diagnosed in our department with single-system ureteroceles.Results. There were 35 ureteroceles in the 32 patients - 29 were unilateral (14 right-sided, 15 left-sided) and 3 were bilateral. Twenty-five patients were boys (78 %) and 7 girls. Mean age at presentation was 0.7 years (0-9.2 years). Prenatally detected hydronephrosis or cystic renal dysplasia was the most common presentation (24 patients). Four presented with urinary infection, 2 with abdominal mass, 1 had myelomeningocele, and 1 had hypospadias. Three patients also had multiple non-urologic, congenital anomalies. Thirty-three ureteroceles were intravesical, and 2 were ectopic to the bladder neck. Twenty-four ureteroceles were associated with ipsilateral hydroureteronephrosis and 10 with ipsilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney. One patient had a normal ipsilateral kidney and a contralateral multicystic dysplastic kidney. The ureterocele was identified on at least one imaging study in each patient. Sixteen ureteroceles (47 %) everted at VCUG, mimicking paraureteral diverticula. Other variations included ureterocele prolapse and inadvertent ureterocele catheterization (1 each).Conclusions. Single-system ureterocele is an important, although uncommon cause of hydronephrosis and renal dysplasia in infants and children. Single-system ureterocele is distinguished clinically from the more common duplex-system ureterocele by its frequent occurrence in boys and its association with multicystic dysplastic kidney. Because these ureteroceles are frequently small and have a propensity to evert at VCUG, they can be mistaken for paraureteral diverticula. (orig.)

  7. Imaging modalities of abdominal tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further technological progress in cross-sectional imaging modalities, accumuting experience with increasingly refined hardware and software and accumulating specific contrast media allow new algorithms for the assessment of abdominal tumors in children. However, ultrasound remains the diagnostic method of choice: Conventional roentgenology with or without contrast media is decreasing, but often reveals further differential diagnostic details. MRI is becoming more prominent and is often performed immediately after ultrasound. The inauguration of gradient echo sequences and consequent shorter examination times combined with the elimination of pulsation and motion artefacts extends the diagnostic spectrum of the upper and middle abdomen. The application of oral or rectal contrast agents for imaging of the GI tract ameliorates the differentiation of pathologic processes. Recently volumetric CT/ultrafast CT has been gaining in importance for abdominal examinations in the pediatric age group. CT especially is helpful if there are bony structures in the region being examined. CT, however, involves ionizing radiation and timely administration of oral and intravenous contrast material. Moreover, as pediatric radiologists, we must strongly withstand tendencies to perform CT more often because it is less expensive, rather than avoiding ionizing radiation by using MRI. (orig.)

  8. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia in children with AIDS: high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary involvement in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) represents a wide spectrum of diseases. Among the non-infectious, non-neoplastic affections associated with AIDS, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is now a well-recognized entity, but its radiological pattern studied with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has rarely been described in children. The aim of this study was to illustrate the HRCT spectrum of pulmonary involvement in children with LIP and to evaluate its usefulness in the early diagnosis of this entity. Twelve children with AIDS, aged 3-9 years (mean age 5 years 7 months), underwent chest radiographs and HRCT. A control group of 7 healthy aged-matched children was also studied in the same conditions. Diagnosis of LIP was based on clinical data and HRCT findings. Eight children of 12 had a reticulonodular pattern on chest radiographs. Two children had normal chest films and two children showed peribronchiolar thickening. High-resolution CT displayed micronodules, 1-3 mm in diameter, with a perilymphatic distribution in all patients. High-resolution CT demonstrated also subpleural nodules in children without reticulonodular opacities on chest radiographs. High-resolution CT is able to define a more specific pattern of abnormalities than conventional chest radiographs in children with LIP, allows an earlier and more confident diagnosis and may be useful for the detection of other pathologies associated with AIDS, such as opportunistic infections or superimposed malignancies. (orig.)

  9. Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis: spectrum of thoracic imaging findings in the adult patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare disease characterized by alveolar capillary haemorrhage resulting in deposition and accumulation of haemosiderin in the lungs. Although its precise pathophysiology remains unclear, several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the aetiology of the disorder, including autoimmune, environmental, allergic, and genetic theories. IPH is typically diagnosed in childhood, usually before the age of 10 years; however, this entity may be encountered in older patients given the greater awareness of the diagnosis, availability and utilization of advanced imaging techniques, and improved treatment and survival. The classic presentation of IPH consists of the triad of haemoptysis, iron-deficiency anaemia, and pulmonary opacities on chest radiography. The diagnosis is usually confirmed via bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), at which time haemosiderin-laden macrophages referred to as siderophages, considered pathognomonic for IPH, may be identified. However, lung biopsy may ultimately be necessary to exclude other disease processes. For children with IPH, the disease course is severe and the prognosis is poor. However, adults generally have a longer disease course with milder symptoms and the prognosis is more favourable. Specific imaging features, although non-specific in isolation, may be identified on thoracic imaging studies, principally chest radiography and CT, depending on the phase of disease (acute or chronic). Recognition of these findings is important to guide appropriate clinical management

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in giant cell arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, N M; Morgan, M L; Almarzouqi, S J; Lee, A G

    2016-05-01

    PurposeGiant cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic vasculitis that affects medium-to-large-caliber arteries. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential as involvement of the ophthalmic artery or its branches may cause blindness. Radiographic findings may be variable and non-specific leading to delay in diagnosis. We conducted a review of the literature on neuroimaging findings in GCA and present a retrospective case series from tertiary-care ophthalmic referral centers of three patients with significant neuroimaging findings in biopsy-proven GCA.MethodsRetrospective case series of biopsy-proven GCA cases with neuroimaging findings at the Department of Ophthalmology, Blanton Eye Institute, Houston Methodist Hospital between 2010-2015 were included in this study. Literature search was conducted using Google Scholar and Medline search engines between the years 1970 and 2015.ResultsWe report findings of optic nerve enhancement, optic nerve sheath enhancement, and the first description in the English-language ophthalmic literature, to our knowledge, of chiasmal enhancement in biopsy-proven GCA. We describe four main categories of neuroimaging findings that may be seen in GCA from our series and from past cases in the literature.DiscussionIt is essential that clinicians be aware of the possible radiographic findings in GCA. Appropriate and prompt treatment should not be delayed based upon these findings. PMID:26915748

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging findings after rectus femoris transfer surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, Garry E. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Asakawa, Deanna S.; Blemker, Silvia S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Delp, Scott L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    We describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the knee flexor and extensor tendons after bilateral rectus femoris transfer and hamstring lengthening surgery in five patients (10 limbs) with cerebral palsy. Three-dimensional models of the path of the transferred tendon were constructed in all cases. MR images of the transferred and lengthened tendons were examined and compared with images from ten non-surgical subjects. The models showed that the path of the transferred rectus femoris tendon had a marked angular deviation near the transfer site in all cases. MR imaging demonstrated irregular areas of low signal intensity near the transferred rectus femoris and around the hamstrings in all subjects. Eight of the ten post-surgical limbs showed evidence of fluid near or around the transferred or lengthened tendons. This was not observed in the non-surgical subjects. Thus, MR imaging of patients with cerebral palsy after rectus femoris transfer and hamstring-lengthening surgery shows evidence of signal intensity and contour changes, even several years after surgery. (orig.)

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging findings after rectus femoris transfer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the knee flexor and extensor tendons after bilateral rectus femoris transfer and hamstring lengthening surgery in five patients (10 limbs) with cerebral palsy. Three-dimensional models of the path of the transferred tendon were constructed in all cases. MR images of the transferred and lengthened tendons were examined and compared with images from ten non-surgical subjects. The models showed that the path of the transferred rectus femoris tendon had a marked angular deviation near the transfer site in all cases. MR imaging demonstrated irregular areas of low signal intensity near the transferred rectus femoris and around the hamstrings in all subjects. Eight of the ten post-surgical limbs showed evidence of fluid near or around the transferred or lengthened tendons. This was not observed in the non-surgical subjects. Thus, MR imaging of patients with cerebral palsy after rectus femoris transfer and hamstring-lengthening surgery shows evidence of signal intensity and contour changes, even several years after surgery. (orig.)

  13. Postmortem cardiac imaging in fetuses and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Andrew M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Cardiorespiratory Division, Level 7, Old Nurses Home, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Arthurs, Owen J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Fetal and pediatric cardiac autopsies have a crucial role in the counseling of parents with regard to both the cause of death of their child and the implications of such findings for future pregnancies, as well as for quality assurance of antenatal screening programs and antemortem diagnostic procedures. Postmortem imaging allows an opportunity to investigate the heart in situ prior to dissection, and both postmortem CT and postmortem MRI have shown excellent accuracy in detecting the majority of clinically significant cardiac lesions in the perinatal and pediatric population. As less-invasive autopsy becomes increasingly popular, clinical guidelines for maximal diagnostic yield in specific circumstances can be developed. (orig.)

  14. Postmortem cardiac imaging in fetuses and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetal and pediatric cardiac autopsies have a crucial role in the counseling of parents with regard to both the cause of death of their child and the implications of such findings for future pregnancies, as well as for quality assurance of antenatal screening programs and antemortem diagnostic procedures. Postmortem imaging allows an opportunity to investigate the heart in situ prior to dissection, and both postmortem CT and postmortem MRI have shown excellent accuracy in detecting the majority of clinically significant cardiac lesions in the perinatal and pediatric population. As less-invasive autopsy becomes increasingly popular, clinical guidelines for maximal diagnostic yield in specific circumstances can be developed. (orig.)

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Early Spondylodiscitis: Interpretive Challenges and Atypical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Jeong A; Lee, In Sook; Suh, Hie Bum; Song, You Seon; Song, Jong Woon

    2016-01-01

    MR findings of early infectious spondylodiscitis are non-specific and may be confused with those of other conditions. Therefore, it is important to recognize early MR signs of conditions, such as inappreciable cortical changes in endplates, confusing marrow signal intensities of vertebral bodies, and inflammatory changes in paraspinal soft tissues, and subligamentous and epidural spaces. In addition, appreciation of direct inoculation, such as in iatrogenic spondylodiscitis may be important, because the proportion of patients who have undergone recent spine surgery or a spinal procedure is increasing. In this review, the authors focus on the MR findings of early spondylodiscitis, atypical findings of iatrogenic infection, and the differentiation between spondylodiscitis and other disease entities mimicking infection. PMID:27587946

  16. Autoimmune pancreatitis associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eerens, I.; Vanbeckevoort, D.; Van Hoe, L. [University Hospital, Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Vansteenbergen, W. [Dept. of Hepatology, University Hospitals KU, Leuven (Belgium)

    2001-08-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis is a relatively rare type of chronic pancreatitis that may be associated with other autoimmune disorders. The imaging features of this entity may be misleading and suggest the presence of a malignant tumour. We present a case in which MR imaging allowed us to diagnose autoimmune pancreatitis associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis, which is another autoimmune-related disease. Typical MR characteristics of autoimmune pancreatitis include focal or diffuse enlargement of the pancreas, the absence of parenchymal atrophy and significant dilation proximal to the site of stenosis, the absence of peripancreatic spread, the clear demarcation of the lesion and the presence of a peripancreatic rim. (orig.)

