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Sample records for children epidemiology diagnostics

  1. Traumatic extremity arterial injury in children: Epidemiology, diagnostics, treatment and prognostic value of Mangled Extremity Severity Score

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    Lange Nadine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic paediatric arterial injuries are a great challenge due to low incidence and specific characteristics of paediatric anatomy and physiology. The aim of the present study was to investigate their epidemiology, diagnostic and therapeutic options and complications. Furthermore, the prognostic value of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS was evaluated. Methods In a retrospective clinical study 44 children aged 9.0 ± 3.2 years treated for traumatic extremity arterial lesions in our Level I trauma center between 1971 and 2006 were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were age > 14, venous and iatrogenic vascular injury. Demographic data, mechanism of injury, severity of arterial lesions (by Vollmar and MESS, diagnostic and therapeutic management, complications and outcome were evaluated. Results The most commonly injured vessel was the femoral artery (25% followed by the brachial artery (22.7%. The mechanism of injury was penetrating (31.8%, isolated severe blunt extremity trauma (29.6%, multiple trauma (25% and humeral supracondylar fractures (13.6%. In 63.6% no specific vascular diagnostic procedure was performed in favour of emergency surgery. Surgical reconstructive strategies were preferred (68.2%. A MESS Conclusions Traumatic paediatric vascular injuries are very rare. The most common situations of vascular lesions in childhood were penetrating injuries and fractures of the extremities either as isolated injuries or in multiply injured patients. In paediatric patients, the MESS could serve as a basis for decision making for limb salvage or amputation.

  2. [Swine flu: epidemiology, diagnostics, treatment, and prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisun, A Ia; Kuchmin, A N; Akimkin, V G; Korotchenko, S I; Nikitin, A E; Volzhanin, V M; Ogarkov, P I; Obukhov, Iu I

    2009-07-01

    Virus of piggy grippe is a virus of type A, which has greatly changed in it's antigenic structure. As a result, has appeared a new variant of germ (syb-type), in relation to which vaccines, used for period 2008-2009, are unsuccessful. Virus represents a real risk for life and health of millions of people. Experts of World Health Organization are sure, that eruption can lead to a global expansion of virus. To the group of high risk refer: children younger then 5 years old, full-growns of 50 years old and older, children and teen-agers (from 6 months to 18 years), treated for a long time by aspirin, gravidas, full-growns with several chronic diseases, persons in nursing homes, hospices, requiring a long-termed hipurgia, compulsory-duty servicemen. Latent period is from 1 to 7 days (2-3 days on the average). Accountancy of clinical data: acute beginning, hyperpyretic fever, predominance of damages of upper respiratory tracts. The article presents a detailed characteristic of therapeutic and prophylactic measures in the Army and NAVY.

  3. [Celiac disease : Pathogenesis, clinics, epidemiology, diagnostics, therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppan, Detlef

    2016-07-01

    Celiac disease is induced by the consumption of gluten containing cereals (wheat, spelt, barley, rye). With a prevalence of ~ 1 %, it is the most common non-infectious chronic inflammatory intestinal disease worldwide. It manifests in all age groups, either classically with abdominal pain, diarrhoea and growth failure or weight loss, more commonly with indirect consequences of malabsorption, such as anaemia and osteoporosis, or with associated autoimmune diseases like type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroiditis or dermatitis herpetiformis. The pathogenesis of celiac disease is well explored. Gluten, the cereal storage protein, is not completely digested and reaches the intestinal mucosa where it activates inflammatory T cells, which cause atrophy of the resorptive villi. This T‑cell activation requires a genetic predisposition (the molecules HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 on antigen-presenting immune cells). Moreover, the enzyme tissue transglutaminase (TG2) which is released in the mucosa increases the immunogenicity of the gluten peptides by a deamidation reaction. The test for serum antibodies to the autoantigen TG2 is one of the best diagnostic markers in medicine, which in combination with endoscopically obtained biopsies, secures the diagnosis of celiac disease. Despite these tools celiac disease is severely underdiagnosed, with 80-90 % of those affected being undetected. The untreated condition can lead to grave complications. These include the consequences of malabsorption, cancers (especially intestinal T‑cell lymphoma), and likely also the promotion of autoimmune diseases. The therapy of celiac disease, a strict gluten-free diet, is difficult to maintain and not always effective. Alternative, supporting pharmacological therapies are urgently needed and are currently in development. PMID:27273303

  4. Trypanosoma evansi in Northern Ethiopia: epidemiology, diversity and alternative diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Abera, Birhanu Hadush

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma evansi in Northern Ethiopia: epidemiology, diversity and alternative diagnostics Animal African trypanosomosis (AAT) is a complex of parasitic diseases of various domestic and wild animal species caused by different species of trypanosomes. Trypanosoma (T.) brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax are transmitted by tsetse flies. Trypanosoma evansi, but also T. vivax, is mechanically transmitted by other biting flies and T. equiperdum is sexually transmitted in Equidae. All these ...

  5. Evaluation of diagnostic tools for epidemiological purposes: Application to FMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is economically the most important disease of domestic livestock. Due to its highly infectious nature, ability to cause persistent infection and long-term effects on the animal species it affects, countries that have the disease have many trade restrictions placed upon them. The importance of laboratory information is critical for FMD control and eradication programs. In this regard and in support of the Continental Program for Eradication of FMD, implemented in 1988 in the Americas, a major challenge for the Pan American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center (PAFMDC) as a regional OIE reference laboratory, was related to the adaptation of approaches to respond to the new demands of diagnostic precision placed to support the epidemiological transition expected in the Continent. Regions with advanced eradication campaigns needed to incorporate approaches for rapid and precise identification of the agent during an emergency, and equally important, for enabling a deeper epidemiological analysis, capable of characterizing the potential sources of infection and dissemination of the virus, either during clinical or subclinical viral circulation. Since the implementation of the eradication program there have been significant advances in the understanding of FMD epidemiology in South America. These have partly been due to the application of nucleotide sequencing methods for viral characterization and of newly developed tools for sero epidemiological monitoring of persistent viral activity, based on the use of recombinant noncapsideal antigens as serological probes to detect infection specific antibodies, regardless of vaccination condition. In the PAFMDC, a genetic sequence database of representative South American strains has been built up, which constituted the basis for the phylogenetic analysis of the viruses type O and A, responsible for the major outbreaks recorded, in regions already declared free by the OIE in the Southern Cone of

  6. Evaluation of diagnostic tools for epidemiological purposes - Application to FMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the implementation in 1988 of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) eradication programme in South America (PHEFA), significant advances have been made in the control of the disease. Particularly relevant has been the progress attained in one of the three subregions, the Southern Cone, where during the late 1990s most areas were recognized as FMD-free by OIE, with or without vaccination. To achieve PHEFA goals, development and implementation of diagnostic tools to trace for potential sources of infection was of utmost importance. Accordingly, priority was given to the identification of genetic links among circulating strains and, in relevant areas, to the systematic sero-epidemiological monitoring of persistent viral activity, regardless of vaccination condition. A genetic database of representative strains from South America, constructed at the Pan American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center, constituted the basis for the phylogenetic analysis of viruses types 0 and A recorded recently in endemic regions, and during the emergencies in FMD-free areas of the Southern Cone. The genetic data placed all variants from the Southern Cone in a single lineage, which clearly differed from the evolutionary nodes that included the isolates in the Andean subregion, reflecting two independent production systems and livestock trade circuits. To complement the search for potential sources of infection, serosurveillance became an important adjunct. To this end, new tools to infer viral circulation within and between herds, irrespective of vaccination, were developed and validated. The diagnostic approach, based on an immuno-enzymatic system that detects antibodies against non-capsid proteins, was particularly useful in support of epidemiological investigations after episodes and to confirm absence of viral activity in regions to be recognized as FMD-free, being especially important prior to the suspension of vaccination. Results of samplings in the Southern Cone during the 1990s

  7. Viral gastroenteritis in children: modern concepts of epidemiology and prevention

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    K. D. Ermolenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 60 original articles and reviews were analyzed in order to study the current state of the epidemiology and prevention of acute intestinal infections (AII of viral etiology in the world. Interest in a problem of viral AII is determined by their widest prevalence and huge costs associated with the elimination of their consequences. There are at least eight families of viruses that are the cause of acute gastroenteritis. The expansion of the ideas on the epidemiology of viral gastroenteritis has made a significant contribution to increasing the availability of modern diagnostic methods. Leading positions in the etiological diagnosis of viral diarrhea belong to the polymerase chain reaction. The structure of the viral AII in Russia is comparable with the average global rate. The most important frequency agents are rotaviruses and noroviruses. The article reflects the current trends in the epidemiology of acute viral diarrheal diseases: particularly dominant circulating serotypes of rotavirus and rare serotypes in various regions; seasonal changes of dominant strains of rotaviruses; increased frequency of norovirus gastroenteritis in the structure of the AII and increase mortality of children from norovirus infection. Presents data on the phylogenetic diversity of noroviruses and features of GI and GII circulation of genotypes. After the introduction of mass vaccination against rotaviruses in developed countries increases the share of astroviral and adenoviral infection in the structure of the AII. High frequency of astroviral infection is noticed in people with immunodeficiency. Much attention in article is paid to the increase in incidence and mortality of noroviruses, rise in detection rate of mixed viral and viral-bacterial associations and often registration of rare viruses and animal viruses in children. Presents data on the effectiveness of vaccination against rotaviruses in different regions of the

  8. Update on oral Chagas disease outbreaks in Venezuela: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic approaches

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    de Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Colmenares, Cecilia; Ruiz-Guevara, Raiza; Mauriello, Luciano; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Noya, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Orally transmitted Chagas disease has become a matter of concern due to outbreaks reported in four Latin American countries. Although several mechanisms for orally transmitted Chagas disease transmission have been proposed, food and beverages contaminated with whole infected triatomines or their faeces, which contain metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, seems to be the primary vehicle. In 2007, the first recognised outbreak of orally transmitted Chagas disease occurred in Venezuela and largest recorded outbreak at that time. Since then, 10 outbreaks (four in Caracas) with 249 cases (73.5% children) and 4% mortality have occurred. The absence of contact with the vector and of traditional cutaneous and Romana’s signs, together with a florid spectrum of clinical manifestations during the acute phase, confuse the diagnosis of orally transmitted Chagas disease with other infectious diseases. The simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM by ELISA and the search for parasites in all individuals at risk have been valuable diagnostic tools for detecting acute cases. Follow-up studies regarding the microepidemics primarily affecting children has resulted in 70% infection persistence six years after anti-parasitic treatment. Panstrongylus geniculatus has been the incriminating vector in most cases. As a food-borne disease, this entity requires epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that differ from those approaches used for traditional direct or cutaneous vector transmission. PMID:25946155

  9. Epidemiological research of violence against children in families in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Hanak Nataša; Tenjović Lazar; Išpanović-Radojković Veronika; Vlajković Ana; Beara Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    In the paper the results of an epidemiological study conducted in 2010-2011 as a part of the regional project Balkan Epidemiological Study on Child Abuse and Neglect (BECAN) are presented. The goal of the research was to estimate the prevalence of physical, psychological and sexual violence against children in the family as well as prevalence of feeling of neglect in children. Gender and age differences in the prevalence of violence, as well as differences with respect to geographic reg...

  10. Epidemiology, diagnostic delay and outcome of tuberculosis in North Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene Rosa-Marie; Bjørn-Præst, Simon O; Gradel, Kim O;

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of tuberculosis (TB) with regards to epidemiology, symptoms, delay, diagnostics, use of HIV-test, treatment, treatment outcome and mortality in the North Jutland Region from 2000 through 2008.......The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of tuberculosis (TB) with regards to epidemiology, symptoms, delay, diagnostics, use of HIV-test, treatment, treatment outcome and mortality in the North Jutland Region from 2000 through 2008....

  11. Epidemiology of Generalized Joint Laxity (Hypermobility) in Fourteen-Year-Old Children From the UK: A Population-Based Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Clinch, Jacqui; Deere, Kevin; Sayers, Adrian; Palmer, Shea; Riddoch, Chris; Tobias, Jonathan H.; Clark, Emma M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Although diagnostic criteria for generalized ligamentous laxity (hypermobility) in children are widely used, their validity may be limited, due to the lack of robust descriptive epidemiologic data on this condition. The present study was undertaken to describe the point prevalence and pattern of hypermobility in 14-year-old children from a population-based cohort. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large popul...

  12. [Facets of diagnostics of mentalization in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juen, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Clinical relevance of variations within the ability to mentalize is usually reported in the field of psychopathology in adults. This might be due to difficulties in methods for empirical assessment of this capacity in children. In this short report the author discusses facets and abilities of how to engage the inner world of young children with story stem techniques and especially how to register variations in the ability to mentalize. Ideas for assessment in early childhood are presented and illustrated along two clinical vignettes. This paper gives a short impression of clinical diagnostics of mentalization in childhood. PMID:25478751

  13. The Oncogenic Risks of Diagnostic CT Scam Studies in Children

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    Brent, R.

    2004-07-01

    Brenner et al (2001) reported that estimates of the exposure to children from CT scans indicates that the exposures are both higher than from conventional radiographic studies and higher than is necessary to obtain quality examinations. utilizing the oncogenic risk data from the RERF study in Japan, Brenner et al estimated that the oncogenic risk in this population of CT exposed children exposed each year would result in an additional 500 cases of cancer. This risk estimate is supported by the RERF epidemiological data obtained from the populations exposed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. the increased risks associated with the increased exposure from CT scans have raised concern and stimulated discussion. Although there is little doubt about the benefits of CT scans in improving the health care of children, there is concern about the estimated oncogenic risk, especially since the frequency of CT studies has been increasing. Applying the oncogenic risks of ionizing radiation from the RERF data may not be appropriate for all types of radiation exposure for accurately predicting the incidence of cancer in exposed children because of the impact of 1) partial versus whole-body irradiation, and 2) the protraction of the exposure. Other population of children who have been exposed to radiation and whose incidence of cancer has been studied will be presented and those studies indicate that the risk of cancer is much lower or not increased at all with exposures in the diagnostic range. finally, the dramatic impact of the use of CT scans in clinical pediatric practice saves lives and improves diagnostic accuracy. Therefore, it is crucial that a scholarly evaluation of the risks and benefits should be initiated. The radiology community and the manufacturers have already initiated programs to decrease the exposure significantly. But it is essential that well-planned, retrospective and prospective epidemiology studies should be initiated to study the oncogenic risks. If you want to

  14. [Epidemiology of type 1 diabetes in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is by far the most common in children. In 2004, its incidence was 13 to 14 new cases per 100 000 children each year and is progressing every year by more than 3%. This increase in incidence is affecting younger children. More than one quarter of children diagnosed in France are under the age of 5. The disease is still, in more than 40% of cases, first diagnosed as a result of an episode of ketoacidosis.

  15. Traumatic dental injuries in Serbian children: Epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Vuković Ana; Marković Dejan; Petrović Bojan; Apostolović Mirjana; Golijanin Ranko; Kanjevac Tatjana; Stojković Branislava; Perić Tamara; Blagojević Duška

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Comprehensive epidemiological data regarding factors associated with traumatic dental injuries are scarce. Objective. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency and analyze the factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Serbian children. Methods. Research included children and adolescents with traumatic dental injury aged 0-19 year during the period from 2003 to 2010, in four University Dental Centres in Serbia: Belgrad...

  16. Epidemiological and Economic Burden of Pneumococcal Disease in Canadian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Petit

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the arrival of a new conjugate pneumococcal vaccine, it is important to estimate the burden of pneumococcal diseases in Canadian children. The epidemiological data and the economic cost of these diseases are crucial elements in evaluating the relevance of a vaccination program.

  17. Epidemiology of Status Epilepticus in Children

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence, etiology, seizure characteristics, and outcome in childhood convulsive status epilepticus (CSE are reviewed by researchers from Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, and the Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

  18. VIRUS OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA. EPIDEMIOLOGY, LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS AND PREVENTION OF PAPILLOMA VIRAL INFECTION

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    O. V. Narvskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The information reflected modern knowledge about virus of human papilloma (VHP and pathogenesis of papilloma viral infection is presented in the lecture. The actual problems of epidemiology, laboratory diagnostics and prevention of VHP associated damage of cervical epithelium have been described.

  19. The epidemiology of type 1 diabetes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanescu, Diana E; Lord, Katherine; Lipman, Terri H

    2012-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood and adolescence. Multiple registries have assessed its epidemiology and have noted a steady increase in incidence of the disease. This article addresses the epidemiology of type 1 diabetes in children aged 0 to 19 years, by reviewing the available, current data from both US and international registries. The prevalence and incidence data by race, ethnicity, age of onset, sex, season of onset, and temporal trends of the disease are presented. Multiple risk factors have been implicated for the increasing incidence in type 1 diabetes, and these genetic and environmental risk factors are discussed.

  20. Epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic aspects of sheep conidiobolomycosis in Brazil

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    Carla Weiblen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Conidiobolomycosis is an emerging disease caused by fungi of the cosmopolitan genus Conidiobolus . Particular strains of Conidiobolus coronatus, Conidiobolus incongruus and Conidiobolus lamprauges , mainly from tropical or sub-tropical origin, cause the mycosis in humans and animals, domestic or wild. Lesions are usually granulomatous and necrotic in character, presenting two clinical forms: rhinofacial and nasopharyngeal. This review includes the main features of the disease in sheep, with an emphasis on the epidemiology, clinical aspects, and diagnosis of infections caused by Conidiobolus spp. in Brazil. In this country, the disease is endemic in the Northeast and Midwest, affecting predominantly woolless sheep breeds and occasioning death in the majority of the studied cases. The species responsible for infections of sheep are C. coronatus and C. lamprauges and the predominant clinical presentation is nasopharyngeal. These fungal infections are very important, since they compromise the health status of the sheep flock and cause serious economic losses to the sheep industry. Thus, research is needed to investigate faster tools for diagnosis and effective methods for the control and treatment of conidiobolomycosis.

  1. Epidemiology and diagnostic testing for hemochromatosis and iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P C

    2015-05-01

    Hemochromatosis is the most common genetic disease in northern European populations. Body iron stores progressively increase in most patients, which can lead to cirrhosis of the liver, hepatocellular carcinoma, heart failure, arthritis, and pigmentation. Simple blood tests such as the serum ferritin and transferrin saturation are useful to suggest the diagnosis which can be confirmed in most cases with a simple genetic test for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene. However, these blood tests are often misinterpreted and there are rare patients with iron overload without HFE mutations. A diagnostic approach is presented based on a large referral practice and a population-based study (HEIRS) which screened for iron overload in 101,168 participants.

  2. [Malaria in Mayotte: epidemiology, diagnostic, prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Receveur, M C; Roussin, C; Vatan, R; de Montéra, A M; Sissoko, D; Malvy, D

    2004-11-01

    Mayotte is a little French island, located in the Indian ocean, between Madagascar and Mozambic. Officially there is a population of 150000 inhabitants, but in fact, there are probably about 200000 people, largely due to numerous illegal immigrants, especially coming from Anjouan the nearest Comorian island. There is only one hospital, with 252 beds. The malaria incidence reaches about 3000 cases per year; and treatments until august 2001 were generally haphazard. This is changing with the use of the Optimal rapid diagnostic test (DiaMed, Cressier Switzerland). More precise statistics should be available in the coming years. In 2000, 252 patients were hospitalised with malaria fever. Preventive measures were scarce. These have been reenforced this year, with the arrival of an entomologist, the use of reenforced pesticide pulverisation in high-risk areas, the distribution of impregnated bednets to pregnant women, and media based information campaigns. Common drugs resistance is becoming a real concern in Mayotte. First-line treatment was: chloroquine; second-line: sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, and third-line: quinine. In vitro studies have shown high levels of resistance, therefore another antimalarial drug therapy will be introduced at the end of the year: first-line: artemether-lumefantrine, second-line: mefloquine or halofantrine, third-line: quinine. To conclude, solutions exist but a real policy from the decision makers is necessary to implement them. The eradication of malaria remains a dream, but we can expect "zero death" in Mayotte, considering that the fight against this disease may help to start a regional health program. PMID:17304748

  3. Epidemiological research of violence against children in families in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanak Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the results of an epidemiological study conducted in 2010-2011 as a part of the regional project Balkan Epidemiological Study on Child Abuse and Neglect (BECAN are presented. The goal of the research was to estimate the prevalence of physical, psychological and sexual violence against children in the family as well as prevalence of feeling of neglect in children. Gender and age differences in the prevalence of violence, as well as differences with respect to geographic region and urbanicity of place of the children’s’ residence were also examined. The stratified cluster sample consisted of 4027 children attending the fifth and seventh grades of the primary school and the second grade of the high school. Data was collected by an adapted version of the questionnaire ICAST-C (ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Chidren Version - ICAST-C. At least one experience of psychological violence in the lifetime was reported by 68,4% of children, whereas at least one experience of physical violence was reported by 69,2% of children. Feeling of neglect was experienced by 28.8% of children at least once in their lifetime. At least one experience of sexual violence was reported by 8.5% children, whereas 3,7% of them reported the experience of contact sexual violence in the past year. The results indicate that girls are more exposed to psychological violence and report more feeling of neglect. Conversely, boys report more exposure to sexual violence. The rate of severe forms of physical, psychological and sexual violence is about 0.5 to 1%. [Projekat je realizovan kroz Sedmi okvirni program Evropske Komisije(FP7, pod oznakom HEALTH-F2-2009-223478

  4. Epidemiological aspects of suicide attempts among Moroccan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekaoui, Nour; Karboubi, Lamiae; Ouadghiri, Fatima Zahra; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior among children has significantly increased in Morocco. We conducted a study on the epidemiological aspect to propose a treatment strategy. Descriptive retrospective study over a period of 3 years (April 2012-April 2015) involving children who visited pediatric medical emergencies of the Children Hospital of Rabat after an autolysis attempt. We observed epidemiological parameters, history, social and family context, the means used, the presumed cause, clinical manifestation, and the management. 66 patients were identified. A female predominance was found (sex =15). The average age was 13 years old. This was a first episode in 97% of cases. Psychiatric history was found in 6 patients. The causes of suicide attempt were unidentified in 65%. The most frequent cause was family conflict (35%). The most frequent method was pharmaceutical drug ingestion (54.4%). Children were asymptomatic (57.6%). Neurological manifestations (30%) were most frequent. Digestive symptoms (12%) and hemodynamic (3%) were also discovered. Patients were hospitalized in a general pediatric service 92.4% of the times, admitted to intensive care 4.5% of the times, and two patients refused to be hospitalized. The treatment consisted of gastric lavage (18%) supplemented by symptomatic measures. The outcome was favorable in 95.4% of cases. We recorded 2 deaths by rat poison poisoning. All patients were advised in writing after leaving to follow up with a psychological treatment. Suicide attempts are the result of an ill being, mostly among children living in a family with conflict. Upstream treatment is essential to identify children at risk. Additionally, a psychiatric care in hospital is essential to avoid recurrences. PMID:27642451

  5. [Epidemiology of diabetes in children in Languedoc-Roussillon (France)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trellu, M; Lacombe, S; Morin, D; Dalla-Vale, F

    2015-03-01

    Since 1st January 2000, the PEDIAB-LR registry has listed new cases of diabetes in children under 16 years of age in the Languedoc-Roussillon region of France, in order to assess the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of children affected by diabetes. At the end of December 2010, 745 children had been registered. The characteristics of these children included an identical proportion of girls and boys, a mean age of 8 years at diagnosis, and a family history of type 1 diabetes in 8.4% of the cases. Inaugural ketoacidosis was observed in 69.5% of the patients and was severe in 23.7% of these cases. To replace intravenous insulin, a two-injection dosing regimen (in the morning and before dinner) was prescribed in 76.5% of cases, multi-injections of basal-bolus in 16%, and subcutaneous insulin infusion (insulin pump therapy) in 7.5% of cases. Between 2000 and 2010, there was no increase in overall incidence. It is noteworthy that age at diagnosis tended to decrease, but this was not statistically significant. In conclusion, the PEDIAB-LR registry is currently the only French registry on diabetes in children, analyzing many factors related to its incidence, such as age at diagnosis and the existence of ketoacidosis.

  6. [ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF EPIDEMIOLOGIC CONTROL, LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS AND PROPHYLAXIS OF CHOLERA IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onischenko, G G; Popova, A Yu; Kutyrev, V V; Smirnova, N I; Scherbakova, S A; Moskvitina, E A; Titova, S V

    2016-01-01

    Main problems of system of epidemiologic control for cholera active in Russian Federation, as well as laboratory diagnostics and vaccine prophylaxis of this especially dangerous infection, that had emerged in the contemporary period of the ongoing 7th pandemic of cholera, are discussed. Features of the genome of natural strains of Vibrio cholerae of El Tor biovar, that possess a poten- tial epidemic threat, as well as problems, that have emerged during isolation of these strains from samples of water of surface water bodies during their monitoring, are also examined. The main direction of enhancement of the system of epidemiologic control for cholera consist in develop- ment of a new algorithm of differentiation of administrative territories of Russian Federation by types of epidemic manifestations, as well as optimization of monitoring of environment objects. Integration of modern highly informative technologies into practice, as well as development of new generation diagnostic preparations based on DNA-chips and immunechips is necessary to increase effectiveness of the conducted operative and retrospective diagnostics in the contemporary period. Creation of national cholera vaccine, ensuring simultaneous protection from cholera causative agents of both O1 and O139 serogroups, is also required.

  7. Assessment and classification of psychopathology in epidemiological research of children 0-3 years of age: a review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, A M; Houmann, T; Landorph, S L;

    2004-01-01

    The research of psychopathology in children 0-3 years of age is dominated by clinical case studies and theoretical reflections, and epidemiological studies are few. This paper reviews methods to assess and classify psychopathology in children 0-3 years old in an epidemiological context. Diagnostic...... psychopathology in children 0-3 years of age: screening instruments with established psychometric properties, such as the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT), and methods of in-depth assessment known from both clinical practice and research: developmental tests, such...... as the Bayley Scales, and relationship assessments, such as the Early Relational Assessment (ERA). The classification of psychopathology in young children can be approved by the Diagnostic Classification 0-3. The reliability and validity of DC 0-3 have not yet been established, but preliminary...

  8. Assessment and classification of psychopathology in epidemiological research of children 0-3 years of age: a review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, A M; Houmann, T; Landorph, S L;

    2004-01-01

    assessments of children 0-3 years of age are based on information from different sources and investigation of several domains of mental functioning, and the rapid developmental changes and the relationship context are taken into account. The reviewed literature shows a range of methods to assess and classify......The research of psychopathology in children 0-3 years of age is dominated by clinical case studies and theoretical reflections, and epidemiological studies are few. This paper reviews methods to assess and classify psychopathology in children 0-3 years old in an epidemiological context. Diagnostic......, such as the Bayley Scales, and relationship assessments, such as the Early Relational Assessment (ERA). The classification of psychopathology in young children can be approved by the Diagnostic Classification 0-3. The reliability and validity of DC 0-3 have not yet been established, but preliminary results seem...

  9. Clinical and Epidemiological Characterization of Chronic Adenoiditis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Reyes Concepción

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: chronic adenoiditis, which causes the greater number of elective major surgeries in children, is a common disease in Cuba. Objectives to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of chronic adenoiditis in children. Methods: a descriptive study with non-probability sampling was conducted in 98 children with chronic adenoiditis treated at the University Pediatric Hospital of Central Havana, between September 2009 and July 2011. The variables analyzed were age, sex, symptoms, signs and main clinical manifestations, personal medical history, family history, and major environmental and social risk factors. A survey was conducted to identify risk factors. Statistical analysis such as: the mean, relative frequency and frequency tables were performed. Results: highest morbidity was observed in children aged 1 to 9 years. The main features of the disease were nasal obstruction, dental malocclusion, mouth breathing and respiratory infection. The most common risk factors were attendance to day-care centers and exposure to cigarette smoke. Personal and family history of asthma and respiratory allergies was the most frequently found. Conclusion: chronic adenoiditis in pediatric patients is multifactorial in origin, and tends to decrease in the child population older than nine years.

  10. Epidemiological Aspects of Blastocystis Colonization in Children in Ilero, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Casper S; Efunshile, Akinwale M; Nelson, Jenna A; Stensvold, Christen R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to elucidate aspects of the epidemiology of Blastocystis in Nigerian school children, including the distribution of subtypes (STs) and ST alleles. A total of 199 genomic DNAs extracted from fecal samples from 199 Nigerian children aged 2-14 years were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction for Blastocystis Positive DNAs were submitted to barcoding by PCR and sequencing to obtain information on STs and ST alleles. A total of 167 (84%) samples were positive for Blastocystis, with prevalence increasing by age. No association between Blastocystis colonization and gender (P = 0.51) or type/presence of toilet facilities (P = 0.21) was observed. Blastocystis carriers were more prone to using water collected from wells than from sachets (P = 0.0044). Moreover, Blastocystis positivity was associated with positivity for fecal-orally transmitted protozoa (P = 0.018) and helminths (P Blastocystis colonization and malaria infection was observed (P Blastocystis colonization. ST data were available for 127/167 (76%) samples. Fifty-one children were positive for ST1, while 42 and 33 children were colonized with ST2 and ST3, respectively; a single case of ST7 was observed. By and large, the ST alleles identified for ST1 and ST2 did not differ from those observed in humans in other regions of the world; meanwhile, the distribution of ST3 alleles was remarkably distinct and potentially specific to humans in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27139454

  11. Children with medical complexity: the change in the pediatric epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rino Agostiniani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, epidemiological landscape of pediatric illness is changed; we are facing a progressive raising of the number of children affected by chronic illness (children with special health care needs [CSHCN], mainly due to the amelioration in surviving and in care. These patients have become the majority of the inpatients in some specialist hospitals, like the Meyer Children’s Hospital (Florence, Italy, in 2012. One important group of CSHCN is represented by the children who are most medically fragile and have the most intensive health care needs (children with medical complexity [CMC]. In these patients, the complexity of the pathological framework frequently results in a plenty of visits and tests, with high risk of redundant and expensive cares. They also need outside support networks such as advocacy and accommodations at school, at home, in social life. The CMC needs specific skill and new strategies that could involve pediatricians in hospital as in home care. The professional competencies are ready but a clear and shared strategy is lacking. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  12. Pediatric Tuberculosis in Italian Children: Epidemiological and Clinical Data from the Italian Register of Pediatric Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Luisa; Lancella, Laura; Tersigni, Chiara; Venturini, Elisabetta; Chiappini, Elena; Bergamini, Barbara Maria; Codifava, Margherita; Venturelli, Cristina; Tosetti, Giulia; Marabotto, Caterina; Cursi, Laura; Boccuzzi, Elena; Garazzino, Silvia; Tovo, Pier Angelo; Pinon, Michele; Le Serre, Daniele; Castiglioni, Laura; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Guarino, Alfredo; Bruzzese, Eugenia; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Castagnola, Elio; Bossi, Grazia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi; Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Grandolfo, Rita; Fiorito, Valentina; Valentini, Piero; Buonsenso, Danilo; Domenici, Raffaele; Montesanti, Marco; Salvini, Filippo Maria; Riva, Enrica; Dodi, Icilio; Maschio, Francesca; Abbagnato, Luisa; Fiumana, Elisa; Fornabaio, Chiara; Ballista, Patrizia; Portelli, Vincenzo; Bottone, Gabriella; Palladino, Nicola; Valenzise, Mariella; Vecchi, Barbara; Di Gangi, Maria; Lupi, Carla; Villani, Alberto; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Over the last decades, TB has also emerged in the pediatric population. Epidemiologic data of childhood TB are still limited and there is an urgent need of more data on very large cohorts. A multicenter study was conducted in 27 pediatric hospitals, pediatric wards, and public health centers in Italy using a standardized form, covering the period of time between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Children with active TB, latent TB, and those recently exposed to TB or recently adopted/immigrated from a high TB incidence country were enrolled. Overall, 4234 children were included; 554 (13.1%) children had active TB, 594 (14.0%) latent TB and 3086 (72.9%) were uninfected. Among children with active TB, 481 (86.8%) patients had pulmonary TB. The treatment of active TB cases was known for 96.4% (n = 534) of the cases. Overall, 210 (39.3%) out of these 534 children were treated with three and 216 (40.4%) with four first-line drugs. Second-line drugs where used in 87 (16.3%) children with active TB. Drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were reported in 39 (7%) children. Improving the surveillance of childhood TB is important for public health care workers and pediatricians. A non-negligible proportion of children had drug-resistant TB and was treated with second-line drugs, most of which are off-label in the pediatric age. Future efforts should concentrate on improving active surveillance, diagnostic tools, and the availability of antitubercular pediatric formulations, also in low-endemic countries. PMID:27322255

  13. Pediatric Tuberculosis in Italian Children: Epidemiological and Clinical Data from the Italian Register of Pediatric Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Galli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Over the last decades, TB has also emerged in the pediatric population. Epidemiologic data of childhood TB are still limited and there is an urgent need of more data on very large cohorts. A multicenter study was conducted in 27 pediatric hospitals, pediatric wards, and public health centers in Italy using a standardized form, covering the period of time between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Children with active TB, latent TB, and those recently exposed to TB or recently adopted/immigrated from a high TB incidence country were enrolled. Overall, 4234 children were included; 554 (13.1% children had active TB, 594 (14.0% latent TB and 3086 (72.9% were uninfected. Among children with active TB, 481 (86.8% patients had pulmonary TB. The treatment of active TB cases was known for 96.4% (n = 534 of the cases. Overall, 210 (39.3% out of these 534 children were treated with three and 216 (40.4% with four first-line drugs. Second-line drugs where used in 87 (16.3% children with active TB. Drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were reported in 39 (7% children. Improving the surveillance of childhood TB is important for public health care workers and pediatricians. A non-negligible proportion of children had drug-resistant TB and was treated with second-line drugs, most of which are off-label in the pediatric age. Future efforts should concentrate on improving active surveillance, diagnostic tools, and the availability of antitubercular pediatric formulations, also in low-endemic countries.

  14. Pediatric Tuberculosis in Italian Children: Epidemiological and Clinical Data from the Italian Register of Pediatric Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Luisa; Lancella, Laura; Tersigni, Chiara; Venturini, Elisabetta; Chiappini, Elena; Bergamini, Barbara Maria; Codifava, Margherita; Venturelli, Cristina; Tosetti, Giulia; Marabotto, Caterina; Cursi, Laura; Boccuzzi, Elena; Garazzino, Silvia; Tovo, Pier Angelo; Pinon, Michele; Le Serre, Daniele; Castiglioni, Laura; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Guarino, Alfredo; Bruzzese, Eugenia; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Castagnola, Elio; Bossi, Grazia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi; Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Grandolfo, Rita; Fiorito, Valentina; Valentini, Piero; Buonsenso, Danilo; Domenici, Raffaele; Montesanti, Marco; Salvini, Filippo Maria; Riva, Enrica; Dodi, Icilio; Maschio, Francesca; Abbagnato, Luisa; Fiumana, Elisa; Fornabaio, Chiara; Ballista, Patrizia; Portelli, Vincenzo; Bottone, Gabriella; Palladino, Nicola; Valenzise, Mariella; Vecchi, Barbara; Di Gangi, Maria; Lupi, Carla; Villani, Alberto; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Over the last decades, TB has also emerged in the pediatric population. Epidemiologic data of childhood TB are still limited and there is an urgent need of more data on very large cohorts. A multicenter study was conducted in 27 pediatric hospitals, pediatric wards, and public health centers in Italy using a standardized form, covering the period of time between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Children with active TB, latent TB, and those recently exposed to TB or recently adopted/immigrated from a high TB incidence country were enrolled. Overall, 4234 children were included; 554 (13.1%) children had active TB, 594 (14.0%) latent TB and 3086 (72.9%) were uninfected. Among children with active TB, 481 (86.8%) patients had pulmonary TB. The treatment of active TB cases was known for 96.4% (n = 534) of the cases. Overall, 210 (39.3%) out of these 534 children were treated with three and 216 (40.4%) with four first-line drugs. Second-line drugs where used in 87 (16.3%) children with active TB. Drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were reported in 39 (7%) children. Improving the surveillance of childhood TB is important for public health care workers and pediatricians. A non-negligible proportion of children had drug-resistant TB and was treated with second-line drugs, most of which are off-label in the pediatric age. Future efforts should concentrate on improving active surveillance, diagnostic tools, and the availability of antitubercular pediatric formulations, also in low-endemic countries. PMID:27322255

  15. Post-mortem diagnostics in cases of sepsis. Part 1. Aetiology, epidemiology and microbiological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rorat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical practice has an effective methodology of diagnostic procedures to be followed in cases of sepsis. However, there are as yet no corresponding standards of action in post-mortem diagnostics. The scope of examinations is limited to an autopsy and histopathological tests. This situation may lead to errors in medico-legal opinions on the cause of death and in the assessment of appropriateness of medical procedures. In cases of suspected sepsis, medico-legal investigations require obtaining detailed information about the circumstances of death (including symptoms and results of intravital examinations before autopsy is performed, as well as sterile collection of specimens for microbiological tests and interpretation of their results on the basis of knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical progression of sepsis.

  16. Using an Epidemiological Approach to Examine Outcomes Affecting Young Children with Down Syndrome and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; So, Stephanie A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we utilise an approach drawn from the field of epidemiology to explore what is known and unknown about young children with Down syndrome and their families. After describing what we mean by an epidemiological approach, we review basic findings for children with intellectual disabilities, as well as challenges to performing such…

  17. Diagnostic Approach to Limp in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ami P; Indra, Sean; Kannikeshwaran, Nirupama; Hartwig, Earl; Kamat, Deepak

    2015-12-01

    "Limp" is a common complaint of children presenting to the emergency department or physician's office. For most patients presenting with limp, the diagnosis and management can be completed in the physician's office or emergency department by gathering a detailed history, performing a careful physical examination, and requesting a few laboratory and imaging studies. This article reviews common causes of atraumatic limp in children and discusses the evaluation and management of these conditions. PMID:26678234

  18. Ebola virus disease: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnostic and therapeutic modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaurier, Marlie; Moyer, Katherine; Wallihan, Rebecca

    2016-07-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe multisystem disease. Prehospital personnel, hospitals, and clinicians must be prepared to provide care for patients with EVD, with special attention to rigorous infection control in order to limit the spread of infection. Children with EVD are an especially challenging population, as the initial symptoms are nonspecific and difficult to differentiate from several common infections. For children presenting with a syndrome consistent with EVD, it is extremely important that healthcare workers identify epidemiologic risk factors, such as recent travel to an affected country or exposure to a patient with suspected or known EVD. Given the high morbidity and mortality of this disease, clinical efforts should focus on early diagnosis, appropriate infection control, and supportive care. PMID:27328168

  19. Epidemiology of meningitis with a negative CSF Gram stain: under-utilization of available diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesher, L; Hadi, C M; Salazar, L; Wootton, S H; Garey, K W; Lasco, T; Luce, A M; Hasbun, R

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis with a negative cerebrospinal fluid Gram stain (CSF-GS) poses a diagnostic challenge as more than 50% of patients remain without an aetiology. The introduction of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and arboviral serologies have increased diagnostic capabilities, yet large scale epidemiological studies evaluating their use in clinical practice are lacking. We conducted a prospective observational study in New Orleans between November 1999 and September 2008 (early era) when PCR was not widely available, and in Houston between November 2008 and June 2013 (modern era), when PCR was commonly used. Patients presenting with meningitis and negative CSF-GS were followed for 4 weeks. All investigations, PCR used, and results were recorded as they became available. In 323 patients enrolled, PCR provided the highest diagnostic yield (24·2%) but was ordered for 128 (39·6%) patients; followed by serology for arboviruses (15%) that was ordered for 100 (31%) of all patients. The yield of blood cultures was (10·3%) and that of CSF cultures was 4%; the yield for all other tests was viral pathogens, 8·3% and 26·3% (P meningitis and a negative CSF-GS, but both tests are being under-utilized.

  20. Psychiatric Diagnostic Interviews for Children and Adolescents: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angold, Adrian; Erkanli, Alaattin; Copeland, William; Goodman, Robert; Fisher, Prudence W.; Costello, E. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare examples of three styles of psychiatric interviews for youth: the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) ("respondent-based"), the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) ("interviewer-based"), and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) ("expert judgment"). Method: Roughly equal numbers of…

  1. Traumatic dental injuries in Serbian children: Epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Comprehensive epidemiological data regarding factors associated with traumatic dental injuries are scarce. Objective. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency and analyze the factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Serbian children. Methods. Research included children and adolescents with traumatic dental injury aged 0-19 year during the period from 2003 to 2010, in four University Dental Centres in Serbia: Belgrade, Nis, Novi Sad and Kragujevac. Patient history, demographic, clinical and radiographic data were obtained from dental trauma forms. Results. Total of 2,194 patients (748 girls, 1,446 boys (χ2=222.1; p<0.01 with 3,077 injured teeth in permanent and 953 in primary dentition were observed. Most of patients were aged 7 to 12 years (n=1,191. The most frequent injuries in primary and permanent dentition were dislocations (87.4% and teeth fractures (50.8%, respectively (χ2=706.1; p<0.01. The most frequent mechanism of injury was fall in children aged 0 to 12 years, while the collisions were most frequent in adolescents (53.9%. The most frequent injuries in adolescents were inflicted outdoor (66.8%, while the injuries in children aged 0 to 3 years occurred at home (68.2%, (χ2=360.8; p<0.01. The most frequent injuries in girls were accidental (48.3%, and in boys these were sport injuries (20.4% and violence (10.4% (χ2=79.9; p<0.01. The most frequent cause of injury in children aged 0 to 3 years was accidental (75.6%, while in adolescents it was sport (34.1% (χ2=1102.7; p<0.01. Conclusion. Dental injuries in preschool children most frequently resulted from fall at home. Schoolchildren most frequently injured teeth outdoor during play. Violence and sport injuries were most frequent cause of injury in adolescents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026

  2. Nuclear medicine for diagnostic evaluation of osteomyelitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although skeletal scintiscanning has yielded results allowing an early diagnosis of osteomyelitis in children already at a stage prior to detection by X-ray radiography, reports have been published showing that there is quite a number of false negative findings obtained by nuclear medicine techniques, especially in newborns. The article here therefore reports a study on clinical validation of skeletal scintigraphy in case of suspected osteomyelitis in children. The results show that scintiscanning is a very sensitive method of detecting osteomyelitis in children, and also can be a very useful diagnostic tool for examination of newborns, provided the different anatomy of the skeleton in newborns is taken into account. (orig./MG)

  3. Diagnostic electrocardiography in epidemiological studies of Chagas' disease: multicenter evaluation of a standardized method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázzari, J O; Pereira, M; Antunes, C M; Guimarães, A; Moncayo, A; Chávez Domínguez, R; Hernández Pieretti, O; Macedo, V; Rassi, A; Maguire, J; Romero, A

    1998-11-01

    An electrocardiographic recording method with an associated reading guide, designed for epidemiological studies on Chagas' disease, was tested to assess its diagnostic reproducibility. Six cardiologists from five countries each read 100 electrocardiographic (ECG) tracings, including 30 from chronic chagasic patients, then reread them after an interval of 6 months. The readings were blind, with the tracings numbered randomly for the first reading and renumbered randomly for the second reading. The physicians, all experienced in interpreting ECGs from chagasic patients, followed printed instructions for reading the tracings. Reproducibility of the readings was evaluated using the kappa (kappa) index for concordance. The results showed a high degree of interobserver concordance with respect to the diagnosis of normal vs. abnormal tracings (kappa = 0.66; SE 0.02). While the interpretations of some categories of ECG abnormalities were highly reproducible, others, especially those having a low prevalence, showed lower levels of concordance. Intraobserver concordance was uniformly higher than interobserver concordance. The findings of this study justify the use by specialists of the recording of readings method proposed for epidemiological studies on Chagas' disease, but warrant caution in the interpretation of some categories of electrocardiographic alterations.

  4. Extensive multiplex PCR diagnostics reveal new insights into the epidemiology of viral respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickbakhsh, S; Thorburn, F; VON Wissmann, B; McMENAMIN, J; Gunson, R N; Murcia, P R

    2016-07-01

    Viral respiratory infections continue to pose a major global healthcare burden. At the community level, the co-circulation of respiratory viruses is common and yet studies generally focus on single aetiologies. We conducted the first comprehensive epidemiological analysis to encompass all major respiratory viruses in a single population. Using extensive multiplex PCR diagnostic data generated by the largest NHS board in Scotland, we analysed 44230 patient episodes of respiratory illness that were simultaneously tested for 11 virus groups between 2005 and 2013, spanning the 2009 influenza A pandemic. We measured viral infection prevalence, described co-infections, and identified factors independently associated with viral infection using multivariable logistic regression. Our study provides baseline measures and reveals new insights that will direct future research into the epidemiological consequences of virus co-circulation. In particular, our study shows that (i) human coronavirus infections are more common during influenza seasons and in co-infections than previously recognized, (ii) factors associated with co-infection differ from those associated with viral infection overall, (iii) virus prevalence has increased over time especially in infants aged population that warrants further investigation. PMID:26931455

  5. Changing epidemiology of hepatitis A virus in Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arankalle V

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vidya Arankalle,1 Monjori Mitra,2 Sheila Bhave,3 Apurba Ghosh,2 Sundaram Balasubramanian,4 Suparna Chatterjee,5 Jaydeep Choudhury,6 Amarjeet Chitkara,7 Ganesh Kadhe,8 Amey Mane,8 Sucheta Roy81Department of Virology, National Institute of Virology, Pashan, Pune, Maharashtra, India; 2Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Child Health, Kolkata, West Bengal, India; 3Department of Pediatrics, KEM Hospital and Research Center, Pune, Maharashtra, India; 4Department of Pediatrics, Kanchi Kamkodi Child Trust Hospital (KKCTH, Nungambakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India; 5Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research (IPGMER and Seth Sukhlal Karnani Memorial (SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India; 6Department of Pediatrics, Sri Aurobindo Seva Kendra (EEDF Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India; 7Department of Pediatrics, Sarvodaya Childcare, Pitampura, Delhi, India; 8Medical Affairs Department, Wockhardt Ltd, Mumbai, Maharashtra, IndiaAbstract: Previous studies from India have observed an increased incidence of hepatitis A virus (HAV infection in the adult and adolescent population compared with children, indicating a shift in epidemiology of HAV. However, no HAV seroprevalence study has been conducted in India over the past decade. This prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in 928 children (aged 18 months to 10 years, to estimate the age-related seroprevalence of HAV across different regions of India. The present study also evaluated the impact of various factors such as age, socioeconomic class (SEC, education, source of drinking water, and excreta disposal on HAV seroprevalence. Overall, 348 (37.5% children were seropositive for anti-HAV antibodies. Seroprevalence of HAV in the 6- to 10-year age group (50.3% was higher (P=0.000 than in the 18-month to 6-year age group (30.3%. SEC and educational status of the parents were significantly associated with HAV seropositivity (P=0.000 for both

  6. Some epidemiological and clinical characteristics of solid malignant tumors in children from Las Tunas

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    Silvio Laffita Estévez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: cancer has kept up as the second cause of death in Las Tunas pediatric population.Objective: to characterize clinical and epidemiological variables of the cases diagnosed with solid malignant tumors in children seen and treated in the onco-pediatric consultation of “Mártires de Las Tunas” Pediatric Hospital from 2010 to 2014.Methods: a descriptive and retrospective study was carried out in 62 patients with solid malignant tumors in the pediatric population of Las Tunas province, from January, 2010 to December, 2014. The variables considered were: presumptive diagnosis, age, family history of tumors, clinical signs of alarm related to the tumor at the moment of diagnosis and investigations to confirm the diagnosis.  Results: non-Hodgkin lymphoma was the most frequently diagnosed tumor, with a 19, 35% of the patients. The most affected age group was between 11 and 14 years old, with a 33, 87%. The 16, 13% of the patients had family history of solid malignant tumors. The most frequent form of presentation was the abdominal tumor, with 29, 03 %. Abdominal ultrasound and computerized axial tomography were the most used complementary diagnostic means, both in the 17, 74% of the patients. Biopsy was used to confirm the 96, 77% of the cases.Conclusions: the clinical and epidemiological variables were characterized in pediatric patients diagnosed with solid malignant tumors in Las Tunas. Children between 11 and 14 years old and family history of malignant tumors were the most significant findings.

  7. An observational study on cough in children: epidemiology, impact on quality of sleep and treatment outcome

    OpenAIRE

    De Blasio, Francesco; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Rubin, Bruce K; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi; Zanasi, Alessando

    2012-01-01

    Background Cough is one of the most frequent symptoms in children and is the most common symptom for which children visit a health care provider. Methods This is an observational study on acute cough associated with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in children. The study evaluates the epidemiology and impact of cough on quality of sleep and children's activities, and the outcome of cough with antitussive treatments in pediatric routine clinical practice. Study assessments were perform...

  8. Epidemiological, laboratory, diagnostic and public health aspects of human brucellosis in western Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Hamid Amani; Massoud Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine brucellosis's epidemiologic, laboratory, diagnostic and public health features considering brucellosis is endemic in Azna County, western Iran. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was investigated on 43 patients with brucellosis in Azna County. The subjects were the patients with symptoms correspondent with brucellosis and positive Wright and 2ME tests. A questionnaire about demographic, epidemiological and laboratory findings was filled in. Afterwards, patients were treated using usual antimicrobial drugs regimen. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Results:Forty-three subjects were found to be positive in laboratory tests. Incidence of Brucellosis was 59.31 per hundred thousand population. About 34.9% of patients were female and 65.1% male. Nearly 95.2 % of human cases were living in rural and 4.8 % in urban areas. Around 20.9% of patients had history of animal contact. The commonest transmission was unpasteurized dairy products (79.1%). The most contagious seasons were summer and spring (60.3%). The most common age group was 15-24 (27.9%), and about 60.5% of the patients were between 15-44 years old. Disease was more common among housewives (30.2%) and farmers (20.9%). The majority of the patients had Wright test titre=1:320 (54.1%) and 2ME test titre=1:160 (56.1%) in serological titration. Doxycycline with Rifampin was used for treatment of the greatest of patients (60.4%). Conclusions:In order to control this zoonotic disease, close cooperation of health and veterinary organizations is necessary.

  9. Epidemiology of intestinal parasitosis in Italy between 2005 and 2008: diagnostic techniques and methodologies

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    Daniele Crotti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to keep a real and actual photo relating to 2005-2008 regarding to diagnostic techniques and methodologies for intestinal parasites; so it would be possible to know specific epidemiology and suggest more rational and efficacious guide-lines. All members of AMCLI were involved in the proposal of a retrospective study regarding bowel parasites, helminths and protozoa.To engaged laboratories we asked how O&P was performed, if a specifical research for E. vermicularis and S. stercoralis was performed, if for the identification of D. fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Cryptosporidum spp were performed recommended specific permanent stains. 23 laboratories gave assent; but for an inferior number was possible to use the data for analysis and evaluation. Relating O&P only some laboratories performed permanent stains: Giemsa for D. fragilis, antigen and/or Trichrome stain for E. histolytica/dispar, antigen and/or acid fast stain for Cryptosporidium spp.Not all laboratories research specifically S. stercoralis. So the epidemiology is differentiated and related more to adequate or not adequate techniques than cohorts of examined populations. The overall positivity for parasites ranged from 0% to18.7%,for protozoa (pathogens or not were from 0% to 14.7%; for nematodes from 0% to 3.7%; for cestodes from 0% to 1.0%; for trematodes from 0% to 1.0%.Among helminths, E. vermicularis, followed by S. stercoralis, also in O&P, is the most frequent.The specific research of S. stercoralis gave a positivity from 0% to 33.3%; the cellophane tape test was positive for E. vermicularis from 0% fo 21.9% of cases.Among pathogen protozoa, D. fragilis, when permanent stain were applied, prevailed from 0% to 16.6%; G. duodenalis from 0.8% to 4.3%; E. histolytica/dispar, using a permanent stain or research of antigen, was identified from 0% to 20.6%. Coccidia were very rare, with Cryptosporidium spp observed from 0% to 5.2%. These are our conclusions

  10. Diagnosis, Epidemiology, and Management of Hypertension in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Goutham

    2016-08-01

    National guidelines for the diagnosis and management of hypertension in children have been available for nearly 40 years. Unfortunately, knowledge and recognition of the problem by clinicians remain poor. Prevalence estimates are highly variable because of differing standards, populations, and blood pressure (BP) measurement techniques. Estimates in the United States range from 0.3% to 4.5%. Risk factors for primary hypertension include overweight and obesity, male sex, older age, high sodium intake, and African American or Latino ancestry. Data relating hypertension in childhood to later cardiovascular events is currently lacking. It is known that BP in childhood is highly predictive of BP in adulthood. Compelling data about target organ damage is available, including the association of hypertension with left ventricular hypertrophy, carotid-intima media thickness, and microalbuminuria. Guidelines from both the United States and Europe include detailed recommendations for diagnosis and management. Diagnostic standards are based on clinic readings, ambulatory BP monitoring is useful in confirming diagnosis of hypertension and identifying white-coat hypertension, masked hypertension, and secondary hypertension, as well as monitoring response to therapy. Research priorities include the need for reliable prevalence estimates based on diverse populations and data about the long-term impact of childhood hypertension on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Priorities to improve clinical practice include more education among clinicians about diagnosis and management, clinical decision support to aid in diagnosis, and routine use of ambulatory BP monitoring to aid in diagnosis and to monitor response to treatment. PMID:27405770

  11. Epidemiological Survey of Dental Fear and Anxiety in Children Living in Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyergyay Réka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims The objectives of the present survey were: 1 a systematic epidemiological investigation of dental fear and anxiety among children living in the central part of Romania and 2 to identify the most fearful aspects of dental care perceived by these children.

  12. Validating the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa; Scorza, Pamela; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Mushashi, Christina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) as a screen for depression in Rwandan children and adolescents. Although the CES-DC is widely used for depression screening in high-income countries, its validity in low-income and culturally diverse settings, including sub-Saharan…

  13. [Endoscopic diagnostics of voice disorders in breastfed and young children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the prevalence, etiology, and semiotics of lesions in the acoustic apparatus. The secondary objectives were to estimate the informative and diagnostic value of various methods for the assessment of the state of the vocal apparatus (rigid endoscopy, fibroscopy, stroboscopy, and acoustic analysis of the voice) and to evaluate the prospects for their use in clinical practice. Moreover, the study was aimed at the development of an optimal therapeutic and diagnostic algorithm for the breastfeeding and young children suffering voice disturbances. The study included a total of 188 children aged from 4 days to 3 years presenting with the altered quality of voice who were examined using the clinical and instrumental methods for the estimation of the state of the larynx (rigid endoscopy, fibroscopy, and acoustic analysis of the voice) in combination with the modern computer-assisted technologies for the recording and processing of video images. It was found that disturbances of vocalization formation in the overwhelming majority of breastfeeding and young children (95.7%) can be attributed to dysphonia. Laryngeal pathology is most frequently diagnosed during the first year of life (28.2%). The leading cause of laryngeal lesions is inflammatory diseases (56.4%) followed by congenital malformations (25%).

  14. Diffential diagnostics and genealogical features of congential hypothyroidism in childrens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sumina

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hypothyroidism (CH being one of the most frequent thyroid disorder among children is etiologically heterogeneous. In this study various etiological forms of primary CH (ectopic thyroid gland, athyreosis, hypoplasia, dyshormonogenesis were established by diagnostical algorithm. Complex approach with estimation of thyroid ultrasonography and scintigraphy (Tc-99m data and the level of serum thyroglobulin allowed to differentiate ectopic thyroid gland and athyreosis. In the cases of eutopic gland additional examination was necessary. The most severe clinical symptoms and laboratory changes together with the lowest level of thyroglobulin were associated with agenesis. That could optimize the diagnostic approach. High occurrence of extrathyroidal congenital malformations was revealed in patients with ectopic gland and athyreosis and in their relatives. That could indicate that genetic factors influence on the forming of thyroidal dysgenesis.

  15. Update on Epidemiology and Treatment of MRSA Infections in Children

    OpenAIRE

    David, Michael Z.; Daum, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    In 2000-10 the epidemiology of pediatric MRSA infections in the United States was transformed with an epidemic of CA-MRSA infections. We review the epidemiology of MRSA in the community and in the health care setting, including intensive care units, among infants and CF patients, and in households as well as the impact that the CA-MRSA epidemic has had on hospitalization with MRSA infections. Risk factors for carriage, transmission, and initial and recurrent infection with MRSA are discussed....

  16. [Specific clinical, epidemiological patterns and laboratory diagnostics of enterovirus infection in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amvros'eva, T V; Poklonskaia, N V; Bogush, Z F; Kazinets, O N; Germanovich, F A; Fisenko, E G; Titov, L P; Kvacheva, Z B; Bezruchko, A A; Scheslenok, E P

    2005-01-01

    The clinical and epidemiological patterns as well as the results of the laboratory verification of the outbreak of enterovirus infection (EVI) in Minsk during the period of summer-autumn, 2000, are presented. During this outbreak a variety of clinical forms were observed, the serous meningitis being prevalent (57.5%). Practically simultaneous occurrence of infection on the territory of all administrative districts of the city, the predominant involvement of children aged up to 14 years into the outbreak, a high proportion of simultaneous casualities in the multiple foci. A number of circulating enteroviruses (EV)--ECHO 30, ECHO 6 of three serotypes and Coxsackie B5--were simultaneously isolated from clinical material. EV of the same serotypes were isolated from tap drinking water, and neutralizing antibodies to these serotypes were often detected in the patients blood sera. Infectious EV were also present in samples of bottled water and in water reservoirs used for bathing. The routes of EV transmission and the improvement of EVI control are discussed.

  17. Viral gastroenteritis in children: modern concepts of epidemiology and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    K. D. Ermolenko; Yu. V. Lobzin; N. V. Gonchar

    2015-01-01

    More than 60 original articles and reviews were analyzed in order to study the current state of the epidemiology and prevention of acute intestinal infections (AII) of viral etiology in the world. Interest in a problem of viral AII is determined by their widest prevalence and huge costs associated with the elimination of their consequences. There are at least eight families of viruses that are the cause of acute gastroenteritis. The expansion of the ideas on the epidemiology of viral gastroen...

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF UNDER - NUTRITION IN CHILDREN BETWEEN 0-5 YEARS FROM RURAL AREAS OF DEHRADUN

    OpenAIRE

    Megha Luthra; Surekha Kishore; Kajal Jain

    2010-01-01

    Background: Under nutrition is a major problem in India. This is a study conducted in rural catchment areas of Department of Community Medicine, SGRRMC, Dehradun to asses the same. Objectives: To find out prevalence of under nutrition in children in the age group of 0-5 years and also to study its epidemiological correlates. Methods :All registered children of RHTC Mothrowala during October to December2009 were studied. Detailed histories were taken & growth chartingwas done using growth ...

  19. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma in school children (10–16 years) in Srinagar

    OpenAIRE

    Uruj Altaf Qureshi; Sufoora Bilques; Inaam ul Haq; Muhammad Saleem Khan; Mariya Amin Qurieshi; Umar Amin Qureshi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the epidemiological profile of asthma in school going children in Srinagar, Kashmir. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Thirty-one schools with proportionate representation from both government and private schools as well as from primary, middle, and high schools. Participants: School children aged 10–16 years with equal representation of sex and all ages. Main Outcome Measure: Prevalence of current and past asthma. Methods and Results: After administering a m...

  20. Epidemiological trends of RF/RHD in school children of Shimla in north India

    OpenAIRE

    Negi, Prakash Chand; Kanwar, Anubhav; Chauhan, Renu; Asotra, Sanjeev; Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Bhardwaj, Ashok Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: There are no active surveillance studies reported from South East Asian Region to document the impact of change in socio-economic state on the prevalence of rheumatic fever/rheumatic heart disease (RF/RHD) in children. Therefore, we conducted a study to determine the epidemiological trends of RF/RHD in school children of Shimla city and adjoining suburbs in north India and its association with change in socio-economic status. Methods: Active surveillance studies were ...

  1. Epidemiology of Abusive Abdominal Trauma Hospitalizations in United States Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman; Dubowitz, Howard; Langenberg, Patricia; Dischinger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To estimate the incidence of abusive abdominal trauma (AAT) hospitalizations among US children age 0-9 years. (2) To identify demographic characteristics of children at highest risk for AAT. Design: Secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional, national hospitalization database. Setting: Hospitalization data from the 2003 and 2006…

  2. Injuries among Children and Young Adults in Uganda : Epidemiology and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Mutto, Milton

    2011-01-01

    Background Injuries are a major morbidity and mortality cause among children and young adults worldwide. Previous Ugandan studies were limited in scope and biased towards severe adulthood injuries in referral care. Aims and Objectives This study explored the epidemiology of childhood and young adulthood injuries in Uganda: specifically their extent, pattern, distribution, risk and determinants, and stakeholder perceptions their regarding prevention and control. Methods ...

  3. Epidemiology of Attention Problems among Turkish Children and Adolescents: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Oner, Ozgur; Munir, Kerim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of attention problems using parent, teacher, and youth informants among a nationally representative Turkish sample. Method: The children and adolescents, 4 to 18 years old, were selected from a random household survey. Attention problems derived from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (N = 4,488), Teacher…

  4. Epidemiological Characteristics and Overall Burden of Accidental Injuries in Navarra, Spain: Epidemiology of Injuries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz-Torres, Marta; Belzunegui-Otano, Tomás; Martínez-García, Oscar; Iriarte-Cerdán, Laura; Salgado-Reguero, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Injuries caused by accidents or violent situations in pediatric patients are a serious social problem where prevention plays a key role. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological situation of pediatric injuries in Spain. A prospective study of pediatric patients receiving care in the Emergency Service of the Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra due to for reasons of accidental injury was conducted. The study covered a period of 1 year and assessed a total of 16 variables. There were a total of 8,876 patients, of whom 56.4% were males. Traumatic injuries such as fractures and craniocerebral trauma were identified as the most frequent injuries, occurring as a result of injuries mainly in the home. In females, there was a decrease in the incidence of injuries related to age. There was a greater incidence at the end of the day, during the weekend, and in the months of March to October. The epidemiological profile of pediatric patients who met with accidents in Navarra, Spain, is described. The knowledge of the main areas and factors related to injuries allows us to improve preventive measures, which would contribute to better control in this region of Spain. PMID:27414146

  5. Diagnostic Validity of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Margaret A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Results of an assessment of the diagnostic validity of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision (LNNB-C) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) for the following relevant diagnostic groups: neurological, psychiatric, and normal controls are reported. (Author/BL)

  6. Lower limb deficient children in The Netherlands: epidemiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnders, L J; Boonstra, A M; Groothoff, J W; Cornel, M C; Eisma, W H

    2000-04-01

    Information on the characteristics of children with limb deficiencies and amputations in The Netherlands is largely lacking. The present study aimed to collect data about the prevalence of congenital deficiencies, the ratio of congenital to acquired limb deficiencies, types of lower leg deficiency or amputation and male/female ratios. Data were obtained from a regional birth defects registry for the northern part of The Netherlands (EUROCAT-NNL) and from a national survey. Inclusion criteria for the selection of the EUROCAT data were: children/foetuses with lower leg deficiencies born in 1981-1986. Inclusion criteria for the survey data were: children aged 1-18 years with congenital deficiencies or acquired amputations of the leg, excluding toe deficiencies/amputations. Both the regional birth defects registry and the national survey only yielded small numbers of children, which limits the validity of the authors' findings. The Eurocat data show a prevalence of lower leg deficiencies at birth of 2.07/10,000. Fifty-five (55) children/foetuses were included in the present study. The male/female ratio was 1:1. Of the live-born children, 30% also had defects of the upper limbs, while 38% had bilateral lower limb deficiencies. The national survey included 89 children, of whom 73% had congenital deficiencies, while the others had undergone amputations: of which 37% were due to malignancies, 29% to traumata, 13% to infections and 21% to other pathology. The male/female ratio was 7:3 for the children with congenital deficiencies versus 6:4 for the children with acquired amputations. In the group of congenital deficiencies, fibula deficiency was most frequently seen (36%), while in the group with acquired amputations trans-femoral amputation, knee disarticulation and trans-tibial amputation were seen with equal frequency (21%). In 40% of the children with congenital deficiency and in 8% of the children with acquired amputations the arm was also affected. Both legs were

  7. Background, Epidemiology, and Impact of HIV Infection in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Arye

    1989-01-01

    The article reviews issues of diagnosis and treatment of children with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. A spectrum of clinical signs is correlated with serological results. The intense central nervous system involvement typically present in childhood cases is examined. (DB)

  8. Epidemiology and prevention of caustic ingestion in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, H B

    1994-01-01

    A total of 102 children less than 16 years of age admitted for caustic ingestion in the period 1976-1991 were registered. The annual incidence rate of hospitalization was 10.8:100,000 for the city of Aarhus, Denmark. Esophageal burns occurred with a frequency of 5.0:100,000 per year. Ninety......-four percent of the children were less than 5 years old. For this age group, the incidence rates of admission and esophageal burns were 34.6:100,000 and 15.8:100,000, respectively. All ingestions were accidental. The incidence rates of esophageal burns in children 0-4 years old (p = 0.019) decreased...

