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Sample records for children born small

  1. Oral health of children born small for gestational age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, A C

    2010-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the oral health status of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children now aged 4-8 years who were born SGA (birth weight < -2 SDS) were examined using standardised criteria. The parents completed a structured oral health questionnaire. Twenty females and 25 males, mean age 72.1 months, and mean birth weight 2.1 kg, participated in the study. Poor appetite was a concern; 32 (71%) children snacked between meals and 14 (30%) used carbonated beverages more than 3 times daily. Erosion was present in 9 (20%) children. Dental decay occurred in 22 (47%) children with 92% being untreated. Eight children had more than 5 decayed teeth. It is essential that clinicians working with children born SGA include oral health within the general health surveillance and refer these children for a dental assessment within the first 2 years to support parents in establishing safe feeding patterns for their children.

  2. Latin American Consensus: Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Armando

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children born small for gestational age (SGA experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those born appropriate for gestational age. In Latin America, identification and optimal management of children born SGA is a critical issue. Leading experts in pediatric endocrinology throughout Latin America established working groups in order to discuss key challenges regarding the evaluation and management of children born SGA and ultimately develop a consensus statement. Discussion SGA is defined as a birth weight and/or birth length greater than 2 standard deviations (SD below the population reference mean for gestational age. SGA refers to body size and implies length-weight reference data in a geographical population whose ethnicity is known and specific to this group. Ideally, each country/region within Latin America should establish its own standards and make relevant updates. SGA children should be evaluated with standardized measures by trained personnel every 3 months during year 1 and every 6 months during year 2. Those without catch-up growth within the first 6 months of life need further evaluation, as do children whose weight is ≤ -2 SD at age 2 years. Growth hormone treatment can begin in SGA children > 2 years with short stature ( 14 years for girls and > 16 years for boys is reached. Blood glucose, thyroid function, HbA1c, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 should be monitored once a year. Monitoring insulin changes from baseline and surrogates of insulin sensitivity is essential. Reduced fetal growth followed by excessive postnatal catch-up in height, and particularly in weight, should be closely monitored. In both sexes, gonadal function should be monitored especially during puberty. Summary Children born SGA should be carefully followed by a multidisciplinary group that includes perinatologists, pediatricians, nutritionists, and pediatric endocrinologists since 10% to 15% will continue to have

  3. Resting-state oscillatory activity in children born small for gestational age: a magnetoencephalographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBoersma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth restriction in utero during a period that is critical for normal growth of the brain, has previously been associated with deviations in cognitive abilities and brain anatomical and functional changes. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG in 4-7 year old children to test if children born small for gestational age (SGA show deviations in resting-state brain oscillatory activity. Children born SGA children with postnatally spontaneous catch-up growth (SGA+; 6 boys, 7 girls; mean age 6.3 y (SD=0.9 and children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; 7 boys, 3 girls; mean age 6.0 y (SD=1.2 participated in a resting-state MEG study. We calculated absolute and relative power spectra and used nonparametric statistics to test for group differences. SGA+ and AGA born children showed no significant differences in absolute and relative power except for reduced absolute gamma band power in SGA children. At time of MEG investigation, SGA+ children showed was significantly lower head circumference (HC and a trend toward lower IQ, however there was no association of HC or IQ with absolute or relative power. Except for reduced absolute gamma band power, our findings suggest normal brain activity patterns at school age in a group of children born SGA in which spontaneous catch-up growth of bodily length after birth occurred. Although previous findings suggest that being born SGA alters brain oscillatory activity early in neonatal life, we show that these neonatal alterations do not persist at early school age when spontaneous postnatal catch-up growth occurs after birth.

  4. Bloom syndrome in short children born small for gestational age: A challenging diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Renes (Judith); R.H. Willemsen (Ruben); A. Wagner (Anja); M.J. Finken (Martijn); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: GH treatment has become a frequently applied growth-promoting therapy in short children born small for gestational age (SGA). In some disorders GH treatment is contraindicated, eg, chromosomal breakage syndromes. Bloom syndrome is a rare chromosomal breakage syndrome characte

  5. Efficacy and safety of growth hormone treatment for children born small for gestational age

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Il Tae

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant growth hormone (GH) is an effective treatment for short children who are born small for gestational age (SGA). Short children born SGA who fail to demonstrate catch-up growth by 2-4 years of age are candidates for GH treatment initiated to achieve catch-up growth to a normal height in early childhood, maintain a normal height gain throughout childhood, and achieve an adult height within the normal target range. GH treatment at a dose of 35-70 µg/kg/day should be considered for tho...

  6. Functional Outcomes at Age 7 Years of Moderate Preterm and Full Term Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, Jozien C; van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bos, Arend F

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare functional outcomes of 7-year-old (school-age) children born small for gestational age (SGA; ie, a birth weight z score ≤ -1 SD), with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) peers, born moderately preterm or full term. STUDY DESIGN: Data were collected as part of the Longitudina

  7. [Dutch Preventive Youth Health Care Service guideline on children born too early and/or too small for gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pal, Sylvia M; Heerdink, Nen; Kamphuis, Mascha; Pols, Margreet A

    2014-01-01

    In children who are born prematurely or whose birth weight is too low for gestational age (small for gestational age (SGA)) intensive care and follow up are desirable.However, obstacles include the shared care of children born very preterm (care service (and other professionals) and the identification of possible late onset health problems in children born late preterm (32-37 weeks of gestation). This guideline is multidisciplinary and evidence based and is relevant to all professionals involved in the care of this group of children. The main recommendations are: (a) timely and complete transfer of information after discharge from hospital; (b) structured exchange of information in aftercare; (c) assigning a case manager to each child; (d) monitoring growth and development by adjusting age for preterm birth, and (e) using special growth charts for children born preterm to evaluate growth and development.

  8. Brain development, intelligence and cognitive outcome in children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bie, H M A; Oostrom, K J; Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    2010-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality as well as short stature, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia and end-stage renal disease in adulthood. In addition, SGA children have decreased levels of intelligence and cognition, although the effects are mostly subtle. The overall outcome of each child is the result of a complex interaction between intrauterine and extrauterine factors. Animal and human studies show structural alterations in the brains of individuals with IUGR/SGA. The presence of growth hormone (GH) receptors in the brain implies that the brain is also a target for GH. Exogenous GH theoretically has the ability to act on the brain. This is exemplified by the effects of GH on cognition in GH-deficient adults. In SGA children, data on the effect of exogenous GH on intelligence and cognition are scant and contradictory.

  9. Methylphenidate and the response to growth hormone treatment in short children born small for gestational age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Renes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH treatment has become a frequently applied growth promoting therapy in short children born small for gestational age (SGA. Children born SGA have a higher risk of developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Treatment of ADHD with methylphenidate (MP has greatly increased in recent years, therefore more children are being treated with GH and MP simultaneously. Some studies have found an association between MP treatment and growth deceleration, but data are contradictory. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of MP treatment on growth in GH-treated short SGA children METHODS: Anthropometric measurements were performed in 78 GH-treated short SGA children (mean age 10.6 yr, 39 of whom were also treated with MP (SGA-GH/MP. The SGA-GH/MP group was compared to 39 SGA-GH treated subjects. They were matched for sex, age and height at start of GH, height SDS at start of MP treatment and target height SDS. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 levels were yearly determined. Growth, serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels during the first three years of treatment were analyzed using repeated measures regression analysis. RESULTS: The SGA-GH/MP group had a lower height gain during the first 3 years than the SGA-GH subjects, only significant between 6 and 12 months of MP treatment. After 3 years of MP treatment, the height gain was 0.2 SDS (± 0.1 SD lower in the SGA-GH/MP group (P = 0.17. Adult height was not significantly different between the SGA-GH/MP and SGA-GH group (-1.9 SDS and -1.9 SDS respectively, P = 0.46. Moreover, during the first 3 years of MP treatment IGF-I and IGFBP-3 measurements were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: MP has some negative effect on growth during the first years in short SGA children treated with GH, but adult height is not affected.

  10. Short children born small for gestational age (SGA) : puberty, hormonal profiles, combined GnRHa and GH treatment and (epi)genetics of 2 IGFBP gene promotors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.M. van der Kaay (Danielle)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn the Netherlands, children who remain short after being born small for gestational age (SGA) are treated with growth hormone (GH). The clinical studies described in this thesis focused on treatment options in short children born SGA who came under medical attention around pubertal age.

  11. A randomised controlled trial evaluating IGF1 titration in contrast to current GH dosing strategies in children born small for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Thankamony, Ajay; O'Connell, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short children born small for gestational age (SGA) are treated with a GH dose based on body size, but treatment may lead to high levels of IGF1. The objective was to evaluate IGF1 titration of GH dose in contrast to current dosing strategies. METHODS: In the North European Small-for-...

  12. Genetic and Environmental Factors in Pre- and Postnatal Growth Disorders: Studies in children born small for gestational age (SGA), with and without postnatal short stature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Ester (Wietske)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTh is thesis describes genetic and environmental factors which are important in pre- and postnatal growth disorders and specifi cally focuses on children born small for gestational age (SGA) with or without postnatal catch-up growth. It also presents a subclassifi cation of short SGA sub

  13. Children and young adults born small for gestational age (SGA) : GH-IGF-IGFBP axis, insulin sensitivity, adipocytokines and body composition during and after growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Dijk (Marije)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis doctoral thesis gives a detailed account of various studies, performed in short children born small for gestational age (SGA) participating in the third Dutch GH trial (IUGR-3 study), and in young SGA adults previously treated with GH in the first Dutch GH trial (SGA follow-up study

  14. Psychomotor and intellectual development (Neurocognitive Function) of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Transversal and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, Beatriz; Puga, Paloma Gil; de Arriba, Antonio; Armendariz, Yolanda; Labarta, Jose I; Longas, Angel Ferrandez

    2009-02-01

    Although much is now known about the effects of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) on children born SGA with regard to anthropometric and biochemical parameters and their treatment, there are still many gaps associated with its impact on neurocognitive functions. In our experience published several years ago, IUGR has a negative effect on neurocognitive development, regardless of whether these children showed evidence of catch-up growth or not or of the socio-economic conditions that might contribute to the situation. We have now accumulated a large number of cases, many of whom have been followed longitudinally, some for up to 7 years, many having been treated with GH from the time when this therapy was first approved by the EMA. Apart from the cases mentioned, other confounding factors such as gestational age, Apgar score, neonatal comorbidity and the possible effects of GH treatment have also been included. In addition and using our own reference standards, we now present our experience, which confirms what we had already noted in the past, that IUGR is in itself a condition that often causes psychomotorintellectual impairment, may be extremely severe and tends to worsen. This negative impact of IUGR on neurocognitive development does not depend on how the child grows,spontaneous growth is better and when growth is not altered by GH therapy. Later studies will be able to confirm whether early treatment with GH throughout the 2nd year of life, or an early specific stimulation programme, or the sum of both, can improve the neurocognitive development of these children. IUGR prevention, acting on causal factors that are partly avoidable such as smoking, working conditions and stress during pregnancy (see the corresponding article in this supplement) proves once again to be the best way to stop this negative impact on the IQ of many children born SGA.

  15. Baseline IGF-I Levels Determine Insulin Secretion and Insulin Sensitivity during the First Year on Growth Hormone Therapy in Children Born Small for Gestational Age. Results from a North European Multicentre Study (NESGAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Thankamony, Ajay; O'Connell, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Developmental programming alters growth and metabolic outcome in children born small for gestational age (SGA). We explored insulin and glucose metabolism in SGA children treated with a fixed GH dose over 1 year. Methods: In the North European Small for Gestational Age Study (NESGAS), ...

  16. Behavioural symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preterm and term children born small and appropriate for gestational age: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajantie Eero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains unclear whether it is more detrimental to be born too early or too small in relation to symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Thus, we tested whether preterm birth and small body size at birth adjusted for gestational age are independently associated with symptoms of ADHD in children. Methods A longitudinal regional birth cohort study comprising 1535 live-born infants between 03/15/1985 and 03/14/1986 admitted to the neonatal wards and 658 randomly recruited non-admitted infants, in Finland. The present study sample comprised 828 children followed up to 56 months. The association between birth status and parent-rated ADHD symptoms of the child was analysed with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Results Neither prematurity (birth Conclusions Intrauterine growth restriction, reflected in SGA status and lower birth weight, rather than prematurity or lower gestational age per se, may increase risk for symptoms of ADHD in young children.

  17. Growth hormone treatment in children with short stature born small for gestational age: 5-year results of a randomized, double-blind, dose-response trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sas, Theo; Waal, Wouter; Houdijk, M.; Jansen, Maarten; Reeser, M.; Mulder, Paul; Hokken-Koelega, Anita

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe growth-promoting effect of continuous GH treatment was evaluated over 5 yr in 79 children with short stature (height SD score, less than -1.88) born small for gestational age (SGA; birth length SD score, less than -1.88). Patients were randomly and blindly assigned to 1 of 2 GH dosage groups (3 vs. 6 IU/m2 body surface-day). GH deficiency was not an exclusion criterium. After 5 yr of GH treatment almost every child had reached a height well within the normal range for healthy ...

  18. Adiposity in Children Born Small for Gestational Age Is Associated With β-Cell Function, Genetic Variants for Insulin Resistance, and Response to Growth Hormone Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thankamony, Ajay; Jensen, Rikke Beck; O'Connell, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    secretion, and response to GH treatment in short children born small for gestational age (SGA). METHODS: In 89 short prepubertal SGA children (age, 6.2 ± 1.6 y; 55 boys) treated with GH for 1 year in a multicenter study, body fat percentage was estimated at baseline and 1 year using dual-energy x......-ray absorptiometry. The main outcome measures were treatment-related changes in height, IGF-1 standard deviation score, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and disposition index. Combined multiallele gene scores based on single nucleotide polymorphisms with known associations with lower insulin sensitivity (gene...... scores for insulin resistance [GS-InRes]) and insulin secretion (gene scores for insulin secretion [GS-InSec]) were analyzed for their relationships with adiposity. RESULTS: Mean percentage body fat at baseline was low compared to normative data (P = .045) and decreased even further on GH treatment...

  19. The Auxological and Biochemical Continuum of Short Children Born Small for Gestational Age (SGA or with Normal Birth Size (Idiopathic Short Stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranke MichaelB

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Retrospective single-centre analysis of growth characteristics in 182 healthy short children born small for gestational age (SGA or appropriate for gestational age (idiopathic short stature, ISS. Methods. Birth size references from the USA and Sweden were compared, and for the classification as SGA or ISS the Swedish reference was chosen. Height, target height (TH, bone age (BA, predicted adult height (PAH, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 values were compared between SGA and ISS. Results. In the combined group, birth weight and length showed a symmetric Gaussian distribution. The American reference overestimates the percentage of short birth length and underestimates that of low birth weight. In childhood, SGA children were shorter than ISS (−3.1 versus −2.6 SDS, , also in comparison to TH (−2.6 versus −1.9 SDS, . TH, height SDS change over time, BA delay, and PAH were similar. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were lower in ISS ( and .09. Conclusions. SGA children represent the left tail of the Gaussian distribution of birth size in short children. The distinction between SGA and ISS depends on birth size reference. Childhood height of SGA is lower than of ISS, but the other auxological features are similar.

  20. The Auxological and Biochemical Continuum of Short Children Born Small for Gestational Age (SGA or with Normal Birth Size (Idiopathic Short Stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Wit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Retrospective single-centre analysis of growth characteristics in 182 healthy short children born small for gestational age (SGA or appropriate for gestational age (idiopathic short stature, ISS. Methods. Birth size references from the USA and Sweden were compared, and for the classification as SGA or ISS the Swedish reference was chosen. Height, target height (TH, bone age (BA, predicted adult height (PAH, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 values were compared between SGA and ISS. Results. In the combined group, birth weight and length showed a symmetric Gaussian distribution. The American reference overestimates the percentage of short birth length and underestimates that of low birth weight. In childhood, SGA children were shorter than ISS (−3.1 versus −2.6 SDS, P<.001, also in comparison to TH (−2.6 versus −1.9 SDS, P<.001. TH, height SDS change over time, BA delay, and PAH were similar. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were lower in ISS (P=.03 and .09. Conclusions. SGA children represent the left tail of the Gaussian distribution of birth size in short children. The distinction between SGA and ISS depends on birth size reference. Childhood height of SGA is lower than of ISS, but the other auxological features are similar.

  1. Literacy Skills of Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Alison; Crosbie, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Most children born preterm are considered neurologically normal and free of disability. However in follow-up studies at school age, preterm children, born without major impairment, have been shown to have lower cognitive abilities and associated academic, social and behavioural difficulties. This study investigated the literacy, phonological…

  2. Cognitive ability in adolescents born small for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Juul, Anders; Larsen, Torben;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small size at birth may be associated with impaired cognitive ability later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of being born small for gestational age (SGA), with or without intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on cognitive ability in late adolescence. STUDY...... was included. The original Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was administered, and verbal, performance and full-scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores were calculated. RESULTS: There was no difference in IQ between adolescents born SGA and AGA. FGV or IUGR during the third trimester did not influence...... cognitive ability in late adolescence. Full-scale IQ was positively related to head circumference (HC) in adolescence (B: 1.30, 95% CI: 0.32-2.28, p=0.01). HC at birth and three months was positively associated with full-scale IQ. Catch-up growth in the group of SGA children was associated...

  3. Growth in Small-for-Gestational-Age Preterm-Born Children from 0 to 4 Years : The Role of both Prematurity and SGA Status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F. A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bos, Arend F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fullterm small-for-gestational-age children (SGAs) are known for their ability to catch up on growth. Nevertheless, increased risk of growth restriction remains. Evidence on preterm SGA children's growth is lacking. Objective: To determine absolute gains in height and weight, relative gr

  4. Prediction models for short children born small for gestational age (SGA covering the total growth phase. Analyses based on data from KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindberg Anders

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical models can be developed to predict growth in short children treated with growth hormone (GH. These models can serve to optimize and individualize treatment in terms of height outcomes and costs. The aims of this study were to compile existing prediction models for short children born SGA (SGA, to develop new models and to validate the algorithms. Methods Existing models to predict height velocity (HV for the first two and the fourth prepubertal years and during total pubertal growth (TPG on GH were applied to SGA children from the KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database - 1st year: N = 2340; 2nd year: N = 1358; 4th year: N = 182; TPG: N = 59. A new prediction model was developed for the 3rd prepubertal year based upon 317 children by means of the all-possible regression approach, using Mallow's C(p criterion. Results The comparison between the observed and predicted height velocity showed no significant difference when the existing prediction models were applied to new cohorts. A model for predicting HV during the 3rd year explained 33% of the variability with an error SD of 1.0 cm/year. The predictors were (in order of importance: HV previous year; chronological age; weight SDS; mid-parent height SDS and GH dose. Conclusions Models to predict growth to GH from prepubertal years to adult height are available for short children born SGA. The models utilize easily accessible predictors and are accurate. The overall explained variability in SGA is relatively low, due to the heterogeneity of the disorder. The models can be used to provide patients with a realistic expectation of treatment, and may help to identify compliance problems or other underlying causes of treatment failure.

  5. Small Birth Size : Cardiovascular and metabolic profile of young adults born SGA who have been treated with growth hormone and young adults born preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E. Breukhoven (Petra)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis doctoral thesis describes cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in children en young adults with a small birth size, either due to being born small for gestational age (SGA) or due to prematurity. For those born SGA with persistent short stature, the short and long-term effects

  6. Neurosensory outcome of prematurely born children following intracranial hemorrhage

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    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. More and more survival of newborns with small or extremely small body mass at birth, as well as increasing percent of prematurely born babies, have emphasized the significance of intracranial haemorrhage problem. Prematurely born infants are under increased risk for strabismus, amblyopia, blinding and hearing loss. Objective. Establishing the frequency of sensory damages (damage of sight and hearing in prematurely born infants with various degrees of intracranial haemorrhage. Methods. The study is prospective, controlled and included 120 prematurely born infants with diagnosed four different grade intracranial haemorrhage on ultrasonic examination of the central nervous system. The study excluded prematurely born children from twin pregnancies with congenital malformations and stoppage of intrauterine growth. Ophthalmological examination was done at 9, 12, and 36 months of postnatal age. Audilogical examination was done after delivery, at 2 months of age. Results. There are statistically significant differences (p<0.01 related to the presence of strabismus among groups of examinees with vairious hemorrhage degrees. Strabismus was present only in one premature infant with 1st and in 10 children (33.3% with the 4th degree. Amblyopia occurred only among examinees with 4th degree hemorrhage. There were statistically significant differences (p<0.01 related to the finding of transitory otoacoustic emission of the left ear and the right ear among the groups. The finding of the right ear was not usual in 7 examinees from the 4th degree hemorrhage. The finding of the left ear was not usual in 1 examinee from the third and in 7 examinees from the fourth group. Conclusion. Prematurely born children with a higher degree intracranial hemorrhage have a greater risk for the loss of hearing and development of visual handicap.

  7. Comparison of response to 2-years' growth hormone treatment in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency, born small for gestational age, idiopathic short stature, or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Peter A; Sävendahl, Lars; Oliver, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have compared the response to growth hormone (GH) treatment between indications such as isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD), born small for gestational age (SGA), idiopathic short stature (ISS), and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD). The aim of this analysis of data......, collected from two large ongoing observational outcome studies, was to evaluate growth and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) response data for children of short stature with IGHD, MPHD, SGA, or ISS following two years of treatment with the recombinant GH product Norditropin® (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd...

  8. Perinatal outcomes in 375 children born after oocyte donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchau, Sara S; Loft, Anne; Larsen, Elisabeth C;

    2013-01-01

    To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC).......To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC)....

  9. Comparison of response to 2-years’ growth hormone treatment in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency, born small for gestational age, idiopathic short stature, or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency: combined results from two large observational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peter A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have compared the response to growth hormone (GH treatment between indications such as isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD, born small for gestational age (SGA, idiopathic short stature (ISS, and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD. The aim of this analysis of data, collected from two large ongoing observational outcome studies, was to evaluate growth and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I response data for children of short stature with IGHD, MPHD, SGA, or ISS following two years of treatment with the recombinant GH product Norditropin® (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark. Methods Analysis of auxologic data from two ongoing prospective observational studies, NordiNet® International Outcomes Study (NordiNet® IOS and NovoNet®/American Norditropin® Studies: Web-enabled Research (ANSWER Program®. Results 4,582 children aged p = 0.047; p  0.001 vs. IGHD, respectively. Height gain was comparable between IGHD and MPHD. In pre-pubertal children vs. total population, height SDS change after two years was: IGHD, +1.24 vs. +0.97; SGA, +1.17 vs. +1.03; ISS, +1.04 vs. +0.84; and MPHD, +1.16 vs. +0.99 (all p  Conclusions After two years’ GH treatment, change in height SDS was greater in SGA and less in ISS, compared with IGHD; the discrepancy in responses may be due to the disease nature or confounders (i.e. age. Height SDS increase was greatest in pre-pubertal children, supporting early treatment initiation to optimize growth outcomes.

  10. Subjective visual vertical and postural capability in children born prematurely.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Bucci

    Full Text Available We compared postural stability and subjective visual vertical performance in a group of very preterm-born children aged 3-4 years and in a group of age-matched full-term children.A platform (from TechnoConcept was used to measure postural control in children. Perception of subjective visual vertical was also recorded with posture while the child had to adjust the vertical in the dark or with visual perturbation. Two other conditions (control conditions were also recorded while the child was on the platform: for a fixation of the vertical bar, and in eyes closed condition.Postural performance was poor in preterm-born children compared to that of age-matched full-term children: the surface area, the length in medio-lateral direction and the mean speed of the center of pressure (CoP were significantly larger in the preterm-born children group (p < 0.04, p < 0.01, and p < 0.04, respectively. Dual task in both groups of children significantly affected postural control. The subjective visual vertical (SVV values were more variable and less precise in preterm-born children.We suggest that poor postural control as well as perception of verticality observed in preterm-born children could be due to immaturity of the cortical processes involved in the motor control and in the treatment of perception and orientation of verticality.

  11. Developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn

    2005-01-01

    , Copenhagen, were interviewed by telephone when their child was 1 y of age, corrected for preterm birth. A fully structured questionnaire on psychomotor function was used (Revised Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire (R-PDQ)). The parents of 30 children born at term without complications were interviewed......AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and validity of a structured telephone interview to assess the development of children born extremely preterm. METHODS: The parents of 88 children born with a gestational age below 28 wk admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Rigshospitalet...... for comparison. The interview was conducted by NICU staff. To validate the R-PDQ, parents of 22 children in the preterm group and parents of 19 children in the reference group conducted an Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children had reached the age of 3-3(1/2) y. RESULTS: The R-PDQ was easy...

  12. Magic moment? Maternal marriage for children born out of wedlock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina

    2014-08-01

    To test the existence of the "magic moment" for parental marriage immediately post-birth and to inform policies that preferentially encourage biological over step parent marriage, this study estimates the incidence and stability of maternal marriage for children born out of wedlock. Data came from the National Survey of Family Growth on 5,255 children born non maritally. By age 15, 29 % of children born non maritally experienced a biological-father marriage, and 36 % experienced a stepfather marriage. Stepfather marriages occurred much later in a child's life-one-half occurred after the child turned age 7-and had one-third higher odds of dissolution. Children born to black mothers had qualitatively different maternal marriage experiences than children born to white or Hispanic mothers, with less biological-parent marriage and higher incidences of divorce. Findings support the existence of the magic moment and demonstrate that biological marriages were more enduring than stepfather marriages. Yet relatively few children born out of wedlock experienced stable, biological-parent marriages as envisioned by marriage promotion programs.