  17. Autoimmune pancreatitis associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis: MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoimmune pancreatitis is a relatively rare type of chronic pancreatitis that may be associated with other autoimmune disorders. The imaging features of this entity may be misleading and suggest the presence of a malignant tumour. We present a case in which MR imaging allowed us to diagnose autoimmune pancreatitis associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis, which is another autoimmune-related disease. Typical MR characteristics of autoimmune pancreatitis include focal or diffuse enlargement of the pancreas, the absence of parenchymal atrophy and significant dilation proximal to the site of stenosis, the absence of peripancreatic spread, the clear demarcation of the lesion and the presence of a peripancreatic rim. (orig.)

  18. A retrospective review of pituitary MRI findings in children on growth hormone therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with congenital hypopituitarism might have the classic triad of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, which consists of: (1) an interrupted or thin pituitary stalk, (2) an absent or ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP), and (3) anterior pituitary hypoplasia or aplasia. To examine the relationship between pituitary anatomy and the degree of hormonal dysfunction. This study involved a retrospective review of MRI findings in all children diagnosed with congenital growth hormone deficiency from 1988 to 2010 at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital. Of the 52 MRIs reviewed in 52 children, 26 children had normal pituitary anatomy and 26 had one or more elements of the classic triad. Fourteen of fifteen children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies had structural anomalies on MRI. Twelve of 37 children with isolated growth hormone deficiency had an abnormal MRI. Children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies were more likely to have the classic triad than children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. A normal MRI was the most common finding in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. (orig.)

  19. Children's and Young People's Reading in 2013: Findings from the 2013 National Literacy Trust's Annual Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This report outlines findings about children's and young people's reading from our fourth annual literacy survey conducted in November/December 2013. 29,422 young people aged eight to 16 participated. Some of the key findings for 2013 include: (1) Levels of reading enjoyment have improved for the first time since 2005 (see Figure 2, p. 9); (2)…

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and clinical characteristics of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma. A total of 31 patients with 39 surgically proven ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas were analyzed retrospectively. Histologically, 13 lesions in 12 patients arose from proven endometriomas (group A), and 26 lesions in 19 patients did not coexist with endometrioma (group B). The morphological pattern of the lesion on MRI was classified as a solid or a cystic type: A solid type was defined as a solid component occupying more than half of the lesion; and a cystic type was a cystic lesion with one or more mural nodules. Altogether, 11 lesions in group A were the cystic type on MRI, whereas 24 lesions in group B were the solid type (P<0.0001). Among the 11 cystic-type lesions in group A, the cysts of 5 lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images, and the cysts of 6 lesions were hyperintense on T1- and T2-weighted images without shading.'' The nuclear grade was higher (P=0.0028) and the clinical stage more advanced (P=0.0018) in group B compared to group A. MRI of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas revealed two types: a solid type and a cystic type. The lesions arising from endometriomas tended to be the cystic type on MRI and have a good prognosis. Preexisting endometrioma in this entity rarely showed ''shading'' on T2-weighted images. (author)

  1. Ultrasound and MR imaging findings of vulvar leiomyoma: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiomyomas are common benign neoplasms that can occur at any anatomical site containing smooth muscle, though most originate in the female genital tract. Leiomyomas of the vulval perineum are, however, very rare. We report the ultrasonographic (US) and MR imagings of a vulvar leiomyoma, and briefly review the literature

  2. Ultrasound and MR imaging findings of vulvar leiomyoma: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jin Hee; Woo, Seong Ku; Kim, Sang Pyu [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    Leiomyomas are common benign neoplasms that can occur at any anatomical site containing smooth muscle, though most originate in the female genital tract. Leiomyomas of the vulval perineum are, however, very rare. We report the ultrasonographic (US) and MR imagings of a vulvar leiomyoma, and briefly review the literature.

  3. Brain MR imaging finding in patients with central vertigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chun Keun; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, You Me; Cha, Min Jung; Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Jae Il; Lee, Geun Ho; Rhee, Chung Koo; Park, Hyun Min [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-11-01

    To investigate brain lesions and their locations in patients with central vertigo, as seen on MR imaging. We retrospectively reviewed MR images of 85 patients with central type vertigo diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms and vestibular function test(VFT), and analyzed lesions fand their locations. Those located along the known central vestibular pathway were included in our study. In 29 of 85 patients(34%), lesions considered to be associated with central vertigo were detected on MR imaging. These included infarction(18 patients), hemorrhage(5), tumor(2), cavernous angioma(1), cerebellopontine angle cyst(1), tuberous sclerosis(1) and olivopontocerebellar atrophy (1);they were located in the parietal lobe(6 patients), the lateral medulla(5), the pons(5), the middle cerebellar peduncle(4), the corona radiata(3), and the cerebellar vermis(3). Thirty-eight cases showed high signal intensity lesions in deep cerebral matter, the basal ganglia, and pons but these were considered to be unrelated to central vertigo. MR imaging could be a useful tool for the evaluation of patients with central vertigo.=20.

  4. Decidualized Ovarian Endometrioma in a Pregnant Woman Mimicking Ovarian Malignancy: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonographic Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izza Rozalli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Decidualized ovarian endometrioma is a rare phenomenon in pregnancy, which can mimic ovarian malignancy in imaging and often poses a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of a large ruptured decidualized ovarian endometrioma in a 15 weeks gestation patient, and we will describe the imaging characteristics (ultrasonography and MR imaging findings and the histopathological findings (macro- and microscopically.

  5. Decidualized Ovarian Endometrioma in a Pregnant Woman Mimicking Ovarian Malignancy: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonographic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izza Rozalli, Faizatul; Rahmat, Kartini; Fadzli, Farhana; Boylan, Colm; Deb, Pratima

    2015-10-01

    Decidualized ovarian endometrioma is a rare phenomenon in pregnancy, which can mimic ovarian malignancy in imaging and often poses a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of a large ruptured decidualized ovarian endometrioma in a 15 weeks gestation patient, and we will describe the imaging characteristics (ultrasonography and MR imaging findings) and the histopathological findings (macro- and microscopically). PMID:26715980

  6. Decidualized Ovarian Endometrioma in a Pregnant Woman Mimicking Ovarian Malignancy: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonographic Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Izza Rozalli; Rahmat; Fadzli; Boylan; Deb

    2015-01-01

    Decidualized ovarian endometrioma is a rare phenomenon in pregnancy, which can mimic ovarian malignancy in imaging and often poses a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of a large ruptured decidualized ovarian endometrioma in a 15 weeks gestation patient, and we will describe the imaging characteristics (ultrasonography and MR imaging findings) and the histopathological findings (macro- and microscopically).

  7. Thoracic Imaging Findings of Collagen Vascular Diseases: A CT Study

    OpenAIRE

    Karam, Mehrdad Bakhshayesh; Peivareh, Hamideh; Mosadegh, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Background Collagen vascular diseases (CVDs) are well known causes of pulmonary involvement, leading to significant morbidity. The purpose of this study was to identify several thoracic computed tomographic findings of CVDs. Materials and Methods The study included 56 patients (15 males and 41 females) with histopathologically and clinically proven CVDs who were identified retrospectively. The presence, extent and distribution of various CT findings were evaluated by a radiologist. Results Lu...

  8. Brain imaging findings of patients with congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism neuropathy syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism neuropathy (CCFDN) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance, observed in patients of Gypsy ancestry. All patients are homozygous for the same mutation in the CTDP1 gene mapping to 18qter. The clinical manifestations of the disease include congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, peripheral neuropathy due to primary hypomyelination, intellectual impairment and involvement of central nervous system.The aim of this study is to analyze CNS magnetic resonance imaging findings of patients with CCFDN syndrome and to apply severity score system. MRI of 20 patients (10 children - 4 girls and 6 boys and 10 adults - 6 women and 4 men with CCFDN was performed on 1,5T unit. We apply severity score system (previously used for metachromatic leukodystrophy) to evaluate patients with CCFDN which was adapted to the changes observed in CCFDN patients. This score system assessed WM involvement, as well as the presence of cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. We have found pathologic findings in 19 patients (95%). White matter hyperintensities were found in 18 and cerebral atrophy in 18 patients. The severity score have varied from 0 to 18 points. In contrast to previous studies we have found higher frequency of white matter hyperintensities. The findings are more prominent with patients' age. The most common MRI findings are cerebral atrophy and periventricular hyperintensities. This study gives the first detailed description of MRI findings in CCFDN syndrome patients where severity score system was applied. The score system could be applied in follow-up studies to evaluate progression of CNS findings. (authors)

  9. MR imaging findings of high-voltage electrical burns in the upper extremities: correlation with angiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyung Kyu; Kang, Ik Won; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Min, Seon Jung; Han, You Mi (Dept. of Radiology, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Suh, Kyung Jin (Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk Univ. College of Medicine, Gyeongju Hospital, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)), email: kyungjin.suh@gmail.com; Choi, Min Ho (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-02-15

    Background: A high-voltage electrical burn is often associated with deep muscle injuries. Hidden, undetected deep muscle injuries have a tendency for progressive tissue necrosis, and this can lead to major amputations or sepsis. MRI has excellent soft tissue contrast and it may aid in differentiating the areas of viable deep muscle from the areas of non-viable deep muscle. Purpose: To describe the MR imaging findings of a high-voltage electrical burn in the upper extremity with emphasis on the usefulness of the gadolinium-enhanced MRI and to compare the MR imaging findings with angiography. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies of six patients with high-voltage electrical burns who underwent both MRI and angiography at the burn center of our hospital from January 2005 to December 2009. The imaging features were evaluated for the involved locations, the MR signal intensity of the affected muscles, the MR enhancement pattern, the involved arteries and the angiographic findings (classified as normal, sluggish flow, stenosis or occlusion) of the angiography of the upper extremity. We assessed the relationship between the MR imaging findings and the angiographic findings. Results: The signal intensities of affected muscles were isointense or of slightly high signal intensity as compared with the adjacent unaffected skeletal muscle on the T1-weighted MR images. Affected muscles showed heterogenous high signal intensity relative to the adjacent unaffected skeletal muscle on the T2- weighted images. The gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images showed diffuse inhomogeneous enhancement or peripheral rim enhancement of the affected muscles. The angiographic findings of the arterial injuries showed complete occlusion in three patients, severe stenosis in two patients and sluggish flow in one patient. Of these, the five patients with complete occlusion or severe stenosis on angiography showed non-perfused and non-viable areas of edematous muscle on

  10. Very Young Children's Body Image: Bodies and Minds under Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbeck, David; Drummond, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In recent years research has recognised that notions of body image, body image ideals and body dissatisfaction develop much earlier than was once thought. Forty-seven children (25 male; 22 female) aged between 5 and 6 years were interviewed on three occasions over 12 months regarding their perceptions of body image. The interviews revealed…

  11. Delayed complications of radiotherapy treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: king2015@cuhk.edu.hk; Ahuja, A.T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Yeung, D.K. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Wong, J.K.T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Lee, Y.Y.P. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Lam, W.W.M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Ho, S.S.M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Yu, S.C.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Leung, S.-F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China)

    2007-03-15

    Radiotherapy is used to treat a wide variety of head and neck tumours that arise in and around the skull base. The delayed effects of radiation damages a range of structures, including the nervous system, bone, major vessels, mucus membranes, pituitary and salivary glands, as well as increasing the risk of radiation-induced neoplasms. In this review the complications resulting from radiation treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a cancer treated with a high dose of radiation to a fairly large region, are illustrated. Many patients with NPC have a long-term survival, so are at risk of developing delayed radiation effects, and hence may demonstrate a wide range of complications on imaging. Other tumours around the skull base treated with radiotherapy include meningiomas, chordomas, chondrosarcomas, pituitary adenomas, paranasal sinus and nasal cavity tumours. In these cases similar complications may be encountered on imaging, although the severity, incidence and location will vary.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pericardium: normal and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, D.D.; Higgins, C.B.; Lanzer, P.; Lipton, M.J.; Schiller, N.; Crooks, L.E.; Botvinick, E.B.; Kaufman, L.