  9. Definitive neuroradiological diagnostic features of tuberculous meningitis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Smith, Bruce; Douis, Hassan [University of Cape Town, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Cape Town (South Africa); Hatherhill, Mark [University of Cape Town, Department of Intensive Care, Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Cape Town (South Africa); Wilmshurst, Jo [University of Cape Town, Department of Neurology, Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital School of Child and Adolescent Health, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2004-11-01

    TBM in children. This will enhance diagnostic confidence, allow early institution of therapy and could reduce expenditure on contrast medium, scan time and radiation exposure. With the use of threshold techniques we believe that the pre-contrast hyperdensity may be detectable by a computer program that will facilitate diagnosis, and may also be modified to detect abnormal enhancement. Basal enhancement is a sensitive sign for the diagnosis of TBM and should be sought after contrast medium administration when no hyperdensity is seen in the basal cisterns or when this finding needs to be confirmed. The CT scan feature of hyperdense exudates on pre-contrast scans should be added to the inclusion criteria for the diagnosis of TBM in children. (orig.)

  10. Epidemiology of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation in Malaysian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, B; Sinniah, D; Rajeswari, B

    1981-05-01

    A survey of 308,101 primary school children in Peninsular Malaysia conducted in 1979 by the School Health Services, Ministry of Health, Malaysia, revealed that 10.7% of children were infested with Pediculus humanus capitis. The prevalence rate was higher in the economically less advanced states of Terenganu (34%), Kelantan (23%), and Perlis (21%) than in the other states (4-13%). Of 14,233 school children examined in the State of Melaka, 26% of Indians, 18.7% of Malays, 6.1% of Europeans, and 0.7% of Chinese had pediculosis. The prevalence rate, which has remained unchanged over the past 5 years, does not appear to vary with age but is higher in children with long hair and those from the lower socioeconomic groups. Boys have a lower infestation rate than do girls. The higher incidence in Indians and Malays correlates well with their lower socioeconomic status in the community, and their cultural habit of maintaining longer hair than do the Chinese. The difference become less apparent in the higher socioeconomic groups. PMID:7258487

  11. "Toxocara canis" Infection of Children: Epidemiology and Neurospychologic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of a serologic survey for antibodies to Toxocara canis (the common roundworm of dogs) in a sample of 4,652 New York City children. Discusses findings of a case-control study conducted to identify host and environmental risk factors for T. canis infection and to investigate its consequences. (KH)

  12. Lower limb deficient children in the Netherlands : epidemiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnders, LJM; Boonstra, AM; Groothoff, JW; Cornel, MC; Eisma, WH

    2000-01-01

    information on the characteristics of children with limb deficiencies and amputations in the Netherlands is largely lacking. The present study aimed to collect data about the prevalence of congenital deficiencies, the ratio of congenital to acquired limb deficiencies, types of lower leg deficiency o

  13. The epidemiologic study in children from Cracow region following Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989-1990 the epidemiologic studies about the impact of the Chernobyl events on the health of children in Cracow and Nowy Sacz region were performed. The morphologic and functional changes of thyroid gland in children were estimated. Almost 90% of children in both districts received the iodine preparations for prophylactic reason. The mean time of intake was between 5-10 days following the Chernobyl explosion. There were no relationship between the doses of iodine absorbed during prophylactic action and incidence of goiter. The prevalence of goiter amounted to 34.8-47.6% in boys and girls consecutively in Cracow district and 53.8-70.5% in Nowy Sacz. No hormonal changes in T3, T4 and TSH serum concentration were found in goitres children and those without goiter. The complications after iodine intake were transient and seen only in a small number of children. (author). 3 refs, 8 tabs

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of the bronchodilator response in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Sze Man; Gold, Diane R.; Sordillo, Joanne E.; Hoffman, Elaine B.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L.; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Weiss, Scott T.; Litonjua, Augusto A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The bronchodilator response (BDR) reflects the reversibility of airflow obstruction and is recommended as an adjunctive test to diagnose asthma. The validity of the commonly used definition of BDR, a 12% or greater change in FEV1 from baseline, has been questioned in childhood. Objectives We sought to examine the diagnostic accuracy of the BDR test by using 3 large pediatric cohorts. Methods Cases include 1041 children with mild-to-moderate asthma from the Childhood Asthma Management Program. Control subjects (nonasthmatic and nonwheezing) were chosen from Project Viva and Home Allergens, 2 population-based pediatric cohorts. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed, and areas under the curve were calculated for different BDR cutoffs. Results A total of 1041 cases (59.7% male; mean age, 8.9 ± 2.1 years) and 250 control subjects (46.8% male; mean age, 8.7 ± 1.7 years) were analyzed, with mean BDRs of 10.7% ± 10.2% and 2.7% ± 8.4%, respectively. The BDR test differentiated asthmatic patients from nonasthmatic patients with a moderate accuracy (area under the curve, 73.3%). Despite good specificity, a cutoff of 12% was associated with poor sensitivity (35.6%). A cutoff of less than 8% performed significantly better than a cutoff of 12% (P = .03, 8% vs 12%). Conclusions Our findings highlight the poor sensitivity associated with the commonly used 12% cutoff for BDR. Although our data show that a threshold of less than 8% performs better than 12%, given the variability of this test in children, we conclude that it might be not be appropriate to choose a specific BDR cutoff as a criterion for the diagnosis of asthma. PMID:23683464

  15. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children Referred for Diagnostic Autism Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sonia A; Spinks-Franklin, Adiaha; Treadwell-Deering, Diane; Berry, Leandra; Sellers-Vinson, Sherry; Smith, Eboni; Proud, Monica; Voigt, Robert G

    2015-12-01

    Increased public awareness of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and routine screening in primary care have contributed to increased requests for diagnostic ASD evaluations. However, given the scarcity of subspecialty autism diagnostic resources, overreferral of children suspected of having ASD may be contributing to long waiting lists at tertiary care autism centers and delaying diagnosis for those children who truly have ASD. To determine whether children are being excessively referred to ASD-specific diagnostic clinics, our objective was to determine the prevalence of true ASD diagnoses in children referred for diagnostic ASD evaluation. Charts of all patients referred to a regional autism center between April 2011 and August 2012 for suspicion of a possible ASD were retrospectively reviewed and demographic and clinical diagnoses abstracted. Only 214 of 348 patients evaluated (61%) received an ASD diagnosis. Thus, concerns about autism are not confirmed by an ASD diagnosis in a significant number of children.

  16. Diagnostic stability among chronic patients with functional psychoses: an epidemiological and clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobsen Klaus D

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnostic stability and illness course of chronic non-organic psychoses are complex phenomena and only few risk factors or predictors are known that can be used reliably. This study investigates the diagnostic stability during the entire course of illness in patients with non-organic psychoses and attempts to identify non-psychopathological risk factors or predictors. Method 100 patients with functional psychosis were initially characterised using the Operational Criteria Checklist for Psychotic Illness and Affective Illness (OPCRIT, medical records and health registers. To study the stability of diagnoses (i.e. shifts per time, we used registry data to define four measures of diagnostic variation that were subsequently examined in relation to four possible measures of time (i.e. observation periods or hospitalisation events. Afterwards, we identified putative co-variables and predictors of the best measures of diagnostic stability. Results All four measures of diagnostic variation are very strongly associated with numbers-of-hospitalisations and less so with duration-of-illness, duration-of-hospitalisation and with year-of-first-admission. The four measures of diagnostic variation corrected for numbers-of-hospitalisations were therefore used to study the diagnostic stability. Conventional predictors of illness course – e.g. age-of-onset and premorbid-functioning – are not significantly associated with stability. Only somatic-comorbidity is significantly associated with two measures of stability, while family-history-of-psychiatric-illness and global-assessment-of-functioning (GAF scale score show a trend. However, the traditional variables age-of-first-admission, civil-status, first-diagnosis-being-schizophrenia and somatic-comorbidity are able to explain two-fifth of the variation in numbers-of-hospitalisations. Conclusion Diagnostic stability is closely linked with the contact between patient and the healthcare system

  17. Population-Based Studies on the Epidemiology of Insulin Resistance in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. van der Aa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In view of the alarming incidence of obesity in children, insight into the epidemiology of the prediabetic state insulin resistance (IR seems important. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to give an overview of all population-based studies reporting on the prevalence and incidence rates of IR in childhood. Methods. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library were searched in order to find all available population-based studies describing the epidemiology of IR in pediatric populations. Prevalence rates together with methods and cut-off values used to determine IR were extracted and summarized with weight and sex specific prevalence rates of IR if available. Results. Eighteen population-based studies were identified, describing prevalence rates varying between 3.1 and 44%, partly explained by different definitions for IR. Overweight and obese children had higher prevalence rates than normal weight children. In seven out of thirteen studies reporting sex specific results, girls seemed to be more affected than boys. Conclusion. Prevalence rates of IR reported in children vary widely which is partly due to the variety of definitions used. Overweight and obese children had higher prevalence and girls were more insulin resistant than boys. Consensus on the definition for IR in children is needed to allow for comparisons between different studies.

  18. [Epidemiological survey of dysphonia in children at primary school entry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoq, M; Drape, F

    1996-01-01

    The study of 259 children in primary school revealed a prevalence of dysphonia of 10%, often undiagnosed, untreated or considered as benign. It would seem desirable to draw attention to this symptom, which may be an indication of organic pathology or of psychological problems, the early treatment of which may avoid later sequelae. It is sometimes necessary to allow a period for reflection in order to gain the cooperation of the child and his parents.

  19. Lower limb deficient children in the Netherlands: epidemiological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Rijnders, LJM; Boonstra, AM; Groothoff, JW; Cornel, MC; Eisma, WH

    2000-01-01

    information on the characteristics of children with limb deficiencies and amputations in the Netherlands is largely lacking. The present study aimed to collect data about the prevalence of congenital deficiencies, the ratio of congenital to acquired limb deficiencies, types of lower leg deficiency or amputation and male/female ratios. Data were obtained from a regional birth defects registry for the northern parr. of the Netherlands (EUROCAT-NNL) and from a national survey, inclusion criteria...

  20. The diagnostic value of CT of pelvic masses in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To retrospectively analyze CT appearances and diagnostic value of pelvic masses in 50 children proved by operation and pathology. Methods: 50 cases of pelvic masses were performed with axial plain CT scan. 32 cases of them underwent contrast-enhanced CT scan. These were 31 girls and 19 boys. The age ranged from 2 hours to 14 years, mean 5.8 years. 47 cases were proved by surgical pathology, 2 cases by biopsy pathology, and 1 case by voiding cystourethrography. Results: The pelvic masses were : 27 germ cell tumors, 7 rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS), 4 tumors of neural origin, 2 hydrometrocolpos, 1 pelvic lipomatosis, 1 ureterocele in bladder, 1 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma(NHL), 1 ectopic hyperplasia of prostate in pelvic, 1 appendiceal abscess, 1 prostatic abscess,1 megabladder, 1 mesenteric cyst, 1 duplication of the small intestine, 1 leiomyosarcoma. 46 of 50 cases were correctly diagnosed by CT scan before surgery (92 %), 4 cases were mistaken by CT scan (8 %). 31 cases were benign masses (62%), and 19 cases were malignant masses (38% ), 17 of 19 malignant masses were solid (89.5%). 29 of 31 benign masses were mixed density masses and cystic masses(93. 5%) . Conclusion: CT scan was the best method of choices in showing the size, density, shape, and location of pelvic masses and its relationship to pelvic organs, musculature, and bones. Pelvic CT is the most recent technique utilized in the diagnosis of patients with pelvic masses

  1. Epidemiology of Hepatitis E in Pregnant Women and Children in Iran: A General Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Reza; Farshadpour, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract From an epidemiological point of view, hepatitis E is an old infection in Iran, but only recently has its importance as a public health concern been considered from research and public health standpoints. As such, there is still a long road ahead to clarify the real burden of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Iran. According to the available epidemiological studies, the seroprevalence of HEV infection among pregnant women is between 3.6% and 7.4%, and among Iranian children is between 0.9% to 8.5%, varying by geographic regions within the country and directly dependent upon the sanitary status of each. In addition to evaluating the sanitation level of a society, community-based seroprevalence studies of HEV infection demonstrate the most prevalent risk factors, the major routes of transmission, and the epidemiological patterns of HEV among that country’s population. In this review, the current knowledge about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of HEV infection in pregnant women and children in Iran, as well as the recent advances in diagnosis, prevention and treatment of HEV infection have been summarized. PMID:27777896

  2. Changes in the epidemiology of acute appendicitis and appendectomy in Danish children 1996-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S B; Paerregaard, A; Larsen, K

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Aim of the study was to describe changes in the epidemiology of acute appendicitis in Danish children between 0-19 years of age for the period 1996-2004. METHODS: The study was based on discharge diagnoses taken from the Danish National Patient Registry of all 28 274 patients with a diag......PURPOSE: Aim of the study was to describe changes in the epidemiology of acute appendicitis in Danish children between 0-19 years of age for the period 1996-2004. METHODS: The study was based on discharge diagnoses taken from the Danish National Patient Registry of all 28 274 patients...... with a diagnosis of acute uncomplicated or complicated appendicitis, and/or a registered procedure code of appendectomy. These data were computed together with data on the background population, and incidences were calculated. RESULTS: A significant decrease in the incidence of acute uncomplicated appendicitis...

  3. Viral respiratory diseases in children: classification, etiology, epidemiology, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, V G

    1994-05-01

    The epidemiology, molecular structure, cell tropism, and pathophysiology of many human disease-causing viruses have been painstakingly and elegantly characterized during the past 50 years. Vaccines and antiviral drugs of varying efficacy were developed and tested. Despite the relegation of smallpox to a freezer chest and the progress in the control of measles and hepatitis B, the viruses that cause respiratory tract infections remain significant causes of illness and death in pediatric populations worldwide. This discussion surveys the virus groups that contain nearly 200 distinct viruses that cause sporadic and epidemic respiratory infections in children. The epidemiology of infection with the influenza A and B, parainfluenza, and respiratory syncytial viruses and adenoviruses and their impact on infants and children and the groups at highest risk for morbid outcomes are discussed. PMID:8169752

  4. [Epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children. Current data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguet, C; Bocquel, N; Mallet, E

    1998-01-01

    Viruses, particularly syncitial respiratory virus, are the main aetiology of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections in infants, while bacterial agents are more frequently responsible in children older than 3 years. Antimicrobial therapy must take into account the development of reduced susceptibility of penicillin to strains of Streptoccocus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae with beta-lactamase, and high frequency of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections. Although the mortality rate has remained low in France, the morbidity appeared to increase in recent years. PMID:10223154

  5. Epidemiological studies of dental caries in groups of Swedish children

    OpenAIRE

    Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    1986-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study the extent and distribution of dental caries was studied in 817 children, 4, 8 and 13 years old in three areas inSweden. The importance of dietary habits, sugar intake, social conditions, professional dental care, oral hygiene and the use of fluorides on caries prevalence was analyzed. In a subsample, con­sisting of 88 8-year-olds and 91 13-year-olds the net caries increment during aone-year period was studied.In this longitudinal study, the salivary levels of lacto...

  6. Pediatric Tuberculosis in Italian Children: Epidemiological and Clinical Data from the Italian Register of Pediatric Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Galli; Laura Lancella; Chiara Tersigni; Elisabetta Venturini; Elena Chiappini; Barbara Maria Bergamini; Margherita Codifava; Cristina Venturelli; Giulia Tosetti; Caterina Marabotto; Laura Cursi; Elena Boccuzzi; Silvia Garazzino; Pier Angelo Tovo; Michele Pinon

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Over the last decades, TB has also emerged in the pediatric population. Epidemiologic data of childhood TB are still limited and there is an urgent need of more data on very large cohorts. A multicenter study was conducted in 27 pediatric hospitals, pediatric wards, and public health centers in Italy using a standardized form, covering the period of time between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Children with active TB, lat...

  7. Assessing the epidemiological impact of extending the national influenza vaccination programme to healthy children in England

    OpenAIRE

    Pebody, R. G.; Boele van Hensbroek, M; Andrews, N.; Baguelin, M.; Green, H.K.

    2015-01-01

    Infection with influenza can result in significant morbidity and mortality each winter. The key strategy for control is vaccination and it was recently recommended to extend the routine programme in England to include healthy children. The aim of this thesis is therefore to collate the intelligence on monitoring the population-level burden of influenza, uptake of the vaccine and epidemiological impact of the programme through routine surveillance systems. The first chapter addresses several f...

  8. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children who died from hand, foot and mouth disease in Vietnam, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Ngoc TB; Pham, Hau V; Hoang, Cuong Q; Nguyen, Tien M.; Nguyen, Long T; Phan, Hung C; Phan, Lan T; Vu, Long N; Tran Minh, Nguyen N

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2011, a large outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Vietnam resulted in 113,121 children seeking medical attention, of whom170 died. Understanding the epidemiology of fatal HFMD may improve treatment and help targeting prevention activities for vulnerable populations. We describe epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children who died from HFMD in Vietnam in 2011. Methods Clinical data were obtained through reviewing medical records of the deaths occurring...

  9. Obesity and type 2 diabetes in children: epidemiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulgaron, Elizabeth R; Delamater, Alan M

    2014-08-01

    The incidence of overweight and obesity among children has increased dramatically in recent decades, with about one-third of children in the U.S. currently being either overweight or obese. Being overweight in early childhood increases risk for later obesity. There is evidence for the efficacy of family-based behavioral treatment to control weight and improve health outcomes. Obesity-related health risks have been documented, including metabolic syndrome. There is also increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) among youth in recent years, with obesity and family history of T2D generally present. Lower income and ethnic minority status are associated with both obesity and T2D in youth. Most youth with T2D do not achieve optimal glycemic control, and are at high risk for later health complications. Obesity and T2D represent significant public health issues with potentially great personal and societal cost. Research addressing the prevention of obesity and T2D among youth is urgently needed.

  10. The outbreak of tularemia in Khanty-Mansiysk in 2013: clinical and epidemiological features in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Girina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tularemia is a zoonotic disease. The pathogen (Francisella tularensis is а gram negative bacteria virulent to humans and animals (rodents, hares, rabbits. The outbreak of tularemia had happened in 2013, in Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District, during which 1005 people became ill, including 157 children, of whom 152 people were treated at the Hospital District of Khanty-Mansiysk. The histories of inpatients and outpatients affected children had been analysed (n=152. Specialists have identified epidemiological and clinical features of children tularemia. There was ulceroglandular form of tularemia in 98.7% of cases. Purulent lymphadenitis has appeared in 5.9% of cases. 21,2% of affected children have been vaccinated and revaccinated against tularemia for 1–11 years before the disease.

  11. Scientific statement on the diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and molecular genetics of polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Dumesic (Daniel); S.E. Oberfield (Sharon E.); E. Stener-Victorin (Elisabet); J.C. Marshall (John C.); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); R.S. Legro (Richard)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous and complex disorder that has both adverse reproductive and metabolic implications for affected women. However, there is generally poor understanding of its etiology. Varying expert-based diagnostic criteria utilize some combination of

  12. Exposure to phthalates: reproductive outcome and children health. A review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech

    2011-06-01

    Phthalates are a family of industrial chemicals that have been used for a variety of purposes. As the potential consequences of human exposure to phthalates have raised concerns in the general population, they have been studied in susceptible subjects such as pregnant women, infants and children. This article aims at evaluating the impact of exposure to phthalates on reproductive outcomes and children health by reviewing most recent published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to phthalates and pregnancy outcome, genital development, semen quality, precocious puberty, thyroid function, respiratory symptoms and neurodevelopment in children for the last ten years were identified by a search of the PubMed, Medline, Ebsco, Agricola and Toxnet literature bases. The results from the presented studies suggest that there are strong and rather consistent indications that phthalates increase the risk of allergy and asthma and have an adverse impact on children's neurodevelopment reflected by quality of alertness among girls, decreased (less masculine) composite score in boys and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results of few studies demonstrate negative associations between phthalate levels commonly experienced by the public and impaired sperm quality (concentration, morphology, motility). Phthalates negatively impact also on gestational age and head circumference; however, the results of the studies were not consistent. In all the reviewed studies, exposure to phthalates adversely affected the level of reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone, free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin), anogenital distance and thyroid function. The urinary levels of phthalates were significantly higher in the pubertal gynecomastia group, in serum in girls with premature thelarche and in girls with precocious puberty. Epidemiological studies, in spite of their limitations, suggest that phthalates may affect reproductive outcome and children health

  13. Brucellosis- Advanced Diagnostic Methods and Update on Epidemiology/ Epizootology in the Balkan Region

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski, Vaso

    2005-01-01

    Brucellosis is a typical zoonotic disease caused by organisms of genus brucella, a potential bio-warfare agent. Humans become infected by ingestion of animal food products, direct contact with infected animals or inhalation of infectious aerosols. Different diagnostic tests, ranging from culture, serologic test (Slide Agglutination Test, Tube Agglutination Test, Antihuman Globulin Test, 2-Mercaptoethanol Test, Fluorescent Polarization Test, ELISA) and numerous PCR-based assays are availab...

  14. Elementary School-Age Children's Capacity To Choose Positive Diagnostic and Negative Diagnostic Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Mark C.; McDonald, John

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments compared 10-year-olds' and adults' ability to choose positive and negative diagnostic tests over positive and negative nondiagnostic tests. Findings indicated that both age groups were more likely to prefer positive diagnostic tests over positive nondiagnostic tests, although only adults showed a significant preference for negative…

  15. [Epidemiology, diagnostics, and treatment of complications after neuroinfections: chronic fatigue syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, O M; Murashko, N K

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiology information which testify to prevalence syndrome of chronic ustalostti (SV) is resulted in the article, and from some data this diagnosis is covered at more than 20% patients which carried neyroinfection. SV meets more frequent only in age 40-59, thus for women a disease is marked in 4 times more frequent, than for men. Today etiology of disease remains unknown, but the value of genetic, immunological factors, pathogens, neurogenic violations and features of feed is examined. Possibility of infectious etiology SV causes considerable interest of researchers, but at first this syndrome was examined as a sharp viral infection, where the most reliable exciter is consider the virus of Epshteyna-barr. Using of intravenous introduction of globulin for SV carries experimental character and grounded on a hypothesis about immunological or infectious etiology of this disease.

  16. Epidemiology of dental caries in children in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bluwi, Ghada S M

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries has a significant impact on the general health and development of children. Understanding caries epidemiology is an essential task for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) policymakers to evaluate preventive programmes and to improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to collect and summarise all data available in the published literature on the epidemiology of dental caries in the UAE in children aged under 13 years. This will provide dental health planners with a comprehensive data summary, which will help in the planning for and evaluation of dental caries prevention programmes. Data were collected from the various published studies in PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Google, and the reference lists in relevant articles. Four keywords were used in the search: 'dental caries,' 'epidemiology,' 'prevalence,' and 'UAE'. All studies conducted in the UAE in general or any single emirate that sheds light on the prevalence of dental caries of children under 13 years were included in this literature review. Studies on early childhood caries and factors associated with dental caries were also included. The review comprises 11 published surveys of childhood caries in UAE. The earliest study was published in 1991 and the most recent was published in 2011. The range of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) in UAE children (age between 4 years and 6 years) was 5.1-8.4. For the 12-year-old group the decayed missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) ranged from 1.6 to 3.24. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate goals and planning for preventive oral health programmes. The current data available on the dmft and DMFT indicate that childhood dental caries is still a serious dental public health problem in the UAE that warrants immediate attention by the government and policy makers.

  17. Validity Study of the Autism Spectrum Disorders-Diagnostic for Children (ASD-DC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa; Wilkins, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Disorders-Diagnostic for Children (ASD-DC) is a 40-item Likert format scale designed to serve in the diagnosis of children and adolescents from 2 to 16 years of age. The reliability and factor structure of the scale have been established in previous research. Studies 1 and 2 were designed to evaluate the validity of the measure…

  18. Wilson's disease in children: clinical and diagnostic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical and diagnostic laboratory features of Wilsons disease in children and adolescents. Design: A prospective cohort study. Place and Duration of study: The study included patients diagnosed as Wilson s disease at the Department of Pediatrics Allied Hospital, Punjab medical College, Faisalabad from May 1997 to June 2001. Patients and methods: Patients presenting with liver or suggestive neurological disease were investigated. Others were diagnosed as a result of family screening. Diagnosis of neurologic disease was made if two of the following were present: Typical neurological findings, Kayser Fleischer corneal rings and low serum ceruloplasmin (100 mu gm) free serum copper (>10 mu gm/dl). In other forms and for family screening, 24 hours. Urinary copper (> 100 mu gm), free serum copper (>10 mu gm/dl), and wherever possible liver biopsy for histopathology and cytochemical staining by rubeanic acid was also done. Results: Twenty-seven patients with a mean age of 10.2 years were diagnosed as suffering from Wilson disease. Mean age for hepatic and neurological disease was 9 years and 11.5 years respectively. Youngest patient (neurologic) was 6 years old. 48% cases presented with neurological, 41% with hepatic and 4% with skeletal manifestations while 7 % were asymptomatic. Mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 6.1 months. Dysarthria (84.6%), tremors (69.2%), rigidity and poor school performance and hand writing (61.5%), dysphagia (46.1%) and dystonia (38.5%), were the most common neurologic findings. Chronic liver disease was seen in 73 % while acute forms were seen in 27 % cases. Two cases presented with fulminant hepatic failure. Consanguineous marriage of the parents was found in 70 % and family history of disease was present in 65 % cases. K-F (Kayser Fleischer) rings and low serum ceruloplasmin(<20 mg/dl) was found in 85% of all patients. In non neurologic types other tests of copper metabolism were done. Elevated urinary

  19. Epidemiological study of congenital heart defects in children and adolescents: analysis of 4,538 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Itiro Miyague

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency and prevalence of congenital heart defects in a tertiary care center for children with heart diseases. METHODS: We carried out an epidemiological assessment of the first medical visit of 4,538 children in a pediatric hospital from January 1995 to December 1997. All patients with congenital heart defects had their diagnoses confirmed at least on echocardiography. The frequency and prevalence of the anomalies were computed according to the classification of sequential analysis. Age, weight, and sex were compared between the groups of healthy individuals and those with congenital heart defects after distribution according to the age group. RESULTS: Of all the children assessed, 2,017 (44.4% were diagnosed with congenital heart disease, 201 (4.4% with acquired heart disease, 52 (1.2% with arrhythmias, and 2,268 (50% were healthy children. Congenital heart diseases predominated in neonates and infants, corresponding to 71.5% of the cases. Weight and age were significantly lower in children with congenital heart defects. Ventricular septal defect was the most frequent acyanotic anomaly, and tetralogy of Fallot was the most frequent cyanotic anomaly. CONCLUSION: Children with congenital heart defects are mainly referred during the neonatal period and infancy with impairment in gaining weight. Ventricular septal defect is the most frequent heart defect.

  20. Measles: epidemiological diagnostic study, in Peri-urban area in Khartoum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    200 cases of clinical measles in El Hag Yousif area and K. C. E. H, A. G. H. between (March 97-August 98) were studied for epidemiological parameters: 39(20%) were infants, 112 (55%) were 1 to 5 years old and 49 (25%) were over 5 years. History of measles vaccination was obtained in 87 (44%). 150 cases were studied in details: overcrowding was observed in 73 patients (48.6%), 63 patients (42%) gave history of house hold contact, 142 patients (94.6%) had intercurrent infections and 60 (40%) were cases of severe measles: 35 (58%) were females, 7 (20%) of them died with severe infections, the overall mortality was 16 (CFR= 8%). The newly developed prototype field test was done for 66 (46.2%), it was positive in 55 (83.3%), negative in 6 (9%) and doubtful in 5 (7.7%). In comparison with standard specific IgM ELISA test: ELISA test was positive in 47/55, 8 patients had false positive field test (14.5%), 4 with negative field test had a positive ELISA = 4/6 false negative field test (66.6%), so the field test is not sensitive and not specific. (Author)

  1. A molecular epidemiology survey of respiratory adenoviruses circulating in children residing in Southern Palestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Qurei

    Full Text Available A molecular epidemiology survey was performed in order to establish and document the respiratory adenovirus pathogen profiles among children in Southern Palestine. Three hundred and thirty-eight hospitalized pediatric cases with adenovirus-associated respiratory tract infections were analyzed. Forty four cases out of the 338 were evaluated in more detail for the adenoviruses types present. All of the children resided in Southern Palestine, that is, in city, village and refugee camp environments within the districts of Hebron and Bethlehem. Human adenoviruses circulated throughout 2005-2010, with major outbreaks occurring in the spring months. A larger percent of the children diagnosed with adenoviral infections were male infants. DNA sequence analysis of the hexon genes from 44 samples revealed that several distinct adenovirus types circulated in the region; these were HAdV-C1, HAdV-C2, HAdV-B3 and HAdV-C5. However, not all of these types were detected within each year. This is the first study ever conducted in Palestine of the genetic epidemiology of respiratory adenovirus infections.

  2. Mothers and Children as Informants of Bullying Victimization: Results from an Epidemiological Cohort of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Andreou, Penelope; Bowes, Lucy; Ambler, Antony P.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Stressful events early in life can affect children's mental health problems. Collecting valid and reliable information about children's bad experiences is important for research and clinical purposes. This study aimed to (1) investigate whether mothers and children provide valid reports of bullying victimization, (2) examine the inter-rater…

  3. [Sleep and sleep disorders in the elderly: Part 1: epidemiology and diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohnhofen, H; Schlitzer, J

    2014-08-01

    Restorative sleep is an important factor for well-being, performance and quality of life. The basic diagnostic procedure of a sleep disorder is to take a comprehensive sleep history. Sleep disorders can and must be distinguished from the physiological changes of sleep in the elderly. Insomnia (difficulty in sleeping), daytime sleepiness (hypersomnia), sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) and movement disorders during sleep are also common in the elderly. They must be detected because they are treatable and can dominate the clinical picture of geriatric syndromes. Nursing home residents and dementia patients are in particular need of attention as their sleep is often adversely affected by the living environment and the daily institutional routine. PMID:25117857

  4. A diagnostic and prognostic tool for epidemiologic and economic analyses of dairy herd health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Sørensen, J.T.; Thysen, Iver;

    1995-01-01

    A computer program framework was established to enable a dairy herd production consultant to perform whole-herd analysis. The diagnostic process was an extensive data analysis 1) to derive key parameters related to production, reproduction, and health and 2) to produce input to a prognostic process...... problem related to the simulation was addressed through a simultaneous process of development and validation during the introduction of the program framework into veterinary practices. The generally slow adoption of herd simulation models in extension work could be due to lack of credibility of the models....... A major barrier to adoption of the current whole-herd approach may be the considerable time required to understand and use the tools properly. An example of a simulation experiment based on data from a New York dairy farm was provided, and the interpretation and practical applications of such simulations...

  5. Noninvasive Diagnostic Tests for Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Koletzko, Sibylle

    2005-01-01

    Noninvasive tests can be used for the initial diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and to monitor the success of eradication therapy. In populations with a low prevalence of H pylori infection (children living in North America and Europe), a high sensitivity is required to make the test valuable for clinical practice. The 13C-urea breath test has been validated in children of different age groups in a significant number of infected and noninfected children in several countries and, thus...

  6. An epidemiological study of emotional and behavioral disorders among children in an urban slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Samir D; Bodhare, Trupti N; Valsangkar, Sameer; Saraf, Abhay

    2013-01-01

    Although mental health research in India has gained momentum in recent years and several epidemiological studies have begun to quantify psychiatric morbidities, there are few community-based epidemiological studies focusing specifically on prevalence and associated risk factors of emotional and behavioral disorders among children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban slum of Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh among 370 children selected by simple random sampling. Strength and difficulty questionnaire (SDQ) was used to estimate the prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorder. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to evaluate the social predictors of the condition, health-seeking behavior, and its impact on educational status of the children. Maternal depression was evaluated using patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9). Eighty-three (22.43%) children had an abnormal score on at least one domain of SDQ. Logistic regression analysis indicated that male gender (odds ration (OR) = 5.51), under-nutrition (OR = 2.74), low socioeconomic status (OR = 3.73), nuclear family (OR = 1.89), working status of the mother (OR = 2.71), younger age of the mother at the birth of the child (OR = 3.09), disciplinary method (OR = 2.31), financial problem at home (OR = 13.32), alcoholic father (OR = 11.65), conflicts in family (OR = 7.29), and depression among mother (OR = 3.95) were significant predictors. There was a significant impact on educational performance (p = 0.008) and parents had little awareness regarding the condition. The high frequency of emotional and behavioral problems, its impact on educational performance of the children, associated adverse social factors, poor knowledge, and treatment-seeking behavior of the parents in an urban slum warrants immediate attention. The interrelation of all these factors can be utilized to plan a continuum of comprehensive services that focus on prevention, early identification, and effective intervention strategies with

  7. An epidemiologic study of 389 children with epilepsy in southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Inaloo, Soroor; Pegah KATIBEH

    2011-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Inaloo S, Katibeh P. An epidemiologic study of 389 children with epilepsy in southern Iran.Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):15-20Objective Approximately 4% of the world's population experience one or more febrile seizures during their lifetime, and 0.5-1% of the population has active epilepsy.Less than one-third of the reported seizures are categorized as epilepsy. The cause of established epilepsy is important in determining the treatment and prognosis.Ma...

  8. Human cystic echinococcosis:epidemiologic, zoonotic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal; Manisha Deb Mandal

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This review represents an updated scenario on the transmission cycle, epidemiology, clinical features and pathogenicity, diagnosis and treatment, and prevention and control measures of a cestode parasiteEchincoccus granulosus (E. granulosus)infection causing cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans. Human CE is a serious life-threatening neglected zoonotic disease that occurs in both developing and developed countries, and is recognized as a major public health problem. The life cycle of E. granulosus involves a definitive host (dogs and other canids) for the adult E. granulosus that resides in the intestine, and an intermediate host (sheep and other herbivores) for the tissue-invading metacestode (larval) stage. Humans are only incidentally infected; since the completion of the life cycle ofE. granulosus depends on carnivores feeding on herbivores bearing hydatid cysts with viable protoscoleces, humans represent usually the dead end for the parasite. On ingestion ofE. granulosus eggs, hydatid cysts are formed mostly in liver and lungs, and occasionally in other organs of human body, which are considered as uncommon sites of localization of hydatid cysts. The diagnosis of extrahepatic echinococcal disease is more accurate today because of the availability of new imaging techniques, and the current treatments include surgery and percutaneous drainage, and chemotherapy (albendazole and mebendazole). But, the wild animals that involve in sylvatic cycle may overlap and interact with the domestic sheep-dog cycle, and thus complicating the control efforts. The updated facts and phenomena regarding human and animal CE presented herein are due to the web search of SCI and non-SCI journals.

  9. Epidemiology of allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings in Irish school children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, Aisling

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this was to study generate the first epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of hymenoptera allergy among school children in Ireland. Questionnaires, including six sting-specific questions (1), were distributed to the parents of primary school children aged 6-8 and 11-13, divided equally between rural and urban backgrounds. From 110 schools, 4112 questionnaires were returned. A total of 1544 (37.5%) children had been stung in their lifetime. Among the total, 5.8% of children stung experienced a large local reaction, 3.4% had a mild (cutaneous) systemic reaction (MSR) and 0.8% experienced a moderate\\/severe systemic reaction (SSR); these figures respectively represent 2.2%, 1.3% and 0.2% of the total study group. On logistic regression analysis, older children and rural children were at a higher risk of being stung (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.4-2.; OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.8 respectively). Rural dwellers and asthma sufferers were more likely to experience an SSR (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.4-13.5 and OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.8-4.3, respectively). Hymenoptera stings are more common in rural than urban dwelling Irish children. Asthma imparted a greater risk of SSR in this study population. Severe reactions are unusual overall, occurring in <1% of those stung, a lower prevalence than in Israeli teenagers but in keeping with other European reports relating to young children.

  10. Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donné, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Barnsley, R.;

    2007-01-01

    on ITER is a substantial challenge. Because of the harsh environment (high levels of neutron and gamma fluxes, neutron heating, particle bombardment) diagnostic system selection and design has to cope with a range of phenomena not previously encountered in diagnostic design. Extensive design and R...

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of Enteric Adenovirus Gastroenteritis in under-Five-Year-Old Children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute gastroenteritis is one of the major sources of morbidity and mortality among young children in developed and developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human adenovirus- (HAdV- 40 and HAdV-41 in children hospitalized with gastroenteritis in five different health centers of Iran. Methods. In a cross-sectional epidemiological study, we studied 2682 fecal specimens that were collected from children under the age of 5 years in five educational and therapeutic pediatric centers in Iran from February 2012 to February 2013. Samples were tested for HAdV-40 and HAdV-41, using a specific pair of primers in polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. Results. HAdV-40 and HAdV-41 were detected in 132 (5.18% of the patients with diarrhea. A significantly higher prevalence of HAdV-40 and HAdV-41 (58.3% was observed in children under 12 months of age, compared to other age groups. The male to female ratio was 1.7. Conclusion. The results of this study demonstrated that HAdV-40 and HAdV-41 could be considered etiological agents for acute gastroenteritis among children in Iran. The PCR as a rapid test may increase the chance for a relatively mild course of the disease followed by a complete recovery and avoiding administration of unnecessary antibiotics.

  12. Resurvey of symptomatics of the Jaipur district population and suggestion for alternative diagnostic criteria of asthma for epidemiological surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prahlad Rai; Bansal, Ankit; Singh, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of asthma in Jaipur district of Rajasthan was reported as 0.96% in an earlier survey. It was far below the national average of 2.38%. It was reasoned then that this could be due to under diagnosis of asthma in the Jaipur population. Material and Methods: A resurvey of the symptomatics, not diagnosed as asthma at time of the original survey was, therefore, undertaken. The resurvey data were analysed and those who now fulfilled the twin criteria for diagnosis of asthma, as used in the original survey, were diagnosed as having asthma. The original data of these newly diagnosed asthma patients were reanalyzed in search for an alternative diagnostic criterion. Results: Of the 382 symptomatics, 344 (90%) could be resurveyed and of them, 85 now fulfilled the twin diagnostic criteria for asthma. The reanalysis of the original survey data of these patients revealed that presence of shortness of breath (SOB) had the highest sensitivity, the presence of allergic symptoms in self or the family had the highest specificity and the presence of wheezing had the highest odds ratio (OR) for diagnosing asthma. Further, the OR for diagnosing asthma increased further and was highest with the presence of SOB and 2 additional symptoms. With the use of the “symptom criteria” for diagnosis of asthma i.e. the presence of SOB with 2 additional symptoms, it would have been possible to diagnose majority of the missed cases at the time of the original survey itself. Conclusions: Based on this study data it can be concluded that (a) the twin criteria for diagnosing asthma as used in earlier surveys led to under diagnosis of asthma and (b) the use of symptom criteria alone effectively checks the problem of under diagnosis of asthma. The symptom criteria are being suggested as an alternative method for use in future epidemiological surveys on asthma. PMID:26933304

  13. Genomics, Molecular Epidemiology and Diagnostics of Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Praveen; Safeena, Muhammed P; Krabsetsve, Kjersti; La Fauce, Kathy; Owens, Leigh; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2012-09-01

    Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) is one of the major viral pathogens of penaeid shrimps worldwide, which has resulted in severe mortalities of up to 90 % in cultured Penaeus (Litopenaeus) stylirostris from Hawaii and hence designated Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV). IHHNV is distributed in shrimp culture facilities worldwide. It causes large economic loss to the shrimp farming industry. Our knowledge about the natural reservoirs of IHHNV is still scarce. Recent studies suggest that there is sufficient sequence variation among the isolates from different locations in Asia, suggesting multiple geographical strains of the virus. Four complete genomes and several partial sequences of the virus are available in the GenBank. Complete genome information would be useful for assessing the specificity of diagnostics for viruses from different geographical areas. Comparisons of complete genome sequences will help us gain insights into point mutations that can affect virulence of the virus. In addition, because of unavailability of shrimp cell lines for culturing IHHNV in vitro, quantification of virus is difficult. The recent progress in research regarding clinical signs, geographical distribution, complete genome sequence and genetic variation, transmission has made it possible to obtain information on IHHNV. A comprehensive understanding of IHHNV infection process, pathogenesis, structural proteins and replication is essential for developing prevention measures. To date, no effective prophylactic measure for IHHNV infection is available for shrimp to reduce its impact. This review provides an overview of key issues regarding IHHNV infection and disease in commercially important shrimp species. PMID:23997444

  14. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of scorpion stings in children in fez, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Abourazzak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a public health problem in Morocco, especially among children, who experience the most severe cases. Epidemiological and clinical findings on scorpion stings in Fez, Morocco, were evaluated in this investigation. Of 163 cases that required medical attention, 62.6% were male children. The mean age of patients was 4.8 ± 3.4 years. The mean time between stings and first medical attention was 3.36 ± 2.5 hours. Almost all cases occurred in the summer (94% and extremities represented the most frequent sting sites (86.5%. Local pain, hyperemia, scarification, vomiting, sweating, restlessness, tachycardia and tachypnea were the observed clinical symptoms. Regarding severity, 55.2% of patients belonged to class III, followed by class II (26.4% and class I (18.4%. None of our patients received antivenom; however, all of them were treated symptomatically depending on clinical manifestations.

  15. Molecular epidemiological analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostic Laboratory showing genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehnlen, M K; Kariyawasam, S; Lumadue, J A; Pierre, T A; Wolfgang, D R; Jayarao, B M

    2011-04-01

    We have examined the genetic variability of Mycoplasma bovis strains submitted to the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostics Laboratory, University Park (PA-ADL), between December 2007 and December 2008. Of 4,868 total samples submitted for Mycoplasma testing, 302 were determined to be culture positive. Mycoplasma bovis (63.6%), Mycoplasma californicum (7.3%), Mycoplasma bovirhinis (2.7%), Mycoplasma bovigenitalium (0.7%), Mycoplasma alkalescens (4.9%), Mycoplasma putrefaciens (0.3%), and Mycoplasma dispar (1.3%) and unidentified Mycoplasma sp. (19.2%) were identified using PCR. Mycoplasma bovis represented the largest portion of the positive samples submitted. Each of the 192 M. bovis isolates was examined for variations in the BglII and MfeI restriction sites of the DNA using amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and subsequently compared with the M. bovis type strain PG45 (ATCC 25523). Similarity between strains was calculated using the Dice similarity coefficient, which ranged from approximately 0.7 to 1.0. When clustering the isolates at greater than 95% similarity, it was determined that 11 distinct clusters were present. The results are consistent with the existence of at least 2 clonally distinct groups. No clear geographical, month of isolation, or source origination relationship was identified, indicating that a currently unclassified characteristic is responsible for the strain heterogeneity. These data indicate strong heterogeneity of M. bovis isolates submitted to PA-ADL. Additionally, multiple sites throughout Pennsylvania had isolates of separate clonal lineages present concomitantly, indicating the ability of multiple overlapping outbreaks to occur at a single location. Mycoplasma bovis represents the largest portion of Mycoplasma species isolated from PA-ADL samples. We propose that amplified fragment length polymorphism may serve as a valuable tool for molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from the United States. PMID:21426978

  16. Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis among children in Brazil, 1997-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Débora PL

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To document the incidence and the descriptive epidemiology of bacterial meningitis among individuals under age 20 in a geographically defined region in Brazil during the two-year period immediately preceding the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines into the national immunization program of Brazil. METHODS: Population-based epidemiological study of all cases of bacterial meningitis reported among residents of Campinas, Brazil, under age 20 (n=316,570 during the period of 1997-98, using comprehensive surveillance records compiled by the Campinas Health Department from cases reported among hospital inpatients, outpatients, emergency room visits, death certificates, and autopsy reports. RESULTS: The incidence of bacterial meningitis (n=274 was 334.9, 115 and 43.5 cases/10(5 person-years (pys for residents of Campinas under age 1, 5 and 20, respectively. All cases were hospitalized, with an average length of stay of 12 days. Documented prior antibiotic use was 4.0%. The case-fatality rate of bacterial meningitis in individuals under age 20 was 9% (24/274 with 75% of deaths occurring in children under the age of five. The incidence of Hib meningitis (n=26 was 62.8 and 17 cases/10(5 pys in children age <1 and <5, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of Hib meningitis in children under the age of 5 in Campinas during 1997-98 was similar to that reported in the US, Western Europe, and Israel prior to widespread Hib vaccine use in those regions. This study provides a baseline for later studies to evaluate changes in the etiology and incidence of bacterial meningitis in children after introduction of routine Hib vaccination in Brazil.

  17. Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis among children in Brazil, 1997-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora PL Weiss

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To document the incidence and the descriptive epidemiology of bacterial meningitis among individuals under age 20 in a geographically defined region in Brazil during the two-year period immediately preceding the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines into the national immunization program of Brazil. METHODS: Population-based epidemiological study of all cases of bacterial meningitis reported among residents of Campinas, Brazil, under age 20 (n=316,570 during the period of 1997-98, using comprehensive surveillance records compiled by the Campinas Health Department from cases reported among hospital inpatients, outpatients, emergency room visits, death certificates, and autopsy reports. RESULTS: The incidence of bacterial meningitis (n=274 was 334.9, 115 and 43.5 cases/10(5 person-years (pys for residents of Campinas under age 1, 5 and 20, respectively. All cases were hospitalized, with an average length of stay of 12 days. Documented prior antibiotic use was 4.0%. The case-fatality rate of bacterial meningitis in individuals under age 20 was 9% (24/274 with 75% of deaths occurring in children under the age of five. The incidence of Hib meningitis (n=26 was 62.8 and 17 cases/10(5 pys in children age <1 and <5, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of Hib meningitis in children under the age of 5 in Campinas during 1997-98 was similar to that reported in the US, Western Europe, and Israel prior to widespread Hib vaccine use in those regions. This study provides a baseline for later studies to evaluate changes in the etiology and incidence of bacterial meningitis in children after introduction of routine Hib vaccination in Brazil.

  18. Is early detection of abused children possible?: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of the identification of abused children.

    OpenAIRE

    Bailhache, Marion; Leroy, Valériane; Pillet, Pascal; Salmi, Louis-Rachid

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early detection of abused children could help decrease mortality and morbidity related to this major public health problem. Several authors have proposed tools to screen for child maltreatment. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence on accuracy of tools proposed to identify abused children before their death and assess if any were adapted to screening. METHODS: We searched in PUBMED, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, FRANCIS and PASCAL for studies estimating diagnostic accu...

  19. Mapping the Epidemiology of Kaposi Sarcoma and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Among Children in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Chris A; Keating, Elizabeth M; Lukolyo, Heather; Danysh, Heather E; Scheurer, Michael E; Mehta, Parth S; Lubega, Joseph; Slone, Jeremy S

    2016-08-01

    Children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of developing Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) compared to HIV-negative children. We compiled currently published epidemiologic data on KS and NHL among children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Among countries with available data, the median incidence of KS was 2.05/100,000 in the general pediatric population and 67.35/100,000 among HIV-infected children. The median incidence of NHL was 1.98/100,000 among the general pediatric population, while data on NHL incidence among HIV-infected children were lacking. Larger regional studies are needed to better address the dearth of epidemiologic information on pediatric KS and NHL in SSA. PMID:27082516

  20. Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in children: A continuing diagnostic challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saquib Mallick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a common cause of respiratory compromise in early childhood. The objective of this study was to describe the features and outcomes of children with FBA in early and late presentations and to examine the reasons for the delay in diagnosis. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective review of all children who were admitted with suspected FBA between July 2001 and June 2010. Patient′s characteristics, history, clinical, radiographic, bronchoscopic ...

  1. Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in children: A continuing diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saquib Mallick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foreign body aspiration (FBA is a common cause of respiratory compromise in early childhood. The objective of this study was to describe the features and outcomes of children with FBA in early and late presentations and to examine the reasons for the delay in diagnosis. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective review of all children who were admitted with suspected FBA between July 2001 and June 2010. Patient′s characteristics, history, clinical, radiographic, bronchoscopic findings, reason for delay presentation, and complications were noted. Results: A total of 158 children admitted to the hospital with suspected FBA were included in this study. The average age was 3.28 years. Forty-eight (30.3% children were presented late (more than 14 days after FBA and 110 (69.7% children were presented early (0-14 days. The common clinical manifestations of FBA were persistent cough (100% and choking (72%. The most frequent radiological finding observed was air trapping (40% followed by atelectasis (14%. Chest radiographs were normal in 32.2% patients. Ten children in early diagnosis group and 29 children in late diagnosis group presented with complications. The diagnosis delay was mainly attributed to physician misdiagnosis (41.6%. Rigid bronchoscopy was performed in all patients. Foreign body was found in all of the cases except six. Watermelon seeds and peanuts accounted for 80% of the aspiration. Conclusion: FBA is difficult to diagnose in children. Delay in diagnosis appears to result from a failure to give serious consideration to the diagnosis. Early diagnosis and removal of foreign bodies must be achieved to avoid complications.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic approaches to vasovagal syncope in children and adolescents in China: a health economic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ya-wen; CHEN Li; DU Jun-bao; YANG Yuan-yuan; JIN Hong-fang

    2010-01-01

    Background Syncope is a common clinical problem with multiple causes. Vasovagal syncope (WS) is by far the most frequent cause of syncope in children and adolescents. The traditional diagnostic approach to VVS of children and adolescents is based on a series of tests to exclude all other causes, which is complex and time and medical resource consuming. Attempts have been made to develop a new cost-effective diagnostic approach to avoid these problems. This study aimed to compare the economic effectiveness and diagnostic value of the traditional diagnostic approach to VVS of children with a new diagnostic approach.Methods One hundred and eighteen children diagnosed as VVS were divided into two groups according to the different diagnostic approaches. The diagnostic value of the two diagnostic approaches was then analyzed. Meanwhile, the costs of hospitalization, diagnostic testing and hospital stay were determined. Data were evaluated by the cost-minimization analysis.Results The diagnostic value of the new diagnostic approach was similar to that of the traditional diagnostic approach (56.57% vs. 53.91%, P=0.697). However, the cost of hospitalization per patient by the new diagnostic approach was (1507.08±144.63) Yuan (RMB) which was less than that of the traditional diagnostic approach (2603.64±P08.19) Yuan.The costs of diagnostic tests per patient by the new diagnostic approach was (1256.04±109.14) Yuan and by the traditional approach (2175.22±153.32) Yuan.Conclusion Compared to the traditional diagnostic approach to diagnose VVS in children and adolescents, the new diagnostic approach is of a good economic value, and it should be popularized in clinical practice.

  3. Simple methods of diagnostics innate muscular torticollis for the children of 1th of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulbani R.Sh.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Absence of the expressly described methods of measurings is set for the estimation of mobility at innate muscular torticollis. The most informing methods of diagnostics and estimation of result of rehabilitation process of children are exposed. The rehabilitation of one group was conducted in the conditions of policlinic, other in the conditions of monogynopaedium on the offered program. The methods of diagnostics included external examination, palpation, manual muscle testing, centimeters and goniometry. Rationality of the use of centimeters and goniometry is set by comparison to the generally accepted diagnostics

  4. Bulimia nervosa and its relation to voice changes in young adults: A simple review of epidemiology, complications, diagnostic criteria and management

    OpenAIRE

    Kingston Rajiah; Mathew, Elizabeth M.; Veettil, Sajesh K; Suresh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bulimia nervosa (BN) is a type of feeding disorder that starts in adolescence and presents a variety of symptoms, recurrent vomiting in the oral cavity that may reach down to the larynx - similarly to gastro-esophageal reflux, causing laryngeal and voice disorder alterations. Objective: These studies aimed at surveying the literature and investigate the studies that considered BN a risk factor for voice disorders and its epidemiology, complications, diagnostic criteria, and manage...

  5. The prevalence, diagnostic significance and demographic characteristics of Schneiderian first-rank symptoms in an epidemiological sample of first-episode psychoses.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ihara, Kazushige

    2009-01-01

    The diagnostic significance of first-rank symptoms (FRSs) remains uncertain. Ethnic differences in FRSs may account for high rates of schizophrenia in minority groups. This study aims to examine the prevalence of FRSs in an epidemiological sample of first-episode psychoses stratified by relevant demographic variables. SAMPLING AND METHOD: We identified everyone aged 16-64 presenting with their first psychosis over 2 years in 3 UK centres.

  6. MRI in diagnostic evaluation of osteomyelitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several MRI investigations for detecting or excluding acute and non-post-traumatic chronic osteomyelitis were performed in 31 children, osteomyelitis was evident in 21 patients. The sensitivity of MRI for osteomyelitis was 90%, and specificity was 100%. In children with confirmed osteomyelitis 23 follow-up investigations were carried out in order to evaluate duration of the medullary edema. In uncomplicated cases only treated by antibiotics edema regression was evident after 4 weeks and completed after 12-16 weeks. In cases in whom extended concomitant soft-tissue infection was depicted regression of edema was prolonged independent of surgical intervention. The study reveals that at onset of acute osteomyelitis in children MRI can replace technetium 99m-labeled scintigraphy and reduce plain-film investigations. The results support the usefulness of MRI in discrimination of isolated soft-tissue infection and noninfectious diseases of bone. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of the Revised Algorithm of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in the Diagnostic Investigation of High-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp-Becker, Inge; Ghahreman, Mardjan; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Peters, Mira; Remschmidt, Helmut; Becker, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) is a semi-structured, standardized assessment designed for use in diagnostic evaluation of individuals with suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ADOS has been effective in categorizing children who definitely have autism or not, but has lower specificity and sometimes sensitivity for…

  8. The Diagnostic Dilemma: Why We Need to Change How We Diagnose Bipolar Disorder in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Dickstein, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Editor’s note: Bipolar disorder diagnosis has been rising dramatically in children for the past decade. In response to this increase, writes Daniel Dickstein, M.D., of Bradley Hospital and Brown University, researchers at the National Institute of Mental Health and elsewhere are reviewing the diagnostic criteria. In coming years, Dickstein argues, recognizing and diagnosing bipolar disorder in children should be based more on biological markers, such as brain structure and the use of neural c...

  9. Prevalence and Diagnostic Spectrum of Generalized Retinal Dystrophy in Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Jensen, Hanne; Larsen, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The aim of the present population-based cross-sectional study was to examine the prevalence and diagnostic spectrum of generalized retinal dystrophy in Danish children. Methods: The Danish Registry for the Blind and Partially Sighted Children comprises all visually impaired......: Of the 1,204,235 Danish children aged 0-17 years on 1 October 2011, 2017 children were registered as visually impaired. Of these, 153 cases were attributed to generalized retinal dystrophy, corresponding to a prevalence of 13 per 100,000 children. The age-specific prevalence increased prominently...... dystrophy in Danish children is 13 per 100,000, which is a considerable increase compared to the 9.8 per 100,000 reported by Rosenberg in 1988. The prevalence of Leber congenital amaurosis, Usher syndrome, and Bardet-Biedl syndrome doubled, which may be explained by a documented history of consanguinity...

  10. Modern diagnostic method of microelementosis of school age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Human and animal pathology stipulated by deficiency of vitally important (or 'essential') microelements or their excess, has got its combined name microelementosis [1]. In connection with high biological activity of microelements in organism in different physiologic and pathologic status the quantitative determination of several metals in biomedium of organism is of great importance in the study of microelement metabolism. However, objective and representative data on estimation of school children's provision with microelements are practically absent. The objective of the study was to investigate contents of microelements connected with deficiency of biometals participating in hemopoiesis (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn) in biomedium of the organism of school children in Zarafshan region of the Republic of Uzbekistan. We have applied the method of neutron-activation analysis for determination of microelements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Mn) in hair, whole blood, blood serum, urine, saliva, food-stuff samples and in more than 20 elements of other biomedia, as per designed method in Nuclear Physics Institute, Republic of Uzbekistan [4]. The study was carried out on 245 practically healthy children aged 7-17, 131 boys and 33 girls living in four different areas of Samarkand region. According to the designed method the determination of Mn, Cu was done as follows: samples together with standards were packed in polyethylene container and underwent irradiation in vertical channel of the reactor by neutron flow 5x1013 neutron cm-2 sec-1, (for 15 seconds). The measurement of direct activity was conducted in 2 hours for determining of Cu and Mn. For determining of iron, cobalt, zinc the irradiation test measurement was done within 15 hours one month after irradiation by the corresponding radionuclides. In all measurement of element contents different standards were applied: Intralaboratory data was received by fixing a certain number of elements on ashless filter paper and comparison

  11. Diagnostics of children's school readiness in scientific studies abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarenko V.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of children's school readiness as it is represented in contemporary studies of foreign scholars. It displays a variety of approaches to estimation of school readiness as well as the ways of measuring the levels of child development as relating to school readiness, namely those of them which are in common practice in education.

  12. Complication rates of diagnostic cerebral arteriography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral arteriography (CA) remains the gold standard in delineating both intra- and extracranial vascular anatomy. Most data relating to the safety of CA are drawn from studies of adult patients in whom the practicalities of the procedure, range of potential pathologies and comorbid factors are different from those in children. To evaluate the current local and neurological complication rates of paediatric CA in the setting of a tertiary level children's hospital in the UK. Data from patients who had undergone CA between January 1998 and July 2003 were reviewed. The medical, anaesthetic and nursing records, and angiography reports were reviewed for all identified patients. The following parameters were extracted and entered into a proforma: gender, age, ethnicity, diagnosis, cerebrovascular diagnosis, referral source, date of CA, number of vessels catheterized and local and neurological complications. A total of 176 CA studies were undertaken in 150 patients (median age 7.3 years, range neonate to 19 years; 83 males, 67 females) during the 5.5-year study period. The majority of referrals originated from the neurology (58%) and neurosurgery services (27.8%). No neurological complications or deaths occurred. Local complications occurred in eight children (4.5%). Five children had a groin haematoma and two had bleeding at the puncture site. A single child had a reduced pedal pulse distal to the site of catheterization, but Doppler imaging was normal. CA has a continuing role in the evaluation of cerebrovascular pathologies in children. Neurological complications are rare and local complications are not uncommon (around 5%), but are not usually serious. (orig.)

  13. Echinococcus multilocularis: Epidemiology, surveillance and state-of-the-art diagnostics from a veterinary public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conraths, Franz J; Deplazes, Peter

    2015-10-30

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by the larval (metacestode) stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, is considered one of the most serious parasitic zoonoses in Central and Eastern Europe and is emerging also in large parts of Asia and in North America. The red fox represents the main definitive host of E. multilocularis in Europe, but the raccoon dog, the domestic dog and to a much lesser extent the domestic cat also represent potential definitive hosts. The natural intermediate hosts of E. multilocularis are mainly voles. The spectrum of accidental hosts is broad and includes many species of monkeys, pigs, dogs and humans which get infected by oral uptake of the viable eggs. Yet, human AE is a very rare disease in Europe; incidences have increased in recent years, while the infection is widely distributed in foxes with high prevalences reaching up to 70% in some areas. Generally, infected foxes represent a zoonotic risk, which may be particularly relevant in urban areas. Furthermore, there is concern that the risk for humans to acquire AE may rise due to the suspected geographical spread of the parasite as assessed by infections in its definitive hosts and the high prevalences in some regions. Monitoring and surveillance activities have therefore been initiated in a few European countries. Several diagnostic strategies have been developed and validated in recent years, applying classical worm detection by microscopy, but also immunological (ELISA for coproantigen detection) and molecular tests (copro-DNA detection by PCR). However, there is an urgent need for defining minimal requirements and harmonised approaches for these activities to allow for a reliable assessment of the epidemiological situation in Europe and comparable results from different countries. PMID:26298509

  14. The epidemiology of acute viral gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in Cordoba city, Argentina: an insight of disease burden

    OpenAIRE

    GIORDANO Miguel O.; Leonardo J. FERREYRA; ISA María B.; Martinez, Laura C.; YUDOWSKY Silvia I.; Nates, Silvia V.

    2001-01-01

    Information concerning the disease burden of viral gastroenteritis has important implications for the use and monitoring the impact of public health policies. The present study, carried out in Córdoba city, Argentina, documents the epidemiology of severe viral diarrhea as well as the burden of viral gastrointestinal disease in the hospital children admission. A total of 133 stools were collected from hospitalized children (Town Childhood Hospital) suffering from acute diarrhea and studied for...

  15. Improving diagnostic strategies for predicting serious bacterial infections in children with fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Nijman (Ruud)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis aimed to improve diagnostic strategies for predicting SBI in febrile children in emergency care settings. Generally, clinical signs and symptoms were of limited use in detecting SBI, even when using modelling techniques that best reflected their predictive ability. C-reactive

  16. Functional Nausea in Children: A Review of the Literature and Need for Diagnostic Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alexandra C; Stone, Amanda L; Walker, Lynn S

    2016-01-01

    Nausea is common amongst children with functional gastrointestinal disorders and is associated with a high burden of somatic and psychosocial comorbidities in both the short and long-term. Current treatments including medications, phytotherapy, stress-reduction techniques, and gastric electrical stimulation for recalcitrant cases, are reviewed. Functional nausea merits its own diagnostic criteria as a pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorder. PMID:27417243

  17. Functional Nausea in Children: A Review of the Literature and Need for Diagnostic Criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra C. Russell; Stone, Amanda L.; Walker, Lynn S.

    2016-01-01

    Nausea is common amongst children with functional gastrointestinal disorders and is associated with a high burden of somatic and psychosocial comorbidities in both the short and long-term. Current treatments including medications, phytotherapy, stress-reduction techniques, and gastric electrical stimulation for recalcitrant cases, are reviewed. Functional nausea merits its own diagnostic criteria as a pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorder.

  18. STUDY OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FACTORS IN CRYPTOSPORIDIOS IS IN CHILDREN WITH DIARRHOEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium has emerged as one of the major paras itic agents as a cause of diarrhoea in children. Various epidemi ological factors have been described by different workers. Aims: This study was done to det ermine different epidemiological factors incriminated in cryptosporidiosis. Methods: Stool sam ples from 240 children with diarrhoea were examined for presence of Cryptosporidium. Wet mo unt examination, modified Ziehl- Neelsen (Z.N. and Safranine-methylene blue stainin g methods were performed. For 177 samples, ELISA was also done. Detailed history of pat ients regarding their socioeconomic status and various sociodemographic factors was taken. Stat istical Analysis: Chi-square and z tests were used to compare differences between the groups. A p value of ≤0.05 was considered significant. Results: Majority of patients were in C lass IV socioeconomic group. Top-feeding, use of insanitary wells for drinking purposes, close ass ociation with animals, field defaecation and residence in rural areas were different factors tha t contributed to the spread of infection. Oocysts were present in 21 children on different sta ining procedures and 23 were positive by ELISA. Conclusion: Different sociodemographic factor s like improper sanitation practices, drinking contaminated water, early withdrawal of br east feeding and close intimacy with animals are various factors that can enhance the spr ead of infection in community. Preventive measures are of great importance in control of sprea d of infection as there is no specific therapy for cryptosporidiosis.

  19. Epidemiological aspects of Pediculosis capitis and treatment evaluation in primary-school children in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motovali-Emami, Mohammad; Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Fekri, Alireza; Yazdi, Mahbobeh

    2008-01-15

    This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of and epidemiological factors associated with, head lice infections in Iranian primary schools in 2006 and evaluate data on the therapeutic efficacy of lindane shampoo. A total of 40586 children (19774 boys (48.72%) and 20812 girls (51.28%)] from 198 Governmentprimary schools in Kerman, were screened for head lice between March and June 2006. The diagnosis of head lice infestation was confirmed by clinical inspection of scalp and hair for the presence of adult lice nymphal stage, or eggs (nit) by line-toothed head lice comb. All children infested with lice were treated with lindane shampoo (1% gamma benzene hexachloride). The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was 1.8%. The prevalence of infestation was significantly higher in girls (2.9%) than in boys (0.6%) (p = 0.000). The infestation rate was greater among pupils who were living in rural areas (4.6%) than in urban areas (1.5%). Of the 721 children with a positive examination result, 424 pupils (58.8%) were reported as having been infested with head lice in the previous 6 months. Mother's education level was a significant risk factor in this model (p safe, novel insecticides for proved efficacy.

  20. Epidemiological Pattern of Newly Diagnosed Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Taif, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa Mohamed Kamal Alanani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Type-1-diabetes mellitus (T1DM is the most commonly diagnosed type of DM in children and adolescents. We aim to identify the epidemiological profile, risk factors, clinical features, and factors related to delayed diagnosis or mismanagement in children with newly diagnosed T1DM in Taif, Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods. Ninety-nine newly diagnosed patients were included in the study along with 110 healthy controls. Patients were classified into 3 groups (I: >2 years, II: 2–>6 years, and III: 6–12 years. Both patients and controls were tested for C-peptide, TSH, and autoantibodies associated with DM and those attacking the thyroid gland. Results. Diabetic ketoacidosis was present in 79.8%. Delayed and missed diagnoses were recorded in 45.5%, with significant correlation to age and district of origin. Severity at presentation showed significant correlation with age and cow’s milk feeding. Group I, those with misdiagnosis or positive DM related autoantibodies, had more severe presentations. The correlation of C-peptide and TSH levels in patients and controls was significant for C-peptide and nonsignificant for TSH. Conclusion. Misdiagnosis and mismanagement are common and account for more severe presentation, especially in young children >2 years. Early introduction of cow’s milk appears to be a risk factor for the development of T1DM.