  13. Central adiposity in children born small and large for gestational age Adiposidad central en niños que nacieron con poco o con excesivo peso para su edad gestacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Biosca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate body composition differences between children that were born small (SGA or large for gestational age (LGA compared with their counterparts born adequate for gestational age (AGA. Methods: Body composition was assessed in 124 healthy Caucasian children (50% girls aged 6-10, classified according to their birth weight for gestational age as AGA, SGA and LGA. Fat mass (FM, percentage of FM, lean mass (LM, bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in the whole body and at different body regions. Results: LM (adjusted for age and sex and total BMC (adjusted for age, sex and weight were both significantly higher in LGA children and lower in SGA when compared with those born AGA. After adjustments for height, LM and BMC differences between groups were not significant. In SGA children, truncal (P Objetivo: Evaluar las diferencias que existen en la composición corporal de aquellos niños que nacieron pequeños (PEG o grandes para su edad gestacional (GEG en comparación con los que presentaban un peso adecuado al nacer (AEG. Métodos: La composición corporal se valoró en 124 niños caucásicos (50% niñas con edades entre 6 y 10 años, clasificados según su peso al nacer como AEG, PEG y GEG. La masa grasa (MG, el porcentaje de MG, la masa magra (MM, el contenido mineral óseo (CMO y la densidad mineral ósea se midieron mediante absorciometría dual de rayos X (DXA tanto globalmente como en las diferentes regiones corporales. Resultados: La MM (ajustada por edad y sexo y el CMO (ajustado por edad, sexo y peso fueron mayores en los GEG y menores en los PEG al compararlos con los AEG; al ajustar la MM el CMO por la altura, dichas diferencias ya no fueron significativas. En los PEG, la grasa abdominal (p < 0,01 y en el tronco (p < 0,05 eran mayores que en los AEG y que en los GEG tras ajustar por edad, sexo y altura. No existían diferencias en el porcentaje de MG

  14. [Extremely prematurely born children's and their parents' need for support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjorn, B.H.; Madsen, B.M.; Munck, H.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: During the 1990s, knowledge on the psychosocial consequences of extremely preterm birth was requested. The Danish Paediatric Society therefore launched a prospective longitudinal study of all children born in Denmark in 1994-95 with a gestational age of ... of children and a group of children born at term were assessed at 5 years of age and the parents filled in a questionnaire. Quantitative data were analysed, qualitative data and impressions received through conversations with the parents were considered...... on the basis of a psychological understanding of loss and grief. RESULTS: During the first year of life, index children were more ill and were cared for in the home for a longer time than were reference children. From the 3rd year of life, differences in illness were minimal. Index parents received more...

  15. Health outcomes of children born to mothers with chronic kidney disease: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Banerjee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to study the health of children born to mothers with chronic kidney disease. Twenty-four children born to mothers with chronic kidney disease were compared with 39 matched control children born to healthy mothers without kidney disease. The well-being of each child was individually assessed in terms of physical health, neurodevelopment and psychological health. Families participating with renal disease were more likely to be from lower socio-economic backgrounds. Significantly fewer vaginal deliveries were reported for mothers with renal disease and their infants were more likely to experience neonatal morbidity. Study and control children were comparable for growth parameters and neurodevelopment as assessed by the Griffiths scales. There was no evidence of more stress amongst mothers with renal disease or of impaired bonding between mother and child when compared to controls. However, there was evidence of greater externalizing behavioral problems in the group of children born to mothers with renal disease. Engaging families in such studies is challenging. Nonetheless, families who participated appreciated being asked. The children were apparently healthy but there was evidence in this small study of significant antenatal and perinatal morbidity compared to controls. Future larger multi-center studies are required to confirm these early findings.

  16. Behaviour Difficulties and Cognitive Function in Children Born Very Prematurely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, Sarah; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Stevenson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Children born very prematurely are at risk of low average IQ and behaviour difficulties throughout childhood and adolescence. Associations among preterm birth, IQ and behaviour have been reported; however, the nature of the relationship among these outcomes is not fully understood. Some studies have proposed that the consequences of preterm birth,…

  17. The Development of Effortful Control in Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, A. J. Miller; Shah, Prachi E.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hahn, Emily; Maleck, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study examined emerging effortful control skills at 24- and 36-months postterm in 172 children born preterm (less than 36 weeks gestation). Infant (neonatal health risks), family (sociodemographic risks), and maternal risk factors (depressive symptoms, anger expressions during play interactions) were assessed at six…

  18. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Growth and growth hormone therapy in short children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguszewski, Margaret Cristina da Silva; Cardoso-Demartini, Adriane de Andre

    2017-03-01

    Approximately 15 million babies are born preterm across the world every year, with less than 37 completed weeks of gestation. Survival rates increased during the last decades with the improvement of neonatal care. With premature birth, babies are deprived of the intense intrauterine growth phase, and postnatal growth failure might occur. Some children born prematurely will remain short at later ages and adult life. The risk of short stature increases if the child is also born small for gestational age. In this review, the effects of being born preterm on childhood growth and adult height and the hormonal abnormalities possibly associated with growth restriction are discussed, followed by a review of current information on growth hormone treatment for those who remain with short stature during infancy and childhood.

  19. Maternal and Paternal Perception of Child Vulnerability and Behaviour Problems in Very Preterm Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; Houtzager, B.A.; Wassenaar-Leemhuis, A.G.; Kok, J.H.; Koot, H.M.; Last, B.F.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children have more behaviour problems than term born children. Perinatal risks, current child functioning, sociodemographic characteristics, parental psychological distress and parental perceptions of child vulnerability (PCV) have been shown to be risk factors for behaviour problems. H

  20. Neonatal outcome and congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with testicular or epididymal sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens; Loft, A; Parner, Erik Thorlund;

    2013-01-01

    Does neonatal outcome including congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with epididymal and testicular sperm [testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA)/testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) (TPT)] differ from neonatal outcome in children born after...

  1. School functioning in 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Karin; Ceelen, Manon; Weissenbruch, van Mirjam; Knol, Dirk; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Huisman, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the school functioning of 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF). We compared 233 children born after IVF to 233 matched control children born spontaneously from parents with fertility problems on measures of education level, general c

  2. Ovarian morphology and function during growth hormone therapy of short girls born small for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Jensen, Rikke; Sundberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of growth hormone (GH) treatment on ovarian and uterine morphology and function in short, prepubertal small-for-gestational-age (SGA) girls.DESIGN: A multinational, randomized controlled trial on safety and efficacy of GH therapy in short, prepubertal children born......(S): Data on anthropometrics, reproductive hormones, and ultrasonographic examination of the internal genitalia were collected during 36 months of GH treatment.RESULT(S): Uterine and ovarian volume increased significantly during 3 years of treatment (64% and 110%, respectively) but remained low within...... multicystic ovaries.CONCLUSION(S): GH treatment was associated with statistically significant growth of the internal genitalia, but remained within the normal range. As altered pubertal development and ovarian morphology were found in 2 of 18 girls, monitoring of puberty and ovarian function during GH therapy...

  3. Behavioral and social development of children born extremely premature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Munck, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    A cohort of extremely prematurely born children and matched term controls was assessed at 5 years of age. The parents completed a questionnaire on their behavioral and social development. The purpose was to illuminate whether the children's general intellectual ability and parental sensitivity were...... associated with behavioral and social development. The index children exhibited more hyperactive behavior and had poorer social skills than the controls. Lower Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) was associated with outward reacting and hyperactive behavior and poorer social skills. Sensitive parenting was associated...... with less outward reacting and less hyperactive behavior. When controlling for differences in FSIQ and parental sensitivity, the index children persisted to have an increased risk of exhibiting hyperactive behavior but not poorer social skills. The index children with normal intellectual development...

  4. Maternal obesity in females born small: Pregnancy complications and offspring disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahizir, Dayana; Briffa, Jessica F; Hryciw, Deanne H; Wadley, Glenn D; Moritz, Karen M; Wlodek, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health crisis, with 1.6 billion adults worldwide being classified as overweight or obese in 2014. Therefore, it is not surprising that the number of women who are overweight or obese at the time of conception is increasing. Obesity during pregnancy is associated with the development of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis proposes that perturbations during critical stages of development can result in adverse fetal changes that leads to an increased risk of developing diseases in adulthood. Of particular concern, children born to obese mothers are at a greater risk of developing cardiometabolic disease. One subset of the population who are predisposed to developing obesity are children born small for gestational age, which occurs in 10% of pregnancies worldwide. Epidemiological studies report that these growth-restricted children have an increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Importantly during pregnancy, growth-restricted females have a higher risk of developing cardiometabolic disease, indicating that they may have an exacerbated phenotype if they are also overweight or obese. Thus, the development of early pregnancy interventions targeted to obese mothers may prevent their children from developing cardiometabolic disease in adulthood.

  5. Medical problems of foreign-born adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenista, J A; Chapman, D

    1987-03-01

    Over 8000 foreign-born children, almost all from third-world countries, are adopted by citizens of the United States each year. Most primary care practitioners do not have enough experience to evaluate and manage their problems efficiently. We reviewed the medical care of the foreign-born adoptees followed up in a single pediatric group practice. The 128 children arrived from one of eight countries in Asia or Latin America at ages ranging from 1 month to 10 years; 57% were female. The median duration of follow-up was 20 months. The most common problems identified included deficient immunizations (37%), intestinal parasites (29%), emotional or behavioral problems (22%), skin diseases (16%), estimated age (12%), scabies and/or lice (10%), and congenital anomales (10%). Twenty-one other classes of problems were identified, including developmental delay, lactose intolerance, vision and hearing deficits, and chronic hepatitis B carrier status. At arrival or within one month, 49% of the children had acute infectious diseases, including upper respiratory tract infection, otitis media, rubeola, varicella, and mumps. Nineteen percent of the children underwent surgical procedures ranging from circumcision to cleft lip-palate repair; 46% of these children were never screened for hepatitis B. Fourteen percent were hospitalized at least once, 5% within the first month after arrival. We developed a simple protocol to screen foreign-born adopted children, allowing rapid identification of treatable problems at the least cost and inconvenience to the family. Thirty-six percent of the families made at least one preadoption visit, permitting an explanation of the protocol and potential problems before the child's arrival.

  6. Cancer in children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundh, Karin Jerhamre; Henningsen, Anna-Karina A; Källen, Karin

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Do children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology (ART) have an increased risk of cancer? SUMMARY ANSWER: Children born after ART showed no overall increase in the rate of cancer when compared with children born as a result of spontaneous conception. WHAT...... IS KNOWN ALREADY: Children born after ART have more adverse perinatal outcomes, i.e. preterm births, low birthweights and birth defects. Previous studies have shown divergent results regarding the risk of cancer among children born after ART. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A retrospective Nordic population......-based cohort study was performed, comprising all children born after ART in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway between 1982 and 2007. The mean (±standard deviation) follow-up time was 9.5 (4.8) years. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Children born after ART (n = 91 796) were compared with a control...

  7. JGZ-richtlijn 'Te vroeg en/of small for gestational age (SGA) geboren kinderen [Dutch Preventive Youth Health Care Service guideline on children born too early and/or too small for gestational age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Heerdink, N.; Kamphuis, M.; Pols, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Bij kinderen die te vroeg geboren worden of met een te laag geboortegewicht voor de zwangerschapsduur (‘small for gestational age’ (SGA)) is intensieve zorg en nazorg gewenst. Knelpunten hierbij zijn de vaak gedeelde zorg door kinderartsen, huisartsen, jeugdgezondheidszorg (jgz) en andere profession

  8. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anselm Chi-Wai; Siao-Ping Ong, Nellie Dawn

    2011-08-31

    Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14%) episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets.

  9. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Chi-wai Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14% episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets.

  10. High serum levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) during high-dose GH treatment in short children born small for gestational age.

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, M. van; Mulder, P.; Houdijk, M.; Mulder, J.; Noordam, K.; Odink, R.J.; Rongen-Westerlaken, C; P. Voorhoeve; Waelkens, J; Stokvis-Brantsma, J.; Hokken-Koelega, A C

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Epidemiological studies have indicated that high serum levels of GH and IGF-I are associated with long-term risks. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the changes in serum levels of GH during overnight profiles, IGF-I, and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in short small for gestational age (SGA) children during GH treatment with two doses. PATIENTS: Thirty-six prepubertal short SGA children were the subjects of this study. Intervention: Subjects received 1 (group A) ...

  11. [Traveling with small children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, C

    1997-01-01

    Traveling with children especially in the tropics requires special planning. Contraindications are rare but care providers should obtain information about medical and transfusional facilities at the destination. Children should receive all vaccinations required for international travel and for specific countries, taking into account age, location, duration of stay, and purpose of trip. A first aid kit should be packed containing a thermometer, bandages, antiseptic agents, a total sunscreen preparation, a mosquito net, sterile compresses, tablets for water disinfection, and indispensable medications (antimalarial agents, antipyretics, oral rehydration solutions, antiemetics, and eye wash). The main indication for chemoprophylaxis is malaria. Chloroquine is recommended for most locations but proguanil may be necessary in areas of resistance. Special attention must be paid to skin care in infants: maintaining cleanliness, avoiding cuts insofar as possible, and treating any wounds. Clothing must be carefully laundered and adequate to prevent overexposure to sunlight and insect bites. Insect bites must also be prevented by applying repellents, using mosquito nets, and wearing insecticide-treated garments. Handwashing by people who prepare meals and by the children before eating is important to prevent food poisoning. Breast feeding is advisable for infants. Thorough cooking of meats, rinsing of fresh produce, drinking of bottled beverages, and sterilization of water are also important food safety measures. These precautions are usually adequate to allow safe travel with children.

  12. Memory processes in learning disability subtypes of children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Thomasin E; Conrad, Amy L; Richman, Lynn C; Nopoulos, Peg C; Bell, Edward F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n = 13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant differences in immediate auditory or visual memory performances between language and perceptual-motor learning disability groups. Within-group comparisons revealed that both learning disability groups performed significantly lower on a task of immediate memory when the mode of stimulus presentation and mode of response were visual.

  13. Health outcomes for children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Nicola; Ardington, Cally; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2015-04-01

    This paper analyzes whether children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa are disadvantaged in terms of their health outcomes because their mother is a teen. Exploiting the longitudinal nature of the Cape Area Panel Study, we assess whether observable differences between teen mothers and slightly older mothers can explain why first-born children of teen mothers appear disadvantaged. Our balanced regressions indicate that observed characteristics cannot explain the full extent of disadvantage of being born to a teen mother, with children born to teen mothers continuing to have significantly worse child health outcomes, especially among coloured children. In particular, children born to teens are more likely to be underweight at birth and to be stunted with the disadvantage for coloured children four times the size for African children.

  14. Visual and visuocognitive development in children born very prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Preterm birth is a risk factor for deficits of neurological and cognitive development. Four cohort studies are reported investigating the effects of very premature birth (development correlated with the severity of brain abnormality observed on structural MRI at and before term, and were sensitive predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years. The second study compared VERP measures for orientation-reversal and direction-reversal (DR) stimuli, from 2 to 5 months post-term age, in healthy very premature infants compared to infants born at term. The groups did not differ on the development of OR-VERP responses, but the development of the DR-VERP motion responses was delayed in the premature group despite the absence of any brain damage visible on ultrasound, consistent with the developmental vulnerability we have identified in the dorsal cortical stream. The third study used the Atkinson Battery of Child Development for Examining Functional Vision (ABCDEFV) to assess sensory, perceptual, cognitive and spatial visual functions, together with preschool tests of attention and executive function. The premature group showed delays on these tests in line with severity of observed perinatal brain damage on structural MRI at term age. Deficits on certain spatial tasks (e.g. block-construction copying) and executive function tests (e.g. the detour box task) were apparent even in children with minimal damage apparent on MRI. The fourth study tested a large cohort of 6- to 7-year old children born before 32 weeks gestation, across a wide range of cognitive domains, including new tests of spatial cognition and memory. The premature group as a whole showed significant deficits on both auditory and visual tests of attention and attentional control from the TEA-Ch battery, on tests of location memory, block construction and on many visuocognitive and visuomotor tests. Development was generally relatively normal on language tests and on WPPSI scores. Factor analysis showed

  15. Adipokines in umbilical cord blood from children born large for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula Louise;

    2016-01-01

    of adipokines and their mutual relationship at birth in children born to non-diabetic mothers. METHODS: Adiponectin, leptin and sOB-R were measured using ELISA-based commercial kits in umbilical cord blood from 60 neonates (30 born large for gestational age [LGA] and 30 born appropriate for gestational age [AGA......]). Children exposed to maternal diabetes, chronic disease and preeclampsia were excluded. RESULTS: The LGA group exhibited significantly elevated concentrations of leptin (p

  16. Academic Outcomes for Children Born Preterm: A Summary and Call for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Margulis, Milena; Dempsey, Allison; Llorens, Ashlie

    2011-01-01

    The developmental outcomes for children born preterm have been examined by many, with results unequivocally indicating that children born preterm tend to have poorer cognitive outcomes and more developmental difficulties. Less attention has been paid to academic outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review the academic skills assessment of…

  17. Mental disorders in childhood and young adulthood among children born to women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, M.F.; Hargreave, M.; Nielsen, T.S.S.;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is the risk of hospital admission or outpatient contact for mental disorders increased in children born to women with fertility problems compared with children born to women without fertility problems? SUMMARY ANSWER: We found an increased risk of hospital admission or outpatient ...

  18. Doxapram and developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relation of doxapram to a developmental score achieved by a structured telephone interview in a group of extremely-preterm-born children. METHODS: Parents of 88 children born extremely preterm were contacted by telephone and interviewed by a structured questionnaire (R-PDQ) when...

  19. Higher rates of behavioural and emotional problems at preschool age in children born moderately preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potijk, Marieke R.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bos, Arend F.; Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare preschool children born moderately preterm (MP; 32-35 weeks' gestation) and children born at term (38-41 weeks' gestation) regarding the occurrence of behavioural and emotional problems, overall, for separate types of problems and by gender. Design Prospective cohort study consi

  20. Neonatal Cerebral Morphometry and Later Risk of Persistent Inattention/Hyperactivity in Children Born Very Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Samudragupta; Pritchard, Verena E.; Chen, Zhe; Inder, Terrie E.; Woodward, Lianne J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention problems are among the most prevalent neurobehavioral morbidities affecting very preterm (VPT) born children. The first study aim was to document rates of persistent attention/hyperactivity problems from ages 4 to 9 years in a regional cohort of VPT born children. The second aim was to examine the extent to which persistent…

  1. Behavioural skills in 7 year old children born post-term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Olsen, Jørn; Zhu, Jin Liang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To study behavioural skills at the age of seven in a Danish population of children born post-term. Design: Cohort study. Setting: The Danish National Birth Cohort; children born from 1997 to 2003. Population: Data was obtained from a cohort of about 100,000 women and their chi...

  2. School-Aged Children Born Preterm: Review of Functioning across Multiple Domains and Guidelines for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Allison G.; Keller-Margulis, Milena; Mire, Sarah; Abrahamson, Catherine; Dutt, Sonia; Llorens, Ashlie; Payan, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for developmental deficits across multiple functional domains. As the rate of survival for preterm infants increases due to medical advancements, a greater understanding is needed for how to meet the needs of this growing population in schools. Because approximately 50-70% of children born preterm require…

  3. School functioning in 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Karin; Ceelen, Manon; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Knol, Dirk L; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Huisman, Jaap

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the school functioning of 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF). We compared 233 children born after IVF to 233 matched control children born spontaneously from parents with fertility problems on measures of education level, general cognitive ability, school performance (need for extra help, repeating a grade, special education), and rates of learning and developmental disorders. No differences were found between IVF and control children on these measures of school functioning. More than 60% of adolescents at secondary school attended high academic levels (with access to high school or university). We conclude that children and adolescents born after IVF show good academic achievement and general cognitive ability. They do not experience any more educational limitations than the naturally conceived children and adolescents of the control group. The tendency of reassuring school functioning already found in younger IVF children has been shown to continue at secondary school age.

  4. Self-Regulation: A New Perspective on Learning Problems Experienced by Children Born Extremely Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Lisa N.; Cuskelly, Monica; O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Gray, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    Survival rates are increasing for children born extremely preterm, yet despite the majority of these children having IQ scores within the average range, 50-70% of these children have later school difficulties. This paper reviews factors associated with academic difficulties in these children, emphasizing the contributions of executive functions…

  5. Obesity and diabetes genes are associated with being born small for gestational age: Results from the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Angharad R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals born small for gestational age (SGA are at increased risk of rapid postnatal weight gain, later obesity and diseases in adulthood such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Environmental risk factors for SGA are well established and include smoking, low pregnancy weight, maternal short stature, maternal diet, ethnic origin of mother and hypertension. However, in a large proportion of SGA, no underlying cause is evident, and these individuals may have a larger genetic contribution. Methods In this study we tested the association between SGA and polymorphisms in genes that have previously been associated with obesity and/or diabetes. We undertook analysis of 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 546 samples from the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative (ABC study. 227 children were born small for gestational age (SGA and 319 were appropriate for gestational age (AGA. Results and Conclusion The results demonstrated that genetic variation in KCNJ11, BDNF, PFKP, PTER and SEC16B were associated with SGA and support the concept that genetic factors associated with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes are more prevalent in those born SGA compared to those born AGA. We have previously determined that environmental factors are associated with differences in birthweight in the ABC study and now we have demonstrated a significant genetic contribution, suggesting that the interaction between genetics and the environment are important.

  6. Obesity and diabetes genes are associated with being born small for gestational age: Results from the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of rapid postnatal weight gain, later obesity and diseases in adulthood such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Environmental risk factors for SGA are well established and include smoking, low pregnancy weight, maternal short stature, maternal diet, ethnic origin of mother and hypertension. However, in a large proportion of SGA, no underlying cause is evident, and these individuals may have a larger genetic contribution. Methods In this study we tested the association between SGA and polymorphisms in genes that have previously been associated with obesity and/or diabetes. We undertook analysis of 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 546 samples from the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative (ABC) study. 227 children were born small for gestational age (SGA) and 319 were appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Results and Conclusion The results demonstrated that genetic variation in KCNJ11, BDNF, PFKP, PTER and SEC16B were associated with SGA and support the concept that genetic factors associated with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes are more prevalent in those born SGA compared to those born AGA. We have previously determined that environmental factors are associated with differences in birthweight in the ABC study and now we have demonstrated a significant genetic contribution, suggesting that the interaction between genetics and the environment are important. PMID:20712903

  7. Ages and Stages Questionnaire used to measure cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja;

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence--Revised.......AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence...

  8. Different sex ratios of children born to Indian and Pakistani immigrants in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brekke Torkel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low female-to-male ratio has been observed in different Asian countries, but this phenomenon has not been well studied among immigrants living in Western societies. In this study, we investigated whether a low female-to-male ratio exists among Indian and Pakistani immigrants living in Norway. In particular, we investigated whether the determination of sex via ultrasound examination, a common obstetric procedure that has been used in Norway since the early 1980 s, has influenced the female-to-male ratio among children born to parents of Indian or Pakistani origin. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of live births in mothers of Indian (n = 1597 and Pakistani (n = 5617 origin. Data were obtained from "Statistics Norway" and the female-to-male (F/M sex ratio was evaluated among 21,325 children born, in increasing birth order, during three stratified periods (i.e., 1969-1986, 1987-1996, and 1997-2005. Results A significant low female-to-male sex ratio was observed among children in the third and fourth birth order (sex ratio 65; 95% CI 51-80 from mothers of Indian origin who gave birth after 1987. Sex ratios did not deviate from the expected natural variation in the Indian cohort from 1969 to 1986, and remained stable in the Pakistani cohort during the entire study period. However, the female-to-male sex ratio seemed less skewed in recent years (i.e., 1997-2005. Conclusion Significant differences were observed in the sex ratio of children born to mothers of Indian origin compared with children born to mothers of Pakistani origin. A skewed number of female births among higher birth orders (i.e., third or later may partly reflect an increase in sex-selective abortion among mothers of Indian origin, although the numbers are too small to draw firm conclusions. Further research is needed to explain the observed differences in the female-to-male ratio among members of these ethnic groups who reside in Norway.

  9. Trends in All-Cause Mortality across Gestational Age in Days for Children Born at Term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Chunsen; Sun, Yuelian; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    pattern was observed when analyses were restricted to children born to by mothers without pregnancy complications. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates heterogeneity in mortality rates even among singletons born at term. The highest mortality was observed among children born 37 weeks of gestation, which...... of the defined mortality period or December 31, 2009. A total of 360,375 singletons born between 259 and 293 days of gestation were included in the study. Mortality decreased with increasing gestational age in days and the highest mortality was observed among children born at 37 week of gestation. A similar...... call for cautions when inducing labor in term pregnancies just reaching 37 weeks of gestation. The findings support that 37 weeks of gestation should be defined as early term....

  10. Factors Affecting Vocabulary Acquisition at Age 2 in Children Born between 23 and 28 Weeks' Gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Louise; Peacock, Janet L.; Calvert, Sandra A.; Greenough, Anne; Marlow, Neil

    2007-01-01

    Language development is often slower in preterm children compared with their term peers. We investigated factors associated with vocabulary acquisition at 2 years in a cohort of children born at 28 weeks' gestation or less. For children entered into the United Kingdom Oscillation Study, language development was evaluated by using the…

  11. Trends in All-Cause Mortality across Gestational Age in Days for Children Born at Term.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Sen Wu

    Full Text Available Term birth is a gestational age from 259 days to 293 days. However trends in mortality according to gestational ages in days have not yet been described in this time period.Based on nation-wide registries, we conducted a population-based cohort study among all children born at term in Denmark from 1997 to 2004 to estimate differences in mortality across gestational ages in days among singletons born at term. We studied early-neonatal mortality, neonatal mortality, infant mortality, and five-year mortality. Children were followed from birth up to the last day of the defined mortality period or December 31, 2009. A total of 360,375 singletons born between 259 and 293 days of gestation were included in the study. Mortality decreased with increasing gestational age in days and the highest mortality was observed among children born at 37 week of gestation. A similar pattern was observed when analyses were restricted to children born to by mothers without pregnancy complications.This study demonstrates heterogeneity in mortality rates even among singletons born at term. The highest mortality was observed among children born 37 weeks of gestation, which call for cautions when inducing labor in term pregnancies just reaching 37 weeks of gestation. The findings support that 37 weeks of gestation should be defined as early term.

  12. Men becoming fathers by intracytoplasmic sperm injection were more often born small for gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Liffner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Being born with nonoptimal birth characteristics decreases the chance of becoming a father. Urogenital malformations as well as metabolic syndrome are more common in men born small for gestational age (SGA and could be contributing factors to the reduced fertility rate seen in these men. It could imply that men becoming fathers by assisted reproductive technology (ART more often are born with low birth weight (LBW, preterm, and/or SGA than men conceiving without treatment and also that men where intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI had to be performed more often are born with nonoptimal birth characteristics than men where conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF successfully could be used. In this retrospective, case-control study using Swedish national registers, we compared the birth characteristics of 1206 men who have become fathers by ART with a control group consisting of age-matched men who became fathers without treatment. The differences in birth characteristics between men becoming fathers by IVF and ICSI were also assessed. For men becoming fathers by ART, OR of being born with LBW was 1.66 (95% CI = 1.17-2.36 compared with fathers who conceived without treatment. OR of being born prematurely was 1.32 (95% CI = 1.00-1.77. Men becoming fathers via ICSI had a doubled increased likelihood of being born SGA compared with men who became fathers via IVF (OR = 2.12; 95% CI = 1.17-3.83. In conclusion, we have found that men becoming fathers by ICSI treatments had more often been born SGA than men becoming fathers by conventional IVF.