    1984-02-01

    Twenty normal subjects and ten patients with pericardial abnormalities underwent ECG-gated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the thorax using a 0.35-tesla superconducting system. The patients with pericardial abnormalities were also evaluated with serial chest radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography, and/or angiography. ECG gating was necessary to identify the normal pericardium, which was visualized as a 1- to 2-mm-wide curvilinear structure of low signal intensity. Pericardial thickening in constrictive pericarditis was clearly delineated on gated MR images. Pericardial inflammation caused a marked increase in signal intensity as well as thickening of the pericardium. Pericardial effusions and pericardial adhesions were also demonstrated. A simple pericardial cyst and a complex pericardial mass were identified and differentiated from pericardial fat and diaphragmatic eventration. MR appears to be an important modality for the evaluation of pericardial disease.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pericardium: normal and pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty normal subjects and ten patients with pericardial abnormalities underwent ECG-gated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the thorax using a 0.35-tesla superconducting system. The patients with pericardial abnormalities were also evaluated with serial chest radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography, and/or angiography. ECG gating was necessary to identify the normal pericardium, which was visualized as a 1- to 2-mm-wide curvilinear structure of low signal intensity. Pericardial thickening in constrictive pericarditis was clearly delineated on gated MR images. Pericardial inflammation caused a marked increase in signal intensity as well as thickening of the pericardium. Pericardial effusions and pericardial adhesions were also demonstrated. A simple pericardial cyst and a complex pericardial mass were identified and differentiated from pericardial fat and diaphragmatic eventration. MR appears to be an important modality for the evaluation of pericardial disease

  14. The surgically altered breast: imaging technique and findings

    OpenAIRE

    Thongchai, Poonpit

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of breast cancer is the most importance factor that improve patient prognosis. Mammography has been proven in various randomized control trial as an effective screening tool for breast cancer. However, with the increasing of various breast surgical procedures such as breast augmentation, reduction mammoplasty and reconstruction, it may result in more challenging in surveillance and screening of the breast cancer. Imaging appearances of breast augmentation and other surgical al...

  15. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings in carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) of two patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning demonstrated white matter and cortical hyperintensities. In one patient, the changes on the FLAIR sequence were more subtle than those on DWI. The DWI abnormality in this patient represented true restriction. In the second patient, repeated exposure to CO caused restricted diffusion. DWI may be helpful for earlier identification of the changes of acute CO poisoning. (orig.)

  16. MR imaging findings of the femoral marrow in myelodysplastic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Osamu; Takagi, Shojiro; Matsuura, Katsuhiko; Ichikawa, Tamaki; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Nagai, Jun [Jichi Medical School, Minamikawachi, Tochigi (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    MR imaging of the femoral marrow was performed in 30 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 11 cases of which evolved to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The MRI appearance was classified into five patterns: fatty marrow; faint signal; nodular pattern; heterogeneous infiltration; and diffuse infiltration. For each type of MDS, MRI patterns of the femoral marrow were evaluated and compared with those in normal subjects as well as in patients with aplastic anemia. Signal intensity alteration, a low signal on T1-weighted SE image and a high signal on STIR image, began in the proximal femoral marrow almost symmetrically in patients with MDS. The area of abnormal signal intensity tended to gradually extend towards the distal portion of the femur as the disease progressed. MRI patterns of the femoral marrow correlated with marrow cellularity, and diffuse marrow infiltration was noted in patients with a more advanced type of MDS or with severe anemia. There were limitations to making an accurate diagnosis of the MDS type on the basis of the MRI pattern. Progression of the MRI appearance in the course of MDS was thought to be a sign suggesting evolution to AML. It was difficult to differentiate hypoplastic MDS from aplastic anemia, although the nodular pattern was commonly seen in the latter disease. (author).

  17. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children: A spectrum of radiologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a well known entity in adults but is exceedingly rare in children. It is better described in adults than in children. We describe the current understanding of PLCH in children and a spectrum of radiological findings of PLCH in the paediatric population. On high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), PLCH may have variable appearance depending on the stage of disease, ranging from small interstitial nodular opacities to multiple thin/thick walled cysts (often bizarre in shape), eventually leading to marked parenchymal fibrosis and honeycomb pattern. CT finding of PLCH is similar in adult and paediatric populations with the exception that lung base near the costophrenic angle is spared in adults but almost always involved in children.

  18. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children: A spectrum of radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bano, Shahina, E-mail: dr_shahinaindia@yahoo.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Hospitals, New Delhi 110001 (India); Chaudhary, Vikas, E-mail: dr_vikaschaudhary@yahoo.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) Model Hospital, Gurgaon 122001, Haryana (India); Narula, Mahender Kaur, E-mail: narulamk@gmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Hospitals, New Delhi 110001 (India); Anand, Rama, E-mail: rama_home@yahoo.co.in [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Hospitals, New Delhi 110001 (India); Venkatesan, Bhuvaneswari, E-mail: venkatesanbhuvana@yahoo.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Hospitals, New Delhi 110001 (India); Mandal, Shramana, E-mail: shramana@hotmail.co.in [Department of Pathology, Govind Ballabh Pant Hospital, New Delhi 110002 (India); Majumdar, Kaushik, E-mail: drkaushik.m@gmail.com [Department of Pathology, Govind Ballabh Pant Hospital, New Delhi 110002 (India)

    2014-01-15

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a well known entity in adults but is exceedingly rare in children. It is better described in adults than in children. We describe the current understanding of PLCH in children and a spectrum of radiological findings of PLCH in the paediatric population. On high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), PLCH may have variable appearance depending on the stage of disease, ranging from small interstitial nodular opacities to multiple thin/thick walled cysts (often bizarre in shape), eventually leading to marked parenchymal fibrosis and honeycomb pattern. CT finding of PLCH is similar in adult and paediatric populations with the exception that lung base near the costophrenic angle is spared in adults but almost always involved in children.

  19. Striated nephrogram as an incidental finding in MRI examination of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly striated contrast pattern of the kidneys occasionally appears in abdominal MRI examinations of children following the administration of gadolinium. As this phenomenon is well known but has not yet been explicitly described in literature, we investigated how frequently and in which clinical context this occurred. 855 abdominal MRI examinations with contrast media of 362 children between 2006 and 2014 were analysed retrospectively. A striated renal parenchyma was found in a total of nine children and eleven examinations (1.3 % of examinations) and did only occur at a field strength of 3 Tesla. Of these children, seven had previously had tumors and chemotherapy. In two children there was no evidence of a previously serious condition with medications or a kidney disease. All of them had a normal renal function. A noticeably striated nephrogram in the later phase of an MRI examination following administration of gadolinium may appear as an incidental finding in examinations at 3 Tesla without pathological relevance.

  20. Children's and Young People's Reading Today: Findings from the 2011 National Literacy Trust's Annual Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christina

    2012-01-01

    This research was funded by law firm Slaughter and May and carried out with 21,000 children and young people across the UK. One of its key findings is that children and young people are reading less as their lives get more crowded. In 2005 the researchers found that four young people in 10 read daily outside of class. This research carried out at…

  1. Marie-4: A High-Recall, Self-Improving Web Crawler That Finds Images Using Captions

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Neil C.

    2002-01-01

    Marie-4, a Web crawler and caption filter, searches the Web to find image captions and the associated image objects. It uses a broad set of criteria to yield higher recall than competing systems, which generally focus on high precision.

  2. Social networking among European children: new findings on privacy, identity and connection

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Sonia; Mascheroni, Giovanna; Murru, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Social networking is arguably the fastest growing online activity among youth people. This article presents new pan-European findings from the EU Kids Online project on how children and young people navigate the peer-to-peer networking possibilities afforded by social networking sites, based on a survey of around 25,000 children (1000 children in each of 25 countries). In all, 59 % of European 9-16 year olds who use the internet have their own social networking profile. Despite popular anxiet...

  3. Finding Terrestrial Planets Using Eighth-Order Image Masks

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchner, M J; Ge, J; Kuchner, Marc J.; Crepp, Justin; Ge, Jian

    2004-01-01

    We offer a new series of image masks for coronagraphy that are insensitive to pointing errors and other low-spatial frequency optical aberrations. For a modest cost in throughput, these ``eighth-order'' band-limited masks would allow the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) to operate with a pointing accuracy of no better than that of the Hubble Space Telescope. We also provide eighth-order notch filter masks that offer the same robustness to pointing errors and should be relatively easy to construct: binary masks and graded masks with moderate optical density requirements.

  4. Findings at brain MRI in children with dengue fever and neurological symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dengue is a flavivirus of the genus arbovirus with four serotypes, from DEN 1 to DEN 4. There has been an increase in incidence of dengue infection in children in the tropics and subtropics. Dengue has a variable clinical presentation, with many patients being asymptomatic. Its clinical manifestations in children vary from fever and arthralgia to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We describe MRI findings in children with neurological involvement including dengue encephalopathy, acute hypoxic injury and dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalopathy is usually secondary to multisystem derangement such as shock, hepatitis, coagulopathy and concurrent bacterial infection and is relatively common. Dengue encephalitis from direct neuronal invasion is rare. Nonspecific changes are seen on brain MRI in dengue infection. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as outcome do not necessarily correspond with brain MRI findings. (orig.)