  1. [Noma in children in a hospital environment in Bobo-Dioulasso: epidemiologic, clinical and management aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall, F; Ki-Zerbo, G; Ouedraogo, I; Guigma, Y

    2001-12-01

    A retrospective study covering ten years (1987-1996) was conducted to assess the epidemiology, clinical features and management of cancrum oris (noma) in children from Burkina Faso. Fifty nine (59) children were admitted with cancrum oris at the paediatrics and maxillo-facial surgery units of Bobo-Dioulasso, the second town of Burkina Faso. The hospital prevalence of noma is 1.5/1000. 81% of the cases were in the 1 to 5 years age group and 58% were females. Predisposing factors include poverty, lack of immunization, malnutrition, bad oral hygiene, measles and parasitic diseases. The cheek was involved in 31% of the cases. Cure was obtained in 80% of patients after medical and surgical treatment. However, many sequels were observed. Post operative outcome is complicated by the children's growth and often results in retractions, recurrence of ulcers or constriction. Psychological and social problems are associated. Management is difficult in our setting because of the lack of information, cost of the treatment and the absence of well-equipped plastic surgery units.

  2. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma in school children (10–16 years in Srinagar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruj Altaf Qureshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the epidemiological profile of asthma in school going children in Srinagar, Kashmir. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Thirty-one schools with proportionate representation from both government and private schools as well as from primary, middle, and high schools. Participants: School children aged 10–16 years with equal representation of sex and all ages. Main Outcome Measure: Prevalence of current and past asthma. Methods and Results: After administering a modified pretested questionnaire, peak expiratory flow measurement was carried. Children who had asthma-like symptoms or positive family history of asthma or physician-labeled asthma were subjected to spirometry and bronchodilator reversibility. Out of 806 children, bronchial asthma was seen in 60 (prevalence of 7.4% which included 34 boys and 26 girls. Majority of asthmatic children (78.3% [n = 47] had probable asthma; 6.7% (n = 4 had definite asthma; and 15% (n = 9 had physician-diagnosed asthma. Majority of children had intermittent asthma (78.3% [n = 47]. Mild persistent asthma was seen in 12.7% (n = 7 and 10% (n = 6 had moderate persistent asthma. None of the children had severe persistent asthma. The prevalence of current asthma was 3.2% (n = 26. On univariate analysis, the factors found to be statistically significant were family history of asthma (odds ratio [OR] =8.174; confidence interval [CI] =4.403–15.178, seasonal cough (OR = 4.266; CI = 2.336–7.791, allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.877; CI = 1.414–5.852, atopic dermatitis (OR = 6.597; CI = 2.72–16.004, and obesity (OR = 6.074; CI = 2.308–18.034. On multivariate analysis, family history, seasonal cough, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and obesity were found to be significant independent risk factors. Conclusions: Srinagar qualifies as a low prevalence area for bronchial asthma in the age group of 10–16 years. Majority of children had mild intermittent asthma resulting in under

  3. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma in school children (10–16 years) in Srinagar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uruj Altaf; Bilques, Sufoora; ul Haq, Inaam; Khan, Muhammad Saleem; Qurieshi, Mariya Amin; Qureshi, Umar Amin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the epidemiological profile of asthma in school going children in Srinagar, Kashmir. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Thirty-one schools with proportionate representation from both government and private schools as well as from primary, middle, and high schools. Participants: School children aged 10–16 years with equal representation of sex and all ages. Main Outcome Measure: Prevalence of current and past asthma. Methods and Results: After administering a modified pretested questionnaire, peak expiratory flow measurement was carried. Children who had asthma-like symptoms or positive family history of asthma or physician-labeled asthma were subjected to spirometry and bronchodilator reversibility. Out of 806 children, bronchial asthma was seen in 60 (prevalence of 7.4%) which included 34 boys and 26 girls. Majority of asthmatic children (78.3% [n = 47]) had probable asthma; 6.7% (n = 4) had definite asthma; and 15% (n = 9) had physician-diagnosed asthma. Majority of children had intermittent asthma (78.3% [n = 47]). Mild persistent asthma was seen in 12.7% (n = 7) and 10% (n = 6) had moderate persistent asthma. None of the children had severe persistent asthma. The prevalence of current asthma was 3.2% (n = 26). On univariate analysis, the factors found to be statistically significant were family history of asthma (odds ratio [OR] =8.174; confidence interval [CI] =4.403–15.178), seasonal cough (OR = 4.266; CI = 2.336–7.791), allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.877; CI = 1.414–5.852), atopic dermatitis (OR = 6.597; CI = 2.72–16.004), and obesity (OR = 6.074; CI = 2.308–18.034). On multivariate analysis, family history, seasonal cough, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and obesity were found to be significant independent risk factors. Conclusions: Srinagar qualifies as a low prevalence area for bronchial asthma in the age group of 10–16 years. Majority of children had mild intermittent asthma resulting in under diagnosis and

  4. Lead intoxication: clinic and diagnostic evaluation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Riera Nora

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Poverty, poor nutrition, environmental and social injustice prevailing in Latin America are factorsthat determine the action of pollutants on children. Lead poisoning and pollution constitute apublic health problem throughout the world. Lead affects multiple organs: nervous system particularly,hematopoietic, renal, endocrine, bone and others. Objective: to assess clinical, biochemicaland vascular effects in children exposed to known source of lead. Materials and methods: Sevenchildren with defined source lead exposure were studied, general and specific lead laboratorywere made. Endothelial function and electrocardiographic parameters were assessed. Statistic:descriptive. Results: Age average was 6,2 years (DE± 1, 6, average haematocrit 31% (DE±0,02;hemoglobin average 10,2 g/dl (DE± 0,78. 100% presented hypochromia, microcitosis, anemiaand marked anisocytosis. Lead average: 37,9 ug/dl (DE±6,22, ALA-D average: 8,9 U/L (DE±4,5.No changes were found in lipid profile and kidney function. All presented microalbuminuriaand endothelial dysfunction. Conclusion: These results show the effects of environmental leadexposure that can result in children not occupationally exposed.

  5. Epidemiology of orthopedic trauma in children and adolescent in a referral center in Tehran: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Aghakhani

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Evaluation of epidemiologic factors can lead to the best prediction and treatment planning of trauma. Early recognition of injury, even minor, and expected care using specialized teams will help to improve outcomes for these patients. This study determines the most at risk children for trauma and fractures and may help the parents to prevent damage.

  6. [Current issues of epidemiology and vaccine prophylaxis of "children" airborne infections in the armies (Navy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A B; Ogarkov, P I

    2011-04-01

    It highlights the problems associated with the epidemiological situation of the morbidity of the population and the military personnel with infections, which recently were "infant"--measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria and other infections, controlled now by means of immunization. There is no alternative to the mass immunization of children and adolescents to achieve highly efficient vaccine-resistant sporadic incidence of these infections. However, amid the successes achieved, regular "grow-up" disease causes these infections spread vaccination for adults who are at risk. In military units there are similar conditions, they increase the risk of both infection and disease, especially among conscripts. The ways to improve vaccination calendars troops are discussed, including held for epidemical indications, the need for immunization of groups at risk of chicken pox, and in the future--and against other "childhood" diseases. PMID:21770322

  7. Unidentified bright objects on brain MRI in children as a diagnostic criterion for neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes Ferraz Filho, Jose R.; Pontes Munis, Marcos; Soares Souza, Antonio; Sanches, Rafael A. [Medical School in Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Imaging Department, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Goloni-Bertollo, Eni M.; Pavarino-Bertelli, Erika C. [Center of Research and Attendance in Neurofibromatosis, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    Lesions of the brain denominated as unidentified bright objects (UBOs), which are not included in the diagnostic criteria for neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) established by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), have been detected by MRI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of including the presence of UBOs as a diagnostic criterion for NF1 in children. The study included 88 children between the ages of 2 and 18 years. The case group consisted of 40 children diagnosed with sporadic or familial NF1 according to the criteria established by the NIH. A control group consisted of 48 individuals referred for routine MRI of the brain for other complaints not related to NF1. UBOs were identified in 70% of the NF1 patients and in none of the control group. The sensitivity of the presence of UBOs for the diagnosis of NF1 was 70% (CI 53-83%), with a false-negative rate of 30% (CI 27-47%), a specificity of 100% (CI 86-100%) and a false-positive rate of 0% (CI 0-14%). Faced with the difficulties in diagnosing NF1 in children and the high frequency and specificity of the presence UBOs identified by MRI in our series, we recommend the inclusion of the presence UBOs as a diagnostic criterion for NF1 in children. (orig.)

  8. Diagnostical meaning acute phase proteins in cerebrospinal liquid in children with neuroinfections

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    L. A. Alekseeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article presented results of the examination of acute phase proteins in cerebrospinal liquid in 237 children with meningitis and encephalitis viral and bacterial etiology. The dependence between the level of acute phase proteins in cerebrospinal liquid and etiology of neuroinfectional process, the severity of brain damage and the process stage was determined. Diagnostic and prognostic efficiency of the acute phase proteins (C-reactive protein, albumin, alpha-1-antitripsin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, gaptoglobin examination in children with neuroinfections was specified. Developed method of express diagnostics of the severity of inflammatory damage of the brain in bacterial meningitis in children by determination in cerebrospinal liquid alpha-2-macroglobulin is described.

  9. Diagnostic criteria for autoimmune hepatitis in children:A challenge for pediatric hepatologists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priscila Menezes Ferri; Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira; Débora Marques Miranda; Ana Cristina Sim(o)es e Silva

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a progressive inflammatory liver disorder that is rare in children and adolescents.AIH has a broad clinical spectrum and a quick response to treatment with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive medication.The available diagnosis criteria have limitations and should be evaluated in pediatric populations.Recently,some studies reported that the 2008 simplified diagnostic criteria for AIH could be used in children with high sensibility and specificity.In addition,the authors reported that globulin and immunoglobulin G levels can be used interchangeably for diagnostic purposes.They also demonstrated that the 2008 simplified criteria fail in identifying patients with fulminant hepatic failure.Here,we discuss the limitations of the use of these criteria in pediatric patients and the requirement of more studies to improve the diagnosis of AIH in children.

  10. Mothers and Children as Informants of Bullying Victimization: Results from an Epidemiological Cohort of Children

    OpenAIRE

    Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Andreou, Penelope; Bowes, Lucy; Ambler, Antony P.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Stressful events early in life can affect children’s mental health problems. Collecting valid and reliable information about children’s bad experiences is important for research and clinical purposes. This study aimed to (1) investigate whether mothers and children provide valid reports of bullying victimization, (2) examine the inter-rater reliability between the two informants, (3) test the predictive validity of their reports with children’s emotional and behavioral problems and (4) compar...

  11. Epidemiological, Clinical and Prognostic Profile of Acute Bacterial Meningitis among Children in Alexandria, Egypt

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    Farag HF

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To address the epidemiological characteristics and clinical indices that may predict the prognostic profile of meningitis among children. Methods: Children admitted to Alexandria fever hospital with clinical diagnosis of meningitis/meningoencephalitis during the period 2002-2003 were recruited for the study. They were subjected to clinical examination as well as CSF bacteriological and serological investigations Results: Three hundred and ten patients (195 males and 115 females were included. About 65.2% of them were infected with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM and 34.8% were infected with aseptic meningitis. In this study, ABM was caused by Haemophilus influenzae (21%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (13.9%, Neisseria meningitidis (14.2% and other undetermined bacteria (16.1%. ABM showed significant association with age group 1-9 years (66.3%, low socio-economic class (96%, working mother (83.2%, more than two smokers in the family (62.9% and cold seasons(fall 35.1% and winter 48.5%. Aseptic meningitis showed significant association with age group 3-15 months (100% and previous immunization(81.5%. The overall case fatality rate was 10.3%; 13.9% for ABM and 3.4% for aseptic meningitis. 7.1% of all survivors developed epileptic attacks. Predictors for death or epilepsy events were high WHO meningitis score (> 9, decreased CSF glucose level (Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of several predictors of the outcome of meningitis in children. It is concluded that quick and simple scoring scales, such as the WHO scale, are not only applicable but valuable prognostic tools for meningitis in children.

  12. Interrelationship between Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) classification in children and adolescents with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Ketelaars, Cees; Kraijer, Dirk; Mulder, Erik; Volkmar, Fred; Minderaa, Ruud

    2004-04-01

    The interrelationship between the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) and clinical classification was studied in 184 children and adolescents with Mental Retardation (MR). The agreement between the ADI-R and ADOS-G was fair, with a substantial difference between younger and older children (5-8 vs. 8+ years). Compared with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-TR (DSM-IV-TR) classification of Autistic Disorder (AD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD), both instruments measure AD or PDD validly and reliably. Even in low-functioning children the interrelationship between the instruments and the clinical classification was satisfactory. The combination of ADI-R and ADOS-G identifies AD or PDD, as described in the DSM-IV-TR, most appropriately. Both instruments seem to be of great value in the diagnostic process of PDD in children and adolescents with MR.

  13. Food allergy in children: Part I: Pathogenesis and diagnostic approach

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    Tomić Jelena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Food allergy is a form of adverse food reaction to different nutritive agents caused by immunological mechanisms. This condition is frequent in individuals with genetic predisposition. Frequency of food allergies in childhood varies in general population from 0.3 - 7.5 %. Characteristics of neonatal and infant gastrointestinal tracts are described as well as the role of gastrointestinal tract’s immunological immaturity in development of food sensitivity. Pathogenesis Features of physical and immunological barriers of gastrointestinal tract are described as well as their role in physiological conditions, in digestion and absorption of foreign proteins and prevention of foreign agents penetration and potentially dangerous proteins into the systemic circulation. Gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT is the basic part of immunological barrier. Its first role is to induce oral tolerance. In normal conditions cytokines induce T cells towards Th2 response and also promote synthesis of IgA antibodies Pathogenic mechanisms in evolution of reaginic hypersensibility in cases of chronic inflammation are also described. Pathological status of gamma/delta T cells plays an important role in this process, resulting in loss of oral tolerance and development of sensibilitivity. Conclusion Diagnostic procedures are multiple and complex. They consist of detailed history taking clinical findings, in vitro and in vivo tests, endoscopy, elimination diets and oral provocation tests. Food allergy in childhood is often transient and resolves spontaneously.

  14. The molecular epidemiological characteristics of streptococci isolated from primary school children in Vietnam

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    A. G. Nosik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The goal of the study was to isolate group A, С, and G streptococci from children and characterize them by the methods of molecular epidemiology.Materials and methods. Group A, С, and G streptococci were isolated from tonsils and back wall of pharynx of Vietnamese children during 2012–2014. сpn60 gene based PCR approach and rnpB gene sequencing were used to identify streptococcal species belonging to group С and G streptococci. The presence of scpA, lmb, nga, slo virulence genes was analyzed in S. anginosus and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strainS. emm-typing of S. pyogenes was done as published (http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/biotech/strep/MProteinGene_typing.htm. Antibiotic resistance of the strains was tested by the disk diffusion method.Results. A total of 1359 children were examined. Group A streptococci (S. pyogenes were isolated from 49 children, group C streptococci – from 8 children (4 stains – S. anginosus, 1 strain – S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, 1 strain – S. parasanguinis, 1 strain – S. gordonii, 1 strain – S. constellatus, and group G streptococci – from 75 children (55 stains – S. anginosus, 8 stains – S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, 4 stains – S. sanguinis, 3 stains – S. parasanguinis, 2 stains – S. australis, 2 stains – S. constellatus, 1 stain – S. mitis. emm-typing of 47 S. pyogenes strains revealed 15 different emm-subtypes belonging to 11 different emm-typeS. The subtypes emm104.0 and emm109.1 were found to be predominant. S. anginosus strains under study were genetically heterogeneous for the presence of virulence genes. All tested strains were susceptible to cephalosporins and vancomycin, and resistant to amikacine. A total of 70% and 52,5% of S. pyogenes were resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin, respectively.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae among Japanese children with acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotomi, Muneki; Nakajima, Kouji; Hiraoka, Masanobu; Nahm, Moon H; Yamanaka, Noboru

    2016-02-01

    The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine may change the epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The increased prevalence of non-vaccine serotypes as the cause of pneumococcal diseases has already reported in the United States and Europe. However, little attention has been focused on the S. pneumoniae. In this study, nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae were identified in 15 isolates (6.4%) out of 236 pneumococcal strains obtained from the nasopharynges of children with acute otitis media (AOM), in 3 isolates (14.3%) out of 21 strains from acute rhinosinusitis, and in 2 isolates (12.5%) out of 16 nasopharyngeal carriage strains obtained from normal healthy children. Among the 20 nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae isolates, 15 (75.0%) isolates had the pspK gene. Seven sequence types (STs) were identified: ST7502 (5 strains), ST1106 (2 strains), ST7803 (2 strains), ST7786 (1 strain), ST6741 (1 strain), ST7496 (1 strain), and ST8642 (1 strain). Because nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae strains are not targeted by the current available pneumococcal vaccines, these strains will gradually become more common in nasopharyngeal carriage. The increase in colonization and dissemination of these strains would increase the risk of AOM and other systemic pneumococcal diseases against which current vaccines cannot provide protection. Nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae may thus become more prevalent as human pathogen.

  16. Clinical and epidemiological evolution of modern therapy and measles in children

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    V. N. Timchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and epidemiological research on the evolution of measles in children in Leningrad – St. Petersburg from 1927–2014 with an analysis of the effectiveness of treatment of this infection. Divided into three periods of fighting «child plague». First period – to use in the practice of specific therapies and antibacterial drugs, characterized by high morbidity, severe weight, high rates of mortality. In the second period the use of donor serum syvotrotki convalescents and sulfa drugs significantly lowered the mortality rate due to the effective treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia. The use of penicillin and broad-spectrum antibiotics led to a further reduction in the severity of measles, a sharp decline in mortality – to tenths and hundredths of a percent. The third period is due to the mass of active immunization against measles, characterized by a significant decline in incidence rates up to her absence in some years. Combined therapy of children with measles in modern conditions with the inclusion etiotropic drugs (Viferon causes rapid regression of the symptoms of measles, warns layering respiratory viral infection contributes to the smooth course of the disease. 

  17. Interrelationship between autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic (ADOS-G), autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R), and the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR) classification in children and adolescents with mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bildt, A; Sytema, S; Ketelaars, C; Kraijer, D; Mulder, E; Volkmar, F; Minderaa, R

    2004-01-01

    The interrelationship between the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) and clinical classification was studied in 184 children and adolescents with Mental Retardation (MR). The agreement between the ADI-R and ADOS-G was fair, with a sub

  18. An epidemiologic study of 389 children with epilepsy in southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroor INALOO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Inaloo S, Katibeh P. An epidemiologic study of 389 children with epilepsy in southern Iran.Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4:15-20Objective Approximately 4% of the world's population experience one or more febrile seizures during their lifetime, and 0.5-1% of the population has active epilepsy.Less than one-third of the reported seizures are categorized as epilepsy. The cause of established epilepsy is important in determining the treatment and prognosis.Materials & Methods We studied 389 cases of documented epilepsy in children aged 2 months to 18 years who visited the hospital for neurologic examination during 2005-2010.Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was performed for categorical variables.Results The most common age for the first seizure was below 2 years, and the most common type of epilepsy was generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Electroencephalography (EEG showed an epileptic pattern in 60%, 29.8%, and 51% of the patients with idiopathic, symptomatic, and cryptogenic epilepsy, respectively. This pattern was significantly different among these 3 categories of epilepsy.Conclusion The most common type of seizure was cryptogenic; however, in most industrialized countries, idiopathic epilepsies were more frequent. With respect to the age and sex of patients, the prevalence of epilepsy in southern Iran is not so much different from that of patients in other parts of the world. As to generalized or partial epilepsy, there are different reports from different part ofthe world; however, generalized tonic-clonic seizures were more common in our area.References Hauser, Hesdorffer DC. Epilepsy, frequency, causes and consequences. New WA York, NY: Demos Publications;1990.P.1–51.Jallon P. Epilepsy in developing countries. Epilepsia 1997; 38: 1143-51.King M, Newton M, Jackson G, Fitt G, Mitchell L, Silvapulle M, Berkovic S. Epileptology of the first-seizure presentation: a clinical

  19. Clinical use of the autism diagnostic observation schedule-second edition with children who are deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mood, Deborah; Shield, Aaron

    2014-11-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition (ADOS-2) was administered to eight children who are deaf and who are native American Sign Language (ASL) users with previous autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Classification on two different module selection criteria was compared based on: (1) standardized administration rules (signs not counted as equivalent to words) and (2) commonly utilized clinical administration (sign language complexity treated equivalently to spoken language complexity). Differential module selection resulted in discrepant classification in five of the eight cases (63%) and suggests that ADOS-2 via standardized test administration may result in a failure to identify autism among children who are deaf with primary communication in ASL. Two of the eight children (25%) did not exceed the cutoff for an ASD classification on either module administered despite previous ASD diagnosis. Overall results suggest that caution should be used when utilizing the ADOS-2 with children who are deaf who primarily communicate using ASL. PMID:25321853

  20. Interviewing Children versus Tossing Coins: Accurately Assessing the Diagnosticity of Children's Disclosures of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Scurich, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian approach to evaluating children's abuse disclosures and review research demonstrating that children's disclosure of genital touch can be highly probative of sexual abuse, with the probative value depending on disclosure spontaneity and children's age. We discuss how some commentators understate the probative value of…

  1. Back Pain in Children and Diagnostic Value of 99mTc MDP Bone Scintigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhawaldeh, Khaled; Ghuweri, Ali AL; Kawar, Jane; Jaafreh, Amany

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of our study is to assess the diagnostic value of Technituim-99m-Methyle diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) Bone scintigraphy in the assessment of children with back pain. Methods: Included in this retrospective study were 68 child referred to us complaining of back pain (mean age of 13+ 2). There were 45 boys and 23 girls. All children have been investigated with conventional x-ray which revealed normal or inconclusive result. All underwent bone scintigraphy after the injection ...

  2. Diagnostics of suicidal behavior risks of children and adolescents in educational institutions

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    Pavlova T.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main techniques used in empirical studies abroad for diagnostics of risks of suicidal behavior in children and adolescents in population sampling: Beck Self-Rating Depression Inventory, The Hopelessness Scale for Children, Inventory of Suicide Orientation, Self-Destructive Thought Assessment Scale, The Life-Attitudes Schedule, A measure of adolescent potential for suicide (MAPS, Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale in adolescent samples, PATHOS, The Reasons for Living Inventory, Suicide Probability Scale (SPS, Validity of the Self-Harm Behavior Questionnaire

  3. Use of a three-band HRP2/pLDH combination rapid diagnostic test increases diagnostic specificity for falciparum malaria in Ugandan children

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, Michael; CONROY, Andrea L.; Opoka, Robert O.; Namasopo, Sophie; Liles, W. Conrad; John, Chandy C; Kain, Kevin C

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria provide a practical alternative to light microscopy for malaria diagnosis in resource-limited settings. Three-band RDTs incorporating two parasite antigens may have enhanced diagnostic specificity, relative to two-band RDTs with a single parasite antigen (typically histidine-rich protein 2 [HRP2]). Methods Phase 1: 2,000 children, two months to five years of age, admitted to a referral hospital in Jinja, Uganda, with acute febrile illness w...

  4. Serotype Distribution, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated from Children in Shanghai, China.

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    Fen Pan

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common pathogenic cause of pediatric infections. This study investigated the serotype distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility, and molecular epidemiology of pneumococci before the introduction of conjugate vaccines in Shanghai, China.A total of 284 clinical pneumococcal isolates (270, 5, 4,3, and 2 of which were isolated from sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, blood, cerebral spinal fluid, and ear secretions, respectively from children less than 14 years of age who had not been vaccinated with a conjugate vaccine, were collected between January and December in 2013. All isolates were serotyped by multiplex polymerase chain reaction or quellung reactions and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the broth microdilution method. The molecular epidemiology of S.pneumoniae was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST.Among the 284 pneumococcal isolates, 19F (33.5%, 19A (14.1%, 23F (12.0%, and 6A (8.8% were the most common serotypes and the coverage rates of the 7-, 10-, and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 were 58.6%, 59.4% and 85.1%, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility showed that the prevalence rates of S.pneumoniae resistance to penicillin were 11.3% (32/284. Approximately 88.0% (250/284 of the isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance. MLST analysis revealed a high level of diversity, with 65 sequence types (STs among 267 isolates. Specifically, the four predominant STs were ST271 (24.3%, 65/267, ST320 (11.2%, 30/267, ST81 (9.7%, 26/267, and ST3173 (5.2%, 14/267, which were mainly associated with serotypes 19F, 19A, 23F, and 6A, respectively.The prevalent serotypes among clinical isolates from children were 19F, 19A, 23F, and 6A and these isolates showed high resistance rates to β-lactams and macrolides. The Taiwan19F-14 clone played a predominant role in the dissemination of pneumococcal isolates in Shanghai, China. Therefore, continued and

  5. WISC-III cognitive profiles in children with developmental dyslexia: specific cognitive disability and diagnostic utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Octávio; Simões, Mário R; Pereira, Marcelino

    2014-02-01

    This study analysed the usefulness of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition in identifying specific cognitive impairments that are linked to developmental dyslexia (DD) and the diagnostic utility of the most common profiles in a sample of 100 Portuguese children (50 dyslexic and 50 normal readers) between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Children with DD exhibited significantly lower scores in the Verbal Comprehension Index (except the Vocabulary subtest), Freedom from Distractibility Index (FDI) and Processing Speed Index subtests, with larger effect sizes than normal readers in Information, Arithmetic and Digit Span. The Verbal-Performance IQs discrepancies, Bannatyne pattern and the presence of FDI; Arithmetic, Coding, Information and Digit Span subtests (ACID) and Symbol Search, Coding, Arithmetic and Digit Span subtests (SCAD) profiles (full or partial) in the lowest subtests revealed a low diagnostic utility. However, the receiver operating characteristic curve and the optimal cut-off score analyses of the composite ACID; FDI and SCAD profiles scores showed moderate accuracy in correctly discriminating dyslexic readers from normal ones. These results suggested that in the context of a comprehensive assessment, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition provides some useful information about the presence of specific cognitive disabilities in DD. Practitioner Points. Children with developmental dyslexia revealed significant deficits in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition subtests that rely on verbal abilities, processing speed and working memory. The composite Arithmetic, Coding, Information and Digit Span subtests (ACID); Freedom from Distractibility Index and Symbol Search, Coding, Arithmetic and Digit Span subtests (SCAD) profile scores showed moderate accuracy in correctly discriminating dyslexics from normal readers. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition may provide some useful

  6. Clinical prediction model to aid emergency doctors managing febrile children at risk of serious bacterial infections: Diagnostic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Nijman (Ruud); Y. Vergouwe (Yvonne); M.J. Thompson (Matthew); M.V. Veen (Mirjam Van); A.H.J. van Meurs (Alfred); J. van der Lei (Johan); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); R. Oostenbrink (Rianne)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To derive, cross validate, and externally validate a clinical prediction model that assesses the risks of different serious bacterial infections in children with fever at the emergency department. Design: Prospective observational diagnostic study. Setting: Three paediatric em

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of Pneumococcal Colonization in Response to Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Children with Recurrent Acute Otitis Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bogaert, D.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Sluijter, M.; Wannet, W. J. W.; Rijkers, G.T.; Mitchell, T J; Clarke, S. C.; Goessens, W.H.F.; Schilder, A. G.; Sanders, E. A. M.; de Groot, R.; Hermans, P. W. M.

    2005-01-01

    A randomized double-blind trial with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was conducted in The Netherlands among 383 children, aged 1 to 7 years, with a history of recurrent acute otitis media. No effect of vaccination on the pneumococcal colonization rate was found. However, a shift in serotype distribution was clearly observed (R. Veenhoven et al., Lancet 361:2189-2195, 2003). We investigated the molecular epidemiology of 921 pneumococcal isolates retrieved from both the pneumococcal v...

  8. Epidemiology and Risk Factors Associated with Developing Bacterial Meningitis among Children in Gaza Strip.

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    Abdel Moat Al Jarousha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis is still the leading cause of high morbidity and mortality among the children. The present study was conducted to determine the epidemiology, clinical characteristics of bacterial meningitis and to evaluate the risk factors associated with developing the infection.This cross sectional study was conducted in three hospitals of Gaza strip -Palestine during the period 2009. All the children with clinical diagnosis of meningitis /meningoencephalitis admitted to these hospitals were included in the study. They were subjected to clinical examination as well as CSF bacteriological and serological investigations.During the period (2009, 1853 patients were admitted to the hospitals with suspect of meningitis by pediatricians, 73 (3.9% proved by culture to be acute bacterial meningitis, of these patients 62% were males and 38% were females. The common isolated pathogens were Neisseria meningitides (47.9%, Streptococcus pneumonia (15.1%, Haemophilus influenza (13.7%, E. coli (11.0%, Enterobacter spp. (6.8%, Citrobacter spp. (2.7%, Providencia spp. (1.4%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.4%. The common recorded symptoms were fever (78%, neck stiffness (47%, vomiting (37%, poor feeding (19%, and irritability (16%. Statistical analysis showed that there was statistical significance associated developing of infection with malnutrition (low hemoglobin level, high house crowdness and irritability (P-value <0.05. The ANOVA statistical analysis showed that S. pneumonia has an impact on developing low hemoglobin level and leukocytosis.N. meningitides is still dominant and needs vaccination. The risk factors should be taken into consideration in any future plan.

  9. Diagnostic Work-up and Follow-up in Children with Tall Stature: A Simplified Algorithm for Clinical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Stalman, Susanne E.; Pons, Anke; Wit, Jan M; Kamp, Gerdine A.; Plötz, Frans B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: No evidence-based guideline has been published about optimal referral criteria and diagnostic work-up for tall stature in children. The aim of our study was to describe auxological and clinical characteristics of a cohort of children referred for tall stature, to identify potential candidates for adult height reduction, and to use these observations for developing a simple algorithm for diagnostic work-up and follow-up in clinical practice. Methods: Data regarding family and medica...

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of modified kenneth jones scoring criteria (mkjsc) in confirmed cases of tuberculosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculosis is detection of Mycobacterium tubercle bacilli. However, clinical scoring systems are most widely used for the diagnosis of TB in children. Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of modified Kenneth Jones scoring criteria (MKJSC) in conformed cases of tuberculosis. Methodology: This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in the department of Paediatrics, King Edward Medical University / Mayo Hospital, Lahore from January to June 2007. One hundred children below 15 years of age were enrolled. They were diagnosed as suspected cases of TB on the basis of fever and cough for more than 15 days. MKJSC was applied and each child was subjected to confirmatory test for TB. Results: There was an overall male preponderance of 54%. The mean age of study population was 1.8 +- 0.7 years. Out of 100 children, 66% were diagnosed as TB cases (23 with confirmatory tests and 43 with MKJSC of 5 or more). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of MKJSC was 73.91%, 44.16%, 28.33%, and 85% respectively. Diagnostic accuracy of MKJSC was 51%. Conclusion: Present study does not support the hypothesis that MKJSC is a good alternative to confirmatory tests to diagnose tuberculosis in children. However, MKJSC is a simple tool, which can be applied to improve the case detection rate in the absence of sophisticated tests. (author)

  11. Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M D Archibald

    Full Text Available Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.

  12. Clinical Use of the Pediatric Attention Disorders Diagnostic Screener for Children at Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Case Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Ashley; Reddy, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The Pediatric Attention Disorders Diagnostic Screener is a multidimensional, computerized screening tool designed to assess attention and global aspects of executive functioning in children at risk for attention disorders. The screener consists of a semi-structured diagnostic interview, brief parent and teacher rating scales, 3 computer-based…

  13. Recommended aerobic fitness level for metabolic health in children and adolescents: a study of diagnostic accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Froberg, Karsten;

    2011-01-01

    would be expected by chance (AUC >0.5) for all cut-offs. Conclusions Aerobic fitness is easy to measure, and is an accurate tool for screening children with clustering of cardiovascular risk factors. Promoting physical activity in children with aerobic fitness level lower than the suggested cut......Objective To define the optimal cut-off for low aerobic fitness and to evaluate its accuracy to predict clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents. Design Study of diagnostic accuracy using a cross-sectional database. Setting European Youth Heart Study...... including Denmark, Portugal, Estonia and Norway. Participants 4500 schoolchildren aged 9 or 15 years. Main Outcome Measure Aerobic fitness was expressed as peak oxygen consumption relative to bodyweight (mlO(2)/min/kg). Results Risk factors included in the composite risk score (mean of z-scores) were...

  14. Electromyography in diagnostic of median nerve lesion in carpal tunnel syndrome of children with mucopolysaccharidoses

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    A. L. Kurenkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a frequent syndrome in adults, but is very rare in children. CTS was described in children with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS as condition due to the deformation of carpal bones, deposition of glycosaminoglycans in tendosynovial tissue and connective tissue of flexor retinaculum. Electromyography is essential method for diagnostic CTS in children because typical symptoms of CTS (paresthesia, numbness of hand and fingers, atrophy and paresis of certain muscles seen in adults are absent or not realized by children with MPS because of cognitive deficit despite the presence of nerve involvement. EMG results from 40 children with different types of MPS (age 1 year 8 months to 18 years are presented. Neurophysiologic abnormalities related to CTS were found in every child with MPS I, in 80,9 % of cases – with MPS II and in every case – with MPS VI; no EMG signs of median nerve lesions incarpal channel were detected in patients with MPS III and MPS IV. CTS was bilateral in children with MPS I, II and VI, but usuallythere was an asymmetry of changes. We revealed CTS in one patient with MPS II as early as at the age 2 years 11 months. All children with MPS II had already CTS at the age of 4 years except one patient. Children with MPS I and MPS VI were not investigate before the age 4 years old, but one child 4 years old with MPS I had severe CTS. In children with MPS atrophy of thenar eminence muscles developed rapidly as complication of CTS. Therefore we recommend repeating of EMG regularly to identify earliest signs of median nerve disturbance in carpal channel and opportune surgical decompression of the entrapped nerve. It allows preserving normal function of hand that it is very important for adequate child development and quality of life.

  15. [Reactive changes in psychological condition and behaviour in children of parents with cancer--results of an epidemiological survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Ernst, Johanna Christine; Beierlein, Volker; Inhestern, Laura; Holes, Sarah; Möller, Birgit; Romer, Georg; Koch, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Children of cancer patients are at risk for developing psychological symptoms. The parental appraisal of the child's psychological condition is a key variable for the utilization of child-centred psychosocial services. This study aimed at the systematic analysis of parental appraisals of changes in the emotional condition or behaviour of their children. We conducted an epidemiologic survey with a sample size of 1,809 patients with different cancer diagnoses, giving information about 2,581 children aged 21 years or younger at time of diagnosis. Quantitative information on children's distress during the disease and on changes in psychological condition or behaviour and qualitative information on the kind of changes were analysed. About half of the children were considered to be psychologically strongly affected during the disease. For about 25 % negative changes in psychological condition or behaviour are reported, positive changes are reported for 20 % of the children. Negative changes are most frequently described in young children (up to five years), positive changes are most frequently described in young adults (18 to 21 years). The results indicate that from the cancer parent's view many children are substantially distressed. Thus, the implementation of additional preventive psychosocial services seems reasonable and necessary. PMID:22950334

  16. Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of human rhinovirus affecting hospitalized children in Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangeli, Alessandra; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Chiavelli, Stefano; Concato, Carlo; Giovanetti, Marta; Cella, Eleonora; Spano, Lucia; Scagnolari, Carolina; Moretti, Corrado; Papoff, Paola; Muraca, Maurizio; Midulla, Fabio; Antonelli, Guido

    2013-08-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRV) have been re-classified into three species (A-C), but the recently discovered HRV-C strains are not fully characterized yet. This study aimed to undertake a molecular and epidemiological characterization of HRV strains infecting children hospitalized over one year in two large research hospitals in Rome. Nasal washings from single HRV infections were retrospectively subjected to phylogenetic analysis on two genomic regions: the central part of the 5'Untranslated Region (5'UTR) and the Viral Protein (VP) 4 gene with the 5' portion of the VP2 gene (VP4/2). Forty-five different strains were identified in 73 HRV-positive children: 55 % of the cases were HRV-A, 38 % HRV-C and only 7 % HRV-B. HRV-C cases were less frequent than HRV-A during summer months and more frequent in cases presenting wheezing with respect to HRV-A. Species distribution was similar with respect to patient age, and seasonality differed during summer months with fewer HRV-C than HRV-A cases. On admission, a significantly higher number of HRV-C cases presented with wheezing with respect to HRV-A. The inter- and intra-genotype variability in VP4/2 was higher than in 5'UTR; in particular, HRV-A patient VP4/2 sequences were highly divergent (8-14 %) at the nucleotide level from those of their reference strains, but VP4 amino acid sequence was highly conserved. In HRV-C isolates, the region preceding the initiator AUG, the amino acids involved in VP4 myristoylation, the VP4-VP2 cleavage site and the cis-acting replication element were highly conserved. Differently, VP4 amino acid conservation was significantly lower in HRV-C than in HRV-A strains, especially in the transiently exposed VP4 N-terminus. This study confirmed the high number of different HRV genotypes infecting hospitalized children over one year and reveals a greater than expected variability in HRV-C VP4 protein, potentially suggestive of differences in replication.

  17. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of rotavirus strains in children with acute gastroenteritis in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Masroor Alam

    Full Text Available Pakistan harbors high disease burden of gastro-enteric infections with majority of these caused by rotavirus. Unfortunately, lack of proper surveillance programs and laboratory facilities have resulted in scarcity of available data on rotavirus associated disease burden and epidemiological information in the country. We investigated 1306 stool samples collected over two years (2008-2009 from hospitalized children under 5 years of age for the presence of rotavirus strains and its genotypic diversity in Lahore. The prevalence rate during 2008 and 2009 was found to be 34% (n = 447 out of 1306. No significant difference was found between different age groups positive for rotavirus (p>0.05. A subset of EIA positive samples was further screened for rotavirus RNA through RT-PCR and 44 (49.43% samples, out of total 89 EIA positive samples, were found positive. G and P type prevalence was found as follows: G1P [4] = 3(6.81%; G1P [6] = 9(20.45%; G1P [8] = 1(2.27%; G2P [4] = 21(47.72%; G2P [8] = 1(2.27%; G9P [4] = 1(2.27%; G9P [6] = 1(2.27% and G9P [8] = 7(15.90%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the VP7 and VP4 sequences clustered closely with the previously detected strains in the country as well as Belgian rotaviruses. Antigenic characterization was performed by analyzing major epitopes in the immunodominant VP7 and VP4 gene segments. Although the neutralization conferring motifs were found variable between the Pakistani strains and the two recommended vaccines strains (Rotarix™ and RotaTeq™, we validate the use of rotavirus vaccine in Pakistan based on the proven and recognized vaccine efficacy across the globe. Our findings constitute the first report on rotavirus' genotype diversity, their phylogenetic relatedness and epidemiology during the pre-vaccination era in Lahore, Pakistan and support the immediate introduction of rotavirus vaccine in the routine immunization program of the country.

  18. Treatment guided by rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in Tanzanian children: safety and alternative bacterial diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sykes Alma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WHO guidelines for the treatment of young children with suspected malaria have recently changed from presumptive treatment to anti-malarial treatment guided by a blood slide or malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT. However, there is limited evidence of the safety of this policy in routine outpatient settings in Africa. Methods Children 3-59 months of age with a non-severe febrile illness and no obvious cause were enrolled over a period of one year in a malaria endemic area of Tanzania. Treatment was determined by the results of a clinical examination and RDT result, and blood culture and serum lactate were also collected. RDT-negative children were followed up over 14 days. Results Over the course of one year, 965 children were enrolled; 158 (16.4% were RDT-positive and treated with artemether-lumefantrine and 807 (83.4% were RDT-negative and treated with non-anti-malarial medicines. Compared with RDT-positives, RDT-negative children were on average younger with a lower axillary temperature and more likely to have a history of cough or difficulty in breathing. Six (0.6% children became RDT-positive after enrolment, all of whom were PCR-negative for Plasmodium falciparum DNA at enrolment. In addition, 12 (1.2% children were admitted to hospital, one with possible malaria, none of whom died. A bacterial pathogen was identified in 9/965 (0.9% children, eight of whom were RDT-negative and one was RDT-positive, but slide-negative. Excluding three children with Salmonella typhi, all of the children with bacteraemia were ≤12 months of age. Compared to double-read research slide results RDTs had a sensitivity of 97.8% (95%CI 96.9-98.7 and specificity of 96.3% (95%CI 96.3-98.4. Conclusions Use of RDTs to direct the use of anti-malarial drugs in young children did not result in any missed diagnoses of malaria although new infections soon after a consultation with a negative RDT result may undermine confidence in results. Invasive

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem MRI for thoracic abnormalities in fetuses and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin; Addison, Shea [Imperial College London, Perinatal Neurology and Neonatology, London (United Kingdom); Olsen, Oystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie [UCL Institute of Child Health, Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, London (United Kingdom); Jones, Rod; Norman, Wendy; Taylor, Andrew M. [UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Cardiorespiratory Division, London (United Kingdom); Scott, Rosemary J. [University College London Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Robertson, Nicola J. [UCL Institute for Women' s Health, Academic Neonatology, London (United Kingdom); Chitty, Lyn S. [UCL Institute of Child Health, Genetics and Genomic Medicine, London (United Kingdom); UCLH NHS Foundation Trusts, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Owens, Catherine M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Cardiorespiratory Division, London (United Kingdom); Collaboration: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Autopsy Study (MaRIAS) Collaborative Group

    2014-11-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) specifically for non-cardiac thoracic pathology in fetuses and children, compared with conventional autopsy. Institutional ethics approval and parental consent was obtained. A total of 400 unselected fetuses and children underwent PMMR before conventional autopsy, reported blinded to the other dataset. Of 400 non-cardiac thoracic abnormalities, 113 (28 %) were found at autopsy. Overall sensitivity and specificity (95 % confidence interval) of PMMR for any thoracic pathology was poor at 39.6 % (31.0, 48.9) and 85.5 % (80.7, 89.2) respectively, with positive predictive value (PPV) 53.7 % (42.9, 64.0) and negative predictive value (NPV) 77.0 % (71.8, 81.4). Overall agreement was 71.8 % (67.1, 76.2). PMMR was most sensitive at detecting anatomical abnormalities, including pleural effusions and lung or thoracic hypoplasia, but particularly poor at detecting infection. PMMR currently has relatively poor diagnostic detection rates for the commonest intra-thoracic pathologies identified at autopsy in fetuses and children, including respiratory tract infection and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. The reasonable NPV suggests that normal thoracic appearances at PMMR exclude the majority of important thoracic lesions at autopsy, and so could be useful in the context of minimally invasive autopsy for detecting non-cardiac thoracic abnormalities. (orig.)

  20. ROLE OF MODERN IMMUNOLOGIC TESTS IN DIAGNOSTICS OF TUBERCULOSIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Iablonskiy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study has revealed low diagnostic value of Mantoux test with 2 TE in detection of tuberculosis in MBT-infected children, thus requiring implementation of novel methods. Detectable activity of tuberculosis infection among observed children with low tuberculin sensitivity was found in 23.8% of cases, as revealed by Diaskin test, as compared to 42.7% cases in a group with moderate sensitivity to tuberculin. As shown by radiological data it was accompanied by enlargement of intrathoracic lymphatic nodes in 14.3% and 53.0% cases, respectively. The data obtained with Diaskin probe were confirmed by a reference QuantiFERON testing in 95% cases. Parameters of diagnostic value for Diaskin test are two-fold higher than for Mantoux test with 2 TE. Positivity for Diaskin test reflects activity of tuberculosis infection which is accompanied by clear clinical signs in 67.3% cases, and, in 80% cases, it ischaracterized by enlargement of intrathoracic lymphatic nodes as based on radiologic data, thus arranging a risk group for tuberculosis morbidity in children. Appropriate recommendations for these patients include a fullscale phthisiatric assessment and administration of well justified and adequate therapy.

  1. Performance of diagnostic biomarkers in predicting liver fibrosis among hepatitis C virus-infected Egyptian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser E Nassef

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify specific markers that mirror liver fibrosis progression as an alternative to biopsy when biopsy is contraindicated, especially in children. After liver biopsies were performed, serum samples from 30 hepatitis C virus (HCV paediatric patients (8-14 years were analysed and compared with samples from 30 healthy subjects. All subjects were tested for the presence of serum anti-HCV antibodies. Direct biomarkers for liver fibrosis, including transforming growth factor-β1, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, hyaluronic acid (HA, procollagen type III amino-terminal peptide (PIIINP and osteopontin (OPN, were measured. The indirect biomarkers aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin and bilirubin were also tested. The results revealed a significant increase in the serum marker levels in HCV-infected children compared with the healthy group, whereas albumin levels exhibited a significant decrease. Significantly higher levels of PIIINP, TIMP-1, OPN and HA were detected in HCV-infected children with moderate to severe fibrosis compared with children with mild fibrosis (p < 0.05. The diagnostic accuracy of these direct biomarkers, represented by sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value, emphasises the utility of PIIINP, TIMP-1, OPN and HA as indicators of liver fibrosis among HCV-infected children.

  2. A diagnostic interview for acute stress disorder for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alisa; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Reich, Wendy; Saxe, Glenn

    2009-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a semistructured clinical interview for assessing acute stress disorder (ASD) in youth and test its psychometric properties. Youth (N = 168) with an acute burn or injury were administered the acute stress disorder module of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents (DICA-ASD). The DICA-ASD demonstrated strong psychometric properties, including high internal consistency (alpha = .97) and perfect diagnostic interrater agreement (kappa = 1.00). Participants diagnosed with ASD scored significantly higher than those not diagnosed on validated traumatic stress symptomatology measures but not on other symptomatology measures, providing evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. Preliminary evidence supports the reliability and validity of the first semistructured clinical interview for diagnosing ASD in youth.

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from Children with Recurrent Upper Respiratory Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korona-Glowniak, Izabela; Maj, Maciej; Siwiec, Radosław; Niedzielski, Artur; Malm, Anna

    2016-01-01

    A total of 125 isolates were recovered from adenoids and/or nasopharynx of 170 children aged 2 to 5 from south-east Poland; they had undergone adenoidectomy for recurrent and/or persistent symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. Pneumococcal isolates were analyzed by phenotyping (serotyping and antimicrobial resistance tests) and genotyping together with the clonality of the pneumococcal isolates based on resistance determinants, transposon distribution and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Serotypes 19F, 6B and 23F constituted 44.8% of the isolates. Among all of the strains, 44.8% showed decreased susceptibility to penicillin and resistance to co-trimoxazole (52.8%), tetracycline (38.4%), erythromycin (53.6%), clindamycin (52.8%) and chloramphenicol (27.2%) was observed. Tn6002 was found in 34.8% of erythromycin-resistant isolates while composite Tn2010-in 16.7% of erm(B)-carrying isolates that harboured also mef(E) gene. Tn3872-related elements were detected in 27.3% of erythromycin-resistant strains. In the majority of chloramphenicol-resistant catpC194-carrying isolates (79.4%), ICESp23FST81-family elements were detected. The genotyping showed that pneumococcal population was very heterogeneous; 82 sequence types (STs) were identified, and the most frequent contributed to not more than 8% of the isolates. Nearly 44% STs were novel, each of them was recovered only from one child. Four STs belonged to one of the 43 worldwide spread resistant pneumococcal clones currently accepted by Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network (PMEN), i.e. Spain 9V-3, Spain 23F-1, Norway NT-42 and Poland 6B-20, accounting for 12 (16.7%) of the 75 nonususceptible isolates, and five STs were single-locus variants of PMEN resistant clones (England 14-9, Spain 9V-3, Spain 23F-1, Greece 21-30, Denmark 14-32), accounting 9 (12%) of nonsusceptible isolates. A few MDR clones belonging to 6B and 19F serotypes found among preschool children emphasizes rather the role of clonal

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from Children with Recurrent Upper Respiratory Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korona-Glowniak, Izabela; Maj, Maciej; Siwiec, Radosław; Niedzielski, Artur; Malm, Anna

    2016-01-01

    A total of 125 isolates were recovered from adenoids and/or nasopharynx of 170 children aged 2 to 5 from south-east Poland; they had undergone adenoidectomy for recurrent and/or persistent symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. Pneumococcal isolates were analyzed by phenotyping (serotyping and antimicrobial resistance tests) and genotyping together with the clonality of the pneumococcal isolates based on resistance determinants, transposon distribution and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Serotypes 19F, 6B and 23F constituted 44.8% of the isolates. Among all of the strains, 44.8% showed decreased susceptibility to penicillin and resistance to co-trimoxazole (52.8%), tetracycline (38.4%), erythromycin (53.6%), clindamycin (52.8%) and chloramphenicol (27.2%) was observed. Tn6002 was found in 34.8% of erythromycin-resistant isolates while composite Tn2010-in 16.7% of erm(B)-carrying isolates that harboured also mef(E) gene. Tn3872-related elements were detected in 27.3% of erythromycin-resistant strains. In the majority of chloramphenicol-resistant catpC194-carrying isolates (79.4%), ICESp23FST81-family elements were detected. The genotyping showed that pneumococcal population was very heterogeneous; 82 sequence types (STs) were identified, and the most frequent contributed to not more than 8% of the isolates. Nearly 44% STs were novel, each of them was recovered only from one child. Four STs belonged to one of the 43 worldwide spread resistant pneumococcal clones currently accepted by Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network (PMEN), i.e. Spain 9V-3, Spain 23F-1, Norway NT-42 and Poland 6B-20, accounting for 12 (16.7%) of the 75 nonususceptible isolates, and five STs were single-locus variants of PMEN resistant clones (England 14-9, Spain 9V-3, Spain 23F-1, Greece 21-30, Denmark 14-32), accounting 9 (12%) of nonsusceptible isolates. A few MDR clones belonging to 6B and 19F serotypes found among preschool children emphasizes rather the role of clonal

  5. Children’s Sleep Comic: development of a new diagnostic tool for children with sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwerdtle B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Schwerdtle,1 Julia Kanis,1 Lena Kahl,1 Andrea Kübler,1,2 Angelika A Schlarb3,41Institute of Psychology, Department of Psychology I, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, 2Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, 3Faculty of Science, Clinical and Developmental Psychology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, 4Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Koblenz-Landau, Landau, GermanyBackground: A solid diagnosis of sleep disorders in children should include both self-ratings and parent ratings. However, there are few standardized self-assessment instruments to meet this need. The Children’s Sleep Comic is an adapted version of the unpublished German questionnaire “Freiburger Kinderschlafcomic” and provides pictures for items and responses. Because the drawings were outdated and allowed only for qualitative analysis, we revised the comic, tested its applicability in a target sample, and suggest a procedure for quantitative analysis.Methods: All items were updated and pictures were newly drawn. We used a sample of 201 children aged 5–10 years to test the applicability of the Children’s Sleep Comic in young children and to run a preliminary analysis.Results: The Children’s Sleep Comic comprises 37 items covering relevant aspects of sleep disorders in children. Application took on average 30 minutes. The procedure was well accepted by the children, as reflected by the absence of any dropouts. First comparisons with established questionnaires indicated moderate correlations.Conclusion: The Children’s Sleep Comic is appropriate for screening sleep behavior and sleep problems in children. The interactive procedure can foster a good relationship between the investigator and the child, and thus establish the basis for successful intervention if necessary.Keywords: children, sleep, sleep disorders, diagnostic, assessment, self-rating

  6. ORF virus infection in children: clinical characteristics, transmission, diagnostic methods, and future therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Edith R; Austin, Connie; Trevino, Ingrid; Reynolds, Mary G; Swanson, Holly; Cherry, Bryan; Ragsdale, Jennifer; Dunn, John; Meidl, Susan; Zhao, Hui; Li, Yu; Pue, Howard; Damon, Inger K

    2007-08-01

    Orf virus leads to self-limited, subacute cutaneous infections in children who have occupational or recreational contact with infected small ruminants. Breaches in the integument and contact with animals recently vaccinated for orf may be important risk factors in transmission. Common childhood behaviors are likely important factors in the provocation of significant contact (ie, bites) or in unusual lesion location (eg, facial lesions). Clinician recognition is important in distinguishing orf infection from life-threatening cutaneous zoonoses. Recently developed molecular techniques provide diagnostic precision and newer topical therapeutics may hasten healing.

  7. Sociodemographic, Epidemiological, and Clinical Risk Factors for Childhood Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Severely Malnourished Children Presenting With Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti MBBS, MMed, PhD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate sociodemographic, epidemiological, and clinical risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in children presenting with severe acute malnutrition (SAM and pneumonia. Children aged 0 to 59 months with SAM and radiologic pneumonia from April 2011 to July 2012 were studied in Bangladesh. Children with confirmed PTB (by culture and/or X-pert MTB/RIF (cases = 27 and without PTB (controls = 81; randomly selected from 378 children were compared. The cases more often had the history of contact with active PTB patient (P < .01 and exposure to cigarette smoke (P = .04 compared with the controls. In logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, the cases were independently associated with working mother (P = .05 and positive tuberculin skin test (TST; P = .02. Thus, pneumonia in SAM children is a common presentation of PTB and further highlights the importance of the use of simple TST and/or history of contact with active TB patients in diagnosing PTB in such children, especially in resource-limited settings.

  8. Epidemiology of children with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (stage 3): A referral hospital-based study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Zahra; Mahmoudi, Shima; Pourakbari, Babak; Keshavarz Valian, Nasrin; Sabouni, Farah; Ramezani, Amitis; Bahador, Abbas; Mamishi, Setareh

    2016-01-01

    Lack of recognition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection especially in children and delayed implementation of effective control programs makes HIV infection as a major cause for concern. Information on HIV epidemiology in Iran as well as other Islamic countries is limited. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical manifestation and laboratory finding of HIV infected children who were admitted to a referral Children Medical Center (CMC) in Tehran, Iran, during 11 years from January 2002 to January 2013. This was a retrospective study carried out over a period of 11 years. The records of all patients attending to the CMC with confirmed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were screened. The patients were evaluated for social circumstance, family history, age, gender, clinical, and laboratory features. Clinical data including fever, respiratory distress, diarrhea, rash, etc. as well as laboratory tests including complete blood count, serum glucose level, electrolytes, liver function test, cultures, CD4 lymphocyte count were evaluated. During the study period, 32 HIV positive children were enrolled. The majority of patients were presented with weight loss, prolonged fever, respiratory infection and chronic diarrhea. In this study, salmonella infections as well as streptococcal pneumonia and candida infections followed by, tuberculosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections were the predominant opportunistic infections. Since the number of HIV-positive children has been alarmingly increasing in recent years and perinatal transmission is the most common route of HIV infection in children, essential recommendations for prenatal HIV testing as well as appropriate antiretroviral therapy by HIV infected mothers are needed.

  9. Clinical diagnostic and intervention studies of children with semantic-pragmatic language disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, C

    2001-01-01

    The diagnosis of semantic-pragmatic language disorder (SPLD) has been the subject of a number of research studies over the last two decades. Classification and diagnostic debates, while illuminating, have done little to develop tools to improve services to these children. In this paper, two children whose communication difficulties are suggestive of an SPLD diagnosis but who have differing profiles are studied. Using existing models of psycholinguistics and pragmatics to guide assessment and intervention, the diversity of language and social communicative behaviours that are covered by the label SPLD are exemplified. Consideration is given to whether the term SPLD is appropriate for both children or whether Bishop's revision of the diagnosis to 'pragmatic language impairment' might be more useful. Methods of intervention and evaluation for semantic and pragmatic deficits in these two cases are described. It is argued that existing tools can enable accurate explanation and modelling of the communication of children with SPLD and that there is a role for intervention studies in helping to refine those tools, to improve therapies and to understand the nature of the condition more fully. PMID:11491481

  10. Investigating portable fluorescent microscopy (CyScope® as an alternative rapid diagnostic test for malaria in children and women of child-bearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa-Figueiredo José

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt and correct diagnosis of malaria is crucial for accurate epidemiological assessment and better case management, and while the gold standard of light microscopy is often available, it requires both expertise and time. Portable fluorescent microscopy using the CyScope® offers a potentially quicker, easier and more field-applicable alternative. This article reports on the strengths, limitations of this methodology and its diagnostic performance in cross-sectional surveys on young children and women of child-bearing age. Methods 552 adults (99% women of child-bearing age and 980 children (99% ≤ 5 years of age from rural and peri-urban regions of Ugandan were examined for malaria using light microscopy (Giemsa-stain, a lateral-flow test (Paracheck-Pf® and the CyScope®. Results from the surveys were used to calculate diagnostic performance (sensitivity and specificity as well as to perform a receiver operating characteristics (ROC analyses, using light microscopy as the gold-standard. Results Fluorescent microscopy (qualitative reads showed reduced specificity (400 parasites/μL blood: sensitivity of 64.2% and specificity of 86.0%. Overall, the diagnostic performance of the CyScope was found inferior to that of Paracheck-Pf®. Discussion Fluorescent microscopy using the CyScope® is certainly a field-applicable and relatively affordable solution for malaria diagnoses especially in areas where electrical supplies may be lacking. While it is unlikely to miss higher parasitaemia, its application in cross-sectional community-based studies leads to many false positives (i.e. small fluorescent bodies of presently unknown origin mistaken as malaria parasites. Without recourse to other technologies, arbitration of these false positives is presently equivocal, which could ultimately lead to over-treatment; something that should be further explored in future investigations if the CyScope® is to be more widely implemented.

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of post mortem MRI for abdominal abnormalities in foetuses and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Postmortem MR imaging (PMMR) has high overall accuracy for abdominal pathology in foetuses, newborns and children. •PMMR is particularly good at detecting renal abnormalities, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities. •In clinical practice, PMMR may be a useful alternative or adjunct to conventional autopsy in foetuses and children for detecting abdominal abnormalities. -- Abstract: Background: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) specifically for abdominal pathology in foetuses and children, compared to conventional autopsy. Methods: Institutional ethics approval and parental consent was obtained. 400 unselected foetuses and children underwent PMMR using a 1.5 T Siemens Avanto MR scanner before conventional autopsy. PMMR images and autopsy findings were reported blinded to the other data respectively. Results: Abdominal abnormalities were found in 70/400 (12%) autopsies. Overall sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) of PMMR for abdominal pathology was 72.5% (61.0, 81.6) and 90.8% (87.0, 93.6), with positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of 64.1% (53.0, 73.9) and 93.6% (90.2, 95.8) respectively. PMMR was good at detecting renal abnormalities (sensitivity 80%), particularly in foetuses, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities (sensitivity 50%). Overall accuracy was 87.4% (83.6, 90.4). Conclusions: PMMR has high overall accuracy for abdominal pathology in foetuses, newborns and children. PMMR is particularly good at detecting renal abnormalities, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities. In clinical practice, PMMR may be a useful alternative or adjunct to conventional autopsy in foetuses and children for detecting abdominal abnormalities

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of post mortem MRI for abdominal abnormalities in foetuses and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J., E-mail: owen.arthurs@gosh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Child Health, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@imperial.ac.uk [Perinatal Neurology and Neonatology, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Owens, Catherine M., E-mail: Catherine.owens@gosh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Cardiorespiratory Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Olsen, Oystein E., E-mail: oystein.olsen@gosh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Child Health, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Clinical Epidemiology, Nutrition and Biostatistics Section, UCL Institute of Child health, London (United Kingdom); Addison, Shea, E-mail: shea.addison@imperial.ac.uk [Perinatal Neurology and Neonatology, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Jones, Rod, E-mail: rod.jones@gosh.nhs.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Cardiorespiratory Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Norman, Wendy, E-mail: wendy.norman@gosh.nhs.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Cardiorespiratory Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Scott, Rosemary J., E-mail: rosemary.scott@uclh.nhs.uk [Department of Histopathology, University College London Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •Postmortem MR imaging (PMMR) has high overall accuracy for abdominal pathology in foetuses, newborns and children. •PMMR is particularly good at detecting renal abnormalities, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities. •In clinical practice, PMMR may be a useful alternative or adjunct to conventional autopsy in foetuses and children for detecting abdominal abnormalities. -- Abstract: Background: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) specifically for abdominal pathology in foetuses and children, compared to conventional autopsy. Methods: Institutional ethics approval and parental consent was obtained. 400 unselected foetuses and children underwent PMMR using a 1.5 T Siemens Avanto MR scanner before conventional autopsy. PMMR images and autopsy findings were reported blinded to the other data respectively. Results: Abdominal abnormalities were found in 70/400 (12%) autopsies. Overall sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) of PMMR for abdominal pathology was 72.5% (61.0, 81.6) and 90.8% (87.0, 93.6), with positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of 64.1% (53.0, 73.9) and 93.6% (90.2, 95.8) respectively. PMMR was good at detecting renal abnormalities (sensitivity 80%), particularly in foetuses, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities (sensitivity 50%). Overall accuracy was 87.4% (83.6, 90.4). Conclusions: PMMR has high overall accuracy for abdominal pathology in foetuses, newborns and children. PMMR is particularly good at detecting renal abnormalities, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities. In clinical practice, PMMR may be a useful alternative or adjunct to conventional autopsy in foetuses and children for detecting abdominal abnormalities.

  13. Empiric reliability of diagnostic and prognostic estimations of physical standards of children, going in for sports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporozhanov V.A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of sporting-pedagogical practices objective estimation of potential possibilities gettings busy already on the initial stages of long-term preparation examined as one of issues of the day. The proper quantitative information allows to individualize preparation of gettings in obedience to requirements to the guided processes busy. Research purpose - logically and metrical to rotin expedience of metrical method of calculations of reliability of results of the control measurings, in-use for diagnostics of psychophysical fitness and prognosis of growth of trade gettings busy in the select type of sport. Material and methods. Analysed the results of the control measurings on four indexes of psychophysical preparedness and estimation of experts of fitness 24th gettings busy composition of children of gymnastic school. The results of initial and final inspection of gymnasts on the same control tests processed the method of mathematical statistics. Expected the metrical estimations of reliability of measurings is stability, co-ordination and informing of control information for current diagnostics and prognosis of sporting possibilities inspected. Results. Expedience of the use in these aims of metrical operations of calculation of complex estimation of the psychophysical state of gettings busy is metrology grounded. Conclusions. Research results confirm expedience of calculation of complex estimation of psychophysical features gettings busy for diagnostics of fitness in the select type of sport and trade prognosis on the subsequent stages of preparation.

  14. Presentation of the project EPI-CT: A cohort study of children with substantial diagnostic medical exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes are an indispensable tool in modern medicine. The increasing use of computed tomography (CT) in children and adolescents is of concern both from the point of view of radio-protection and public health. children are more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation than adults. Children also have a higher life expectancy to show any detrimental effect. Furthermore, because of their smaller mass, CT scans in children receiving higher doses of radiation in specific organs in adults.

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of Growth Rate in Differentiating Etiologies of Short Stature in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Alaei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Short stature is a manifestation of a wide variety of conditions that some of which may be amenable to timely treatment and a suboptimal growth rate may be an early marker pointing to the cause of growth retardation. This study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic utility of growth rate in differential diagnosis of children with short stature. Materials and Methods All children between the ages of 2 and 18 years who visited in pediatric endocrinology clinic in a five years period were recruited in a prospective cohort study. Children with standing height Results One hundred forty three patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Mean follow up period was 14.4±10.9 months. Etiologies of short stature were: constitutional growth delay (CGD 46.9%, familial short stature (FSS 28.7%, hypothyroidism 4.2%, growth hormone deficiency (GHD 4.2% and miscellaneous causes in 16% of patients.  Mean Z- score for children with constitutional growth delay was -2.3±0.69, in familial short stature was -2.3±0.65 and for other condition was -2.7±1.49. There was a meaningful statistical correlation between growth rate and etiology of short stature (P0.05. Conclusion There was significant difference in growth rate between children with constitutional growth delay and familial short stature in comparing to short stature due to endocrine problem and other etiologies. Assessment of growth rate has some utility in diagnosing the etiology of short stature.

  16. Gynaekologisk epidemiologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological research has good possibilities in Denmark due to the fact that all people have a personal PIN code and due to our many National health registers. In gynaecology the National Register of Patients, the Birth Registry, IVF-registry, Cancer Registry and latest the National Prescription...... Database offer unique possibilities of linking exposure data with many clinical outcomes. Danish epidemiology has contributed with morbidity analyses on children concieved by in vitro fertilisation, pharmacoepidemiological studies on short and long term effects of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy...