  13. Influence of post discharge nutrition on body composition at 6 years of age among children born very preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Zachariassen, Gitte; Agertoft, Lone

    if type of nutrition in early life effects the body composition in later life among very preterm born children Method In 2004-08 a birth cohort of very preterm born infants with a gestational age ≤32+0 weeks. At time of hospital discharge, the infants were randomised into 3 different feeding groups...... month corrected age. At 6 years, a dexa scan was performed to evaluate body composition. Results A total number of 277 infants will be invited to follow up at 6 years of age. So far 79 children have had a dexa scan performed (HM 26, HMF: 22 and PF: 31). Fat mass (FM) and muscle mass (MM) was measured.......841 g), but no significant difference between the groups. Conclusion Human milk seems to result in a lower fat mass and higher muscle mass among very preterm born infants. The results are preliminary due to the small number of children. The remaining children in this cohort will be invited to similar...

  14. The Living Conditions of U.S.-Born Children of Mexican Immigrants in Unmarried Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Yolanda C.; Radey, Melissa Dalton; Hummer, Robert A.; Kim, Eunjeong

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has brought attention to the hardship faced by children of immigrants in the United States, particularly in the Mexican-origin population. In this study, the authors are concerned with the extent to which U.S.-born children of Mexican immigrants who live in unmarried families may face exceptional risks. Using data from the Fragile…

  15. Mathematics difficulties in children born very preterm: current research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Victoria; Cragg, Lucy; Gilmore, Camilla; Marlow, Neil; Johnson, Samantha

    2013-09-01

    Children born very preterm have poorer attainment in all school subjects, and a markedly greater reliance on special educational support than their term-born peers. In particular, difficulties with mathematics are especially common and account for the vast majority of learning difficulties in this population. In this paper, we review research relating to the causes of mathematics learning difficulties in typically developing children, and the impact of very preterm birth on attainment in mathematics. Research is needed to understand the specific nature and origins of mathematics difficulties in very preterm children to target the development of effective intervention strategies.

  16. Follow-up of children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with epididymal and testicular spermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yi-hong; DONG Rui-na; SU Ying-chun; LI Jing; ZHANG Ya-jie; SUN Ying-pu

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with epididymal or testicular sperm,this study compared children born after ICSI treatment with epididymal or testicular sperm with children conceived after ICSI with ejaculated sperm.Methods This retrospective study included 317 children born after ICSI with percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA),103 children born after ICSI with testicular sperm aspiration (TESA),and a control group of 1008 children born after ICSI with ejaculated sperm.All of the patients received their assisted reproductive treatment in the Reproductive Medicine Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2004 to December 2011.Data,such as the rate of stillbirths,perinatal mortality,gestational age,birth weight,and the rate of congenital malformations of the three groups,were compared.Results PESA and TESA children were not different from ICSI children in the rate of stillbirths,perinatal mortality,infant mortality rate,gestational age,the rate of prematurity,and the rate of malformations (P>0.05).A slight increase in birth defects was reported in the TESA group compared with those in the control group,but there was no significant difference between the groups (P>0.05).Conclusion ICSI with epididymal or testicular sperm does not lead to more stillbirths or congenital malformations compared with ICSI using ejaculated sperm.

  17. The Children Should Lead Us: Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made--Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemyn, Genny

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made: Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children", a thoughtful and practical guide that can help parents, other family members, and therapists better understand and support children and youth whom the author refers to as "gender creative." Ehrensaft's work is at the forefront of a…

  18. Effects of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone on Stature in Short Children Born Small for Gestational Age%重组人生长激素对身材矮小的小于胎龄儿身高的促增长作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽娜; 向承发

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the therapeutic effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on children with short stature born small for gestational age (SGA). Methods This was a prospective observational study with institutional ethics approval and written maternal consent. A total of 20 children with short stature born in SGA were selected in Department of Pediatrics, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital and West China Second Hospital, Sichuan University from January 2008 to October 2011. Their average age was (8. 95 ± 4. 06) years old. Each child was treated with rhGH by subcutaneous injection every night before sleep, and the dosage was (0. 15-0. 20) U/(kg ? D) for 2. 3-18. 0 months. The height (Ht), height standard deviation score ( H tSDS) and height velocity ( H V) were statistically analyzed before and after rhGH treatment. Results Before and after rhGH treatment,there had significant differences in the Ht[(110. 34 ± 22. 1) cm to. (115. 88 ± 22. 29) cm], HtSDS ( - 4. 31 ± 1. 4 7 vs. - 3. 71 ± 1. 36) and HV [(4. 06 ± 0. 6) cm/year to. (9. 86 + 4. 01)cm/year] (P<0. 05). Conclusions rhGH can play a significant role in promoting growth of children with short stature born in SGA.%目的 探讨重组人生长激素(rhGH)治疗对身材矮小的小于胎龄(SGA)儿身高增长的疗效.方法 选择2008年1月至2011年10月因身材矮小于四川省人民医院儿科和四川大学华西第二医院儿科门诊就诊,并接受rhGH治疗的20例身材矮小的SGA儿为研究对象.其平均年龄为(8.95±4.06)岁,rhGH治疗剂量为(0.15~0.20)U/(kg·d),睡前皮下注射,疗程为2.3~18.0个月.对患儿治疗前、后身高(Ht),身高标准差积分(HtSDS)及生长速率(HV)进行统计学分析(本研究遵循的程序符合四川省医学科学院与四川大学华西第二医院人体试验委员会所制定的伦理学标准,得到该委员会批准,并与受试对象监护人签署临床研究知情同意书).结果 20例身材矮小的SGA儿rhGH治

  19. Short Adolescents Born Small for Gestational Age : Gonadal and thyroid function, bone mineral density, quality of life and adult height: The effects of growth hormone and additional postponement of puberty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Lem (Annemieke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractFrom 1991, our research group and others have been investigating children with short stature who were born small for gestational age (SGA), both before and during treatment with biosynthetic growth hormone (GH). In 2005, GH treatment was licensed for short SGA children in the Netherlands

  20. Catch-up growth up to ten years of age in children born very preterm or with very low birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knops, N.B.B.; Sneeuw, K.C.A.; Brand, R.; Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Wit, J.M.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Improved survival due to advances in neonatal care has brought issues such as postnatal growth and development more to the focus of our attention. Most studies report stunting in children born very preterm and/or small for gestational age. In this article we study the growth pattern of t

  1. 32 CFR 584.5 - U.S. citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certified English translation of all needed legal documents that are in a foreign language. (ix) An executed.... citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country. (a) General. (1) A child born... laws of the nation in which she is a citizen. (2) A child born out of wedlock in a foreign country...

  2. Maturation and integration of adult born hippocampal neurons: signal convergence onto small Rho GTPases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna eVadodaria

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis, restricted to specific regions in the mammalian brain, represents one of the most interesting forms of plasticity in the mature nervous system. Adult-born hippocampal neurons play important roles in certain forms of learning and memory, and altered hippocampal neurogenesis has been associated with a number of neuropsychiatric diseases such as major depression and epilepsy. Newborn neurons go through distinct developmental steps from a dividing neurogenic precursor to a synaptically integrated mature neuron. Previous studies have uncovered several molecular signaling pathways involved in distinct steps of this maturational process. In this context, the small Rho GTPases, Cdc42, Rac1 and RhoA have recently been shown to regulate the morphological and synaptic maturation of adult-born dentate granule cells in vivo. Distinct upstream regulators, including several growth factors that modulate maturation and integration of newborn neurons have been shown to also recruit the small Rho GTPases. Here we review recent findings and highlight the possibility that small Rho GTPases may act as central assimilators, downstream of critical input onto adult-born hippocampal neurons contributing to their maturation and integration into the existing dentate gyrus circuitry.

  3. Delayed development of neural language organization in very preterm born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürner-Lavanchy, Ines; Steinlin, Maja; Kiefer, Claus; Weisstanner, Christian; Ritter, Barbara Catherine; Perrig, Walter; Everts, Regula

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates neural language organization in very preterm born children compared to control children and examines the relationship between language organization, age, and language performance. Fifty-six preterms and 38 controls (7-12 y) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging language task. Lateralization and signal change were computed for language-relevant brain regions. Younger preterms showed a bilateral language network whereas older preterms revealed left-sided language organization. No age-related differences in language organization were observed in controls. Results indicate that preterms maintain atypical bilateral language organization longer than term born controls. This might reflect a delay of neural language organization due to very premature birth.

  4. Reduced genetic influence on childhood obesity in small for gestational age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Dug Yeo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA are at increased risk of developing obesity and metabolic diseases later in life, a risk which is magnified if followed by accelerated postnatal growth. We investigated whether common gene variants associated with adult obesity were associated with increased postnatal growth, as measured by BMI z-score, in children born SGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative. Methods A total of 37 candidate SNPs were genotyped on 547 European children (228 SGA and 319 AGA. Repeated measures of BMI (z-score were used for assessing obesity status, and results were corrected for multiple testing using the false discovery rate. Results SGA children had a lower BMI z-score than non-SGA children at assessment age 3.5, 7 and 11 years. We confirmed 27 variants within 14 obesity risk genes to be individually associated with increasing early childhood BMI, predominantly in those born AGA. Conclusions Genetic risk variants are less important in influencing early childhood BMI in those born SGA than in those born AGA, suggesting that non-genetic or environmental factors may be more important in influencing childhood BMI in those born SGA.

  5. Children born of war (Niños nacidos de la guerra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochmann, Ingvill C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo ofrece una visión introductoria desde el novedoso campo de investigación de 'Niños nacidos de la guerra'. Se trata de niños y niñas nacidos durante y después de conflictos y guerras habiendo sido su padre miembro del enemigo, fuerzas aliadas o fuerzas de paz y su madre una ciudadana local. A menudo, los niños y niñas nacidos de la guerra son estigmatizados y discriminados en su propio país y sus intereses y derechos particulares eludidos en situaciones de postconflicto. En este artículo se presenta una categorización de los niños nacidos de la guerra y algunos de los resultados del proyecto de investigación realizado sobre niños de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Por último, se explora la situación internacional y judicial de estos niños así como las pautas posibles de ayuda dirigidas a éstos y sus madres.Abstract: This paper gives a short introduction into the rather new research field of 'Children born of war'. These are children who are born during and after conflicts and wars were the father has been a member of an enemy, allied or peacekeeping force and the mother a local citizen. 'Children born of war' are often stigmatised and discriminated in their home country and their particular interest and rights are overlooked in post-conflict situations. This paper presents different categories of children born of war and some results from research projects on children from Second World War are presented. Finally, the international and juridical situation of children born of war are discussed and possible guidelines to assist mothers and children introduced.

  6. Korean-Immigrant Parents' Support of Their American-Born Children's Development and Maintenance of the Home Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    This study explores Korean-immigrant parents' language ideologies and practices with respect to their American-born children's language development. Participants were seven ethnic Korean families composed of immigrant parents and their American-born children, aged between five and seven, in Midwestern America. Interviews in the medium of Korean…

  7. Improved neurosensory outcome at 8 years of age of extremely low birthweight children born in Victoria over three distinct eras

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, L; Anderson, P.; t and,

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine neurosensory outcome at 8 years of age of extremely low birthweight (ELBW) children born in the 1990s, how it varies with birth weight, and how it compares with ELBW children born in the 1980s and 1970s.

  8. Cognitive and behavioral aspects of executive functions in children born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Barbara Catherine; Perrig, Walter; Steinlin, Maja; Everts, Regula

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated whether children aged between 8 and 12 years born very preterm (VPT) and/or at very low birth weight (VLBW) performed lower than same-aged term-born controls in cognitive and behavioral aspects of three executive functions: inhibition, working memory, and shifting. Special attention was given to sex differences. Fifty-two VPT/VLBW children (26 girls, 50%) born in the cohort of 1998-2003 and 36 same-aged term-born children (18 girls, 50%) were recruited. As cognitive measures, children completed tasks of inhibition (Color-Word Interference Test, D-KEFS; Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001), working memory (digit span backwards, HAWIK-IV; Petermann & Petermann, 2008), and shifting (Trail Making Test, number-letter-switching, D-KEFS; Delis et al., 2001). As behavioral measures, mothers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF; Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000). Scales of interest were inhibit, working memory, and shift. Analyses of the cognitive aspects of executive functions revealed that VPT/VLBW children performed significantly lower than controls in the shifting task but not in the working memory and inhibition tasks. Analyses of behavioral aspects of executive functions revealed that VPT/VLBW children displayed more problems than the controls in working memory in everyday life but not in inhibition and shifting. No sex differences could be detected either in cognitive or behavioral aspects of executive functions. To conclude, cognitive and behavioral measures of executive functions were not congruent in VPT/VLBW children. In clinical practice, the combination of cognitive and behavioral instruments is required to disclose children's executive difficulties.

  9. Asthma at 8 years of age in children born by caesarean section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roduit, C.; Scholtens, S.; de Jongste, J.C.; Wijga, A.H.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D.S.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoekstra, M.O.; Aalberse, R.; Smit, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Caesarean section might be a risk factor for asthma because of delayed microbial colonisation, but the association remains controversial. A study was undertaken to investigate prospectively whether children born by caesarean section are more at risk of having asthma in childhood and sens

  10. Asthma at 8 years of age in children born by caesarean section.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roduit, C.; Scholtens, S.; de Jongste, J.C.; Wijga, A.H.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D.S.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoekstra, M.O.; Aalberse, R.C.; Smit, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section might be a risk factor for asthma because of delayed microbial colonisation, but the association remains controversial. A study was undertaken to investigate prospectively whether children born by caesarean section are more at risk of having asthma in childhood and sens

  11. Degree of Perceived Accent in Finnish as a Second Language for Turkish Children Born in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzal, Melike; Peltonen, Teemu; Huotilainen, Minna; Aaltonen, Olli

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether children born in a second language (L2) environment pronounce their L2 with foreign accents and, if so, when foreign accents first emerge. This study also examined the latest age of onset (AO) of extensive L2 experience at which native L2 pronunciation is possible and explored several factors that affect the degree…

  12. The Life Course of Children Born to Unmarried Mothers: Childhood Living Arrangements and Young Adult Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1996-01-01

    Explored living arrangements among children born to unmarried mothers and the impact of childhood living arrangements on the young adult's life course. Analyses showed that living arrangement patterns after birth to a single mother influenced the likelihood of high school completion, post secondary education, and other conditions. (RJM)

  13. Pathogenesis, Neuroimaging and Management in Children with Cerebral Palsy Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoon, Alexander H., Jr.; Faria, Andreia Vasconcellos

    2010-01-01

    With advances in obstetric and perinatal management, the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage in premature infants has declined, while periventricular leukomalacia remains a significant concern. It is now known that brain injury in children born preterm also involves neuronal-axonal disease in supratentorial and infratentorial structures. The…

  14. Visuospatial Perception in Children Born Preterm With No Major Neurological Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butcher, Phillipa R.; Bouma, Anke; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth F.; Bos, Arend F.; Smithson, Michael; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Many investigations have found deficits in visuospatial perception in children born preterm, however, it is not clear whether the deficits are specific to visuospatial perception or the consequences of deficits in other functional areas, which often accompany preterm birth. This study inv

  15. Theoretical Factors Affecting Parental Roles in Children's Mathematical Learning in American and Chinese-Born Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jessica H.; Hu, Bi Ying

    2011-01-01

    This introductory qualitative study sought to explain American and Chinese-born mothers' personal beliefs and experiences with mathematics, views of U.S. mathematics curriculum, and how these factors influenced motivation regarding roles played in their children's mathematical learning through expectancy-value and attribution theories. The…

  16. Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children with Low Socioeconomic Status : Risks Multiply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potijk, Marieke R; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; de Winter, Andrea F

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess separate and joint effects of low socioeconomic status (SES) and moderate prematurity on preschool developmental delay. Study design Prospective cohort study with a community-based sample of preterm-and term-born children (Longitudinal Preterm Outcome Project). We assessed SES on

  17. Psychological outcome and quality of life in children born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetsold, M.; Huisman, J.; Hofman, V.E.; Heij, H.A.; Raat, H.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess psychological and social functioning as well as health-related quality of life and its early determinants in children born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). DESIGN: Cross-sectional follow-up study. SETTING: Outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: T

  18. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Steenbergen, Bert; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has n

  19. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Steenbergen, B.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has n

  20. Neonatal Morbidities and Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, J.M.; Bocca-Tjeertes, I.F.; de Winter, A.F.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Bos, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Children born moderately preterm (32-35(6/7) weeks' gestation) are at increased risk of both neonatal morbidities and developmental delays in early childhood. It is unknown whether neonatal morbidities contribute to the increased risk of developmental delay. The objective o

  1. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  2. Maternal rigidity in infancy and level of intelligence at school age in children born preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butcher, P.R.; Wijnberg-Williams, B.J; Hegemann, N; Stremmelaar, E.F; Schoemaker, M.M.; Van der Meere, J.J.; Bambang Oetomo, S

    2004-01-01

    Forty-four children who had been born preterm and their mothers participated in the follow-up study. At 3 and 14 months (corrected age) cognitive development was assessed using the BOS 2-30, the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The BOS yields measures of mental and motor dev

  3. Cortical morphometry and IQ in VLBW children without cerebral palsy born in 2003–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Elisabeth Sølsnes

    2015-01-01

    We conclude that cortical deviations are evident in childhood even in VLBW children born in 2003–2007 who have received state of the art medical treatment in the perinatal period and who did not present with focal brain injuries on neonatal ultrasonography. The cortical deviations were associated with reduced cognitive functioning.

  4. Mortality rate in children born to mothers and fathers with celiac disease: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugna, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Stephansson, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2013-06-15

    Celiac disease (CD) is associated with increased mortality rate and adverse pregnancy outcome, but little is known about offspring mortality rate. In this nationwide retrospective cohort study, we identified persons whose biopsy-verified CD was diagnosed in Sweden in 1969-2008. We compared mortality rates in children born to mothers with and without CD (n = 16,121 vs. n = 61,782) and children born to fathers with and without CD (n = 9,289 vs. n = 32,984). Median age of offspring at end of follow-up was 28.7 (range, 16.7-39.7) years. We also examined mortality rates in children born to mothers with undiagnosed CD (later CD diagnosis; n = 12,919) and diagnosed CD (n = 3,202) to determine if intrauterine exposures associated with CD could affect offspring mortality rate. We estimated hazard ratios for death by using Cox regression. Death rates were independent of maternal CD (60 deaths per 100,000 person-years in children of mothers with CD, vs. 54 in controls) and paternal CD (53 deaths per 100,000 person-years in children of fathers with CD, vs. 53 in controls). Corresponding adjusted hazard ratios were 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.26) for maternal CD and 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 1.23) for paternal CD. Death rates were similar in children born to mothers with undiagnosed CD and in children whose mothers had diagnosed CD during pregnancy. Parental CD does not seem to influence mortality rate in offspring, which suggests that neither genetic influences of CD nor intrauterine conditions have adverse effects on offspring mortality rate.

  5. Type 1 diabetes risk in children born to women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreave, Marie; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jørgensen, Marit E

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: While some studies have indicated that children born following fertility treatment are at an increased risk for insulin resistance and higher blood glucose levels, no study to date has investigated the risk of type 1 diabetes. In this large population-based cohort study we aim to as...... 1.01, 95% CI 0.90-1.13) when taking into account birth year, sex, history of parental diabetes, parental age and age at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed no association between maternal fertility problems and risk of type 1 diabetes in children.......INTRODUCTION: While some studies have indicated that children born following fertility treatment are at an increased risk for insulin resistance and higher blood glucose levels, no study to date has investigated the risk of type 1 diabetes. In this large population-based cohort study we aim...... to assess the association between maternal fertility problems and the risk of type 1 diabetes in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information on all children, born in Denmark from 1987 to 2010, was extracted from the Civil Registration System and linked with the Danish Infertility Cohort to identify maternal...

  6. Factors influencing the motor development of prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Dourado, Jordana S; Lemos, Stela M A; Alves, Claudia R L

    2014-09-01

    Despite technological advances in neonatology, premature children are still susceptible to disruptions in neurological development. The current study aimed to analyze the factors that influence motor development in prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved 100 "apparently normal" children, aged 8-10 years, born at less than 35 weeks of gestation or with birth weightmotor development was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2). The children's neuropsychological and academic performance was assessed with the Token Test (TT) and Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE), respectively. Parents answered questions regarding the child's clinical history and behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and family environment resources (RAF). Hierarchical multivariate analyses revealed that 39% of the children scored lower on the MABC-2, as compared to that expected for their age (manual dexterity: 49%; balance: 35%; throwing/catching a ball: 26%). Multivariate analysis indicated that the lower the birth weight, the maternal age at childbirth, and the RAF score, the greater was the chance of impairment on the MABC-2 scores. The probability of having an impairment MABC-2 scores was four times higher when the mother was not employed. We also found associations between MABC-2 scores and the tasks of tying shoes and opening/closing zippers and buttons. Factors related to children's home environments and birth weight are associated with deficient motor performance in prematurely born Brazilian school-aged children. Deficient motor skills were also associated with difficulty in performing functional tasks requiring greater manual dexterity.

  7. [[Streptococcus mutans Acquisition and Dental Caries Development in First-Born Children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noce, Erica; Rubira, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva Rosa, Odila Pereira; da Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio; Bretz, Walter Antonio

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the moment of streptococcus mutans (SM) acquisition, caries development and their associate variables along 23 months, in first-born children of low socioeconomic status families, starting at 7 months of age. METHOD: The sample was chosen based on highly SM-colonized mothers, including all members of 14 families living in the same houses. The study included 14 mothers, 14 fathers and 14 first-borns and 8 relatives (mostly grandparents). Initial clinical examinations and radiographs determined the caries indices and periodontal conditions of the adults. SM count in all adults was made in the first 2 visits. The children were examined for SM count, number of teeth and number of carious lesions, in 4 visits. RESULTS: SM prevalence was high in the adults, being absent in only one of the parents. SM was found in 1, 2, 3 and 10 children in the first, second, third and fourth visits. Dental caries was detected in only 3 children in the last visit (at 30 months), who presented significantly higher SM scores than the children without caries in the same visit. CONCLUSION: A low income social condition and mothers highly colonized by SM do not mean necessarily early SM colonization and high caries activity in children with oral homecare. Caries development is significantly associated with high SM scores in the children.

  8. Altered Gray Matter Volume and School Age Anxiety in Children Born Late Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cynthia E; Barch, Deanna M; Sylvester, Chad M; Pagliaccio, David; Harms, Michael P; Botteron, Kelly N; Luby, Joan L

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if late preterm (LP) children differ from full term (FT) children in volumes of the cortex, hippocampus, corpus callosum, or amygdala and whether these differences are associated with anxiety symptoms at school-age. Study design LP children born between 34 and 36 weeks gestation and FT children born between 39 and 41 weeks gestation from a larger longitudinal cohort had MRI scans at school-age. Brain volumes, cortical surface area and thickness measures were obtained. Anxiety symptoms were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview annually beginning at preschool-age and following the MRI. Results LP children (n=21) had a smaller percentage of total, right parietal, and right temporal lobe gray matter volume than FT children (n=87). There were no differences in hippocampal, callosal, or amygdala volumes or cortical thickness. LP children also had a relative decrease in right parietal lobe cortical surface area. LP children had greater anxiety symptoms over all assessments. The relationship between late prematurity and school-age anxiety symptoms was mediated by the relative decrease in right temporal lobe volume. Conclusion LP children, comprising 70% of preterm children, are also at increased risk for altered brain development particularly in the right temporal and parietal cortices. Alterations in the right temporal lobe cortical volume may underlie the increased rate of anxiety symptoms among these LP children. These findings suggest that LP delivery may disrupt temporal and parietal cortical development that persists until school-age with the right temporal lobe conferring risk for elevated anxiety symptoms. PMID:25108541

  9. Cortical Recruitment Patterns in Children Born Prematurely Compared with Control Subjects During a Passive Listening Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ment, Laura R.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Vohr, Betty; Allan, Walter; Schneider, Karen C.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Katz, Karol H.; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Pugh, Kenneth; Duncan, Charles C.; Makuch, Robert W.; Constable, R. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that subjects who were born prematurely develop alternative systems for processing language. Study design Subjects who were born prematurely (n = 14; 600-1250 g birthweight) without neonatal brain injury and 10 matched term control subjects were examined with a fMRI passive listening task of language, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) and portions of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). The fMRI task was evaluated for both phonologic and semantic processing. Results Although there were differences in CELF scores between the subjects born prematurely and control subjects, there were no significant differences in the CTOPP measures in the 2 groups. fMRI studies demonstrated that the groups differentially engaged neural systems known to process language. Children born at term were significantly more likely to activate systems for the semantic processing of language, whereas subjects born prematurely preferentially engaged regions that subserve phonology. Conclusions At 12 years of age, children born prematurely and children born at term activate neural systems for the auditory processing of language differently. Subjects born prematurely engage different networks for phonologic processing; this strategy is associated with phonologic language scores that are similar to those of control subjects. These biologically based developmental strategies may provide the substrate for the improving language skills noted in children who are born prematurely. PMID:17011320

  10. [The cytokine profile in the acute period of tick-borne neuroinfections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poponnikova, T V; Bedareva, T Iu; Vakhrameeva, T N; Galieva, G Iu

    2010-01-01

    Clinical peculiarities and blood levels of several cytokines were studied in 199 children, aged from 1 to 15 years, in the acute period of different tick-borne infections. The mixed infection manifested itself by the more severe progression of general clinical presentations compared to monoinfections. Etiologically unspecific changes of blood concentrations of cytokines in the acute period of the disease were found. These data were associated with different clinical forms of tick-borne infections. The decrease in the interferon gamma production was associated with the most severe disease progression with focal nervous system disorders. The use of cycloferon as immune modulator in the complex therapy led to the increase in the interferon gamma level and the decrease of general clinical manifestations during tick-borne encephalitis and mixed infection.

  11. Validity of the small-amplitude limit of the nuclear Born-Oppenheimer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zettili, Nouredine (Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, 31261 (Saudi Arabia) Institut de Physique, Universite de Blida, Blida (Algeria))

    1994-08-22

    We examine here the validity of the small-amplitude limit of the nuclear Born-Oppenheimer (NBO) method by testing it on an analytically solvable model. To gain additional quantitative insight into its accuracy, we provide a comparison of its results with those of the small-amplitude limit of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) when applied to this model. A comparison of the exact, the random-phase approximation (RPA), and the NBO results reveals that the NBO energy is lower than its RPA counterpart and is in very good agreement with the exact spectrum. We also provide a quantitative assessment of the effects the approximations involved in the NBO method have on the results. We show that, when corrections to these approximations are considered, the NBO energy spectrum becomes much more accurate. ((orig.))

  12. Validity of the small-amplitude limit of the nuclear Born-Oppenheimer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    1994-08-01

    We examine here the validity of the small-amplitude limit of the nuclear Born-Op-penheimer (NBO) method by testing it on an analytically solvable model. To gain additional quantitative insight into its accuracy, we provide a comparison of its results with those of the small-amplitude limit of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) when applied to this model. A comparison of the exact, the random-phase approximation (RPA), and the NBO results reveals that the NBO energy is lower than its RPA counterpart and is in very good agreement with the exact spectrum. We also provide a quantitative assessment of the effects the approximations involved in the NBO method have on the results. We show that, when corrections to these approximations are considered, the NBO energy spectrum becomes much more accurate.