  5. Findings at brain MRI in children with dengue fever and neurological symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Ruchi; Garg, Bhavya [Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India)

    2016-01-15

    Dengue is a flavivirus of the genus arbovirus with four serotypes, from DEN 1 to DEN 4. There has been an increase in incidence of dengue infection in children in the tropics and subtropics. Dengue has a variable clinical presentation, with many patients being asymptomatic. Its clinical manifestations in children vary from fever and arthralgia to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We describe MRI findings in children with neurological involvement including dengue encephalopathy, acute hypoxic injury and dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalopathy is usually secondary to multisystem derangement such as shock, hepatitis, coagulopathy and concurrent bacterial infection and is relatively common. Dengue encephalitis from direct neuronal invasion is rare. Nonspecific changes are seen on brain MRI in dengue infection. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as outcome do not necessarily correspond with brain MRI findings. (orig.)

  6. Findings at brain MRI in children with dengue fever and neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Ruchi; Garg, Bhavya

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a flavivirus of the genus arbovirus with four serotypes, from DEN 1 to DEN 4. There has been an increase in incidence of dengue infection in children in the tropics and subtropics. Dengue has a variable clinical presentation, with many patients being asymptomatic. Its clinical manifestations in children vary from fever and arthralgia to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We describe MRI findings in children with neurological involvement including dengue encephalopathy, acute hypoxic injury and dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalopathy is usually secondary to multisystem derangement such as shock, hepatitis, coagulopathy and concurrent bacterial infection and is relatively common. Dengue encephalitis from direct neuronal invasion is rare. Nonspecific changes are seen on brain MRI in dengue infection. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as outcome do not necessarily correspond with brain MRI findings. PMID:26216156

  7. MR imaging findings in early osteoarthritis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karachalios, Theofilos E-mail: kar@med.uth.gr; Zibis, Aristidis; Papanagiotou, Panagiotis; Karantanas, Apostolos H.; Malizos, Konstantinos N.; Roidis, Nikolaos

    2004-06-01

    Purpose: To carry out a modern diagnostic survey among patients with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of early osteoarthritis of the knee. Materials and methods:A magnetic resonance imaging survey was performed on 70 patients (82 knees) with a mean age of 59 years. (range, 40-71 years) who had chronic knee pain, clinical diagnosis of early osteoarthritis of the knee and conventional knee radiographs classified as 1 and 2 on the Kellgren-Lawrence scale. Results: A variety of different disorders was found; degenerative meniscal lesions with or without ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament in 70.7% of the knees, osteonecrosis of the femoral and tibial condyles in 9.75%, osteophytes and degenerative articular cartilage lesions in 8.54%, transient osteoporosis in 2.44% and benign neoplasms and cysts in 6.1%. Conclusions: The existence of such a heterogenous group of disorders in these 'early osteoarthritic knees' may explain failures in treatment and it may justify a modern MRI imaging approach to proper diagnosis.

  8. Repfinder: Finding approximately repeated scene elements for image editing

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming-Ming

    2010-07-26

    Repeated elements are ubiquitous and abundant in both manmade and natural scenes. Editing such images while preserving the repetitions and their relations is nontrivial due to overlap, missing parts, deformation across instances, illumination variation, etc. Manually enforcing such relations is laborious and error-prone. We propose a novel framework where user scribbles are used to guide detection and extraction of such repeated elements. Our detection process, which is based on a novel boundary band method, robustly extracts the repetitions along with their deformations. The algorithm only considers the shape of the elements, and ignores similarity based on color, texture, etc. We then use topological sorting to establish a partial depth ordering of overlapping repeated instances. Missing parts on occluded instances are completed using information from other instances. The extracted repeated instances can then be seamlessly edited and manipulated for a variety of high level tasks that are otherwise difficult to perform. We demonstrate the versatility of our framework on a large set of inputs of varying complexity, showing applications to image rearrangement, edit transfer, deformation propagation, and instance replacement. © 2010 ACM.

  9. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  10. Energy and nutrient intakes of young children in the UK: findings from the Gemini twin cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrad, H; Llewellyn, C H; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Johnson, L; Jebb, S A; Wardle, J

    2016-05-28

    Data on the diets of young children in the UK are limited, despite growing evidence of the importance of early diet for long-term health. We used the largest contemporary dietary data set to describe the intake of 21-month-old children in the UK. Parents of 2336 children aged 21 months from the UK Gemini twin cohort completed 3-d diet diaries in 2008/2009. Family background information was obtained from questionnaires completed 8 months after birth. Mean total daily intakes of energy, macronutrients (g and %E) and micronutrients from food and beverages, including and excluding supplements, were derived. Comparisons with UK dietary reference values (DRV) were made using t tests and general linear regression models, respectively. Daily energy intake (kJ), protein (g) and most micronutrients exceeded DRV, except for vitamin D and Fe, where 96 or 84 % and 70 or 6 % of children did not achieve the reference nutrient intake or lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI), respectively, even with supplementation. These findings reflect similar observations in the smaller sample of children aged 18-36 months in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. At a population level, young children in the UK are exceeding recommended daily intakes of energy and protein, potentially increasing their risk of obesity. The majority of children are not meeting the LRNI for vitamin D, largely reflecting inadequate use of the supplements recommended at this age. Parents may need more guidance on how to achieve healthy energy and nutrient intakes for young children. PMID:27093345

  11. Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia- Imaging findings in 19 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Goudarzi

    2009-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP),formely called pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, is a serious disease in immunocompromised patients, particularly those with AIDS. However, many patients with this disease are unaware of their HIV serostatus, requiring early and prompt diagnosis of the disease. Early chest radiographic findings of PJP may be subtle or equivocal. On the other hand, advances in the treatment and prevention of the disease is associated with an increased rate of atypical manif...

  12. MR imaging finding of synovial sarcoma: emphasis on signal characteristics on T2-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the MR imaging findings of synovial sarcoma, with emphasis on the signal characteristics of pathologically correlated T2-weighted images. Necrosis, cystic change or hemorrhage was suggested in 11 cases, ten of which showed triple signal intensity, and in all cases, was pathologically confirmed. Fluid-fluid levels were found in three cases and internal septa in ten. In four cases, maximum diameter was less than 5 cm, and in nine, was greater than this. No mass was detected in one case. The tumor was located in the low extremity(n=9), pelvic girdle and hip joint area(n=2), scapular (n=1), shoulder joint area(n=1), and scalp(n=1). Eleven cases showed a relatively well-defined margin and nine showed lobulation. Except in the area of necrosis and cystic change, the pattern of contrast enhancement was diffuse and inhomogeneous. Bony invasion was detected in two cases, neurovascular encasement in four, calcification in four, and joint capsule invasion in four. On T2-weighted images, synovial sarcoma frequently showed triple signal intensity and internal septa with fluid-fluid levels: this was induced by cystic changes due to necrosis and hemorrhage. (author). 13 refs., 2 figs

  13. MR imaging finding of synovial sarcoma: emphasis on signal characteristics on T2-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Won; Jung, Hye Weon; Cho, So Yeon; Han, Moon Hee; Im, Jung Gi; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-01-01

    To determine the MR imaging findings of synovial sarcoma, with emphasis on the signal characteristics of pathologically correlated T2-weighted images. Necrosis, cystic change or hemorrhage was suggested in 11 cases, ten of which showed triple signal intensity, and in all cases, was pathologically confirmed. Fluid-fluid levels were found in three cases and internal septa in ten. In four cases, maximum diameter was less than 5 cm, and in nine, was greater than this. No mass was detected in one case. The tumor was located in the low extremity(n=9), pelvic girdle and hip joint area(n=2), scapular (n=1), shoulder joint area(n=1), and scalp(n=1). Eleven cases showed a relatively well-defined margin and nine showed lobulation. Except in the area of necrosis and cystic change, the pattern of contrast enhancement was diffuse and inhomogeneous. Bony invasion was detected in two cases, neurovascular encasement in four, calcification in four, and joint capsule invasion in four. On T2-weighted images, synovial sarcoma frequently showed triple signal intensity and internal septa with fluid-fluid levels: this was induced by cystic changes due to necrosis and hemorrhage. (author). 13 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Finding Federal Money for Children's Services: Financing Services for Children through Title XX and Other Programs. Manual 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William C.

    This is the first manual of a 4-part series on how to find, obtain, contract for and manage Federal money for children's services. The first manual concentrates on ways to locate funds for new and existing programs. Emphasis is on Title XX of the Social Security Act, but attention is given also to alternative sources where Title XX funds are not…

  15. Incidental cardiac findings on computed tomography imaging of the thorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Gendi Hossam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of pulmonary pathology with computed tomography also allows visualisation of the heart and major vessels. We sought to explore whether clinically relevant cardiac pathology could be identified on computed tomography pulmonary angiograms (CTPA requested for the exclusion of pulmonary embolism (PE. 100 consecutive CT contrast-enhanced pulmonary angiograms carried out for exclusion of PE at a single centre were assessed retrospectively by two cardiologists. Findings Evidence of PE was reported in 5% of scans. Incidental cardiac findings included: aortic wall calcification (54%, coronary calcification (46%, cardiomegaly (41%, atrial dilatation (18%, mitral annulus calcification (15%, right ventricular dilatation (11%, aortic dilatation (8% and right ventricular thrombus (1%. Apart from 3 (3% reports describing cardiomegaly, no other cardiac findings were described in radiologists' reports. Other reported pulmonary abnormalities included: lung nodules (14%, lobar collapse/consolidation (8%, pleural effusion (2%, lobar collapse/consolidation (8%, emphysema (6% and pleural calcification (4%. Conclusions CTPAs requested for the exclusion of PE have a high yield of cardiac abnormalities. Although these abnormalities may not have implications for acute clinical management, they may, nevertheless, be important in long-term care.

  16. Chondroid lipoma: correlation of imaging findings and histopathology of an unusual benign lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.A.R.; Cannon, S.R. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Flanagan, A.M. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Department of Histopathology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2004-11-01

    The imaging findings of soft tissue tumours are often non-specific and generally require biopsy to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions. The finding of curvilinear, annular or amorphous mineralisation in an enlarging mass has sinister connotations. In this case report, we present the imaging findings with histological correlation of a chondroid lipoma, an unusual benign soft tissue tumour, which presented with radiographic evidence of calcification, an imaging finding not previously described. We also describe the ultrasound appearance and certain MR imaging appearances that have not been previously attributed to this tumour in the few reported cases. (orig.)

  17. Pediatric imaging essentials. Radiography, ultrasound, CT, and MRI in neonates and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, Michael (ed.) [Graz University Hospital (Austria). Div. of Pediatric Radiology

    2014-03-01

    For all radiologists treating infants and children, knowledge of best practices in pediatric imaging is essential to safely obtaining high-quality images and achieving accurate diagnoses. This practical text covers current guidelines and key topics in the field, including choice of modality, equipment and dosages, child-specific diseases, typical imaging findings, differential diagnostic aspects and safety factors. This book is invaluable for all clinicians and radiologists who diagnose and manage this sensitive population. Special features: - Explores the use of all standard imaging modalities in children as compared to adults, especially with regard to ultrasound, CT, and MRI - Supplies more than 600 high-quality images to help in interpreting findings, including imaging of suspected child abuse - Shows how to adapt examination protocols and equipment requirements for the specialized needs of pediatric patients - Describes important safety protection measures in children utilizing the ALARA principle of radiation exposure (''As Low As Reasonably Achievable'') - Summarizes a wide array of pediatric diseases and disorders in a concise, checklist format, including clinical features, imaging findings, differential diagnosis, associated syndromes, and treatment recommendations - Includes lists of indications, summary tables, imaging protocols, case studies, and quiz questions to test your knowledge This book provides a fundamental understanding of imaging in infants and children and is an ideal, practice-oriented reference for residents, fellows in pediatric radiology, and general radiologists. It is also written for pediatricians, pediatric surgeons, and other interested doctors and specialists who want to know more about imaging specifics in the pediatric age group.