  17. Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of non invasive tests for helicobacter pylori infection in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare urea breath and stool antigen in children, with histological diagnosis for Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection. Children between 3 and 15 years of age reporting in pediatric outpatient department with upper gastrointestinal symptoms were included. All the participating children underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and 3 tests namely: histopathological identification of H. pylori (the traditional gold standard), urea breath test and stool antigen test were carried out on each child. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values were calculated for each noninvasive test used in the study. A total of 54 patients completed the study with a mean age of 8.2 years. On histological examination, 72% (39) were positive for H. pylori infection. On gross endoscopic examination, only 9 patients had signs of gastritis as compared to 39 histological positives. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of stool antigen test were: 77%, 73% and 89% respectively whereas the same for urea breath test were: 79%, 80% and 91% respectively. Both the noninvasive tests were found to be sensitive and specific as compared with histological identification, for the diagnosis of H. pylori in our pediatric population. The accuracy of urea breath test was better than the stool antigen test but later was easier to perform and could fulfill the criteria for a rapid bedside diagnostic test. (author)

  18. Soluble membrane attack complex is diagnostic for intraventricular shunt infection in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Theresa N.; Arynchyna, Anastasia A.; Blackburn, Tessa E.; Johnston, James M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Children treated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts to manage hydrocephalus frequently develop shunt failure and/or infections, conditions that present with overlapping symptoms. The potential life-threatening nature of shunt infections requires rapid diagnosis; however, traditional microbiology is time consuming, expensive, and potentially unreliable. We set out to identify a biomarker that would identify shunt infection. METHODS. CSF was assayed for the soluble membrane attack complex (sMAC) by ELISA in patients with suspected shunt failure or infection. CSF was obtained at the time of initial surgical intervention. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic potential of sMAC in pyogenic-infected versus noninfected patients. RESULTS. Children with pyogenic shunt infection had significantly increased sMAC levels compared with noninfected patients (3,211 ± 1,111 ng/ml vs. 26 ± 3.8 ng/ml, P = 0.0001). In infected patients undergoing serial CSF draws, sMAC levels were prognostic for both positive and negative clinical outcomes. Children with delayed, broth-only growth of commensal organisms (P. acnes, S. epidermidis, etc.) had the lowest sMAC levels (7.96 ± 1.7 ng/ml), suggesting contamination rather than shunt infection. CONCLUSION. Elevated CSF sMAC levels are both sensitive and specific for diagnosing pyogenic shunt infection and may serve as a useful prognostic biomarker during recovery from infection. FUNDING. This work was supported in part by the Impact Fund of Children’s of Alabama.

  19. New insights into the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of Schistosoma mansoni in Ugandan pre-school children and mothers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Betson

    Full Text Available Significant numbers of pre-school children are infected with Schistosoma mansoni in sub-Saharan Africa and are likely to play a role in parasite transmission. However, they are currently excluded from control programmes. Molecular phylogenetic studies have provided insights into the evolutionary origins and transmission dynamics of S. mansoni, but there has been no research into schistosome molecular epidemiology in pre-school children. Here, we investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of S. mansoni in pre-school children and mothers living in lakeshore communities in Uganda and monitored for changes over time after praziquantel treatment. Parasites were sampled from children (<6 years and mothers enrolled in the longitudinal Schistosomiasis Mothers and Infants Study at baseline and at 6-, 12- and 18-month follow-up surveys. 1347 parasites from 35 mothers and 45 children were genotyped by direct sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase (cox1 gene. The cox1 region was highly diverse with over 230 unique sequences identified. Parasite populations were genetically differentiated between lakes and non-synonymous mutations were more diverse at Lake Victoria than Lake Albert. Surprisingly, parasite populations sampled from children showed a similar genetic diversity to those sampled from mothers, pointing towards a non-linear relationship between duration of exposure and accumulation of parasite diversity. The genetic diversity six months after praziquantel treatment was similar to pre-treatment diversity. Our results confirm the substantial genetic diversity of S. mansoni in East Africa and provide significant insights into transmission dynamics within young children and mothers, important information for schistosomiasis control programmes.

  20. Radiation doses originating from diagnostic procedures during the treatment and follow-up of children and adolescents with malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children with malignant lymphoma undergo many diagnostic procedures that involve exposure to ionising radiation. In addition, many, but by no means all, undergo further exposure to ionising radiation during radiotherapy. While therapeutic radiation exposures are prescribed, the extent of radiation exposure arising from diagnostic procedures utilised in such children is largely unknown. We completed an audit of the radiation doses arising from diagnostic imaging procedures performed in a cohort of children with malignant lymphoma. The cumulative effective radiation dose associated with radiographic and radioisotopic procedures was derived for 81 children and adolescents with malignant lymphoma during their diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Thirty-eight of the 42 patients (90%) with Hodgkin lymphoma were alive at study termination, with follow-up periods ranging from 1.9 to 11.7 years (median 5.3). Thirty-three of the 39 patients (85%) with non-Hodgkin lymphoma were alive at study termination with follow-up periods ranging from 2.4 to 12.3 years (median 7.5). The median effective dose was 518 mSv for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and 309 mSv for those with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The maximum effective dose was 1.7 Sv. The principal contributors to the effective dose were computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine imaging procedures using 67Ga. Protocols for the management of children and adolescents with malignant lymphoma should be reviewed in order to reduce the radiation detriment without loss of essential diagnostic information.

  1. Diagnostic value of FDG-PET/(CT) in children with fever of unknown origin and unexplained fever during immune suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhuis, Gijsbert J.; Diender, Marije G.; Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P. [Radboud University Medical Center, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Draaisma, Jos M.T. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Paediatrics, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee de [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); University of Twente, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Biomedical Photonic Imaging Group, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) and unexplained fever during immune suppression in children are challenging medical problems. The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and FDG-PET combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in children with FUO and in children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. All FDG-PET/(CT) scans performed in the Radboud university medical center for the evaluation of FUO or unexplained fever during immune suppression in the last 10 years were reviewed. Results were compared with the final clinical diagnosis. FDG-PET/(CT) scans were performed in 31 children with FUO. A final diagnosis was established in 16 cases (52 %). Of the total number of scans, 32 % were clinically helpful. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT in these patients was 80 % and 78 %, respectively. FDG-PET/(CT) scans were performed in 12 children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. A final diagnosis was established in nine patients (75 %). Of the total number of these scans, 58 % were clinically helpful. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT in children with unexplained fever during immune suppression was 78 % and 67 %, respectively. FDG-PET/CT appears a valuable imaging technique in the evaluation of children with FUO and in the diagnostic process of children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. Prospective studies of FDG-PET/CT as part of a structured diagnostic protocol are warranted to assess the additional diagnostic value. (orig.)

  2. Care-seeking behaviour and diagnostic processes for symptomatic giardiasis in children attending an academic paediatric hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Escobedo, Angel A.; Almirall, Pedro; Ávila, Ivonne; Salazar, Yohana; Alfonso, Maydel

    2014-01-01

    Giardiasis is one of the commonest intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba. In order to determine care-seeking behaviour and diagnostic processes in paediatric in-patients with giardiasis, structured questionnaires were administered by interview mothers of children with giardiasis during January to December 2010. During the study period, 97 children were diagnosed with giardiasis, of whom 86 (88.6%) caregivers were interviewed. The median number of days from symptoms onset to the first presen...

  3. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA OF FLATFOOT AND WAYS OF REHABILITATION THERAPY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUROD ZOKIRHODJAEV

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Computer, roentgenologic, myographic, podometric, biochemical studies in 1427 children from 1 to 14 years old in 182 cases revealed the flatfoot; it had a straight proportional dependence from age and sexual differences. Suggested differential diagnostic table allows in short time to mark out the level of flatfoot on the base of taken results. Being reflected in scores, taken results are summed up, and, by general total, the level of flatfoot is determined. Determination of oxiproline (collagen element in urine serves as the confirmation of involution connective tissue at flatfoot. According to age changes of connecting tissue, a complex of conservative treatment, including physiotherapeutic means, TPE, plaster of Paris bandage, balneologic treatments, wearing insoles in shoes, taking multivitamin drugs, are offered

  4. Molecular methods for the detection of human papillomavirus infection: new insights into their role in diagnostics and epidemiological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Piana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs comprise more than 180 genotypes. HPV infection is mainly diagnosed by molecular methods. The aim of our study was to review the main molecular methods used to diagnose HPV infection, underscoring their characteristics. Several methods have been developed for molecular diagnosis of Papilloma infection, such as those based on PCR technique. Another commercial non-PCR based diagnostic method is Hybrid Capture test; it is the only commercially available HPV DNA detection test approved by the FDA. Several Authors have suggested that viral load and E6/E7 transcripts could be used as surrogate markers of persistent HPV infection, being more specific predictors of progressive disease than the simple presence of HPV DNA. Validating clinical sensitivity and specificity of each technique and improving the interpretation of the results are essential; consequently, there is a clear need for well characterized international quality control panels to compare the various diagnostic methods. HPV DNA testing could be useful both as a primary screening test, alone or in combination with a Pap smear, for the early detection of cervical cancer precursors, and as triage test to select women with minor cytological abnormalities who will need further follow-up and to predict possible treatment failure in women with diagnosed high-grade intraepithelial lesions who have undergone excisional therapy. In the next future surveillance for HPV infections, based on these molecular methods, could represent an important step for the development of primary and secondary prophylactic interventions, such as new vaccines targeted to genotypes who might replace those previously prevalent.

  5. Noninvasive diagnostic methods for perceptual and motor disabilities in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Lampe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of neuroorthopedics centers on chronic diseases demanding close clinical monitoring. We shall use several examples to show how the various noninvasive diagnostic instruments can be used to obtain insight into the central nervous system as well as into the musculoskeletal system and its morphology. The choice of the most appropriate method depends on the problem; that is, whether the method is to be applied for clinical use or for basic research. In this report we introduce various technical examination methods that are being used successfully in the fields of pediatrics, orthopedics, and neurology. The major examination instrument in pediatric diagnostics is sonography, which is being used in this report as a research instrument for the biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system, but which also gives insight into neurofunctional sequences. In orthopedics, pedography is used for diagnosing deformities of the feet. In neuroorthopedics for children pedography acts as a functional monitor for apraxia and thus allows, for example, a classification of the degree of neurological malfunctions in the lower extremities. The 3D bodyscan is used to minimize x-raying in patients with neurogenic scoliosis. This report introduces examples of the application of MRI and fMRI for basic research. The biometric measuring methods introduced provide precise data in the areas of diagnostics and monitoring and are highly valuable for further neuroorthopedic basic research. In future we expect the ever-evolving technical measuring methods to enable a deeper understanding of the primary neurological causes of and the implications for patients with cerebral palsy and other neuroorthopedic conditions. This may allow the development of new forms of therapy not necessarily predictable today.

  6. DSM-V diagnostic criteria for bereavement-related disorders in children and adolescents: developmental considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplow, Julie B; Layne, Christopher M; Pynoos, Robert S; Cohen, Judith A; Lieberman, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Two bereavement-related disorders are proposed for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V): Adjustment Disorder Related to Bereavement, to be located in the main body of the text as an official diagnostic entity; and Bereavement-Related Disorder, including a Traumatic Death Specifier, to be located in the Appendix as an invitation for further research. These diagnoses currently do not include developmentally informed criteria, despite the importance of developmental processes in the ways children and adolescents grieve. In this article, we draw upon a selective review of the empirical literature and expert clinical knowledge to recommend developmentally informed modifications and specifiers of the proposed criteria for both bereavement disorders and strategies to improve future research. This article is derived from an invited report submitted to the DSM-V Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Trauma, and Dissociative Disorders Sub-Work Group, and suggested modifications have received preliminary approval to be incorporated into the DSM-V at the time of this writing. Adoption of these proposals will have far-reaching consequences, given that DSM-V criteria will influence both critical treatment choices for bereaved youth and the next generation of research studies.

  7. Comparative diagnostic value of bone scintigraphy and roentgenography in children with Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavailloles, F.; Brauner, M.; Dandine, M.; Lonchampt, M.F.; Esteban, C.; Bensahel, H.; Patois, E.; Alperovitch, A.; Bock, B.

    1985-01-01

    To compare the value of hip roentgenograms and bone scintigraphy in Legg-Calve-Perthes (LCP) disease, a double blind study was done in 153 children, of whom 51 had LCP. Each procedure was read separately by two investigators who had no knowledge of clinical data. Variations across investigators were less significant for roentgenograms than for bone scans. Agreement on diagnosis between the two investigators was 95% for roentgenograms, against only 89% for bone scans. As regards the detailed analysis of each separate finding upon bone scintigraphy and assessment of this procedure's prognostic value, major discrepancies occurred between the two investigators. Diagnostic accuracy was very similar for the two procedures. Both bone scintigraphy and roentgenography showed a 0.86 sensitivity. Specificities were 0.93 and 0.99 respectively. For the subgroup of patients with early-stage LCP disease (33 cases), scintigraphy identified a slightly greater number of cases than roentgenography (0.88 and 0.76 respectively). Some disagreements between our results and those previously published in the literature may stem from biases such as the criteria for entering patients into the study or for establishing the final diagnosis. Roentgenography is obviously the first procedure to perform in a child with a painful hip or a limp. However, the results may be inconclusive in early-stage disease. In such cases, scintigraphy is needed and often avoids unnecessary traction or diagnostic delay.

  8. The Family Life Project: an epidemiological and developmental study of young children living in poor rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha

    2013-10-01

    About 20% of children in the United States have been reported to live in rural communities, with child poverty rates higher and geographic isolation from resources greater than in urban communities. There have been surprisingly few studies of children living in rural communities, especially poor rural communities. The Family Life Project helped fill this gap by using an epidemiological design to recruit and study a representative sample of every baby born to a mother who resided in one of six poor rural counties over a 1-year period, oversampling for poverty and African American. 1,292 children were followed from birth to 36 months of age. This monograph described these children and used a cumulative risk model to examine the relation between social risk and children's executive functioning, language development, and behavioral competence at 36 months. Using both the Family Process Model of development and the Family Investment Model of development, observed parenting was examined over time in relation to child functioning at 36 months. Different aspects of observed parenting were examined as mediators/moderators of risk in predicting child outcomes. Results suggested that cumulative risk was important in predicting all three major domains of child outcomes and that positive and negative parenting and maternal language complexity were mediators of these relations. Maternal positive parenting was found to be a buffer for the most risky families in predicting behavioral competence. In a final model using both family process and investment measures, there was evidence of mediation but with little evidence of the specificity of parenting for particular outcomes. Discussion focused on the importance of cumulative risk and parenting in understanding child competence in rural poverty and the implications for possible intervention strategies that might be effective in maximizing the early development of these children. PMID:24147448

  9. Molecular epidemiology of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus colonizing the anterior Nares of school children of Udupi Taluk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Govindan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA cause serious skin and soft tissue infections including necrotizing fasciitis and necrotizing pneumonia. Production of Panton Valentine Leucocidine (PVL toxin is implicated in its enhanced virulence. A variant of epidemic MRSA-15 (EMRSA-15 which produces PVL toxin has been isolated and characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE method from the Indian population both in hospital and community settings. Aims: Identify the epidemiological type of MRSA colonizing the anterior nares of school children in Udupi taluk. Settings and Design: The study population included children of the age group of 5-16 years belonging to the Udupi taluk of Karnataka, India. A total of 1503 children were screened for MRSA colonization during July 2009 to December 2010. Materials and Methods: PVL assay, Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome (SCC mec typing and PFGE typing were carried out with all the MRSA isolates. Statistical Analysis Used: Frequency distribution of different variables was assessed by SPSS. Results: Among the 1.1% of MRSA, 58.8% (10/17 of isolates were positive for pvl and 41.7% (7/17 were identified as SCC mec type IV. PFGE patterns of all the strains were identical with Indian variant EMRSA-15; however they were different from classical EMRSA-15 in 3-4 bands. Conclusions: The Indian variant EMRSA-15 gains much epidemiological relevance owing to the acquisition of pvl gene. In spite of low prevalence of nasal colonization of MRSA, emergence of the virulent Indian variant EMRSA-15 in our community is a worrisome fact to be reckoned with.

  10. [Epidemiology, microbiology, and outcomes of septicemia in children treated at the Charles de Gaulle University Pediatric Hospital in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dakouré-Kissou, Aimée; Poda, Gandaaza Euthyme Armel; Koueta, Fla; Yé-Ouattara, Diarra; Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological and microbiological characteristics and outcome of children with septicemia at the Charles de Gaulle University Pediatric Hospital of Ouagadougou to help improve probabilistic antibiotic therapy in this type of infection. This retrospective descriptive study covered all the children from 0 to 15 years old seen over a period of 7 years in any hospital department with suspected bacteriemia and for whom the bacteriology laboratory performed a blood culture. During the study period, the laboratory received 842 requests for blood cultures and found 154 (18.3%) of them to be positive. Files for 81 of the 154 patients could be found and examined. The distribution according to age showed septicemia was most frequent among those aged 6-15 years (61.7% of the cases). Microbial identification showed the dominant species to be Salmonella enterica (serovars paratyphi and typhi) (58%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (12.3%). The salmonella isolates had a high rate of resistance to amoxicillin, chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole. Staphylococci were always sensitive to the antibiotics with which they were tested, although to a lesser extent for penicillin G. All patients routinely received antibiotic treatment, and 81.5% (n=66) were cured (5 children died and 10 left the hospital against medical advice). This study shows that the bacterial epidemiology of septicemia in our setting is dominated by salmonella. Trends in bacterial resistance to antibiotics showed that common antibiotics such as amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole are no longer acceptable as probabilist therapy here. They should be replaced in this type of infection by injectable third generation cephalosporin alone or combined with aminoglycosides.

  11. Diagnostic value of FDG-PET/(CT) in children with fever of unknown origin and unexplained fever during immune suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, G.J.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Diender, M.G.; Oyen, W.J.; Draaisma, J.M.; Geus-Oei, L.F. de

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Fever of unknown origin (FUO) and unexplained fever during immune suppression in children are challenging medical problems. The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and FDG-PET combined with compute

  12. Diagnostic value of FDG-PET/(CT) in children with fever of unknown origin and unexplained fever during immune suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, Gijsbert J.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.; Diender, Marije G.; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Draaisma, Jos M. Th.; Geus-Oei, de Lioe-Fee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Fever of unknown origin (FUO) and unexplained fever during immune suppression in children are challenging medical problems. The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and FDG-PET combined with computed

  13. A Quasi-Universal Nonword Repetition Task as a Diagnostic Tool for Bilingual Children learning Dutch as a Second Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, Tessel; Chiat, Shula; Leseman, Paul; Timmermeister, Mona; Wijnen, Frank; Blom, Elma

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated a newly developed quasi-universal nonword repetition task (Q-U NWRT) as a diagnostic tool for bilingual children with language impairment (LI) who have Dutch as a second language. The Q-U NWRT was designed to be minimally influenced by knowledge of one specific language

  14. A Quasi-Universal Nonword Repetition Task as a Diagnostic Tool for Bilingual Children Learning Dutch as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Tessel; Chiat, Shula; Leseman, Paul; Timmermeister, Mona; Wijnen, Frank; Blom, Elma

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated a newly developed quasi-universal nonword repetition task (Q-U NWRT) as a diagnostic tool for bilingual children with language impairment (LI) who have Dutch as a 2nd language. The Q-U NWRT was designed to be minimally influenced by knowledge of 1 specific language in contrast to a language-specific NWRT with which it…

  15. Routine ventilation scans in children with cystic fibrosis: diagnostic usefulness and prognostic value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krypton ventilation scans (VS) provide an index of peripheral lung function, and may be particularly useful in children unable to perform pulmonary function testing. This communication reports on three linked studies which investigated whether a routine VS in young children with cystic fibrosis (CF) is diagnostically or prognostically useful. Study 1: In a preliminary study in 1991, VS were compared with clinical examination and chest radiography (CXR) in 50 CF children (29 females, 21 males) aged 0.4-5.2 years (median 2.2 years). The chest was divided into six zones, and abnormalities scored from 0 (normal) to 2 (very abnormal). Clinical examination was unhelpful in predicting abnormalities on imaging. In five children (10%) with a normal CXR, VS was abnormal, and in a further eight children (16%), CXR markedly underestimated VS changes. Study 2: In order to determine the long-term prognostic significance of VS abnormalities, we followed up 27 (19 females, 8 males) of the children from study 1, who had had their first VS at presentation at median age 1.6 years (range 0.4-5.2), scoring the same six zones from 0 to 2. Follow-up was for a mean of 11.6 years (range 7.8-14.8). Spirometry at age 7 years showed a mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of 96% (range 46%-145%) and a mean forced vital capacity (FVC) of 96% (range 46%-145%). A poor VS score at presentation was correlated with percent predicted FEV1 at age 7 (r=0.4, P=0.042, 16% of variance explained). Those with a normal VS at presentation had a mean FEV1 at presentation of 99% (range 80%-129%). Whereas four patients had an abnormal VS, a normal CXR and a low FEV1 at age 7 years, no patient had a normal VS, an abnormal CXR and a low FEV1at age 7 years. Study 3: Fifty children (29 females, 21 males) aged 0.5-6.0 years (median 3.8) were prospectively studied in 1998, to determine whether the findings in study 1 were stable over time, and to assess whether VS altered clinical management. Symptoms and

  16. Routine ventilation scans in children with cystic fibrosis: diagnostic usefulness and prognostic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, A.; Hamutcu, R.; Adler, B.; Rosenthal, M.; Bush, A. [Dept. of Respiratory Paediatrics, Royal Brompton and Harefield, London (United Kingdom); Dhawan, R.T. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Brompton and Harefield, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    Krypton ventilation scans (VS) provide an index of peripheral lung function, and may be particularly useful in children unable to perform pulmonary function testing. This communication reports on three linked studies which investigated whether a routine VS in young children with cystic fibrosis (CF) is diagnostically or prognostically useful. Study 1: In a preliminary study in 1991, VS were compared with clinical examination and chest radiography (CXR) in 50 CF children (29 females, 21 males) aged 0.4-5.2 years (median 2.2 years). The chest was divided into six zones, and abnormalities scored from 0 (normal) to 2 (very abnormal). Clinical examination was unhelpful in predicting abnormalities on imaging. In five children (10%) with a normal CXR, VS was abnormal, and in a further eight children (16%), CXR markedly underestimated VS changes. Study 2: In order to determine the long-term prognostic significance of VS abnormalities, we followed up 27 (19 females, 8 males) of the children from study 1, who had had their first VS at presentation at median age 1.6 years (range 0.4-5.2), scoring the same six zones from 0 to 2. Follow-up was for a mean of 11.6 years (range 7.8-14.8). Spirometry at age 7 years showed a mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) of 96% (range 46%-145%) and a mean forced vital capacity (FVC) of 96% (range 46%-145%). A poor VS score at presentation was correlated with percent predicted FEV{sub 1} at age 7 (r=0.4, P=0.042, 16% of variance explained). Those with a normal VS at presentation had a mean FEV{sub 1} at presentation of 99% (range 80%-129%). Whereas four patients had an abnormal VS, a normal CXR and a low FEV{sub 1} at age 7 years, no patient had a normal VS, an abnormal CXR and a low FEV{sub 1}at age 7 years. Study 3: Fifty children (29 females, 21 males) aged 0.5-6.0 years (median 3.8) were prospectively studied in 1998, to determine whether the findings in study 1 were stable over time, and to assess whether VS altered clinical

  17. Three-Level Mixed-Effects Logistic Regression Analysis Reveals Complex Epidemiology of Swine Rotaviruses in Diagnostic Samples from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homwong, Nitipong; Diaz, Andres; Rossow, Stephanie; Ciarlet, Max; Marthaler, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RV) are important causes of diarrhea in animals, especially in domestic animals. Of the 9 RV species, rotavirus A, B, and C (RVA, RVB, and RVC, respectively) had been established as important causes of diarrhea in pigs. The Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory receives swine stool samples from North America to determine the etiologic agents of disease. Between November 2009 and October 2011, 7,508 samples from pigs with diarrhea were submitted to determine if enteric pathogens, including RV, were present in the samples. All samples were tested for RVA, RVB, and RVC by real time RT-PCR. The majority of the samples (82%) were positive for RVA, RVB, and/or RVC. To better understand the risk factors associated with RV infections in swine diagnostic samples, three-level mixed-effects logistic regression models (3L-MLMs) were used to estimate associations among RV species, age, and geographical variability within the major swine production regions in North America. The conditional odds ratios (cORs) for RVA and RVB detection were lower for 1-3 day old pigs when compared to any other age group. However, the cOR of RVC detection in 1-3 day old pigs was significantly higher (p 55 day old age groups. Furthermore, pigs in the 21-55 day old age group had statistically higher cORs of RV co-detection compared to 1-3 day old pigs (p epidemiology is complex, and RV species are associated with different age groups and vary by regions in North America. PMID:27145176

  18. Three-Level Mixed-Effects Logistic Regression Analysis Reveals Complex Epidemiology of Swine Rotaviruses in Diagnostic Samples from North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Andres; Rossow, Stephanie; Ciarlet, Max; Marthaler, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RV) are important causes of diarrhea in animals, especially in domestic animals. Of the 9 RV species, rotavirus A, B, and C (RVA, RVB, and RVC, respectively) had been established as important causes of diarrhea in pigs. The Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory receives swine stool samples from North America to determine the etiologic agents of disease. Between November 2009 and October 2011, 7,508 samples from pigs with diarrhea were submitted to determine if enteric pathogens, including RV, were present in the samples. All samples were tested for RVA, RVB, and RVC by real time RT-PCR. The majority of the samples (82%) were positive for RVA, RVB, and/or RVC. To better understand the risk factors associated with RV infections in swine diagnostic samples, three-level mixed-effects logistic regression models (3L-MLMs) were used to estimate associations among RV species, age, and geographical variability within the major swine production regions in North America. The conditional odds ratios (cORs) for RVA and RVB detection were lower for 1–3 day old pigs when compared to any other age group. However, the cOR of RVC detection in 1–3 day old pigs was significantly higher (p 55 day old age groups. Furthermore, pigs in the 21–55 day old age group had statistically higher cORs of RV co-detection compared to 1–3 day old pigs (p epidemiology is complex, and RV species are associated with different age groups and vary by regions in North America. PMID:27145176

  19. Three-Level Mixed-Effects Logistic Regression Analysis Reveals Complex Epidemiology of Swine Rotaviruses in Diagnostic Samples from North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitipong Homwong

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses (RV are important causes of diarrhea in animals, especially in domestic animals. Of the 9 RV species, rotavirus A, B, and C (RVA, RVB, and RVC, respectively had been established as important causes of diarrhea in pigs. The Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory receives swine stool samples from North America to determine the etiologic agents of disease. Between November 2009 and October 2011, 7,508 samples from pigs with diarrhea were submitted to determine if enteric pathogens, including RV, were present in the samples. All samples were tested for RVA, RVB, and RVC by real time RT-PCR. The majority of the samples (82% were positive for RVA, RVB, and/or RVC. To better understand the risk factors associated with RV infections in swine diagnostic samples, three-level mixed-effects logistic regression models (3L-MLMs were used to estimate associations among RV species, age, and geographical variability within the major swine production regions in North America. The conditional odds ratios (cORs for RVA and RVB detection were lower for 1-3 day old pigs when compared to any other age group. However, the cOR of RVC detection in 1-3 day old pigs was significantly higher (p 55 day old age groups. Furthermore, pigs in the 21-55 day old age group had statistically higher cORs of RV co-detection compared to 1-3 day old pigs (p < 0.001. The 3L-MLMs indicated that RV status was more similar within states than among states or within each region. Our results indicated that 3L-MLMs are a powerful and adaptable tool to handle and analyze large-hierarchical datasets. In addition, our results indicated that, overall, swine RV epidemiology is complex, and RV species are associated with different age groups and vary by regions in North America.

  20. An Epidemiological Survey of Cachexia in Advanced Cancer Patients and Analysis on Its Diagnostic and Treatment Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Quan, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Shiying

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an international consensus diagnostic criterion for cancer cachexia was proposed. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of cachexia in patients with advanced cancer and to assess the current status of the diagnosis and management of cancer cachexia. A total of 390 patients with advanced cancer were included. There were 140 patients with cachexia and the prevalence was 35.9%. The prevalence was highest in pancreatic cancer (88.9%), followed by gastric cancer (76.5%) and esophageal cancer (52.9%). Sixty-three patients with cancer cachexia have CT scans available for muscle mass evaluation and 98.4% were sarcopenic. Cachectic patients have a significantly lower overall quality of life and a higher symptom burden. According to oncology physicians, only 33 patients were considered to have cancer cachexia. The false negative rate amounted to 76.4%. The positive rate was related to the body mass index and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of the patients. There were few types of pharmacological approaches for cancer cachexia and more than half of cachectic patients did not receive any anticachexia treatment. These results indicate that the prevalence of cachexia in advanced cancer patients was high. However, cancer cachexia was rarely recognized and clinical management for cancer cachexia was very inadequate. PMID:26317149

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and sequelae

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Sun Jung; Chae, Kyu Young

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is approximately 3% in children. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the most common cause of OSAS in children, and obesity, hypotonic neuromuscular diseases, and craniofacial anomalies are other major risk factors. Snoring is the most common presenting complaint in children with OSAS, but the clinical presentation varies according to age. Agitated sleep with frequent postural changes, excessive sweating, or abnormal sleep position...

  2. The epidemiology of pneumococcal infection in children in the developing world.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, B.

    1999-01-01

    Pneumonia causes about three million deaths a year in young children, nearly all of which are in developing countries. Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is the most important bacterial cause of pneumonia in young children and so is likely to be responsible for a high proportion of these deaths. The pneumococcus is also responsible for a substantial proportion of the 100,000-500,000 deaths that occur from meningitis in children each year. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseas...

  3. Epidemiological study of wheeze, doctor diagnosed asthma, and cough in preschool children in Leicestershire.

    OpenAIRE

    Luyt, D K; Burton, P. R.; Simpson, H

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the cumulative prevalences of wheeze and doctor diagnosed asthma and the point prevalences of recurrent cough and wheeze in children aged 5 years and under. DESIGN--Questionnaire survey of population based random sample of children registered on regional authority's child health index for immunisation; questionnaire completed by parents. SETTING--Leicestershire. SUBJECTS--1650 white children born in 1985-9 who were surveyed in 1990. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Cumulative pr...

  4. Biological effects of radiation and dosimetry in X-ray diagnostics of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chest radiograms represent the basic radiological examinations of thorax. The basis for radiation protection especially in pediatrics is the exact determination of doses. The risk estimation of genome damages can be received in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using alkaline version of Comet Assay. The aim of this work was assessment and quantification of the level of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of children during airways X-ray examinations of chest and to compare data to the dose of exposure. Doses were determined using thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry and radiophotoluminescent (RPL) glass dosimetry system. Twenty children with pulmonary diseases, ages between 5 and 14 years were assessed. Dose measurements were conducted for poster-anterior (PA) projection on the forehead, thyroid gland, gonads, chest and back. We used a 150 kV Shimadzu CH-200 M X-ray unit. Peripheral blood samples were taken from children after and prior to X-ray exposure and were examined with the alkaline Comet Assay. Comet Assay is one of the standard techniques for assessing genome damage with variety applications in genotoxicity testing as well as fundamental research in DNA damage and repair. As a measure of DNA damage tail length was used, calculated from the centre of the head and presented in micrometers (μm). Mean value of group after irradiation was 14.04 ± 1.74 as opposed to mean value of group before irradiation that was 13.15 ± 1.33. Differences between mean tail lengths were statistically significant (P<0.05, ANOVA). In addition, correlation was found between doses in primary beam (measured on the back) and the ratio of tail length (DNA damage) before and after irradiation. Doses measured with TL and RPL dosimeters showed satisfactory agreement and both dosimetry methods are suitable for dosimetric measurements in X-ray diagnostics. (author)

  5. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of severe community-acquired pneumonia in children after introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima EJF

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo JF Lima,1,2 Maria JG Mello,1,2 Maria FPM Albuquerque,3 Maria IL Lopes,4 George HC Serra,2 Maria AZ Abreu-Lima,2 Jailson B Correia1 1Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira - IMIP Recife; 2Faculdade, Pernambucana de Saúde - FPS Recife; 3Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, FIOCRUZ; 4Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco - UFPE, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil Background: Pneumonia is an important cause of morbimortality in Brazil, despite the extensive vaccination coverage and the socioeconomic improvement in the past years. Objective: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of severe community-acquired pneumonia in children after the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10. Methods: A prospective study included children <5 years old hospitalized for pneumonia between October 2010 and September 2013 in a tertiary hospital. Newborns and children with comorbidities were excluded. Pneumonia classification followed the clinical and radiological criteria established by World Health Organization (WHO. Clinical history, nutritional status, immunizations, diagnosis, disease course, and prognosis were analyzed. Results: Among 452 children, almost 70% were <2 years, with no sex differences, and 10% had weight-for-age z score below than -2.0. Family income was up to one minimum wage in half the households, and 40% of mothers had completed high school. The suitability of both influenza and PCV10 vaccine schedules was ~50%. The first medical care happened later than 72 hours after the onset of symptoms in 42% of cases. Pneumonia was classified as severe or very severe in 83.9% of patients and for 23% as complicated. Global mortality was 1.5%. Hypoxia, diagnosed in 51.5% of children, looked like a better prognosis predictor than the WHO classification. Conclusion: New strategies for health care are necessary, such as the incorporation of peripheral saturometry as the

  6. Suicidal behavior and suicide among children and adolescents-risk factors and epidemiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodig-Curković, Katarina; Curković, Mario; Radić, Josipa; Degmecić, Dunja; Fileković, Pavo

    2010-06-01

    In last decade suicide attempts and suicides among youngsters are increasing greatly and are one of the leading causes of mortality in this age group. Epidemiological data are pointing on more frequent trend of self-destructive behavior among youngsters in the world as well as in our country. Risk factors which influence on increasing number of suicide attempts and suicides in this age are different in etiology: interference of genetic influences, family dynamics and external environment (school, friends, social environment, peers, television, video, and internet). Croatia as a country in transition is also following trends in the world according to epidemiological data, what is for sure great challenge for all who participate in dealing with youngsters, especially psychiatric services. In the planning of treatment is very important to include family with intention to accomplish optimal therapeutic effect. Also, it is very important to warn parents on their part of responsibility in upbringing and developing of their adolescent. PMID:20698169

  7. Human trichinellosis in children from Timis County, Romania: epidemiological features from a retrospective study conducted between 1990 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Iacobiciu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis, a parasitic zoonosis caused by the ingestion of inadequately cooked pork containing Trichinella larvae, has been a serious health problem in Timis, the largest of the Romanian counties. The authors conducted a survey on trichinellosis in children from Timis County, emphasising epidemiological aspects. Medical records from 106 children who were hospitalised at the Victor Babes Infectious Diseases Hospital in Timisoara from 1990 to 2006 were investigated. Children affected by trichinellosis were predominantly in the 10- to 14-year-old age group (34.9%. Most patients (59.43% were inhabitants of urban areas and 59.43% of cases were males. Winter was the season when the number of cases peaked (76.42%. The highest prevalence of disease (18.87% was recorded in 1994. For 38.68% of the patients, eosinophilia ranged between 10% and 20%. The length of hospitalisation ranged from 8 to 14 days in 50.94% of cases. In recent years, human trichinellosis has decreased in Timis County as a result of an improvement in the implementation of hygiene measures. The highest prevalence of the disease recorded in 1994 can be explained by an economic transition period when national pig farms began to close. Winter was the season with the highest prevalence because people eat a lot of pork during the traditional holidays.

  8. Epidemiology of fractures in Children at College of Medical Sciences and Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    HK Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the epidemiology of fractures in the pediatric population. Methods All the cases of fractures of age 14 yrs or less presenting in emergency room or outdoor patient department of Orthopaedics during the time period of January 2013 to December 2013 were included in the study and prospectively studied. Demographic data were collected and analysed by descriptive methods. Results The incidence of fracture was more in male child. Most fractures occurred in age group of 6 to 14 ye...

  9. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MALNUTRITION (UNDER NUTRITION AMONG UNDER FIVE CHILDREN IN A SECTION OF RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak B. Phalke

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of malnutrition is very high in India; especially in rural area. A cross sectional study was done in randomly selected six villages to estimate the prevalence and demographic and socioeconomicfactors associated with malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition among the under five children was 50.46%.Children from lower socioeconomic status, with low birth weight were significantly malnourished.

  10. Epidemiology and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus colonization in children in the post-PCV7 era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinman Ken

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has risen dramatically in the U.S., particularly among children. Although Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization has been inversely associated with S. aureus colonization in unvaccinated children, this and other risk factors for S. aureus carriage have not been assessed following widespread use of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7. Our objectives were to (1 determine the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA colonization in young children in the context of widespread use of PCV7; and (2 examine risk factors for S. aureus colonization in the post-PCV7 era, including the absence of vaccine-type S. pneumoniae colonization. Methods Swabs of the anterior nares (S. aureus were obtained from children enrolled in an ongoing study of nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization of healthy children in 8 Massachusetts communities. Children 3 months to S. aureus was identified and antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed. Epidemiologic risk factors for S. aureus colonization were collected from parent surveys and chart reviews, along with data on pneumococcal colonization. Multivariate mixed model analyses were performed to identify factors associated with S. aureus colonization. Results Among 1,968 children, the mean age (SD was 2.7 (1.8 years, 32% received an antibiotic in the past 2 months, 2% were colonized with PCV7 strains and 24% were colonized with non-PCV7 strains. The prevalence of S. aureus colonization remained stable between 2003–04 and 2006–07 (14.6% vs. 14.1%, while MRSA colonization remained low (0.2% vs. 0.9%, p = 0.09. Although absence of pneumococcal colonization was not significantly associated with S. aureus colonization, age (6–11 mo vs. ≥5 yrs, OR 0.39 [95% CI 0.24–0.64]; 1–1.99 yrs vs. ≥5 yrs, OR 0.35 [0.23–0.54]; 2–2.99 yrs vs. ≥5 yrs, OR 0.45 [0.28–0.73]; 3–3.99 yrs vs. ≥5 yrs, OR 0

  11. 小儿晕厥的临床诊断程序%Clinical diagnostic protocal for syncope in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清友; 杜军保

    2010-01-01

    晕厥是儿童时期的常见病症,但其诊断往往十分困难.制定合理的小儿晕厥的诊断程序,既可提高对小儿晕厥的诊断效率,又能减少过度检查,减少患儿的诊断费用.根据我国目前关于小儿晕厥的研究成果,中华医学会儿科学分会心血管组制定了我国儿童的晕厥指南,提出了符合我国小儿晕厥特点的晕厥诊断程序,根据多中心的联合研究,该诊断程序具有简单、实用的特点.%Syncope is a common clinical problem in children and adolescents. It is a major challenge for practicing physicians, and medical resource utilization and expenses associated with syncope management are enormous. A diagnostic protocol to syncope must be developed for children and adolescents for convenient and effective final diagnosis, and an analysis of cost-effectiveness is meaningful. Thus, according to the studies of syncope in children in China,the Chinese Pediatric Cardiology Society proposed the guidelines for diagnosis of syncope in children in China, and developed a simplified diagnostic protocol for children and adolescents with syncope. According to a multi-center prospective study,the diagnostic protocol in children and adolescents with syncope results in an improvement of diagnostic yield.

  12. An Epidemiological Study Of Hypertension Amongst Children From Various Primary Schools Of Surat City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakor H.G

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of hypertension in school children aged 10 years and above? Objectives: 1. To find out the prevalence of hypertension. 2. To generate a profile of hypertensive cases. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected primary schools run by Surat Manipal Corporation. Participants: School children aged 10 years and above. Sample size: 2250 children (1092 boys, 158girls Study variables: Age, sex, body weight, body mass index Outcome variables: Prevalence of hypertension. Statistical analysis: X2 test Results: Overall prevalence of hypertension in children was 2.3 percent, separately in girls and 0.9 percent in boys. Body weight above 40kgms and body mass index (BMI above 20 were differentiating points as children weighing more than 40kgms and/or with BMI more than 20 significantly higher prevalence of hypertension. Most of the cases were asymptomatic and also had no suggestive symptoms in the past.

  13. Electrographic status epilepticus in children with critical illness: Epidemiology and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Nicholas S

    2015-08-01

    Electrographic seizures and electrographic status epilepticus are common in children with critical illness with acute encephalopathy, leading to increasing use of continuous EEG monitoring. Many children with electrographic status epilepticus have no associated clinical signs, so EEG monitoring is required for seizure identification. Further, there is increasing evidence that high seizure burdens, often classified as electrographic status epilepticus, are associated with worse outcomes. This review discusses the incidence of electrographic status epilepticus, risk factors for electrographic status epilepticus, and associations between electrographic status epilepticus and outcomes, and it summarizes recent guidelines and consensus statements addressing EEG monitoring in children with critical illness. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus".

  14. Wandering spleen in children: a report of 3 cases and a brief literature review underlining the importance of diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, Roberta; Menchini, Laura; Corneli, Teresa; Magistrelli, Andrea; Monti, Lidia; Toma, Paolo [Bambino Gesu Pediatric Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Accinni, Antonella [Bambino Gesu Pediatric Hospital, Department of General and Thoracic Surgery, Rome (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition in children that is often caused by loss or weakening of the splenic ligaments. Its clinical presentation is variable; 64% of children with wandering spleen have splenic torsion as a complication. To provide up-to-date information on the diagnosis, clinical management and diagnostic imaging approaches for wandering spleen in infants and children and to underline the importance of color Doppler US and CT in providing important information for patient management. We report a series of three children with wandering spleen treated at our children's hospital over the last 6 years. All three underwent clinical evaluation, color Doppler US and CT and were surgically treated. We also reviewed 40 articles that included 55 patients younger than 18 years reported in the Medline database from 2002 to 2012. We correlated pathological data with imaging findings. Color Doppler US, the first imaging modality in investigating abdominal symptoms in children with suspected wandering spleen, yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 54.9%, whereas CT achieved about 71.7%. Radiologic evaluation has a major role in confirming the diagnosis of a suspected wandering spleen and avoiding potentially life-threatening complications requiring immediate surgery. (orig.)

  15. Wandering spleen in children: a report of 3 cases and a brief literature review underlining the importance of diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition in children that is often caused by loss or weakening of the splenic ligaments. Its clinical presentation is variable; 64% of children with wandering spleen have splenic torsion as a complication. To provide up-to-date information on the diagnosis, clinical management and diagnostic imaging approaches for wandering spleen in infants and children and to underline the importance of color Doppler US and CT in providing important information for patient management. We report a series of three children with wandering spleen treated at our children's hospital over the last 6 years. All three underwent clinical evaluation, color Doppler US and CT and were surgically treated. We also reviewed 40 articles that included 55 patients younger than 18 years reported in the Medline database from 2002 to 2012. We correlated pathological data with imaging findings. Color Doppler US, the first imaging modality in investigating abdominal symptoms in children with suspected wandering spleen, yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 54.9%, whereas CT achieved about 71.7%. Radiologic evaluation has a major role in confirming the diagnosis of a suspected wandering spleen and avoiding potentially life-threatening complications requiring immediate surgery. (orig.)

  16. The effectiveness of drama therapy on preparation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children suffering from cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Ilievová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The integral part of the treatment of pediatric oncological patients is a range of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. These procedures are often associated with the fear and anxiety of the suffering child. We investigated whether a psychological preparation through drama therapy and the therapeutic puppet may reduce the anxiety related to diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the preschool or early school children suffering from cancer.Methods: Twenty consecutive pediatric patients of preschool and early school age, with the diagnosis of lymphoblastic leukemia, were included in the study. The patients were alternatingly assigned to experimental or control group, and subjected or not subjected to drama therapy, respectively. We measured the changes in heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate as indicators of anxiety and fear, before and after the diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.Results: Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate in pediatric oncological patients before and after the diagnostic or therapeutic procedure were significantly lower in the experimental group of patients.Conclusion: Our results show that psychological preparation using drama therapy and therapeutic puppet reduced the fear and anxiety related to diagnostic or therapeutic procedures in pediatric oncological patients.Key words: drama therapy; therapeutic puppet; children; oncology; psychology 

  17. Epidemiologic aspects of neural tube defects in the United States: changing concepts and their importance for screening and prenatal diagnostic programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E.; Strassburg, M.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report considers several major epidemiologic aspects of neural tube defects (NTDs). After examining briefly the approaches and goals of epidemiology the traditional epidemiologic concepts of NTDs are reviewed and new interpretations of the epidemiology of these defects is suggested. Three major topics are addressed: (1) that much of our knowledge of the epidemiology of the NTDs comes from areas or periods of high rates of occurrence and that generalizations based on these data may not be applicable to low incidence situations; (2) that the etiology of these defects is multifactorial, involving interaction between genetic and nongenetic factors which may differ in their relative importance between populations; and (3) that anencephalus and spina bifida may be more epidemiologically and etiologically distinct than is usually appreciated. A final consideration deals with some recent contributions of epidemiology to screening and prenatal diagnosis programs.

  18. Epidemiologic survey of traumatic dental injuries in children seen at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Alvine de Jesus

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This epidemiologic survey aimed at assessing the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in children seen at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The records of a total of 111 children (aged 0 to 6 years seen from 2004 to 2006 in the dental trauma clinic were surveyed, comprising a total of 201 traumatized primary teeth. Data pertaining to the child and to the trauma such as age, gender, etiology, teeth involved, type of traumatic injury, time elapsed between the trauma and seeking care, and the presence and kind of clinical and radiographic sequelae in the first visit were collected from the dental records. All variables studied were assessed by means of frequency analysis and the Chi-square test (p < 0.05. A higher prevalence of trauma was observed in boys (56.7% and in the age group from 0-3 years (73.8%. The most affected teeth were the central incisors (84.7% and the most common trauma etiology was a fall from the child's own height (63.0%. The supporting tissues were the most affected. Lateral luxation was the most frequent alteration observed (33.4%, followed by concussion (21.0%. Coronal discoloration (17.7% and external resorption (18.3% were, respectively, the most prevalent clinical and radiographic sequelae. Gender had no influence on the clinical (p = 0.54 and radiographic (p = 0.55 sequelae. Even though age had no influence on radiographic sequelae (p = 0.41, clinical sequelae were more prevalent in children aged 0 to 3 years (p = 0.03. In conclusion, traumatisms in primary teeth were more prevalent in boys, and in 0-3-year-old children. Luxation was the most frequent traumatic lesion, and coronal discoloration and external resorption were the most prevalent sequelae.

  19. The Relationship between the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision and The Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test With Learning Disabled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Jeffrey H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision (LNNB-Children's Revision) and The Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test (MPD) to 40 learning disabled students. Low correlations were found between MPD T scores and the LNNB-Children's Revision Scales, but raw scores from the MPD had somewhat higher correlations with the…

  20. Fluid intake patterns: an epidemiological study among children and adolescents in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Feferbaum Rubens; de Abreu Luiz; Leone Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Energy from liquids is one of the most important factors that could impact on the high prevalence of children and adolescents obesity around the world. There are few data on the liquid consumption in Brazil. The aim of this study is to evaluate the volume and quality of liquids consumed by Brazilian children and adolescents and to determine the proportion of their daily energy intake composed of liquids. Methods A multicenter study was conducted in five Brazilian cities; t...

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sun Jung; Chae, Kyu Young

    2010-10-01

    The prevalence of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is approximately 3% in children. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the most common cause of OSAS in children, and obesity, hypotonic neuromuscular diseases, and craniofacial anomalies are other major risk factors. Snoring is the most common presenting complaint in children with OSAS, but the clinical presentation varies according to age. Agitated sleep with frequent postural changes, excessive sweating, or abnormal sleep positions such as hyperextension of neck or abnormal prone position may suggest a sleep-disordered breathing. Night terror, sleepwalking, and enuresis are frequently associated, during slow-wave sleep, with sleep-disordered breathing. Excessive daytime sleepiness becomes apparent in older children, whereas hyperactivity or inattention is usually predominant in younger children. Morning headache and poor appetite may also be present. As the cortical arousal threshold is higher in children, arousals are not easily developed and their sleep architectures are usually more conserved than those of adults. Untreated OSAS in children may result in various problems such as cognitive deficits, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, poor academic achievement, and emotional instability. Mild pulmonary hypertension is not uncommon. Rarely, cardiovascular complications such as cor pulmonale, heart failure, and systemic hypertension may develop in untreated cases. Failure to thrive and delayed development are serious problems in younger children with OSAS. Diagnosis of pediatric OSAS should be based on snoring, relevant history of sleep disruption, findings of any narrow or collapsible portions of upper airway, and confirmed by polysomnography. Early diagnosis of pediatric OSAS is critical to prevent complications with appropriate interventions. PMID:21189956

  2. Epidemiological correlates of nutritional anemia among children (6-35 months) in rural Wardha, Central India

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha N; Deshmukh P; Garg B

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives : Nutritional anemia is associated with impaired performance of a range of mental and physical functions in children, along with increased morbidity. Iron supplementation at a later age may not reverse the adverse effects. National Nutritional Anemia Control Program was launched in India in 1970, but it failed to make any impact. The present study was undertaken to find out prevalence of anemia and its correlates in rural Wardha in children 6-35 months of age. Materi...

  3. Epidemiologic Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect in School-Aged Children of Qazvin Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran. Methods In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was st...

  4. Epidemiology of intestinal polyparasitism among Orang Asli school children in rural Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Nasr, Nabil A.; Hany Sady; Atroosh, Wahib M; Mohammed Nashiry; Anuar, Tengku S.; Norhayati Moktar; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Rohela Mahmud

    2014-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the current prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal polyparasitism (the concurrent infection with multiple intestinal parasite species) among Orang Asli school children in the Lipis district of Pahang state, Malaysia. Methods/Principal findings Fecal samples were collected from 498 school children (50.6% boys and 49.4% girls), and examined by using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, trichrome stain, modified Zi...

  5. Epidemiological study to childrens cancer in the environment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the KiKK-study were presented in December 2007, followed by scientific publications in January 2008. The results caused a long-lasting debate, and the study was evaluated by different groups. Amongst these, the evaluation given by the SSK is of special importance. Now, BfS presents its final evaluation: The findings of the KiKK-study cannot be explained on the basis of current knowledge, but they give cause for further research activities. Scientific disciplines outside radiation biology and radiation epidemiology have to be involved. (orig.)

  6. Radiation doses originating from diagnostic procedures during the treatment and follow-up of children and adolescents with malignant lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierobon, Jessica; Webber, Colin E; Gulenchyn, Karen Y [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Nayiager, Trishana [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Barr, Ronald D [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Moran, Gerald R, E-mail: webber@hhsc.ca [Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2011-03-01

    Children with malignant lymphoma undergo many diagnostic procedures that involve exposure to ionising radiation. In addition, many, but by no means all, undergo further exposure to ionising radiation during radiotherapy. While therapeutic radiation exposures are prescribed, the extent of radiation exposure arising from diagnostic procedures utilised in such children is largely unknown. We completed an audit of the radiation doses arising from diagnostic imaging procedures performed in a cohort of children with malignant lymphoma. The cumulative effective radiation dose associated with radiographic and radioisotopic procedures was derived for 81 children and adolescents with malignant lymphoma during their diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Thirty-eight of the 42 patients (90%) with Hodgkin lymphoma were alive at study termination, with follow-up periods ranging from 1.9 to 11.7 years (median 5.3). Thirty-three of the 39 patients (85%) with non-Hodgkin lymphoma were alive at study termination with follow-up periods ranging from 2.4 to 12.3 years (median 7.5). The median effective dose was 518 mSv for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and 309 mSv for those with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The maximum effective dose was 1.7 Sv. The principal contributors to the effective dose were computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine imaging procedures using {sup 67}Ga. Protocols for the management of children and adolescents with malignant lymphoma should be reviewed in order to reduce the radiation detriment without loss of essential diagnostic information.

  7. Can a fixed measure serve as a pertinent diagnostic criterion for large vestibular aqueduct in children?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vestibular aqueduct midpoint width greater than 1.50 mm is currently considered to be pathognomonic for a large vestibular aqueduct syndrome. To analyse the diameter of the vestibular aqueduct in children as a function of age and consequently to determine if a fixed measure could serve as a pertinent diagnostic criterion. This was a retrospective study of 200 high-resolution CT scans of the ear in 100 patients aged 0-16 years and from various paediatric medical departments. On each CT scan, the lateral semicircular canal diameter, the vestibular aqueduct midpoint width between the external aperture and common crus, and the vestibular aqueduct external aperture diameter were measured. Spearman's rank test and the Mann-Whitney correlation test were used for an integrated statistical analysis. There was no statistically significant variability in vestibular aqueduct diameter as a function of age or sex of patients. A CT scan threshold value, fixed and independent of age and sex, is thus legitimate for the diagnosis of vestibular aqueduct dilatation. (orig.)

  8. CLINICO – EPIDEMIOLOGY OF U TI IN UNDER 5 YEARS OF AGE IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are a common , potentially serious , and often occult bacterial infections of childhood . UTI is more frequent in females than males at all ages with the exception of the neonatal period . Urinary tract infections imply invasion of urinary tract by pathogens which may involve the upper or lower urinary tract depending on the infection in kidney , bladder and urethra . OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of UTI in febrile children be low 5years of age and to know the aetiological profile of UTI among the same group of children with fever . METHODS: This cross sectional observational study included all febrile children from one month to 5years of age , admitted in Pediatric ward in MGM Me dical College , Kishanganj , Bihar . RESULTS: Overall incidence rate of UTI in the present study was 6% with maximum incidence in children <2years of age . Among culture positive cases majority (50% grew E . coli . DMSA revealed renal cortical scarring in 42 . 8 5% cases following UTI . CONCLUSION: From the present study it can be concluded that UTI is a common bacterial infection in infant and children . Rapid evaluation and treatment of UTI is important to prevent renal parenchymal damage and renal scarring or ren al failure .

  9. Factors associated with H pylori epidemiology in symptomatic children in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cinthia Goldman; Ricardo Weill; Marcela Zubillaga; Guillermo I Perez-Perez; José Boccio; Andrés Barrado; Mariana Janjetic; Norma Balcarce; Eduardo Cueto Rua; Masaru Oshiro; María L Calcagno; Margarita Martinez Sarrasague; Julián Fuda

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine prevalence of H pylori infection in symptomatic children in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and to investigate factors associated with H pylori positivity.METHODS: A total of 395 children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms referred to the Gastroenterology Unit of the Children Hospital "Sor Maria Ludovica"were evaluated for the presence of H pylori by the 13C-Urea Breath Test (13C-UBT). A questionnaire was applied to the recruited population.RESULTS: Prevalence of H pylori infection was 40.0% in tlis population (mean age 9.97 ± 3.1 years). The factors associated with H pylori positivity were number of siblings (P < 0.001), presence of pet cats (P = 0.03)and birds (P = 0.04) in the household, and antecedents of gastritis among family members (P = 0.01). After multivariate analysis, number of siblings [Odds ratio (OR)= 1.39; 95% CI, 1.20-1.61] and contact with pet cats (OR = 1.76; 95% CI, 1.00-3.09) remained as variables associated with H pylori infection.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of H pylori infection in children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms in Argentina was similar to that reported in developed countries. Children from families with a higher crowding index and presence of pet cats have a higher risk of being colonized with H pylori.

  10. Epidemiologic characteristics, knowledge and risk factors of unintentional burns in rural children in Zunyi, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shangpeng; Yang, Huajun; Hui, Ya; Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Tao; Luo, Ya; Xiang, Huiyun; Shi, Xiuquan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the knowledge level and risk factors for pediatric unintentional burns in rural Southwest China with an aim to provide basic evidence for the prevention strategies. A stratified sampling method was used to recruit 1842 rural children from 9 schools. Self-reported burns during the past 12 months and relevant risk factors were collected by questionnaires. The burn incidence of all surveyed children was 12.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 11.2–14.2%). We found that burn incidence had a trend to increase with the increasing school grade level and a trend to decrease with increasing knowledge scores on burns. The top two causes of burns were hot liquids (36.3%) and hot object (29.5%). More than 30% of children had little knowledge about preventive measures and how to give first-aid after burns. The main risk factors for burns included female gender, left-behind children by parents who were working in cities, and poor mother school education level. As the incidence of pediatric unintentional burns was high in rural southwest China, schools, families, and local public health agencies should put efforts into health education targeting burn prevention and first-aid measures after burns, particularly in “left-behind” children and those with mothers with poor education. PMID:27748426

  11. Clinical-epidemiological profile of children with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy attended at the Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Karina Conceição G M; Rosa e Silva, Cristiana da; Barbosa, Constança Simões; Ferrari, Teresa C A

    2006-09-01

    The most critical phase of exposure to schistosomal infection is the infancy, because of the more frequent contact with contaminated water and the immaturity of the immune system. One of the most severe presentations of this parasitosis is the involvement of the spinal cord, which prognosis is largely dependent on early diagnosis and treatment. Reports on this clinical form of schistosomiasis in children are rare in the literature. We present here the clinical-epidemiological profile of schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR) from ten children who were admitted at the Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco over a five-year period. They were evaluated according to an investigation protocol. Most of these patients presented an acute neurological picture which included as the main clinical manifestations: sphincteral disorders, low back and lower limbs pain, paresthesia, lower limbs muscle weakness and absence of deep tendon reflex, and impairment of the gait. The diagnosis was presumptive in the majority of the cases. This study emphasizes the importance of considering the diagnosis of SMR in pediatric patients coming from endemic areas who present a low cord syndrome, in order to start the appropriate therapy and avoid future complications.

  12. [Severe malnutrition: epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children hospitalized in the Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco (IMIP), Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Ana Rodrigues; Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra

    2002-01-01

    Ninety-nine children admitted to the Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco with severe malnutrition from May 1999 to May 2000 were investigated in a cross-sectional study focusing on key epidemiological and clinical variables. The majority of the children (88.9%) were less than 6 months of age, 42.4% had a history of low birth weight, and 36.4% were premature. Some 19.2% had never been breastfed, and 49.5% had been breastfed for less than 2 months. Some 15.2% of the mothers were illiterate. Most of the families (86.1%) had incomes less than twice the minimum wage (approximately US$150/month), and 51.5% had migrated from rural areas. Only 26.3% of the homes had running water, and 40.4% lacked sewage disposal facilities. Diarrhea was the reason for hospital admission in 55.6% of the cases. Hospital mortality was 34.3% in this group.

  13. Epidemiology and seasonality of respiratory viral infections in hospitalized children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: a retrospective study of 27 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khor Chee-Sieng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral respiratory tract infections (RTI are relatively understudied in Southeast Asian tropical countries. In temperate countries, seasonal activity of respiratory viruses has been reported, particularly in association with temperature, while inconsistent correlation of respiratory viral activity with humidity and rain is found in tropical countries. A retrospective study was performed from 1982-2008 to investigate the viral etiology of children (≤ 5 years old admitted with RTI in a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods A total of 10269 respiratory samples from all children ≤ 5 years old received at the hospital's diagnostic virology laboratory between 1982-2008 were included in the study. Immunofluorescence staining (for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, influenza A and B, parainfluenza types 1-3, and adenovirus and virus isolation were performed. The yearly hospitalization rates and annual patterns of laboratory-confirmed viral RTIs were determined. Univariate ANOVA was used to analyse the demographic parameters of cases. Multiple regression and Spearman's rank correlation were used to analyse the correlation between RSV cases and meteorological parameters. Results A total of 2708 cases were laboratory-confirmed using immunofluorescence assays and viral cultures, with the most commonly detected being RSV (1913, 70.6%, parainfluenza viruses (357, 13.2%, influenza viruses (297, 11.0%, and adenovirus (141, 5.2%. Children infected with RSV were significantly younger, and children infected with influenza viruses were significantly older. The four main viruses caused disease throughout the year, with a seasonal peak observed for RSV in September-December. Monthly RSV cases were directly correlated with rain days, and inversely correlated with relative humidity and temperature. Conclusion Viral RTIs, particularly due to RSV, are commonly detected in respiratory samples from hospitalized children in Kuala Lumpur

  14. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma and diabetes mellitus in children and teenagers of Ozyorsk town situated in the area of mayak nuclear enter-prise supervision zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The epidemiology of bronchial asthma and diabetes mellitus in children and teenagers living in Ozyorsk town, which is situated in Mayak nuclear enterprise supervision zone, was studied. By the medical and statistical data in Ozyorsk for the studying forms of multifactorial diseases the trends to the increase both for primary incidence and prevalence were marked. By using the genetic and epidemiological analysis we marked the higher ratio of accumulated incidence as a probability to fall ill with multifactorial diseases (bronchial asthma and diabetes mellitus) in population of Ozyorsk city till 20 years old in comparison with Moscow population

  15. Epidemiology of dental caries in Chandigarh school children and trends over the last 25 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of dental caries in 6, 9, 12 and 15-year-old school children of Chandigarh, selected on a randomized basis was evaluated using Moller′s criteria (1966 and correlated with the various risk factors. The mean deft was found to be 4.0 ± 3.6 in 6 year old and 4.61 ± 3.14 in 9 year old, whereas the mean DMFT in 12 and 15 year old was found to be 3.03 ± 2.52 and 3.82 ± 2.85 respectively. The high prevalence of dental caries in these children was attributed to the lack of use of fluoride toothpaste (80% children, lack of knowledge about etiology of dental caries (98% and frequency of sugar exposures up to more than five times per day (30%.

  16. An epidemiological study of enuresis among primary school children in Isfahan, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate the prevalence of enuresis in primary school children in Iran and to determine the factors associated with this disorder. A cross-sectional time-ordered study was performed at the Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan Medical University, Isfahan, Iran from September 2005 to January 2006. A total of 4500 self-administered questionnaires were distributed to parents of children aged 6-12 years attending 30 primary schools. From an overall response rate of 69.9%, enuresis was reported in 216 children (7%), comprising 6.2% for nocturnal enuresis according to ICD10 and 3.3% according to DSM IV, 0.5% for diurnal enuresis and 0.8% for combined day and night wetting. Primary nocturnal enuresis was reported in 166 children (5.3%). Seventy-one (50.7%) of the 140 children with nocturnal enuresis had ?3 wet nights per week. A positive family history in father and mother was seen in 51% and 39% of children with primary nocturnal enuresis respectively. Using logistic regression analysis, younger age (p<0.002), gender (p<0.0001) and low level of education of mother (p<0.028) were significant predictors of enuresis. Positive history of enuresis in father was a significant predictor of primary nocturnal enuresis (p<0.012). The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Iran is lower than those reported in western countries, however, higher percentage demonstrated severe enuresis. The prevalence of diurnal enuresis is lower than previous studies. Age, gender and the educational level of the mother are the main risk determinants of enuresis and the prevalence of primary nocturnal enuresis appears to be significantly related to positive history of enuresis in father. (author)

  17. A Quasi-Universal Nonword Repetition Task as a Diagnostic Tool for Bilingual Children Learning Dutch as a Second Language.

    OpenAIRE

    Boerma, T.; Chiat, S.; Leseman, P.; Timmermeister, M.; Wijnen, F.; E. van der Blom

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluated a newly developed quasi-universal nonword repetition task (Q-U NWRT) as a diagnostic tool for bilingual children with language impairment (LI) who have Dutch as a 2nd language. The Q-U NWRT was designed to be minimally influenced by knowledge of 1 specific language in contrast to a language-specific NWRT with which it was compared. METHOD: One hundred twenty monolingual and bilingual children with and without LI participated (30 per group). A mixed-design analysi...

  18. Clinic-epidemiological approach to diabetes mellitus 1 in children under 5 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussimy Marchena Morera

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus 1 is of the most prevalent chronic endocrinophaty during childhood. Its appearance in earlier stages of life has increased. Mistakes are often made while dealing with children under five. The diagnoses and treatment of this disease prevent or delay the emergence of complications that can reduce the life quality of these children. The education related to this disease includes different treatment stages. As part of this educations and aimed to facilitate the early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, a review in this field was carried out.

  19. Oral Hygiene Levels in Children of Tribal Population of Eastern Ghats: An Epidemiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, P Krishnam; Vasanti, D; Kumar, J Raghavendra; K Niranjani; Kumar, M S Saravana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene has been given due importance since ages. Different cultures have been using different methods for the maintenance of good oral hygiene. The study was done to find out the oral hygiene levels in children of tribal population and to correlate the brushing methods used and the oral hygiene levels. Methodology: A total of 5129 children of 5-12 years age (boys 2778, girls 2351) were checked for the simplified oral hygiene index in the study. Results: The overall oral hygi...