  13. Reduced corticomotor excitability and motor skills development in children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Julia B; Schneider, Luke A; Burns, Nicholas R; Drysdale, John L; Higgins, Ryan D; Ridding, Michael C; Nettelbeck, Theodore J; Haslam, Ross R; Robinson, Jeffrey S

    2012-11-15

    The mechanisms underlying the altered neurodevelopment commonly experienced by children born preterm, but without brain lesions, remain unknown. While individuals born the earliest are at most risk, late preterm children also experience significant motor, cognitive and behavioural dysfunction from school age, and reduced income and educational attainment in adulthood. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional assessments to examine corticomotor development in 151 children without cerebral palsy, aged 10-13 years and born after gestations of 25-41 completed weeks. We hypothesized that motor cortex and corticospinal development are altered in preterm children, which underpins at least some of their motor dysfunction. We report for the first time that every week of reduced gestation is associated with a reduction in corticomotor excitability that remains evident in late childhood. This reduced excitability was associated with poorer motor skill development, particularly manual dexterity. However, child adiposity, sex and socio-economic factors regarding the child's home environment soon after birth were also powerful influences on development of motor skills. Preterm birth was also associated with reduced left hemisphere lateralization, but without increasing the likelihood of being left handed per se. These corticomotor findings have implications for normal motor development, but also raise questions regarding possible longer term consequences of preterm birth on motor function.

  14. Psychomotor and intellectual development of children born with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, B; Ferrández Longás, A; García Romero, R; Mayayo, E; Labarta, J I

    2004-03-01

    The possible impact of IUGR on the intellectual outcome of children born with IUGR gives special relevance to this condition. In order to determine the psychomotor and intellectual development of such children, we analyzed the evolution of 60 children through appropriate tests, along the years, and the possible influence of two factors, the socio-economic status of the family, and whether or not there was catch-up growth. Our results show a negative impact of IUGR on the intellectual outcome of these children, independent of catch-up growth, although those with catch-up growth showed better evolution. The socio-economic status plays a limited role only at older age. Those children followed longitudinally for 1 year did not show any amelioration of their IQ.

  15. Cognitive and social development in preschool children born to women using substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irner, Tina Birk; Teasdale, Thomas William; Olofsson, May

    2012-01-01

    influence childhood development in addition to the teratological effect of prenatal substance exposure. This study explores the long-term developmental consequences in children from birth to age 7 born to women using substances and are in treatment. A series of t tests were performed to explore group...... effects on the cognitive and social dimensions of Griffiths Mental Development Scales compared with Swedish norms. The results showed significant effects on eye and hand coordination in children aged birth to 7 years and on hearing and speech, practical reasoning, and the general quotient in children aged...... 3 to 7 years. Children who were exposed primarily to alcohol in utero scored significantly lower on the personal and social skills subscale, eye and hand coordination subscale, and the general quotient than children exposed primarily to substances other than alcohol. These effects did not appear...

  16. Tick-borne Relapsing Fever in Children in the North-west of Iran, Qazvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayazi, Parviz; Mahyar, Abolfazl; Oveisi, Sonia; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Nooroozi, Sadralnesa

    2015-01-01

    Relapsing fever is caused by the Borrelia species of spirochetes. Louse-borne epidemics of the disease may happen but the endemic disease is generally transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick (Ornithodorus). Clinical and laboratory findings of tick-borne relapsing fever in children in the north-west of Iran, Qazvin, were evaluated. This study was conducted from September 1992 to September 2012. Records from 53 cases of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) were reviewed. In positive cases, febrile illness, and spirochetes were recognized in peripheral blood preparations. Of the 53 children younger than 12 years, fifty two percent were male and about one third (34%) of the patients were in the age range of 7-12 years. The disease is recorded through the whole year but its peak occurs during summer (52.8%) and autumn (32.1%). Sixty eight percent of patients were living in urban areas but had frequent travel to rural area. Thirty two percent of the cases were living in rural areas where their dwellings were close to animal shelters. All (100%) of the 53 subjects were febrile. Travellers to the rural areas with high prevalence of the disease should be attentive of the risk of tick-borne relapsing fever and use suitable control measures. Consequently relapsing fever should be considered when patients who live in or have vacationed in north-west of Iran show a recurring febrile illness.

  17. Neurodevelopmental disorders in children born to mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinet, É; Pineau, C A; Clarke, A E; Fombonne, É; Platt, R W; Bernatsky, S

    2014-10-01

    Children born to women with systemic lupus erythematosus seem to have a potentially increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders compared to children born to healthy women. Recent experimental data suggest in utero exposure to maternal antibodies and cytokines as important risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. Interestingly, women with systemic lupus erythematosus display high levels of autoantibodies and cytokines, which have been shown, in animal models, to alter fetal brain development and induce behavioral anomalies in offspring. Furthermore, subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus and neurodevelopmental disorders share a common genetic predisposition, which could impair the fetal immune response to in utero immunologic insults. Moreover, systemic lupus erythematosus pregnancies are at increased risk of adverse obstetrical outcomes and medication exposures, which have been implicated as potential risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge on neurodevelopmental disorders and their potential determinants in systemic lupus erythematosus offspring.

  18. 上海市0~5岁小于胎龄儿超重及肥胖的分布特点%Distribution characteristics of overweight and obesity in 0-5 years old children born small for gestational age in Shanghai city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭翀; 葛品; 陈津津

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过对上海市小于胎龄儿( SGA )的超重及肥胖问题进行横断面现况调查,了解上海市0~5岁SGA儿童超重及肥胖的分布特点。方法对上海市18个市辖区内所有0~5岁的常住儿童展开普查,为SGA儿童建卡,体格检查包括体质量、身长/身高及头围;根据世界卫生组织标准,采用体质量指数( BMI)评价儿童超重及肥胖状况。结果本研究共调查上海市0~5岁儿童728602名,最终符合标准的儿童23871名。其中男9805名(41.4%),女14066名(58.9%)。 SGA儿童4~18月龄的BMI高于适于胎龄儿(AGA)中位值,余年龄节点与AGA基本持平,变化趋势与AGA儿童相同。超重及肥胖在不同年龄SGA男童中的分布比例为7.7%~20.7%,平均15.7%;在女童中的分布比例为5.9%~18.3%,平均12.9%。 SGA男童超重及肥胖的比例高于SGA女童。4~18月龄的超重及肥胖比例显著高于余年龄节点。 SGA儿童中2岁前的超重及肥胖情况与其5岁时的超重及肥胖情况无相关性(P>0.05)。结论与SGA女童相比,SGA男童超重及肥胖问题更为严重。超重的高发时期在4~18月龄。 SGA儿童中2岁前的超重及肥胖情况并未影响到其5岁时的超重及肥胖程度。%Objective To understand the distribution of overweight and obesity in 0-5 years old children who were born small for gestational age ( SGA) in Shanghai through a cross-sectional investigation. Methods All resident children aged 0-5 years were included, covering all 18 districts in Shanghai. Health-check cards were prepared for SGA children. The check-up included weight,length/height and head circumference. Body mass index ( BMI) was used to evaluate the overweight and obesity according to the standard of World Health Organization ( WHO) . Results This study investigated 728 602 children aged 0-5 years in Shanghai,and ultimately 23 871 of them were defined as SGA,a-mong whom 9 805(41. 4%) were boys and 14 066(58. 9%) were girls. The BMI of SGA children

  19. Health of children born through artificial oocyte activation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemeh, Mohammad R; Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad H

    2015-03-01

    Artificial oocyte activation (AOA) has shown to improve fertility in severe male infertility following intracytoplasmic sperm insemination (ICSI). However, the effect of AOA on the health status of children has not been studied. This pilot historical cohort study aims to evaluate physical and mental health of 79 and 89 children from 275 and 406 couples undergoing ICSI-AOA using ionomycin and conventional ICSI, respectively. The outcomes assessed were clinical pregnancy, abortion, type of delivery, and health of children (major birth defect, mental and behavior status). No significant differences were observed between the ICSI-AOA and the ICSI groups for these parameters, and the rate of major birth defects were not significantly different between the 2 groups. In this study, AOA has not imposed a greater risk on physical and mental health of children born through AOA, but for such a solid conclusion, further trails with higher number of cases are required and conclusions drawn are limited to this study.

  20. Small-amplitude limit of the nuclear Born-Oppenheimer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zettili, N. (Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, 31261 (Saudi Arabia) Institut de Physique, Universite de Blida, Blida (Algeria))

    1995-04-01

    We examine here how the nuclear Born-Oppenheimer (NBO) method describes the collective dynamics of nuclei undergoing small-amplitude oscillations around the equilibrium state. After specifying the NBO trial wave function, and assuming that the intrinsic state is not very different from the Hartree-Fock (HF) ground state, we show that the NBO method yields the random phase approximation (RPA) equations. We then derive an expression for the ground state energy. This expression, which contains zero-point energy correction terms, is smaller than the static HF energy. Next, we derive the correlated ground state energy and then show that it is identical with the corresponding expressions obtained from the generator-coordinate method, from the properly quantized adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach, and from the RPA.

  1. Decomposing the Household Food Insecurity Gap for Children of U.S.-Born and Foreign-Born Hispanics: Evidence from 1998 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Irma; Potochnick, Stephanie; Parsons, Sarah

    2017-03-13

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-K, multivariate analysis, state fixed effects, and regression decomposition, we examine changes in food insecurity for Hispanic kindergarteners between 1998 and 2011, a time period of rapid immigration and political/socio-economic changes. During this time the household food insecurity gap between children of U.S.-born and foreign-born mothers increased by almost 7 percentage points. The factors-child, family, and state-that contributed to the nativity gap differed over time. In both periods, lower familial resources among immigrant families, i.e. endowment effects, contributed to the gap; this was the main component of the gap in 2011 but only one component in 1998. In 1998, heterogeneity in state effects was positively associated with the nativity food insecurity gap. This means that children of foreign-born mothers experience higher household food insecurity than do children of U.S.-born mothers in the same state, even after controlling for child and family characteristics. In 2011, almost half of the gap remained unexplained. This unexplained portion could be driven by differential effects of the Great Recession, growing anti-immigrant sentiment, and/or the relatively large share of unauthorized immigrants in 2011.

  2. [Water-borne outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica O8 due to a small scale water system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Junko; Kimata, Keiko; Shimizu, Miwako; Kanatani, Jun-ichi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Watahiki, Masanori

    2014-11-01

    A water-borne outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 associated with a small-scale water system occurred during July-August 2011 in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. Escherichia coli was not detected in tap water from the small-scale water system. However, the maximum concentration of viable bacteria in the tap water was 700CFU/mL, which exceeds the legal standard for purity of tap water (100CFU/mL). Furthermore, Y. enterocolitica O8 was isolated from the tap water with the use of immunomagnetic beads prepared with anti-Y. enterocolitica O8 antibodies. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis identified 3 isolates from tap water and 5 isolates from 4 patient stool specimens as belonging to the outbreak strain. An epidemiological investigation revealed improper management of the residual chlorine concentration in the tap water. This is the first report of an outbreak of Y. enterocolitica due to tap water from a small-scale water system in Japan.

  3. The therapeutic effect and safety of recombinant human growth hormone in short children born small for gestational age%重组人生长激素治疗小于胎龄矮小儿童的疗效和安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌岚; 张丽娜; 龚海红; 沈燕; 陆超; 胡毓华

    2016-01-01

    children born small for gestational age (SGA).Methods Twenty-two short children born SGA were randomly divided into 2 groups and were exposed to different doses of recombinant human growth hormone,which were low dose group [0.1 IU/(kg · d)] and high dose group [0.2 IU/(kg · d)].Treatment was carried out for 2 years.Before and after treatment,height,weight,bone age,insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1),insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3),growth rate (GV),height standard deviation scores (HtSDS),predicted adult lifetime height (PAH),fasting and postprandial blood glucose,insulin,thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH),T3,T4,and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured.Results Basic value of growth hormone in SGA infant was (2.94 ± 3.27) μg/L.Two years after treatment of growth hormone in high dose group,growth rate [(8.11 ± 1.31) cm/year vs (4.21 ± 0.99) cm/ year],HtSDS(-1.16 ±0.83 vs-3.00 ±0.71),and PAH[(163.68 ±6.76) cm vs (156.54 ±7.39) cm] were significantly higher than those before treatment (F =110.3,30.47,26.20,all P < 0.01).Similar changes were observed in low dose group except for PAH.In high dose group after 2 years of treatment,IGF-1,IGFBP-3 were significantly higher than those before the treatment and the difference was statistically significant (all P < 0.05).Although the plasma levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in low dose group in 2 years of treatment were significantly higher than those before the treatment,the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05).Compared with that before treatment,the added value of IGF-1 had a positive correlation with the added values of growth rate,HtSDS and PAH(r =0.567 4,0.652 4,0.584 3,0.499 8,all P < 0.05).Similar observations were found in low dose group (r =0.437 1,0.405 6 and 0.501 1,all P < 0.05).However,the added value of IGF-1 in low dose group had no correlation with PAH (r =0.200 8,P > 0.05).Compared with that before treatment,2 groups had no differences in fasting and postprandial

  4. Renal elasticity quantification by acoustic radiation force impulse in children born preterm: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Zaffanello

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An emerging hypothesis from the recent literature describes how specific adverse factors related to growth retardation and low birth weight might influence renal development during fetal life and the insurgence of relevant pathologies in adulthood. Preterm births and related perinatal events can affect the mechanical proprieties of kidneys in childhood. We retrieved the laboratory medical records of 3 children born preterm, all in good condition, and investigated the elastic properties of their kidneys using the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI technique. Shear wave velocity (SWV obtained by the ARFI technique depends on the elasticity of a parenchymatous tissue.Medical records of case patient 1 showed a shorter right kidney (5th percentile, a greater protein/creatinine ratio and higher α1-microglobulin in the urine spot if compared with controls. Patients 2 and 3 had unremarkable laboratory results. Moreover, compared with the same results of healthy full-term normal children obtained from a previous study of ours, we observed higher SWV values (m/s for the left kidney in patients 1 and 3; patient 2 had lower SWV values in both kidneys. The altered SWV values, measured in these children born preterm, may be correlated with a possible underlying renal pathology (for instance, disruption of the renal histology. Altered SWV values are generally observed also in 2 out of 3 children with a history of normal laboratory markers of renal function. Further studies are needed on larger cohorts of patients.

  5. Interaction with the Mother in Children Born as a Result of in Vitro Fertilization (IVF: Attachment and Parenting Style Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dueva A.A.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the social and emotional development of children. We tested and partially confirmed the hypothesis that children born as a result of reproductive technology, less often show reliable attachment type than the naturally born children. Such a pattern may emerge because of the behavior of IVF mothers. The present study involved 11 children aged from 5 years to 6 years 11 months, born as a result of IVF, and 10 control children conceived naturally, as well as their mothers. To collect anamnesis, we used: survey of parents with Child-parent emotional interaction questionnaire, and techniques Analysis of family education, projective drawing techniques Nest drawing and Drawing dialogue aimed at identifying the quality of the child's attachment to his mother and interaction in the dyad, as well as Kaplan method for determining the type of attachment.

  6. Effect of pregnancy for females born small on later life metabolic disease risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Tran

    Full Text Available There is a strong inverse relationship between a females own birth weight and her subsequent risk for gestational diabetes with increased risk of developing diabetes later in life. We have shown that growth restricted females develop loss of glucose tolerance during late pregnancy with normal pancreatic function. The aim of this study was to determine whether growth restricted females develop long-term impairment of metabolic control after an adverse pregnancy adaptation. Uteroplacental insufficiency was induced by bilateral uterine vessel ligation (Restricted or sham surgery (Control in late pregnancy (E18 in F0 female rats. F1 Control and Restricted female offspring were mated with normal males and allowed to deliver (termed Ex-Pregnant. Age-matched Control and Restricted Virgins were also studied and glucose tolerance and insulin secretion were determined. Pancreatic morphology and hepatic glycogen and triacylglycerol content were quantified respectively. Restricted females were born lighter than Control and remained lighter at all time points studied (p<0.05. Glucose tolerance, first phase insulin secretion and liver glycogen and triacylglycerol content were not different across groups, with no changes in β-cell mass. Second phase insulin secretion was reduced in Restricted Virgins (-34%, p<0.05 compared to Control Virgins, suggestive of enhanced peripheral insulin sensitivity but this was lost after pregnancy. Growth restriction was associated with enhanced basal hepatic insulin sensitivity, which may provide compensatory benefits to prevent adverse metabolic outcomes often associated with being born small. A prior pregnancy was associated with reduced hepatic insulin sensitivity with effects more pronounced in Controls than Restricted. Our data suggests that pregnancy ameliorates the enhanced peripheral insulin sensitivity in growth restricted females and has deleterious effects for hepatic insulin sensitivity, regardless of maternal

  7. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  8. Local and global aspects of biological motion perception in children born at very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, K E; Jakobson, L S; Saunders, D R; Troje, N F

    2015-01-01

    Biological motion perception can be assessed using a variety of tasks. In the present study, 8- to 11-year-old children born prematurely at very low birth weight (body structure, and the ability to carry out higher order processes required for action recognition and person identification. Preterm children exhibited difficulties in all 4 aspects of biological motion perception. However, intercorrelations between test scores were weak in both full-term and preterm children--a finding that supports the view that these processes are relatively independent. Preterm children also displayed more autistic-like traits than full-term peers. In preterm (but not full-term) children, these traits were negatively correlated with performance in the task requiring structure-from-motion processing, r(30) = -.36, p children and suggest that a core deficit in social perception/cognition may contribute to the development of the social and behavioral difficulties even in members of this population who are functioning within the normal range intellectually. The results could inform the development of screening, diagnostic, and intervention tools.

  9. Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in ticks and small mammals in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul-Min; Yi, Ying-Hua; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Lee, Mi-Jin; Cho, Mae-Rim; Desai, Atul R; Shringi, Smriti; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Song, Jin-Won; Baek, Luck-Ju; Chong, Sung-Tae; O'guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Lee, In-Yong; Park, Jin-Ho; Foley, Janet; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2006-09-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne infectious agents among ticks, ticks comprising five species from two genera (Hemaphysalis spp. and Ixodes spp.) were screened using molecular techniques. Ticks (3,135) were collected from small wild-caught mammals or by dragging/flagging in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and were pooled into a total of 1,638 samples (1 to 27 ticks per pool). From the 1,638 tick samples, species-specific fragments of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (1 sample), Anaplasma platys (52 samples), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (29 samples), Ehrlichia ewingii (2 samples), Ehrlichia canis (18 samples), and Rickettsia rickettsii (28 samples) were amplified by PCR assay. Twenty-one pooled and individual tick samples had mixed infections of two (15 samples) or three (6 samples) pathogens. In addition, 424 spleen samples from small captured mammals (389 rodents, 33 insectivores, and 2 weasels) were screened for selected zoonotic pathogens. Species-specific DNA fragments of A. phagocytophilum (110 samples), A. platys (68 samples), E. chaffeensis (8 samples), E. ewingii (26 samples), E. canis (51 samples), and Rickettsia sp. (22 samples) were amplified by PCR assay. One hundred thirty small mammals had single infections, while 4, 14, and 21 striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) had mixed infections of four, three, and two pathogens, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequence comparison also revealed that Korean strains of E. chaffeensis clustered closely with those from China and the United States, while the Rickettsia (rOmpA) sequences clustered within a clade together with a Chinese strain. These results suggest that these agents should be considered in differential diagnosis while examining cases of acute febrile illnesses in humans as well as animals in the ROK.

  10. Survey for hantaviruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Rickettsia spp. in small rodents in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Petra; Dobler, Gerhard; Markotić, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habuš, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; Margaletić, Josip; Essbauer, Sandra

    2014-07-01

    In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IIFT) and for nucleic acids by conventional (hantaviruses) and real-time RT-/PCRs (TBEV and Rickettsia spp.). A total of 25.5% (24/94) of the rodents from the mountainous area revealed specific antibodies against hantaviruses. In all, 21.3% (20/94) of the samples from the mountainous area and 29.0% (9/31) from the lowland area yielded positive results for either Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) using a conventional RT-PCR. All processed samples (n=194) were negative for TBEV by IIFT or real-time RT-PCR. Serological evidence of rickettsial infection was detected in 4.3% (4/94) rodents from the mountainous region. Another 3.2% (3/94) rodents were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. None of the rodents (n=76) from the lowland area were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Dual infection of PUUV and Rickettsia spp. was found in one M. glareolus from the mountainous area by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in small rodents from Croatia. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and M-segment sequences obtained from the two study sites revealed well-supported subgroups in Croatian PUUV and DOBV. Although somewhat limited, our data showed occurrence and prevalence of PUUV, DOBV, and rickettsiae in Croatia. Further studies are warranted to confirm these data and to determine the Rickettsia species present in rodents in these areas.

  11. Executive functions, social information processing, and social adjustment in young children born with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kelly R; Vannatta, Kathryn; Nelin, Mary Ann; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2015-01-01

    Children born with very low birth weight (VLBW) are at risk for neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae. Although VLBW infants are at higher risk for deficits in executive functions (EFs) and social functioning during school-age years, few studies have investigated those sequelae or their association in young children born VLBW. We examined the associations between EFs and social functioning in preterm, VLBW children age 4-6 years (n = 20) and matched, term-born, normal birth weight controls admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) after birth (n = 18). The groups did not differ significantly on measures of EFs, social information processing, or parent-reported social adjustment. The VLBW group had lower IQs than controls, though both group means were in the average range. Within the VLBW group, medical predictors of better EFs included older gestational age at birth and no history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Across groups, EFs and social information processing were positively correlated. Deficits in EFs and social functioning may emerge after the preschool years in VLBW children, or improved care of children born VLBW may be reducing the cognitive and psychosocial sequelae observed in earlier cohorts. Among children born VLBW, early EFs may be directly related to social information processing.

  12. Gestational age and birth weight in relation to school performance of 10-year-old children: a follow-up study of children born after 32 completed weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Ida; Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten

    2006-01-01

    the children were between 9 and 11 years of age, we gathered information about their school performance (reading, spelling, and arithmetic) from questionnaires completed by the parents and the children's primary school teachers. RESULTS: The association between birth weight and reading, as well as spelling......BACKGROUND: Children born extremely premature (birth weight (children born at term with a normal birth weight. Much less is known about children of higher gestational ages and birth weights. We studied gestational age...... after 32 completed weeks and birth weight in relation to the child's school performance at the age of 10 years. METHODS: We performed a follow-up study of 5319 children born between January 1990 and June 1992. We got the information on birth weight and gestational age from birth registration forms; when...

  13. Processing of intentional and automatic number magnitudes in children born prematurely: evidence from fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Kremser, Christian; Starke, Marc; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Pupp-Peglow, Ulrike; Schocke, Michael; Kaufmann, Liane

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the neural correlates of intentional and automatic number processing (indexed by number comparison and physical Stroop task, respectively) in 6- and 7-year-old children born prematurely. Behavioral results revealed significant numerical distance and size congruity effects. Imaging results disclosed (1) largely overlapping fronto-parietal activation for intentional and automatic number processing, (2) a frontal to parietal shift of activation upon considering the risk factors gestational age and birth weight, and (3) a task-specific link between math proficiency and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal within distinct regions of the parietal lobes-indicating commonalities but also specificities of intentional and automatic number processing.

  14. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Komariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor of academic and financial success.Objective To examine social competence of children aged 3-5 years born with low birth weight.Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken in Palembang in 2012. Subjects consisted of children aged 3-5 years attended a preschool in the Seberang Ulu I District, Palembang, and were divided into two groups: low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence was assessed by observation and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS and Parenting Style questionnaire (PSQ. Chi-square analysis was used to compare social competence between the two groups. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was used to assess for the dominant factors that may affect a child’s social competence.Results Low birth weight children aged 3 to 5 years had a 1.435 times higher risk of low social competence compared to normal birth weight children of similar age. (RP 1.435; 95%CI 1.372 to 13.507; P=0.019. Multivariate regression logistic analysis revealed that parenting style was a dominant factor affecting social competence.Conclusion Social competence in 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight is lower compared to those with normal birth weight.

  15. Social Perception in Children Born at Very Low Birthweight and Its Relationship with Social/Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kathryn E.; Jakobson, Lorna S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that children born very prematurely are at substantially elevated risk for social and behavioral difficulties similar to those seen in full-term children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Methods: To gain insight into core deficits that may underlie these difficulties, in this study, we assessed the social…

  16. Clinical Implications of Diffuse Excessive High Signal Intensity (DEHSI on Neonatal MRI in School Age Children Born Extremely Preterm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Broström

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain carried out during the neonatal period shows that 55-80% of extremely preterm infants display white matter diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI. Our aim was to study differences in developmental outcome at the age of 6.5 years in children born extremely preterm with and without DEHSI.This was a prospective cohort study of 83 children who were born in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2004 and 2007, born at gestational age of < 27 weeks + 0 days and who underwent an MRI scan of their brain at term equivalent age. The outcome measures at 6.5 years included testing 66 children with the modified Touwen neurology examination, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Beery Visual-motor Integration test-Sixth Edition, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Group-wise comparisons were done between children with and without DEHSI using Student t-test, Mann Whitney U test, Chi square test and regression analysis.DEHSI was detected in 39 (59% of the 66 children who were assessed at 6.5 years. The presence of DEHSI was not associated with mild neurological dysfunction, scores on M-ABC assessment, cognition, visual-motor integration, or behavior at 6.5 years.The presence of qualitatively defined DEHSI on neonatal MRI did not prove to be a useful predictor of long-term impairment in children born extremely preterm.

  17. Children born preterm and full term have similar rates of feeding problems at three years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Tjitske; Verhagen, Elise A.; Bos, Arend F.; van Dijk, Marijn W. G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We determined the prevalence of feeding problems and their association with perinatal risk factors in three-year-old children born preterm and compared them with a full-term reference group. Methods: This pilot study assessed feeding problem scores in 35 preterm children, with a median gestatio

  18. Self-Regulation in Children Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight at 2 Years Old: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Lisa N.; Cuskelly, Monica; Gray, Peter H.; O'Callaghan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Survival rates for children born with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) are increasing; however, many of these children experience later problems with learning. This study adopted an integrated approach to these problems, involving the self-regulatory tasks of inhibition and delay of gratification and relevant individual factors including…

  19. Cerebral Damage May Be the Primary Risk Factor for Visual Impairment in Preschool Children Born Extremely Premature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Bangsgaard, Regitze; Fledelius, Hans Callø;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate the importance of cerebral damage and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) for visual impairment in preschool children born extremely premature and to determine the primary risk factor of the two. METHODS A clinical follow-up study of a Danish national cohort of children bor...