  18. Oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe: magnetic resonance imaging findings in the first six years of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho-Neto, Arnolfo de; Ono, Sergio Eiji; Cardoso, Georgina de Melo; Santos, Mara Lucia Schmitz Ferreira; Celidonio, Izabela [Hospital Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: ono.sergio@gmail.com

    2009-06-15

    treatment includes cataract extraction, glaucoma control, physical and speech therapy, drugs addressed to behavioral problems and correction of the renal (tubular acidosis) and consequent bone diseases (rickets). Life span rarely exceeds 40 years. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may show two patterns of lesions: hyperintensities on T2-weighted images, and periventricular cystic lesions. The present case reports these findings in a time interval of 4 years, showing that initially the hyperintensities are seen, and afterwards, the cystic images. This pattern would help the radiologist and pediatric neurologist to reinforce the clinical diagnosis, as these patterns of images can be seen in other conditions. (author)

  19. Oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe: magnetic resonance imaging findings in the first six years of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    includes cataract extraction, glaucoma control, physical and speech therapy, drugs addressed to behavioral problems and correction of the renal (tubular acidosis) and consequent bone diseases (rickets). Life span rarely exceeds 40 years. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may show two patterns of lesions: hyperintensities on T2-weighted images, and periventricular cystic lesions. The present case reports these findings in a time interval of 4 years, showing that initially the hyperintensities are seen, and afterwards, the cystic images. This pattern would help the radiologist and pediatric neurologist to reinforce the clinical diagnosis, as these patterns of images can be seen in other conditions. (author)

  20. Imaging findings of biliary and nonbiliary complications following laparoscopic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin-Young; Kim, Joo Hee; Lim, Joon Seok; Oh, Young Taik; Kim, Ki Whang [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Myeong-Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Institute of Gastroenterology, Seoul (Korea); Park, Mi-Suk [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-09-15

    Laparoscopic techniques are evolving for a wide range of surgical procedures although they were initially confined to cholecystectomy and exploratory laparoscopy. Recently, surgical procedures performed with a laparoscope include splenectomy, adrenalectomy, gastrectomy, and myomectomy. In this article, we review the spectrum of complications and illustrate imaging features of biliary and nonbiliary complications after various laparoscopic surgeries. Biliary complications following laparoscopic cholecystectomy include bile ductal obstruction, bile leak with bile duct injury, dropped stones in the peritoneal cavity, retained CBD stone, and port-site metastasis. Nonbiliary complications are anastomotic leakage after partial gastrectomy, gangrenous cholecystitis after gastrectomy, hematoma at the anastomotic site following gastrectomy, gastric infarction after gastrectomy, port-site metastasis after gastrectomy, hematoma after splenectomy, renal infarction after adrenalectomy, and active bleeding after myomectomy of the uterus. (orig.)

  1. Clinical and Imaging Findings in an Infant With Zika Embryopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culjat, Marko; Darling, Stephen E; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Ching, Natascha; Kumar, Mukesh; Min, Sarah K; Wong, Rupa; Grant, Leon; Melish, Marian E

    2016-09-15

    Recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks have been associated with an increased incidence of neonatal microcephaly. Subsequently, tropism for the brain was established in human fetal brain tissue. We present the first congenital ZIKV infection in the United States, confirmed by high ZIKV immunoglobulin M antibody titers in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The phenotypic characteristics of the patient fall within fetal brain disruption sequence, suggesting impaired brain development in the second half of gestation. Brain imaging revealed an almost agyric brain with diffuse parenchymal calcifications, hydrocephalus ex vacuo, and cerebellar hypoplasia. Ophthalmologic examination revealed macular pigment stippling and optic nerve atrophy. Liver, lungs, heart, and bone marrow were not affected. The patient had progressive neurologic deterioration in the first month of life. The discovery of ZIKV infection in human fetal brain tissue along with serologic confirmation proves the vertical transmission of ZIKV. Therefore, ZIKV has joined the group of congenital infections. PMID:27193747

  2. The plantar fasciotomy: MR imaging findings in asymptomatic volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J.S.; Ashman, C. [Ohio State Univ. Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States); Smith, G.; Kaeding, C. [Ohio State Univ. Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Objective. To determine the postoperative appearance of the plantar fascia on MR imaging after a fasciotomy has been performed, and to compare the postsurgical appearance of the fascia after an open and endoscopic procedure.< rate at head-abs-p1.lf>Design and patients. Fifteen asymptomatic volunteers (12 women, 3 men; age range 22-49 years, mean age 33 years) with prior fasciotomies for treatment of longstanding plantar fasciitis were studied. Fourteen volunteers had a unilateral release and one volunteer had bilateral releases, allowing for assessment of 16 ankles. Eight fasciotomies were performed through an open incision and eight were performed endoscopically. The average time between surgery and imaging was 24 months (range 11-46 months). The site of surgery was established from the operative reports. Proton density (PD)-weighted and T2-weighted images in three orthogonal planes were obtained on a 1.5-T magnet. In eight studies, T1-weighted sagittal and STIR sagittal images were included. The fascia in each ankle was assessed for morphology and signal intensity. Perifascial soft tissues and bone marrow were assessed for edema. Preoperative MR studies were available in five volunteers.< rate at head-abs-p1.lf>Results. There was no apparent difference in the postoperative appearance of the ankle after an open or endoscopic procedure except for scar formation in the subcutaneous fat which was common after an open procedure (P<0.05). Three ankles had a gap in the fascia (one open, two endoscopic). The plantar fascia measured a mean of 7.0 mm (range 5-10 mm) at the fasciotomy, and 8.3 mm (range 6-12 mm) at the enthesis. At the fasciotomy, 11 of 13 ankles had an indistinct deep contour and 9 of 13 had an indistinct superficial contour. At the enthesis, 13 of 16 ankles had an indistinct deep contour and 6 of 16 had an indistinct superficial contour. Compared with preoperative MR studies there was an average reduction in the fascial thickness at the enthesis of 14

  3. Neurofibromatosis type 1: Diffusion weighted imaging findings of brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the differences in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values between infra and supratentorial unidentified bright objects (UBOs), between UBOs and normal appearing side (NAS, contralateral regions of the UBOs and/or normal appearing region without UBOs) in the neurofibromatosis type 1 patients (NF1) and control group and also to investigate correlation between age and ADC values. Methods: A total of 30 patients and 26 healthy controls were included. The MRI examination consisted of routine imaging and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Seven distinct locations (frontal, parieto-occipital and cerebellar white matter, globus pallidum, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain) were selected for the analysis. The ADC values were calculated directly from these automatically generated ADC maps with ROI. Results: The ADC values of UBOs were significantly increased in cerebellar white matter, hippocampus, globus pallidum, midbrain, and thalamus when compared with NAS and control group. There were statistically significant differences between NAS and control group in the ADC values obtained from hippocampus and thalamus. There were statistically significant differences between supra and infratentorial UBOs in ADC values. There was a negative correlation between age and the ADC values obtained from normal appearing midbrain, hippocampus, thalamus, and globus pallidum. Conclusion: ADC values both in UBOs and in the normal appearing locations as hippocampus and thalamus were detected to be higher in the patients with NF1. The detection of lesions might be independent of MRI appearance in NF1, i.e. although the brain is affected, MRI appearance may be normal. Therefore, DWI and ADC values should also be utilized in the delineation of brain involvement of NF1 patients

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of retroperitoneal tumor in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the MRI findings of 12 children with retroperitoneal tumors before treatment. Their pathological diagnoses were: 5 neuroblastomas, 2 Wilms' tumors, a renal cell carcinoma, a congenital mesoblastic nephroma, a renal involvement of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a retroperitoneal teratoma and a sacrococcygeal yolk-sac tumor. The MRI findings were compared with those of other imaging modalities and of surgery. MRI demonstrated all the primary and metastatic tumors except for a 1-2 milimeters calcified lymph node in a neuroblastoma. Because of its multiplane scanning capability and excellent tissue contrast resolution, MRI demonstrated the origin and extent of the tumors better than CT, as well as tumor extension into the neural foramina and spinal canal. Also well demonstrated were vascular invasion, stenosis, rotation and tumor thrombi. Information obtained by MRI were quite useful in staging of the disease and planning the treatment. We believe that MRI provides the information needed before treatment and has the possibility of replacing invasive imaging modalities, such as angiography, cavography and myelography, in many occasions. (author)

  5. Spontaneous drainage in syringomyelia: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present five cases of syringomyelia associated with Chiari I or other causes of partial obstructions at the cervicomedullary junction, with spontaneous disruption of the wall of a cervical syrinx and formation of a communication between the cavity and the subarachnoid space, shown on axial MRI. MRI can be used to investigate the hydrodynamics, showing the liquid inside the disrupted syrinx wall and the pathway of drainage. The finding of spontaneous drainage may be important for understanding the pathogenesis of syringomyelia and may be helpful for choosing a surgical approach. (orig.)