  20. Proposed changes to the American Psychiatric Association diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder: implications for young children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Roy; Nozyce, Molly

    2013-05-01

    The American Psychiatric Association has revised the diagnostic criteria for their DSM-5 manual. Important changes have been made to the diagnosis of the current (DSM-IV) category of Pervasive Developmental Disorders. This category includes Autistic Disorder (autism), Asperger's Disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The DSM-5 deletes Asperger's Disorder and PDD-NOS as diagnostic entities. This change may have unintended consequences, including the possibility that the new diagnostic framework will adversely affect access to developmental interventions under Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) programs, Early Intervention (for birth to 2 years olds) and preschool special education (for 3 and 4 years olds). Changing the current diagnosis of PDD-NOS to a "Social Communication Disorder" focused on language pragmatics in the DSM-5 may restrict eligibility for IDEA programs and limit the scope of services for affected children. Young children who meet current criteria for PDD-NOS require more intensive and multi-disciplinary services than would be available with a communication domain diagnosis and possible service authorization limited to speech-language therapy. Intensive behavioral interventions, inclusive group setting placements, and family support services are typically more available for children with an autism spectrum disorder than with diagnoses reflecting speech-language delay. The diagnostic distinction reflective of the higher language and social functioning between Asperger's Disorder and autism is also undermined by eliminating the former as a categorical diagnosis and subsuming it under autism. This change may adversely affect treatment planning and misinform parents about prognosis for children who meet current criteria for Asperger's Disorder. PMID:23456348

  1. An Epidemiological Survey Of Diarrhoea Among Children In The Karnataka Region of Kaveri Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan M.K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether the source of drinking water influences the occurrence of diarrhoea in under fives? Objectives: i To know the incidence of morbidity and mortality due to diarrhoea. ii To identify the relationship of occurrence of diarrhoea with source of drinking water. iii To study the treatment practices in diarrhoea. Study Design: Cross sectional. Participants: 7141 under five children. Setting: Rural and Urban clusters. Analysis: Simple proportions. Results: Nearly 7% of children experienced diarrhoea in the past two weeks and 4% had an attack of diarrhoea in the last 24 hours. Incidence of diarrhoea was significantly higher amongst 1-3 years male children. The source of drinking water per se did not influence the incidence of diarrhoea. Low (12.7% ORS use rare was reported 31% of mothers stopped breast-feeding and 15% of mothers stopped oral fluid during diarrhoea. The overall under five-mortality rate in the area was 6.5 per 1000 children and of these one third deaths could be attributed to diarrhoea.

  2. Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Saudi Arabian children younger than 5years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazrou, Yagob; Shibl, Atef M; Alkhlaif, Riyadh; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; Anis, Sameh; Kandeil, Walid; Hausdorff, William P

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the incidence, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Saudi Arabian children. This multicenter, prospective, clinical surveillance study included children under 5years of age, residents of one of the seven study health areas, who were brought to a study hospital with suspicion of IPD. Bacterial isolates from sterile site samples, collected less than 24h after hospital visit/admission, were identified, serotyped, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Between June 2007 and January 2009, 631 episodes of suspected IPD were recorded, and 623 were included in the analysis. One child (0.2%) had previously received one dose of a pneumococcal vaccine. Forty-seven episodes were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae and three for Haemophilus influenzae. The incidence of confirmed IPD cases was estimated to be 2.5-21.6 per 100,000 children (Vaccination of Saudi Arabian children with expanded-coverage conjugate pneumococcal vaccines containing serotypes 1 and 5 could have a substantial impact to prevent IPD in this population. PMID:26368823

  3. Assessing the epidemiological impact of extending the national influenza vaccination programme to healthy children in England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.K. Green

    2015-01-01

    Infection with influenza can result in significant morbidity and mortality each winter. The key strategy for control is vaccination and it was recently recommended to extend the routine programme in England to include healthy children. The aim of this thesis is therefore to collate the intelligence

  4. Epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in healthy Dutch children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaert, D.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Boelens, H.; Sluijter, M.; Luijendijk, A.; Rumke, H.C.; Koppen, S.; Belkum, A. van; Groot, R. de; Verbrugh, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and determinants of nasopharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in 3200 healthy children aged 1-19 years. The incidence of meningococcal carriage was, on average, 1.5%. Peak incidences were seen at age 1 year and after age 15 years. The independent determinants o

  5. Peritonitis in children on peritoneal dialysis in Cape Town, South Africa : epidemiology and risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, R.; Gajjar, P.; Schroder, C.; Nourse, P.

    2010-01-01

    Peritonitis is a frequent complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in children as well in adults. Data on PD and peritonitis in pediatric patients are very scarce in developing countries. A retrospective cohort study was performed between 2000 and 2008 with the aim to evaluate PD treatment and perit

  6. Inflammation of the Gonad in Prepubertal Healthy Children. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarel Halachmi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence, etiology, and proper management of acute gonadal inflammation in prepubertal children are still controversial, with some reports defining it as rare, while others have found it more prevalent. So far, there is no consensus on imaging studies or standard follow-up procedures. In the minority of the children, the inflammation is related to congenital genitourinary malformation and bacterial infection. The majority of children with gonadal inflammation are healthy and do not have any underlying malformations; in this group, the etiology is related to viral infection or torsion of the gonad appendix. Management is directed towards the etiology. Hence, when bacterial inflammation is suspected, antibiotics should be given and full evaluation of the urinary tract system should be performed. For patients with negative medical history, absence of fever, and normal urinalysis, the diagnosis of bacterial inflammation is very unlikely, and there is neither justification for antimicrobial antibiotic therapy nor for any further urinary tract imaging. Caution should be taken with nonverbal children and infants, or patients with any abnormal parameter. For these patients, we recommend initial management as for bacterial urinary tract infection, until urine cultures results are obtained. This paper provides a comprehensive review with the related medical literature.

  7. Physical fittness and cardiovascular risk factors in children : an epidemiological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. de Man (Stella)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThe studies on physical fitness in children as descnbed in this thesis address the following questions: (1) is there a relation between physical fitness and cardiovascular risk factors, notably blood pressure and serum lipids and lipoproteins, at a young age? (2) what is the effect of in

  8. The isolated burned palm in children : Epidemiology and long-term sequelae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Desai, MH; Herndon, DN

    2000-01-01

    The isolated burn of the palm is a typical injury in young children. Positioning and splinting in small hands is difficult, and long-term sequelae of these injuries are not uncommon. The objective of the present study was to assess the outcome of palm burns and to identify the risk factors for long-

  9. Epidemiology and management of insomnia in children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Silvia; Ferri, Raffaele

    2010-04-01

    Insomnia is the predominant sleep concern in children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and its nature is most likely multifactorial, with neurochemical (abnormalities in serotonergic transmission or melatonin levels), psychiatric (anxiety), and behavioral (poor sleep habits) etiological factors involved. Children with ASD experience sleep problems similar to those of typically developing children, although the prevalence is markedly higher, occurring in 44-83% of school-aged children with ASD. Caregivers usually report that insomnia is the most frequent sleep disorder, described as disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, restless sleep, bedtime resistance, co-sleeping, alterations of sleep hygiene, and early awakenings in the morning. Many actigraphic studies have added information on sleep disorders, confirming the questionnaire findings in the majority of cases. There are relatively few polysomnographic data for ASD, compared with questionnaire studies, and most of these studies reported a reduction in total sleep time and more undifferentiated sleep in the youngest patients. These findings were associated with several sleep microstructure alterations during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and with non-REM (NREM) sleep microstructure changes that appeared to be related to cognitive impairment rather than to the autistic core. Moreover, few data about other less frequent sleep disorders, such as periodic limb movements disorder and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, bruxism, and the influence of epilepsy and EEG abnormalities, are available. Both pharmacologic and behavioral interventions have been suggested for the treatment of sleep problems in autistic children. The most common types of behavioral interventions are complete extinction (removing reinforcement to reduce a behavior) and various forms of graduated extinction. Melatonin has shown promising results in the treatment of insomnia in children with ASD. Although controlled studies are limited

  10. Meningitis registry of hospitalized cases in children: epidemiological patterns of acute bacterial meningitis throughout a 32-year period

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    Syriopoulou Vassiliki P

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial meningitis remains a source of substantial morbidity and mortality in childhood. During the last decades gradual changes have been observed in the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis, related to the introduction of new polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines. The study presents an overview of the epidemiological patterns of acute bacterial meningitis in a tertiary children 's hospital during a 32-year period, using information from a disease registry. Moreover, it discusses the contribution of communicable disease registries in the study of acute infectious diseases. Methods In the early 1970s a Meningitis Registry (MR was created for patients admitted with meningitis in Aghia Sofia Children's Hospital in Athens. The MR includes demographic, clinical and laboratory data as well as treatment, complications and outcome of the patients. In 2000 a database was created and the collected data were entered, analyzed and presented in three chronological periods: A (1974–1984, B (1985–1994 and C (1995–2005. Results Of the 2,477 cases of bacterial meningitis registered in total, 1,146 cases (46.3% were classified as "probable" and 1,331 (53.7% as "confirmed" bacterial meningitis. The estimated mean annual Incidence Rate (IR was 16.9/100,000 for bacterial meningitis, 8.9/100,000 for Neisseria meningitidis, 1.3/100,000 for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2.5/100,000 for Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib before vaccination and 0.4/100,000 for Hib after vaccination. Neisseria meningitis constituted the leading cause of childhood bacterial meningitis for all periods and in all age groups. Hib was the second most common cause of bacterial meningitis before the introduction of Hib conjugate vaccine, in periods A and B. The incidence of bacterial meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae was stable. The long-term epidemiological pattern of Neisseria meningitidis appears in cycles of approximately 10 years, confirmed by a significant

  11. Epidemiology of intestinal polyparasitism among Orang Asli school children in rural Malaysia.

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    Ahmed K Al-Delaimy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the current prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal polyparasitism (the concurrent infection with multiple intestinal parasite species among Orang Asli school children in the Lipis district of Pahang state, Malaysia.Fecal samples were collected from 498 school children (50.6% boys and 49.4% girls, and examined by using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, trichrome stain, modified Ziehl Neelsen stain, Kato-Katz, and Harada Mori techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, and personal hygiene information were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 98.4% of the children were found to be infected by at least one parasite species. Of these, 71.4% had polyparasitism. The overall prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. infections were 95.6%, 47.8%, 28.3%, 28.3%, 14.1% and 5.2%, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that using an unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water, presence of other family members infected with intestinal parasitic infections (IPI, not washing vegetables before consumption, absence of a toilet in the house, not wearing shoes when outside, not cutting nails periodically, and not washing hands before eating were significant risk factors associated with intestinal polyparasitism among these children.Intestinal polyparasitism is highly prevalent among children in the peninsular Malaysian Aboriginal communities. Hence, effective and sustainable control measures, including school-based periodic chemotherapy, providing adequate health education focused on good personal hygiene practices and proper sanitation, as well as safe drinking water supply should be implemented to reduce the prevalence and consequences of these infections in this population.

  12. Diagnostic management of renal colic.

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    Nicolau, C; Salvador, R; Artigas, J M

    2015-01-01

    Renal colic is a common reason for presentation to emergency departments, and imaging has become fundamental for the diagnosis and clinical management of this condition. Ultrasonography and particularly noncontrast computed tomography have good diagnostic performance in diagnosing renal colic. Radiologic management will depend on the tools available at the center and on the characteristics of the patient. It is essential to use computed tomography techniques that minimize radiation and to use alternatives like ultrasonography in pregnant patients and children. In this article, we review the epidemiology, clinical and radiologic presentations, and clinical management of ureteral lithiasis.

  13. Fluid intake patterns: an epidemiological study among children and adolescents in Brazil

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    Feferbaum Rubens

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Energy from liquids is one of the most important factors that could impact on the high prevalence of children and adolescents obesity around the world. There are few data on the liquid consumption in Brazil. The aim of this study is to evaluate the volume and quality of liquids consumed by Brazilian children and adolescents and to determine the proportion of their daily energy intake composed of liquids. Methods A multicenter study was conducted in five Brazilian cities; the study included 831 participants between 3 and 17 years of age. A four-day dietary record specific to fluids was completed for each individual, and the volume of and Kcal from liquid intake were evaluated. The average number of Kcal in each beverage was determined based on label information, and the daily energy intake data from liquids were compared with the recommendations of the National Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária– ANVISA, the Brazilian food regulation authority, according to each subject’s age. Results As the children aged, the volume of carbonated beverages that they consumed increased significantly, and their milk intake decreased significantly. For children between the ages of 3 and 10, milk and dairy products contributed the greatest daily number of Kcal from liquids. Sugar sweetened beverages which included carbonated beverages, nectars and artificial beverages, accounted for 37% and 45% of the total Kcal from liquid intake in the 3- to 6-year-old and 7- to 10- year-old groups, respectively. Among adolescents (participants 11- to 17- years old, most of the energy intake from liquids came from carbonated beverages, which accounted for an average of 207 kcal/day in this group (42% of their total energy intake from liquids. Health professionals should be attentive to the excessive consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in children and adolescents. The movement toward healthier dietary patterns at the

  14. The diagnostic value of dynamic magnetic resonance urography in children with urinary tract infection

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    Zarabi V

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Urinary tract infection 0 in children causes renal scarring and permanent damage to the organ. In this study, we compared the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance urogram for urinary tract anomalies with other conventional imaging methods in children with UTI. "n"nMethods : In this case-control study, 190 children (mean age 3.23±3.59 yrs with UTI were recruited from the Pediatric Ward of Rasul-e-Akram Hospital during 2007-2009. The patients were divided into two groups based on the applied imaging technique: MRU (cases and conventional imaging groups (controls."n"nResults : Abnormal imaging detection rates for Ultrasonography were 32%, X-ray of kidneys, ureters and bladder (KUB 9%, Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP 26%, Voiding Cystoure therogram (VCUG 54%, Dimercaptosuccinic Acid scan (DMSA indicating non-obstructive (reflux uropathy in 76% (mean age 3.5 yrs and MRU 43% (mean age 1.6 yrs, respectively. A meaningful correlation was observed between MRU and DMSA scan with IVP results (Kappa=0.75. KUB and Ultrasonography had similar results in cases with abnormal MRU and DMSA scan (P=0.121. MRU had strong agreement with VCUG and IVP for the detection of obstructive uropathy and scar due to congenital malformation

  15. Epidemiology and geographical distribution of child abuse in Hong Kong

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    Ho, Po-ki, Polly; 何寶琪

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are 1) To study the epidemiology and geographical distribution of child abuse in Hong Kong. 2) To study the district differences in co-morbidities of child abuse. Methods: Children under 19 years old with diagnostic codes for child abuse and child maltreatment from 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2010 were retrieved from Hospital Authority database. Demographics, hospital admission data and co-morbidities diagnosis were retrieved. The data ...

  16. Nodular goiter (epidemiology and diagnostics

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    R A Chernikov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodules measuring 1cm and more revealed in 27% adult inhabitants of region. Malignant tumors were diag nosed in 2.9% of them. There was increase in the number of people with nodules in the territories exposed to radioactive fallout after Chernobyl accident in comparison to the territories without such pollution – 57.3%/42.4% as well as malignant tumors among them (5.2%/2.7% Comparison of thyroid palpation and ultrasound in detection of thyroid nodules revealed that thyroid nodules of 10 mm were detected only in every 10th patient by means of pal pation: and nodules of 11–15 mm in every 4th patient, comparing to ultrasound data of the same patients’ group. Malignant tumors were detected on cytology in 2.9% of thyroid nodules less than 2 cm (30171 patients and in 1.9% of thyroid nodules larger than 2 cm (15 656 patients. At the same time the frequency of regional lymph node metas tases was significantly higher in patients with thyroid nodules larger than 2 cm (34.8%, than in patients with nod ules less than 2 cm – 18.3%. Only one malignant tumor was detected among 358 patients with autonomously func tioning nodules. Risk groups with higher rate of malignancy were patients living in the areas with Chernobyl’s fall out, and patients in whom nodules with “suspicious” sonographic features were revealed (rough edges, capsule inva sion, microcalcifications. Patients with high risk of malignant transformation should be submitted to FNAB regard less of thyroid nodule size. Biopsy is unnecessary for the patients with autonomously functioning nodules detected by scintigraphy.

  17. Asthma in Urban Children: Epidemiology, Environmental Risk Factors, and the Public Health Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Ki Lee; Matsui, Elizabeth; Sharma, Hemant

    2016-04-01

    Asthma is the most commonly reported chronic condition of childhood in developed countries, with 6.5 million children affected in the USA. A disparate burden of childhood asthma is seen among socioeconomically disadvantaged youth, often concentrated in urban areas with high poverty rates. Host factors that predispose a child to asthma include atopy, male gender, parental history of asthma, and also race, ethnicity, and genetic and epigenetic susceptibilities. Environmental factors, such as improved hygiene, ambient air pollution, and early life exposures to microbes and aeroallergens, also influence the development of asthma. With greater than 90% of time spent indoors, home exposures (such as cockroach, rodent, and indoor air pollution) are highly relevant for urban asthma. Morbidity reduction may require focused public health initiatives for environmental intervention in high priority risk groups and the addition of immune modulatory agents in children with poorly controlled disease.

  18. Epidemiological correlates of nutritional anemia among children (6-35 months in rural Wardha, Central India

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    Sinha N

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Nutritional anemia is associated with impaired performance of a range of mental and physical functions in children, along with increased morbidity. Iron supplementation at a later age may not reverse the adverse effects. National Nutritional Anemia Control Program was launched in India in 1970, but it failed to make any impact. The present study was undertaken to find out prevalence of anemia and its correlates in rural Wardha in children 6-35 months of age. Materials and Methods : Seven hundred seventy-two children between 6 months and 35 months of age were studied for anemia by cluster-sampling method. The hemoglobin was estimated in the child by ′Filter paper cyanmethemoglobin method.′ Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and other variables. Data was analyzed by SPSS 12.0.1. Results : Mean hemoglobin level was 98.5 ± 12.9 gm/L. Prevalence of anemia was 80.3%. Only 1.3% children had severe anemia (hemoglobin < 70 gm/L. The univariate analysis showed that anemia is significantly associated with age of the child, education of mother and father, occupation of father, socioeconomic status, birth order and nutritional status as measured by weight for age. The final model suggested that only educational status of the mother, occupation of the father, birth order and nutritional status of the child were significantly associated with anemia. Interpretation and Conclusion : For short-term impact, appropriate nutritional interventions remain the only operational intervention as only the nutritional status (weight for age is a modifiable factor. But for long-term sustained impact, policy makers need to focus on improving maternal education and reducing family size.

  19. Stages of development and injury: An epidemiological survey of young children presenting to an emergency department

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    Stone David H

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study was to use a local (Glasgow, west of Scotland version of a Canadian injury surveillance programme (CHIRPP to investigate the relationship between the developmental stage of young (pre-school children, using age as a proxy, and the occurrence (incidence, nature, mechanism and location of injuries presenting to a Scottish hospital emergency department, in an attempt to replicate the findings of a recent study in Kingston, Canada. Methods We used the Glasgow CHIRPP data to perform two types of analyses. First, we calculated injury rates for that part of the hospital catchment area for which reasonably accurate population denominators were available. Second, we examined detailed injury patterns, in terms of the circumstances, mechanisms, location and types of injury. We compared our findings with those of the Kingston researchers. Results A total of 17,793 injury records for children aged up to 7 years were identified over the period 1997–99. For 1997–2001, 6,188 were used to calculate rates in the west of the city only. Average annual age specific rates per 1000 children were highest in both males and females aged 12–35 months. Apart from the higher rates in Glasgow, the pattern of injuries, in terms of breakdown factors, mechanism, location, context, and nature of injury, were similar in Glasgow and Kingston. Conclusion We replicated in Glasgow, UK, the findings of a Canadian study demonstrating a correlation between the pattern of childhood injuries and developmental stage. Future research should take account of the need to enhance statistical power and explore the interaction between age and potential confounding variables such as socio-economic deprivation. Our findings highlight the importance of designing injury prevention interventions that are appropriate for specific stages of development in children.

  20. Serum levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 as diagnostic markers of acute pyelonephritis in children

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    Abolfazl Mahyar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Early diagnosis and treatment of acute pyelonephritis in children is of special importance in order to prevent serious complications. This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic value of serum interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 in children with acute pyelonephritis. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; Eighty seven patients between 1 month to 12 years old with urinary tract infection (UTI were divided into 2 groups based on the result of 99m-technetium dimercapto-succinic acid (DMSA renal scan: acute pyelonephritis (n=37 and lower UTI (n=50 groups. White blood cell (WBC count, neutrophil (Neutl count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP concentration, platelet count, and serum IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations of both groups were measured and compared . &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; There was a significant difference between two groups regarding WBC count, Neutl count, ESR, and CRP concentration (P&lt;0.05. In addition, the difference between the two groups regarding serum IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations was not significant (IL-6, 60 and 35.4 pg/mL and IL-8, 404 and 617 pg/mL, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of serum IL-6 and IL-8 for diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis were 73%, 42% and 78%, 32%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values of serum IL-6 and IL-8 were less than those of acute phase serum reactants such as CRP. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; This study showed that there was no significant difference between acute pyelonephritis and lower UTI groups regarding serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels. Therefore, despite confirming results of previous studies, it seems that IL-6 and IL-8 are not suitable markers for differentiating between acute pyelonephritis and lower UTI.

  1. Epidemiology and screening of intentional burns in children in a Dutch burn centre.

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    Bousema, Sara; Stas, Helene G; van de Merwe, Marjolijn H; Oen, Irma M M H; Baartmans, Martin G A; van Baar, Margriet E

    2016-09-01

    International estimates of the incidence of non-accidental burns (NAB) in children admitted to burn centres vary from 1% to 25%. Hardly any data about Dutch figures exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of burns due to suspected child abuse in paediatric burns. We described the process of care and outcome, including the accuracy of the SPUTOVAMO screening tool and examined child, burn and treatment characteristics related to suspicions of child abuse or neglect. A retrospective study was conducted in children aged 0-17 years with a primary admission after burn injuries to the burn centre Rotterdam in the period 2009-2013. Data on patient, injury and treatment characteristics were collected, using the Dutch Burn Repository R3. In addition, medical records were reviewed. In 498 paediatric admissions, suspected child abuse or neglect was present in 43 children (9%). 442 screening questionnaires (89%) were completed. In 52 out of 442 questionnaires (12%) the completed SPUTOVAMO had one or more positive signs. Significant independent predictors for suspected child abuse were burns in the genital area or buttocks (OR=3.29; CI: 143-7.55) and a low socio-economic status (OR=2.52; 95%CI: 1.30-4.90). The incidence of suspected child abuse indicating generation of additional support in our population is comparable to studies with a similar design in other countries. PMID:27211360

  2. Epidemiology of intestinal parasitic infections in school children in Ghazni Province, eastern Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Augustynowicz, Alina; Smoleń, Agata; Lass, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their species in Afghan school children and to establish appropriate treatment methods for detected pathogens. Methods: Parasitological examination of stool samples collected from 1369 children aged 8-18, students of the Jahan Malika High School in Ghazni Province in eastern Afghanistan, was conducted in the period November 2013-April 2014. Three stool samples were collected from each patient every second day; the samples were fixed in 10% formalin and tested by light microscopy using the methods of direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation in distilled water, and Fülleborn’s flotation. Results: Of 535 examined children (39.1% of the study group) were infected with nematodes (n=324), cestodes (n=118), trematodes (n=12), and protozoa (n=228), 132 were diagnosed with co-infections (mainly ascariasis+giardiasis, ascariasis+hymenolepiasis) and received single or combined therapy. Conclusions: The Afghan community is an example of population characterized by a high rate of parasitic infections. Owing to high prevalence of multiple infections among inhabitants of Afghanistan, it seems that a mass deworming campaign with a single-dose chemotherapy may prove ineffective in eradicating intestinal parasites in the local population. PMID:26870108

  3. Epidemiology of Intestinal Parasite Infections among Kindergarten Children in Mekelle Town, Northern Ethiopia

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    Megbaru Alemu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in the Sub-Saharan Africa. However, surveys for intestinal parasites conducted in different areas of Ethiopia focused on school age children. Consequently, there is scarcity of data on the burden of intestinal parasites among children in Kindergartens. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Kindergartens in Mekelle City, North Ethiopia from October to November 2013. A total of 400 (240 male and 160 female pre-school children were eligible to provide stool samples. Wet mount preparations and Kato Katz technique were applied to process stool samples. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 29.3% in the study. Six protozoan and helminthic parasites were indentified and Hymenelopis nana was the predominant species (8.75% followed by Giardia lamblia (5.75, Entamoeba histolytica (5%, Enterobius vermicularis (5% and Ascaris lumbricoides (4%. Hookworms and Schistosomiasis mansoni were the least prevalent species. Conclusions: Intestinal parasitosis was high in the study area which indicates a need for provision of anti protozoan and anti helminthics, sanitation, provision of safe water supply and latrines accompanied by appropriate health education.

  4. Epidemiology and screening of intentional burns in children in a Dutch burn centre.

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    Bousema, Sara; Stas, Helene G; van de Merwe, Marjolijn H; Oen, Irma M M H; Baartmans, Martin G A; van Baar, Margriet E

    2016-09-01

    International estimates of the incidence of non-accidental burns (NAB) in children admitted to burn centres vary from 1% to 25%. Hardly any data about Dutch figures exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of burns due to suspected child abuse in paediatric burns. We described the process of care and outcome, including the accuracy of the SPUTOVAMO screening tool and examined child, burn and treatment characteristics related to suspicions of child abuse or neglect. A retrospective study was conducted in children aged 0-17 years with a primary admission after burn injuries to the burn centre Rotterdam in the period 2009-2013. Data on patient, injury and treatment characteristics were collected, using the Dutch Burn Repository R3. In addition, medical records were reviewed. In 498 paediatric admissions, suspected child abuse or neglect was present in 43 children (9%). 442 screening questionnaires (89%) were completed. In 52 out of 442 questionnaires (12%) the completed SPUTOVAMO had one or more positive signs. Significant independent predictors for suspected child abuse were burns in the genital area or buttocks (OR=3.29; CI: 143-7.55) and a low socio-economic status (OR=2.52; 95%CI: 1.30-4.90). The incidence of suspected child abuse indicating generation of additional support in our population is comparable to studies with a similar design in other countries.

  5. Autoantibodies to harmonin and villin are diagnostic markers in children with IPEX syndrome.

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    Vito Lampasona

    Full Text Available Autoantibodies to enterocyte antigens harmonin (75 kDa USH1C protein and villin (actin-binding 95 kDa protein are associated with the Immune dysregulation, Polyendocrinopathy, Enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX syndrome. In this study we evaluated the diagnostic value of harmonin and villin autoantibodies in IPEX and IPEX-like syndromes. Harmonin and villin autoantibodies were measured by a novel Luminescent-Immuno-Precipitation-System (LIPS quantitative assay, in patients with IPEX, IPEX-like syndrome, Primary Immunodeficiencies (PID with enteropathy, all diagnosed by sequencing of the FOXP3 gene, and in type 1 diabetes (T1D, celiac disease and healthy blood donors as control groups. Harmonin and villin autoantibodies were detected in 12 (92% and 6 (46% of 13 IPEX patients, and in none of the IPEX-like, PID, T1D, celiac patients, respectively. All IPEX patients, including one case with late and atypical clinical presentation, had either harmonin and/or villin autoantibodies and tested positive for enterocyte antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. When measured in IPEX patients in remission after immunosuppressive therapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, harmonin and villin autoantibodies became undetectable or persisted at low titers in all cases but one in whom harmonin autoantibodies remained constantly high. In one patient, a peak of harmonin antibodies paralleled a relapse phase of enteropathy. Our study demonstrates that harmonin and villin autoantibodies, measured by LIPS, are sensitive and specific markers of IPEX, differentiate IPEX, including atypical cases, from other early childhood disorders associated with enteropathy, and are useful for screening and clinical monitoring of affected children.

  6. A Milestone: Approval of CEUS for Diagnostic Liver Imaging in Adults and Children in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, K; Strobel, D

    2016-06-01

    The approval of microbubbles with the inert gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and a palmitic acid shell (SonoVue(®), Bracco Geneva, CH) for the diagnostic imaging of liver tumors in adults and children by the FDA in the United States represents a milestone for contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS).This warrants a look back at the history of the development of CEUS. The first publications based on echocardiographic observations of right ventricular contrast phenomena caused by tiny air bubbles following i. v. injection of indocyanine green appeared around 1970 1 2 3. A longer period of sporadic publications but no real progress then followed since, in contrast to X-ray methods, ultrasound works quite well without a contrast agent.It is noteworthy that the foundations for further development were primarily laid in Europe. The development and approval (1991) of the contrast agent Echovist(®) by a German contrast manufacturer for echocardiography unsuitable for passing through lungcapillaries 4 5 resulted in the first extracardiac indications, e. g. for detecting retrovesical reflux and tubal patency, in the mid-1980 s 6 7 8. The sensitivity of color Doppler was not able to compensate for the lack of an ultrasound contrast agent compared to CT with its obligatory contrast administration.Studies of SHU 508 - microbubbles of air moderately stabilized with galactose and palmitic acid - began in 1990 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 and the contrast agent was then introduced in 1995 in Germany as Levovist(®). The most important publications by Blomley, Cosgrove, Leen, and Albrecht are named here on a representative basis 16 17 18 19 20.SHU 508 along with other US contrast agents provided impressive proof of the superiority of CEUS for the diagnosis of liver metastases. However, practical application remained complicated and required skill and technical know-how because of a lack of suitable software on US units 21 22 23 24 25. The monograph regarding the use of contrast agent in

  7. Epidemiology of fractures in Children at College of Medical Sciences and Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Nepal

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    HK Gupta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the epidemiology of fractures in the pediatric population. Methods All the cases of fractures of age 14 yrs or less presenting in emergency room or outdoor patient department of Orthopaedics during the time period of January 2013 to December 2013 were included in the study and prospectively studied. Demographic data were collected and analysed by descriptive methods. Results The incidence of fracture was more in male child. Most fractures occurred in age group of 6 to 14 years. Lower limb fractures (56.8% were more common than upper limb fractures. Incidence of injuries was more during summer most common mode of trauma being motor vehicle accidents (26%. Conclusion Proper supervision and guidance during outdoor activities, on the play ground and proper home safety measures with improved road conditions and proper traffic knowledge can markedly reduce the incidence of pediatric trauma. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i1.12760 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(1; 1-4

  8. The epidemiologic study of children diseases under one year in Tehran

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    Babaeei Gh

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Infant mortality and morbidity present important challenges to those concerned with community health. We did this research to study epidemiology of diseases of infancy in city of Tehran. During 15 days, of 6395 deliveries in Tehran hospitals a cohort of 6267 live births entered this study. Follow up data were gathered in 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th months of birth. In this period, 5382 occurrence of disease were reported. The most frequent were cardiopulmonary (52.3% and Gastrointestinal (26.6% diseases. Most of the events were seen in 6-12 months age group (30.5%. The lowest frequencies of infant diseases were seen in 19-35 years of maternal age (15.3%, as compared with >35 (35.4% and <19 (49.3% groups. Mortality ratio was 32/1000 live birth (198 death. The most common causes of death were cardiopulmonary (38%, infectious (21% and gastrointestinal (18% diseases. Control of infectious disease, development of educational programs for breast feeding and planning of proper age and interval of pregnancy are effective measures for reducing infant mortality and morbidity.

  9. Diagnostic performance of Schistosoma real-time PCR in urine samples from Kenyan children infected with Schistosoma haematobium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V. S.; van Dam, Govert J.; Shaproski, David;

    2014-01-01

    -to-day fluctuations of PCR and microscopy over three consecutive days were measured for 24 children using intra-class correlation coefficient. A combined 'gold standard' (PCR and/or microscopy positive) was used to measure sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of several diagnostic tools at baseline, two...... and 18 months post-treatment with praziquantel. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All 24 repeatedly tested children were PCR-positive over three days with little daily variation in median Ct-values, while 83.3% were found to be egg-positive for S. haematobium at day 1 and 75.0% at day 2 and 3 pre-treatment, signifying...... daily fluctuations in microscopy diagnosis. Of all 114 preselected schoolchildren, repeated microscopic measurements were required to detect 96.5% versus 100% of positive pre-treatment cases by single PCR. At two months post-treatment, microscopy and PCR detected 22.8% versus 69.3% positive children...

  10. Epidemiological analysis of pneumococcal serotype 19A in healthy children following PCV7 vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóthpál, A; Laub, K; Kardos, S; Tirczka, T; Kocsis, A; VAN DER Linden, M; Dobay, O

    2016-05-01

    After the introduction of conjugate vaccines, a strong rearrangement of pneumococcal serotypes was observed globally. Probably most concerning was the emergence of serotype 19A, which has not only high invasive disease potential, but also high antibiotic resistance. In the current study we focused on the increased prevalence of serotype 19A after the PCV vaccination rate became widely used in Hungary. A total of 2262 children aged 3-6 years were screened for pneumococcus carriage using nasal swabs. Children were divided into two groups according to the vaccination rates, low level (group 1) vs. high level (group 2). While the carriage rate did not change over time (average 32·9%), the serotype distribution differed greatly in the two groups. The prevalence of serotype 19A increased >eightfold. Almost all 19A isolates had high-level macrolide resistance and elevated penicillin minimum inhibitory concentrations. Genotyping methods revealed that these new 19A isolates are different from the previously frequent Hungary19A-6 PMEN clone. Both the carriage rate and the overall penicillin and macrolide resistance remained stable over time, but while several serotypes were represented in group 1, serotype 19A alone was clearly dominant in group 2. PMID:26548594

  11. Oral Health, Obesity Status and Nutritional Habits in Turkish Children and Adolescents: An Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesim, Servet; Çiçek, Betül; Aral, Cüneyt Asım; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz Mustafa; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies evaluating the relationship between oral health status and obesity have provided conflicting data. Therefore, there is a great need to investigate and clarify the possible connection in a comprehensive sample. Aims: To assess the relationship of obesity and oral health status among children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years-old. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Data were obtained from 4,534 children and adolescents (2,018 boys and 2,516 girls). Questionnaires were sent home prior to examination; afterwards, anthropometric and dental data were collected from participants. Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth in the permanent dentition (DMFT), and deciduous dentition (dmft) index were used to measure oral health status. Height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and body fat percentage were analyzed. Results: For DMFT scores, healthy (score=0) girls and boys had significantly higher BMI and WC values than unhealthy (score>1) girls and boys (pobese) at the age of 7 (girls only), 9, 10, and 16 (boys only) years and overall (only girls) (pobesity. Obesity and dental/periodontal diseases are multifactorial diseases that follow similar risk patterns and develop from an interaction between chronic conditions originating early in life. It is important for all health professionals to educate patients at risk about the progression of periodontal and dental diseases and the importance of proper oral hygiene.

  12. Back pain prevalence and associated factors in children and adolescents: an epidemiological population study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Matias; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; da Rosa, Bruna Nichele; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the prevalence of back pain among Brazilian school children and the factors associated with this pain. METHODS All 1,720 schoolchildren from the fifth to the eight grade attending schools from the city of Teutonia, RS, Southern Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. From these, 1,597 children participated. We applied the Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument. The dependent variable was back pain, while the independent one were demographic, socioeconomic, behavior and heredity data. The prevalence ratio was estimated by multivariate analysis using the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). RESULTS The prevalence of back pain in the last three months was 55.7% (n = 802). The multivariate analysis showed that back pain is associated with the variables: sex, parents with back pain, weekly frequency of physical activity, daily time spent watching television, studying in bed, sitting posture to write and use the computer, and way of carrying the backpack. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of back pain in schoolchildren is high and it is associated with demographic, behavior and heredity aspects. PMID:27305406

  13. Back pain prevalence and associated factors in children and adolescents: an epidemiological population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Noll

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the prevalence of back pain among Brazilian school children and the factors associated with this pain. METHODS All 1,720 schoolchildren from the fifth to the eight grade attending schools from the city of Teutonia, RS, Southern Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. From these, 1,597 children participated. We applied the Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument. The dependent variable was back pain, while the independent one were demographic, socioeconomic, behavior and heredity data. The prevalence ratio was estimated by multivariate analysis using the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05. RESULTS The prevalence of back pain in the last three months was 55.7% (n = 802. The multivariate analysis showed that back pain is associated with the variables: sex, parents with back pain, weekly frequency of physical activity, daily time spent watching television, studying in bed, sitting posture to write and use the computer, and way of carrying the backpack. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of back pain in schoolchildren is high and it is associated with demographic, behavior and heredity aspects.

  14. Causes, epidemiology, and long-term outcome of traumatic cataracts in children in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit Gogate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To describe preoperative factors, long-term (>3 years postoperative outcome and cost of traumatic cataracts in children in predominantly rural districts of western India. Subjects : Eighty-two traumatic cataracts in 81 children in a pediatric ophthalmology department of a tertiary eye-care center. Materials and Methods : Traumatic cataracts operated in 2004-2008 were reexamined prospectively in 2010-2011 using standardized technique. Cause and type of trauma, demographic factors, surgical intervention, complications, and visual acuity was recorded. Statistical Analysis : Data analysis done by using SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences version 17.0 We have used Chi-square test, Fisher′s exact test, paired t-test to find the association between the final vision and various parameters at 5% level of significance; binary logistic regression was performed for visual outcome ≥6/18 and ≥6/60. Results : The children were examined in a 3-7 year follow-up (4.35 ± 1.54. Average age at time of surgery was 10.4 ± 4.43 years (1.03 to 18. Fifty (61.7% were boys. Forty (48.8% were blunt and 32 (39% were sharp trauma. The most common cause was wooden stick 23 (28.0% and sharp thorn 14 (17.1%. Delay between trauma and presentation to hospital ranged from same day to 12 years after the injury with median of 4 days. The mean preoperative visual acuity by decimal notation was 0.059 ± 0.073 and mean postoperative visual acuity was 0.483 ± 0.417 (P < 0.001. Thirty-eight (46.3% had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA ≥6/18 and 51 (62.2% had BCVA ≥ 6/60. In univariable analysis, visual outcome (≥6/18 depended on type of surgery (P = 0.002, gender (P = 0.028, and type of injury (P = 0.07-sharp trauma and open globe injury had poorer outcomes; but not on age of child, preoperative vision, and type of surgeon. On multivariable binary logistic regression, only gender was significant variable. Of the 82 eyes, 18 (22% needed more than one

  15. Diagnostic imaging in children with urinary tract infection: the role of intravenous urography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A; Wagner, A A; Lavard, L D;

    1995-01-01

    result was abnormal. Abnormal findings were found in 29 children with IVU, in 10 with US and in 16 with DMSA. Six of the 58 children had vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) in 8 kidneys. In 16 children, IVU was the only examination with an abnormal result, and in 10 of these the findings were considered......Ninety children referred to hospital with urinary tract infection (UTI) were investigated by iv urography (IVU), ultrasonography (US) and 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid scan (DMSA). Fifty-eight children also underwent micturating cystourethrography (MCUG). In 36 (40%) of the children, at least one...... important for treatment or prognosis. IVU is an important supplement to US and DMSA in investigation programs for children with UTI. IVU should be performed in cases of renal scars, dilatations or in children with recurrent infections....

  16. Using Standardized Diagnostic Instruments to Classify Children with Autism in the Study to Explore Early Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine E.; Moody, Eric J.; Bernal, Pilar; Blaskey, Lisa; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Lee, Li-Ching; Levy, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is a multi-site case-control study designed to explore the relationship between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotypes and etiologies. The goals of this paper are to (1) describe the SEED algorithm that uses the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule…

  17. The epidemiological studies of leukemia around nuclear facilities for children and young adults: critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This objective of this report is to make a review of studies relative to the risk of leukemia among children and young adults less than twenty five years old near the nuclear facilities. the nuclear facilities considered in this report are nuclear power plants (electric power generation), the nuclear research centers, the fuel or weapons fabrication plants, reprocessing plants. This report does not describe the risk analysis near the sites of nuclear weapons test, the consequences of accidents on nuclear facilities such Chernobylsk or the the population near the military and industrial site of Mayak (Ural). The same is for the mining sites and the facilities of uranium extraction that are out of this report. (N.C.)

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of Rotavirus Strains Circulating Among Children with Gastroenteritis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Najafi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of rotavirus disease and to investigate the genotypes of rotavirus strains causing acute gastroenteritis among children aged <5 years old in Marvdasht, Iran.Methods: One hundred and forty-one children, aged 1 month to 5 years, afflicted with severe diarrhea wereenrolled during January 2007 to December 2008. Their stool samples were studied with enzyme immunoassays (EIA for group A rotaviruses. Rotavirus-positive specimens were genotyped by the NestedRT-PCR using different types of specific primers.Findings: Out of total collected samples rotavirus infection was detected in 40 (28.37%. Of the rotavirus episodes, 72.91% occurred during the first 2 years of life (P=0.038. The highest prevalence of infection was identified in summer (52.50% and the lowest in winter (7.50%. The most common clinical features includeddiarrhea (96.25%, vomiting (82.50% and fever (45.0%. Mixed genotypes were the predominant G type (60.0%, followed by non-typeable (12.50%, G2 (12.50%, G4 (10.0% and G1 (5.0% genotypes. G3/G8 mixed infection is the first of these rotavirus genotypes to be reported in Iran.Conclusion: Regarding high frequency of rotavirus infection, continuous surveillance is needed to inform diarrhea prevention programs as well as to provide information about the occurrence of new rotavirus strains. This will assist policy makers in decision making on rotavirus vaccine introduction.

  19. Free insulin-like growth factor I serum levels in 1430 healthy children and adults, and its diagnostic value in patients suspected of growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Holm, K; Kastrup, K W;

    1997-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening of GH deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor...

  20. Non-Rhabdomyosarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcomas in Children: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis Validating COG Risk Stratifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS) are a heterogeneous group of sarcomas that encompass over 35 histologies. With an incidence of ∼500 cases per year in the United States in those <20 years of age, NRSTS are rare and therefore difficult to study in pediatric populations. We used the large Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to validate the prognostic ability of the Children's Oncology Group (COG) risk classification system and to define patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Methods and Materials: From SEER data from 1988 to 2007, we identified patients ≤18 years of age with NRSTS. Data for age, sex, year of diagnosis, race, registry, histology, grade, primary size, primary site, stage, radiation therapy, and survival outcomes were analyzed. Patients with nonmetastatic grossly resected low-grade tumors of any size or high-grade tumors ≤5 cm were considered low risk. Cases of nonmetastatic tumors that were high grade, >5 cm, or unresectable were considered intermediate risk. Patients with nodal or distant metastases were considered high risk. Results: A total of 941 patients met the review criteria. On univariate analysis, black race, malignant peripheral nerve sheath (MPNST) histology, tumors >5 cm, nonextremity primary, lymph node involvement, radiation therapy, and higher risk group were associated with significantly worse overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). On multivariate analysis, MPNST histology, chemotherapy-resistant histology, and higher risk group were significantly poor prognostic factors for OS and CSS. Compared to low-risk patients, intermediate patients showed poorer OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.53-10.47, P<.001) and CSS (HR: 6.27; 95% CI: 3.44-11.43, P<.001), and high-risk patients had the worst OS (HR: 13.35, 95% CI: 8.18-21.76, P<.001) and CSS (HR: 14.65, 95% CI: 8.49-25.28, P<.001). Conclusions: The current COG risk group

  1. Non-Rhabdomyosarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcomas in Children: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis Validating COG Risk Stratifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waxweiler, Timothy V., E-mail: timothy.waxweiler@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Rusthoven, Chad G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Proper, Michelle S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Billings Clinic, Billings, Montana (United States); Cost, Carrye R. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Cost, Nicholas G. [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Donaldson, Nathan [Department of Orthopedics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Garrington, Timothy; Greffe, Brian S. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Heare, Travis [Department of Orthopedics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Macy, Margaret E. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Liu, Arthur K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS) are a heterogeneous group of sarcomas that encompass over 35 histologies. With an incidence of ∼500 cases per year in the United States in those <20 years of age, NRSTS are rare and therefore difficult to study in pediatric populations. We used the large Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to validate the prognostic ability of the Children's Oncology Group (COG) risk classification system and to define patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Methods and Materials: From SEER data from 1988 to 2007, we identified patients ≤18 years of age with NRSTS. Data for age, sex, year of diagnosis, race, registry, histology, grade, primary size, primary site, stage, radiation therapy, and survival outcomes were analyzed. Patients with nonmetastatic grossly resected low-grade tumors of any size or high-grade tumors ≤5 cm were considered low risk. Cases of nonmetastatic tumors that were high grade, >5 cm, or unresectable were considered intermediate risk. Patients with nodal or distant metastases were considered high risk. Results: A total of 941 patients met the review criteria. On univariate analysis, black race, malignant peripheral nerve sheath (MPNST) histology, tumors >5 cm, nonextremity primary, lymph node involvement, radiation therapy, and higher risk group were associated with significantly worse overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). On multivariate analysis, MPNST histology, chemotherapy-resistant histology, and higher risk group were significantly poor prognostic factors for OS and CSS. Compared to low-risk patients, intermediate patients showed poorer OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.53-10.47, P<.001) and CSS (HR: 6.27; 95% CI: 3.44-11.43, P<.001), and high-risk patients had the worst OS (HR: 13.35, 95% CI: 8.18-21.76, P<.001) and CSS (HR: 14.65, 95% CI: 8.49-25.28, P<.001). Conclusions: The current COG risk group

  2. Diagnostic values of combination of free running asthma screening test and total serum allergen IgE level in children with asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xin; Li Yong; Zeng Meiying

    2014-01-01

    Background A free running asthma screening test is usually used for screening exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.The total serum allergen IgE level can reveal the patient's atopy characteristics.Our study is to evaluate the diagnostic values of the combination of the two tests in asthmatic children and compare this new diagnostic method with the Intemational Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISSAC) questionnaires and the bronchial provocation test,which are popular diagnostic tool for pediatric asthma.Methods A total of 773 school children were recruited in this study.The children's asthma was diagnosed by means of a combination of the free running asthma screening test and total serum allergen IgE level.The new diagnostic method value was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and compared with other diagnostic tools such as ISSAC questionnaires and the bronchial provocation test.Results The AUC of this new diagnostic method was higher than 0.9.When the cut-off value of total serum allergen IgE level was ≥47 KU/L,the sensitivity and the specificity were 71.4% and 85.1%,respectively,which were better than those of either the ISSAC questionnaires or bronchial provocation test.Conclusion The combination of the free running asthma screening test and total serum allergen IgE level may be an effective diagnostic tool for children's asthma.

  3. [Diagnostics and therapy of dysphonia suitable for the ages and developmental stages of children and adolescents (part 2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, M

    2008-02-01

    The incidence of dysphonia among children and adolescents is evaluated internationally at 6 % to 25 %. Nonetheless, hoarseness as a leading symptom among children is often insufficiently recognized by their parents/attachment figures, by the young patients themselves, and even by physicians. In an overview, the hereditary and acquired organic and functional causes - including secondary organic lesions of the vocal folds - their pathomechanisms and the symptoms typical for this age group are presented. For diagnostics suitable for these age groups and developmental stages, modern methods of laryngoscopy (including stoboscopy and real-time laryngoscopy), of functional diagnostics of vocal capacity and quality as well as anamnestic and psychometric procedures for the investigation of possible psychosomatic genesis are available. Frequent therapeutic measures are vocal hygienic counseling and psycho- and family dynamic therapies. Vocal exercise treatments are particularly employed for the consequences of laryngeal surgery and with voice techniques unfavorable as a precondition for increased vocal activity. Operative measures in the sound-producing areas of the vocal apparatus and in the framework of plastic reconstruction concentrate on the optimizing of vocal capacity and quality. In clinical routine, symptoms of dysphonia in children and adolescents should be consciously registered, and any long-term hoarseness, in this age group as well, should be examined by specialized physicians using the methods suitable to the age group and the developmental stage. When the appropriate indications are present, all of the therapeutic options currently available should be discussed.

  4. Auditory Brainstem Response Wave Amplitude Characteristics as a Diagnostic Tool in Children with Speech Delay with Unknown Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Abadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Speech delay with an unknown cause is a problem among children. This diagnosis is the last differential diagnosis after observing normal findings in routine hearing tests. The present study was undertaken to determine whether auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli are different between normally developing children and children suffering from delayed speech with unknown causes. In this cross-sectional study, we compared click auditory brainstem responses between 261 children who were clinically diagnosed with delayed speech with unknown causes based on normal routine auditory test findings and neurological examinations and had >12 months of speech delay (case group and 261 age- and sex-matched normally developing children (control group. Our results indicated that the case group exhibited significantly higher wave amplitude responses to click stimuli (waves I, III, and V than did the control group (P=0.001. These amplitudes were significantly reduced after 1 year (P=0.001; however, they were still significantly higher than those of the control group (P=0.001. The significant differences were seen regardless of the age and the sex of the participants. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups considering the latency of waves I, III, and V. In conclusion, the higher amplitudes of waves I, III, and V, which were observed in the auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli among the patients with speech delay with unknown causes, might be used as a diagnostic tool to track patients’ improvement after treatment.

  5. Auditory Brainstem Response Wave Amplitude Characteristics as a Diagnostic Tool in Children with Speech Delay with Unknown Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Susan; Khanbabaee, Ghamartaj; Sheibani, Kourosh

    2016-09-01

    Speech delay with an unknown cause is a problem among children. This diagnosis is the last differential diagnosis after observing normal findings in routine hearing tests. The present study was undertaken to determine whether auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli are different between normally developing children and children suffering from delayed speech with unknown causes. In this cross-sectional study, we compared click auditory brainstem responses between 261 children who were clinically diagnosed with delayed speech with unknown causes based on normal routine auditory test findings and neurological examinations and had >12 months of speech delay (case group) and 261 age- and sex-matched normally developing children (control group). Our results indicated that the case group exhibited significantly higher wave amplitude responses to click stimuli (waves I, III, and V) than did the control group (P=0.001). These amplitudes were significantly reduced after 1 year (P=0.001); however, they were still significantly higher than those of the control group (P=0.001). The significant differences were seen regardless of the age and the sex of the participants. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups considering the latency of waves I, III, and V. In conclusion, the higher amplitudes of waves I, III, and V, which were observed in the auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli among the patients with speech delay with unknown causes, might be used as a diagnostic tool to track patients' improvement after treatment. PMID:27582591

  6. Cognitive processing styles of children and adolescents with headache and back pain: a longitudinal epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barke A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antonia Barke,1,2 Jennifer Gaßmann,1 Birgit Kröner-Herwig11Georg-Elias-Müller-Institute of Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany; 2Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Marburg, GermanyBackground: Previous research has shown positive relationships between dysfunctional cognitive styles and different aspects of pain (eg, pain frequency. One goal of our longitudinal study was to investigate potential risk factors for the incidence of headache (HA and back pain (BP.Methods: In the first wave (2003, questionnaires were sent to 6,400 children between the ages of 9 and 14 years. Those who answered in wave 1 were contacted again every year (four survey waves in total: 2003–2006. The data presented are based on the children's self-reports in the second wave (2004 and third wave (2005. Potential risk factors (dysfunctional stress coping, pain catastrophizing, anxiety sensitivity, and somatosensory amplification were collected in wave 2. Binary logistic regression analyses – for boys and girls – were performed to assess the predictive value of the risk factors for HA and BP in wave 3.Results: In the comprehensive model, none of the examined variables predicted the incidence of HA. Anxiety sensitivity increased the risk that boys would report BP after 1 year by 50% and dysfunctional stress coping increased the risk by 40%. For girls, somatosensory amplification increased the risk of the incidence of BP 1 year later by 80%, whereas pain catastrophizing reduced the risk by 50%.Conclusion: In this incidence sample, the amount of variance explained by the psychological variables investigated was very small. Integrating this result with existing findings from cross-sectional studies suggests that dysfunctional cognitive processing styles may develop more as a consequence or a concomitant feature of BP or HA, but play a less

  7. The utility of ultrasonography in the the diagnostics and monitoring of treatment of acute abdominal pain in children with neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to estimate the results of the diagnostic imaging modalities, especially ultrasonography (US) in children during the oncological therapy with the acute abdominal symptoms. Acute abdominal symptoms in children with neoplasms causing a very difficult clinical and diagnostic problems and can occur in any stage of disease. The high-resolution ultrasound has a very important role in diagnosis in all patients with acute abdominal pain and with neoplasms. The authors consider that the US should be the first imaging method in the differential diagnosis of the abdominal changes in children with neutropenia and oncological disease. Proper diagnosis should be established only with clinical information. We analyzed 249 ultrasounds examinations of the abdominal cavity in 144 girls and 105 boys aged from 1 to 18 years (mean age 10, 3 years). The more important indication for the US exam in 133 cases was acute abdominal symptoms. We took exams during pre- and postoperative chemotherapy, radiotherapy and after the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. All the patients were under routine hematological control. Based on the clinical symptoms and the laboratory tests we analysed two groups of children with oncological disease and acute abdomen: I group - 111 children with neutropenia, II group - 22 children without neutropenia. In the patients who underwent operation procedure the final diagnosis was established on histopathology. In the other cases diagnosis was based on clinical, laboratory and radiological exams, especially ultrasonography. We analyzed clinical picture of disease, the results of therapy and the US changes in examined patients using statistic parameters as: sensitivity, specificity and efficiency. In the group of 133 children with acute abdominal symptoms the most (92- 69,1%) patients suffer from ALL (acute lymphoblastic leukaemia) and 16(12%) - from AML (acute lymphoblastic leukaemia), Ewing sarcoma-3(2,2%), osteosarcoma - 3(2,2%), NHL

  8. Evaluation of tuberculosis diagnostics in children: 1. Proposed clinical case definitions for classification of intrathoracic tuberculosis disease. Consensus from an expert panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Stephen M; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Amanullah, Farhana; Browning, Renee; Cardenas, Vicky; Casenghi, Martina; Cuevas, Luis E; Gale, Marianne; Gie, Robert P; Grzemska, Malgosia; Handelsman, Ed; Hatherill, Mark; Hesseling, Anneke C; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Kampmann, Beate; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Lienhardt, Christian; Lighter-Fisher, Jennifer; Madhi, Shabir; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Marais, Ben J; McNeeley, David F; Menzies, Heather; Mitchell, Charles; Modi, Surbhi; Mofenson, Lynne; Musoke, Philippa; Nachman, Sharon; Powell, Clydette; Rigaud, Mona; Rouzier, Vanessa; Starke, Jeffrey R; Swaminathan, Soumya; Wingfield, Claire

    2012-05-15

    There is a critical need for improved diagnosis of tuberculosis in children, particularly in young children with intrathoracic disease as this represents the most common type of tuberculosis in children and the greatest diagnostic challenge. There is also a need for standardized clinical case definitions for the evaluation of diagnostics in prospective clinical research studies that include children in whom tuberculosis is suspected but not confirmed by culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A panel representing a wide range of expertise and child tuberculosis research experience aimed to develop standardized clinical research case definitions for intrathoracic tuberculosis in children to enable harmonized evaluation of new tuberculosis diagnostic technologies in pediatric populations. Draft definitions and statements were proposed and circulated widely for feedback. An expert panel then considered each of the proposed definitions and statements relating to clinical definitions. Formal group consensus rules were established and consensus was reached for each statement. The definitions presented in this article are intended for use in clinical research to evaluate diagnostic assays and not for individual patient diagnosis or treatment decisions. A complementary article addresses methodological issues to consider for research of diagnostics in children with suspected tuberculosis.

  9. Formation of diagnostic abilities to work with deviant children in psychology students on psychodiagnostics workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Busarova O.R.,

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the presented research was to develop and test specific exercises for the formation of skills of competent diagnostic process construction in Department of Legal Psychology students during the workshop on psychodiagnostics. The study involved 19 second year students of Department of Legal Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education. The methodological basis for training students comprised the results of the practical psychologist diagnostic activity studies, pe...

  10. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in children: Diagnostic work-up and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, E.B.; Feinstein, J.A.; Humpl, T; Ivy, D. D.

    2009-01-01

    The diagnostic evaluation of a pediatric patient with suspected pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is extensive but essential, given the rapid progression of the disease if left undiagnosed and untreated. The major goals of performing a complete diagnostic work-up are to confirm the diagnosis of PAH, assess disease severity, rule out associated diseases, and begin to formulate an individualized treatment plan for the pediatric patient with pulmonary hypertension. This article will provide ...

  11. APPLICATION OF TRADITIONAL GAMES AND TOYS FOR DEVELOPMENT, REHABILITATION AND DIAGNOSTICS OF CHILDREN OF EARLY AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Osipov, V.; Pisarenko, S.

    2009-01-01

    Possibility of application of traditional toys for the rehabilitation of children with the features of development is considered in the article: children-invalids, children which carried serious traumas and diseases, that resulted in the considerable limitation of motive sphere of child, its thin motorici. The offered toys will assist to normalization of psychoemotional state and rise of motivation for achievement of positive results of medical treatment.

  12. Television viewing, food preferences, and food habits among children: A prospective epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togo Per

    2011-05-01

    during TV viewing, seem to be associated with generally having unhealthy food preferences and food habits among school-aged children. These associations, however, were not generally persistent after 6 years of follow-up.

  13. The cultural appropriateness and diagnostic usefulness of standardized language assessments for Indigenous Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Wendy M; Williams, Cori

    2013-08-01

    Speech-language pathologists experience uncertainty about how to interpret standardized assessment results for Indigenous Australian children. There are risks for inappropriate diagnosis: both over- and under-diagnosis of language impairment may occur due to a convergence of linguistic features which causes difficulty in distinguishing between impairment and difference. While the literature suggests that standardized assessments are inappropriate for Indigenous Australian children, there is an absence of empirical documentation to show how Indigenous children perform on standardized tests of language ability. This study examined the performance of 19 Indigenous Australian children, aged 8;01-13;08, from one school on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition, Australian Standardized Edition. Standardized scores were compared with teacher ratings of children's oral language skills. Analysis showed poor alignment between teacher ratings and language assessment, and assessment scores were negatively influenced by features of Aboriginal English. Children rated with above average language skills presented with different linguistic profiles from the children rated with average and below average language abilities. The inappropriateness of current standardized language assessments for Indigenous children and the need for further research to guide appropriate assessment are discussed.

  14. Epidemiology and medical cost of hospitalization due to rotavirus gastroenteritis among children under 5 years of age in the central-east of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, M S; Salah, A Ben; Bouanene, I; Trabelsi, A; Sfar, M T; Harbi, A; Gueddiche, M N; Farhat, E Ben

    2015-08-01

    Data on the economic burden of rotavirus infection in Tunisia are needed to inform the decision to include rotavirus in routine childhood immunizations. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological profile of rotavirus disease in central-east Tunisia and to estimate its hospital cost. In the first stage - the prospective collection of epidemiological data - we enrolled all patients cost data were collected retrospectively using an activity-based costing method from the medical records of the children who were positively diagnosed with rotavirus. The average cost of care per child was TD 433 (SD 134). This is a significant economic burden in Tunisia, where a safe and effective vaccine is available but not yet introduced to the immunization schedule. PMID:26446530

  15. Diagnostic accuracy and limitations of post-mortem MRI for neurological abnormalities in fetuses and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive cerebral post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMRI) specifically for cerebral and neurological abnormalities in a series of fetuses and children, compared to conventional autopsy. Materials and methods: Institutional ethics approval and parental consent was obtained. Pre-autopsy cerebral PMMRI was performed in a sequential prospective cohort (n = 400) of fetuses (n = 277; 185 ≤ 24 weeks and 92 > 24 weeks gestation) and children <16 years (n = 123) of age. PMMRI and conventional autopsy findings were reported blinded and independently of each other. Results: Cerebral PMMRI had sensitivities and specificities (95% confidence interval) of 88.4% (75.5 to 94.9), and 95.2% (92.1 to 97.1), respectively, for cerebral malformations; 100% (83.9 to 100), and 99.1% (97.2 to 99.7) for major intracranial bleeds; and 87.5% (80.1 to 92.4) and 74.1% (68 to 79.4) for overall brain pathology. Formal neuropathological examination was non-diagnostic due to maceration/autolysis in 43/277 (16%) fetuses; of these, cerebral PMMRI imaging provided clinically important information in 23 (53%). The sensitivity of PMMRI for detecting significant ante-mortem ischaemic injury was only 68% (48.4 to 82.8) overall. Conclusions: PMMRI is an accurate investigational technique for identifying significant neuropathology in fetuses and children, and may provide important information even in cases where autolysis prevents formal neuropathological examination; however, PMMRI is less sensitive at detecting hypoxic–ischaemic brain injury, and may not detect rarer disorders not encountered in this study. -- Highlights: •Post mortem MRI (PMMRI) has a sensitivity of >87% for detecting cerebral malformations, intracranial bleeds and neurological cause of death. •PMMRI provides important diagnostic information in >50% of fetuses where conventional brain autopsy is non-diagnostic. •PMMRI is currently poor at reliably identifying

  16. [Sanitary and epidemiological well-being in children and adolescents: state-of-the-art and ways of solving the problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    In the children and adolescents of the Russian Federation, there is an increase in the incidence of a number of nosological entities, a significant prevalence of chronic diseases, and a reduction in health quality in children. According to the statistical data, in the past 5 years, the overall incidence has increased by 16% in children (aged 0-14 years) (171268 per 100,000 children in 2005) by 18% in adolescents. The incidence of diseases of blood and blood-forming organs, anemias, as well diseases of the respiratory, urogenital, and nervous systems, and congenital anomalies continues to increase. Along with socioeconomic causes, this is all due to the negative influence of environmental factors, dietary defects, and, in some cases, poor upbringing and teaching conditions, which do not comply with the hygienic standards and sanitary rules. Under the established conditions, the maintenance and improvement of children's health is the most important state task, the provision of their sanitary and epidemiological welfare being one of the major constituents in its accomplishment. In the past 3 years, the principal state sanitary inspector has issued 17 regulations on different aspects of the sanitary and epidemiological well-being of children and adolescents. The preparation of the draft "National Program for the Prevention of Adverse Health Influence of Environmental Factors for the Sake of the Future of Children and Adolescents for 2007-2010" has been currently completed. The Group of Eight Summit has noted that resolute opposition to threats of infectious diseases, the leading cause of death in the world, is vital to the global development and welfare of mankind. It has adopted the resolution that it is essential to make specific achievements in the strengthening international cooperation in the surveillance and monitoring of infectious diseases; to intensify researches; to second the efforts of appropriate international organizations, which are aimed at effectively

  17. Epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia and implications for vaccination of children living in developing and newly industrialized countries: A systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Yarzabal, Juan-Pablo; Cruz, James Philip; Schmidt, Johannes E.; Kleijnen, Jos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This systematic review evaluated the epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children <6 y of age within 90 developing and newly industrialized countries. Literature searches (1990–2011), based on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, CAB Global Health, WHO, UNICEF, country-specific websites, conferences, health-technology-assessment agencies, and the reference lists of included studies, yielded 8,734 records; 62 of 340 studies were included in this review. The highest incidence rate among included studies was 0.51 episodes/child-year, for children <5 y of age in Bangladesh. The highest prevalence was in Chinese children <6 months of age (37.88%). The main bacterial pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae and the main viral pathogens were respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus and rhinovirus. Community-acquired pneumonia remains associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Improved and efficient surveillance and documentation of the epidemiology and burden of community-acquired pneumonia across various geographical regions is warranted. PMID:27269963

  18. Epidemiological Characteristics and Prevention and Control Effects of Caries in Preschool Children%学龄前儿童龋病流行病学特征及其防治效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄成; 文勇; 叶艳; 任修勤

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解个旧市儿童龋病流行病学特征,探讨儿童龋病高发原因,为制定防治措施提供依据.方法 以学龄前集体儿童为观察对象;采用临床检查与问卷相结合的方法和WTO规定的龋病诊断标准为依据进行调查;以健康教育和培养儿童正确刷牙习惯和方法,并采用氟离子透人为干预措施;对患龋儿童采用“ART”龋病治疗技术,对儿童龋齿充填治疗.结果 共调查3~6岁儿童1 245名,儿童患龋率66.43%,显著高于全国平均水平;龋均5.03,高于其他城市.儿童患龋率汉族高于回族和彝族,城市高于农村.乳牙龋齿的发生部位以下颌磨牙最多,下颌乳前牙最少,且左右基本对称.氟离子透入对降低儿童龋病率是一种显著有效的方法.刷牙习惯对降低儿童龋患率是一种重要行为干预. “ART”龋病治疗技术是儿童龋齿充填治疗简便有效的方法.结论 儿童口腔健康教育和氟离子透人防龋综合干预措施是降低儿童患龋率的重要方法.%Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of caries in city preschool children, disscuss the causes of caries high incidence, and provide scientific basis for making prevention and control measures. Methods The preschool children were selected as observation objects. The clinical examination and the method of combining the questionnaire, and the provisions of the WTO caries diagnostic criteria were used for disease investigation. Health education and teaching children correct brushing habits and method, and USES the fluorin ion penetration were used as intervention measures. Children with caries were treated by "ART" treatment technology, and the dental caries were given filling reatment in time. Results The incidence of caries was 66.43% in 1245 city preschool children invstigated, which was significantly higher than the national average level. Cavities are 5.03, higher than other cities. The incidence of caries in

  19. Diagnostic value of respiratory virus detection in symptomatic children using real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijskens, Elisabeth G; Biesmans, Renée C; Buiting, Anton G; Obihara, Charles C; Rossen, John W

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acute respiratory tract infections are an important public health problem. Sensitive and rapid diagnostic techniques have been developed and are used in daily clinical practice. Here we evaluate the clinical relevance of detecting 20 common respiratory pathogens by molecular methods in a

  20. Quality-of-Life Differences among Diagnostic Subgroups of Children Receiving Ventilating Tubes for Otitis Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Christian Hamilton; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse;

    2015-01-01

    completed questionnaires at 7 time points from before treatment to 18-month follow-up. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate possible predictors for clinical success. RESULTS: Response rates ranged from 96% to 81%; diagnostic distribution: 15% recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM), 47% otitis...