  20. Effect of discontinuation of growth hormone treatment on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adolescents born small for gestational age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. van Pareren; M. Houdijk; M. Jansen (Maarten); M. Reeser; P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractHyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus type 2, and coronary heart disease have been associated with being born small for gestational age (SGA). It has been reported that GH treatment induced higher insulin levels, which has led to concern regarding the long-term effect of GH

  1. Adiponectin levels measured in dried blood spot samples from neonates born small and appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, D M;

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin levels measured in neonatal dried blood spot samples (DBSS) might be affected by both prematurity and being born small for gestational age (SGA). The aim of the study was to measure adiponectin levels in routinely collected neonatal DBSS taken on day 5 (range 3-12) postnatal from...

  2. Mental Health in Low-to-Moderate Risk Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Small for Gestational Age Children at 4 to 5 Years: The Role of Early Maternal Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrupp, Elizabeth M.; Mensah, Fiona K.; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal…

  3. [The possibility of registering in the Spanish Civil Registry children born abroad from surrogate mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barrón Arniches, Paloma

    2009-01-01

    In the Spanish Civil Registry it is now possible to register "natural" children of a homosexual marriage born overseas through surrogate pregnancy. And this is despite article 10.1 of the current Spanish law regarding assisted human reproduction techniques, which declares fully null and void contracts renouncing maternal relationship, and orders imperatively that in these cases, the relationship of children is determined by birth. This article analyses and formulates a criticism regarding the Resolution of the Office of Registries and Notaries, of February 18, 2009, insisting on some relevant issues such as legal security and greater interest of the minor, in the context of the analysis of the facts of the case and the arguments put forward in the resolution.

  4. Health and development of children born after assisted reproductive technology and sub-fertility compared to naturally conceived children: data from a national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair G. Sutcliffe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In a non-matched case-control study using data from two large national cohort studies, we investigated whether indicators of child health and development up to 7 years of age differ between children conceived using assisted reproductive technology (ART, children born after sub-fertility (more than 24 months of trying for conception and other children. Information on ART use/sub-fertility was available for 23,649 children. There were 227 cases (children conceived through ART and two control groups: 783 children born to sub-fertile couples, and 22,639 children born to couples with no fertility issues. In models adjusted for social and demographic factors there were significant differences between groups in rate of hospital admissions before the children were 9 months old (P=0.029, with the ART group showing higher rates of hospital admission than the no fertility issues control group, the sub-fertile control group being intermediate between the two. Children born after ART had comparable health and development beyond 9 months of age to their naturally conceived peers. This applied to the whole sample and to a sub-sample of children from deprived neighborhoods.

  5. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes and Neural Mechanisms Associated with Non-right Handedness in Children Born Very Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Leona; Scratch, Shannon E; Burnett, Alice C; Thompson, Deanne K; Lee, Katherine J; Doyle, Lex W; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Inder, Terrie E; Anderson, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Non-right handedness (NRH) is reportedly more common in very preterm (VPT; <32 weeks' gestation) children compared with term-born peers, but it is unclear whether neonatal brain injury or altered brain morphology and microstructure underpins NRH in this population. Given that NRH has been inconsistently reported to be associated with cognitive and motor difficulties, this study aimed to examine associations between handedness and neurodevelopmental outcomes in VPT 7-year-olds. Furthermore, the relationship between neonatal brain injury and integrity of motor tracts (corpus callosum and corticospinal tract) with handedness at age 7 years in VPT children was explored. One hundred seventy-five VPT and 69 term-born children completed neuropsychological and motor assessments and a measure of handedness at 7 years' corrected age. At term-equivalent age, brain injury on MRI was assessed and diffusion tensor measures were obtained for the corpus callosum and posterior limb of the internal capsule. There was little evidence of stronger NRH in the VPT group compared with term controls (regression coefficient [b] -1.95, 95% confidence interval [-5.67, 1.77]). Poorer academic and working memory outcomes were associated with stronger NRH in the VPT group. While there was little evidence that neonatal unilateral brain injury was associated with stronger NRH, increased area and fractional anisotropy of the corpus callosum splenium were predictive of stronger NRH in the VPT group. VPT birth may alter the relationship between handedness and academic outcomes, and neonatal corpus callosum integrity predicts hand preference in VPT children at school age. (JINS, 2015, 21, 610-621).

  6. WHO Child Growth Standards Are Often Incorrectly Applied to Children Born Preterm in Epidemiologic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Nandita; Gaffey, Michelle F; Bassani, Diego G; Roth, Daniel E

    2015-11-01

    In epidemiologic research, there is no standard approach for accounting for gestational age (GA) at birth when interpreting postnatal anthropometric data in analyses of cohorts that include children born preterm (CBP). A scoping review was conducted to describe analytical approaches to account for GA at birth when applying the WHO Growth Standards (WHO-GS) to anthropometric data in epidemiologic studies. We searched PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science for studies that applied WHO-GS, included CBP in the study population, had access to data within 1 mo of age, and were published between 2006 and 2015 in English. Of the 80 included studies that used the WHO-GS, 80% (64 of 80) included all children regardless of GA, whereas 20% (16 of 80) restricted analyses that used WHO-GS to term-born children. Among the 64 studies that included all children, 53 (83%) used chronological age and 11 (17%) used corrected age for CBP. Of the 53 studies that used chronological age, 12 (23%) excluded data that were likely contributed by CBP (e.g., very low birth weight or extremely low outlying z scores) and 19 (36%) adjusted for or stratified by GA at birth in regression analyses. In summary, researchers commonly apply WHO-GS to CBP, usually based on chronological age. Methodologic challenges of analyzing data from CBP in the application of WHO-GS were rarely explicitly addressed. Further efforts are required to establish acceptable approaches to account for heterogeneity in GA at birth in the analysis of post-term anthropometric data in epidemiologic research.

  7. Surface displacement based shape analysis of central brain structures in preterm-born children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amanmeet; Grunau, Ruth E.; Popuri, Karteek; Miller, Steven; Bjornson, Bruce; Poskitt, Kenneth J.; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2016-03-01

    Many studies using T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data have found associations between changes in global metrics (e.g. volume) of brain structures and preterm birth. In this work, we use the surface displacement feature extracted from the deformations of the surface models of the third ventricle, fourth ventricle and brainstem to capture the variation in shape in these structures at 8 years of age that may be due to differences in the trajectory of brain development as a result of very preterm birth (24-32 weeks gestation). Understanding the spatial patterns of shape alterations in these structures in children who were born very preterm as compared to those who were born at full term may lead to better insights into mechanisms of differing brain development between these two groups. The T1 MRI data for the brain was acquired from children born full term (FT, n=14, 8 males) and preterm (PT, n=51, 22 males) at age 8-years. Accurate segmentation labels for these structures were obtained via a multi-template fusion based segmentation method. A high dimensional non-rigid registration algorithm was utilized to register the target segmentation labels to a set of segmentation labels defined on an average-template. The surface displacement data for the brainstem and the third ventricle were found to be significantly different (p spatially localized clusters with inward and outward deformation were found to be associated with lower gestational age. The results from this study present a shape analysis method for pediatric MRI data and reveal shape changes that may be due to preterm birth.

  8. Autism spectrum disorder in children born preterm – role of exposure to perinatal inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Jacqueline Meldrum

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is the collective term for neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by qualitative impairments in social interaction and communication, and a restricted range of activities and interests. Many countries, including Australia, have reported a dramatic increase in the number of diagnoses over the past three decades, and recent reports suggest a prevalence of ASD of 1 in every 110 individuals (~1%. The potential role for an immune-mediated mechanism in ASD has been implicated by several studies, and some evidence suggests a potential link between prenatal infection-driven inflammation and subsequent development of ASD. Furthermore, contemporary studies have reported a markedly increased prevalence of ASD in children born preterm, who are at highest risk of exposure to perinatal inflammation. However, the mechanisms that underpin the susceptibility to infection-driven inflammation during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth, and how these intersect with the subsequent development of ASD in the offspring, is not understood. This review aims to summarise and evaluate the potential mechanisms and evidence for the role of prenatal infection on the central nervous system, and how it may increase the susceptibility for ASD pathogenesis in children born preterm.

  9. Transactional processes in children born preterm: Influences of mother-child interactions and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Emily D; Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie

    2015-10-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study examined the transactional relations among perceived maternal parenting stress, maternal insensitivity, and child behavior across toddlerhood through age 6 within families of a child born preterm. A sample of 173 mother-child dyads were followed from just before the infant was discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit to 6 years of age, with observational measurements of maternal insensitivity and child noncompliance (24 and 36 months), maternal self-reports of perceived parenting stress (24 months, 36 months, 6 years), and maternal reports of child externalizing behavior at 6 years. Results indicated that maternal insensitivity at 36 months significantly mediated the relation between parenting stress at 24 months and externalizing behaviors at 6 years. Parenting stress was also directly associated with child noncompliance at 36 months and with child externalizing behavior at 6 years. Neonatal risk was associated with increased maternal insensitivity at 24 months, but also decreased parenting stress at 24 months. No significant "child effects" from child behavior to either maternal insensitivity or parenting stress were found. Parenting stress appears to play a critical role for children born preterm, and it is associated with children's behavior both directly and through its influence on parenting. The role of neonatal risk needs continued investigation, as families traditionally considered to be at lower risk may still face significant challenges.

  10. Mature maternity: long term associations in first children born to older mothers in 1970 in the UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Pollock, J I

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To identify the physical, behavioural, medical, and educational outcomes in first children born to women aged 30 or more compared with those born to younger women. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study design employing logistic regression analysis of data obtained from the British births survey of 1970 and the child health and education study follow ups to this cohort at ages 5 and 10. SETTING: One week birth cohort covering the whole of the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: The car...

  11. Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born preterm: a preliminary study in the Arabic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered as high risk group for some neurobehavioral impairments such as cognitive disabilities, developmental delays, social/emotional limitations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and academic difficulties. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants in Saudi Arabia at the school age.Methods: At the school age, preterm children (range 23-29 weeks or ≤ 1.52 kg born from April, 2006 through September, 2008, and who were admitted following birth to a NICU, were evaluated with several neurobehavioral tools. Results: This study includes 53 preterm children, who were followed up at the chronological age that ranged from 6.4-8.0 years. The results of the neurobehavioral assessments showed in general normal social adaptive levels and cognitive abilities, with mean total score of about 91.0 and 90.0, respectively. The prevalence of ADHD among preterm children was high, with result of 34.0% for the inattentive type and 11.3% for the hyperactive/impulsive type. None of the preterm children repeats a grade, but 22.6% utilize a form of special educational supports. Some of the preterm children showed poor school performance in reading skills, writing skills and mathematics skills, with percentages of 26.4%, 28.3% and 15.1%, respectively.Conclusions: The present results emphasize that preterm children are a group of high-risk children who need regular follow-up to track the developmental conditions and to provide the early developmental intervention for optimal outcome.

  12. Endocrine and metabolic diurnal rhythms in young adult men born small vs appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Saltbæk, Pernille N; Friedrichsen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    for 24 h, to measure levels of glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), triglycerides (TG), insulin, C-peptide, leptin, resistin, ghrelin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), incretins (GLP-1 and GIP), and inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-6) in 13 young men born SGA and 11 young men born AGA. RESULTS...... variations in levels of blood glucose, plasma TG, FFA, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, GIP, leptin, visfatin, TNF-α, IL-6 and PAI-1. The variation in FFA levels differed between the groups during the evening. Plasma ghrelin and glucagon levels did not display diurnal variations. CONCLUSIONS: Young men born SGA...

  13. Vaccination Coverage Disparities Between Foreign-Born and U.S.-Born Children Aged 19-35 Months, United States, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varan, Aiden K; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Hill, Holly A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Li, Qian

    2016-08-01

    Healthy People 2020 targets high vaccination coverage among children. Although reductions in coverage disparities by race/ethnicity have been described, data by nativity are limited. The National Immunization Survey is a random-digit-dialed telephone survey that estimates vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months. We assessed coverage among 52,441 children from pooled 2010-2012 data for individual vaccines and the combined 4:3:1:3*:3:1:4 series (which includes ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine/diphtheria and tetanus toxoids vaccine/diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine, ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine, ≥1 dose of measles-containing vaccine, ≥3 or ≥4 doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (depending on product type of vaccine; denoted as 3* in the series name), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine, ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine, and ≥4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine). Coverage estimates controlling for sociodemographic factors and multivariable logistic regression modeling for 4:3:1:3*:3:1:4 series completion are presented. Significantly lower coverage among foreign-born children was detected for DTaP, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Hib, pneumococcal conjugate, and rotavirus vaccines, and for the combined series. Series completion disparities persisted after control for demographic, access-to-care, poverty, and language effects. Substantial and potentially widening disparities in vaccination coverage exist among foreign-born children. Improved immunization strategies targeting this population and continued vaccination coverage monitoring by nativity are needed.

  14. Children born with very low birth weight show difficulties with sustained attention but not response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine A; Healy, Elaine; Dooley, Barbara; Kelly, Simon P; McNicholas, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Children born with very low birth weight perform poorly on executive function and attention measures. Any difficulties with sustained attention may underpin impairments in performance on tasks measuring higher order cognitive control. Previous sustained attention research in very low birth weight cohorts has used tasks that involve arousing stimuli, potentially spoiling the measure of sustained attention. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of very low birth weight and normal birth weight children on a well-controlled task of sustained attention. The Fixed and Random versions of the Sustained Attention to Response Task were given to 17 very low birth weight and 18 normal birth weight children. The very low birth weight group performed the Fixed and Random Sustained Attention to Response Tasks in a similar manner as the normal birth weight group on all measures except for the omission error and Slow Frequency Area under the Spectra variables on the Fixed Sustained Attention to Response Task. These measures index lapses in sustained attention that may be underpinned by declining arousal. The very low birth weight group showed no response inhibition deficits. Omission errors and slow-timescale response-time variability on predictable tasks may thus present sensitive indices of difficulties with sustained attention and arousal associated with premature birth and low birth weight.

  15. The school readiness of children born to low-income, adolescent Latinas in Miami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceno, Ana-Carolina Loyola; De Feyter, Jessica J; Winsler, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Although studies show teenage parenting and low socioeconomic status predict poor child academic performance, limited research has examined relations between teen parenting and children's school readiness within low-income Latina mothers. In the context of the Miami School Readiness Project, low-income preschoolers (N = 3,023) attending subsidized child-care programs were assessed on cognitive, language, and fine motor skills, and parents and teachers reported on children's social skills and behavior concerns. Maternal teenage status at time of birth, maternal education, child attachment, child immigrant generational status, language, and other demographic variables were explored, as they uniquely and interactively predicted children's school readiness. Teenage parenting among low-income Latinas in this sample was less frequent (15%) than national estimates and more common among mothers born in the United States. Teen parenting was negatively associated with child cognitive and language competence at age 4, controlling for background variables. Maternal receipt of a high school diploma contributed additively, rather than interactively, to child outcomes. Parent-reported strong child attachment served as a buffer against the negative effects of teen parent status on child outcomes. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  16. Physical, mental and psychomotor development of children born after multifetal pregnancy reduction: a retrospective case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiao-Qin; Wang Wen-Jun; Li Yu; Li Hong; Ma Yun; Chen Xiang-Hong; Yang Dong-Zi; Zhang Qing-Xue

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perinatal and developmental outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) children born after multifetal pregnancy reduction (MPR).Methods: Twenty-four ART children born after MPR were compared to 9 triplets without MPR, and 24 matched IVF children without MPR and 24 naturally conceived. Mental and psychological development was assessed by Bayley Scales.of Infant. The outcomes compared included perinatal characteristics, body mass index (BMI), mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI).Results: MPR singletons/twins had better neonatal outcomes than non-MPR triplets. Moreover, PDI of the MPR singletons/twins was significantly higher than that of the non-MPR triplets. There were no significantly difference in perinatal characteristics, BMI, MDI and PDI among 24 MPR children, 24 matched IVF children without MPR and 24 matched naturally conceived children.Conclusion: Multifetal pregnancy reduction could improve perinatal outcomes and would not affect physical, mental and psychomotor development for children born after it.

  17. Growth during the first two years predicts pre-school height in children born with very low birth weight (VLBW): results of a study of 1,320 children in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebar, Branko; Traunecker, Richard; Selbmann, Hans-Konrad; Ranke, Michael B

    2007-08-01

    Children born with very low birth weight (VLBW) are at risk of impaired growth. We aimed to study VLBW survivors (90.8%) born in 1998/1999 in the state of Baden-Württemberg (n = 2103) for whom growth data were available up to age six. Classification as appropriate for gestational age (AGA) or small for gestational age (SGA) depended on size at birth. Models to predict height SDS at 5 y were developed using data for 1 yr (Model 1) and 2 yrs (Model 2). The data of 1320 (63%) children were available: SGA: n = 730, AGA: n = 590. At 6 yrs, 8.3% AGA and 13.4% SGA children were short (weight SDS, birth weight SDS; (b) Model 2 (n = 991; R2 = 0.72; error: 0.65 SDS): 1st yr Ht SDS; change (2nd yr) in Ht and weight SDS; MPH SDS; 1st yr weight SDS; birth weight SDS. Thus, some AGA and SGA children born VLBW remain short and preventive strategies need to be developed for those at risk.

  18. When war is better than peace: The post-conflict realities of children born of wartime rape in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denov, Myriam; Lakor, Atim Angela

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines the realities and perspectives of a sample of 60 children born of wartime rape within the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), and currently living in northern Uganda. These children were born to mothers who were abducted by the LRA, held captive for extended periods of time, repeatedly raped and impregnated. The paper explores the multiple challenges that these children face in the post-war period including, rejection, stigma, violence, socio-economic marginalization, and issues of identity and belonging. Participants underscored the profound violence and deprivation that they experienced while in LRA captivity. However, because of post-war marginalization, participants individually and collectively articulated that wartime was better than peacetime. Multiple systems of support are needed to ensure the rights and protection of these children and importantly, to address and reverse young people's perceptions that "war is better than peace".

  19. Early communicative gestures and play as predictors of language development in children born with and without family risk for dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unhjem, Astrid; Eklund, Kenneth; Nergård-Nilssen, Trude

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated early communicative gestures, play, and language skills in children born with family risk for dyslexia (FR) and a control group of children without this inheritable risk at ages 12, 15, 18, and 24 months. Participants were drawn from the Tromsø Longitudinal study of Dyslexia (TLD) which follows children's cognitive and language development from age 12 months through Grade 2 in order to identify early markers of developmental dyslexia. Results showed that symbolic play and parent reported play at age 12 months and communicative gestures at age 15 months explained 61% of the variance in productive language at 24 months in the FR group. These early nonlinguistic measures seem to be potentially interesting markers of later language development in children born at risk for dyslexia.

  20. Psychological Vulnerability in Children Next-Born after Stillbirth: A Case-Control Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Penelope; Badenhorst, William; Pawlby, Susan; White, Sarah; Hughes, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Background: Case studies and anecdotal accounts suggest that perinatal loss may impact upon other children in the family, including those born subsequent to loss. However, there is a dearth of systematically collected quantitative data on this potentially vulnerable group. Methods: Case-controlled follow-up of 52 mothers with history of stillbirth…

  1. Functioning of very preterm born children at preschool age: Follow-up of an early intervention programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, G.J.Q.

    2014-01-01

    The thesis presents the effects of the multicentre RCT on the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) in children born preterm, with a gestation of less than 32 weeks and/or a birth weight below 1500 grams (VLBW), at the age of school entry. Eighty-six infants were enrolled in

  2. Disseminated tuberculosis and tuberculous meningitis in Australian-born children; case reports and review of current epidemiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin B; Hazelton, Briony J; Heywood, Anita E; Snelling, Thomas L; Peacock, Kenneth M; Macartney, Kristine K

    2013-03-01

    We present two cases of tuberculous meningitis in Australian-born children. We review the current literature surrounding management of paediatric tuberculosis and disseminated disease, emphasising the importance of prompt diagnosis and intervention. We discuss the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Australian paediatric population and highlight the sentinel role of childhood infection in public health surveillance.

  3. Return Migration, Investment in Children, and Intergenerational Mobility: Comparing Sons of Foreign- and Native-Born Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustmann, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies parental investment in education and intergenerational earnings mobility for father-son pairs with native- and foreign-born fathers. We illustrate within a simple model that for immigrants, investment in their children is related to their return migration probability. In our empirical analysis, we include a measure for return…

  4. Born Too Soon: What Can We Expect? Nature of Home Literacy Experiences for Children with Very Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa, G.

    2009-01-01

    This study documents the home literacy experiences of children born with very low birth weight (VLBW). The study's design was modelled after Purcell-Gates' study of social domains mediated by print as home literacy experiences. A design combining purposeful sampling, semi-structured data collection and descriptive case study analysis was employed…

  5. Familial influences on poverty among young children in black immigrant, U.S.-born black, and nonblack immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2011-05-01

    This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and U.S.-born blacks, and among black and nonblack children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than in U.S.-born black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among blacks are highest in single-parent black immigrant families. In addition, within two-parent immigrant families, child poverty declines associated with increasing assimilation are greater than the respective declines in single-parent families. The heads of black immigrant households have more schooling than those of native-black households. However, increased schooling has a weaker negative association with child poverty among the former than among the latter. In terms of racial disparities among the children of immigrants, poverty rates are higher among black than nonblack children. This black disadvantage is, however, driven by the outcomes of first-generation children of African and Hispanic-black immigrants. The results also show that although children in refugee families face elevated poverty risks, these risks are higher among black than among nonblack children of refugees. In addition, the poverty-reducing impact associated with having an English-proficient household head is about three times lower among black children of immigrants than among non-Hispanic white children of immigrants.

  6. Estimation of health indicators of children born by means of application of reproductive technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine health of children born by means of ART according to Perinatal Center of Saratov region for the last 2 years. Material and Methods: 70 pregnant women and 96 newborns with the use of ART were under examination. The causes of premature birth by women with ART, high degree of disease incidence among newborns and mortinatality are considered (рассматриваются in the article. Results: The important factors of amnionic membranes breaking are distinguished: maternal age, multifetation, genital and extragenital pathology, antenatal infections and fetation anomaly. Highly premature babies cause not only high neonatal disease rate and disability, but also are key element in procreational loses. Women with congelated embryo transfer less often experience premature birth, also disease rate and neurologic abnormalities are less frequent. Two and more embryo transfer more often leads to habitual miscarriage. Conclusion: Mothers-to-children health indicators after using ART demonstrate the necessity of prenatal diagnostics improvement and taking measures in monitoring such women and newborns. High quality preimplantation preparation plays a major role in fetus pathology reduction. Prescriptions and counter indications to this procedure should be thoroughly evaluated; no more than 1-2 ova should be transferred.

  7. Description of Clean and Healthy Behavior of Food Borne Disease Among by School Children Age in Babat Jerawat I Elementary School, District Pakal Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Heny Sholikhah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidence of food borne disease, such as diarrhea, typhoid and hookworm infection in school childrenwere still sufficient susceptible. Lack of clean and healthy behavior became primary cause, so that the agent can easilyenter to the body through the food consumed. The purpose of this study was to descript the clean and healthy behaviors by school children age at Babat Jerawat I Elementary School, District Pakal Surabaya. Methods: This study was a crosssectional study. The sample of this study were 112 of fifth grade students at Babat Jerawat I Elementary school, District Pakal Surabaya, selected by purposive sampling of 121 students who met the inclusion criteria. Data of clean and healthy behavior were collected by observation and interviews focused on a group of school children using questionnaires, checklists and interview guides. Data analysis was done by using descriptive analysis. Results: The results showed that the clean and healthy behaviors about food borne disease, the majority of school children in Elementary school Babat Jerawat I District Pakal Surabaya included in good criteria (51.8% and small portion of these included less category (48.2%. Conclusion:Clean and Healthy Behavior of food borne disease in school children age had good criteria, but still need attention formany factors that influence it, such as the availability of facilities, affordability snacks outside of school and examples ofunhealthy behaviors in family environment. Recommendation: Improve the cooperation between the school and localhealth officials to tighten rules on the management of snack vending around schools, and do continuous education both within the school and the child’s school community.

  8. Perinatal outcomes of children born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Romundstad, Liv Bente;

    2013-01-01

    What are the risks of adverse outcomes in singletons born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)?......What are the risks of adverse outcomes in singletons born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)?...

  9. Molar-incisor hypomineralization and oral hygiene in 10- to-12-yr-old Swedish children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogårdh-Roth, Susanne; Matsson, Lars; Klingberg, Gunilla

    2011-02-01

    Although preterm birth is associated with an increased risk of medical problems and impairments, there is limited knowledge of how this affects oral health. It was hypothesized that when 10-12 yr of age, children who were preterm at birth would present with a higher prevalence of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH), more dental plaque, and a higher degree of gingival inflammation than full-term control children. Eighty-two preterm children, born between 24 and 32 wk of gestation, and 82 control children, born between 37 and 43 wk of gestation, were clinically examined for developmental defects in enamel, MIH, dental plaque, and gingival health. In addition, behaviour management problems were evaluated. Information on any aetiological factors with a potential influence on MIH and oral health was collected via questionnaires. Molar-incisor hypomineralization was more common in preterm children than in controls (38% vs. 16%), as were enamel developmental defects (69.5% vs. 51%). Low gestational age and low birth weight increased the risk of MIH. Preterm children had more plaque, a higher degree of gingival inflammation, and more behaviour-management problems than controls. In conclusion, oral health problems were more common in preterm children than in control children.

  10. Visual-motor and executive functions in children born preterm: the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Birgitta; Lundequist, Aiko; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte

    2010-10-01

    Visual-motor development and executive functions were investigated with the Bender Test at age 5½ years in 175 children born preterm and 125 full-term controls, within the longitudinal Stockholm Neonatal Project. Assessment also included WPPSI-R and NEPSY neuropsychological battery for ages 4-7 (Korkman, 1990). Bender protocols were scored according to Brannigan & Decker (2003), Koppitz (1963) and a complementary neuropsychological scoring system (ABC), aimed at executive functions and developed for this study. Bender results by all three scoring systems were strongly related to overall cognitive level (Performance IQ), in both groups. The preterm group displayed inferior visual-motor skills compared to controls also when controlling for IQ. The largest group differences were found on the ABC scoring, which shared unique variance with NEPSY tests of executive function. Multiple regression analyses showed that hyperactive behavior and inattention increased the risk for visual-motor deficits in children born preterm, whereas no added risk was seen among hyperactive term children. Gender differences favoring girls were strongest within the preterm group, presumably reflecting the specific vulnerability of preterm boys. The results indicate that preterm children develop a different neurobehavioral organization from children born at term, and that the Bender test with a neuropsychological scoring is a useful tool in developmental screening around school start.