  6. CT findings of plastic bronchitis in children after a Fontan operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Jhang, Won Kyoung; Kim, Young Hwee; Ko, Jae Kon; Park, In Sook [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Park, Jeong-Jun; Yun, Tae-Jin; Seo, Dong-Man [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2008-09-15

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare cause of acute obstructive respiratory failure in children. Life-threatening events are much more frequent in patients with repaired cyanotic congenital heart disease, and most frequent following a Fontan operation. Commonly, the diagnosis is not made until bronchial casts are expectorated. Detailed CT findings in plastic bronchitis have not been described. To describe the CT findings in plastic bronchitis in children after a Fontan operation. Three children with plastic bronchitis after a Fontan operation were evaluated by chest CT. Bronchial casts were spontaneously expectorated and/or extracted by bronchoscopy. Airway and lung abnormalities seen on CT were analyzed in the three children. CT demonstrated bronchial casts in the central airways with associated atelectasis and consolidation in all children. The affected airways were completely or partially obstructed by the bronchial casts without associated bronchiectasis. The airway and lung abnormalities rapidly improved after removal of the bronchial casts. CT can identify airway and lung abnormalities in children with plastic bronchitis after a Fontan operation. In addition, CT can be used to guide bronchoscopy and to monitor treatment responses, and thereby may improve clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  7. CT findings of plastic bronchitis in children after a Fontan operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare cause of acute obstructive respiratory failure in children. Life-threatening events are much more frequent in patients with repaired cyanotic congenital heart disease, and most frequent following a Fontan operation. Commonly, the diagnosis is not made until bronchial casts are expectorated. Detailed CT findings in plastic bronchitis have not been described. To describe the CT findings in plastic bronchitis in children after a Fontan operation. Three children with plastic bronchitis after a Fontan operation were evaluated by chest CT. Bronchial casts were spontaneously expectorated and/or extracted by bronchoscopy. Airway and lung abnormalities seen on CT were analyzed in the three children. CT demonstrated bronchial casts in the central airways with associated atelectasis and consolidation in all children. The affected airways were completely or partially obstructed by the bronchial casts without associated bronchiectasis. The airway and lung abnormalities rapidly improved after removal of the bronchial casts. CT can identify airway and lung abnormalities in children with plastic bronchitis after a Fontan operation. In addition, CT can be used to guide bronchoscopy and to monitor treatment responses, and thereby may improve clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  8. The management of infants and children for painless imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of a child to remain sufficiently immobile for painless imaging depends upon their behaviour and the imaging itself. Anaesthesia allows imaging to be optimised but it is expensive, scarce and inappropriate for many situations. Fortunately, sedation and behavioural techniques are sufficiently successful for the majority of scanning, and success rates are high provided that suitable children are selected. Sedation, however, administered by non-anaesthetists, may have catastrophic complications such as airway obstruction. Current UK recommendations demand that any sedation technique has a 'wide margin of safety', but in addition to this, safety is dependent on trained, skilful and experienced staff. Magnetic resonance imaging frightens many children and special planning is necessary for sedation and anaesthesia. When planning an imaging service for children, all the management techniques should be considered in order to achieve maximum efficiency, quality and safety

  9. CT and MR imaging findings of palatal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palatal tumors commonly arise from the minor salivary glands, and benign tumors account for approximately half of all minor salivary gland tumors. Minor salivary gland tumors have an affinity for the posterior hard palate and soft palate and virtually never arise in the midline, probably because of the distribution of palatal salivary glands. The majority of benign salivary gland tumors of the palate are pleomorphic adenomas, while the most common malignant salivary gland tumor is adenoid cystic carcinoma, followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma. Epithelial tumors frequently arise from the soft palate. The majority of benign epithelial tumors of the palate are papillomas, while most malignant epithelial tumors are squamous cell carcinomas. Various types of mesenchymal tumors, including fibromas, lipomas, schwannomas, neurofibromas, hemangiomas, and lymphangiomas, also involve the palate. This article describes the CT and MR findings of benign and malignant palatal tumors

  10. CT and MR imaging findings of palatal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroki, E-mail: hkato@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki, E-mail: masa_gif@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Makita, Hiroki, E-mail: makitah@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Kato, Keizo, E-mail: keizo@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Hatakeyama, Daijiro, E-mail: hatakeya@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Shibata, Toshiyuki, E-mail: shibat@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke, E-mail: kmizuta@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Aoki, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: aoki@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    Palatal tumors commonly arise from the minor salivary glands, and benign tumors account for approximately half of all minor salivary gland tumors. Minor salivary gland tumors have an affinity for the posterior hard palate and soft palate and virtually never arise in the midline, probably because of the distribution of palatal salivary glands. The majority of benign salivary gland tumors of the palate are pleomorphic adenomas, while the most common malignant salivary gland tumor is adenoid cystic carcinoma, followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma. Epithelial tumors frequently arise from the soft palate. The majority of benign epithelial tumors of the palate are papillomas, while most malignant epithelial tumors are squamous cell carcinomas. Various types of mesenchymal tumors, including fibromas, lipomas, schwannomas, neurofibromas, hemangiomas, and lymphangiomas, also involve the palate. This article describes the CT and MR findings of benign and malignant palatal tumors.

  11. Aberrant left brachiocephalic vein: CT imaging findings and embryologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography was utilized to evaluate aberrant left brachiocephalic vein (ALBCV), an infrequently discussed congenital vascular anomaly among Chinese people. Associated vascular variation and possible embryonic correlation are discussed. Since 1990, a total of 14 cases of ALBCV have been reported in patients receiving CT scan of chest, and was mainly an incidental diagnosis. One case was confirmed angiographically and two others were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Emphasis was placed on the entry of the azygos vein into the superior vena cava (SVC), the length of the SVC, and the presence of other cardiovascular abnormalities. Of the 14 cases of ALBCV, the level of azygos vein entry was higher than the origin of the SVC in 7 cases: 4 were approximately the same level and 3 were lower. The average length of the SVC was approximately 5.6 cm shorter than that of the general population, which is approximately 7.0 cm. Three cases had associated vascular anomaly. Most cases of ALBCV had azygos vein drainage level higher than or equal to the origin of the SVC. Right-sided aorta is one of the causes giving rise to the ALBCV during embryonic development. The CT scan remains a definitive diagnostic modality for ALBCV. (orig.)

  12. Intussusception in children: Comparison between ultrasound diagnosis and operation findings in a tropical developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usang E Usang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intussusception is one of the more common causes of intestinal obstruction in children. The diagnosis may be based mainly on clinical features; however, there are no classic signs and symptoms that are common to all cases. This study reports our experience at US diagnosis and operation findings of children with intussusceptions in a tropical developing economy. Materials and Methods: This was an 8 years retrospective review of intussusceptions in children in a tertiary health facility in a tropical developing country from January 2004 to December 2011. Results: Twenty-five out of 41 children (M:F = 2.2:1 admitted with intussusceptions within the period were studied. The median age was 6.0 ± 5.57 months (range 3 months- 7 years. US positively diagnosed intussusceptions in 20 (80% cases. Conclusion: US can increase diagnostic confidence in intussusceptions.

  13. The Clinical Characteristics and Imaging Findings of Morning Glory Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun HU

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the features of CT, ultrasonography and fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA) of morning glory syndrome, the data on CT, A/B-scan ultrasonography and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) were retrospectively analyzed in 8 cases of morning glory syndrome (MGS).Among those cases, 6 were examined with CT, 4 with FFA and 8 with A/B-scan ultrasonography.Results showed that the characteristics of CT, A/B-scan ultrasonography and FFA in MGS included:(1) The attachment spot of optic nerve became thin and vitreous body protruded to the posterior wall of eyeball with a spherical shape on CT image; (2) in the early period of FFA, hypofluorescence appeared on the optic, the abnormal arteriae and veins around the optic papilla were displayed clearly and in the late period, optic disc was stained with fluorescein; (3) on B-scan ultrasonogram, the vitreous cavity extended to the posterior pole and optic papilla, and projected to the basal part of muscle cones and thus the posterior part of vitreous cavity looked like an upside-down bottleneck. Sometimes the echogenic band of retinal detachment could also be seen. On A-scan ultrasonogram, both vitreous cavity and bottleneck showed no ultrasonic echoes and presented a base line without any evident wave crest. It is concluded that CT, A/B-scan ultrasonography and FFA could show the imageological features of MGS from different aspects, which helps clinicians to differentiate it from other diseases such as optic disc coloboma. CT and A/B-scan ultrasonography, in particular, are considered to be reliable imageological methods for the accurate diagnosis of MGS and are superior to the traditional techniques.

  14. Imaging and clinical findings in large endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesling, Sabrina [University of Halle, Department of Radiology, E-Grube-Street 40, D-06097 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: sabrina.koesling@medizin.uni-halle.de; Rasinski, Christine [University of Halle, Department of Otorhinolaryngology (Germany); Amaya, Beatrice [University of Halle, Department of Radiology, E-Grube-Street 40, D-06097 Halle (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    Objective: Large endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome (LEDS) is known as the most common kind of inner ear malformations, which is radiologically detectable. Nevertheless, nowadays many questions are not fully cleared and LEDS is relatively unknown among general radiologists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of LEDS in the own patient population and to present our experiences regarding imaging findings, clinical presentation and follow up. Materials and methods: Based on a complete recording of all patients, sent from ENT department to radiology, we identified all radiological diagnosed cases of inner ear malformations including LEDS and all patients in whom an inner ear malformation was clinically suspected. The retrospective study included clinical records, HR-CT and MRI performed between 1994 and 2002. Results: Among 169 patients (338 ear), 17 of patients (median age: 12 years) and 28 ears, respectively, had enlarged endolymphatic structures. In 10 patients - 6% - (15 ears), no other abnormalities were detected, called isolated LEDS, seven patients showed additional inner ear abnormalities. One patient showed a labyrinthine hemorrhage after sudden hearing loss. Audiometric data revealed sensorineural hearing loss in 22 ears, deafness in 5 ears and normal hearing in 1 case of 28 ears. In 10 (67%) of 15 ears with isolated LEDS, the hearing loss was downward-fluctuating progressive. Twelve patients (eight with isolated LEDS) had partly repeated sudden hearing losses. A trigger for worsening of hearing was found in five patients. A correlation between the severity of morphological changes on imaging and the degree of hearing disturbances could not be detected. Only four young patients underwent a radiological examination within the first or second year after onset of hearing loss. Three patients received a cochlear implant. Conclusions: LEDS might be the cause of progressive hearing loss and repeated acute hearing losses in children and young

  15. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING FINDINGS IN SMALL RUMINANTS WITH BRAIN DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertelt, Katrin; Oevermann, Anna; Precht, Christina; Lauper, Josiane; Henke, Diana; Gorgas, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Brain disease is an important cause of neurologic deficits in small ruminants, however few MRI features have been described. The aim of this retrospective, case series study was to describe MRI characteristics in a group of small ruminants with confirmed brain disease. A total of nine small ruminants (six sheep and three goats) met inclusion criteria. All had neurologic disorders localized to the brain and histopathologic confirmation. In animals with toxic-metabolic diseases, there were bilaterally symmetric MRI lesions affecting either the gray matter (one animal with polioencephalomalacia) or the white matter (two animals with enterotoxemia). In animals with suppurative inflammation, asymmetric focal brainstem lesions were present (two animals with listeric encephalitis), or lesions typical of an intra-axial (one animal) or dural abscess (one animal), respectively. No MRI lesions were detected in one animal with suspected viral cerebellitis and one animal with parasitic migration tracts. No neoplastic or vascular lesions were identified in this case series. Findings from the current study supported the use of MRI for diagnosing brain diseases in small ruminants. PMID:26776819

  16. Findings in cystourethrography that suggest lower urinary tract dysfunction in children with vesicoureteral reflux

    OpenAIRE

    Ubirajara Barroso Jr; Antonio J. Vinhaes; Milton Barros; Vivian A. Barroso; Adriano A. Calado; Miguel Zerati Filho

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Children with lower urinary tract dysfunction and vesicoureteral reflux, at cystography assessment, frequently present alterations in the lower urinary tract anatomy such as dilated posterior urethra, irregularity of the bladder wall and diverticula. However, the significance of these findings is unknown. The objective of this study is to evaluate the incidence of these findings, their time of disappearance and their correlation with the severity of the reflux. MATERIALS AND METHODS:...