  1. THE POSSIBILITIES OF MR TRACTOGRAPHY IN DIAGNOSTICS OF SYMPTOMATIC EPILEPSY IN CHILDREN WITH DIFFERENT GENESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Khabibulla Aminov

    2015-01-01

    In this article the possibilities of MR tractography in symptomatic epilepsy patients have been presented. We determined the quantitative standards of numerical values of diffusion of white matter in children with symptomatic epilepsy of various etiology. In children with symptomatic epilepsy, the pathological changes of white matter were localized not only in the epileptogenic, but also in the opposite hemisphere. The regions with abnormal white matter FA and ADC values not only matched to l...

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of serum biochemical fibrosis markers in children with chronic hepatitis B evaluated by receiver operating characteristics analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dariusz Marek Lebensztejn; El(z)bieta Skiba; Jolanta Tobolczyk; Maria El(z)bieta Sobaniec-Lotowska; Maciej Kaczmarski

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of potent serum biochemical fibrosis markers in children with chronic hepatitis B evaluated by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis.METHODS: We determined the serum level of apolipoprotein A-I (APO A-I), haptoglobin (HPT) and a-2macroglobulin (A2M) with an automatic nephelometer in 63 children (age range 4-17 years, mean 10 years)with biopsy-verified chronic HBeAg-positive hepatitis B.Fibrosis stage and inflammation grade were assessed in a blinded fashion according to Batts and Ludwig. We defined mild liver fibrosis as a score ≤2 and advanced fibrosis as a score equal to 3. ROC analysis was used to calculate the power of the assays to detect advanced liver fibrosis (AccuROC, Canada).RESULTS: Serum concentrations of APO A-I, HPT and A2M were not significantly different in patients with chronic hepatitis B compared to controls. However, APO A-I level of 1.19 ng/L had a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 60.7% (AUC = 0.7117, P = 0.035) to predict advanced fibrosis. All other serum biochemical markers and their combination did not allow a useful prediction.None of these markers was a good predictor of histologic inflammation.CONCLUSION: Apolipoprotein A-I may be a suitable serum marker to predict advanced liver fibrosis in children with chronic hepatitis B.

  3. Clinical Epidemiologic Features in Children Allergic to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus%儿童户尘螨致敏的临床流行病学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶芳; 梁建凤; 楼金吐

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in children allergic diseases in Hangzhou and its surrounding areas. Methods Western blotting was used to detect the serum antibody for 9 422 children who were admitted due to clinically suspected allergic diseases. Clinical epidemiological features were analyzed for those with total IgE>100 IU/ml and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinusspecific IgE≥035 IU/tnL Results The prevalence of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in children with allergic diseases was 412% (3 878/9 422) . The most common symptoms were allergic rhinitis [47.8%(1 852/3 878)] and asthma [18.5%(716/3 878)]. The allergic diseases were most prevalent in July, August and October. The diseases were more prevalent in children over 3 years old and above, more in males [6&8%(2668/3878)] than females [312%(12103 878)]. Conclusion Data suggest that Dermatophagoides pteronssinus is an important allergen causing allergic diseases in children in Hangzhou.%户尘螨变态反应性疾病的高发期;其中男性占68.8%(2 668/3 878),女性占31.2%(1 210/3 878),年龄以3岁以上为主.结论 户尘螨是影响杭州市及其周边地区变态反应性疾病儿童的重要变应原.

  4. 儿童链球菌性肺炎流行病学研究%Epidemiological study of children's streptococcus pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志男; 孙美平

    2011-01-01

    儿童链球菌性肺炎是导致5岁以下儿童死亡的重要因素之一.降低儿童链球菌性肺炎的发病率和死亡率,对实现联合国千年发展的第四个目标至关重要.本文综述近年儿童链球菌性肺炎相关文献(来自联合国、世界卫生组织的官方网站以及ScienceDirect和PubMeb等医药数据库),分析儿童链球菌性肺炎的流行病学现状并提出参考建议.%Children's streptococcus pneumonia is the major factor of children's death under age 5. Decreasing of the morbidity and mortality of children's streptococcus pneumonia is significant to achieve the Millennium Development Goals 4 of WHO. Based on relevant literatures (from United Nations, World Health Organization' official website, relevant databases like Science Direct and Pub Med, et al. ) on children's streptococcus pneumonia published in recent years, this review analyzes the present epidemiology of children's streptococcus pneumonia and provides some recommendations.

  5. Is the propagation speed of ultrasound in human organs a diagnostic parameter for tissue characterization? Evaluation using the liver parenchyma in children and adolescents as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New sonographic machines permit the measurement of the propagation speed of ultrasound (PSU) in humans. The liver seems to be an appropriate organ for examining whether the PSU may be used as a diagnostic parameter for tissue characterization since the liver is easily accessible to sonography and its variable content of fat impacts the PSU. Purpose: To determine whether there is a measurable correlation between obesity and PSU in the liver. Methods: In 69 children and adolescents, the PSU in the liver was measured sonographically and correlated to BMI, age, size and weight of the children. Results: A strong correlation was found between the PSU in the liver and the BMI. The PSU was significantly lower in obese children (1507 m/s) than in children with normal body weight (1564 m/s). Conclusion: PSU seems to be promising as an additional diagnostic parameter for characterizing liver tissue. Further evaluation is necessary. (orig.)

  6. Role of CSF-CRP as a bedside diagnostic test in children with meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Piyush Sadat; Snehal Patel; Kruti Shah

    2013-01-01

    Meningitis is a formidable illness with high mortality and morbidity in India. Delay in distinguishing pyogenic meningitis from tuberculous and viral meningitis and delay in starting therapy on one hand and irrational use of antibiotics on the other hand may have irrevocable consequences, so, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of pyogenic meningitis is very vital to prevent permanent neurological deficits. Detection of C-reative protein in CSF is a bed side rapid diagnostic test to dis...

  7. [Clinical manifestations of the onset and diagnostic problems in children with moyamoya disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvova, O A; Jevneronok, I V; Shalkevich, L V; Prusakova, T S

    2016-01-01

    Moyamoya disease in children is a rarely diagnosed entity. Frequent headache is the first symptom of the disease. Headache associated with moya-moya disease (HAMD) is a separated entity reported in the literature. Variants of onset, a spectrum of primary diagnoses and diagnosis verification rate of moyamoya disease in 7 children are presented. A clinical case of moya-moya disease in a 9-year boy, who was primarily diagnosed with migraine with aura, is reported. The results presented by the authors as well as literature data indicate the necessity of using magnetic-resonance angiography in children with headache attacks and focal neurologic symptoms to identify this progressive vascular pathology and timely recommend a surgical treatment.

  8. Principles of organization, diagnostics and treatment of children with associated trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khilola Alimova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric multiple trauma victims present a unique set of problems to the emergency physician, pediatrician, or surgeon. Children rarely sustain lethal injury; delayed recognition and inappropriate management of the common problems encountered in the pediatric trauma patient can lead to a poor outcome.This study was designed as a retrospective descriptive review of medical records of 289 injured children. All children were admitted in age from 1 to 15 years to the Republican Research Center of Emergency Medicine (Uzbekistan and its branches during 2000-2009.Caring for pediatric trauma patients requires an understanding of the distinct anatomy and pathophysiology of the pediatric population. Initial evaluation, management, and resuscitation require a multidisciplinary approach including trauma surgeons, anesthesiologists, and pediatric intensive care physicians.

  9. Diagnostic Value of the Urine Mucus Test in Childhood Masturbation among Children below 12 Years of Age: A Cross-Sectional Study from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zarin Keihani Doust; Mamak Shariat; Neda Zabandan; Aidin Tabrizi; Fatemeh Tehrani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood masturbation (CM) is considered a variant of normal sexual behavior; however, it is commonly misdiagnosed as epilepsy and movement disorders. As the first study from Iran, we analyzed a large population of infants and children with CM in a case-control study and evaluated the value of mucus in urine analysis as an alternative diagnostic tool for CM. Methods: A total of 623 children referred to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital for an evaluation ...

  10. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among Yemeni children residing in malaria-endemic areas of Hodeidah governorate and evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test for its detection

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Saif-Ali, Reyadh; Alkubati, Sameer A.; Alqubaty, Abdulhabib R.; Al-Mikhlafy, Abdullah A.; Al-Eryani, Samira M.; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdusalam M.; Alhaj, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the most common genetic enzymopathy worldwide, is associated with an acute haemolytic anaemia in individuals exposed to primaquine. The present study aimed to determine G6PD deficiency among Yemeni children in malaria-endemic areas as well as to assess the performance of the CareStart™ G6PD rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for its detection. Methods A cross-sectional study recruiting 400 children from two rural districts in Hodeidah g...

  11. Diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging and pre-surgical evaluation in the assessment of traumatic intra-articular knee disorders in children and adolescents: what conditions still pose diagnostic challenges?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gans, Itai; Ganley, Theodore J. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Orthopaedics, 34th and Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bedoya, Maria A.; Ho-Fung, Victor [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Diagnosis of intra-articular lesions in children based on clinical examination and MRI is particularly challenging. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation of the knee in pediatric patients relative to arthroscopic evaluation as the gold standard. We report diagnoses frequently missed or inaccurately diagnosed pre-operatively. We conducted a retrospective review of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation in children and adolescents ages 1-17 years who were treated by knee arthroscopy during a 21/2-year period. All MRIs were reviewed by a pediatric radiologist blinded to clinical findings. Pediatric orthopedic clinic notes were reviewed for pre-surgical evaluation (based on physical exam, radiograph, MR images and radiologist's MRI report). Arthroscopic findings were used as the gold standard. We calculated the percentages of diagnoses at arthroscopy missed on both MRI and pre-surgical evaluation. Diagnostic accuracy between children and adolescents and in patients with one pathological lesion vs. those with >1 lesion was analyzed. We performed a second review of MR images of the missed or over-called MRI diagnoses with knowledge of arthroscopic findings. We included 178 children and adolescents. The most common diagnoses missed on MRI or pre-surgical evaluation but found at arthroscopy were: discoid meniscus (8/30, or 26.7% of cases); lateral meniscal tears (15/80, or 18.8% of cases); intra-articular loose bodies (5/36, or 13.9% of cases), and osteochondral injuries (9/73, or 12.3% of cases). Overall diagnostic accuracy of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation was 92.7% and 95.3%, respectively. No significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between children and adolescents was observed. When multiple intra-articular lesions were present, lateral meniscal tears were more likely to be inaccurately diagnosed (missed or over-called) on both MRI (P = 0.009) and pre-surgical evaluation (P < 0.001). Overall diagnostic accuracy of MRI and pre

  12. Diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging and pre-surgical evaluation in the assessment of traumatic intra-articular knee disorders in children and adolescents: what conditions still pose diagnostic challenges?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnosis of intra-articular lesions in children based on clinical examination and MRI is particularly challenging. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation of the knee in pediatric patients relative to arthroscopic evaluation as the gold standard. We report diagnoses frequently missed or inaccurately diagnosed pre-operatively. We conducted a retrospective review of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation in children and adolescents ages 1-17 years who were treated by knee arthroscopy during a 21/2-year period. All MRIs were reviewed by a pediatric radiologist blinded to clinical findings. Pediatric orthopedic clinic notes were reviewed for pre-surgical evaluation (based on physical exam, radiograph, MR images and radiologist's MRI report). Arthroscopic findings were used as the gold standard. We calculated the percentages of diagnoses at arthroscopy missed on both MRI and pre-surgical evaluation. Diagnostic accuracy between children and adolescents and in patients with one pathological lesion vs. those with >1 lesion was analyzed. We performed a second review of MR images of the missed or over-called MRI diagnoses with knowledge of arthroscopic findings. We included 178 children and adolescents. The most common diagnoses missed on MRI or pre-surgical evaluation but found at arthroscopy were: discoid meniscus (8/30, or 26.7% of cases); lateral meniscal tears (15/80, or 18.8% of cases); intra-articular loose bodies (5/36, or 13.9% of cases), and osteochondral injuries (9/73, or 12.3% of cases). Overall diagnostic accuracy of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation was 92.7% and 95.3%, respectively. No significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between children and adolescents was observed. When multiple intra-articular lesions were present, lateral meniscal tears were more likely to be inaccurately diagnosed (missed or over-called) on both MRI (P = 0.009) and pre-surgical evaluation (P < 0.001). Overall diagnostic accuracy of MRI and pre

  13. Novel diagnostic device for oral and pharyngeal examinations of children: folding-scope for the oral and pharyngeal cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Koichi; Sekimoto, Sotaro; Tsunoda, Atsunobu

    2010-01-01

    Although children may dislike and/or resist oral and pharyngeal examination with a tongue depressor, they enjoy lollipops on sticks, eating with spoons, forks, and chopsticks, and brushing their teeth. Many reports have noted this apparent contradiction, since paediatric patients are often treated after toothbrushes or chopsticks penetrate the pharyngeal wall. We therefore developed a novel device to observe the inside of the mouth without using a flashlight, tongue depressor or head mirror. We previously developed the AWS for tracheal intubation through the mouth for anaesthesia and emergency situations, along with a new device to observe the inside of the oral cavity simultaneously. We have developed a new attachment to the AWS for observations inside the oral cavity and pharynx. Our newly developed oral and pharyngeal examination system is a useful tool for diagnostic examinations and may also enable treatment without causing discomfort or distress to patients and their families. PMID:22767566

  14. Lente de contato em crianças: aspectos epidemiológicos Contact lens in children: epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Alves Salame

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traçar o perfil epidemiológico de crianças encaminhadas para adaptação de lente de contato. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo de pacientes registrados no Setor de lente de contato da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Os pacientes com até 12 anos de idade foram avaliados quanto ao sexo, idade, diagnóstico, indicação e tipo de lente de contato testada na primeira consulta. RESULTADOS: Dos 73 prontuários avaliados, 34 (46,6% pertenciam a crianças do sexo masculino e 39 (53,4% a crianças do sexo feminino. A idade variou de 2 a 12 com média de 10,2 e desvio-padrão de 2,42 anos. O diagnóstico mais encontrado foi afacia em 16 (21,9% crianças, seguido de ceratocone em 14 (19,1%, leucoma em 11 (15%, anisometropia em 10 (13,7%, ametropia em 9 (12,3%, astigmatismo irregular em 7 (9,5% e ectopia lentis em 4 (5,4%. Uma criança era alta míope (1,3% e outra emétrope (1,3% que possuía desejo de usar lente de contato estética. Em relação às indicações, 52 (71,2% pacientes tinham indicação médica, 9 (12,3% indicação óptica e 12 (16,4% indicação cosmética. Foram testadas lentes em 103 olhos sendo as mais testadas a rígida gás permeável esférica em 43 (41,7%, a gelatinosa esférica em 41 (39,8% e a gelatinosa cosmética em 11 (10,6%. CONCLUSÃO: O perfil epidemiológico dos usuários de lente de contato nessa faixa etária tem como diagnóstico mais prevalente a afacia, a indicação mais freqüente a de ordem médica e a lente mais testada a rígida gás permeável esférica.PURPOSE: To describe the epidemiology of children submitted to contact lens fit. METHODS: Retrospective study of 73 children that had been submitted to contact lens fit at the "Universidade Federal de São Paulo". This study analyzed sex distribution, age, diagnosis, indications and contact lens fitted at first examination. RESULTS: 34 children (46.6% were male and 39 (53.4% female, aged between 2 and 12 years with mean of 10.2 and

  15. Type 2 diabetes in children in the Netherlands: The need for diagnostic protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotteveel, J.; Belksma, E.J.; Renders, C.M.; Hirasing, R.A.; Delemarre-Van de Waal, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The worldwide trend towards obesity in childhood is also observed in the Netherlands and one of the consequences may be type 2 diabetes. In this study, we assessed the number of children with type 2 diabetes, diagnosed by paediatricians, in the Netherlands. Methods: In 2003 and 2004 the D

  16. Diagnostic Efficiency of the Child and Parent Versions of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villabo, Marianne; Gere, Martina; Torgersen, Svenn; March, John S.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychometrics and clinical efficiency of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC), which measures physical symptoms, harm avoidance, social anxiety, and separation/panic. Using a sample of 190 treatment-seeking Norwegian youth (aged 7-13 years, M[subscript age] = 10.3 years, 62.1% male),…

  17. Influenza epidemiology, vaccine coverage and vaccine effectiveness in children admitted to sentinel Australian hospitals in 2014: the Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Christopher C; Macartney, Kristine K; Hewagama, Saliya; Senenayake, Sanjaya; Friedman, N Deborah; Simpson, Graham; Upham, John; Kotsimbos, Tom; Kelly, Paul; Cheng, Allen C

    2016-07-28

    The Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) is a sentinel hospital-based surveillance programme operating in all states and territories in Australia. We summarise the epidemiology of children hospitalised with laboratory-confirmed influenza in 2014 and reports on the effectiveness of inactivated trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) in children. In this observational study, cases were defined as children admitted with acute respiratory illness (ARI) with influenza confirmed by PCR. Controls were hospitalised children with ARI testing negative for influenza. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated as 1 minus the odds ratio of vaccination in influenza positive cases compared with test-negative controls using conditional logistic regression models. From April until October 2014, 402 children were admitted with PCR-confirmed influenza. Of these, 28% were aged < 1 year, 16% were Indigenous, and 39% had underlying conditions predisposing to severe influenza. Influenza A was detected in 90% of cases of influenza; influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was the most frequent subtype (109/141 of subtyped cases) followed by A(H3N2) (32/141). Only 15% of children with influenza received antiviral therapy. The adjusted VE of one or more doses of TIV for preventing hospitalised influenza was estimated at 55.5% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 11.6-77.6%). Effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was high (91.6% , 95% CI: 36.0-98.9%) yet appeared poor against H3N2. In summary, the 2014 southern hemisphere TIV was moderately effective against severe influenza in children. Significant VE was observed against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. PMID:27494798

  18. Diagnostic role of initial renal cortical scintigraphy in children with the first episode of acute pyelonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of the first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in children has been the subject of debate for many years. Diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) is usually based on clinical and biological data. The clinical usefulness of early Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy remains controversial, although it may influence the type and duration of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the role of initial cortical scintigraphy in the detection of early renal parenchymal damage in children highly suspected of having APN and to compare the scintigraphic findings with selected clinical/laboratory parameters and ultrasonography. A prospective study was conducted in 34 infants and young children (18 boys, 16 girls), aged 1.5-36 months (mean 9.8±8.7 months), hospitalized with a first episode of clinically suspected APN. Within the first 5 days after admission, Tc-99m DMSA renal scintigraphy, ultrasonography (US), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC) and urine analyses were performed. DMSA scintigraphy showed changes consistent with APN in 27/34 (79%) patients, with a mean age of 10.9 months, including 12 males (44%) and 15 (56%) females. Out of 9 febrile children with negative urine culture and supportive evidence of UTI, scintigraphy showed parenchymal involvement in 8 children (24% in the whole group, 30% in scintigraphically documented APN). There were no statistically significant correlations between the frequency or size of the initial scintigraphic abnormalities and age, sex, body temperature, CRP levels or ESR. A CRP level of >54 mg/L and a WBC of >13,300/mm3 had sensitivities of 56 and 59% and specificities of 86 and 71%, respectively. US showed changes consistent with APN in 7/34 (21%) in the whole group and in 7/27 (26%) patients with positive cortical scan (p<0.05). Initial DMSA renal scintigraphy is a sensitive method for the early diagnosis of APN in young children and is

  19. Impact of Diagnostic Practices on the Self-Reported Health of Mothers of Recently Diagnosed Children with ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Reed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Obtaining a diagnosis of an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD for a child is a pivotal point in developing the treatment plan for the child but can also be regarded as highly stressful by parents. The current study examined the impact of different aspects of the diagnosis process on the self-reported mental health of mothers of children undergoing a diagnosis for ASD in a cross-sectional cohort design. Methods: One-hundred-fifty-eight mothers of consequently diagnosed children with ASD participated. The severity of the children’s ASD and their intellectual functioning was assessed within twelve months of the diagnosis, and the mothers completed a psychometric assessment battery including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, General Health Questionnaire, and Questionnaire on Resources and Stress. Results: The actual time from first reporting a problem to obtaining a diagnosis, and the speed of the diagnostic process from first to last appointment, were both negatively related to patenting stress. In contrast, mothers’ perceptions of the speed and helpfulness of the process were negatively related to levels of anxiety and depression. The number of professionals involved in the process and the perceived coherence of the diagnosis were also negatively related to aspects of mothers’ functioning. Conclusions: Care is needed to help mothers through the diagnostic process with regard to their own functioning. Providing information and help sources throughout the process, while keeping the number of professionals involved to a minimum, may improve the parent perception of the process and reduce the negative impacts of the diagnosis on the family as a whole.

  20. Children with Generalised Joint Hypermobility and Musculoskeletal Complaints: State of the Art on Diagnostics, Clinical Characteristics, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Scheper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To provide a state of the art on diagnostics, clinical characteristics, and treatment of paediatric generalised joint hypermobility (GJH and joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS. Method. A narrative review was performed regarding diagnostics and clinical characteristics. Effectiveness of treatment was evaluated by systematic review. Searches of Medline and Central were performed and included nonsymptomatic and symptomatic forms of GJH (JHS, collagen diseases. Results. In the last decade, scientific research has accumulated on all domains of the ICF. GJH/JHS can be considered as a clinical entity, which can have serious effects during all stages of life. However research regarding the pathological mechanism has resulted in new potential opportunities for treatment. When regarding the effectiveness of current treatments, the search identified 1318 studies, from which three were included (JHS: n=2, Osteogenesis Imperfecta: n=1. According to the best evidence synthesis, there was strong evidence that enhancing physical fitness is an effective treatment for children with JHS. However this was based on only two studies. Conclusion. Based on the sparsely available knowledge on intervention studies, future longitudinal studies should focus on the effect of physical activity, fitness, and joint stabilisation. In JHS and chronic pain, the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary approach should be investigated.

  1. Role of CSF-CRP as a bedside diagnostic test in children with meningitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Sadat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is a formidable illness with high mortality and morbidity in India. Delay in distinguishing pyogenic meningitis from tuberculous and viral meningitis and delay in starting therapy on one hand and irrational use of antibiotics on the other hand may have irrevocable consequences, so, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of pyogenic meningitis is very vital to prevent permanent neurological deficits. Detection of C-reative protein in CSF is a bed side rapid diagnostic test to distinguish pyogenic from tuberculous and viral meningitis. So, present study was undertaken to study the usefulness of c-reactive protein in CSF as a rapid diagnostic test in differentiating pyogenic from tuberculous and viral meningitis.This study was conducted at Smt Shardaben Hospital from Sept-2008 to Nov-2010. Total 150 cases admitted in paediatric department and neonates admitted to the sick nursery suspected of having meningitis were included. Samples of CSF were taken for bed side diagnostic test of CSF-CRP. The major advantage of this method is rapid two minute reaction time. Our study revealed that out of 150 cases of suspected meningitis 64 (42.66% patient were having meningitis out of which 18 (12% patients were diagnosed as pyogenic meningitis and CSF CRP was positive in 10 (55.55 % patients out of 18 pyogenic meningitis patients and CSF-CRP was negative in all other groups Applying chisquare test, correlation between CSF-CRP positivity and pyoganic meningitis was highly significant (x2 = 31(i.e.> 3.84

  2. Validation of the Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3Di) among Chinese Children in a Child Psychiatry Clinic in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kelly Y. C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Mo, Flora Y. M.; Lee, Marshall M. C.; Shea, Caroline K. S.; Chan, Grace F. C.; Che, Kiti K. I.; Luk, Ernest S. L.; Mak, Arthur D. P.; Warrington, Richard; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a disorder with high levels of co-morbidities. The Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3Di) is a relatively new instrument designed to provide dimensional as well as categorical assessment of autistic behaviours among children with normal intelligence. Its sound psychometric properties and…

  3. [Wisconsin Administrative Practice Scale: Special Education. A Survey of Selected Administrative Practices Used in the Coordination of Diagnostic Units for Handicapped Children. Test and Manual.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Jeremy Jon

    The Wisconsin Administrative Practice Scale: Special Education (WAPS) is a self-administering survey instrument designed to measure implementation of 162 selected administrative practices and policies used to coordinate diagnostic units for handicapped children. One hundred thirty-five items are grouped into seven subscales each consisting of…

  4. An Internet Version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) : Correspondence of the ADHD Section With the Paper-and-Pencil Version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Serra, Marike; Minderaa, Rudolf Boudewijn; Hartman, Catharina Annette

    2009-01-01

    The authors recently developed an Internet version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Version 4 (DISC-IV), parent version (D. Shaffer, P. Fisher, C. P. Lucas, M. K. Dulcan, & M. E. Schwab-Stone, 2000), with the main purpose of using it at home without an interviewer. This offers many

  5. Diagnostic value of real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect viruses in young children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit with lower respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Alma C; Wolfs, Tom F W; Jansen, Nicolaas J G; van Loon, Anton M; Rossen, John W A

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aetiology of lower respiratory tract infections in young children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is often difficult to establish. However, most infections are believed to be caused by respiratory viruses. A diagnostic study was performed to compare convention

  6. Recent Developments on Epidemiological Methods for Children's Sleep Problems%儿童睡眠问题流行病学研究方法近况总结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓文; 朱丽华; 刘坤; 鱼丽荣; 李小花

    2015-01-01

    Good sleep is fundamental for the normal development of children,sleep problems will cause the physical and psychological dysplasia, so it is important to pay enough attention to ensure the sleep quality of children. This paper summarized the recent developments on epidemiological methods for children's sleep problems, in order to improve the acquaintance and attention of clinicians, to provide references for the effective prevention and treatment of children's sleep problems.%良好的睡眠是儿童正常生长发育的基本条件,睡眠问题可导致儿童体格、智能及心理发育异常,因此必须重视儿童睡眠健康。本文总结了儿童睡眠问题流行病学研究方法近况,以提高临床医师对儿童睡眠问题的了解和关注,为及时有效预防和治疗儿童睡眠问题提供参考。

  7. Epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed respiratory syncytial virus infection in young children in England, 2010-2014: the importance of birth month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, R M; Hardelid, P; Gilbert, R; Ellis, J; Zhao, H; Donati, M; Pebody, R

    2016-07-01

    The epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in young children has not recently been described in England, and is an essential step in identifying optimal target groups for future licensed RSV vaccines. We used two laboratory surveillance systems to examine the total number and number of positive RSV tests in children aged <5 years in England from 2010 to 2014. We derived odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing children by birth month, using multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, season and sex. Forty-seven percent of RSV tests (29 851/63 827) and 57% (7405/13 034) of positive results in children aged <5 years were in infants aged <6 months. Moreover, 38% (4982/13 034) of positive results were in infants aged <3 months. Infants born in September, October and November had the highest odds of a positive RSV test during their first year of life compared to infants born in January (OR 2·1, 95% CI 1·7-2·7; OR 2·4, 95% CI 2·1-2·8; and OR 2·4, 95% CI 2·1-2·7, respectively). Our results highlight the importance of young age and birth month near the beginning of the RSV season to the risk of laboratory-confirmed RSV infection. Future control measures should consider protection for these groups. PMID:26916807

  8. The diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging in diagnostics of symptomatic epilepsy in children

    OpenAIRE

    Aminov Khabibulla

    2015-01-01

    In this article the possibilities of MR diffusion weighted imaging in symptomatic epilepsy patients have been presented. We determined the quantitative standards of numerical values of diffusion of white matter in children with symptomatic epilepsy of various etiology. The regions with abnormal white matter FA and ADC values not only matched to limbic circle zones, but also to areas of intraand interhemispheric connections uniting the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes of the bra...

  9. Diagnostic Endoscopy in Children of Two Months to 15 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddiqe Amini-Ranjbar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering high prevalence of gastrointestinal complaints in children and the important role of endoscopy in the diagnosis of such complaints, this study was designed to characterize the clinical, endoscopic and pathologic features of Iranian children undergoing upper Gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy. Approach: This prospective study was performed in an office-based setting in a private medical centre in Kerman, Iran, between December 2004 to January 2008. Three hundred forty pediatric patients who underwent upper endoscopy for dyspeptic symptoms or other reasons were enrolled into this study and data were gathered concerning age, sex, reason of endoscopy, endoscopy report and pathologic report. Upper GI endoscopy was performed using Pentax video endoscope. Results: The most prevalent reason of performing endoscopy (43.1% was abdominal pain. More than half of the cases with abdominal pain (54% were in the age range of 5-10 year old of whom 80% had an abnormal pathologic finding such as esophgitis and active chronic gastritis associated with helicobacter pylori. The most common endoscopic finding (31.2% and pathologic finding (40.3% was esophagitis. More than half of the children with esophagitis (56.6% had some degrees of hiatal hernia. In 35.5% of children with nodular gastritis, simultaneous esophagitis was observed. The rate of normal endoscopies and pathologies were respectively 10.8 and 19.4%. Conclusion: Considering low rate of normal endoscopic and pathologic reports in the studied subjects and also the variety of gastrointestinal complaints in them, it seems that proper selection of patients for undergoing upper GI endoscopy can have a significant directive role in the diagnosis of pediatric problems.

  10. SPECIFIC DIAGNOSTICS OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS IN CHILDREN WITH THE USE OF SCARIFICATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulich OV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work there are presented the results of allergy testings of 186 children suffering from atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was the specification of casually significant allergen depending on sex and age. Results of testing are processed by a method of the mathematiical analysis, raised in nomograms according to which, considering the nosological entity of disease, sex and age of a patient, it is possible to define causally significant allergen.

  11. Cancer incidence rate after diagnostic X-ray exposure in 1976-2003 among patients of a university children's hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Although the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation is well known, knowledge gaps persist on the health effects of low-dose radiation, especially in children. The cancer incidence rate in a cohort of 92,957 children diagnosed using X-rays in the years 1976-2003 in the radiology department of a large university clinic was studied. Materials and Methods: Individual radiation doses per examination were reconstructed using an algorithm taking into account the dose area product and other exposure parameters together with conversion factors computed specifically for the equipment and protocols used in the radiology department. Incident cancer cases in the period 1980-2006 were identified via record linkage to the German Childhood Cancer Registry using pseudonymized data. Results: A total of 87 cancers occurred in the cohort between 1980 and 2006: 33 leukemia, 13 lymphoma, 10 brain tumors, and 31 other tumors. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for all cancers was 0.99 (95 % CI: 0.79 1.22). A dose-response relationship was not observed for all cancers, leukemia and lymphoma or solid tumors. The cancer risks for boys and girls did not differ. Conclusion: No increase in the cancer incidence risk in relation to very low doses of diagnostic ionizing radiation was observed in this study. However, the results are compatible with a broad range of risk estimates. (orig.)

  12. Epidemiological and pathophysiological aspects of abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders in children and adolescents: a Sri Lankan perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Devanarayana

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs) are a worldwide pediatric problem with uncertain pathology. Main objectives of this thesis were to assess epidemiology, risk factors and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of AP-FGIDs. A systematic review and meta-anal

  13. Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus in children ≤2 years of age hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections in the Russian Federation: a prospective, multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Tatochenko

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Tatochenko1, Vasily Uchaikin2, Aleksandr Gorelov3, Konstantin Gudkov4, Andrew Campbell5, Gregory Schulz5, Rebecca Prahl5, Gerard Notario51Scientific Centre of Children’s Health, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Lomonosovskiy Prospect, Moscow, Russia; 2Russian State Medical University of Roszdrav, Moscow, Russia; 3Central Scientific Research Institution of Epidemiology, Moscow, Russia; 4Abbott Laboratories LLC, Khimki, Moscow, Russia; 5Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USABackground: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections among infants and young children, and is responsible for an estimated four million deaths per year globally. A monthly injection of palivizumab has been used for prophylaxis of serious RSV infections among high-risk children in 71 countries since 1998 and approval for use in the Russian Federation was obtained in February 2010. A recommendation for RSV prophylaxis in the Russian Federation would require knowledge of the prevalence and seasonality of RSV in that country.Methods: In a prospective, multicenter, epidemiological study of the prevalence, seasonality, and peak occurrence of RSV infection, children aged ≤2 years hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infections in three regions of the Russian Federation, from September 2008 through April 2009, were screened and tested for RSV using rapid immunochromatography of nasopharyngeal lavage. For subjects who were tested positive, hospitalization data were collected.Results: Of 519 children aged ≤2 years enrolled from September 11, 2008 through April 26, 2009, 197 tested positive for RSV (38.0%, 95% CI: 33.8, 42.3. The onset of the 2008–2009 RSV season in the Russian Federation occurred in late October 2008, similar to what is observed in other northern temperate zones. Peak activity occurred in early April 2009, when 62% of children enrolled tested positive for RSV.Conclusion: The prevalence

  14. Diagnostic value of high resolution ultrasound in localisation of the undescended testis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeoluwa A Adesanya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of ultrasonography in the pre-operative localisation of undescended testes has become controversial due to fears about its accuracy. This study was designed to ascertain the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of ultrasonography in the localisation of the undescended testes in children. Patients and Methods: A prospective evaluation of all boys undergoing operation for undescended testes at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba, Lagos, over a 12 month period was performed. The pre-operative clinical and ultrasound findings were compared with the findings on surgical exploration. Results: Forty boys with 52 undescended testes were studied. The mean age of the boys at the time of surgery was 4.0 ± 0 years (range 1-11 years. Forty-six (88.5% testes were localised pre-operatively by ultrasound- 20 of 22 (90.9% palpable testes and 26 of 30 (86.7% non-palpable testes. Intra-operatively, 49 (94.2% of the undescended testes were found while 3 (5.8% were absent/vanishing testes. Ultrasound evaluation had an accuracy of 86.5%, sensitivity of 89.8%, and specificity of 33.3%, PPV of 95.7% and a NPV of 16.7%. Conclusion: Ultrasound assessment is beneficial in pre-operative evaluation of children with undescended testes.

  15. THE POSSIBILITIES OF MR TRACTOGRAPHY IN DIAGNOSTICS OF SYMPTOMATIC EPILEPSY IN CHILDREN WITH DIFFERENT GENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabibulla Aminov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the possibilities of MR tractography in symptomatic epilepsy patients have been presented. We determined the quantitative standards of numerical values of diffusion of white matter in children with symptomatic epilepsy of various etiology. In children with symptomatic epilepsy, the pathological changes of white matter were localized not only in the epileptogenic, but also in the opposite hemisphere. The regions with abnormal white matter FA and ADC values not only matched to limbic circle zones, but also to areas of intra- and interhemispheric connections uniting the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes of the brain. Determining the specific clusters of brain tracts in symptomatic epilepsy, regardless of etiology, is important to predict the prognosis of the disease and the likely possibility of cognitive impairment. The study proved that symptomatic epilepsy is characterized by a variety of changes in the white matter of the brain tracts that lead to the dissociation of certain regions of the brain, interrupting connections between cortical and subcortical regions and inhibiting the transfer of information. It can be concluded, that diffusion-weighted imaging are much more sensitive to the structural and metabolic changes occurring in the brain, in comparison with conventional MRI images.

  16. Review of pathogenesis and diagnostic methods of immediate relevance for epidemiology and control of Salmonella Dublin in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin (S. Dublin) receives increasing attention in cattle production. It is host-adapted to cattle, and leads to unacceptable levels of morbidity, mortality and production losses in both newly and persistently infected herds. Cattle health promoting...... institutions in several countries are currently constructing active surveillance programmes or voluntary certification programmes, and encourage control and eradication of S. Dublin infected cattle herds. There is a need to understand the underlying pathogenesis of the infection at both animal and herd level...... and diagnosis of immediate relevance for epidemiology and control of S. Dublin at animal and herd level. Relatively few in vivo studies on S. Dublin pathogenesis in cattle included more than a few animals and often showed varying result. It makes it difficult to draw conclusions about mechanisms that affect...

  17. The diagnosis of urinary tract infections in young children (DUTY: protocol for a diagnostic and prospective observational study to derive and validate a clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of UTI in children presenting to primary care with an acute illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downing Harriet

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is common in children, and may cause serious illness and recurrent symptoms. However, obtaining a urine sample from young children in primary care is challenging and not feasible for large numbers. Evidence regarding the predictive value of symptoms, signs and urinalysis for UTI in young children is urgently needed to help primary care clinicians better identify children who should be investigated for UTI. This paper describes the protocol for the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract infection in Young children (DUTY study. The overall study aim is to derive and validate a cost-effective clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of UTI in children presenting to primary care acutely unwell. Methods/design DUTY is a multicentre, diagnostic and prospective observational study aiming to recruit at least 7,000 children aged before their fifth birthday, being assessed in primary care for any acute, non-traumatic, illness of ≤ 28 days duration. Urine samples will be obtained from eligible consented children, and data collected on medical history and presenting symptoms and signs. Urine samples will be dipstick tested in general practice and sent for microbiological analysis. All children with culture positive urines and a random sample of children with urine culture results in other, non-positive categories will be followed up to record symptom duration and healthcare resource use. A diagnostic algorithm will be constructed and validated and an economic evaluation conducted. The primary outcome will be a validated diagnostic algorithm using a reference standard of a pure/predominant growth of at least >103, but usually >105 CFU/mL of one, but no more than two uropathogens. We will use logistic regression to identify the clinical predictors (i.e. demographic, medical history, presenting signs and symptoms and urine dipstick analysis results most strongly associated with a positive urine culture result. We will

  18. [Chronic tics and Tourette syndrome in children and adolescents: diagnostic and treatment characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadenko, N N; Doronina, O B; Nesterovsky, Yu E

    2015-01-01

    Chronic tics (CT) are observed in 3-4% population, Tourette syndrome (TS) in 0.1-3.0%. In most cases, tic disorders start at age 2-15 years, but frequently they are diagnosed late. Clinical presentations of tics and comorbid disorders are various and depend on child's age. Difficulties in treatment of CT are associated with their persistence and those for TS with the fluctuating course of tics and probable onset of the disease in the form of behavioral disorders. Treatment of CT and TS is individual. Methods of behavioral and psychotherapy are recommended for a certain period of time if tics do not hamper everyday life. Increase in tick frequency and severity indicate the necessity of using pharmacological treatment. The European recommendations on pharmacotherapy of tic disorders and the drugs available in Russia are considered. Results of the studies on the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs and tenoten children in CT and TS are presented.

  19. Review: amebic liver abscess in children - the role of diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merten, D.F.; Kirks, D.R.

    1984-12-01

    Amebiasis, infection with the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, affects at least 10% of the world's population, with an incidence exceeding 30% in tropical and subtropical regions. Amebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common extraintestinal form of invasive amebiasis and is a serious life-threatening disease in children. Recent experience indicates the prognosis of ALA in childhood to be improved with early identification of abscesses and prompt institution of treatment. The authors incorporate experience with a case of ALA in infancy with a review of current literature (1974-1983) to delineate clinical and radiologic features of ALA in childhood and further define the role of hepatic imaging in the diagnosis and treatment.

  20. The epidemiology and clinical presentation of urinary tract infections in children younger than 2 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, K B; Akintemi, O B

    1999-10-01

    UTI in young infants generally presents with fever. Among the youngest infants, boys and girls are equally affected. The incidence of UTI in uncircumcised boys is comparable with that in girls, whereas the rate in circumcised boys is much lower. Based on gender and race, white girls have the highest incidence of UTI. A full understanding of the epidemiology of UTI is complicated by the presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and by incomplete evidence regarding the significance of scarring and the risk of sequelae.

  1. Epidemiologic study on human immunodeficiency virus infection among children in a former paid plasma donating community in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan; ZHENG Xi-wen; QIAN Han-zhu; L(U) Fan; XING Hui

    2005-01-01

    Background Illegal plasma collecting activities in mid 1990s caused a large number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in rural areas of central-eastern China. Although most of these activities have been stopped, there were few reports on secondary transmission from infected former plasma donors to their spouses and from infected mothers to their children. This study was to determine the extent of HIV infections among young children in a rural community with a large proportion of plasma donors.Methods A survey was conducted among children aged under 7 years in a former plasma donating community in September 2000: finger blood was collected for HIV antibody testing. Another survey was repeated among children aged under 8 years and their families in the same community in April 2001: urine samples were collected for HIV testing. HIV positive children and samples of HIV negative children, whose mothers were positive based on 2001 survey, were followed up until September 2002 to investigate HIV seroconversion, disease progression and HIV strain analysis. Questionnaires were administered to collect information on children's delivery, breast feeding, medical history and their parents' commercial blood donation history and HIV status.Results Among 169 children surveyed in 2000, 10 (5.9%) were HIV positive. Of 224 children, 11 were positive in 2001. The overall prevalence rate in the two surveys was 5.0% (17/337) when counting 56 repeated children only once. Of children born to HIV positive mothers, 28.9% were infected. A seroconversion rate of 2.5 per 100 child-years was observed by following up 28 HIV negative children. No statistically significant associations were found between children's HIV infection and their histories of blood transfusion, surgery, immunization injection or medical injections. All infections were HIV-1 subtype B' strain, the average dispersion rate is 7.4%. DNA sequence analysis showed a close relationship between the seroconverted

  2. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries. PMID:27336001

  3. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries.

  4. Diagnostic value of [{sup 18}F]-FDG PET/CT in children with fever of unknown origin or unexplained signs of inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, Niklas; Daebritz, Jan; Frosch, Michael; Foell, Dirk [University of Muenster, Department of Pediatrics, Muenster (Germany); Loeffler, Markus [University of Muenster, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Clemenshospital, Department of Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Weckesser, Matthias [University of Muenster, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) and unexplained signs of inflammation are challenging medical problems especially in children and predominantly caused by infections, malignancies or noninfectious inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET and PET/CT in the diagnostic work-up in paediatric patients. In this retrospective study, 47 FDG PET and 30 PET/CT scans from 69 children (median age 8.1 years, range 0.2-18.1 years, 36 male, 33 female) were analysed. The diagnostic value of PET investigations in paediatric patients presenting with FUO (44 scans) or unexplained signs of inflammation without fever (33 scans) was analysed. A diagnosis in paediatric patients with FUO or unexplained signs of inflammation could be established in 32 patients (54%). Of all scans, 63 (82%) were abnormal, and of the total number of 77 PET and PET/CT scans 35 (45%) were clinically helpful. In patients with a final diagnosis, scans were found to have contributed to the diagnosis in 73%. Laboratory, demographic or clinical parameters of the children did not predict the usefulness of FDG PET scans. This is the first larger study demonstrating that FDG PET and PET/CT may be valuable diagnostic tools for the evaluation of children with FUO and unexplained signs of inflammation. Depicting inflammation in the whole body, while not being traumatic, it is attractive for use especially in children. The combination of PET with CT seems to be superior, since the site of inflammation can be localized more accurately. (orig.)

  5. Molecular Identification and Epidemiological Features of Human Adenoviruses Associated with Acute Respiratory Infections in Hospitalized Children in Southern China, 2012-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Chen

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory infections (ARI are the major worldwide health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Human adenovirus (HAdV is one of the most common pathogens associated with viral ARI, and thus calls for specific diagnosis and better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical characteristics.Total 4,130 children with ARI requiring hospitalization from 2012 to 2013 were retrospectively studied. Throat swab specimens were collected from each patient. Fluorescence Quantitative PCR was performed to detect adenovirus as well as other common ARI-related pathogens. The seven HAdV hypervariable regions (HVRs of the hexon gene from fifty-seven HAdVs-positive samples collected in the seasonal peaks were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of HVRs was also conducted to confirm the molecular types and genetic variation. In addition, epidemiological features and co-infection with other human respiratory pathogens were investigated and analyzed.Of 4,130 hospitalized pediatric patients tested, the positive rates of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP, and HAdV were 13.7%, 13.2%, and 12.0%, respectively. The HAdV positive patients accounted for 7.9%, 17.2%, 17.5% and 10.7% in age groups <1, 1-3, 3-6 and 6-14 years, respectively. Eighty-four HAdV positive children were co-infected with other respiratory pathogens (84/495, 17.0%. The most common co-infection pathogens with HAdV were MP (57.1% and Human Bocavirus (HBoV (16.7%. The majority of HAdV infected patients were totally recovered (96.9%, 480/495; However, four (0.8% patients, who were previously healthy and at the age of 2 years or younger died of pneumonia. Seasonal peaks of HAdV infection occurred in the summer season of 2012 and 2013; the predominant HAdV type was HAdV-3 (70%, followed by HAdV-7 (28%. These epidemiological features were different from those in Northern China. The HAdV-55 was identified and reported for the first time in Guangzhou

  6. Interrater agreement for the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia epidemiological version for school-age children (K-SADS-E

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    Polanczyk Guilherme V

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: The main objective of this study was to assess the interrater agreement for the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Epidemiological version for School-Age Children (K-SADS-E. METHODS: Four interviewers being trained with the K-SADS-E scored independently 29 videotaped interviews performed with psychiatric outpatients in the ADHD Outpatient Clinic at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Interrater agreement analysis was performed using the kappa coefficient (k. RESULTS: Kappa coefficients were .93 (p<.001 for affective disorders, .9 (p<.001 for anxiety disorders, .94 (p<.001 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders and disruptive behavior disorders. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest an excellent interrater agreement for the diagnosis of several mental disorders in childhood and adolescence by the Brazilian Portuguese version of the K-SADS-E.

  7. Evaluation of Diagnostic Methods in the Differentiation of Heart Murmurs in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begic, Zijo; Dinarevic, Senka Mesihovic; Pesto, Senad; Begic, Edin; Dobraca, Amra; Masic, Izet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The most common clinical sign in pediatric cardiology is a heart murmur (organic and inorganic). Organic are sign of heart disease, while inorganic (basically divided into accidental and functional) murmurs occur on anatomically healthy heart. Aim: To determine the justification of the application of the methods of cardiac treatment. Patients and methods: Study included 116 children aged from 1 to 15 years, who were referred due to cardiac treatment to Pediatric Clinic, of Sarajevo University Clinical Center. Results: The first group consisted of children with innocent heart murmur, 97 (53 males). The second group consisted of patients with organic murmur, 19 (13 males). The average age of the first group was 7.69 (1.01–15.01) years old, and of the second group 3.15 (1.01- 8.06) years old, and there is a significant difference between these two groups (p <0.001). Medical history questions about potentially harmful habits of mother in pregnancy, found significant differences in the frequency of the existence of habits between the first and second groups of subjects (14.44% vs. 85.1%, p = 0.013). The values of the pulse of patients showed statistically significant difference (p = 0.012). The most common place of the murmurs’ appearance is the second left intercostal space. In the first group, the most common were vibratory (32.3%) and ejection (31.9%) and in the second the most common were holosystolic (73.7%) murmur. Analyzing the R/S ratio of V1, a significant difference among the two groups was found (mean 0.78 vs. the values for 1.45, p = 0.003). There is a significance in terms of developed hypertrophy of the heart cavities (BVH) between the two groups. The most common accidental murmur was classic vibratory Still’s murmurs (55.43%) and the most common congenital heart defects was ASD (36.8%). Conclusions: A heart murmur itself, should not be the purpose of auscultation. One of the tasks of pediatricians, pediatric cardiologists in particular

  8. Serum IgA responses against pertussis proteins in infected and Dutch wP or aP vaccinated children: an additional role in pertussis diagnostics.

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    Lotte H Hendrikx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whooping cough is a respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis, which induces mucosal IgA antibodies that appear to be relevant in protection. Serum IgA responses are measured after pertussis infection and might provide an additional role in pertussis diagnostics. However, the possible interfering role for pertussis vaccinations in the induction of serum IgA antibodies is largely unknown. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared serum IgA responses in healthy vaccinated children between 1 and 10 years of age with those in children who despite vaccinations recently were infected with Bordetella pertussis. All children have been vaccinated at 2, 3, 4 and 11 months of age with either the Dutch whole-cell pertussis (wP vaccine or an acellular pertussis (aP vaccine and additionally received an aP booster vaccination at 4 years of age. Serum IgA responses to pertussis toxin (PT, filamentous heamagglutinin (FHA and pertactin (Prn were measured with a fluorescent multiplex bead-based immuno-assay. An ELISPOT-assay was used for the detection of IgA-memory B-cells specific to these antigens. Serum IgA levels to all pertussis vaccine antigens were significantly higher in infected children compared with healthy children. High correlations between anti-PT, anti-FHA or anti-Prn IgA and IgG levels were found in infected children and to some degree in wP primed children, but not at all in aP primed children. Highest numbers of IgA-pertussis-specific memory B-cells were observed after infection and generally comparable numbers were found after wP and aP vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new insight in the diagnostic role for serum IgA responses against PT in vaccinated children. Since aP vaccines induce high serum IgG levels that interfere with pertussis diagnostics, serum IgA-PT levels will provide an additional diagnostic role. High levels of serum IgA for PT proved specific for recent pertussis infection with reasonable

  9. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopic Approaches to Upper Gastrointestinal System Bleeding in Children

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    Fatih Aygün

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ti­on: Upper gastrointestinal system bleeding in children is always very important problems requiring further investigation. The aim of the study was to investigate retrospectively the etiologies of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the therapeutic endoscopic approach to the bleeding, and the efficacy of the endoscopy in the treatment of pediatric age group. Materials and Methods: In this study, 139 (F/M: 63/76 cases diagnosed as upper gastrointestinal bleeding and followed up by the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology were classified into groups according to the age, etiology, the presence of varicose veins, and history of drug ingestion. In addition bleedings caused by peptic ulcer disease were classified according to Forrest classification. Values of p0.68. Discussion: Endoscopic procedure is very useful in both the determination of etiology of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and the treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in childhood. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2012; 10: 1-7

  10. Abdominal pain among children re-evaluation of a diagnostic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hona Zhou; Yi-Chen Chen; Jin-Zhe Zhana

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To re-evaluate the algorithm that has been used forover 40 years for diagnosis of acute abdominal pain amongchildren.METHODS: Among the 937 cases admitted to the surgicalemergency ward in 2000, 656 cases of acute appendicitiswere studied to evaluate the usefulness of the presentalgorithm for its colculated accuracy, false positive and falsenegative rates, the sensitivity and specificity in the instantdiagnosis of various types of acute appendicitis in differentage groups.The algorithm used was established in 1958and revisedror this study in 1999. It includes a 3-step analysisof clinical presentations, i.e.: firstly, a diagnosis of surgicalpain by definite organic abdominal signs; then a diagnosisof the subgroup of surgical condition by special signs; andfinally the diagnosis of the present disease by specific signs.A footnote describes a "comparative technique″ of abdominalexamination in non-cooperative children.RESULTS: The general accuracy of diagnosis was 92.8 %,overall mortality 0.1% among 973 cases of abdominal painin 2000. 373 attending surgeons and 241 residents includingtrainees joined the diagnosis and treatment with noremarkable difference in the results. The incidence of acuteappendicitis, 656 in 973 cases, was 67.4 % representingthe majority of abdominal pain. In the series of 656 cases,the accuracy of diagnosis of acute appendidtis was 93.6 %,false positive 6.4 %, false negative 0.9 %, sensitivity at firstvisit 82.7 %, specificity for appendicitis 98.0 %, no death ordocumentary complication.CONCLUSION: The present algorithm used for diagnosisof acute abdominal pain is effective and preferable inreducing misdiagnosis and maltreatment at emergency. Theuse of some modern technology should be further explored.

  11. Clinical epidemiology of bocavirus, rhinovirus, two polyomaviruses and four coronaviruses in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected South African children.

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    Marta C Nunes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advances in molecular diagnostics have implicated newly-discovered respiratory viruses in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. We aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of human bocavirus (hBoV, human rhinovirus (hRV, polyomavirus-WU (WUPyV and -KI (KIPyV and human coronaviruses (CoV-OC43, -NL63, -HKU1 and -229E among children hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI. METHODS: Multiplex real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was undertaken on archived nasopharyngeal aspirates from HIV-infected and -uninfected children (<2 years age hospitalized for LRTI, who had been previously investigated for respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza I-III, adenovirus and influenza A/B. RESULTS: At least one of these viruses were identified in 274 (53.0% of 517 and in 509 (54.0% of 943 LRTI-episodes in HIV-infected and -uninfected children, respectively. Human rhinovirus was the most prevalent in HIV-infected (31.7% and -uninfected children (32.0%, followed by CoV-OC43 (12.2% and hBoV (9.5% in HIV-infected; and by hBoV (13.3% and WUPyV (11.9% in HIV-uninfected children. Polyomavirus-KI (8.9% vs. 4.8%; p = 0.002 and CoV-OC43 (12.2% vs. 3.6%; p<0.001 were more prevalent in HIV-infected than -uninfected children. Combined with previously-tested viruses, respiratory viruses were identified in 60.9% of HIV-infected and 78.3% of HIV-uninfected children. The newly tested viruses were detected at high frequency in association with other respiratory viruses, including previously-investigated viruses (22.8% in HIV-infected and 28.5% in HIV-uninfected children. CONCLUSIONS: We established that combined with previously-investigated viruses, at least one respiratory virus was identified in the majority of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children hospitalized for LRTI. The high frequency of viral co-infections illustrates the complexities in attributing causality to specific viruses

  12. The Mental Health Care Gap among Children and Adolescents: Data from an Epidemiological Survey from Four Brazilian Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane S Paula; Isabel A. S. Bordin; Jair de Jesus Mari; Luciane Velasque; Rohde, Luis A.; Evandro S F Coutinho

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, a minority of disordered children/adolescents receives mental health assistance. In order to improve service access, it is important to investigate factors that influence the process leading to receiving care. Data on frequency and barriers for mental health service use (MHSU) among Brazilian children/adolescents are extremely scarce and are needed to guide public policy. OBJECTIVES: To establish the frequency of MHSU among 6-to-16-year-old with psychiatric disorders ...

  13. An epidemiological, clinical and genetic survey of Neurofibromatosis type 1 in children under sixteen years of age

    OpenAIRE

    McKeever, Karl; Shepherd, Charles W; Crawford, Hilda; Morrison, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim To identify all cases of Neurofibromatosis type 1 in Northern Ireland under 16 years of age, document age, modes of presentation and any complications that occurred. Methods All cases of Neurofibromatosis type 1 in children less than 16 years of age were identified from the records in the Department of Medical Genetics. From the records and by direct contact with the patient's parents the relevant clinical information was obtained. Results Seventy-five children aged sixteen years or less ...

  14. An epidemiological prospective study of children's health and annoyance reactions to aircraft noise exposure in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabi, Joseph

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate health and annoyance reactions to change in chronic exposure to aircraft noise on a sample of South African children. It was the intention of this study to examine if effects of noise on health and annoyance can be demonstrated. If so, whether such effects persist over time, or whether such effects are reversible after the cessation of exposure to noise. A cohort of 732 children with a mean age of 11.1 (range = 8-14) participated at baseline measurements in Wave 1 (2009), and 649 (mean age = 12.3; range = 9-15) and 174 (mean age = 13.3; range = 10-16) children were reassessed in Wave 2 (2010) and Wave 3 (2011) after the relocation of the airport, respectively. The findings revealed that the children who were exposed to chronic aircraft noise continued to experience significantly higher annoyance than their counterparts in all the waves at school, and only in Wave 1 and Wave 2 at home. Aircraft noise exposure did not have adverse effects on the children's self-reported health outcomes. Taken together, these findings suggest that chronic exposure to aircraft noise may have a lasting impact on children's annoyance, but not on their subjective health rating. This is one of the first longitudinal studies of this nature in the African continent to make use of an opportunity resulting from the relocation of airport. PMID:23823713

  15. An item response theory analysis of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for personality disorders: findings from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Thomas C; Chen, Chiung M; Saha, Tulshi D; Smith, Sharon M; Hasin, Deborah S; Grant, Bridget F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of DSM-IV symptom criteria for assessing personality disorders (PDs) in a national population and to compare variations in proposed symptom coding for social and/or occupational dysfunction. Data were obtained from a total sample of 34,653 respondents from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). For each personality disorder, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) established a 1-factor latent factor structure for the respective symptom criteria. A 2-parameter item response theory (IRT) model was applied to the symptom criteria for each PD to assess the probabilities of symptom item endorsements across different values of the underlying trait (latent factor). Findings were compared with a separate IRT model using an alternative coding of symptom criteria that requires distress/impairment to be related to each criterion. The CFAs yielded a good fit for a single underlying latent dimension for each PD. Findings from the IRT indicated that DSM-IV PD symptom criteria are clustered in the moderate to severe range of the underlying latent dimension for each PD and are peaked, indicating high measurement precision only within a narrow range of the underlying trait and lower measurement precision at lower and higher levels of severity. Compared with the NESARC symptom coding, the IRT results for the alternative symptom coding are shifted toward the more severe range of the latent trait but generally have lower measurement precision for each PD. The IRT findings provide support for a reliable assessment of each PD for both NESARC and alternative coding for distress/impairment. The use of symptom dysfunction for each criterion, however, raises a number of issues and implications for the DSM-5 revision currently proposed for Axis II disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2010).

  16. Endodontic Epidemiology

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    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials.

  17. Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years school going children in Chennai city - An epidemiological study

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    Mahesh Kumar P

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available India, a developing country, faces many challenges in rendering oral health needs. The majority of Indian population resides in rural areas of which more than 40% constitute children. The purpose of this study was to assess the oral health status of 5 years and 12 years school going children in Chennai city. The study population consisted of 1200 school children of both the sexes (600 private and 600 corporation school children in 30 schools, which had been selected randomly. The survey is based on WHO, 1999 Oral Health Assessment, which has been modified by including gingival assessment, enamel opacities/ hypoplasia for 5 years. Evaluation of the oral health status of these children revealed, dental caries is the most prevalent disease affecting permanent teeth, more than primary teeth and more in corporation than in private schools, thereby, correlating with the socioeconomic status. It may be concluded that the greatest need of dental health education is at an early age including proper instruction of oral hygiene practices and school based preventive programs, which would help in improving preventive dental behaviour and attitude which is beneficial for life time.

  18. Diagnosing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children involved with child protection services: are current diagnostic guidelines acceptable for vulnerable populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, B; Damiani-Taraba, G; Koster, A; Campbell, J; Scholz, C

    2015-03-01

    Children involved with child protection services (CPS) are diagnosed and treated for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at higher rates than the general population. Children with maltreatment histories are much more likely to have other factors contributing to behavioural and attentional regulation difficulties that may overlap with or mimic ADHD-like symptoms, including language and learning problems, post-traumatic stress disorder, attachment difficulties, mood disorders and anxiety disorders. A higher number of children in the child welfare system are diagnosed with ADHD and provided with psychotropic medications under a group care setting compared with family-based, foster care and kinship care settings. However, children's behavioural trajectories change over time while in care. A reassessment in the approach to ADHD-like symptoms in children exposed to confirmed (or suspected) maltreatment (e.g. neglect, abuse) is required. Diagnosis should be conducted within a multidisciplinary team and practice guidelines regarding ADHD diagnostic and management practices for children in CPS care are warranted both in the USA and in Canada. Increased education for caregivers, teachers and child welfare staff on the effects of maltreatment and often perplexing relationship with ADHD-like symptoms and co-morbid disorders is also necessary. Increased partnerships are needed to ensure the mental well-being of children with child protection involvement. PMID:24942100

  19. Virología, pruebas diagnósticas, epidemiología y mecanismos de transmisión del VHC Virology, diagnostic tests, epidemiology and transmission mechanisms of Hepatits C virus

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    M. P. Huarte

    2004-01-01

    chain RNA molecule. It is characterised by a high degree of genomic heterogeneity, whose evolutionary consequence in the long term is the appearance of genetically different viral groups, genotypes and quasispecies. There are different diagnostic techniques for detecting hepatitis C virus infection. Serological assays: the detection of specific IgG against HCV by means of enzyme immunoassays is the most practical method for diagnosing infection by this virus. Supplementary immunblot tests are employed to confirm the specificity of the results of the EIA test. Molecular assays: qualitative and quantitative techniques have been developed for detecting RNA-HCV, based on the direct detection of the virions. The pathogeny of hepatitis C is not well understood. Its world prevalence is estimated at some 3%, which is why routine screening for its detection is not recommended. HCV transmission basically occurs through percutaneous exposure to infected blood, with higher rates observed in imprisoned persons, vagabonds, intravenous drug addicts, haemophiliacs and patients on haemodialysis. Although it can be transmitted sexually, it seems that this path is not very efficient, with a greater prevalence observed in persons with multiple sexual partners. Vertical transmission is estimated at some 2%, reaching 20% in cases of maternal coinfection with HIV.

  20. Factors associated with HIV/AIDS diagnostic disclosure to HIV infected children receiving HAART: a multi-center study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Sibhatu Biadgilign

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnostic disclosure of HIV/AIDS to a child is becoming an increasingly common issue in clinical practice. Nevertheless, some parents and health care professionals are reluctant to inform children about their HIV infection status. The objective of this study was to identify the proportion of children who have knowledge of their serostatus and factors associated with disclosure in HIV-infected children receiving HAART in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in five hospitals in Addis Ababa from February 18, 2008-April 28, 2008. The study populations were parents/caretakers and children living with HIV/AIDS who were receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART in selected hospitals in Addis Ababa. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were carried out using SPSS 12.0.1 statistical software. RESULTS: A total of 390 children/caretaker pairs were included in the study. Two hundred forty three children (62.3% were between 6-9 years of age. HIV/AIDS status was known by 68 (17.4% children, 93 (29% caretakers reported knowing the child's serostatus two years prior to our survey, 180 (46.2% respondents said that the child should be told about his/her HIV/AIDS status when he/she is older than 14 years of age. Children less than 9 years of age and those living with educated caregivers are less likely to know their results than their counterparts. Children referred from hospital's in-patient ward before attending the HIV clinic and private clinic were more likely to know their results than those from community clinic. CONCLUSION: The proportion of disclosure of HIV/AIDS diagnosis to HIV-infected children is low. Strengthening referral linkage and health education tailored to educated caregivers are recommended to increase the rate of disclosure.

  1. Clinical epidemiological profile of leprosy in children under 15 years in the city of Juazeiro-BA

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    Igara Cavalcanti Feitosa Luna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of new cases of leprosy in people aged under 15 years, reported to the Municipal Department of Health (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde - SMS of Juazeiro-BA, in the period from 2001 to 2010. Methods: This is a quantitative study, of exploratory and descriptive nature, performed through the analysis of data contained in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação - SINAN, in municipal level. Results: The results showed that 145 (7.94% new cases of leprosy affected people under 15 years. High detection rates were verified for this age group, with predominance in females (n=81; 55.86% and greater occurrence in the age group from 10 to 14 years (n=85; 58.62%. The paucibacillary forms (n=107; 74.48% have predominated over the multibacillary forms of the disease (n=37; 25.52%, being the tuberculoid clinical form (n=80; 55.17% the most prevalent one. The disabilities reached 18 (12.41% of the surveyed patients at the diagnosis time and 15 (10.34% at the hospital discharge time. Many of the cases (n=58; 40.07% were not assessed or were ignored. Conclusion: The clinical and epidemiological profile of the occurrence of new cases of leprosy in Juazeiro-BA showed that both the overall detection coefficients of leprosy as those for people aged under 15 years remained at hyperendemic levels during the surveyed period. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p208

  2. [Snake bite accidents in children in Costa Rica: epidemiology and determination of risk factors in the development of abscess and necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saborío, P; González, M; Cambronero, M

    1998-02-01

    A retrospective epidemiological analysis is presented of 80 snakebites in children admitted to the Pediatrics Service of Tony Facio Hospital in Limón, Costa Rica, between 1985 and 1995. An overall incidence rate of 20 snakebite accidents per 100,000 inhabitants per year was calculated for the region in that period. However, a higher incidence was described in some counties (36 and 30 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in Talamanca and Siquirres, respectively). Most of the cases occurred in February and November, between 16:00 and 19:00 hr. The mean age of the affected children was 8.67 +/- 2.66 years. No significant difference was found between genders. Thirty-three children affected (41.2%) were members of the local indigenous groups and 31 (38.8%) were residents of Talamanca County. The species of snake responsible were identified in 58.4% of cases, with Bothrops asper being the most important. The lower extremities were the most important primary site affected (86.3%). The most common clinical complications described in the study group were abscess formation (11.25%), necrosis (10%), renal failure (3.75%), compartmental syndrome (2.5%) and anaphylactic shock (1.25%). The overall mortality was 2.5%. Statistical analysis of the risk factors relating to the two most common complications showed that the condition of coming from Talamanca County (P = 0.02), damage in the proximal extremities (P = 0.02), a prothrombin time serum fibrinogen levels serum fibrinogen levels < 100 g/dl were associated with development of necrosis. All of the patients with necrosis and abscesses also experienced two or more of the risk factors that correlated with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 67% for the development of abscess, and 87% sensitivity and 88% specificity for necrotic complications. According to these data, snakebite complications are a relevant health problem in Costa Rica. PMID:9620583

  3. Epidemiology of respiratory symptoms in children with Down syndrome: A nationwide prospective web-based parent-reported study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, R.H.J. (Ruud H.J.); R.W.N.M. Hout; E. de Vries (E.)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Children with Down syndrome suffer from recurrent respiratory tract and ear-nose-throat complaints that influence daily life. Little is known about the frequency of these complaints, as well as their relation to co-morbidity and ageing.Methods/design: A prospective web-based

  4. Molecular epidemiology of pneumococcal colonization in response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in children with recurrent acute otitis media.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaert, D.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Sluijter, M.; Wannet, W.J.B.; Rijkers, G.T.; Mitchell, T.J.; Clarke, S.C.; Goessens, W.H.F.; Schilder, A.G.M.; Sanders, E.A.M.; Groot, R. de; Hermans, P.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    A randomized double-blind trial with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was conducted in The Netherlands among 383 children, aged 1 to 7 years, with a history of recurrent acute otitis media. No effect of vaccination on the pneumococcal colonization rate was found. However, a shift in serotyp

  5. The mental health care gap among children and adolescents: data from an epidemiological survey from four Brazilian regions.