  11. Cohort effects explain the increase in autism diagnosis among children born from 1992 to 2003 in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M; Susser, Ezra; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Fountain, Christine; Liu, Kayuet; Bearman, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence and prevalence of autism have dramatically increased over the last 20 years. Decomposition of autism incidence rates into age, period and cohort effects disentangle underlying domains of causal factors linked to time trends. We estimate an age-period-cohort effect model for autism diagnostic incidence overall and by level of functioning. Methods Data are drawn from sequential cohorts of all 6 501 262 individuals born in California from 1992 to 2003. Autism diagnoses from 1994 to 2005 were ascertained from the California Department of Development Services Client Development and Evaluation Report. Results Compared with those born in 1992, each successively younger cohort has significantly higher odds of an autism diagnosis than the previous cohort, controlling for age and period effects. For example, individuals born in 2003 have 16.6 times the odds of an autism diagnosis compared with those born in 1992 [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.8–35.3]. The cohort effect observed in these data is stronger for high than for low-functioning children with an autism diagnosis. Discussion Autism incidence in California exhibits a robust and linear positive cohort effect that is stronger among high-functioning children with an autism diagnosis. This finding indicates that the primary drivers of the increases in autism diagnoses must be factors that: (i) have increased linearly year-to-year; (ii) aggregate in birth cohorts; and (iii) are stronger among children with higher levels of functioning. PMID:22253308

  12. BABYSCAN - a whole body counter for small children in Fukushima

    CERN Document Server

    Hayano, Ryugo S; Bronson, Frazier L; Oginni, Babatunde; Muramatsu, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    BABYSCAN, a whole body counter for small children with a detection limit for $^{137}$Cs of better than 50 Bq/body, was developed, and the first unit has been installed at a hospital in Fukushima, to help families with small children who are very much concerned about internal exposures. The design principles, implementation details and the initial operating experience are described.

  13. Small for gestational age and poor fluid intelligence in childhood predict externalizing behaviors among young adults born at extremely low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahat, Ayelet; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-02-01

    Although infants born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight intelligence. As young adults, a subset of ELBW survivors free of major neurosensory impairments provided self-reports of personality characteristics related to psychopathology. Data from 66 participants indicated that, as predicted, the association between ELBW and externalizing behaviors was moderated by fluid intelligence. Specifically, ELBW individuals with poor fluid intelligence who were born small for gestational age (birth weight intelligence might be a cognitive mechanism contributing to the development of psychopathology among nonimpaired individuals who were born at ELBW and small for gestational age.

  14. Developmental neuropsychological assessment of 4- to 5-year-old children born following Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD): A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Gilat Chaya; Altarescu, Gheona; Guedalia, Judith; Varshaver, Irit; Gilboa, Tal; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate developmental neuropsychological profiles of 4- to 5-year-old children born after Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Twenty-seven participants received a neurological examination and a battery of neuropsychological assessments including Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI-III; cognitive development), Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4; language development), Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (visual motor abilities), Childhood Autism Rating Scales II (a screening test for autistic spectrum disorders), and the Miles ABC Test (ocular dominance). Parental questionnaires included the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; executive function), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Carey Temperament Scales Behavioral Style Questionnaire (socioemotional development and temperament), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Interview Edition, Second Edition (general adaptive behavior). Subjects' tests results were compared to each test's norms. Children born after PGD demonstrated scores within the normal or above-normal ranges for all developmental outcomes (mean ± SD): WPPSI-III-VIQ 107.4 ± 14.4 (p = .013), PLS-4-Total 113.2 ± 12.4, p family history of autism was noted. In conclusion, in this pilot study, children assessed at age 4-5 years and conceived after PGD displayed developmental neuropsychological outcomes within normal limits as compared to their chronologic peers. A larger study is needed to evaluate and follow the neuropsychological development of children born after PGD.

  15. Neonatal pain-related stress predicts cortical thickness at age 7 years in children born very preterm.

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    Manon Ranger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Altered brain development is evident in children born very preterm (24-32 weeks gestational age, including reduction in gray and white matter volumes, and thinner cortex, from infancy to adolescence compared to term-born peers. However, many questions remain regarding the etiology. Infants born very preterm are exposed to repeated procedural pain-related stress during a period of very rapid brain development. In this vulnerable population, we have previously found that neonatal pain-related stress is associated with atypical brain development from birth to term-equivalent age. Our present aim was to evaluate whether neonatal pain-related stress (adjusted for clinical confounders of prematurity is associated with altered cortical thickness in very preterm children at school age. METHODS: 42 right-handed children born very preterm (24-32 weeks gestational age followed longitudinally from birth underwent 3-D T1 MRI neuroimaging at mean age 7.9 yrs. Children with severe brain injury and major motor/sensory/cognitive impairment were excluded. Regional cortical thickness was calculated using custom developed software utilizing FreeSurfer segmentation data. The association between neonatal pain-related stress (defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures accounting for clinical confounders (gestational age, illness severity, infection, mechanical ventilation, surgeries, and morphine exposure, was examined in relation to cortical thickness using constrained principal component analysis followed by generalized linear modeling. RESULTS: After correcting for multiple comparisons and adjusting for neonatal clinical factors, greater neonatal pain-related stress was associated with significantly thinner cortex in 21/66 cerebral regions (p-values ranged from 0.00001 to 0.014, predominately in the frontal and parietal lobes. CONCLUSIONS: In very preterm children without major sensory, motor or cognitive impairments, neonatal pain-related stress

  16. Developmental Outcomes in Young Children Born to Mothers with West Nile Illness during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Patricia A.; Pridjian, Gabriella; McRae, Scott; Hinckley, Alison F.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Kissinger, Patricia; Buekens, Pierre; Hayes, Edward B.; O’Leary, Daniel R.; Swan, Kenneth F.; Xiong, Xu; Wesson, Dawn M.

    2015-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) infection is associated with acute morbidity and mortality in adults and children. Information on the effects of maternal WNV illness during pregnancy on early childhood development is limited. This study was designed to examine the relationship between maternal WNV illness during pregnancy and birth and developmental outcomes at age 3 years. Methods Mother-child participants were identified using a national surveillance registry for women with WNV illness during pregnancy. Maternal and infant health data and relevant family characteristics were obtained through medical record reviews and maternal questionnaires. All infants received ophthalmologic examinations. Child development was evaluated at age 3 years using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development–Third Edition (Bayley-III). Results As a group, the children’s (N = 11) birth weight, head circumference, and infant ophthalmologic examination results were within age expectations; one child was born preterm (gestational age 36 weeks). Mean (SD) age at the time of Bayley-III testing was 36.7 (3.8) months. The group’s mean performance on the Bayley-III was at or above age level in all domains, but one child showed a mild delay in the Adaptive domain. The variability observed in this sample (1/53 [1.9%] Domain scores < −2.0 SDs) was consistent with expectations based upon the distribution of Bayley-III Domain scores in the general population. Conclusion Maternal WNV infection does not appear to be associated with global developmental delays in young children. These results are preliminary, however, and require confirmation in future research. PMID:25196266

  17. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire and Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Two-Year-Old Preterm-Born Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorien M Kerstjens

    Full Text Available To test the ability of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition (ASQ3 to help identify or exclude neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two.We studied the test results of 224 children, born at <32 postmenstrual weeks, who had scores on ASQ3 and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSIDIII and neurological examination at 22-26 months' corrected age. We defined NDI as a score of <70 on the cognitive--or motor composite scale of BSIDIII, or impairment on neurological examination or audiovisual screening. We compared NDI with abnormal ASQ3 scores, i.e., < -2SDs on any domain, and with ASQ3 total scores. To correct for possible overestimation of BSIDIII, we also analyzed the adjusted BSIDIII thresholds for NDI, i.e., scores <80 and <85.We found 61 (27% children with abnormal ASQ3 scores, and 10 (4.5% children who had NDI with original BSIDIII thresholds (<70. Twelve children had NDI at BSIDIII thresholds at <80, and 15 had <85. None of the 163 (73% children who passed ASQ3 had NDI. The sensitivity of ASQ3 to detect NDI was excellent (100%, its specificity was acceptable (76%, and its negative predictive value (NPV was 100%. Sensitivity and NPV remained high with the adjusted BSIDIII thresholds.The Ages and Stages Questionnaire is a simple, valid and cost-effective screening tool to help identify and exclude NDI in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two years.

  18. Prevalence of enamel defects and associated risk factors in both dentitions in preterm and full term born children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Resende Nogueira Cruvinel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of enamel defects and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely born children and full-term born children born at Regional Hospital of Asa Sul, Brasília, DF, Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty 5-10-year-old children of both genders were examined, being 40 born prematurely (G1 and 40 born full term (G2. The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were retrieved using a questionnaire and data obtained from clinical examination were recorded. The teeth were examined and the presence of enamel defects was diagnosed according to the DDE Index and registered in odontograms. Subsequently, the defects were categorized in four groups according to one of the criteria proposed in 1992 by the FDI Commission on Oral Health, Research and Epidemiology. Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square, Kappa, Mann-Whitney tests and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: 75% of total sample had enamel defects. There was a major prevalence of hypoplasia of the enamel in G1 (p<0.001. There was a significant relationship between low weight and presence of the imperfections on the enamel in G1 on the primary dentition. The logistic regression model showed that the other risk factors such as monthly per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases were not associated with enamel defects and caries. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-term labor can be a predisposing factor for the presence of the enamel hypoplasia in the primary dentition.

  19. Small risk of developing symptomatic tick-borne diseases following a tick bite in the Netherlands

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    Hofhuis Agnetha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In The Netherlands, the incidence of Lyme borreliosis is on the rise. Besides its causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., other potential pathogens like Rickettsia, Babesia and Ehrlichia species are present in Ixodes ricinus ticks. The risk of disease associated with these microorganisms after tick-bites remains, however, largely unclear. A prospective study was performed to investigate how many persons with tick-bites develop localized or systemic symptoms and whether these are associated with tick-borne microorganisms. Results In total, 297 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from 246 study participants who consulted a general practitioner on the island of Ameland for tick bites. Ticks were subjected to PCR to detect DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. or Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp.. Sixteen percent of the collected ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., 19% for Rickettsia spp., 12% for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and 10% for Babesia spp.. At least six months after the tick bite, study participants were interviewed on symptoms by means of a standard questionnaire. 14 out of 193 participants (8.3% reported reddening at the bite site and 6 participants (4.1% reported systemic symptoms. No association between symptoms and tick-borne microorganisms was found. Attachment duration ≥24 h was positively associated with reddening at the bite site and systemic symptoms. Using logistic regression techniques, reddening was positively correlated with presence of Borrelia afzelii, and having 'any symptoms' was positively associated with attachment duration. Conclusion The risk of contracting acute Lyme borreliosis, rickettsiosis, babesiosis or ehrlichiosis from a single tick bite was

  20. Challenges facing effective implementation of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in children born to HIV-infected mothers in the public health facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamuhabwa AAR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Appolinary AR Kamuhabwa,1 Vicky Manyanga21Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaBackground: If children born to HIV-infected mothers are not identified early, approximately 30% of them will die within the first year of life due to opportunistic infections. In order to prevent morbidity and mortality due to opportunistic infections in children, the World Health Organization recommends the use of prophylaxis using co-trimoxazole. However, the challenges affecting effective implementation of this policy in Tanzania have not been documented.Aim: In this study, we assessed the challenges facing the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among children born to HIV-infected mothers in the public hospitals of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.Methodology: Four hundred and ninety-eight infants' PMTCT (Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV register books for the past 2 years were reviewed to obtain information regarding the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. One hundred and twenty-six health care workers were interviewed to identify success stories and challenges in the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in children. In addition, 321 parents and guardians of children born to HIV-infected mothers were interviewed in the health facilities.Results: Approximately 80% of children were initiated with co-trimoxazole prophylaxis within 2 months after birth. Two hundred and ninety-one (58.4% children started using co-trimoxazole within 4 weeks after birth. Majority (n=458, 91.8% of the children were prescribed 120 mg of co-trimoxazole per day, whereas 39 (7.8% received 240 mg per day. Only a small proportion (n=1, 0.2% of children received 480 mg/day. Dose determination was based on the child's age rather than body weight. Parents and guardians reported that 42 (13.1% children had missed one or more doses of co

  1. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Children Born Premature: A Case Study and Illustration of Vagal Tone as a Physiological Measure of Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; Vohr, Betty R.; Hinckley, Matthew; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based psychosocial interventions for externalizing behavior problems in children born premature have not been reported in the literature. This single-case study describes Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) with a 23-month-old child born at 29 weeks gestation weighing 1,020 grams, who presented with significant externalizing behavior…

  2. Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children at School Entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F.; ten Vergert, Elisabeth M. J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bos, Arend F.; B0cca-Tjeertes, I.F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and nature of developmental delay at preschool age in infants born moderately preterm compared with those born full-term and early preterm. Study design Parents of 927 moderate preterm infants (32-35(+) 6 weeks gestation), 512 early preterm infants ( Results Abn

  3. Small Talk: Children's Everyday `Molecule' Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Cheryl

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports on 6-11-year-old children's `sayings and doings' (Harré 2002) as they explore molecule artefacts in dialectical-interactive teaching interviews (Fleer, Cultural Studies of Science Education 3:781-786, 2008; Hedegaard et al. 2008). This sociocultural study was designed to explore children's everyday awareness of and meaning-making with cultural molecular artefacts. Our everyday world is populated with an ever increasing range of molecular or nanoworld words, symbols, images, and games. What do children today say about these artefacts that are used to represent molecular world entities? What are the material and social resources that can influence a child's everyday and developing scientific ideas about `molecules'? How do children interact with these cognitive tools when given expert assistance? What meaning-making is afforded when children are socially and materially assisted in using molecular tools in early chemical and nanoworld thinking? Tool-dependent discursive studies show that provision of cultural artefacts can assist and direct developmental thinking across many domains of science (Schoultz et al., Human Development 44:103-118, 2001; Siegal 2008). Young children's use of molecular artefacts as cognitive tools has not received much attention to date (Jakab 2009a, b). This study shows 6-11-year-old children expressing everyday ideas of molecular artefacts and raising their own questions about the artefacts. They are seen beginning to domesticate (Erneling 2010) the words, symbols, and images to their own purposes when given the opportunity to interact with such artefacts in supported activity. Discursive analysis supports the notion that using `molecules' as cultural tools can help young children to begin `putting on molecular spectacles' (Kind 2004). Playing with an interactive game (ICT) is shown to be particularly helpful in assisting children's early meaning-making with representations of molecules, atoms, and their chemical symbols.

  4. Sensory and motor deficits in children with cerebral palsy born preterm correlate with diffusion tensor imaging abnormalities in thalamocortical pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOON, ALEXANDER H; STASHINKO, ELAINE E; NAGAE, LIDIA M; LIN, DORIS DM; KELLER, JENNIFER; BASTIAN, AMY; CAMPBELL, MICHELLE L; LEVEY, ERIC; MORI, SUSUMU; JOHNSTON, MICHAEL V

    2010-01-01

    AIM Cerebral palsy (CP) is frequently linked to white matter injury in children born preterm. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a powerful technique providing precise identification of white matter microstructure. We investigated the relationship between DTI-observed thalamocortical (posterior thalamic radiation) injury, motor (corticospinal tract) injury, and sensorimotor function. METHOD Twenty-eight children born preterm(16 males, 12 females; mean age 5y 10mo, SD 2y 6mo, range 16mo–13y; mean gestational age at birth 28wks, SD 2.7wks, range 23–34wks) were included in this case–control study. Twenty-one children had spastic diplegia, four had spastic quadriplegia, two had hemiplegia, and one had ataxic hypotonic CP; 15 of the participants walked independently. Normative comparison data were obtained from 35 healthy age-matched children born at term(19 males, 16 females; mean age 5y 9mo, SD 4y 4mo, range 15mo–15y). Two-dimensional DTI color maps were created to evaluate 26 central white matter tracts, which were graded by a neuroradiologist masked to clinical status. Quantitative measures of touch, proprioception, strength (dynamometer), and spasticity (modified Ashworth scale) were obtained from a subset of participants. RESULTS All 28 participants with CP had periventricular white-matter injury on magnetic resonance imaging. Using DTI color maps, there was more severe injury in the posterior thalamic radiation pathways than in the descending corticospinal tracts. Posterior thalamic radiation injury correlated with reduced contralateral touch threshold, proprioception, and motor severity, whereas corticospinal tract injury did not correlate with motor or sensory outcome measures. INTERPRETATION These findings extend previous research demonstrating that CP in preterm children reflects disruption of thalamocortical connections as well as descending corticospinal pathways. PMID:19416315

  5. School-age outcomes of children born at the limit of viability : a Swedish national prospective follow-up study at 10 to 12 years

    OpenAIRE

    Farooqi, Aijaz

    2007-01-01

    Background/Aim: During the past two decades, major advances in maternal-fetal medicine, neonatology, and the development of regionalized perinatal care have resulted in dramatic increases in survival rates, by more than 60%, of extremely immature (EI) infants born at less than 26 completed weeks of gestation, creating a new infant population. Studies of school-age outcomes in children with an extremely low birth weight of < 1000 g, born in the1980s, indicated that these children had a subs...

  6. Speech outcome in children born with cleft lip and palate treated with one-stage palate repair : aspects of function and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and aims: This project focused on speech outcomes at 5 and 10 years of age after two different surgical protocols and on peer perceptions of speech in children born with cleft palate. The aim was to gain knowledge about speech outcome in children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) or cleft palate only (CPO), treated with one-stage palatoplasty at approximately 12 months of age, according to two different surgical protocols: minimal incision technique (MIT) and minim...

  7. Responses of small mammals to habitat fragmentation: epidemiological considerations for rodent-borne hantaviruses in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, André V; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses are a group of zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever in humans. The transmission of hantaviruses among rodent hosts may be higher with the increase of reservoir host abundance in a given area (density-dependent transmission) and with the decrease of small mammal diversity (dilution effect phenomenon). These population and community parameters may be modified by habitat fragmentation; however, studies that focus on fragmentation and its effect on hantavirus infection risk are scarce. To further understanding of this issue, we assessed some population and community responses of rodents that may increase the risk for hantavirus transmission among wildlife hosts in the Americas. We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies to assess the responses of small mammals to fragmentation of native habitats, relative to patch size. Our analyses included five countries and 14 case studies for abundance of reservoir hosts (8 species) and 15 case studies for species richness. We found that a reduction of patch area due to habitat fragmentation is associated with increased reservoir host abundances and decreased small mammal richness, which is mainly due to the loss of non-host small mammals. According to these results, habitat fragmentation in the Americas should be considered as an epidemiological risk factor for hantavirus transmission to humans. These findings are important to assess potential risk of infection when fragmentation of native habitats occurs.

  8. Region-specific slowing of alpha oscillations associated with visual-perceptual abilities in children born very preterm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam McLeod Doesburg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Children born very preterm (≤32 weeks GA without major intellectual or neurological impairments often express selective deficits in visual-perceptual abilities. The alterations in neurophysiological development underlying these problems, however, remain poorly understood. Recent research has indicated that spontaneous alpha oscillations are slowed in children born very preterm, and that atypical alpha-mediated functional network connectivity may underlie selective developmental difficulties in visual-perceptual ability in this group. The present study provides the first source-resolved analysis of slowing of spontaneous alpha oscillations in very preterm children, indicating alterations in a distributed set of brain regions concentrated in areas of posterior parietal and inferior temporal regions associated with visual-perception, as well as prefrontal cortical regions and thalamus. We also uniquely demonstrate that slowing of alpha oscillations is associated with selective difficulties in visual-perceptual ability in very preterm children. These results indicate that region-specific slowing of alpha oscillations contribute to selective developmental difficulties prevalent in this population.

  9. Helicopter-borne measurements of sea ice thickness, using a small and lightweight, digital EM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Christian; Lobach, John; Hendricks, Stefan; Rabenstein, Lasse; Pfaffling, Andreas

    2009-03-01

    Sea ice is an important climate variable and is also an obstacle for marine operations in polar regions. We have developed a small and lightweight, digitally operated frequency-domain electromagnetic-induction (EM) system, a so-called EM bird, dedicated for measurements of sea ice thickness. It is 3.5 m long and weighs only 105 kg, and can therefore easily be shipped to remote places and operated from icebreakers and small helicopters. Here, we describe the technical design of the bird operating at two frequencies of f1 = 3.68 kHz and f2 = 112 kHz, and study its technical performance. On average, noise amounts to ± 8.5 ppm and ± 17.5 ppm for f1 and f2, respectively. Electrical drift amounts to 200 ppm/h and 2000 ppm/h for f1 and f2, during the first 0.5 h of operation. It is reduced by 75% after 2 h. Calibration of the Inphase and Quadrature ppm signals varies by 2 to 3%. A sensitivity study shows that all these signal variations do affect the accuracy of the ice thickness retrieval, but that it remains better than ± 0.1 m over level ice in most cases. This accuracy is also confirmed by means of comparisons of the helicopter EM data with other thickness measurements. The paper also presents the ice thickness retrieval from single-component Inphase data of f1.

  10. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish

    KAUST Repository

    Garrido, S.

    2015-11-24

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish.

  11. Children born after unplanned pregnancies and cognitive development at 3 years: social differentials in the United Kingdom Millennium Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Rochebrochard, Elise; Joshi, Heather

    2013-09-15

    Children born after an unplanned pregnancy have poorer developmental scores. This could arise from less favorable parenting but also could reflect confounding from the socioeconomic circumstances. In a large representative sample in the United Kingdom, the Millennium Cohort Study (2001-2005), cognitive delay at 3 years was explored with the Bracken Assessment. Its association with unplanned pregnancy was studied in logistic models controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the family, the child's characteristics, and parenting behavior. Stratification by the mother's educational level (grouped into 3 categories) was explored. Of 12,182 children included in the analysis, 41% were born after a pregnancy reported by the mother to have been a "surprise." Such unplanned pregnancies were associated in univariate analysis with more cognitive delay. Among mothers with a low or middle level of education, this association vanished when socioeconomic circumstances were controlled. Among mothers with a high level of education, the risk of cognitive delay remained significantly and unexplainedly raised after unplanned pregnancies, despite controlling for socioeconomic characteristics and parental behavior. In conclusion, for socially disadvantaged children, having resulted from an unplanned pregnancy does not seem to increase their already disproportionate risk of cognitive delay. Births after unplanned conceptions are mainly a symptom rather than a source of disadvantage.

  12. Small aortic valve annulus in children with fixed subaortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilenius, O G; Campbell, D; Bharati, S; Lev, M; Arcilla, R A

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-one hearts with fixed subaortic stenosis (FSAS) were examined pathologically. Thirty children with no hemodynamically significant heart disease, 31 children with valvar aortic stenosis, and 25 children with FSAS were studied by echo- and angiocardiography. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) Patients with FSAS often have abnormal aortic valve leaflets as well as small aortic valve annulus. (2) A small aortic annulus/descending aorta ratio is probably present at birth, and may decrease with increasing age. (3) In some patients with FSAS the aortic valve annulus is too small for simple resection of the fibroelastic tissue. A Konno operation is needed for these patients. (4) M-mode echocardiography has not been useful in identifying abnormally small aortic valve annulus in FSAS patients.

  13. Specific memory impairment following neonatal encephalopathy in term-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handel, M. van; Sonneville, L. de; Vries, L.S. de; Jongmans, M.C.J.; Swaab, H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines short-term memory, verbal working memory, episodic long-term memory, and intelligence in 32 children with mild neonatal encephalopathy (NE), 39 children with moderate NE, 10 children with NE who developed cerebral palsy (CP), and 53 comparison children, at the age of 9 to 10 year

  14. Auditory disorders and acquisition of the ability to localize sound in children born to HIV-positive mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gentile Matas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate children born to HIV-infected mothers and to determine whether such children present auditory disorders or poor acquisition of the ability to localize sound. The population studied included 143 children (82 males and 61 females, ranging in age from one month to 30 months. The children were divided into three groups according to the classification system devised in 1994 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: infected; seroreverted; and exposed. The children were then submitted to audiological evaluation, including behavioral audiometry, visual reinforcement audiometry and measurement of acoustic immittance. Statistical analysis showed that the incidence of auditory disorders was significantly higher in the infected group. In the seroreverted and exposed groups, there was a marked absence of auditory disorders. In the infected group as a whole, the findings were suggestive of central auditory disorders. Evolution of the ability to localize sound was found to be poorer among the children in the infected group than among those in the seroreverted and exposed groups.

  15. Dose-related carcinogenic effects of water-borne benzo(a)pyrene on livers of two small fish species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, W.E.; Walker, W.W.; Overstreet, R.M.; Lytle, T.F.; Lytle, J.S.

    1988-12-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) administered by water-borne exposures caused dose-related carcinogenic effects in livers of two small fish species, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Medaka and guppies each were given two 6-h exposures. The first exposure was conducted on 6- to 10-day-old specimens. The second exposure was given 7 days later. The tests incorporated five treatment groups: (1) control, (2) carrier (dimethylformamide) control, (3) low BaP dose (not detectable--4 ppb), (4) intermediate BaP dose (about 8-47 ppb BaP), and (5) high BaP dose (200-270 ppb). Following the high-dose exposure, hepatocellular lesions classified as foci of cellular alteration (altered foci), adenomas, and hepatocellular carcinomas occurred in both species. In medaka, the lesions appeared to develop sequentially with the appearance of altered foci followed by adenomas and then hepatocellular carcinomas. Most lesions in guppies, however, were classified as altered foci although a few adenomas occurred in the early (24-week) sample and hepatocellular carcinomas occurred in the late (52-week) sample. When total lesions were combined, medaka had an 11% incidence at 24 weeks after the initial exposure and 36% incidence at 36 weeks. In guppies, 8% had liver lesions at 24 weeks, 19% at 36 weeks, and 20% at 52 weeks. A single extrahepatic neoplasm, a capillary hemangioma in a gill filament, occurred in a medaka from the 36-week high-dose sample. The results suggest that the medaka and guppy are capable of metabolizing water-borne BaP to carcinogenic metabolites which initiate hepatic tumor development.

  16. Long-Term Health Outcomes in Children Born to Mothers with Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chun S.; Nohr, Ellen A; Bech, Bodil H; Vestergaard, Mogens; Olsen, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Background To examine whether prenatal exposure to parental type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, or gestational diabetes is associated with an increased risk of malignant neoplasm or diseases of the circulatory system in the offspring. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a population-based cohort study of 1,781,576 singletons born in Denmark from 1977 to 2008. Children were followed for up to 30 years from the day of birth until the onset of the outcomes under study, death, emigration, or De...