  17. Diffusion-weighted imaging findings on MRI as the sole radiographic findings in a child with proven herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of herpes simplex encephalitis in an 8-year-old girl, in whom hyperintensity was detected on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) while conventional MRI sequences were normal 1 week after the onset of neurological symptoms. This case is rare in that a child beyond the neonatal period with focal herpes simplex encephalitis had an abnormal DWI sequence as the only MRI finding. (orig.)

  18. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging findings in a patient with trigeminal ganglineuroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seul Kee; Jeong, Min Young; Kang, Heoung Keun; Yoon, Woong [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    A case of intracranial ganglioneuroma arising from the trigeminal nerve in the pontine and cerebellopontine angle cistern, in a 44-year-old female, is presented with an emphasis on diffusion-weighted imaging findings. We will discuss on how the tumor in the very unusual location should be differentiated particularly focused on diffusion-weighted imaging findings.

  19. Classifications,symptoms and imaging findings of 195 cases confirmed by biopsy or postoperative pathology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董秦雯

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarize and analyze the classifications,symptoms,imaging findings of the cerebral space occupying lesions which confirmed by biopsy or postoperative pathology.Methods The classifications,symptoms,imaging findings of 195 cases who visited the Neurology Department of Naval General Hospital were analyzed by retrospective study.Results Classifications:among the 86 neoplastic lesions(NL),there were 49

  20. 34 CFR 300.131 - Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child find for parentally-placed private school...-placed private school children with disabilities. (a) General. Each LEA must locate, identify, and..., elementary schools and secondary schools located in the school district served by the LEA, in accordance...

  1. Respiratory syncytial virus infection of the lower respiratory tract: radiological findings in 108 children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For years the typical appearance of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced infection of the lower respiratory tract has been discussed. All available studies have led to different results. The aim of this study was to control these results, with 108 children. The age range was 1 day to 10 years (median 7 months). Within 72 h of admission, all children developed an RSV infection of the lower respiratory tract. Chest X-rays (pa-view) of 55 children under, and 53 children over, the age of 6 months (10/53>24 months) were evaluated. The diagnosis of RSV and the chest X-ray were mostly done on the same day. The major radiological findings of the two age-groups were compared by Wilcoxon's unpaired rank sum test. Major radiological findings were: normal chest X-ray (30%), central pneumonia (32%) or peribronchitis (26%). There was no statistical significance between the age-groups. Other findings were emphysema (11%), pleural effusion (6%), lobar- or broncho-pneumonia (each 6%), atelectasis (5%) or pneumothorax in one case. Therefore, the most common radiological findings in RSV-induced infection of the lower respiratory tract, supported by our results (RSV infection without bacterial superinfection) are central pneumonia, peribronchitis or normal chest X-ray. Thus an age-group separation into under or over 6 months is no longer necessary. (orig.)

  2. Clinical and para clinical findings in the children with tyrosinemia referring for liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Dehghani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: This study described clinical and laboratory findings in the children with HT1 who had referred for liver transplantation because of end-stage liver disease from all over country, which indicates delay in diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Considering the results of this study, newborn screening for this disease is highly suggested.

  3. CT Imaging Findings after Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Liver Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga R. Brook

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study radiological response to stereotactic radiotherapy for focal liver tumors. Materials and Methods. In this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study CTs of 68 consecutive patients who underwent stereotactic radiotherapy for liver tumors between 01/2006 and 01/2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Two independent reviewers evaluated lesion volume and enhancement pattern of the lesion and of juxtaposed liver parenchyma. Results. 36 subjects with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, 25 with liver metastases, and seven with cholangiocarcinoma (CCC were included in study. Mean follow-up time was 5.6 ± 7.1 months for HCC, 6.4 ± 5.1 months for metastases, and 10.1 ± 4.8 months for the CCC. Complete response was seen in 4/36 (11.1% HCCs and 1/25 (4% metastases. Partial response (>30% decrease in long diameter was seen in 25/36 (69% HCCs, 14/25 (58% metastases, and 7/7 (100% of CCCs. Partial response followed by local recurrence (>20% increase in long diameter from nadir occurred in 2/36 (6% HCCs and 4/25 (17% metastases. Liver parenchyma adjacent to the lesion demonstrated a prominent halo of delayed enhancement in 27/36 (78% of HCCs, 19/21 (91% of metastases, and 7/7 (100% of CCCs. Conclusion. Sustainable radiological partial response to stereotactic radiotherapy is most frequent outcome seen in liver lesions. Prominent halo of delayed enhancement of the adjacent liver is frequent finding.

  4. The unicornuate uterus and its variants: clinical presentation, imaging findings, and associated complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khati, Nadia J; Frazier, Aletta A; Brindle, Kathleen A

    2012-02-01

    This article will describe the different variants of the unicornuate uterus, their clinical presentation and imaging findings, as well their associated complications. We will also review the associated renal anomalies. Patients' symptoms and their imaging findings will vary depending on the unicornuate subtype. Radiologic evaluation includes a combination of hysterosalpingography, sonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Complications include obstetric ones related to the small uterine size and endometriosis and ectopic pregnancies when a cavitary rudimentary uterine horn is present. Radiologists should be familiar with all variants of the unicornuate uterus as well as their clinical presentation and associated imaging findings. PMID:22298877

  5. Hip arthropathy in a patient with primary hemochromatosis: MR imaging findings with pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Mohana-Borges, Aurea V R; Campell, Loretta; Trudell, Debra; Haghighi, Parviz; Resnick, Donald

    2005-03-01

    Arthropathy is a major clinical manifestation in primary hemochromatosis, typically affecting the metacarpophalangeal joints. Hip arthropathy is not uncommon, with radiologic features resembling osteoarthritis or calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease. We describe the MR imaging findings of the hip in a patient with severe hip arthropathy and primary hemochromatosis and correlate them with the histopathologic findings. MR imaging showed severe degenerative changes, with large subchondral cysts and subchondral sclerosis in the femoral head and acetabulum. There was conspicuous correlation between MR imaging and pathologic findings of the resected femoral head. However, MR imaging failed to reveal intra-articular iron. PMID:15316682

  6. Hip arthropathy in a patient with primary hemochromatosis: MR imaging findings with pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthropathy is a major clinical manifestation in primary hemochromatosis, typically affecting the metacarpophalangeal joints. Hip arthropathy is not uncommon, with radiologic features resembling osteoarthritis or calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease. We describe the MR imaging findings of the hip in a patient with severe hip arthropathy and primary hemochromatosis and correlate them with the histopathologic findings. MR imaging showed severe degenerative changes, with large subchondral cysts and subchondral sclerosis in the femoral head and acetabulum. There was conspicuous correlation between MR imaging and pathologic findings of the resected femoral head. However, MR imaging failed to reveal intra-articular iron. (orig.)

  7. Hip arthropathy in a patient with primary hemochromatosis: MR imaging findings with pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papakonstantinou, Olympia [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego (United States); University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Mohana-Borges, Aurea V.R.; Campell, Loretta; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, Department of Pathology, San Diego, California (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Arthropathy is a major clinical manifestation in primary hemochromatosis, typically affecting the metacarpophalangeal joints. Hip arthropathy is not uncommon, with radiologic features resembling osteoarthritis or calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease. We describe the MR imaging findings of the hip in a patient with severe hip arthropathy and primary hemochromatosis and correlate them with the histopathologic findings. MR imaging showed severe degenerative changes, with large subchondral cysts and subchondral sclerosis in the femoral head and acetabulum. There was conspicuous correlation between MR imaging and pathologic findings of the resected femoral head. However, MR imaging failed to reveal intra-articular iron. (orig.)

  8. MR imaging findings in granular cell tumor of the neurohypophysis: a difficult preoperative diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, A.; Arias, M.; Brasa, J. [Unidad de Resonancia Magnetica (MEDTEC), Hospital Xeral-Cies, Vigo (Spain); Paramo, C. [Servicio de Endocrinologia, Hospital Xeral-Cies, Vigo (Spain); Conde, C. [Servicio de Neurocirugia, Hospital Xeral-Cies, Vigo (Spain); Fernandez, R. [Servicio de Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Xeral-Cies, Vigo (Spain)

    2000-12-01

    Granular cell tumor is a rare neoplasm arising within the neurohypophysis. We describe the MR imaging findings in two symptomatic patients. In one patient with history of panhypopituitarism, MR images showed a large sellar and suprasellar mass. The other patient presented with acute loss of vision in her left eye, and MR images showed a suprasellar mass with compression of the optic chiasm. (orig.)

  9. Spectrum of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Appearances of Juvenile Temporomandibular Joints (TMJ) in Non-Rheumatic Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Temporomandibular joints (TMJ) are frequently involved in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the only modality for an early diagnosis. However, only very few data exist on the appearance of contrast-enhanced MRI of normal juvenile TMJ. Purpose: To define the spectrum of normal MRI findings of juvenile TMJ, and to assess a possible overlap with findings typical for active synovitis in JIA. Material and Methods: 96 children (192 TMJ), 51 boys and 45 girls with a median age of 7.8 years (range 3-13 years), underwent a head MRI. The presence of autoimmune disease, including JIA, was excluded via chart history, available laboratory findings, and the absence of known typical pathological MRI changes (degree of synovial enhancement, hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images in the synovia or bone marrow, and morphologic changes of the mandibular condyle) of the TMJ affected by JIA. Results: In 90 (94%) children, the TMJ showed no MRI abnormalities compatible with arthritis. In three children (3%), the only abnormal MRI finding was a small bilateral joint effusion. A further three children (3%) had a mild synovial enhancement seen on both axial and coronal MR planes in one child and only in the axial plane in the other two children. Signal hyperintensity on T2-weighted images and other corresponding characteristics of TMJ inflammation were lacking in all these six patients. Conclusion: The vast majority of juvenile TMJ in non-rheumatic children shows no MRI abnormalities. Exceptions, including a discrete enhancement of the synovial membrane (3%) or small joint effusions (3%), can occur in a minority of patients, but none of them are accompanied by other signs of inflammation or morphological changes of the TMJ

  10. Spectrum of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Appearances of Juvenile Temporomandibular Joints (TMJ) in Non-Rheumatic Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzaribachev, N. (Dept. of Hematology, Oncology, and General Pediatrics, Univ. Children' s Hospital, Eberhard-Karls-Univ., Tuebingen (Germany)). e-mail. tzari@o2online.de; Fritz, J. (Russell H. Morgan Dept. of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Horger, M. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-Univ., Tuebingen (Germany))