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    Cristiane S Paula

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, a minority of disordered children/adolescents receives mental health assistance. In order to improve service access, it is important to investigate factors that influence the process leading to receiving care. Data on frequency and barriers for mental health service use (MHSU among Brazilian children/adolescents are extremely scarce and are needed to guide public policy. OBJECTIVES: To establish the frequency of MHSU among 6-to-16-year-old with psychiatric disorders from four Brazilian regions; and to identify structural/psychosocial/demographic barriers associated with child/adolescent MHSU. METHODS: Multicenter cross-sectional-study involving four towns from four out of five Brazilian regions. In each town, a representative sample of elementary public school students was randomly selected (sample: 1,721. Child/adolescent MHSU was defined as being seen by a psychologist/psychiatrist/neurologist in the previous 12 months. Standardized instruments measured: (1 children/adolescent characteristics [(1.1 Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS-PL-psychiatric disorders; (1.2 Ten Questions Screen-neurodevelopment problems; (1.3 two subtests of WISC-III-estimated IQ; (1.4 Academic Performance Test-school performance], (2 factors related to mothers/main caregivers (Self-Reporting Questionnaire-anxiety/depression, (3 family (Brazilian Research-Companies-Association's Questionnaire-SES. RESULTS: Only 19.8% of children/adolescents with psychiatric disorder have used mental health services in the previous 12 months. Multiple logistic regression modeling identified five factors associated with lower rates of MHSU (female gender, adequate school performance, mother/main caregiver living with a partner, lower SES, residing in deprived Brazilian regions regardless of the presence of any psychiatric disorders/neurodevelopmental problems. CONCLUSIONS: Only a small proportion of children

  6. Structural equation modeling in epidemiology

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    Leila Denise Alves Ferreira Amorim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural equation modeling (SEM is an important statistical tool for evaluating complex relations in several research areas. In epidemiology, the use and discussion of SEM have been limited thus far. This article presents basic principles and concepts in SEM, including an application using epidemiological data analysis from a study on the determinants of cognitive development in young children, considering constructs related to organization of the child's home environment, parenting style, and the child's health status. The relations between the constructs and cognitive development were measured. The results showed a positive association between psychosocial stimulus at home and cognitive development in young children. The article presents the contributions by SEM to epidemiology, highlighting the need for an a priori theoretical model for improving the study of epidemiological questions from a new perspective.

  7. Epidemiology of severe acute respiratory illness (SARI among adults and children aged ≥5 years in a high HIV-prevalence setting, 2009-2012.

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    Cheryl Cohen

    Full Text Available There are few published studies describing severe acute respiratory illness (SARI epidemiology amongst older children and adults from high HIV-prevalence settings. We aimed to describe SARI epidemiology amongst individuals aged ≥5 years in South Africa.We conducted prospective surveillance for individuals with SARI from 2009-2012. Using polymerase chain reaction, respiratory samples were tested for ten viruses, and blood for pneumococcal DNA. Cumulative annual SARI incidence was estimated at one site with population denominators.We enrolled 7193 individuals, 9% (621/7067 tested positive for influenza and 9% (600/6519 for pneumococcus. HIV-prevalence was 74% (4663/6334. Among HIV-infected individuals with available data, 41% of 2629 were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART. The annual SARI hospitalisation incidence ranged from 325-617/100,000 population. HIV-infected individuals experienced a 13-19 times greater SARI incidence than HIV-uninfected individuals (p7 days rather than <2 days (OR1.7; 95%CI:1.2-2.2 and had a higher case-fatality ratio (8% vs 5%;OR1.7; 95%CI:1.2-2.3, but were less likely to be infected with influenza (OR 0.6; 95%CI:0.5-0.8. On multivariable analysis, independent risk indicators associated with death included HIV infection (OR 1.8;95%CI:1.3-2.4, increasing age-group, receiving mechanical ventilation (OR 6.5; 95%CI:1.3-32.0 and supplemental-oxygen therapy (OR 2.6; 95%CI:2.1-3.2.The burden of hospitalized SARI amongst individuals aged ≥5 years is high in South Africa. HIV-infected individuals are the most important risk group for SARI hospitalization and mortality in this setting.

  8. Family-related risk factors of obesity among preschool children: results from a series of national epidemiological surveys in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zong, Xin-Nan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Ya-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Background Family-based child obesity prevention and control strategy has not yet established in many countries or regions, including China, thus what it needs to do now is to continuously develop and improve the strategies. The purpose of this study were to describe a wider spectrum of risk factors of obesity among preschool children and add to the mounting evidence for further improving suggested intervention measures in future family-based programs. Methods Data was collected as part of a ...

  9. Epidemiological criminology

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatović Đorđe

    2015-01-01

    Paper deals with one of so-called „new criminologies“ - specific amalgam composed by criminological and epidemiological experiences. First of all, the author points the main characteristics of these two sciences and their connections. After such explanations, he give examples of famous research in the field of ‘epidemiological criminology’. They show how many important issues in criminology has been neglected until the end of the twentieth century (evaluati...

  10. Endodontic Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  11. Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years old school going children in rural Gurgaon, India: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Mittal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. Hardly any information is available on the oral health status of children in Gurgaon. Thus, the present study was conducted among 5-year-old and 12-years-old children in schools in rural Gurgaon. Materials and Methods: A total of 1003 children were examined of which 619 were in 5 years age group and 384 in 12 years group. The prevalence of dental caries was studied using dentition status and treatment needs index. For dental calculus criteria of Community Periodontal and for dental fluorosis Dean′s index was used. Results: In 5 years age group prevalence of dental caries was 68.5%, dental fluorosis was 22.5% and treatment needs were 63.7%. In 12 year age group prevalence of dental caries was 37.5%, dental fluorosis was 76.04%, highest community periodontal index score was 2, seen in 80.2% and overall treatment needs were 44.3%. Conclusion: Preventive approaches seem to be a viable alternative to tackle the overwhelming problem of dental caries and other oral diseases. Provision of oral health education in schools and school based preventive programs are important for improvement of this situation.

  12. 慈溪市儿童意外伤害流行特征分析%Epidemiological analysis of accidental injuries among children in Cixi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵丽文

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of accidental injuries among children aged 0-6 years in Cixi, and to provide scientific evidence for interventions targeted at children's accidental injuries. Methods The accidental injury cases of children aged 0-6 years were collected from three National Hospital Injury Surveillance Points (NH1SP) in Cixi. New cases were analyzed for the causes of children accidents and other features from 2006 to 2009. Results There were significant more cases in boys (65.04%) than in girls (34.96%) (P<0. 05). The children aged 2-4 years had 52. 62% of the accidents and were at the highest risk of accidental injuries. Animal bites (22. 50%), burn injuries (5.42%) and motor vehicle accidents (5.25%) were among the most frequently reported cases for children aged 0-6 years. Most children injuries occurred at home (58. 28%), followed by on streets (13.96% ). The top three serious injuries reported were contusion abrasion (46. 13 % ), open wounds by sharp injuries or animal bites (30.12 % ), and sprains or strains (7.52 % ). Conclusion Accidental injuries make children's life and health interests at significant risk. It is the responsibility of the whole society to prevent children from accidental injuries.%目的 了解慈溪市0~6岁儿童意外伤害发生的流行特征,为制定有针对性的儿童意外伤害干预措施提供科学依据.方法 收集2006-2009年慈溪市3家国家氏院伤害监测点所有初诊的0-6岁儿童意外伤害病例报告卡片,统计分析儿童意外伤害发生的原因、性质等特征.结果 因意外伤害初诊的儿童7564例,其中男童占65.04%,明显多于女童(34.96%).2-4岁年龄段(52.62%)是0-6岁儿童发生意外伤害的高峰年龄段,儿童发生意外伤害的前三位原因是跌倒和坠落(53.46%),动物咬伤(22.50%)、烧烫伤和机动车车祸(5.42%和5.25%).儿童伤害的发生在家中(58.28%)

  13. Clinical and epidemiological features of respiratory virus infections in preschool children over two consecutive influenza seasons in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamberardin, Heloisa I G; Homsani, Sheila; Bricks, Lucia F; Pacheco, Ana P O; Guedes, Matilde; Debur, Maria C; Raboni, Sonia M

    2016-08-01

    This study reports the results of a systematic screening for respiratory viruses in pediatric outpatients from an emergency department (ED) in southern Brazil during two consecutive influenza seasons. Children eligible for enrollment in this study were aged 24-59 months and presented with acute respiratory symptoms and fever. Naso- and oropharyngeal swabs were collected and multiplex reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was performed to identify the respiratory viruses involved. In total, 492 children were included in this study: 248 in 2010 and 244 in 2011. In 2010, 136 samples (55%) were found to be positive for at least one virus and the most frequently detected viruses were human rhinovirus (HRV) (18%), adenovirus (AdV) (13%), and human coronavirus (CoV) (5%). In 2011, 158 samples (65%) were found to be positive for at least one virus, and the most frequently detected were HRV (29%), AdV (12%), and enterovirus (9%). Further, the presence of asthma (OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.86-5.46) was independently associated with HRV infection, whereas fever was associated with AdV (OR, 3.86; 95% CI, 1.31-16.52) and influenza infections (OR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.26-16.06). Ten patients (2%) were diagnosed with pneumonia, and six of these tested positive for viral infection (4 HRV, 1 RSV, and 1 AdV). Thus, this study identified the most common respiratory viruses found in preschool children in the study region and demonstrated their high frequency, highlighting the need for improved data collection, and case management in order to stimulate preventive measures against these infections. J. Med. Virol. 88:1325-1333, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26773605

  14. Decrease by 50% of plasma IgA tissue transglutaminase antibody concentrations within 2 months after start of gluten-free diet in children with celiac disease used as a confirming diagnostic test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Hermansen, Mette N; Pedersen, Merete F;

    2016-01-01

    gliadin peptides antibody (IgG - DGP) concentrations could be used as a confirming test for CD in children on a gluten-free diet (GFD) when biopsy was omitted in the diagnostic process. METHODS: In this retrospective study we compared children (≤18 years old) with a CD-confirming biopsy (n = 16...

  15. [Pedophilia: etiology, diagnostics and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromberger, P; Jordan, K; Müller, J L

    2013-09-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the most destructive events for healthy child development. Following psychiatric classification systems, pedophilia must be distinguished from child sexual abuse. Approximately only one half of all child abusers fulfill the diagnostic criteria for pedophilia which is defined as a persistent or dominating sexual preference for prepubescent children characterized by persistent thoughts, fantasies, urges, sexual arousal or behavior. This article describes the diagnostic criteria and potential differential diagnoses as well as epidemiological and etiological findings. From an etiological point of view multifactorial mechanisms are currently considered to be responsible especially genetic factors, learning theoretical and neurobiological factors. Psychotherapeutic and pharmaceutical treatment options will be discussed. According to the current state of knowledge cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy is the method of choice in the treatment of pedophilia and has demonstrated positive treatment effects in meta-analyses regarding relapse prevention. Medicinal treatment of pedophilia is only indicated for severe forms of pedophilia. Important aspects of risk management in the treatment of pedophilia and aspects which must be considered in the forensic psychiatric assessment are presented.

  16. Prevalence and epidemiology of autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, Kirsten Muri

    2002-08-01

    The incidence and characteristics of AIH differ in various geographic regions. Based on limited epidemiologic studies, the incidence of type 1 AIH among Caucasoid populations of Europe and North America ranges from 0.1 to 1.9/100,000/year. The disease is considerably less frequent in Japan. The relative proportion of AIH among cases with chronic hepatitis is low in regions with a high prevalence of viral hepatitis. Type 2 AIH is more frequent in southern Europe than in northern Europe, the United States, and Japan. The occurrence of anti-SLA/LP is also higher in European than in Japanese patients with type 1 AIH. The frequency of HLA markers that affect susceptibility to AIH varies between ethnic groups. DRB1*0301 (DR3) and DRB1*0401 (DR4) are the major risk factors for type 1 AIH in white European and North American populations. DRB1*0405 (DR4) is the principal risk factor in Japanese and adult Argentine patients with type 1 AIH, and DRB1*0404 (DR4) is the main susceptibility allele in Mestizo Mexicans. Children may have different clinical manifestations than adults, and the diagnoses of type 2 AIH, autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis, and APS1 should be considered. Uniform application of diagnostic criteria formulated by the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group should strengthen future epidemiologic studies and extend awareness of AIH to yet unstudied minority groups.

  17. The diagnostic value of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor compared with C-reactive protein and procalcitonin in children with febrile neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirinoglu, Melis; Soysal, Ahmet; Karaaslan, Ayşe; Kepenekli Kadayifci, Eda; Cinel, Ismail; Koç, Ahmet; Tokuç, Gülnur; Yaman, Ali; Haklar, Goncagül; Şirikçi, Önder; Turan, Serap; Altınkanat Gelmez, Gülşen; Söyletir, Güner; Bakır, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the diagnostic value of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia. A prospective case-control study was performed. Patients included 29 children with febrile neutropenia (FN) and 27 control subjects without any infection or immunosuppressive condition. Blood samples were obtained on the day of admission and on the 4th to 7th days of the hospital stay. The median (minimum-maximum) serum levels of suPAR obtained on the first day of the admission were 2.08 (0.93-9.42) and 2.22 (1.08-5.13) ng/mL for the FN group and the control group, respectively. The median serum levels of suPAR in the FN and control groups were not significantly different (P = .053). The mean serum suPAR level was significantly higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors in the FN group (P < .05). In the FN group, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUCROC) for suPAR was 0.546, but no optimum cutoff value, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), or positive predictive value (PPV) was obtained. We conclude that suPAR is not useful as a diagnostic biomarker in children with febrile neutropenia; however, persistent high serum suPAR level may predict mortality in FN in children. PMID:27057782

  18. Metabolic syndrome in overweight children from the city of Botucatu - São Paulo State - Brazil: agreement among six diagnostic criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldi Ana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome has been described in children; however, a standard criterion has not been established for its diagnosis. Also, few studies have been conducted to specifically observe the possible existence of agreement among the existing diagnostic criteria. The purpose of the study is to evaluate agreement concerning prevalence rates of the metabolic syndrome diagnosed by six different criteria in overweight schoolchildren in the city of Botucatu - SP -Brazil. Methods This is a cross-sectional study on 128 overweight schoolchildren. Clinical examination included anthropometry, pubertal staging evaluation, and blood pressure. Triacylglycerol, glycemia, HDL-cholesterol, insulin levels, and HOMA-IR were determined. The Kappa index, the Mann-Whitney test and the chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome varied from 10 to 16.5% according to different diagnostic criteria. Results were similar for boys and girls and pubertal stage. Great agreement was observed among the six different diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Different diagnostic criteria, when adopted for subjects with similar demographic characteristics, generate similar and compatible prevalence. Results suggest that it is possible to adopt any of the analyzed criteria, and the choice should be according to the components available for each situation.

  19. 从临床流行病学调查探讨肝气郁结辨证标准%Study of Diagnostic Criteria of Hepatic Depression Syndrome through Clinical Epidemiologic Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢宇霞; 吴润秋

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the diagnostic criteria of hepatic depression syndrome(HDS) through clinical epidemiologic survey.Methods: By using the method of epidemiologic cluster sampling ,we should find the cases complicated with HDS from aii the hospitalized cases of January 2000 to December 2001 of Hunan University of TCM First Affiliated Hospital, Second Affiliated Hospital and the Third Affiliated Hospital and fill out survey forms ,count and analyze the datas by using SPSS statistical analysis software.Result: Among the common symptoms of 612 cases complicated with HDS,distending pain in the chest and hypochondrium,breast and lateral lower abdomen were 481 cases(78.59% ) ,lack of appetite were 450 cases(73.53% ) ,fatigue were 407 cases( 66.50% ) and the latter two were ranked the second and third.But among all the cases, the symptoms of sense of pharyngeal obstruction(0.33% ) and top of headache pain(0.16% ) were only 2 cases and the symptoms of dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhea or irregular menstrual cycle mainly in gynecological diseases(2.61% )were 16 cases.Conclusion: the symptoms of lack of appetite and fatigue should be the main symptoms and included in the diagnostic criteria of HDS, but the symptoms of sense of pharyngeal obstruction , top of headache pain and dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhea or irregular menstrual cycle should be the minor symptoms of HDS.The method is an effective way to study syndrome of TCM.It is objective,truthful and consistent with the clinical situation.%目的:通过临床流行病学调查,探讨肝气都结辨证标准.方法:采用流行病学整群抽样法,从湖南中医药大学第一附属医院第二附属医院及第三附属医院2000年1月-2001年12月所有住院病例中,查找临床中医证候诊断属肝气郁结及其兼证者,填写调查表格,运用SPSS软件进行统计分析.结果:本组612例肝气郁结及相兼证候病例的常见症状中,胸胁、乳房、少腹胀痛481例,占78.59%;纳差450例,占73

  20. The Diagnostic Accuracy of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision for 9- to 12-Year-Old Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerry, David C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Two groups (learning disabled and normal) of 15 children were administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Considering abnormal or borderline profiles as indicative of learning disability was 93.3 percent accurate in discriminating between groups.…

  1. Clinical association between teeth malocclusions, wrong posture and ocular convergence disorders: an epidemiological investigation on primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestrini-Biavati Armando

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the various systems in the body are inter-connected to form a single structural unit, a pathological condition in one area can also affect other areas. There are many known correlations between the visual and motor system. The importance of visual function, particularly the paracentral peripheral field of view, in motor coordination, ambulation and the maintenance of balance has been amply demonstrated. In line with current medical principles, which are moving towards a more holistic view of the human body, this study aims to investigate, in an interdisciplinary manner, the incidence of dental malocclusions together with posture and eye convergence disorders. Methods Six hundred and five children attending at the 3rd, 4th and 5th years of seven Genoa primary schools were examined. Each child underwent the following examinations: (i dental/occlusal; (ii orthoptic; and (iii postural. Occlusal data concerned the presence of cross-bite, midline deviation with a mandibular shift, bad habits and deep or open bite. Postural assessment involved frontal and lateral inspection, investigation during trunk flexion and ambulation, and note of any asymmetry in the lower limbs. The recorded orthoptic data included those pertaining to ocular dominance, a cover test, convergence and the Brock string test. Results A prevalence of cases with an unphysiological gait was found in patients with overjet (14.70% or overbite (14.87%, while the percentage of patients with normal occlusion that showed an unphysiological gait was 13.08%. Also, about 93.8%–94.2% of children showed normal legs without dysmetry, with no difference in respect to the type of occlusion. Subjects with an open bite or deep bite showed a slightly different distribution of right or left dominant eyes. Conclusion About 13% of children showed a pathological gait and, among them, vertical anomalies of occlusion (deep bite or open bite were prevalent with respect to the other

  2. Diagnostic Value of Prospective Electrocardiogram-triggered Dual-source Computed Tomography Angiography for Infants and Children with Interrupted Aortic Arch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Ou Li; Xi-Ming Wang; Pei Nie; Xiao-Peng Ji; Zhao-Ping Cheng; Jiu-Hong Chen; Zhuo-Dong Xu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Accurate assessment of intra-as well as extra-cardiac malformations and radiation dosage concerns are especially crucial to infants and children with interrupted aortic arch (IAA).The purpose of this study is to investigate the value of prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) angiography with low-dosage techniques in the diagnosis of IAA.Methods:Thirteen patients with suspected IAA underwent prospective ECG-triggered DSCT scan and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE).Surgery was performed on all the patients.A five-point scale was used to assess image quality.The diagnostic accuracy ofDSCT angiography and TTE was compared with the surgical findings as the reference standard.A nonparametric Chi-square test was used for comparative analysis.P<0.05 was considered as a significant difference.The mean effective radiation dose (ED) was calculated.Results:Diagnostic DSCT images were obtained for all the patients.Thirteen IAA cases with 60 separate cardiovascular anomalies were confirmed by surgical findings.The diagnostic accuracy of TTE and DSCT for total cardiovascular malformations was 93.7% and 97.9% (P>0.05),and that for extra-cardiac vascular malformations was 92.3% and 99.0% (P < 0.05),respectively.The mean score of image quality was 3.77 ± 0.83.The mean ED was 0.30 ± 0.04 mSv (range from 0.23 mSv to 0.39 mSv).Conclusions:In infants and children with IAA,prospective ECG-triggered DSCT with low radiation exposure and high diagnostic efficiency has higher accuracy compared to TTE in detection of extra-cardiac vascular anomalies.

  3. Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Respiratory Infections Due to Adenovirus in Children Living in Milan, Italy, during 2013 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Zampiero, Alberto; Bianchini, Sonia; Mori, Alessandro; Scala, Alessia; Tagliabue, Claudia; Sciarrabba, Calogero Sathya; Fossali, Emilio; Piralla, Antonio; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the predominant human adenovirus (HAdV) species and types associated with pediatric respiratory infections, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from otherwise healthy children attending an emergency room in Milan, Italy, due to a respiratory tract infection from January 1 to February 28 of two subsequent years, 2013 and 2014. The HAdVs were detected using a respiratory virus panel fast assay (xTAG RVP FAST v2) and with a HAdV-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction; their nucleotides were sequenced, and they were tested for positive selection. Among 307 nasopharyngeal samples, 61 (19.9%) tested positive for HAdV. HAdV was the only virus detected in 31/61 (50.8%) cases, whereas it was found in association with one other virus in 25 (41.0%) cases and with two or more viruses in 5 (8.2%) cases. Human Enterovirus/human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus were the most common co-infecting viral agents and were found in 12 (19.7%) and 7 (11.5%) samples, respectively. Overall, the HAdV strain sequences analyzed were highly conserved. In comparison to HAdV-negative children, those infected with HAdV had a reduced frequency of lower respiratory tract involvement (36.1% vs 55.2%; p = 0.007), wheezing (0.0% vs 12.5%; p = 0.004), and hospitalization (27.9% vs 56.1%; p<0.001). Antibiotic therapy and white blood cell counts were more frequently prescribed (91.9% vs 57.1%; p = 0.04) and higher (17,244 ± 7,737 vs 9,565 ± 3,211 cells/μL; p = 0.04), respectively, in children infected by HAdV-C than among those infected by HAdV-B. On the contrary, those infected by HAdV-B had more frequently lower respiratory tract involvement (57.1% vs 29.7%) but difference did not reach statistical significant (p = 0.21). Children with high viral load were absent from child care attendance for a longer period of time (14.5 ± 7.5 vs 5.5 ± 3.2 days; p = 0.002) and had higher C reactive protein levels (41.3 ± 78.5 vs 5.4 ± 9.6 μg/dL; p = 0.03). This study has shown that

  4. Non-capsulated and capsulated Haemophilus influenzae in children with acute otitis media in Venezuela: a prospective epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naranjo Laura

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and Streptococcus pneumoniae are major causes of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM. Data regarding AOM are limited in Latin America. This is the first active surveillance in a private setting in Venezuela to characterize the bacterial etiology of AOM in children Methods Between December 2008 and December 2009, 91 AOM episodes (including sporadic, recurrent and treatment failures were studied in 87 children enrolled into a medical center in Caracas, Venezuela. Middle ear fluid samples were collected either by tympanocentesis or spontaneous otorrhea swab sampling method. Standard laboratory and microbiological techniques were used to identify bacteria and test for antimicrobial resistance. The results were interpreted according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI 2009 for non-meningitis isolates. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.1 and Microsoft Excel (for graphical purposes. Results Overall, bacteria were cultured from 69.2% (63 of the 91 episodes; at least one pathogen (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. pyogenes or M. catarrhalis was cultured from 65.9% (60/91 of episodes. H. influenzae (55.5%; 35/63 episodes and S. pneumoniae (34.9%; 22/63 episodes were the most frequently reported bacteria. Among H. influenzae isolates, 62.9% (22/35 episodes were non-capsulated (NTHi and 31.4% (11/35 episodes were capsulated including types d, a, c and f, across all age groups. Low antibiotic resistance for H. influenzae was observed to amoxicillin/ampicillin (5.7%; 2/35 samples. NTHi was isolated in four of the six H. influenzae positive samples (66.7% from recurrent episodes. Conclusions We found H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae to be the main pathogens causing AOM in Venezuela. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines with efficacy against these bacterial pathogens may have the potential to maximize protection against AOM.

  5. 江西省儿童动物致伤流行病学调查%Epidemiological Survey of Animal - related Injuries Among Children in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金锦扬; 徐菲; 朱丽萍; 余平

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解江西省儿童动物致伤流行水平和相关危险因素.方法 采用三阶段、分层、整群的抽样方法,采取入户问卷调查法进行调查.结果 0~17周岁儿童动物致伤发生率为1.93%,男性明显高于女性,各年龄组以5~9岁组发生率最高.农村动物致伤发生率为2.09%,城市为1.21%.全年发生高峰为8月、9月和10月.动物致伤给儿童带来的伤害程度,“就诊/休息1d及以上”占各种严重程度构成的97.84%.儿童动物致伤的主要动物是狗,占86.83%;受到伤害的主要方式是被咬伤,占93.73%.结论 加强对狗的饲养和登记管理,强制实行狂犬疫苗接种措施.加强宣传教育,提高儿童的自我防范意识,降低动物致伤的发生率.%Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of animal- related injuries in children of Jiangxi Province. Methods The objects were seleeted by three- stage stratified cluster sampling, and household questionnaire survey was conducted. Results The incidence rate of animal - related injuries in children aged between 0 and 17 years was 1.93 %, and the rate of boys was significantly higher than that of girls. The incidence rate of the age group of 5 - 9 years was the highest. The incidence rates in rural and urban areas were 2.09% and 1- 21 % , respectively. The peak time of animal - related injuries was from August to October. As for various degrees of injuries induced by animals in children, the proportion of visiting/taking one day's rest or more accounted for 97. 84%. The main animals that induced injuries in children were dogs, accounting for 86.83%. The main hurt type was bite, accounting for 93.73%. Conclusions The management of dogs' feeding and registration should be strengthened. Mandatory rabies vaccination shouid be implenented. Publicity and education should be enhanced so as to improve children's self - protection consciousness and reduce the incidence rate of animal - related

  6. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF SERUM INSULIN—LIKE GROWTH FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN—3 IN CHILDREN WITH OR WITHOUT GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENCY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃舒文; 史轶蘩; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To study the value of serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels in differential diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency(GHD).Methods:To measure serum IGFBP-3 levels by RIA in normal children and adolescents,GHD children and short-stature children without (GHD).Methods:To measure serum IGFBP-3 levels by RIA in normal children and adolescents,GHD children and short-stature children without GHD.Results.Serum level of IGFBP-3 in 129 children with untreated GHD and with no pubertal development was 1.6±0.9mg/L,which was less than that in normal group of the same age,but overlapped with the normal children in Tanner stage I.After six-month treatment with recombinant human growth hormone(rhGH),serum level of IGFBP-3 in 59 GHD significantly increased from 1.3±0.7mg/L to 2.7±0.9mg/L,accompanied by an increase of body heights,growth velocities and serum level of IGF-1.Serum level of IGFBP-3 in 55 shortstature children without GHD was 3.3±2.2mg/L,which was not significantly different from that in normal group.Conclusion:Serum IGFBP-3 level can reflect the status of GH secretion in children with GHD and is a useful marker for differential diagnosis of GHD.

  7. Children with Generalised Joint Hypermobility and Musculoskeletal Complaints: State of the Art on Diagnostics, Clinical Characteristics, and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Scheper, M. C.; Engelbert, R. H. H.; E. A. A. Rameckers; J. Verbunt; Remvig, L.; Juul-Kristensen, B

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. To provide a state of the art on diagnostics, clinical characteristics, and treatment of paediatric generalised joint hypermobility (GJH) and joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS). Method. A narrative review was performed regarding diagnostics and clinical characteristics. Effectiveness of treatment was evaluated by systematic review. Searches of Medline and Central were performed and included nonsymptomatic and symptomatic forms of GJH (JHS, collagen diseases). Results. In the las...

  8. Usefulness of sup(99m)Tc-DTPA renogram in the functional and diagnostic evaluations of chronic renal insufficiency in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsueda, Y.; Hiraiwa, M.; Meguro, H.; Fujii, R. (Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1980-09-01

    As there are some difficulties in the performance of renal biopsy and intravenous pyelography is of little use in children with chronic renal insufficiency, we evaluated the usefulness of sup(99m)Tc-DTPA renogram in two children. The causes of the renal insufficiency presented were obstructive congenital anomalies and chronic pyelonephritis in one patient and polycystic kidneys in the other. As expected, intravenous pyelography poorly visualized in the upper urinary tracts of both the cases examined. Sup(99m)Tc-DTPA renogram gave us distinct image for the diagnosis of the kidneys and urinary tracts, and the individual renal functions were clarified as well. It was apparently superior to the combined use of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renoscintigram and /sup 131/I-Hippuran renogram in both the imaging and functional evaluations. In such cases as are reported herein, sup(99m)Tc-DTPA renogram might be a useful alternative to several other diagnostic tests.

  9. An epidemiological study of food intolerance in 2434 children%儿童食物不耐受临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小娟; 竺婷婷; 曾蓉; 常莉; 李丰益; 李文胜; 江咏梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of intolerance to 14 foods in children and the relationship between food intolerance and disease of various systems.Methods Serum samples of 2434 children with diseases were collected for food intolerance testing between January 2009 and October 2012.Allergen-specific IgG antibodies to 14 foods were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.The children' s intolerance to different foods and its relationship with age,sex and disease of various systems were analyzed.Results Among these children,positive rates of intolerance to milk and eggs were as high as 74.16% and 66.47% respectively,while positive rates of intolerance to chicken and pork were relatively low (0.29% and 0.21% respectively).The overall positive rates of food intolerance were 12.579% and 12.470% in males and females respectively.For infants,the highest intolerance rate was to milk; for preschool and school-age children,the highest intolerance rates were to milk and eggs respectively; for children in adolescence,the highest intolerance rate was to eggs.Among children with food intolerance involving single system,those with developmental abnormality or immune system disease had the highest overall positive rate of food intolerance.Children with double-system diseases had an overall positive rate of food intolerance as high as 13.393%.Among the children involving various systems,the positive rate of intolerance to milk and eggs were higher than other food.Conclusions Factors influencing food intolerance in children include food categories and age.There may be a relationship between food intolerance and disease of various systems,and this is significant to the growth and development of children.%目的 探讨儿童对14种食物不耐受情况的分布及与各系统疾病间的关系.方法 收集从2009年1月至2012年10月进行食物不耐受检测的2434例儿童血清标本,采用酶联免

  10. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, T.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy. Epidemiology This thesis shows that the prevalence of self-reported adverse food reactions in children and adults was high: 17-25% for all foods and 10-11% for 24 preselected, so-called priority foods. The prevalence o

  11. EPIDEMIOLOGY, ETIOPATHOLOGY AND DIAGNOSTIC OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vlad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC is among the most common of solid human malignancies, with an annual incidence of 100.000 new cases. The worldwide distribution of HCC is not uniform, the highest rates are found in Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharian Africa. The HCC imcidence in Romania varies between 4-10 cases to 100.000 inhabitants per year. HCC is more likely to develop in men than in women, the sex ratio being approximately 8:1 in high-incidence areas. Chronic hepatitis B virus and C virus have been implicated as important etiologic factors in the development of HCC, being responsable for 80% of the cases. The most of the carcinomas are developped on the cirrhotic liver. A number of other risk factors also are involved in HCC: diabetes mellitus, obesity, chronic ethilism, oral contraceptives, smoking and dietary intake of aphlatoxines. HCC is usually diagnosed at a late stage. The clinical presentation are not typical, suggesting only the basic liver pathology. Ultrasounds, CT- scan and MRI confirm the presence of a mass in the liver. Alfa-fetoprotein (AFP, alfa-fetoprotein L3 fraction and des-gammacarboxiprotrombina (also known as PIVKA II test are considered as serological markers for HCC. The indication of screening is for the patients with liver cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis B and/ or C virus. The level of AFP and liver ultrasounds are mandatory to be done as screening tests to every 6 months to the risk patients.

  12. Diagnostics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolligs, Frank T

    2016-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Main risk factors include advanced age, family history, male sex, and lifestyle factors. Screening can reduce incidence and death from colorectal cancer. Therefore, prevention and early detection are crucial in order to detect and remove pre-neoplastic adenomas and to detect cancers at early stages. Colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and fecal occult blood tests are established tools for screening. Newer fecal immunochemical tests reveal higher sensitivities for advanced adenoma and cancer than guaiac-based hemoccult tests. Molecular stool and blood tests as well as virtual colonoscopy and colon capsule endoscopy are promising new developments so far not established as routine instruments for the prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy is the method of choice for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and for adenoma removal. Prognosis is essentially dependent on the tumor stage at the time of the initial diagnosis. Proper staging based on imaging prior to therapy is a prerequisite. In rectal cancer, local staging is an essential requirement for the identification of appropriate candidates for neoadjuvant therapy. PMID:27493942

  13. Epidemiological causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  14. Epidemiological survey of injuries among children of Qingdao City%青岛市2010-2011年儿童伤害流行病学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田小草

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解青岛市0~14岁儿童的伤害流行特征,为制定儿童伤害的预防策略提供参考.方法 对2010-2011年青岛市监测点医院0 ~ 14岁儿童伤害病例的监测数据进行整理与分析.结果 2010-2011年共报告16 647例儿童伤害病例,男、女性别比为1.90:1.第三季度伤害发生率最高,9:00,10:00和17:00是伤害发生的高峰.伤害发生的主要原因是跌倒/坠落、动物伤、交通伤、钝器伤和烧烫伤.动物伤主要发生在5岁~,钝器伤和刀/锐器伤主要发生在10~14岁,烧烫伤主要发生在0岁~.发生地点主要是家中、学校与公共场所和公路/街道.伤害多发部位为上肢、头部和下肢,重度伤害以头部多发.结论 伤害严重影响着0 ~14岁儿童的健康.应采取多部门合作的方式,有针对性地开展儿童伤害干预,减少儿童伤害的发生.%Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of injury among the children aged 0 - 14 in Qingdao city. Methods The surveillance data of injuries of children aged 0-14 from 2010 to 2011 in Qingdao city were collected and analyzed. Results There were 16 647 injured children in total, and the ratio of boys to girls was 1. 90: 1. The third quarter had the highest incidence and 9:00 am, 10:00 am and 5:00 pm were peaks in a day. The main reasons were falling, animal injury, traffic accident, blunt injury and burn injury. Animal injury mainly occurred in 5 to 9 years old, blunt and sharp injury mainly occurred in 10 to 14 years old and burns mainly occurred in 0 -4 years old. The main places of injury were home, school and street. The common damaged parts were upper limb, head and lower limb, and head was the main part of severe injuries. Conclusion Injury seriously affect the health of children, so multidepartments cooperation should be taken to carry out pertinent intervention to prevent the injury of children.

  15. Diagnostic Value of the Urine Mucus Test in Childhood Masturbation among Children below 12 Years of Age: A Cross-Sectional Study from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarin Keihani Doust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood masturbation (CM is considered a variant of normal sexual behavior; however, it is commonly misdiagnosed as epilepsy and movement disorders. As the first study from Iran, we analyzed a large population of infants and children with CM in a case-control study and evaluated the value of mucus in urine analysis as an alternative diagnostic tool for CM. Methods: A total of 623 children referred to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital for an evaluation of seizure or movement disorders were studied between 2008 and 2011. Totally, 359 children were found to have masturbatory behaviors (Group A and the rest (264 were assigned to Group B. CM was diagnosed by direct observation. Collected data comprised demographic characteristics, clinical and neurodevelopmental examinations, laboratory findings (particularly urine analysis, and electrocardiography. Results: The age of the children with CM was below 12 years old, and the girl-to-boy ratio was 7:1. Mucus in urine was positive in 357 (99.44% children in Group A and 22 (8.3% in Group B (P<0.001. A significant correlation was found between the presence of mucus in urine and masturbatory behaviors (P<0.001. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the presence of mucus in urine can be used as an alternative laboratory test in children with CM below 12 years old and even in infants (≤24 months old. Further studies are needed to confirm the results.

  16. The epidemiology of pharmacologically treated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Suzanne

    2012-06-19

    AbstractBackgroundAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by the symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. ADHD was once perceived as a condition of childhood only; however increasing evidence has highlighted the existence of ADHD in older adolescents and adults. Estimates for the prevalence of ADHD in adults range from 2.5–4%. Few data exist on the prescribing trends of the stimulants methylphenidate and dexamfetamine, and the non-stimulant atomoxetine in the UK. The aim of this study was to investigate the annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care.MethodsThe Health Improvement Network (THIN) database was used to identify all patients aged over 6 years with a diagnosis of ADHD\\/hyperkinetic disorder and a prescription for methylphenidate, dexamfetamine or atomoxetine from 2003–2008. Annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD were calculated by age category and sex.ResultsThe source population comprised 3,529,615 patients (48.9% male). A total of 118,929 prescriptions were recorded for the 4,530 patients in the pharmacologically treated ADHD cohort during the 6-year study. Prevalence (per 1000 persons in the mid-year THIN population) increased within each age category from 2003 to 2008 [6–12 years: from 4.8 (95% CI: 4.5–5.1) to 9.2 (95% CI: 8.8–9.6); 13–17 years: from 3.6 (95% CI: 3.3–3.9) to 7.4 (95% CI: 7.0–7.8); 18–24 years: from 0.3 (95% CI: 0.2–0.3) to 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0–1.3); 25–45 years: from 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01–0.03) to 0.08 (95% CI: 0.06–0.10); >45 years: from 0.01 (95% CI: 0.00–0.01) to 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01–0.03). Whilst male patients aged 6-12 years had the highest prevalence; the relative increase in prescribing was higher amongst female patients of the same age - the increase in prevalence in females aged 6–12 years was 2.1 fold

  17. The epidemiology of pharmacologically treated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Suzanne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by the symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. ADHD was once perceived as a condition of childhood only; however increasing evidence has highlighted the existence of ADHD in older adolescents and adults. Estimates for the prevalence of ADHD in adults range from 2.5–4%. Few data exist on the prescribing trends of the stimulants methylphenidate and dexamfetamine, and the non-stimulant atomoxetine in the UK. The aim of this study was to investigate the annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care. Methods The Health Improvement Network (THIN database was used to identify all patients aged over 6 years with a diagnosis of ADHD/hyperkinetic disorder and a prescription for methylphenidate, dexamfetamine or atomoxetine from 2003–2008. Annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD were calculated by age category and sex. Results The source population comprised 3,529,615 patients (48.9% male. A total of 118,929 prescriptions were recorded for the 4,530 patients in the pharmacologically treated ADHD cohort during the 6-year study. Prevalence (per 1000 persons in the mid-year THIN population increased within each age category from 2003 to 2008 [6–12 years: from 4.8 (95% CI: 4.5–5.1 to 9.2 (95% CI: 8.8–9.6; 13–17 years: from 3.6 (95% CI: 3.3–3.9 to 7.4 (95% CI: 7.0–7.8; 18–24 years: from 0.3 (95% CI: 0.2–0.3 to 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0–1.3; 25–45 years: from 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01–0.03 to 0.08 (95% CI: 0.06–0.10; >45 years: from 0.01 (95% CI: 0.00–0.01 to 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01–0.03. Whilst male patients aged 6-12 years had the highest prevalence; the relative increase in prescribing was higher amongst female patients of the same age - the increase in prevalence in females aged 6–12 years was 2

  18. The Development of a Diagnostic Instrument to Measure Social Information Processing in Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.; Scheepmaker, M.; Smit, M.; Porton, E.

    2011-01-01

    A growing interest exists in the measuring of social adaptive functioning in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID), but valid instruments to measure this construct are lacking. The aim of the present study was to develop such an instrument and to examine it on its discriminate validity. In 141 children aged 8-12 years a…

  19. Central Motor Conduction Studies and Diagnostic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Children with Severe Primary and Secondary Dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Verity; Mills, Kerry; Siddiqui, Ata; Selway, Richard; Lin, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Dystonia in childhood has many causes. Imaging may suggest corticospinal tract dysfunction with or without coexistent basal ganglia damage. There are very few published neurophysiological studies on children with dystonia; one previous study has focused on primary dystonia. We investigated central motor conduction in 62 children (34 males, 28…

  20. Free insulin-like growth factor I serum levels in 1430 healthy children and adults, and its diagnostic value in patients suspected of growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Holm, K; Kastrup, K W;

    1997-01-01

    fraction of the total IGF-I circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. However, our knowledge of the clinical or physiological value of determination of free IGF-I in serum is limited at present. In adults, the diagnostic value of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3......, unmeasurable free IGF-I values in 34 of the prepubertal children (3.3%). All individuals over 8 yr of age had measurable free IGF-I levels that amounted to approximately 1% of the total IGF-I concentrations. Free IGF-I levels were below--2 SD in 56 of 79 GHD patients (sensitivity, 71%) and above--2 SD in 24...... determinations in patients suspected of GHD has only been reported in a few studies, whereas no previous reports on the diagnostic value of free IGF-I levels in adults suspected of GHD exist. Serum levels of free IGF-I were determined in 1430 healthy children, adolescents, and adults by a newly developed...

  1. Frequency and diagnostic significance of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACCP and anti-modified citrullinated vimentin antibodies (AMCV in children with early juvenile arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S O Salugina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine frequency of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACCP and anti-modified citrullinated vimentin antibodies (AMCV elevation and their diagnostic significance in children with early juvenile arthritis (JA. Material and methods. ACCP were evaluated in serum of 80 pts with early JA (36 girls, 44 boys, mean age 8,5±5,03 years, AMCV — in 85 pts with early JA (49 girls and 36 boys aged from 1,5 to 16 years (mean age 8,7±4,9 years. Disease duration in all children was less than 6 months. Control group included 54 grown up pts with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA, 27 - with undifferentiated arthritis (UDA and 37 conditionally healthy children. АССР was assessed by immuno-enzyme assay (IEA with commercial kits “Axis Shield Diagnostics" (Great Britain, upper normal limit 5,0 U/ml. AMCV was examined by IEA with commercial kits “Orgentec Diagnostics” (Germany, upper normal limit — 25 U/ml. Results. ACCP was elevated in 7 children with early JA (8,8%. Frequency was higher than in healthy children but lower than in grown up pts with early RA and comparable with UDA. In juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA ACCP were more frequent than in juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA. Concentration was higher in rheumatoid factor (RF positive pts with polyarticular JA. AMCV level was elevated in in 23 (27,1% pts with early JA (more frequent than in healthy donors but less frequent than in grown up pts with early RA and UDA. AMCV was significantly more frequent in JRA than in JCA and in RF positive than in RF negative pts. AMCV concentration in JA was higher than in healthy children but lower than in grown up pts with RA. It was also higher in RF+ than RF- JA. ACCP and AMCV correlated with swollen joint count, tender joint count and RF. AMCV also correlated with ESR and CRP. Conclusion. In pts with early JA ACCP and AMCV are equally or more frequent than RF. In spite of low sensitivity they have high specificity for JRA in contrast

  2. Epidemiology, Antimicrobial Resistance and β-lactamase Genotypic Features of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Children with Diarrhea in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Shan, Xue-feng; Deng, Haijun; Huang, Yu-jun; Mu, Xiao-ping; Huang, Ai-long; Long, Quan-xin

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology, drug resistance and β-lactamase genotype distribution of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) isolated from pediatric patients with diarrhea in southern China. The prevalence of EPEC in children with diarrhea was 3.53%. The commonest serotypes were O55:K59 and O126:K71, and the typical EPEC were more prevalent than atypical EPEC (51 vs 7). Isolates from this region were most commonly found to be resistant to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole, followed by chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime. More than 96% of the strains were susceptible to cefoperazone/sulbactam and imipenem. The most common β-lactamase genotypes identified in 58 strains were blaCTX-M-1 (60.3%), blaTEM (56.9%), blaCTX-M-9 (27.6%), and blaSHV (15.5%). Among 58 isolates, 22 strains were found to harbor one β-lactamase gene, and the proportions of resistance to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime, were 81.8%, 63.6%, 40.9%, 18.2%, and 9.1%, respectively. A further 30 strains carrying multiple β-lactamase genes had increased resistance to the above antimicrobial agents (100%, 83.3%, 70.0%, 60.0%, and 30.0%, respectively). In contrast, antibiotic resistance in the last 6 strains without a detectable β-lactamase gene was substantially reduced. Drug resistance may be associated with the β-lactamase gene number, with a greater the number of β-lactamase genes resulting in higher antibiotic resistance.

  3. 儿童慢性咳嗽病因诊断程序应用研究%Evaluation of the diagnostic procedure for chronic cough in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓波; 农光民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore and evaluate the diagnostic procedure for chronic cough in children.Methods One hundred and eleven patients from the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University with chronic cough between December 2008 and January 2010 were included in the study. Etiologic diagnostic procedure suggested for children by Pediatric Branch of Chinese Medical Association was implemented to manage the patients,and the etiological data were analyzed. Results The causes of chronic cough were identified in 109 cases (98% of the total cases). A single cause of cough was diagnosed in 60 patients (54%), multiple potential causes of cough were recognized in 49 patients (44%), including two coexisting causes in 47 patients (42%) and three in 2 patients (2%).The causes of chronic cough in children were: 45 (40%) with cough variant asthma, 34 (30%) with upper airway cough syndrome, 19 (17%) with postinfection cough, 5 (5%) with allergic cough, 4 (4%) with Tourette's syndrome, 1 (1%) with psychogenic cough and others 3 (3%). Conclusions Etiologic diagnosis of chronic cough in children could be made by integrating the current diagnostic procedures with individual and dynamic evaluation and individual treatment. Improvement of clinical symptom was a main observation point; diagnosis should be revised timely if new diagnostic clues appear. It is important to pay attention to the possibility of coexistence of multiple causes. The diagnostic procedures coult identify and suggest most causes of chronic cough in children.%目的 探讨儿童慢性咳嗽病因诊断程序的应用和评价.方法 选择2008年12月至2010年1月广西医科大学第一附属医院儿科就诊的慢性咳嗽患儿111例,参考中华医学会儿科学分会,儿童慢性咳嗽指南中的病因诊断程序,对病例进行评估并获得其病因.结果 明确及基本明确诊断109例(98%),原因不明2例(2%).单病因60例(54%),2个病因47例(42%),3个病因2例(2

  4. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF SERUM INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN-3 IN CHILDREN WITH OR WITHOUT GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENCY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃舒文; 史轶蘩; 邓洁英

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To study the value of serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels in differential diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Methods. To measure serum IGFBP-3 levels by RIA in normal children and adolescents, GHD children and short-stature children without GHD. Results. Serum level of IGFBP-3 in 129 children with untreated GHD and with no pubertal development was 1.6± 0.9 mg/L, which was less than that in normal group of the same age, but overlapped with the normal children in Tanner stage I. After six -month treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), serum level of IGFBP-3 in 59 GHD significantly increased from 1.3± 0.7 mg/L to 2.7± 0.9 mg/L, accompanied by an increase of body heights, growth velocities and serum level of IGF-1. Serum level of IGFBP-3 in 55 short-stature children without GHD was 3.3± 2.2 mg/L, which was not significantly different from that in normal group. Conclusion. Serum IGFBP-3 level can reflect the status of GH secretion in children with GHD and is a useful marker for differential diagnosis of GHD.

  5. Presentation of the project EPI-CT: A cohort study of children with substantial diagnostic medical exposure to ionizing radiation; Presentacion del proyecto EPI-CT: Estudio de cohorte de ninos con exposicion medica diagnostica substancia a radiaciones ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch de Basea, M.; Cardis, E.; Vrijheid, M.

    2011-07-01

    Ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes are an indispensable tool in modern medicine. The increasing use of computed tomography (CT) in children and adolescents is of concern both from the point of view of radio-protection and public health. children are more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation than adults. Children also have a higher life expectancy to show any detrimental effect. Furthermore, because of their smaller mass, CT scans in children receiving higher doses of radiation in specific organs in adults.

  6. Digital epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Salathé

    Full Text Available Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges.

  7. 儿童青少年超重、肥胖现状及影响因素的研究%Epidemiologic status and influencing factors of obesity in children and adolescents.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晴; 陈少科; 罗静思; 范歆; 冯莹

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解南宁地区7~18岁儿童青少年超重、肥胖的流行现状及影响因素,为进一步研究肥胖的发病机制及制订有效的防治措施提供科学依据. [方法]按照分层整群随机抽样的方法抽取南宁地区5 658个7~18岁儿童青少年,测量其身高、体重,以《中国学龄儿童青少年超重、肥胖筛查体重指数值分类标准》作为判断标准,并对检出的超重、肥胖儿童青少年进行影响因素调查及多元逐步回归分析. [结果]南宁地区7~18岁儿童青少年超重、肥胖检出率分别为10.12%、8.48%;男童超重、肥胖检出率明显高于女童(P<0.01);各年龄组间超重及肥胖检出率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).从回归系数的数据表明,对超重、肥胖性质影响最大的变量,从大到小依次是父母肥胖史、看电视(玩电子游戏)时间、户外运动时间、吃油腻食物及甜食、进食速度、出生时体重、婴儿4个月内喂养方式. [结论]南宁地区7~18岁儿童青少年超重及肥胖发生率接近全国平均水平,遗传、饮食行为和运动是儿童青少年肥胖的主要影响因素.%[Objective] To study the epidemiologic prevalence status and influencing factors of overweight and obesity children and adolescents aged 7~18 years in Nanning, aimed at providing a scientific basis for further study of the patho-genesis of obesity and the development of effective control measures. [Methods] A stratified random sampling method was used for collecting 5 658 children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 in Nanning. The sample data of height and weight were measured and collected. The sample was screened based on the diagnostic criteria of "Body mass index reference norm for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents". The overweight and obesity children and adolescents were diagnosed and inspected the influencing factors using multiple stepwise regression analysis. [Results] The

  8. Performance of Different Diagnostic Criteria for Familial Mediterranean Fever in Children with Periodic Fevers : Results from a Multicenter International Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirkaya, Erkan; Saglam, Celal; Turker, Turker; Koné-Paut, Isabelle; Woo, Pat; Doglio, Matteo; Amaryan, Gayane; Frenkel, Joost; Uziel, Yosef; Insalaco, Antonella; Cantarini, Luca; Hofer, Michael; Boiu, Sorina; Duzova, Ali; Modesto, Consuelo; Bryant, Annette; Rigante, Donato; Papadopoulou-Alataki, Efimia; Guillaume-Czitrom, Severine; Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmine; Neven, Bénédicte; Lachmann, Helen; Martini, Alberto; Ruperto, Nicolino; Gattorno, Marco; Ozen, Seza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to validate the pediatric diagnostic criteria in a large international registry and to compare them with the performance of previous criteria for the diagnosis of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). METHODS: Pediatric patients with FMF from the Eurofever registry were used f

  9. Are diagnostic criteria for acute malnutrition affected by hydration status in hospitalized children? A repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fegan Gregory

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dehydration and malnutrition commonly occur together among ill children in developing countries. Dehydration (change in total body water is known to alter weight. Although muscle tissue has high water content, it is not known whether mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC may be altered by changes in tissue hydration. We aimed to determine whether rehydration alters MUAC, MUAC Z score (MUACz, weight-for-length Z-score (WFLz and classification of nutritional status among hospitalised Kenyan children admitted with signs of dehydration. Study procedure We enrolled children aged from 3 months to 5 years admitted to a rural Kenyan district hospital with clinical signs compatible with dehydration, and without kwashiorkor. Anthropometric measurements were taken at admission and repeated after 48 hours of treatment, which included rehydration by WHO protocols. Changes in weight observed during this period were considered to be due to changes in hydration status. Results Among 325 children (median age 11 months the median weight gain (rehydration after 48 hours was 0.21 kg, (an increase of 2.9% of admission body weight. Each 1% change in weight was associated with a 0.40 mm (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.44 mm, p Conclusion MUAC is less affected by dehydration than WFLz and is therefore more suitable for nutritional assessment of ill children. However, both WFLz and MUAC misclassify SAM among dehydrated children. Nutritional status should be re-evaluated following rehydration, and management adjusted accordingly.

  10. Genetic sensitivity to bitter taste of 6-n Propylthiouracil: A useful diagnostic aid to detect early childhood caries in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Pidamale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Genetic factor to bitter taste perception appears to be largely mediated by the TAS2R38 gene. The insensitivity to bitter compounds like 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP is mediated by this gene. PROP, a pharmacological drug used in treatment of Graves′ disease, proved to be useful tool in determining the genetic sensitivity levels to bitter and sweet taste. The purpose of this study is to show much simpler PROP sensitivity technique for the clinical examiner and its application as a diagnostic aid in Early Childhood Caries (ECC detection among preschool children. Materials and Methods: A total of 119 children belonging to the age group of 36 to 71 months of both sexes, were recruited from A. J. Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore (Karnataka. PROP sensitivity test was carried out to determine the inherent genetic ability to taste a bitter or sweet substance. This study used simpler scaling method to find out genetic sensitivity to bitter taste; one who tasted bitter as taster and one who was not able to differentiate/tasted like paper as non-taster. A questionnaire was provided to evaluate their dietary habits and caries experience was recorded. Collected data were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: In the total of 119 children the mean dmfs was definitely higher in non-taster children compared to tasters. The tasters had a mean dmfs value of 9.5120 (S.D. 7.0543 and non-tasters had a value of 7.7250 (S.D. 8.33147, which was statistically significant. The results suggested that there was increase in caries experience among the group of non-tasters as compared to tasters. Tasters tended to be sweet dislikers and non-tasters tended to be sweet likers. On the whole, tasters had a bad dentition as compared to non tasters. Conclusion: The PROP sensitivity test (filter paper test proved to be a useful diagnostic tool in determining the genetic sensitivity levels of bitter taste. The knowledge of a child′s taste

  11. Haemodynamic characterisation and heart catheterisation complications in children with pulmonary hypertension : Insights from the Global TOPP Registry (tracking outcomes and practice in paediatric pulmonary hypertension)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beghetti, M.; Schulze-Neick, I.; Berger, R. M. F.; Ivy, D. D.; Bonnet, D.; Weintraub, R. G.; Saji, T.; Yung, D.; Mallory, G. B.; Geiger, R.; Berger, J. T.; Barst, R. J.; Humpl, T.; Mattos, S.; Jing, Z. C.; Han, Z. Y.; Sondergaard, L.; Jensen, T.; Levy, M.; Mebus, S.; Apitz, Ch.; Szatmari, A.; Ablonczy, L.; Milanesi, O.; Favero, V.; Pulido, T.; De La Garza, P.; Douwes, J. M.; Brun, H.; Moll, L.; Michalak, K.; Kawalec, W.; Zuk, M.; Boillat, M. Fasnacht; Olgunturk, R.; Kula, S. Serdar; Alehan, D.; Day, R. W.; Austin, E.; Moore, D. J.; Atz, A. M.; Feinstein, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The TOPP Registry has been designed to provide epidemiologic, diagnostic, clinical, and outcome data on children with pulmonary hypertension (PH) confirmed by heart catheterisation (HC). This study aims to identify important characteristics of the haemodynamic profile at diagnosis and HC

  12. [Epidemiology of burns in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François

    2012-01-01

    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  13. 儿童及青少年功能性便秘流行病学调查及危险因素分析%Epidemiological investigation and analysis of risk factors of functional constipation in children and adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕峻峰; 熊勇; 刘玉玲; 龙晓玲; 谢广清; 张泉山; 杨丽; 刘婷婷; 付四毛

    2012-01-01

    目的:调查广东省中山市4~16岁儿童及青少年功能性便秘的流行病学情况及其影响因素,为儿童及青少年功能性便秘的病因学研究及防治提供科学依据.方法:采用分层整群随机抽样调查法对广东省中山市5个镇(区)29所幼儿园、13所小学和7所中学的5731例儿童及青少年进行问卷调查,包括诊断问卷及相关因素问卷.结果:广东省中山市4~16岁儿童及青少年功能性便秘总体患病率为6.98%,其中4~10岁组为7.61%、11~16岁组为6.12%.4~10岁组儿童功能性便秘的危险因素包括有便秘家族史、每日蔬菜及水果的摄入量及饮水量少、喜甜食、幼时因排便不良受到惩罚或训斥;11~16岁组儿童及青少年便秘的危险因素包括有便秘家族史,每日蔬菜水果的摄入量及饮水量少,喜饮广东凉茶,运动量小,憋便、不去排便,家庭不和,其OR值均>1.结论:儿童及青少年功能性便秘的危险因素较多,不同年龄段有所不同.针对不同人群采取具有针对性的措施可有效防治功能性便秘的发生.%Objective: To investigate the epidemiological situation and the influencing factors of functional constipation in 4 - 16 -year - old children and adolescents in Zhongshan city of Guangdong province, provide a scientific basis for etiological study, prevention and treatment of functional constipation in children and adolescents. Methods: A stratified cluster random sampling method was used to investigate 5 731 children and adolescents from 29 kindergartens, 13 primary schools, and 7 middle schools in 5 towns (districts) of Zhongshan cit-y in Guangdong province by questionnaires (including diagnostic questionnaire and questionnaire for related factors) . Results: The total prevalence rate of functional constipation in 4 - 16 - year - old children and adolescents in Zhongshan city of Guangdong province was 6. 98% ; the prevalence rates of functional constipation in 4 - 10

  14. [Prevention and treatment strategy for burn wound sepsis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xihua; Li, Xiaoling

    2016-02-01

    Wound sepsis is one of the main causes of death in patients with severe burn and trauma. The high incidence of burn wound sepsis in children is attributed to their imperfect immune system function, poor resistance against infection, and the weakened skin barrier function after burn. The key to reduce the mortality of pediatric patients with burn wound sepsis is to enhance the understanding of its etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnostic criteria, in order to improve its early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26902271

  15. Epidemiological Perspectives of Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ziqi; Shi, Aimin; Zhao, Jing

    2015-09-01

    The global statistics of diabetes mellitus in year 2013 indicated, about 382 million people had this disease worldwide, with type 2 diabetes making up about 90 % of the cases. This is equal to 8.3 % of the adult population with equal rates in both women and men. In year 2012 and 2013 diabetes resulted in mortality of 1.5-5.1 million people per year, making it the 8th leading cause of death in the world. It is predicted that by year 2035 about 592 million people will die of diabetes. The economic cost of diabetes seems to have increased worldwide. An average age of onset of diabetes is 42.5 years and could be due to consumption of high sugar and high-calorie diet, low physical activity, genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle. Approximately 8 % children and about 26 % young adults have diabetes mellitus in the world. The results of epidemiological study of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) are presented by demographic, geographic, biologic, cultural, and other factors in human populations. The prevalence of T1D has been increased by 2-5 % worldwide and its prevalence is approximately one in 300 in US by 18 years of age. The epidemiological studies are important to study the role, causes, clinical care, prevention, and treatment of type1 diabetes in pregnant women and their children before and after birth. In this article, causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment and medications, and epidemiology of diabetes will be described. PMID:25711186

  16. [The post-traumatic stress disorder--PTSD--in psychiatry by children and teenagers: diagnostic and treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoua, V; François, A

    2010-01-01

    News confronts us daily with various traumatic events, like armed conflict, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, not to mention the cases of abuse and incest. The impact of these traumas on the psychological development of children is often very important and we can observe among them, symptoms of severe mental traumatisms immediately and sometimes deferred. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the existence of this disorder by children, to develop its symptoms and its possible developments, and to address the different therapeutic approaches. PMID:20677666

  17. Household vacuum cleaners vs. the high-volume surface sampler for collection of carpet dust samples in epidemiologic studies of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buffler Patricia A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of pesticides and other compounds in carpet dust can be useful indicators of exposure in epidemiologic studies, particularly for young children who are in frequent contact with carpets. The high-volume surface sampler (HVS3 is often used to collect dust samples in the room in which the child had spent the most time. This method can be expensive and cumbersome, and it has been suggested that an easier method would be to remove dust that had already been collected with the household vacuum cleaner. However, the household vacuum integrates exposures over multiple rooms, some of which are not relevant to the child's exposure, and differences in vacuuming equipment and practices could affect the chemical concentration data. Here, we compare levels of pesticides and other compounds in dust from household vacuums to that collected using the HVS3. Methods Both methods were used in 45 homes in California. HVS3 samples were collected in one room, while the household vacuum had typically been used throughout the home. The samples were analyzed for 64 organic compounds, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, using GC/MS in multiple ion monitoring mode; and for nine metals using conventional microwave-assisted acid digestion combined with ICP/MS. Results The methods agreed in detecting the presence of the compounds 77% to 100% of the time (median 95%. For compounds with less than 100% agreement, neither method was consistently more sensitive than the other. Median concentrations were similar for most analytes, and Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.60 or higher except for allethrin (0.15 and malathion (0.24, which were detected infrequently, and benzo(kfluoranthene (0.55, benzo(apyrene (0.55, PCB 105 (0.54, PCB 118 (0.54, and PCB 138 (0.58. Assuming that the HVS3 method is the "gold standard," the extent to which the household vacuum cleaner method yields relative risk

  18. Noninvasive diagnostic methods in evaluation of renovascular abnormalities in hypertensive children; Ocena przydatnosci nieinwazyjnych metod diagnostycznych w rozpoznawaniu nadcisnienia naczyniowo-nerkowego u dzieci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichocka, E.; Wieteska-Klimczak, A.; Borowski, A. and others [Centrum Zdrowia Dziecka, Warsaw (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare three diagnostic methods for detecting renovascular abnormalities: Doppler ultrasound, radionuclide renogram and intraarterial digital subtraction angiography IADSA. The study was performed in 74 children aged from 4 months to 19 years with severe hypertension. The sensitivity of Doppler US was calculated as 46%. The specificity of this method was 75%. False positive rates were considered as 25%, false negative as 54%. The sensitivity of radionuclide studies was calculated as 74%. Specificity as 55%, false positive rates were considered as 45%, false negative as 26%. Cumulative sensitivity of these both noninvasive techniques was higher and equal 4% which is still not sufficient. (author) 14 refs, 3 tabs

  19. Burden of lysosomal storage disorders in India: experience of 387 affected children from a single diagnostic facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Jayesh; Mistri, Mehul; Sheth, Frenny; Shah, Raju; Bavdekar, Ashish; Godbole, Koumudi; Nanavaty, Nidhish; Datar, Chaitanya; Kamate, Mahesh; Oza, Nrupesh; Ankleshwaria, Chitra; Mehta, Sanjeev; Jackson, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are considered to be a rare metabolic disease for the national health forum, clinicians, and scientists. This study aimed to know the prevalence of different LSDs, their geographical variation, and burden on the society. It included 1,110 children from January 2002 to December 2012, having coarse facial features, hepatomegaly or hepatosplenomegaly, skeletal dysplasia, neuroregression, leukodystrophy, developmental delay, cerebral-cerebellar atrophy, and abnormal ophthalmic findings. All subjects were screened for I-cell disease, glycolipid storage disorders (Niemann-Pick disease A/B, Gaucher), and mucopolysaccharide disorders followed by confirmatory lysosomal enzymes study from leucocytes and/or fibroblasts. Niemann-Pick disease-C (NPC) was confirmed by fibroblasts study using filipin stain. Various storage disorders were detected in 387 children (34.8 %) with highest prevalence of glycolipid storage disorders in 48 %, followed by mucopolysaccharide disorders in 22 % and defective sulfatide degradation in 14 % of the children. Less common defects were glycogen degradation defect and protein degradation defect in 5 % each, lysosomal trafficking protein defect in 4 %, and transport defect in 3 % of the patients. This study demonstrates higher incidence of Gaucher disease (16 %) followed by GM2 gangliosidosis that includes Tay-Sachs disease (10 %) and Sandhoff disease (7.8 %) and mucopolysaccharide disorders among all LSDs. Nearly 30 % of the affected children were born to consanguineous parents and this was higher (72 %) in children with Batten disease. Our study also demonstrates two common mutations c.1277_1278insTATC in 14.28 % (4/28) and c.964G>T (p.D322Y) in 10.7 % (3/28) for Tay-Sachs disease in addition to the earlier reported c.1385A>T (p.E462V) mutation in 21.42 % (6/28). PMID:23852624

  20. Comparison of diagnostic performance of CT and MRI for abdominal staging of pediatric renal tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servaes, Sabah [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Khanna, Geetika [Washington University School of Medicine, Pediatric Radiology, St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Mallinckrodt Institute for Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway, Campus Box 8131-MIR, St. Louis, MO (United States); Naranjo, Arlene [University of Florida, Department of Biostatistics, Gainesville, FL (United States); Geller, James I. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Oncology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Ehrlich, Peter F. [University of Michigan, Department of Surgery, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gow, Kenneth W. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Surgery, Seattle, WA (United States); Perlman, Elizabeth J. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pathology, Chicago, IL (United States); Dome, Jeffrey S. [Children' s National Medical Center, Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Washington, DC (United States); Gratias, Eric; Mullen, Elizabeth A. [Harvard University, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-08-19

    CT and MRI are both used for abdominal staging of pediatric renal tumors. The diagnostic performance of the two modalities for local and regional staging of renal tumors has not been systematically evaluated. To compare the diagnostic performance of CT and MRI for local staging of pediatric renal tumors. The study population was derived from the AREN03B2 study of the Children's Oncology Group. Baseline abdominal imaging performed with both CT and MRI within 30 days of nephrectomy was available for retrospective review in 82 renal tumor cases. Each case was evaluated for capsular penetration, lymph node metastasis, tumor thrombus, preoperative tumor rupture, and synchronous contralateral lesions. The surgical and pathological findings at central review were the reference standard. The sensitivity of CT and MRI for detecting capsular penetration was 68.6% and 62.9%, respectively (P = 0.73), while specificity was 86.5% and 83.8% (P = 1.0). The sensitivity of CT and MRI for detecting lymph node metastasis was 76.5% and 52.9% (P = 0.22), and specificity was 90.4% and 92.3% (P = 1.0). Synchronous contralateral lesions were identified by CT in 4/9 cases and by MRI in 7/9 cases. CT and MRI have similar diagnostic performance for detection of lymph node metastasis and capsular penetration. MR detected more contralateral synchronous lesions; however these were present in a very small number of cases. Either modality can be used for initial loco-regional staging of pediatric renal tumors. (orig.)