  17. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischi-Gomez, Elda; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Vasung, Lana; Griffa, Alessandra; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Monnier, Maryline; Lazeyras, François; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Hüppi, Petra S

    2016-01-01

    Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP) and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP) does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration in network

  18. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Fischi-Gomez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration

  19. A longitudinal group study of speech development in Danish children born with and without cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutters, B; Bau, A; Brøndsted, K

    2001-01-01

    The present study focuses on contoid vocalization by Danish 1-year-old unrepaired toddlers born with cleft lip and palate, and how they differ from their non-cleft peers. Furthermore, we focus on how the same children master Danish consonants at 3 years of age compared with their non-cleft peers in terms of their ability to produce consonants in accordance with adult target. Also, with the 3 year olds, we look at cleft speech characteristics as well as developmental speech characteristics found in both groups of children. Based on phonetic transcription, it was found that Danish unoperated cleft palate children at 1 year of age produced few types of contoids and preferably contoids that did not require closure of the velopharyngeal port in their prespeech. In addition, the data suggest that consonants produced by cleft children who are treated with one-stage surgery after speech onset, at 3 years of age differ from speech produced by non-cleft children, not only as regards cleft speech characteristics, but also as regards developmental speech characteristics.

  20. The Development of Cognitive, Language, and Cultural Skills from Age 3 to 6: A Comparison between Children of Turkish Origin and Children of Native-Born German Parents and the Role of Immigrant Parents' Acculturation to the Receiving Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Birgit; Klein, Oliver; Biedinger, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the longitudinal development of differences in academic skills between children of Turkish origin and children of native-born German parents from age 3 to 6 in Germany with a focus on the role of immigrant parents' acculturation to the receiving society. Growth curve models show that Turkish-origin children start with lower…

  1. Season of birth in Danish children with language disorder born in the 1958-1976 period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Karen-Marie; Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Nielsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    in the same period. For some part of the period (1964-1969), an excess of boys born in November was found. Particular attention was given to the inconsistent findings also found in language-related disorders like infantile autism and dyslexia and the choice of statistical method to determine seasonality....

  2. Lung function in 6 years old children born very preterm and fed different diets post discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne

    Background: Research has shown that being born preterm may affect lung capacity later in childhood. It is though unknown if type of early nutrition influences lung capacity and the risk of developing asthma in childhood. Aim: The aim was to investigate if type of early nutrition has an impact on ...

  3. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  4. Functioning of 7-Year-Old Children Born at 32 to 35 Weeks' Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cserjesi, R.; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Butcher, P.R.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Bouma, A.; Geuze, R.H.; Bos, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare neuropsychological functions in moderately preterm (32-35 weeks' gestation) and full-term children at the age of 7 years and identify gender differences. METHODS: Community-based prospective cohort study of 248 moderately preterm children (138 boys) and 130 full-term children (

  5. National and regional estimates of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age in 138 low-income and middle-income countries in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Anne C C; Katz, Joanne; Blencowe, Hannah;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low......-income countries (27% of livebirths), of whom 10·6 million infants were born at term and low birthweight. The prevalence of term-SGA babies ranged from 5·3% of livebirths in east Asia to 41·5% in south Asia, and the prevalence of preterm-SGA infants ranged from 1·2% in north Africa to 3·0% in southeast Asia. Of 18...... million low-birthweight babies, 59% were term-SGA and 41% were preterm-SGA. Two-thirds of small-for-gestational-age infants were born in Asia (17·4 million in south Asia). Preterm-SGA babies totalled 2·8 million births in low-income and middle-income countries. Most small-for-gestational-age infants were...

  6. Hospitalization for heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus among Indian-born persons: a small area analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Kamran

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We set out to describe the risk of hospitalization from heart disease, stroke, and diabetes among persons born in India, all foreign-born persons, and U.S.-born persons residing in New York City. Methods We examined billing records of 1,083,817 persons hospitalized in New York City during the year 2000. The zip code of each patient's residence was linked to corresponding data from the 2000 U.S. Census to obtain covariates not present in the billing records. Using logistic models, we evaluated the risk of hospitalization for heart disease, stroke and diabetes by country of origin. Results After controlling for covariates, Indian-born persons are at similar risk of hospitalization for heart disease (RR = 1.02, 95% confidence interval 1.02, 1.03, stroke (RR = 1.00, 95% confidence interval, 0.99, 1.01, and diabetes mellitus (RR = 0.96 95% confidence interval 0.94, 0.97 as native-born persons. However, Indian-born persons are more likely to be hospitalized for these diseases than other foreign-born persons. For instance, the risk of hospitalization for heart disease among foreign-born persons is 0.70 (95% confidence interval 0.67, 0.72 and the risk of hospitalization for diabetes is 0.39 (95% confidence interval 0.37, 0.42 relative to native-born persons. Conclusions South Asians have considerably lower rates of hospitalization in New York than reported in countries with national health systems. Access may play a role. Clinicians working in immigrant settings should nonetheless maintain a higher vigilance for these conditions among Indian-born persons than among other foreign-born populations.

  7. 儿童蜱传脑炎研究进展%Advances on tick-borne encephalitis in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琦(综述); 陈益平(审校)

    2015-01-01

    蜱传脑炎是儿童中枢神经系统感染性疾病。儿童病情较轻,极少数可能出现永久性损伤,遗留神经系统后遗症。该文介绍蜱传脑炎的流行病学和临床特征,并总结生物学和病毒学方面,以更好地了解病毒的生命周期和传播。在我国蜱传脑炎病毒是通过全沟硬蜱传播的一种黄病毒,可引起急性脑膜脑炎。血清学诊断通常是简单直接的。该病无特效治疗存在,免疫是主要预防措施。%Tick-borne encephalitis ( TBE) is a well-known central nervous system ( CNS) infection in children. The disease in children is generally milder,although severe illness may occur and even lead to perma-nent impairment of the quality of life due to neuropsychological sequelae. We review the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of tick-borne encephalitis,and summarise biological and virological aspects that are impor-tant for understanding the life-cycle and transmission of the virus. Tick-borne encephalitis virus is a flavivirus that is transmitted by ixodes persulcatus. Tick-borne encephalitis causes acute meningoencephalitis. The serologi-cal diagnosis is usually straightforward. No specific treatment for the disease exists,and immunisation is the main preventive measure.

  8. Parents of preterm-born children; sources of stress and worry and experiences with an early intervention programme - a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Kynø, Nina M; Ravn, Ingrid H; Lindemann, Rolf; Smeby, Nina A; Torgersen, Anne M; Gundersen, Tonje

    2014-01-01

    Background Preterm-born children are at increased risk of adverse developmental outcomes, and their parents may experience increased stress levels. The Mother–Infant Transaction Program (MITP) is an early intervention that aims to enhance the parent–infant relationship and child development. The present study investigated differences in parents’ experience of stress and concerns about caring for their preterm-born child according to whether they participated in the programm...

  9. Health outcomes of children born after IVF/ICSI: a review of current expert opinion and literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P; Diedrich, K; Balaban, B; Bonduelle, M; Delemarre-van de Waal, H A; Estella, C; Ezcurra, D; Geraedts, J P M; Howles, C M; Lerner-Geva, L; Serna, J; Wells, D

    2014-02-01

    The Sixth Evian Annual Reproduction (EVAR) Workshop Group Meeting was held to evaluate the impact of IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection on the health of assisted-conception children. Epidemiologists, reproductive endocrinologists, embryologists and geneticists presented data from published literature and ongoing research on the incidence of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities and congenital malformations in assisted-conception versus naturally conceived children to reach a consensus on the reasons for potential differences in outcomes between these two groups. IVF-conceived children have lower birthweights and higher peripheral fat, blood pressure and fasting glucose concentrations than controls. Growth, development and cognitive function in assisted-conception children are similar to controls. The absolute risk of imprinting disorders after assisted reproduction is less than 1%. A direct link between assisted reproduction and health-related outcomes in assisted-conception children could not be established. Women undergoing assisted reproduction are often older, increasing the chances of obtaining abnormal gametes that may cause deviations in outcomes between assisted-conception and naturally conceived children. However, after taking into account these factors, it is not clear to what extent poorer outcomes are due to the assisted reproduction procedures themselves. Large-scale, multicentre, prospective epidemiological studies are needed to investigate this further and to confirm long-term health consequences in assisted-conception children. Assisted reproduction treatment is a general term used to describe methods of achieving pregnancy by artificial means and includes IVF and sperm implantation. The effect of assisted reproduction treatment on the health of children born using these artificial methods is not fully understood. In April 2011, fertility research experts met to give presentations based on research in this area and to look carefully at the evidence

  10. Long-term health outcomes in children born to mothers with diabetes: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun S Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine whether prenatal exposure to parental type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, or gestational diabetes is associated with an increased risk of malignant neoplasm or diseases of the circulatory system in the offspring. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of 1,781,576 singletons born in Denmark from 1977 to 2008. Children were followed for up to 30 years from the day of birth until the onset of the outcomes under study, death, emigration, or December 31, 2009, whichever came first. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for the outcomes under study while adjusting for potential confounders. An increased risk of malignant neoplasm was found in children prenatally exposed to maternal type 2 diabetes (HR = 2.2, 95%CI: 1.5-3.2. An increased risk of diseases of the circulatory system was found in children exposed to maternal type 1 diabetes (HR = 2.2, 95%CI: 1.6-3.0, type 2 diabetes (HR = 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1-1.7, and gestational diabetes (HR = 1.3, 95%CI: 1.1-1.6, but results were attenuated after excluding children with congenital malformations. An increased risk of diseases of the circulatory system was also found in children exposed to paternal type 2 diabetes (HR = 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-2.2 and the elevated risk remained after excluding children with congenital malformations. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that susceptibility to malignant neoplasm is modified partly by fetal programming. Diseases of the circulatory system may be modified by genetic factors, other time-stable family factors, or fetal programming.

  11. Epilepsy and cerebral palsy: characteristics and trends in children born in 1976-1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellier, Elodie; Uldall, Peter; Calado, Eulalia;

    2012-01-01

    Although epilepsy is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP), no data exists on prevalence rates of CP and epilepsy.......Although epilepsy is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP), no data exists on prevalence rates of CP and epilepsy....

  12. Thermal detection thresholds in 5-year-old preterm born children; IQ does matter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, J. de; Valkenburg, A.J.; Tibboel, D.; Dijk, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experiencing pain at newborn age may have consequences on one's somatosensory perception later in life. Children's perception for cold and warm stimuli may be determined with the Thermal Sensory Analyzer (TSA) device by two different methods. AIM: This pilot study in 5-year-old children

  13. "You Are Not Born Being Racist, Are You?" Discussing Racism with Primary Aged-Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Naomi; Walton, Jessica; White, Fiona; Kowal, Emma; Fox, Brandi; Paradies, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic-racial socialisation is broadly described as processes by which both minority and majority children and young people learn about and negotiate racial, ethnic and cultural diversity. This article extends the existing ethnic-racial socialisation literature in three significant ways: (1) it explores ways children make sense of their…

  14. The Social Competence of Children Born Prematurely: Effects of Medical Complications and Parent Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Susan H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Findings suggest that social difficulties that are present as late as three years of age in some low-birthweight children are related to the type and severity of early medical complications. In spite of severe neonatal medical risk, high-risk and low-birthweight children showed many similarities in their social development to low-risk and…

  15. Transient small-bowel intussusception in children on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strouse, Peter J. [Section of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, 1500 E. Medical Center Drive, F3503, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0252 (United States); DiPietro, Michael A.; Saez, Fermin [Section of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2003-05-01

    To determine the frequency and significance of small-bowel intussusception identified in children on CT. All abdomen CT reports between July 1995 and April 2002 were reviewed to identify patients with small-bowel intussusception. Intussusceptions were identified as an intraluminal mass with a characteristic layered appearance and/or continuity with adjacent mesenteric fat. Ileocolic intussusceptions and intussusceptions related to feeding tubes were excluded. Imaging studies and medical records were reviewed. Twenty-five pediatric patients (16 boys, 9 girls; mean age 11.2 years) were identified with small-bowel intussusception on CT. No patient had a persistent intussusception requiring surgery. Fourteen had limited immediate repeat CT images as part of the same examination, ten of which demonstrated resolution of the CT abnormality. Follow-up CT [n=13 (6 within 24 h)], ultrasound (n=3), small-bowel follow-through (n=4) and surgery (n=3) showed no intussusception. In four patients with persistent symptoms, underlying pathology was identified requiring treatment (giardiasis, 2; small-bowel inflammation/strictures, 1; abscess and partial small-bowel obstruction after perforated appendicitis, 1). In 21 other patients, direct correlation of symptoms to CT abnormality was absent or questionable, no treatment was required, and there was no clinical or imaging evidence of persistence or recurrence. Most small-bowel intussusceptions identified in children by CT are transient and of no clinical significance. (orig.)

  16. Developmental performance in small for gestational age children with and without catch-up growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesti Lestari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Infants born small for gestational age (SGA have an increased risk of developmental delay. The influence of catch-up growth on developmental function remains unknown.Objective To compare the development of SGA children with and without catch-up growth.Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in Manado from March to July 2013. Subjects were children aged 2-3 years, that born SGA from March 2010 to June 2011 in Prof. Dr. R.D. Kandou Hospital. Catch-up growth was defined as height-for-age more than -2SD on the 2006 WHO growth chart, and subjects were classified into the with and without catch-up growth groups. Developmental status was assessed using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ 3rd edition, through interviews with parents. We compared the developmental status between the with and without catch-up growth groups used Mann-Whitney test with a significance level of P < 0.05.Results Of the 112 SGA children, 66 (58.9% had catch-up growth and 46 (41.1% did not. The SGA children with catch up growth had significant better development performances of gross motor, fine motor, and problem solving. The mean ASQ centiles of the with and without catch-up groups were 55.15 (SD 7.843 [95%CI 53.52 to 57.08] and 48.80 (SD 11.264 [95%CI 45.46 to 52.15] in gross motor, respectively; 42.5 (SD 13.163 [95%CI 39.26 to 45.74] and 32.93 (SD 14.475 [95%CI 28.64 to 37.23] in fine motor, respectively; 46.74 (SD 13.112 [95%CI 43.52 to 49.97] and 40.98 (SD 11.480 [95%CI 37.57 to 44.39] in problem solving, respectively.Conclusion Small for gestational age children with catch-up growth have significantly better gross motor, fine motor, and problem-solving performance than those without catch-up growth.

  17. HBV carriage in children born from HIV-seropositive mothers in Senegal: The need of birth-dose HBV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, Sokhna Bousso; Diop-Ndiaye, Halimatou; Lo, Gora; Mintsa, Sandrine; Guindo, Ibrahima; Dia, Aminata; Sow-Sall, Amina; Gaye-Diallo, Aissatou; Mboup, Souleymane; Touré-Kane, Coumba

    2016-05-01

    Hepatitis B is a major public health problem in Senegal, a country with high prevalence and a transmission occurring mainly during infancy. Only, one 6-8 weeks vaccination campaign was initiated in 2005 and it was part of the expanded program of immunization. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBsAg in children born from HIV-seropositive mothers by using dried blood specimens. Specimens were collected between July 2007 and November 2012 from children aged 2-48 weeks in Dakar and decentralized sites working on HIV mother-to-child transmission prevention. HBsAg detection was performed using Architect HBsAg Qualitative II kit (Abbott Diagnostics, Ireland) and for all reactive samples confirmation was done using Architect HBsAg Qualitative II Confirmatory kit (Abbott Diagnostics, Ireland). Nine hundred thirty samples were collected throughout the country with 66% out of Dakar, the capital city. The median age was 20 weeks and 88% of children were less than 1 year of age with a sex ratio of 1.27 in favor of boys. HBsAg was detected in 28 cases giving a global prevalence of 3%. According to age, HBsAg prevalences were 5.1% for children less than 6 weeks, 4.1% and 4.6%, respectively, for those aged 12-18 weeks and 18-24 weeks of age. The HIV prevalence was 2.6% with no HIV/HBV co-infection. This study showed a high rate of HBV infection in children under 24 months, highlighting the need to promote birth-dose HBV vaccination as recommended by WHO.

  18. Neuropsychological development in preschool children born with asymmetrical intrauterine growth restriction and impact of postnatal head growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaric, Andrea Simić; Galić, Slavka; Kolundzić, Zdravko; Bosnjak, Vlatka Mejaski

    2013-07-01

    Neuropsychological development and the impact of postnatal head growth were studied in preschool children with asymmetrical intrauterine growth restriction. Examinees born at term with a birth weight below the 10th percentile were matched to the control group according to chronological and gestational age, gender, and maternal education. Fifty children were in each group, with a mean age of 6 years, 4 months. The Touwen neurological examination, the Čuturić developmental test, an imitative hand positions test, and a visual attention test were performed. There were significant differences (Pmotor variables, the developmental quotient, and the imitative hand positions test. Fine motor skills had the most discriminative power. Relative growth of the head in relation to weight gain was positively correlated to neurocognitive outcome. Intrauterine growth-restricted children with a current head circumference ≤10th percentile had poorer outcomes. Conclusively, intrauterine growth restriction has a negative impact on neurocognitive development. Slow postnatal head growth is correlated with a poorer neuropsychological outcome.

  19. Parent behaviors moderate the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behaviors at 18 months corrected age in children born very prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-09-01

    Children born very preterm (≤ 32 weeks gestation) exhibit greater internalizing (anxious/depressed) behaviors compared to term-born peers as early as 2 years corrected age (CA); however, the role of early stress in the etiology of internalizing problems in preterm children remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behavior at 18 months CA in children born very preterm and examined whether parent behavior and stress moderated this relationship. Participants were 145 children (96 very preterm, 49 full term) assessed at 18 months CA. Neonatal data were obtained from medical and nursing chart review. Neonatal pain was defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures. Cognitive ability was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index III, Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5, and participated in a videotaped play session with their child, which was coded using the Emotional Availability Scale IV. Very preterm children displayed greater Internalizing behaviors compared to full-term control children (P=.02). Parent Sensitivity and Nonhostility moderated the relationship between neonatal pain and Internalizing behavior (all Pneonatal medical confounders, gender, and child cognitive ability (all P>.05). Parent Emotional Availability and stress were not associated with Internalizing behaviors in full-term control children. Positive parent interaction and lower stress appears to ameliorate negative effects of neonatal pain on stress-sensitive behaviors in this vulnerable population.

  20. Poverty among Young Children in Black Immigrant, US-Born Black, and Non-Black Immigrant Families: The Role of Familial Contexts. Discussion Paper Series. DP 2010-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J. A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and US-born Blacks, and among Black and non-Black children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than US-born Black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among…

  1. Motor trajectories from birth to 5 years of children born at less than 30 weeks’ gestation: early predictors and functional implications. Protocol for a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia J Spittle

    2016-10-01

    Discussion/significance: Understanding the developmental precursors of motor impairment in children born before 30 weeks is essential for limiting disruption to skill development, and potential secondary impacts on physical activity, participation, academic achievement, self-esteem and associated outcomes (such as obesity, poor physical fitness and social isolation. An improved understanding of motor skill development will enable targeting of interventions and streamlining of services to children at highest risk of motor impairments.

  2. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Anna; Nacinovich, Renata; Bertuletti, Nadia; Montrasi, Valentina; Marchetti, Sara; Neri, Francesca; Bomba, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children® – fourth edition IV (WISC IV) intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. Patients and methods A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy) with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Results Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03), in General Ability Index (P=0.03), in Working Memory Index (P=0.009) and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment. PMID:28115851

  3. Validation of self-reported folic acid use in a multiethnic population: results of the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Sikkens; M. van Eijsden; G.J. Bonsel; M.C. Cornel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess folic acid supplementation rates and validate the self-reporting of folic acid supplement use among pregnant women in a multiethnic cohort. Design: Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study. Setting: Self-reported folic acid supplement use in the Amsterdam Born Children a

  4. Size and Composition of the Lexicon in Prematurely Born Very-Low-Birth-Weight and Full-Term Finnish Children at Two Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Suvi; Klippi, Anu; Launonen, Kaisa; Munck, Petriina; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the aspects of the lexicon in 66 prematurely born very-low-birth-weight and 87 full-term Finnish children at 2;0, studied using the Finnish version of the "MacArthur Communicative Developmental Inventory". The groups did not differ in vocabulary size. Furthermore, the female advantage in vocabulary size was not seen…

  5. Multigenerational: Households and the School Readiness of Children Born to Unmarried Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Jennifer March; Raley, R Kelly

    2013-04-01

    Following the ongoing increase in nonmarital fertility, policy makers have looked for ways to limit the disadvantages faced by children of unmarried mothers. Recent initiatives included marriage promotion and welfare-to-work programs. Yet policy might also consider the promotion of three generational households. We know little about whether multigenerational households benefit children of unwed mothers, although they are mandated for unmarried teen mothers applying for welfare benefits. Multigenerational households are also becoming increasingly common. Thus, using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 217), this study examines whether grandparent-headed coresidential households benefit preschool-aged children's school readiness, employing propensity score techniques to account for selection into these households. Findings reveal living with a grandparent is not associated with child outcomes for families that select into such arrangements but is positively associated with reading scores and behavior problems for families with a low propensity to coreside. The implications of these findings for policy are discussed.

  6. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anna Riva, Renata Nacinovich, Nadia Bertuletti, Valentina Montrasi, Sara Marchetti, Francesca Neri, Monica Bomba Child and Adolescent Mental Health Department, University of Milan Bicocca, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children® – fourth edition IV (WISC IV intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. Patients and methods: A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Results: Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03, in General Ability Index (P=0.03, in Working Memory Index (P=0.009 and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment. Keywords: children, bilingualism, WISC IV, SLD

  7. Multigenerational Households and the School Readiness of Children Born to Unmarried Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Jennifer March; Raley, R. Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Following the ongoing increase in nonmarital fertility, policy makers have looked for ways to limit the disadvantages faced by children of unmarried mothers. Recent initiatives included marriage promotion and welfare-to-work programs. Yet policy might also consider the promotion of three generational households. We know little about whether…

  8. Co-occurrence of developmental and behavioural problems in moderate to late preterm-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potijk, Marieke R; de Winter, Andrea F; Bos, Arend F; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the occurrence of emotional and behavioural problems (EBP) in moderate to late preterm (MLP) and full-term children with developmental delay. Design Participants were recruited from 13 randomly selected preventive child healthcare (PCH) centres in the Netherlands. We included

  9. ADHD and Infant Disorganized Attachment: A Prospective Study of Children Next-Born after Stillbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carmen; Turton, Penelope; Hughes, Patricia; White, Sarah; Gillberg, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether infant disorganized attachment predicts ADHD at school age. Method: A cohort of 53 children who had been identified as having significant levels of disorganized attachment in infancy is compared to a control group. Symptoms and signs of ADHD at age 7 are evaluated together with a range of relevant maternal variables.…

  10. Linguistic Production Abilities of 3-Year-Old Children Born Premature with Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Holly K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Of 30 children with low birth weight, only 4 demonstrated clinically significant language problems at age 3. Language problems were characterized by circumscribed expressive syntax difficulties but were not related systematically to birth weight, gestational age, length of neonatal hospitalization, severity of respiratory illness, socioeconomic…

  11. Functional impairments at school age of preterm born children with late-onset sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Meike; Tanis, Jozien C.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.; Roze, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Background: Late-onset sepsis is a relatively common complication particularly of preterm birth that affects approximately a quarter of very low birth weight infants. Aim: We aimed to determine the motor, cognitive, and behavioural outcome at school age of preterm children with late-onset sepsis com

  12. Small-scale shifting mosaics of two dominant grassland species : the possible role of soil-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, H.; Hoorens, B.; Goede, R.G.M. de; Putten, W.H. van der; Gleichman, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed the dynamics of dominant plant species in a grazed grassland over 17 years, and investigated whether local shifts in these dominant species, leading to vegetation mosaics, could be attributed to interactions between plants and soil-borne pathogens. We found that Festuca rubra and Carex a

  13. Small-scale shifting mosaics of two dominant grassland species: the possible role of soil-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, H.; Hoorens, B.; De Goede, R.G.M.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Gleichman, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed the dynamics of dominant plant species in a grazed grassland over 17 years, and investigated whether local shifts in these dominant species, leading to vegetation mosaics, could be attributed to interactions between plants and soil-borne pathogens. We found that Festuca rubra and Carer a

  14. Effect of socioeconomic status on psychosocial problems in 5- to 6-year-old preterm- and term-born children: the ABCD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Sanne A A; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Vrijkotte, Tanja G

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed at analysing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and psychosocial problems in preterm- and term-born children. Scores of mothers and teachers on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) regarding 217 preterm-born children (preterm children (6.1 ± 4.7) than for term children (5.2 ± 4.1). After covariate adjustment, this difference was 0.5 (95 % CI 0.0-1.0). For preterm children 16.1 % of the mothers reported psychosocial problems compared with 10.1 % for term children. Lower maternal education and lower income adequacy were significantly related to higher SDQ scores of mothers and teachers. Differences in mothers' SDQ score between preterm and term children were larger in the high-education (Δ0.9, 95 % CI 0.2-1.5) and high-income group (Δ0.9, 95 % CI 0.3-1.6). No significant differences were found between preterm and term children in the SDQ scores reported by teachers. Low level of maternal education and inadequate income showed a much stronger association with psychosocial problems than preterm birth. No combined effect of low SES and preterm birth was found. This study corroborates the evidence for the strength of the disadvantageous effects of low SES on early psychosocial development.

  15. Ultrasound in Detection of Developmental Hip Dysplasia in Premature Born Children

    OpenAIRE

    Misanovic, Verica; Jonuzi, Fedzat; Maksic-Kovacevic, Hajra; Rahmanovic, Selma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Developmental hip dysplasia represents the most common deformation of locomotor system in children. Developmental modulation of the hip is expressed during first year of life which is important for early diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, in the practice, it is very important to set a diagnosis early with application of simple and convenient methods (ultrasound) in order to achieve fast and efficient therapeutical effect and avoid permanent disability. Aim: The aim of this pape...

  16. Increased risk for mental illness, injuries, and violence in children born to mothers with intellectual disability: A register study in Sweden during 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickström, Maria; Höglund, Berit; Larsson, Margareta; Lundgren, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that mothers with intellectual disability (ID) have a higher prevalence of mental health illness, lower socio-economic status, and a higher risk of alcohol and drug use compared to mothers without ID. The children of mothers with ID are over-represented in child protection and legal proceedings but are generally a less studied group than the mothers. The aim of this study was to investigate if children born to mothers with ID had an increased risk of being diagnosed with mental illness, injuries, and violence compared with children of mothers without ID. The study comprised a population-based cohort of children born in Sweden between 1999 and 2005. Data were collected from the Medical Birth Register and linked with two other national registers; ICD-10 codes were used for medical diagnoses, including ID. The children were followed from birth to seven years of age. In total, 478,577 children were included, of whom 2749 were born to mothers with ID. Children of mothers with ID were at a greater risk of having mental health problems (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=2.02; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.74-2.35) and ID (OR=4.14; CI=2.95-5.82) in early childhood. They had an increased risk for injuries due to falls (OR=1.15; Cl 1.04-1.27). The largest risk related to trauma was violence and child abuse (OR=3.11; CI=1.89-5.12). In conclusion, children of mothers with ID had an increased risk for injuries, violence, and child abuse. We therefore suggest that parents with ID should receive evidence based support so that their children receive the best care and protection.