    2009-12-15

    Background: Temporomandibular joints (TMJ) are frequently involved in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the only modality for an early diagnosis. However, only very few data exist on the appearance of contrast-enhanced MRI of normal juvenile TMJ. Purpose: To define the spectrum of normal MRI findings of juvenile TMJ, and to assess a possible overlap with findings typical for active synovitis in JIA. Material and Methods: 96 children (192 TMJ), 51 boys and 45 girls with a median age of 7.8 years (range 3-13 years), underwent a head MRI. The presence of autoimmune disease, including JIA, was excluded via chart history, available laboratory findings, and the absence of known typical pathological MRI changes (degree of synovial enhancement, hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images in the synovia or bone marrow, and morphologic changes of the mandibular condyle) of the TMJ affected by JIA. Results: In 90 (94%) children, the TMJ showed no MRI abnormalities compatible with arthritis. In three children (3%), the only abnormal MRI finding was a small bilateral joint effusion. A further three children (3%) had a mild synovial enhancement seen on both axial and coronal MR planes in one child and only in the axial plane in the other two children. Signal hyperintensity on T2-weighted images and other corresponding characteristics of TMJ inflammation were lacking in all these six patients. Conclusion: The vast majority of juvenile TMJ in non-rheumatic children shows no MRI abnormalities. Exceptions, including a discrete enhancement of the synovial membrane (3%) or small joint effusions (3%), can occur in a minority of patients, but none of them are accompanied by other signs of inflammation or morphological changes of the TMJ

  11. CT findings of children with acute leukemia with special reference to 5 cases of leukoencephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Haruo; Akiyama, Yuichi; Takao, Tatsuo; Ito, Masatoshi; Nakano, Shozo (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1983-10-01

    CT scans of the brain were taken 122 times in 43 children with acute leukemia. CT evidence of cerebral atrophy was seen in 58.1% (25/43) of the children. Of the children who were studied during initial antileukemic therapy, such as remission-induction therapy and CNS prophylaxis, 67.7% (21/31) also had CT evidence of cerebral atrophy. This high incidence was considered mainly due to the administration of the glucocorticoid hormone during the remission-induction therapy. Leukoencephalopathy developed in 11.6% (5/43) of the children. These 5 cases had CNS leukemia, systemic or intrathecal methotrexate administration, or CNS irradiation; the common factor was intrathecal methotrexate administration. Low-density areas in the cerebral white matter, ventricular dilatation, and intracerebral calcification were found on CT. The distribution of these areas was symmetrical (periventricular lucency), asymmetrical, or focal. Only 2 of these 5 children had intracerebral calcification; they survived more than 5 years after the onset of acute leukemia. CT was useful in evaluating 2 other asymptomatic children with low-density areas in the cerebral white matter. This finding was suggestive of preclinical or subclinical leukoencephalopathy.

  12. CT findings of children with acute leukemia with special reference to 5 cases of leukoencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT scans of the brain were taken 122 times in 43 children with acute leukemia. CT evidence of cerebral atrophy was seen in 58.1% (25/43) of the children. Of the children who were studied during initial antileukemic therapy, such as remission-induction therapy and CNS prophylaxis, 67.7% (21/31) also had CT evidence of cerebral atrophy. This high incidence was considered mainly due to the administration of the glucocorticoid hormone during the remission-induction therapy. Leukoencephalopathy developed in 11.6% (5/43) of the children. These 5 cases had CNS leukemia, systemic or intrathecal methotrexate administration, or CNS irradiation; the common factor was intrathecal methotrexate administration. Low-density areas in the cerebral white matter, ventricular dilatation, and intracerebral calcification were found on CT. The distribution of these areas was symmetrical (periventricular lucency), asymmetrical, or focal. Only 2 of these 5 children had intracerebral calcification; they survived more than 5 years after the onset of acute leukemia. CT was useful in evaluating 2 other asymptomatic children with low-density areas in the cerebral white matter. This finding was suggestive of preclinical or subclinical leukoencephalopathy. (author)

  13. A High-Recall Self-Improving Web Crawler That Finds Images Using Captions

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Neil C.

    2002-01-01

    Finding multimedia objects to meet some need is considerably harder on the World Wide Web than finding text because content-based retrieval of multimedia is much harder than text retrieval and caption text is inconsistently placed. We describe a Web "crawler" and caption filter MARIE-4 we have developed that searches the Web to find text likely to be image captions and its associated image objects. Rather than examining a few features like existing systems, it uses broad set of crite...

  14. Chest X-ray findings in children with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the chest X-ray radiographic findings in children with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. Methods: The chest X-ray radiographs in 67 children with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection were reviewed in this study. The chest radiographs were obtained 3-8 days after the onset of symptoms and for the follow-up. Results: The abnormalities were bilateral in 53 patients and unilateral in 7 patients. The predominant radiographic findings were bilateral patchy consolidation (n=42) with rapid confluence in 10 patients, lobular consolidation (n=7) with interstitial hyperplasia in 1 patient 3 month later, diffuse consolidation (n=11) with interstitial hyperplasia in all patients after 3 month. Conclusion: The predominant chest X-ray radiographic findings are bilateral patchy consolidation and diffuse consolidation with interstitial hyperplasia afterward. (authors)

  15. Clinical and Para Clinical Findings in the Children with Tyrosinemia Referring for Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mohsen Dehghani; Mahmood Haghighat; Mohammad Hadi Imanieh; Hossein Karamnejad; Abdorrasoul Malekpour

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase enzyme. This disease manifests with severe liver and kidney impairment and is associated with an increased risk of liver cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical, laboratory, imaging, and histopathologic characteristics in the children with HT1 who had referred for liver transplantation. Methods: The present retrospecti...

  16. Symmetrical central tegmental tract (CTT) hyperintense lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Shoko; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Akira [Kyoto City Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kyoto (Japan); Aida, Noriko [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Kyoto (Japan); Okano, Souzo; Matsushita, Hiroko [Kyoto City Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Kyoto (Japan); Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko; Yoshida, Naoko; Hirota, Haruyo [St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    The central tegmental tract (CTT) is mainly the extrapyramidal tract connecting between the red nucleus and the inferior olivary nucleus. There are only a few case reports describing CTT abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children. Our purpose was to evaluate the frequency of CTT lesions and their characteristics on MRI, and to correlate the MR imaging findings with clinical features. We reviewed retrospectively the MR images of 392 children (215 boys and 177 girls) ranging in age from 1 to 6 years. To evaluate symmetrical CTT hyperintense lesions, we defined a CTT lesion as an area of bilateral symmetrical hyperintensity in the tegmentum pontis on both T2-weighted images and diffusion-weighted images in more than two slices. We measured the ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) values of symmetrical CTT hyperintensity, and compared them with those of children without CTT abnormality. CTT lesions were detected in 20 (5.1%) of the 392 children. The mean ADC value for these 20 children was significantly lower than that of the normal CTT (p<0.001). On MR imaging, other than CTT lesions, associated parenchymal lesion included: none (n=6); other abnormalities, including periventricular leukomalacia (n=3); thin corpus callosum (n=3); ventricular dilatation (n=2); encephalopathy (n=2). Clinically, cerebral palsy was the most frequent clinical diagnosis (n=6), accounting for 30%, which was significantly more frequent than the prevalence of cerebral palsy among children without CTT lesions (13%) (n<0.05). CTT lesions were detected in 5.1% of all the children examined. Cerebral palsy was the most frequent clinical diagnosis. (orig.)

  17. Symmetrical central tegmental tract (CTT) hyperintense lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central tegmental tract (CTT) is mainly the extrapyramidal tract connecting between the red nucleus and the inferior olivary nucleus. There are only a few case reports describing CTT abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children. Our purpose was to evaluate the frequency of CTT lesions and their characteristics on MRI, and to correlate the MR imaging findings with clinical features. We reviewed retrospectively the MR images of 392 children (215 boys and 177 girls) ranging in age from 1 to 6 years. To evaluate symmetrical CTT hyperintense lesions, we defined a CTT lesion as an area of bilateral symmetrical hyperintensity in the tegmentum pontis on both T2-weighted images and diffusion-weighted images in more than two slices. We measured the ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) values of symmetrical CTT hyperintensity, and compared them with those of children without CTT abnormality. CTT lesions were detected in 20 (5.1%) of the 392 children. The mean ADC value for these 20 children was significantly lower than that of the normal CTT (p<0.001). On MR imaging, other than CTT lesions, associated parenchymal lesion included: none (n=6); other abnormalities, including periventricular leukomalacia (n=3); thin corpus callosum (n=3); ventricular dilatation (n=2); encephalopathy (n=2). Clinically, cerebral palsy was the most frequent clinical diagnosis (n=6), accounting for 30%, which was significantly more frequent than the prevalence of cerebral palsy among children without CTT lesions (13%) (n<0.05). CTT lesions were detected in 5.1% of all the children examined. Cerebral palsy was the most frequent clinical diagnosis. (orig.)

  18. The persistent stereotype: children's images of scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emens McAdam, Janice

    1990-03-01

    Through their reading children learn to regard scientists as eccentrics. It is shown that this stereotype has persisted for over thirty years and affects many adult attitudes. Some methods of breaking the author-reader cycle are suggested.

  19. The use of MR imaging and spectroscopy of the brain in children investigated for developmental delay: What is the most appropriate imaging strategy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Batty, Ruth; Raghavan, Ashok; Connolly, Daniel J.A. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Warren, Daniel; Hart, Anthony [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sharrard, Mark [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatrics, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Mordekar, Santosh R. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Developmental delay is a common problem in paediatric practice and many children with developmental delay are referred for MR imaging. Our study was performed as part of a continuing audit process to optimise our MR protocol and case selection. We performed MR imaging and spectroscopy protocol on 157 children with developmental delay. We analysed the effect of these interventions by looking at the overall detection rate of relevant pathology and in particular subgroups of the children. 71% of the children had normal MR imaging, 10% had non-specific findings and 19% had specific abnormalities on MR imaging. The overall risk of having a specific structural abnormality with isolated developmental was 7.5% but if other neurological symptoms/signs were present the risk was 28%. Two children had abnormal spectroscopic findings, one with tuberous sclerosis and the other with absent brain creatine. Case selection for MR imaging is important in children with developmental delay. The best strategies for selecting children for MR are either; not performing MR with developmental delay in one domain only or performing MR with developmental delay in three or four domains or if there are other neurological features. (orig.)

  20. The use of MR imaging and spectroscopy of the brain in children investigated for developmental delay: What is the most appropriate imaging strategy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developmental delay is a common problem in paediatric practice and many children with developmental delay are referred for MR imaging. Our study was performed as part of a continuing audit process to optimise our MR protocol and case selection. We performed MR imaging and spectroscopy protocol on 157 children with developmental delay. We analysed the effect of these interventions by looking at the overall detection rate of relevant pathology and in particular subgroups of the children. 71% of the children had normal MR imaging, 10% had non-specific findings and 19% had specific abnormalities on MR imaging. The overall risk of having a specific structural abnormality with isolated developmental was 7.5% but if other neurological symptoms/signs were present the risk was 28%. Two children had abnormal spectroscopic findings, one with tuberous sclerosis and the other with absent brain creatine. Case selection for MR imaging is important in children with developmental delay. The best strategies for selecting children for MR are either; not performing MR with developmental delay in one domain only or performing MR with developmental delay in three or four domains or if there are other neurological features. (orig.)