  1. Modern radiological postoperative diagnostics of the hip joint in children and adults; Moderne radiologische postoperative Diagnostik des Hueftgelenks im Kindes- und Erwachsenenalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M.A.; Thierjung, H.; Kloth, J.K. [Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Egermann, M. [Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Center for Orthopedics

    2015-07-15

    The assessment of bone healing and loosening of endoprosthesis material was long the primary indication for postoperative projection radiography and CT imaging of the hip joint following trauma and endoprosthesis implantation. With the increasing number of joint-preserving surgery, e. g. of surgical hip luxation and hip arthroscopy for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), high-resolution imaging of intra-articular pathologies before and after surgery has become increasingly important. In this review article, diagnostic imaging of the hip joint is presented following common trauma surgery and orthopedic surgery interventions. The imaging modalities of projection radiography, CT and MRI including direct MR-arthrography are discussed with regard to their diagnostic capability in the postoperative assessment of the hip joint. Among others topics, imaging is discussed following hip arthroplasty, following surgical hip luxation and arthroscopic interventions for the treatment of FAI, as well as following core decompression for avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Moreover, orthopedic interventions of the hip joint in children and adolescents are presented and the dedicated reporting of postoperative imaging is outlined.

  2. Epidemiological & Risk Factors In Childhood Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Harmesh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the epidemiological and risk factors associated with asthma in children. Objective: To determine epidemiological and risk factors in childhood bronchial asthma. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting Hospital based. Participants: Children suffering from bronchial asthma and their parents/ attendants. Sample size: 235 children. Study variables: Age, sex place of residence, socio-economic status, age of onset of asthma, no of siblings, fuel used for cooking, smoking, asthma in the family seasonal variation etc. Statistical analysis: percentages

  3. Clinical Epidemiology Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a huge public health problem because of its high morbidity and disability. The epidemiology of stroke is of relevance to construct practical paradigms to tackle this major health issue in the community. Recent data have shown that about 72-86% of strokes are ischemic, 9-18% are due to hemorrhage (intracerebral of subarachnoid and the rest are undefined. The risk factors for stroke are multiple and combined. At present, stroke is no more considered as unavoidable and untreatable. It is an emergency and specialized units and teams improve outcome and lower costs. Death related to stroke is declining in many countries and in both sexes. This decrease in multifactorial. The detection and more effective treatment of hypertension may play an important factor, as well as the improved medical care and improvement in diagnostic procedures. While stroke incidence appears stable and stroke mortality is slowly declining, the absolute magnitude of stroke is likely to grow over the next 30 years. as the population ages, the absolute number of stroke victims and demands on healthcare and other support systems is likely to increase substantially in the future. Keeping this in perspective, this chapter shall focus on the epidemiology of stroke in the world and in Indian, in particular.

  4. Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis among children in Brazil, 1997-1998 Epidemiologia de meningites bacterianas entre crianças no Brasil, 1997 a 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora PL Weiss

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To document the incidence and the descriptive epidemiology of bacterial meningitis among individuals under age 20 in a geographically defined region in Brazil during the two-year period immediately preceding the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines into the national immunization program of Brazil. METHODS: Population-based epidemiological study of all cases of bacterial meningitis reported among residents of Campinas, Brazil, under age 20 (n=316,570 during the period of 1997-98, using comprehensive surveillance records compiled by the Campinas Health Department from cases reported among hospital inpatients, outpatients, emergency room visits, death certificates, and autopsy reports. RESULTS: The incidence of bacterial meningitis (n=274 was 334.9, 115 and 43.5 cases/10(5 person-years (pys for residents of Campinas under age 1, 5 and 20, respectively. All cases were hospitalized, with an average length of stay of 12 days. Documented prior antibiotic use was 4.0%. The case-fatality rate of bacterial meningitis in individuals under age 20 was 9% (24/274 with 75% of deaths occurring in children under the age of five. The incidence of Hib meningitis (n=26 was 62.8 and 17 cases/10(5 pys in children age OBJETIVO: Documentar a incidência e a epidemiologia descritiva de meningites bacterianas entre pessoas com idade inferior a 20 anos em uma região geográfica definida do Brasil. O período foi de dois anos, imediatamente anterior à introdução da vacina contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib, no Programa Nacional de Imunização do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico populacional dos casos de meningites bacterianas notificados entre residentes em Campinas, SP, Brasil, com idade inferior a 20 anos (n=316.570, entre 1997 e 1998. Baseia-se em dados de notificação da vigilância epidemiológica da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de Campinas, relatados entre casos provenientes de pacientes hospitalizados

  5. Epidemiology of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease (IBD) What is IBD? Addressing IBD Epidemiology Epidemiology of the IBD Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 5:1424-9. 2 Loftus EV, Jr. Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: Incidence, prevalence, and environmental ...

  6. Radiation dose to infants, children and adults in X-ray diagnostic radiology-in the case of plain radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate radiation doses to infant, child and adult patients undergoing various types of plain radiography and to compare the doses among them. The doses were measured using newborn, 6-year-child and adult anthropomorphic phantoms, in which photodiode dosimeters were implanted at various tissue and organ positions. Measured doses were used to evaluate organ and effective doses. Organ doses obtained in various types of radiography were lower than 0.7 mGy for adults, 0.3 mGy for children and 0.2 mGy for infants, excepting lens dose of approximately 1 mGy in adult head radiography, where the doses for children and infants lowered to 1/2-1/3 of the doses for adults. Effective doses in various types of head radiography for adults, children and infants were in identical levels in a range of 5-30 μSv. In chest, abdomen and hip-joint radiography, effective doses of 0.02-0.11 mSv for children and 0.02-0.08 mSv for infants were identical to or in a fraction of the doses for adults of 0.06-0.15 mSv. In adult head and spinal radiography, effective doses by International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 60 lowered respectively to 1/6-1/9 and 1/3-1/9 of the doses listed in United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000. (author)

  7. 广州地区患儿胃肠道医院感染流行特征%Epidemiological features of gastroenteritis among children in hospitals of Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭巧芝; 赵丹洋; 何通杰; 司徒敏雄; 华亮; 黄海

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the epidemiological features of nosocomial gastroenteritis among children in hos-pitals of Guangzhou ,so as to guide the targeted intervention to reduce the nosocomial infections .METHODS A prospective analysis was performed .The patients who were confirmed nosocomial gastroenteritis and hospitalized from Jan .2013 to Dec .2014 ,were analyzed in this study .SPSS 16 .0 was adopted for statistical analysis . RESULTS Among 95 722 children in hospital ,2 332 cases got infected and the infection rate was 2 .44% .Among them ,342 cases were confirmed as nosocomial gastroenteritis ,accounting for 14 .67% ,in which 58 .58% were in-fected at the hospital stays of the third day to the first week ,followed by the second week (26 .61% ) and the lon-ger (14 .91% ) .Totally 307 samples were inspected and the inspection rate was 89 .78% .There were 248 strains of pathogens were detected ,including 228 strains of virion ,holding 91 .94% ,and the proportion increased and reached up to a peak of 83 .91% in Dec .Of viral nosocomial gastroenteritis cases ,81 .14% occurred in children aged ≤24 months ,however of other nosocomial gastroenteritis cases ,64 .04% occurred in children aged ≤ 18 months .The peak season of viral nosocomial gastroenteritis was in fall and winter (October ,November ,Decem-ber and January) ,but there was no seasonal trend for other nosocomial gastroenteritis .More than half of nosoco-mial gastroenteritis cases and viral infection ones both occurred at the departments of respiration ,gastroenterolo-gy ,infectious diseases and critical care .CONCLUSION This study reveals that the major type of nosocomial gas-troenteritis is viral infection with the special characters ,and should be targeted to intervene to reduce the nosocomi-al infections .%目的:分析儿童专科医院住院患儿胃肠道医院感染分布特点,为采取针对性的干预措施提供参考依据。方法采用前瞻性研究,对2013年1月-2014年12月符合

  8. The diagnostic value of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor compared with C-reactive protein and procalcitonin in children with febrile neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirinoglu, Melis; Soysal, Ahmet; Karaaslan, Ayşe; Kepenekli Kadayifci, Eda; Cinel, Ismail; Koç, Ahmet; Tokuç, Gülnur; Yaman, Ali; Haklar, Goncagül; Şirikçi, Önder; Turan, Serap; Altınkanat Gelmez, Gülşen; Söyletir, Güner; Bakır, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the diagnostic value of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia. A prospective case-control study was performed. Patients included 29 children with febrile neutropenia (FN) and 27 control subjects without any infection or immunosuppressive condition. Blood samples were obtained on the day of admission and on the 4th to 7th days of the hospital stay. The median (minimum-maximum) serum levels of suPAR obtained on the first day of the admission were 2.08 (0.93-9.42) and 2.22 (1.08-5.13) ng/mL for the FN group and the control group, respectively. The median serum levels of suPAR in the FN and control groups were not significantly different (P = .053). The mean serum suPAR level was significantly higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors in the FN group (P febrile neutropenia; however, persistent high serum suPAR level may predict mortality in FN in children.

  9. Mathematical epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Driessche, Pauline; Wu, Jianhong

    2008-01-01

    Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downlo...

  10. Local diagnostic reference level based on size-specific dose estimates: Assessment of pediatric abdominal/pelvic computed tomography at a Japanese national children's hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Rumi; Miyazaki, Osamu; Kurosawa, Hideo; Nosaka, Shunsuke [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Horiuchi, Tetsuya [Osaka University, Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Division of Medical Technology and Science, Course of Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    A child's body size is not accurately reflected by volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose-length product (DLP). Size-specific dose estimation (SSDE) was introduced recently as a new index of radiation dose. However, it has not yet been established as a diagnostic reference level (DRL). To calculate the SSDE of abdominal/pelvic CT and compare the SSDE with CTDI{sub vol}. To calculate the DRLs of CTDI{sub vol} and SSDE. Our hypotheses are: SSDE values will be greater than CTDI{sub vol}, and our DRL will be smaller than the known DRLs of other countries. The CTDI{sub vol} and DLP of 117 children who underwent abdominal/pelvic CT were collected retrospectively. The SSDE was calculated from the sum of the lateral and anteroposterior diameters. The relationships between body weight and effective diameter and between effective diameter and CTDI{sub vol}/SSDE were compared. Further, the local DRL was compared with the DRLs of other countries. Body weight and effective diameter and effective diameter and SSDE were positively correlated. In children ages 1, 5 and 10 years, the SSDE is closer to the exposure dose of CTDI{sub vol} for the 16-cm phantom, while in children ages 15 years, the SSDE falls between CTDI{sub vol} for the 16-cm phantom and that for the 32-cm phantom. The local DRL was lower than those of other countries. With SSDE, the radiation dose increased with increasing body weight. Since SSDE takes body size into account, it proved to be a useful indicator for estimating the exposure dose. (orig.)

  11. Epidemiologic study of dry eye in Cangzhou school children%沧州市学龄儿童干眼的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁四妥; 杨云东; 张歆; 韩艳飞; 李亚楠; 周文宗; 徐深

    2013-01-01

    examination.The diagnosis of dry eye was referred to the well-accepted domestic diagnostic criteria.The t test,Pearson 2 test and Logistic regression were used for analysis.Results Of 3007 residents finally took part in this study,and the inclusion ratio was 85.7%; 858 individuals,including 489 men and 369 women,were diagnosed as dry eye,and the prevalence rate was 28.53%.The prevalence of dry eye in the male (30.07%) was higher than that of female (26.72%).The age,Meibomian glands functional classification and Grading of corneal and conjunctival staining were higher in dry eye group.Meanwhile,the Schirmer I test (S I T) and break-up time (BUT) were lower in dry eye group (P <0.05).There were significant differences between dry eye group and non-dry eye group including sensation of dryness,foreign body sensation,burning sensation,eyelid heaviness,more secretions (P <0.05).The score of OSDI in dry eye children was significantly higher than that in non-dry eye individuals (t =-2.623,P =0.009).The relative risk factors of dry eye were gender and choosy in food.Conclusions The prevalence of dry eye is fairly high in school children age of 10 to 14 years old in Cangzhou,which in male is higher than that in the female.Family and community should pay sufficient attention to conduct children's eye health and prepare a balanced diet,to prevent the occurrence of dry eye.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of enteric viruses and genotyping of rotavirus A, adenovirus and astrovirus among children under 5 years old in Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Etenna Lekana-Douki

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: These findings improve our knowledge of circulating enteric viruses in Gabon. The emergence of unusual G6P[6] strain of rotavirus A, predominant, suggested a particular epidemiological surveillance of circulating rotavirus strains during the introduction of vaccination in Gabon.

  13. [Issues of congenital syphilis in the past twenty years. I. Etiology, epidemiology and diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zákoucká, Hana; Kremenová, Sona; Kremen, Jaromír

    2006-04-01

    Since 1990 there is an upward trend in the incidence of both acquired and congenital syphilis in the Czech Republic. A similar situation exists in other European countries as well. Higher incidence of syphilis is clearly associated with urban agglomerates and sexual tourism destinations. The only way to reduce the number of cases is a consistent application of mandatory preventive and diagnostic measures. These important measures against the spreading of the infection include mandatory serological testing of pregnant women and newborns (from umbilical blood), antibiotic treatment and systematic follow-up of HIV-positive mothers and children. This paper describes the current epidemiological situation of syphilis in the Czech Republic and presents a review of available diagnostic tests and their significance for diagnosis. PMID:16649150

  14. Epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of reviewTo review the recent literature about the epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders in accordance with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).Recent findingsThe residual category eating disorder not otherwise specified' (ED

  15. 广州市0-6岁儿童跌落伤害特征分析%Analysis of the Epidemiologic Features on Fall Injury between Migrating and Native of Children Aged 0-6 Years in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧燕; 林穗方; 蒋琳; 邢艳菲

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analysis the epidemiologic features on fall injury between migrant and native children. This information would provide the scientific basis for the prevention and control of fall injury. Methods: The features were retrospectively analyzed on fall injury between migrating and native children aged 0-6 years through the injury surveillance network in Guangzhou. Results: Boys aged 3-6 years prone to fall, more children from kindergarten fell than children living scattered. Comparing with native children, migrant boy had a higher rate of falling, more migrant children in the middle or large class, and the kind of their families mostly was nuclear family. More migrant children fell in summer than native children, while more native children in spring or winter. Comparing with native children, migrant children had a higher rate of falling when they were playing or had recreation activities, more migrant children had parnets as their caregivers, and they were more likely to get some treatment at home. More native children fell when being take care by teachers or got treatment in the infirmary than migrant children. Conclusion: There is difference in the fall between migrant children and native children in Guangzhou, which implies different intervention measures between them.%目的:比较分析流动儿童与本地户籍儿童跌落伤害的流行特征,为儿童跌落伤害的预防和控制提供科学依据.方法:通过广州市儿童意外伤害监测网络,回顾性分析0-6岁流动儿童与本地儿童跌落伤害发生的特点.结果:跌落伤害好发3-6岁男童,集体多于散居;流动儿童跌落伤害中,男童、大中班、核心家庭的比例高于本地;跌落伤害高发月份在3月和9月,流动儿童夏季发生跌落比例高于本地,本地儿童冬春季发生比例高于流动;流动儿童跌落时父母在身边,孩子正在玩耍或娱乐活动、伤后家中处理比例高于本地,而本地儿童跌落时老师在身边

  16. Optimization of the procedure of cholecystography per os in children as a method of raising its diagnostic informative value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of performance of unified cholecystograhy per os were developed on the basis of the results of X-ray and ultrasonic investigations of the gall bladder in 168 children. A method of contrast medium dosage to raise the informative value of cholecystography was proposed. A procedure of taking pictures with a patient lying in a prone position, an X-ray tube being turned in accordance with an angle of gall bladder inclination to the anterior abdominal wall, was worked out, making it possible to detect, with a high degree of reliability, the most common development defects of the gall bladder and to define its true sizes on the basis of X-ray findings

  17. Radiation epidemiology: a perspective on Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nearly 100 years, epidemiologic studies of human populations exposed to ionising radiation have provided quantitative information on health risks. High dose deterministic (tissue reaction) effects result when sufficient numbers of functioning cells are killed, such as in bone marrow depression that can lead to death. Lower dose stochastic effects are probabilistic in nature and include an increased risk of cancer later in life and heritable genetic defects, although genetic conditions in the children of irradiated parents have yet to be convincingly demonstrated. Radiation studies are of diverse populations and include not only the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, but also patients treated with radiation for malignant and non-malignant disease; patients exposed for diagnostic purposes; persons with intakes of radionuclides; workers occupationally exposed; and communities exposed to environmental and accidentally released sources of radiation. Much is known about radiation and its risks. The major unanswered question in radiation epidemiology, however, is not whether radiation causes cancer, but what the level of risk is following low dose (<100 mSv) or low dose rate exposures. Paracelsus is credited with first articulating that the 'poison is in the dose', which for radiation epidemiology translates as 'the lower the dose, the lower the risk' and, an important corollary, the lower the dose, the greater the difficulty in detecting any increase in the number of cancers possibly attributable to radiation. In contrast to the Chernobyl reactor accident, the Fukushima reactor accident has to date resulted in no deterministic effects and no worker deaths. Estimates to date of population doses suggest very low uptakes of radioactive iodine which was a major determinant of the epidemic of thyroid cancer following childhood exposures around Chernobyl. The estimates to date of population doses are also much lower (and the distribution much narrower) than the doses for

  18. Diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced MR for acute appendicitis and alternative causes of abdominal pain in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koning, Jeffrey L. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Rady Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Unenhanced MRI has emerged as a useful tool for diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis. The use of contrast-enhanced MRI for diagnosing pediatric appendicitis has not been documented. The purpose of this study is to examine the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced MRI for acute appendicitis and alternative entities in the pediatric population presenting with acute abdominal pain. A retrospective review was conducted of 364 consecutive pediatric patients undergoing contrast-enhanced MRI for the evaluation of possible appendicitis at a single institution between November 2012 and September 2013. There were 132 cases of pathologically confirmed appendicitis out of 364 pediatric patients (36.3%) included in the study. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 96.2% (95% CI [91.4-98.4%]) and 95.7% (95% CI [92.3-97.6%]), respectively. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 92.7% (95% CI [86.6-96.3%]) and 97.8% (95% CI [94.7-99.1%]), respectively. The appendix was visualized in 243 cases (66.8%). Imaging confirmed alternative diagnoses in 75 patients, including most commonly colitis, enteritis or terminal ileitis (n = 25, 6.9%), adnexal cysts (n = 25, 6.9%) and mesenteric adenitis (n = 7, 1.9%). Contrast-enhanced MRI is capable of accurately diagnosing acute appendicitis while detecting many alternative entities of abdominal pain, and it allows good visualization of the appendix. Further evaluation is needed to determine whether contrast-enhanced MRI provides an advantage over non-enhanced MRI for imaging evaluation of acute abdominal pain in the pediatric population. (orig.)

  19. Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus in children ≤2 years of age hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections in the Russian Federation: a prospective, multicenter study

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Tatochenko; Vasily Uchaikin; Aleksandr Gorelov; et al

    2010-01-01

    Vladimir Tatochenko1, Vasily Uchaikin2, Aleksandr Gorelov3, Konstantin Gudkov4, Andrew Campbell5, Gregory Schulz5, Rebecca Prahl5, Gerard Notario51Scientific Centre of Children’s Health, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Lomonosovskiy Prospect, Moscow, Russia; 2Russian State Medical University of Roszdrav, Moscow, Russia; 3Central Scientific Research Institution of Epidemiology, Moscow, Russia; 4Abbott Laboratories LLC, Khimki, Moscow, Russia; 5Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, I...

  20. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Le, T.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy. Epidemiology This thesis shows that the prevalence of self-reported adverse food reactions in children and adults was high: 17-25% for all foods and 10-11% for 24 preselected, so-called priority foods. The prevalence of probable food allergy, defined by suggestive history and positive IgE for priority food, was much lower: 2.3% for children and 4.1% for adults. In adults, the prevalence of true food allergy conf...

  1. The Diagnosis of Urinary Tract infection in Young children (DUTY): a diagnostic prospective observational study to derive and validate a clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in children presenting to primary care with an acute illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Alastair D; Birnie, Kate; Busby, John; Delaney, Brendan; Downing, Harriet; Dudley, Jan; Durbaba, Stevo; Fletcher, Margaret; Harman, Kim; Hollingworth, William; Hood, Kerenza; Howe, Robin; Lawton, Michael; Lisles, Catherine; Little, Paul; MacGowan, Alasdair; O'Brien, Kathryn; Pickles, Timothy; Rumsby, Kate; Sterne, Jonathan Ac; Thomas-Jones, Emma; van der Voort, Judith; Waldron, Cherry-Ann; Whiting, Penny; Wootton, Mandy; Butler, Christopher C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND It is not clear which young children presenting acutely unwell to primary care should be investigated for urinary tract infection (UTI) and whether or not dipstick testing should be used to inform antibiotic treatment. OBJECTIVES To develop algorithms to accurately identify pre-school children in whom urine should be obtained; assess whether or not dipstick urinalysis provides additional diagnostic information; and model algorithm cost-effectiveness. DESIGN Multicentre, prospective diagnostic cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Children < 5 years old presenting to primary care with an acute illness and/or new urinary symptoms. METHODS One hundred and seven clinical characteristics (index tests) were recorded from the child's past medical history, symptoms, physical examination signs and urine dipstick test. Prior to dipstick results clinician opinion of UTI likelihood ('clinical diagnosis') and urine sampling and treatment intentions ('clinical judgement') were recorded. All index tests were measured blind to the reference standard, defined as a pure or predominant uropathogen cultured at ≥ 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml in a single research laboratory. Urine was collected by clean catch (preferred) or nappy pad. Index tests were sequentially evaluated in two groups, stratified by urine collection method: parent-reported symptoms with clinician-reported signs, and urine dipstick results. Diagnostic accuracy was quantified using area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and bootstrap-validated AUROC, and compared with the 'clinician diagnosis' AUROC. Decision-analytic models were used to identify optimal urine sampling strategy compared with 'clinical judgement'. RESULTS A total of 7163 children were recruited, of whom 50% were female and 49% were < 2 years old. Culture results were available for 5017 (70%); 2740 children provided clean-catch samples, 94% of whom were ≥ 2 years old

  2. Epidemiology and population structure of serotypes 1, 5 and 7f carried by children in Portugal from 1996-2010 before introduction of the 10-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia T Almeida

    Full Text Available Among the over 90 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae described, serotypes 1, 5, and 7F account for a significant proportion of invasive disease worldwide and are now covered by the most recent 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs. The epidemiology of these serotypes in carriage remains poorly studied because they are rarely detected. We aimed to gain insights into the epidemiology and population structure of serotypes 1, 5 and 7F carried by children in Portugal before PCV10 and PCV13 became widely used. Isolates obtained in cross-sectional studies carried out over a 15-year period (1996-2010 were retrospectively pooled and characterized. Of 5,123 pneumococci obtained, 70 were associated with serotypes 1 (n = 21, 5 (n = 7, and 7F (n = 42. The highest prevalence detected was 3.3% for serotype 1 in 2006, 1% for serotype 5 in 2009, and 3.3% for serotype 7F in 2006; Serotype 1 was associated with PMEN international clones Sweden(1-28(ST306 and Sweden(1-40(ST304; serotype 5 was associated with Colombia(5-19(ST289; and serotype 7F was associated with Netherlands(7F-39(ST191. All these isolates were fully susceptible. Most carriers of serotypes 1 (86%, 5 (86%, and 7F (91% were older than two years but a significant association with older age was only observed for serotype 7F (p = 0.006. Evidence for cross-transmission was obtained. In conclusion, we were able to detect and characterize the rarely carried serotypes 1, 5, and 7F among healthy children in Portugal. These data will constitute an important baseline for upcoming surveillance studies aimed to establish the impact of novel PCVs targeting these serotypes in carriage.

  3. Epidemiological characteristics of childhood migraine syndrome in Serbia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marija Kne(z)evi(c)-Pogan(c)ev; Neboj(s)a Jovi(c); Vesna Iveti(c); Danka Filipovi(c); Dragan Katani(c)

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated childhood migraine, examining the clinical characteristics of different childhood migraine types, predisposing factors, and possible medical treatments in a sample of children in Serbia. This was the first epidemiological study in Serbia using the operational diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society. The present study examined 30 636 children between 1988 and 2006, including 15 434 (50.38%) males and 15 202 (49.62%) females, in nine towns in Vojvodina, a northern province in Serbia. Migraine was reported in 2 644 (8.63%) children aged 3 to 7 years, consisting of 1 189 (8.0%) males and 1 455 (9.6%) females. Migraine with aura accounted for 25.55%, migraine without aura for 67.21% and other migraine syndromes for 7.23% of reported migraine sufferers. The mean age of first migraine attack across groups was 5 years and 1.8 months. Migraine with aura was associated with an earlier onset than migraine without aura.Migraine was more frequent among younger groups of children who were breastfed for a shorter period of time. Child healthcare in Vojvodina has a high level of specialization, with more than half of the children reporting migraine diagnosed and treated by neuropediatricians. Socioeconomic status,duration of breastfeeding, birth order, and age of entering full-day nursery care were found to be important factors for childhood migraine. These findings suggest that healthcare providers should educate parents about these predisposing factors, so they can be identified and avoided early.

  4. Epidemiology of asthma in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramesh, H

    2002-04-01

    Allergic respiratory disorders, in particular asthma are increasing in prevalence, which is a global phenomenon. Even though genetic predisposition is one of the factors in children for the increased prevalence - urbanisation, air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke contribute more significantly. Our hospital based study on 20,000 children under the age of 18 years from 1979,1984,1989,1994 and 1999 in the city of Bangalore showed a prevalence of 9%,10.5%,18.5%, 24.5% and 29.5% respectively. The increased prevalence correlated well with demographic changes of the city. Further to the hospital study, a school survey in 12 schools on 6550 children in the age group of 6 to 15 years was undertaken for prevalence of asthma and children were categorized into three groups depending upon the geographical situation of the school in relation to vehicular traffic and the socioeconomic group of children. Group I-Children from schools of heavy traffic area showed prevalence of 19.34%, Group II-Children from heavy traffic region and low socioeconomic population had 31.14% and Group III-Children from low traffic area school had 11.15% respectively. (P: I & II; II & III <0.001). A continuation of study in rural areas showed 5.7% in children of 6-15 years. The persistent asthma also showed an increase from 20% to 27.5% and persistent severe asthma 4% to 6.5% between 1994-99. Various epidemiological spectra of asthma in children are discussed here. PMID:12019551

  5. Epidemiologic Studies in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: A Review of Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Burak Dursun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood psychiatric disorders are estimated to influence about 9 to 21% of relevant age group and interest in this disorders are increasing all over the world. The growing need to child and adolescent mental health leads the task of establishing proposals and policies in this field to become a priority for governments. The first step of such proposals should be determination of prevalence of child and adolescent mental disorders in that country. However, several major methodological problems make it hard to provide accurate prevalence estimates from epidemiological studies. Most common problems are within the fields of sampling, case definition, case ascertainment and data analyses. Such issues increases the costs of studies and hinder to reach large sample sizes. To minimize these problems, investigators have to be careful on choosing the appropriate methodology and diagnostic tools in their studies. Although there are many interviews and questionnaires for screening and diagnosing in child and adolescent psychiatry, only a few of them are suitable for epidemiological research. In parallel with the improvement in all fields of child and adolescent mental health in our country, some of the major screening and diagnosing tools used in prevalence studies in literature have already been translated and validated in Turkish. Most important of this tools for screening purposes are Child Behavior Checklist and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and for diagnosing purposes are Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version and Development and Well-Being Assessment. The aims of this article are to review the methodological problems of epidemiologic studies in child and adolescent psychiatry and to briefly discuss suitable diagnostic tools for extended sampled epidemiologic studies in our country.

  6. Clinical epidemiology of bocavirus, rhinovirus, two polyomaviruses and four coronaviruses in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected South African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, Marta C.; Kuschner, Zachary; Rabede, Zelda; Madimabe, Richard; Van Niekerk, Nadia; Moloi, Jackie; Kuwanda, Locadiah; Rossen, John W.; Klugman, Keith P.; Adrian, Peter V.; Madhi, Shabir A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Advances in molecular diagnostics have implicated newly-discovered respiratory viruses in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. We aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of human bocavirus (hBoV), human rhinovirus (hRV), polyomavirus-WU (WUPyV) and -KI (KIPyV) and human

  7. Neurobrucellosis in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed; Ata; Hendaus; Rasha; Muneer; Qaqish; Ahmed; Hassan; Alhammadi

    2015-01-01

    Neurobrucellosis is a complication of brucellosis,which is considered endemic in the Indian subcontinent,Arabian Peninsula and Mediterranean countries.Brucella reaches the central nervous system via hematogenous spread in the infected human being,or through phagocytosis.Neurobrucellosis can present with any neurological symptoms,hence,the index of suspicion must be high enough to make proper diagnosis.Cerebrospinal fluid studies are usually diagnostic,while imagings including magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are of little assistance.As for therapy,a combination of antibiotics must be administered with a goal to reduce relapse or avoid failure.The duration of treatment should be tailored as per clinical signs and symptoms until the cerebrospinal fluid components return to normal,which might be up to six months.In this article,we present an overall view of current understanding of neurobrucellosis in children,its epidemiology,clinical features,diagnostictests,and management options.

  8. [The epidemiological transition in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalá, C; Vio, F; Robledo, A; Icaza, G

    1993-12-01

    Aiming to describe the place that Chile has in the epidemiological transition, a descriptive study of the changes in demographic and epidemiological profiles of the country during the last 30 years is presented. The important decrease in general and child mortality rates, that has lead to an increase in life expectancy and ageing of the population, is emphasized. A 82% reduction in the proportion of deaths among less than one year old children and a 62% increase in mortality among people 65 years or older is observed. In agreement with these changes, non transmissible chronic diseases appear as the principal cause of mortality (65% of all deaths). However, regarding morbidity, an increase in digestive infectious and sexually transmitted diseases and a decrease in immuno-preventable diseases, excepting measles, is noted. It is concluded that, according to mortality, Chile is in a post transition stage, but there is persistence of some infectious diseases, typical of a pre-transition stage. PMID:8085073

  9. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  10. Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  11. Anaplasmosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  12. [Descriptive epidemiology of urolithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, H; Ohno, Y

    1989-06-01

    In this paper, urolithiasis is remarked from the standpoint of descriptive epidemiology, which examines the frequency distribution of a given disease in a population in terms of time, place and personal characteristics with an aim of identifying risk factors or some clues to the etiology. Some descriptive epidemiological features of urolithiasis are summarized. Prevalence rate is around 4% (4-15% in males and 4-8% in females), and incidence rate varies from area to area: 53.2 per 100,000 population in 1975 in Japan, 364 in 1976 in Malaysia, and 540 in 1979 in West Germany. Prevalence and/or incidence rates have, in general, increased in the developed countries since World War II and in the developing countries as well, where upward trends are quite analogous to the trends observed in the nineteenth century in Europe. Recurrence rate, which is much higher in males than in females, ranges from 31% to 75%, depending on the follow-up periods. In the industrialized countries, upper urinary (renal and ureteral) stones account for more than 90% of total stones, which are ordinarily calcium complexes in composition. More common in the developing countries are lower urinary (bladder and urethral) stones, frequently composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate, which indicates a close association with urinary tract infections. Variations in frequency are evident by season and by region within a country. Age and sex differentials in urinary stone formers are substantial: more common in males 30-40 years old in the industrialized countries and in children under 10 years old in the developing countries. Racial differentials are also noted; blacks appear to suffer less frequently than whites. Stone formers experience more frequent episodes of stone formation in their family members, particularly father and brothers, than non-stone formers. These findings on racial differentials and family preponderance suggest the possible relevance of genetic factors in stone formation. Stone

  13. Epidemiological analysis of obesity in Baoji children under 5 years old from 2007 to 2010%宝鸡市2007~2010年5岁以下儿童肥胖流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩春玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiologic characteristics of obesity in children under 5 years old in Baoji city and to explore the influencing factors of childhood obesity and intervention measures so as to promote children' s health. Methods Data was collected through physical examination and questionnaire survey, and rate and chi-square analysis were made by using SPSS 13.0. Results The prevalence of obesity in Baoji children under 5 years old lingered between 11.65% and 18.71% in the period of 2007 to 2010, which was a rather high level. The prevalence in different years was significantly different ( x2 = 65.421, P < 0.05 ). There were significant differences in the prevalence among children of different ages and of different genders (x2 was 12. 821 and 14. 247 respectively, P < 0.05 ). In addition, the prevalence of obesity between urban children and rural children was statistically different ( x2 = 4. 454, P < 0. 05 ).Conclusion Combined with the obesity epidemiologic characteristics, key intervention objects were determined. Comprehensive measures such as strengthening health education, promoting children's health care and advocating breastfeeding can reduce childhood obesity rate.%目的 了解宝鸡市5岁以下儿童肥胖流行病学特征,探索儿童肥胖的影响因素和干预措施,促进儿童健康.方法 通过体格检查和问卷调查收集资料,并对结果进行率和卡方检验分析.结果 宝鸡市2007~2010年5岁以下儿童肥胖患病率徘徊在11.65%~18.71%,处于一个较高的水平,年度之间患病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=65.421,P<0.05);不同年龄段儿童肥胖患病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=12.821,P<0.05);不同性别儿童肥胖患病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=14.247,P<0.05);城市与农村间儿童肥胖患病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=4.454,P<0.05).结论 结合肥胖的流行病学特点,确定重点干预对象,通过加强健康教育、促进儿童保

  14. Epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi Infection in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Matos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A review was conducted to examine published works that focus on the complex epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in humans. Studies on the prevalence of these emerging microsporidian pathogens in humans, in developed and developing countries, the different clinical spectra of E. bieneusi intestinal infection in children, in different settings, and the risk factors associated with E. bieneusi infection have been reviewed. This paper also analyses the impact of the recent application of PCR-based molecular methods for species-specific identification and genotype differentiation has had in increasing the knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi in humans. The advances in the epidemiology of E. bieneusi, in the last two decades, emphasize the importance of epidemiological control and prevention of E. bieneusi infections, from both the veterinary and human medical perspectives.

  15. An epidemiological investigation on the behavior problems of children aged 3 ~7 years old in Zhenjiang city%镇江市3~7岁儿童行为问题流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常宪鲁; 张燕; 王华云

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the epidemiological features of behavior problems of children aged 3 ~7 years old in Zhenjiang city, provide interventional measures for reducing the occurrence of behavior problems in children. Methods; Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire ( PSQ ) and a self - designed questionnaire about the effect factors of children behaviors were used to survey 724 children aged 3 ~ 7 years old in urban area and rural area of Zhenjiang city. Results: The detection rate of behavior problems in children aged 3 ~ 7 years old was 13. 1% , the detection rates of behavior problems in boys and girls were 17. 0% and 9. 2% , respectively, there was significant difference (P<0. 01) . There was significant difference in character problems between boys and girls (P<0. 05) . There was also significant difference in impulse, hyperactivity and hyperactive index between boys and girls (P <0. 01) . Univariate analysis found that the effect factors of behavior problems in children aged 3 ~ 7 years old included maternal anxiety or depression during pregnancy, physical health state during pregnancy, paternal educational level, complications during perinatal period, past medical history of children and the time of starting to speak of children. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis found that maternal anxiety or depression during pregnancy, poor physical health state during pregnancy and complications during perinatal period were the main risk factors of behavior problems in children. Conclusion: The behavior problems of children aged 3 ~7 years old are resulted from multiple factors, keeping good maternal spirit and reducing complications during perinatal period have important significances to reduce the behavior problems of children.%目的:探讨镇江市3~7岁儿童行为问题的流行病学特点,为减少儿童行为问题的发生提供干预措施.方法:应用Conners父母症状问卷(Parent Symptom Questionnaire,PSQ)和自编儿童

  16. 杭州地区腹泻患儿轮状病毒感染流行病学特征分析%Epidemiological characteristics of rotavirus infection among diarrhea children in Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 楼金吐; 尚世强; 李华美; 周明明

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of the children infected with rotavirus in Hangzhou , and to provide evidence to prevent and cure the children with acute diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection. [Method] The antigen assay of rotavirus in stool from the outpatient and inpatient children with acute diarrhea was em-ployed in 2007 - 2011, and the positive patient information was statistically analyzed. [Results] The rotavirus-positive rate of the children of Hangzhou was 29. 25% in 2007 -2011,the annual rotavirus-positive rate decreased from 39. 42% in 2007 to 19. 61% in 2011. The epidemic period of children rotavirus was mainly in November and December of every year,and the children aged 6~18 months had the high infection rate. The rotavirus-positive rate was 32. 28% in outpatient children with diarrhea,and the positive rate was 20. 70% in hospitalized children. [Conclusion] The children rotavirus infection rate was lower than the national average level in Hangzhou,the safe and effective rotavirus vaccine development may eradicate the hazards of children rotavirus in the prevention and treatment of children rotavirus.%[目的]探讨杭州地区腹泻儿童感染A组轮状病毒的流行病学特征,指导临床防治. [方法]对2007-2011年门诊和住院的急性腹泻儿童的大便进行轮状病毒抗原检测,并采用统计方法分析流行病学特征. [结果]杭州地区2007-2011年腹泻儿童A组轮状病毒平均阳性率为29.25%.阳性率从2007年的39.42%下降到2011年的19.61%,其中每年11-12月份为儿童轮状病毒感染高峰期;且以6~18月的患儿感染率最高.腹泻儿童中门诊轮状病毒阳性率为32.28%,住院儿童的阳性率为20.70%. [结论]杭州地区儿童A组轮状病毒感染率低于全国平均水平,而且有逐年下降趋势.在今后应加快安全高效的轮状病毒疫苗的开发,从根本上解决儿童轮状病毒的危害.

  17. Molecular Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Hyonmin; Deirmengian, Carl A; Hickok, Noreen J.; Morrison, Tiffany N.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic infections are complex conditions that require immediate diagnosis and accurate identification of the causative organisms to facilitate appropriate management. Conventional methodologies for diagnosis of these infections sometimes lack accuracy or sufficient rapidity. Current molecular diagnostics are an emerging area of bench-to-bedside research in orthopaedic infections. Examples of promising molecular diagnostics include measurement of a specific biomarker in the synovial fluid...

  18. Diagnostic dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Dobrovolny, Robert; Nazarenko, Irina;

    2011-01-01

    in two expert laboratories did not identify a confirmatory mutation, presenting a diagnostic dilemma. A renal biopsy proved diagnostic and renewed efforts to detect an a-Gal A mutation. Subsequent gene dosage analyses identified a large a-Gal A deletion confirming her heterozygosity, and she was started...

  19. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

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    Mudit Verma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.

  20. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  1. Effectiveness of Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Children Estimated by a Test-Negative Case-Control Design Study Based on Influenza Rapid Diagnostic Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinjoh, Masayoshi; Sugaya, Norio; Yamaguchi, Yoshio; Tomidokoro, Yuka; Sekiguchi, Shinichiro; Mitamura, Keiko; Fujino, Motoko; Shiro, Hiroyuki; Komiyama, Osamu; Taguchi, Nobuhiko; Nakata, Yuji; Yoshida, Naoko; Narabayashi, Atsushi; Myokai, Michiko; Sato, Masanori; Furuichi, Munehiro; Baba, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hisayo; Sato, Akihiro; Ookawara, Ichiro; Tsunematsu, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Makoto; Kono, Mio; Tanaka, Fumie; Kawakami, Chiharu; Kimiya, Takahisa; Takahashi, Takao; Iwata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza in children 6 months to 15 years of age in 22 hospitals in Japan during the 2013-14 season. Our study was conducted according to a test-negative case-control design based on influenza rapid diagnostic test (IRDT) results. Outpatients who came to our clinics with a fever of 38 °C or over and had undergone an IRDT were enrolled in this study. Patients with positive IRDT results were recorded as cases, and patients with negative results were recorded as controls. Between November 2013 and March 2014, a total of 4727 pediatric patients (6 months to 15 years of age) were enrolled: 876 were positive for influenza A, 66 for A(H1N1)pdm09 and in the other 810 the subtype was unknown; 1405 were positive for influenza B; and 2445 were negative for influenza. Overall VE was 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39-52). Adjusted VE against influenza A, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, and influenza B was 63% (95% CI, 56-69), 77% (95% CI, 59-87), and 26% (95% CI, 14-36), respectively. Influenza vaccine was not effective against either influenza A or influenza B in infants 6 to 11 months of age. Two doses of influenza vaccine provided better protection against influenza A infection than a single dose did. VE against hospitalization influenza A infection was 76%. Influenza vaccine was effective against influenza A, especially against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, but was much less effective against influenza B.

  2. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of four odontological methods for age evaluation in Italian children at the age threshold of 14 years using ROC curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchi, Vilma; Pradella, Francesco; Vitale, Giulia; Rugo, Dario; Nieri, Michele; Norelli, Gian-Aristide

    2016-01-01

    The age threshold of 14 years is relevant in Italy as the minimum age for criminal responsibility. It is of utmost importance to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of every odontological method for age evaluation considering the sensitivity, or the ability to estimate the true positive cases, and the specificity, or the ability to estimate the true negative cases. The research aims to compare the specificity and sensitivity of four commonly adopted methods of dental age estimation - Demirjian, Haavikko, Willems and Cameriere - in a sample of Italian children aged between 11 and 16 years, with an age threshold of 14 years, using receiver operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC). In addition, new decision criteria are developed to increase the accuracy of the methods. Among the four odontological methods for age estimation adopted in the research, the Cameriere method showed the highest AUC in both female and male cohorts. The Cameriere method shows a high degree of accuracy at the age threshold of 14 years. To adopt the Cameriere method to estimate the 14-year age threshold more accurately, however, it is suggested - according to the Youden index - that the decision criterion be set at the lower value of 12.928 for females and 13.258 years for males, obtaining a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 88% in females, and a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 92% in males. If a specificity level >90% is needed, the cut-off point should be set at 12.959 years (82% sensitivity) for females.

  3. School maturity and diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    VILDOVÁ, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the issue of school readiness and its characteristics. In the theoretical part of the paper the problems of the appropriateness of school attendance postponement and the child?s school attendance preparation are worked up. Likewise the issue of children´s development of pre-school stage is treated and, not least, the diagnostic methods of considering the child school readiness methods and various tests used in practice including their evaluation are mentioned. In...

  4. The epidemiology of rotavirus disease in under-five-year-old children hospitalized with acute diarrhea in central Uganda, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwogi, Josephine; Malamba, Samuel; Kigozi, Brian; Namuwulya, Prossy; Tushabe, Phionah; Kiguli, Sarah; Byarugaba, Denis Karuhize; Desselberger, Ulrich; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Karamagi, Charles

    2016-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken during 2012-2013 to determine the prevalence, strains and factors associated with rotavirus infection among under-5-year-old children hospitalized with acute diarrhea in Uganda. Rotaviruses were detected in 37 % (263/712) of the children. The most prevalent strains were G9P[8] (27 %, 55/204) and G12P[4] (18.6 %, 38/204). Mixed infections were detected in 22.5 % (46/204) of the children. The study suggests that consumption of raw vegetables (OR = 1.45, 95 % CI = 1.03-2.03) and family ownership of dogs (OR = 1.9, 95 % CI = 1.04-3.75) increases the risk of rotavirus infection. The study findings will be used to assess the impact of RV vaccination in Uganda. PMID:26724820

  5. The prevalence of traumatic dental injuries to permanent anterior teeth and its relation with predisposing risk factors among 8-13 years school children of Vadodara city: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M C Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: dental trauma is an irreversible pathology that after occurrence is characterized by life-long debilitating effects. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence of anterior teeth fracture and their association with predisposing factors such as lip coverage, molar relationship, overjet, and variables such as age, sex, cause, and place of trauma. Materials and Methods: an epidemiological cross-sectional study was carried out among 3708 school children aged 8-13 years in the Vadodara city. All children completed a questionnaire related to history of trauma to their anterior teeth after which they were examined for lip competence, Angle′s molar relationship amount of overjet and nature of trauma sustained. The results were statistically analyzed using the prevalence test, Chi-square test, and Mantel-Haenszel Common Odds Ratio. Results: the prevalence of traumatic injuries was 8.79% and the ratio of boys: girl′s was 1.28:1. Inadequate lip coverage group sustained about five times more injuries than the adequate lip coverage group (P = 0.000, OR= 5.407. The maximum traumatic injuries were seen in children having Angle Class II Div 1 molar relationship and/or overjet greater than 5.5 mm and was statistically significant (P<0.05. Maximum number of injuries occurred at 9 years of age. The most predominant injuries were enamel fractures, the most common place for occurrence was home and fall against object, the most frequent cause. Conclusion: the prevalence of dental injuries in the Vadodara city is high and it has a great potential to be considered as an emerging public health problem.

  6. A prospective three-year cohort study of the epidemiology and virology of acute respiratory infections of children in rural India.

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    Shobha Broor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infection (ARI is a major killer of children in developing countries. Although the frequency of ARI is similar in both developed and developing countries, mortality due to ARI is 10-50 times higher in developing countries. Viruses are common causes of ARI among such children, yet the disease burden of these infections in rural communities is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A prospective longitudinal study was carried out in children enrolled from two rural Indian villages at birth and followed weekly for the development of ARI, classified as upper respiratory infection, acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI, or severe ALRI. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, influenza, parainfluenza viruses and adenoviruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates were detected by direct fluorescent antibody testing (DFA and, in addition, centrifugation enhanced culture for RSV was done. 281 infants enrolled in 39 months and followed until 42 months. During 440 child years of follow-up there were 1307 ARIs, including 236 ALRIs and 19 severe ALRIs. Virus specific incidence rates per 1000 child years for RSV were total ARI 234, ALRI 39, and severe ALRI 9; for influenza A total ARI 141, ALRI 39; for INF B total ARI 37; for PIV1 total ARI 23, for PIV2 total ARI 28, ALRI 5; for parainfluenza virus 3 total ARI 229, ALRI 48, and severe ALRI 5 and for adenovirus total ARI 18, ALRI 5. Repeat infections with RSV were seen in 18 children. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: RSV, influenza A and parainfluenza virus 3 were important causes of ARI among children in rural communities in India. These data will be useful for vaccine design, development and implementation purposes.

  7. Epidemiological and clinical features of rotavirus among children younger than 5 years of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Northern Italy

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    Montrasio Giovanni

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis and severe dehydrating diarrhea in young children. Methods To estimate the proportion of hospital admissions for rotavirus acute gastroenteritis and identify the circulating G and P genotypes among children under five years of age, we conducted a prospective observational study from January to December 2008, recruiting children consecutively admitted to six hospitals in Milan and nearby towns in northern Italy. Typing was done on stool samples by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction amplification. Results Of the 521 stool samples from children with acute gastroenteritis, 34.9% (95%CI, 30.8 to 39.2% were rotavirus-positive. Two thirds (67.6% were under two years of age, and 13.2% were under six months. The predominant G type was G1 (40.7%, followed by G9 (22.5%, G2 (13.2%, G3 (5.5%, G4 (3.8% and G10 (1.6%. Twenty-one (11.7% mixed-G infections were identified: G1+G10 (8.8%; G1+G9 (1.6%; and G2+G10 (1.2%. Only P[8] (67.6% and P[4] (12.6% types were P genotyped. The predominant single G/P combination was G1P[8] (39.7%, followed by G9P[8] (25.3%, G2P[4] (14.3%, and G3P[8] (4.1%. All G-mixed types combined with P[8]. Conclusions These findings show an high prevalence of rotavirus infections among children admitted to hospital for acute gastroenteritis caused by different rotavirus strains circulating in the area studied.

  8. Diagnostics for Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McNerney

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed.

  9. [Diagnostic approach in hyperkinetic children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revol, Olivier; Fourneret, Pierre

    2002-11-15

    Hyperkinetic syndrome may be either primary, as part of an organic disease, an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or pervasive developmental disorder, either secondary to mood disorders, specific learning disabilities, or giftedness. Precise diagnosis requires a decision procedure with clinical, anamnestic, behavioral and neuropsychological evaluations.

  10. Diagnostic testing of pediatric fevers: meta-analysis of 13 national surveys assessing influences of malaria endemicity and source of care on test uptake for febrile children under five years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily White Johansson

    Full Text Available In 2010, the World Health Organization revised guidelines to recommend diagnosis of all suspected malaria cases prior to treatment. There has been no systematic assessment of malaria test uptake for pediatric fevers at the population level as countries start implementing guidelines. We examined test use for pediatric fevers in relation to malaria endemicity and treatment-seeking behavior in multiple sub-Saharan African countries in initial years of implementation.We compiled data from national population-based surveys reporting fever prevalence, care-seeking and diagnostic use for children under five years in 13 sub-Saharan African countries in 2009-2011/12 (n = 105,791. Mixed-effects logistic regression models quantified the influence of source of care and malaria endemicity on test use after adjusting for socioeconomic covariates. Results were stratified by malaria endemicity categories: low (PfPR2-1040%. Among febrile under-fives surveyed, 16.9% (95% CI: 11.8%-21.9% were tested. Compared to hospitals, febrile children attending non-hospital sources (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.56-0.69 and community health workers (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.23-0.43 were less often tested. Febrile children in high-risk areas had reduced odds of testing compared to low-risk settings (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.42-0.62. Febrile children in least poor households were more often tested than in poorest (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.39-1.91, as were children with better-educated mothers compared to least educated (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.16-1.54.Diagnostic testing of pediatric fevers was low and inequitable at the outset of new guidelines. Greater testing is needed at lower or less formal sources where pediatric fevers are commonly managed, particularly to reach the poorest. Lower test uptake in high-risk settings merits further investigation given potential implications for diagnostic scale-up in these areas. Findings could inform continued implementation of new guidelines to improve access to

  11. Family time, parental behaviour model and the initiation of smoking and alcohol use by ten-year-old children: an epidemiological study in Kaunas, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaborskis Apolinaras

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family is considered to be the first and the most important child development and socialization bond. Nevertheless, parental behaviour model importance for the children, as well as family time for shared activity amount influence upon the child's health-related behaviour habit development has not been yet thoroughly examined. The aim of this paper is to indicate the advanced health-hazardous behaviour modelling possibilities in the families, as well as time spent for joint family activities, and to examine the importance of time spent for joint family activities for the smoking and alcohol use habit initiation among children. Methods This research was carried out in Kaunas, Lithuania, during the school year 2004–2005. The research population consisted of 369 fifth-grade schoolchildren (211 (57.2% boys and 158 (42.8% girls and 565 parents: 323 (57.2% mothers and 242 (48.2% fathers. The response rate was 80.7% for children; 96.1% and 90.6% for mothers and fathers correspondingly. Results Eating a meal together was the most frequent joint family activity, whereas visiting friends or relatives together, going for a walk, or playing sports were the most infrequent joint family activities. More than two thirds (81.5% of parents (248 (77.0% mothers and 207 (85.9% fathers (p Conclusion Joint family activity time deficit together with frequent parental examples of smoking and alcohol use underlie the development of alcohol and smoking addictions in children to some extent. The above-mentioned issues are suggested to be widely addressed in the comprehensive family health education programs.

  12. The prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among 15-year-old school children in Galle district in Sri Lanka: An epidemiological study

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    Chathurangi Niroshana Gunatissa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To ascertain the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among 15 year old school children in Galle district in the Southern Province in Sri Lanka. Objective: To ascertain the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among 15-year-old school children in Galle district in the Southern Province in Sri Lanka. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 802 school children in the Galle district. Multi-stage cluster sampling technique combined with probability proportionate to size method was used to select the sample. Occlusal characteristics including overjet, overbite, crossbites, crowding, and spacing were recorded using a standard pro forma and the need for orthodontic treatment was assessed using the index of orthodontic treatment need dental health component. SPSS 17 for Windows was used to analyze the data. The awareness of malocclusion among the subjects was also assessed. Results: It was observed that the prevalence of malocclusion among the sample was 69.5%, and the overall treatment need was 26.6%.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of genogroup II norovirus infection among hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in Suzhou (Jiangsu, China) from 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian-Guang; Ai, Jing; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Qing-Bin; Qi, Xian; Ji, Hong; Jin, Miao; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Shen-Jiao; Shan, Jun; Bao, Chang-Jun; Tang, Fen-Yang; Zhu, Ye-Fei

    2016-06-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in both sporadic and outbreak cases. Genotyping and recombination analyses were performed in order to help getting more knowledge of the distribution and genetic diversity of NoVs in Suzhou, located in Jiangsu province of China. All stool samples were collected from hospitalized children younger than 5 years old with acute gastroenteritis. For genotyping, the open reading frame (ORF) 1 and ORF2 were partially amplified and sequenced. 26.9% of stool samples were positive for genogroup II NoVs. The most common genotype was GII.4 and its variants included Den Haag-2006b, New Orleans-2009, and Sydney-2012. The Den Haag-2006b variants predominated during 2010-2012. In 2013, it was replaced by the Sydney-2012 variant. The second most common genotype was GII.12/GII.3. NoVs could be detected throughout the year, with GII.4 and GII.12/GII.3 coexisting during the cold months, and GII.4 was the main genotype during the warm months. The highest prevalence of NoV was detected in young children aged viral gastroenteritis among children in Suzhou. Analyses of NoV circulating between 2010 and 2013 revealed a change of predominant variant of NoV GII.4 in each epidemic season and intergenotype recombinant strains represented an important part. PMID:26547266

  14. The Epidemiology of Injuries and Accidents in Children Under one Year of Age, during (2009-2016 in Hamadan Province, Iran

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    Zaher Khazaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Injuries and accidents are the first cause of death in the first 5 years of children life in the world; the present study was conducted to investigate the extent and distribution of accidents in the infants under one year in Hamadan Province, Iran. Materials and Methods:This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was carried out using of   data of injuries and accidents related to children under one year for Hamadan province in seven years period from March 2009 to March 2016. In this study we used data according national injuries and accidents recorded program. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics as well as analytical statistics including the Chi-square test. Data were analyzed using Stata software version 12. Results:In this 7 year periods, 3,200 accidents were registered among children under one year. The highest occurrence of accidents was in the spring 1,029 (31.15% of cases. 1,890 (59.1% of accidents occurred in the urban area and only 429 (13.4% of them were in rural area. In total, car accidents (53.4%, trauma (12.6% and fall from altitude (8.8% had most frequency from all accidents. There was a significant difference between gender and place of accident with type of accident (P

  15. 学龄前儿童近视眼流行病学调查及相关因素分析%Analysis of myopia epidemiology of preschool children and related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李保英

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查学龄前儿童近视眼的流行病学状况、分析相关因素,为早期预防近视提供一定依据.方法 在焦作市随机整群抽取20间幼儿园的学龄前儿童,用尼德克ARK-30对所选儿童进行屈光筛查.可疑近视者和屈光度≤+2.00D者予1%阿托品眼膏涂双眼3d,由专人进行视网膜检影,确诊为近视及屈光度≤+2.00D的儿童由专人进行近视相关因素调查.结果 学龄前儿童近视眼患病率为1.95%,城区2.10%,农村1.80%;其中3~4(<4)岁占0.98%,4~5(<5)岁占1.96%,5~6岁占2.45%.相关因素分析:学龄前儿童近视眼发生与近亲近视史密切相关,城区与农村学龄前儿童近视眼发病情况无显著性差异.结论 学龄前儿童近视在临床上非常多见,应引起足够重视.%Objective To investigate the epidemiology of myopia in preschool children, and to analyze related factors to provide a basis for early prevention of myopia. Methods Random cluster sampling Jiaozuo 20 kindergarten preschool children, with the Nidek ARK -30 refractive screening of the selected children. Suspicious of myopia and refractive error ≤ + 2. 00 D to 1% atropine ointment were painted eyes 3d, carried out by hand retinoscopy, diagnosed with myopia and refractive error ≤ + 2. 00 D for myopic children in person related factors. Results The prevalence of myopia was 1.95% in preschool children, urban 2. 10%, rural 1.80%; of which 3~4(<4) years old accounted for 0. 98% ,4~5(<5) years old accounted for 1.96%, 5 to6 years old accounted for2. 45%. Related factors: pre- school children myopia occurred related to close relative myopia history, urban and rural preschool children the prevalence of myopia was no significant difference. Conclusions The pre -school children myopia is very common in clinical, attention should be paid.

  16. 厦门市学龄儿童龋牙修复状况及其影响因素%An epidemiological investigation of caries filling rate among school-aged children and the influencing factors in Xiamen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊震; 张旭辉; 李辉莉; 苏瑞真

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the caries filling rate and their influencing factors in school-aged children of Xiamen. METHODS: With stratified cluster random sampling, 824 urban and rural school-aged students in Xiamen from 2 schools were surveyed. Investigation included oral examination and questionnaire ( child questionnaire and parent questionnaire). Oral examination methods were recommended by WHO caries epidemiological investigation. Dental caries, loss and fill status were recorded. The results were entered by EpiData 3. 0 and analyzed by SPASS 13.0. RESULTS: Among the 824 children, the caries filling rate was 24.27%. Family income, parental education, fear of children to visit dentist, short of time to visit dentist, high medical cost and other factors showed influence on caries filling rate. CONCLUSION: Caries filling rate among school-aged children in Xiamen is low. The caries filling rate of rural school-aged children is lower than that of urban school-aged children. The factors influencing caries filling rate are diverse. Therefore corresponding measures such as oral health education, periodic oral examination and dental caries filling in children should be taken to promote oral health of school-aged children in Xiamen.%目的:了解厦门市学龄儿童龋牙的修复状况及其影响因素,为开展学龄儿童龋病防治工作提供科学依据.方法:按照分层随机整群抽样方法选取厦门市城乡各2所小学,共824名患龋儿童为研究对象.调查内容包括口腔检查和问卷(儿童问卷和父母问卷)调查.按照WHO推荐的龋病流行病学调查方法进行口腔检查,记录各牙龋、失、补状况.所有数据经EpiData 3.0录入后,运用SPSS 13.0进行统计分析.结果:824名患龋学龄儿童龋牙修复率为24.27%,影响学龄儿童龋牙修复的主要因素包括:家庭经济文化水平、口腔检查频率、患儿的恐惧心理、就诊时间和医疗费用等.结论:厦门市学龄儿童龋牙修复率较低,

  17. 湘潭市0~14岁儿童哮喘流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation on asthma in 0 - 14 years old children in Xiangtan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁海斌; 成莲英; 陶莹; 李理

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the prevalence, frequently - occurring seasons and current situation of treatment of asthma in 0-14 years old children in Xiangtan city. Methods; A cluster sampling method was used to select 14 136 children age 0-14 years old randomly from Yuetang district, Yuhu district, Xiangxiang city, Xiangtan county, and Shaoshan city from Xiangtan city for epidemiological investigation of asthma. Results; Among 14 136 children aged 0-14 years old in Xiangtan city, a total of 206 children were diagnosed as asthma, the prevalence rate of asthma was 1.46%, the gender ratio of boys to girls was 1. 29:1; the incidences of asthma in spring and winter were 36. 9% and 34. 0% , respectively; asthma mainly occurred in the night (42. 7% ) and morning (17. 5% ); respiratory tract infection was the major cause of attack. 90. 8% of the children were treated with antibiotics when asthma occurred, but the rate of normalized treatment was only 10.1% ; the disease affected the study of 72. 9% of the children. Conclusion; The prevalence rate of childhood asthma in Xiangtan city is slightly lower than national average level, but it is higher than the average level in Central - Southern China; the proportion of children receiving normalized treatment is low, the publicity and education of asthma - related knowledge should be enhanced among the children.%目的:了解湘潭市0~14岁儿童哮喘的患病率、好发季节与治疗现状.方法:采取整群抽样的方法,随机选取湘潭市岳塘区、雨湖区、湘乡市、湘潭县、韶山市5个市县区0~14岁儿童14 136例进行哮喘的流行病学调查.结果:湘潭市14 136例0~14岁儿童中,共诊断儿童哮喘206例,哮喘患病率为1.46%,其中男、女性别之比为1.29:1;春季发病为36.9%,冬季为34.0%;发作时间主要在夜间(42.7%)和清晨(17.5%);呼吸道感染是主要发作诱因.发作时使用抗生素治疗达到90.8%,而规范化治疗仅为10.7%;疾

  18. CT在脑性瘫痪早期诊断中的价值%The early diagnostic value of CT for children with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦卫中; 徐春芳; 张庆松

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨CT在小儿脑性瘫痪(脑瘫)早期诊断中的价值。方法对124例小儿脑瘫的头颅CT进行回顾性研究与分析。结果124例中96例头颅CT检查阳性,CT异常率77.42%,其中脑萎缩是最常见的表现(54.84%)。临床类型中痉挛型最多见(71.77%)。不同年龄组中,年龄越小,CT异常率越高。结论虽然CT不能作为诊断脑瘫的主要依据,但有助于早期发现病变,有助于寻找病因及定位,还可以为判断本病的预后提供依据,在脑瘫的早期诊断中具有重要价值。%Objective To study the early diagnostic value of CT for children with cerebral palsy.Methods CT manifestations of 124 cases with cerebral palsy were analysed retrospectively. Results 96 cases of the 124 cases showed a recognisable abnormality,the abnormal rate of CT was about 77.42% ,and the most common abnormality was cerebral atrophy.Spastic type was the most common clinical type(71.77% ).The less of the age,the higher of the abnormal rate of CT. Conclusion Although CT isn't the main basis of the diagnosis of cerebral palsy,it's helpful for us to find the pathological changes,and to find the eliology and location.It also provided basis for us to judge the prognosis of cerebral palsy.So CT has significant value in the early diagnosis of cerebral palsy.

  19. Epidemiology of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy abroad and in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    T. E. Popova; N. A. Shnayder; M. M. Petrova; T. Ya. Nikolaeva; E. A. Kantimirova

    2015-01-01

    Current article provides an overview of the results of epidemiological studies of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) in Russia and abroad. It is shown that the prevalence of CIDP is different in countries, due to the use of different diagnostic criteria. It should be noted that the reliability of epidemiological prevalence and incidence is affected by difficulties of diagnosis of atypical forms of the disease.

  20. Epidemiology of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy abroad and in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Popova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current article provides an overview of the results of epidemiological studies of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP in Russia and abroad. It is shown that the prevalence of CIDP is different in countries, due to the use of different diagnostic criteria. It should be noted that the reliability of epidemiological prevalence and incidence is affected by difficulties of diagnosis of atypical forms of the disease.