  17. Assessing Child Maltreatment in Children Born to Mothers Who Used Methamphetamine during Pregnancy at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcharoros, Nontima; Chulakadabba, Sudsabuy; Na Manorom, Nattawadee; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon

    2014-01-01

    Studies on maltreatment of children born to methamphetamine abusing mothers are lacking. This cross-sectional study examined child maltreatment among children born at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, to mothers who used methamphetamines during pregnancy. During the study period between July 2011 and January 2012, 34 caretakers of these children were interviewed using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Parent Version (ICAST-P) to assess their disciplinary actions. The associations between child's and caretaker's characteristics and child maltreatment behaviors were analyzed. More than 90% of caretakers were female with age ranging from 18 to 35 years and about 60% were biological mothers. The children's age ranged from 1 to 9 years. Disciplinary acts and child rearing practices that were considered to be child maltreatment behaviors were reported as follows: psychological discipline 82.4%, physical discipline 79.4%, and neglect 29.4%. No associations between the child's or the caretaker's characteristics and child maltreatment behaviors were found. In conclusion, child maltreatment behaviors were frequent in caretakers of children born to mothers who used methamphetamine during pregnancy. Supervision on child rearing and careful monitoring are needed for this population.

  18. Mother-Child Interaction and Early Language Skills in Children Born to Mothers with Substance Abuse and Psychiatric Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Haabrekke, Kristin; Siqveland, Torill; Smith, Lars; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Walhovd, Kristine B; Moe, Vibeke

    2015-10-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study with data collected at four time points investigated how maternal psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse and maternal intrusiveness in interaction were related to early child language skills. Three groups of mothers were recruited during pregnancy: One from residential treatment institutions for substance abuse (n = 18), one from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n = 22) and one from well-baby clinics (n = 30). Maternal substance abuse and anti-social and borderline personality traits were assessed during pregnancy, postpartum depression at 3 months, maternal intrusiveness in interaction at 12 months, and child language skills at 2 years. Results showed that the mothers in the substance abuse group had the lowest level of education, they were younger and they were more likely to be single mothers than the mothers in the two other groups. There was a significant difference in expressive language between children born to mothers with substance abuse problems and those born to comparison mothers, however not when controlling for maternal age, education and single parenthood. No group differences in receptive language skills were detected. Results further showed that maternal intrusiveness observed in mother-child interaction at 12 months was significantly related to child expressive language at 2 years, also when controlling for socio-demographic risk factors. This suggests that in addition to addressing substance abuse and psychiatric problems, there is a need for applying treatment models promoting sensitive caregiving, in order to enhance child expressive language skills.

  19. Anthropometric Assessment in Children with Small Size at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdelkis Figueredo Rodríguez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: development of anthropometric techniques and its close relation to diagnostic researches on various non-communicable chronic diseases has allowed predicting, to a certain extent, the progress of those infants with growth retardation due to several factors. Objective: to assess the effect of small size at birth on the evolution of the classic anthropometric variables during the first year of life. Methods: a longitudinal and prospective cohort study was conducted with live-born infants in the Eusebio Hernández Maternity Hospital of the municipality of Playa in January 2011. Variables analyzed included: weight, height, body circumferences and skinfolds. Physical examination was used to measure each individual. Measurements at birth were gathered from medical records. Subsequently, they were followed up in the nutrition consultation of the Juan M. Márquez Pediatric Hospital. Results: the two groups presented similar growth patterns over time. Largest final growth was observed in the group of normal size infants: skinfolds showed greater variation. Only the mid-upper arm circumference showed significantly different patterns of change between the groups. Conclusions: the study group showed no significant influence of small size at birth on the evolution of the classic anthropometric variables during the first year of life.

  20. Metabolic response to 36 hours of fasting in young men born small vs appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sine W; Brøns, Charlotte; Bluck, Les

    2015-01-01

    fasting differed between 21 young adults born SGA and 18 matched controls born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). METHODS: A frequently sampled IVGTT and indirect calorimetry measurements were performed after a 36 h fast. Endogenous glucose production, insulin sensitivity (SI), first-phase insulin...... secretion and glucose effectiveness were estimated by stable isotope tracer techniques and minimal modelling. Muscle and fat biopsies were obtained after 35 h of fasting. RESULTS: During fasting, SGA individuals experienced a more pronounced decrease in serum insulin and lower plasma triacylglycerol levels...... compared with AGA individuals. In addition, energy expenditure decreased in SGA but increased in AGA individuals. After fasting, SGA individuals displayed lower fat oxidation than AGA individuals. SG was reduced in SGA compared with AGA individuals, whereas hepatic or whole body insulin action (SI) did...

  1. Effect of small chain N acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing signals on biofilms of food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Jamuna Bai; V, Ravishankar Rai

    2016-09-01

    Quorum sensing or cell to cell communication which includes inter- and intra-cellular communication has been implicated in the production of virulence factor and formation of biofilm in food-borne pathogens. In the present study, the effect of quorum sensing signals on the biofilms of food-borne pathogens has been elucidated. N-butryl homoserine lactone and N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone belonging to acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) family of signaling molecules were investigated for their effect on the biofilm formation (attachment and exopolymeric substance production) in the food-borne pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Vibrio parahemolyticus. The signaling molecules at a concentration of 1 µM were capable of increasing biofilm formation in all the tested pathogens. There was an increase in the attachment of the bacterial cells and biomass as observed by microtiter plate assay and exopolymeric substances production in the biofilms in presence of the AHLs. Further, it needs to be elucidated if the effect of AHLS on the biofilms of E. coli and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium is SdiA dependent.

  2. Differences in uptake of immunisations and health examinations among refugee children compared to Danish-born children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Sanne Pagh; Hjern, Anders; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    2016-01-01

    diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio (HR = 0.50; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.48–0.51). Participation in child health examinations was also lower among refugee children with the lowest at the last child health examination at age 5 (HR = 0.48; 95 % CI 0.47–0.50). Adjusting the analysis for parental...

  3. Does Embryo Culture Medium Influence the Health and Development of Children Born after In Vitro Fertilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillon, Céline; Léandri, Roger; Desch, Laurent; Ernst, Alexandra; Bruno, Céline; Cerf, Charline; Chiron, Alexandra; Souchay, Céline; Burguet, Antoine; Jimenez, Clément; Sagot, Paul; Fauque, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In animal studies, extensive data revealed the influence of culture medium on embryonic development, foetal growth and the behaviour of offspring. However, this impact has never been investigated in humans. For the first time, we investigated in depth the effects of embryo culture media on health, growth and development of infants conceived by In Vitro Fertilization until the age of 5 years old. This single-centre cohort study was based on an earlier randomized study. During six months, in vitro fertilization attempts (No. 371) were randomized according to two media (Single Step Medium--SSM group) or Global medium (Global group). This randomized study was stopped prematurely as significantly lower pregnancy and implantation rates were observed in the SSM group. Singletons (No. 73) conceived in the randomized study were included (42 for Global and 31 for SSM). The medical data for gestational, neonatal and early childhood periods were extracted from medical records and parental interviews (256 variables recorded). The developmental profiles of the children in eight domains (social, self-help, gross motor, fine motor, expressive language, language comprehension, letter knowledge and number knowledge--270 items) were compared in relation to the culture medium. The delivery rate was significantly lower in the SSM group than in the Global group (pculture medium had no significant effect on birthweight, risk of malformation (minor and major), growth and the frequency of medical concerns. However, the children of the Global group were less likely than those of the SSM group to show developmental problems (p = 0.002), irrespective of the different domains. In conclusion, our findings showed that the embryo culture medium may have an impact on further development.

  4. Does Embryo Culture Medium Influence the Health and Development of Children Born after In Vitro Fertilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Bouillon

    Full Text Available In animal studies, extensive data revealed the influence of culture medium on embryonic development, foetal growth and the behaviour of offspring. However, this impact has never been investigated in humans. For the first time, we investigated in depth the effects of embryo culture media on health, growth and development of infants conceived by In Vitro Fertilization until the age of 5 years old. This single-centre cohort study was based on an earlier randomized study. During six months, in vitro fertilization attempts (No. 371 were randomized according to two media (Single Step Medium--SSM group or Global medium (Global group. This randomized study was stopped prematurely as significantly lower pregnancy and implantation rates were observed in the SSM group. Singletons (No. 73 conceived in the randomized study were included (42 for Global and 31 for SSM. The medical data for gestational, neonatal and early childhood periods were extracted from medical records and parental interviews (256 variables recorded. The developmental profiles of the children in eight domains (social, self-help, gross motor, fine motor, expressive language, language comprehension, letter knowledge and number knowledge--270 items were compared in relation to the culture medium. The delivery rate was significantly lower in the SSM group than in the Global group (p<0.05. The culture medium had no significant effect on birthweight, risk of malformation (minor and major, growth and the frequency of medical concerns. However, the children of the Global group were less likely than those of the SSM group to show developmental problems (p = 0.002, irrespective of the different domains. In conclusion, our findings showed that the embryo culture medium may have an impact on further development.

  5. Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth and Environmental Enteropathy in Bangladeshi Children

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    Jeffrey R. Donowitz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is common among developing world children. SIBO’s pathogenesis and effect in the developing world are unclear. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of SIBO in Bangladeshi children and its association with malnutrition. Secondary objectives included determination of SIBO’s association with sanitation, diarrheal disease, and environmental enteropathy. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 90 Bangladeshi 2-year-olds monitored since birth from an impoverished neighborhood. SIBO was diagnosed via glucose hydrogen breath testing, with a cutoff of a 12-ppm increase over baseline used for SIBO positivity. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to investigate SIBO predictors. Differences in concomitant inflammation and permeability between SIBO-positive and -negative children were compared with multiple comparison adjustment. A total of 16.7% (15/90 of the children had SIBO. The strongest predictors of SIBO were decreased length-for-age Z score since birth (odds ratio [OR], 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03 to 0.60 and an open sewer outside the home (OR, 4.78; 95% CI, 1.06 to 21.62. Recent or frequent diarrheal disease did not predict SIBO. The markers of intestinal inflammation fecal Reg 1β (116.8 versus 65.6 µg/ml; P = 0.02 and fecal calprotectin (1,834.6 versus 766.7 µg/g; P = 0.004 were elevated in SIBO-positive children. Measures of intestinal permeability and systemic inflammation did not differ between the groups. These findings suggest linear growth faltering and poor sanitation are associated with SIBO independently of recent or frequent diarrheal disease. SIBO is associated with intestinal inflammation but not increased permeability or systemic inflammation.

  6. Immunization coverage and its determinants among children born in 2008-2009 by questionnaire survey in Zhejiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Chen, Enfu; Li, Qian; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed to assess the determinants of immunization coverage in children born in 2008-2009, living in Zhejiang Province. The World Health Organization's cluster sampling technique was applied. Immunization coverage of 5 vaccines was assessed: BCG vaccine, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine, poliomyelitis vaccine, hepatitis B vaccine, and measles-containing vaccine. Determinants for age-appropriate immunization coverage rates were explored using logistic regression models. Immunization coverage of 5 vaccines were all greater than 90%, but the age-appropriate immunization coverage rates for 3 months and for first dose of measles-containing vaccine was 41.3% and 64.5%, respectively. Siblings in household, mother's education level, household registration, socioeconomic level of resident areas, satisfaction with clinical immunization service, and convenient access to local immunization clinic were associated with age-appropriate coverage rates. Age-appropriate immunization coverage rates should be given more attention and should be considered as a benchmark to strive for in the future intervention.

  7. Enamel defect of deciduous teeth in small gestational age children

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    Willyanti S Syarif

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enamel defect could be caused by genetic and environmental factors in prenatal period. Meanwhile, prenatal malnutrition could also cause small gestational age (SGA. Small Gestational Age is the term used for a neonatal baby with birthweight below the -2SD normal value or 10th percentile on the intrauterine Lubchenco curve. This condition is due to intra-uterine growth restriction, and eventually ends up with several developmental defects of organs, including teeth. In fact, deciduous tooth development has a critical phase within this development period. Purpose: The aim of this study is not only to find out the incidence of enamel defect in SGA children, but also to know the percentage of SGA risk factor to develop enamel defect. Method: This was a epidemiology research with consecutive admission technique. It consisted of 153 SGA children aged 9–48 months. Next, the Ponderal index was used to assign SGA types, symmetrical or asymmetrical one-in this study 59 and 94 respectively. On the other hand, three hundred and ninety Appropriate for Gestational Age (AGA children aged 4–48 months were also included in the study as a control group. Enamel defect then was determined by intraoral examination, classified into hypoplasia and hypocalcifications. Chi-square test was finally used to determine the relative risk ratio between the SGA and the control AGA children. Result: The result of this research showed that incidence of enamel defect in SGA children was 86.92%, meanwhile, that in AGA children was 23.08%, 66.00% of which were commonly suffered from hypocalcification. With p<0.05 it is also known that SGA children has the risk of enamel defect with hypocalcification, about 79% higher than AGA children. Conclusion: It could be concluded that 79% of SGA children had the risk of deciduous tooth enamel defect with hypocalcification as the most.Latar belakang: Defek email dapat terjadi karena faktor genetik dan lingkungan sistemik yang

  8. Vector-borne diseases of small companion animals in Namibia: Literature review, knowledge gaps and opportunity for a One Health approach

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    Bruce H. Noden

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Namibia has a rich history in veterinary health but little is known about the vector-borne diseases that affect companion dogs and cats. The aim of this review is to summarise the existing published and available unpublished literature, put it into a wider geographical context, and explore some significant knowledge gaps. To date, only two filarial pathogens (Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides and three tick-borne pathogens (Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis and Ehrlichia canis have been reported. Most studies have focused solely on dogs and cats in the urban Windhoek and surrounding areas, with almost nothing reported in rural farming areas, in either the populous northern regions or the low-income urban areas where animal owners have limited access to veterinary services. With the development of several biomedical training programmes in the country, there is now an excellent opportunity to address zoonotic vector-borne diseases through a One Health approach so as to assess the risks to small companion animals as well as diseases of public health importance.

  9. Cats are not small dogs: is there an immunological explanation for why cats are less affected by arthropod-borne disease than dogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michael J

    2016-09-20

    It is widely recognized that cats appear to be less frequently affected by arthropod-borne infectious diseases than dogs and share fewer zoonotic pathogens with man. This impression is supported by the relative lack of scientific publications related to feline vector-borne infections. This review explores the possible reasons for the difference between the two most common small companion animal species, including the hypothesis that cats might have a genetically-determined immunological resistance to arthropod vectors or the microparasites they transmit. A number of simple possibilities might account for the lower prevalence of these diseases in cats, including factors related to the lifestyle and behaviour of the cat, lesser spend on preventative healthcare for cats and reduced opportunities for research funding for these animals. The dog and cat have substantially similar immune system components, but differences in immune function might in part account for the markedly distinct prevalence and clinicopathological appearance of autoimmune, allergic, idiopathic inflammatory, immunodeficiency, neoplastic and infectious diseases in the two species. Cats have greater genetic diversity than dogs with much lower linkage disequilibrium in feline compared with canine breed groups. Immune function is intrinsically related to the nature of the intestinal microbiome and subtle differences between the canine and feline microbial populations might also impact on immune function and disease resistance. The reasons for the apparent lesser susceptibility of cats to arthropod-borne infectious diseases are likely to be complex, but warrant further investigation.

  10. Neonatal pain-related stress, functional cortical activity and visual-perceptual abilities in school-age children born at extremely low gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doesburg, Sam M; Chau, Cecil M; Cheung, Teresa P L; Moiseev, Alexander; Ribary, Urs; Herdman, Anthony T; Miller, Steven P; Cepeda, Ivan L; Synnes, Anne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-10-01

    Children born very prematurely (neonatal experience and neurodevelopment, remain poorly understood. Repeated procedural pain-related stress during neonatal intensive care has been proposed to contribute to altered neurocognitive development in these children. Due to critical periods in the development of thalamocortical systems, the immature brain of infants born at extremely low gestational age (ELGA; neonatal pain. In a cohort of school-age children followed since birth we assessed relations between functional brain activity measured using magnetoencephalogragy (MEG), visual-perceptual abilities and cumulative neonatal pain. We demonstrated alterations in the spectral structure of spontaneous cortical oscillatory activity in ELGA children at school-age. Cumulative neonatal pain-related stress was associated with changes in background cortical rhythmicity in these children, and these alterations in spontaneous brain oscillations were negatively correlated with visual-perceptual abilities at school-age, and were not driven by potentially confounding neonatal variables. These findings provide the first evidence linking neonatal pain-related stress, the development of functional brain activity, and school-age cognitive outcome in these vulnerable children.

  11. The study of lipid profile, diet and other cardiovascular risk factors in children born to parents having premature ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Savitha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is a marker for ischemic heart disease (IHD, which can be detected in early childhood and tracks to adulthood. Dyslipidemia, along with factors like diet, obesity and sedentary activity, increases the risk of a child developing IHD in adulthood. Early detection and modification of these risk factors can prevent IHD. Objectives: To study the lipid profile in children born to parents with history of premature IHD and also to study the effect of diet, lifestyle factors, and obesity in the study group. Materials and Methods: Fifty children of parents with premature IHD and 50 control children without any family history of IHD were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors such as lipid profile, body mass index (BMI and hypertension. The effects of modifiable risk factors like diet and physical activity on lipid profile were analyzed. The correlation between parent and child lipid profile was studied. Results: Mean total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly higher (P<0.05 in children with family history of IHD as compared to children without family history. There was a positive correlation between lipid levels of parents and their children. Children with elevated BMI, a sedentary lifestyle, and excess oily/junk diet intake showed increased incidence of dyslipidemia (P<0.05. Conclusions: Children of IHD patients have significant incidence of dyslipidemia. The risk factors like BMI, diet and physical activity increase the incidence of dyslipidemia. Therefore, all children of premature IHD patients should be screened for dyslipidemia.

  12. Assessment of multipathway exposure of small children to PAH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocil; Fiala; Chénier; Krajak; Ettlerova; Bukac; Viau; Emminger

    2000-01-01

    The aim of study was to assess the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by children living in a city and its effect on 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) excretion. Two groups of children (n=11 and 13; 3-6 years old) were chosen: (1) a group from a kindergarten situated near a road with a high traffic density ('polluted' area); (2) a group from a kindergarten situated in a green zone ('non polluted' area). Food consumption was recorded in all children and PAH uptake from foodstuffs was estimated. Ambient air samples were collected on the playground and indoor of kindergartens during 3 days in summer 1997. Soil samples were collected on the playground. Urine samples were collected in the morning and in the evening. Mean outdoor total PAH concentration (sum of 12 individual PAH) in 'polluted' area was 12 times higher than that in 'non polluted' area (22.9 vs. 1.9 ng/m(3)). However, indoor concentrations were similar (3.0 vs. 2.1 ng/m(3)). The same trend was observed for pyrene concentrations. The contribution to the total pyrene absorbed dose from food consumption (estimated daily absorbed dose of 167 and 186 ng, respectively, in 'polluted' and 'non polluted' area) was much more important than that from inhalation (8.4 and 5.4 ng, respectively) in both areas. The estimated daily absorbed doses of pyrene from the soil were 0.061 and 0.104 ng in 'polluted' and 'non polluted' kindergarten, respectively, which correspond to 0.032 and 0.059% of the total absorbed dose. Higher urinary concentrations of 1-OHP were found in children from 'polluted' kindergarten. In conclusion, the food seems to be a main source of the total pyrene and total PAH uptake in small children, even under a relative high PAH air exposure in the city. Pyrene concentration in soil had a negligible contribution to the total pyrene absorbed dose. Usefulness of the urinary 1-OHP as an indicator of the environmental exposure to PAH needs further research.

  13. An evaluation of data for 10 children born to mothers who attempted suicide by taking large doses of alprazolam during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidai, J; Acs, N; Bánhidy, F; Czeizel, A E

    2008-01-01

    FDA has identified alprazolam, a new type of benzodiazepine, as pregnancy category D. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects on fetal development of very large doses of alprazolam that were used for suicide attempts during pregnancy. Pregnant women were identified among the patients of the Department of Toxicology Internal Medicine, Korányi Hospital, Budapest, who were admitted as self-poisoned subjects from a total population of the three million people of Budapest and its surrounding region. Rates of congenital abnormalities, intrauterine fetal development, and cognitive-behavioral status were compared between children born to mothers who attempted suicide during pregnancy using alprazolam alone or in combination with other drugs and in their sib controls. Between 1984 and 1993, 559 pregnant women attempted suicide during pregnancy with drugs: 30 of these women self-poisoned with alprazolam, 10 delivered live-born infants who were examined. Doses of alprazolam used were between 7.5 and 100 mg, with a mean of 30 mg. Six of the 10 exposed children were born to mothers who attempted suicide between the 6th and 12th postconceptional weeks. Of the 10 exposed children, two had congenital abnormalities. One had a multiple congenital abnormality that included atypical gastroschisis and minor anomalies; an association of this defect and the 30 mg alprazolam used for self-poisoning in the 14th postconceptional week cannot be excluded. Another exposed child had mild pectus excavatum, but the times of the suicide attempt and the critical period for producing this defect did not overlap. Of 12 sibs, one had a multiple congenital abnormality. Thus, the rate of congenital abnormalities did not significantly differ between exposed children and their sibs. Mean birth weight was higher for babies born to mothers who attempted suicide by alprazolam during pregnancy than in their sib controls. Cognitive status and behavioral scale of the exposed children did not

  14. Respostas cardiopulmonares durante o esforço em crianças e adolescentes nascidas prematuras Cardiopulmonary outcomes during stress in children and adolescents born prematurely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josy Davidson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as respostas cardiopulmonares durante o esforço em crianças e adolescentes nascidos prematuros. FONTES DE DADOS: Busca nas bases científicas em saúde SciELO, Lilacs e PubMed, utilizando-se os descritores: "pressão arterial", "capacidade física", "cardiovascular", "prematuro", "criança", adolescente", "função pulmonar", nos idiomas inglês e português. Foram selecionados artigos publicados nos últimos 20 anos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Crianças e adolescentes com histórico de prematuridade apresentam sinais de obstrução das vias aéreas, menores valores de função pulmonar e de capacidade ao exercício, maior incidência de hipertensão arterial e/ou valores mais elevados da pressão arterial sistólica do que os nascidos a termo. Além disso, há indícios de que as alterações na resistência vascular sistêmica desde os primeiros dias de vida comprometam o desenvolvimento cardiovascular até a idade adulta, predispondo a maiores riscos cardiovasculares. CONCLUSÕES: O esforço físico nos indivíduos nascidos prematuros acarreta respostas cardiopulmonares diferentes dos nascidos a termo, atribuídas a particularidades no desenvolvimento desses sistemas inerentes ao prematuro.OBJECTIVE: To describe cardiopulmonary outcomes during physical stress in prematurely born children and adolescents. DATA SOURCES: Studies were obtained from PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs in Portuguese and in English from the last 20 years. The following key-words were searched: "arterial pressure", "physical capacity", "cardiovascular", "premature", "children", "adolescent" and "pulmonary function". DATA SYNTHESIS: Prematurely born children and adolescents have airway obstruction, worse lung function and exercise capacity, more frequency of hypertension and/or higher systolic arterial pressure than those born at term. Furthermore, studies suggest that these infants have cardiovascular resistance alterations since their first days of life that

  15. Psychological development of school-age children born preterm in comparison with children born full-term / Desenvolvimento psicológico na fase escolar de crianças nascidas pré-termo em comparação com crianças nascidas a termo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to assess psychological development in terms of behavioral, intellectual and emotional indicators of preterm and very low birthweight children at school age in comparison with full-term children. The sample in this study consisted of forty children aged from 8 to 10 years. They were divided into 2 groups: Preterm (PT consisting of 20 children born 2.500g birthweight. Raven's Special Scale, Draw-a-Person and Child Behavior Scale were used in the psychological assessment. PT group presented more behavioral problems and lower intellectual level when compared to the FT group. Enuresis, fear, tics, impatience and lack of focus on activities were significantly more frequent in the PT group than in the FT group. In the PT group the lower the intellectual level of the children the more behavior problems they presented.

  16. Natural history of tick-borne spotted fever in the USA. Susceptibility of small mammals to virulent Rickettsia rickettsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorfer, W; Friedhoff, K T; Lancaster, J L

    1966-01-01

    In the ecology of spotted fever rickettsiae, one of the as yet unsolved problems concerns the significance of small animals in the distribution of Rickettsia rickettsii in nature. In the Bitter Root Valley of western Montana, a great variety of rodents, rabbits and hares are known to serve as the preferred hosts for the immature stages of the vector tick, Dermacentor andersoni.The authors analyse the susceptibility of various species of small mammals to virulent R. rickettsii and evaluate their efficiency as sources of infection for larval ticks. The results demonstrate that meadow-mice, Columbian ground-squirrels, golden-mantled ground-squirrels, chipmunks and snowshoe hares (the latter to a lesser extent), when bitten by infected ticks, respond with rickettsiaemias of sufficient length and degree to infect normal larval D. andersoni. High infection rates were obtained in ticks that fed during periods of high rickettsial concentrations in the blood.

  17. Nature or nurture: a systematic review of the effect of socio-economic status on the developmental and cognitive outcomes of children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hilary S; Edwards, Phil

    2013-11-01

    The effect of socio-economic status (SES) on the cognitive outcome of preterm-born children is unknown. The objectives of this study were to systematically review the published literature and to report the strength and consistency of the effect of SES on the cognitive outcomes of preterm children, across different SES indicators. We conducted a literature search on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Social Science Citation Index to identify English-language cohort or case-control studies published after 1990 that had reported the effect of at least one SES indicator on cognitive outcome in children born <37 weeks gestation. Fifteen studies (from a total 4,162 identified) were included. Thirteen SES indicators were evaluated [categorized as: "individual-level" (6 indicators), "family-structure" (3), "contextual" (2) and "composite" (2)]. Maternal educational level was the most frequently evaluated SES indicator (by 11/15 studies) and was most consistently associated with cognitive outcome. Maternal education below high school level was associated with severe cognitive deficiency [reported odds ratios (95 % CI) range: OR = 1.4 (1.0-1.9) to OR = 2.3 (1.2-4.5)]. A meta-analytic measure of the effect of SES was not calculated due to heterogeneity in studies. SES appears to confound the association between preterm birth and cognitive deficit and should be adjusted for in studies reporting cognitive outcome.

  18. Hepatitis B vaccination coverage and risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination of children born to hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers, Denmark, 2006 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunoee, Asja; Nielsen, Jens; Cowan, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, universal screening of pregnant women for hepatitis B has been in place since November 2005, with the first two years as a trial period with enhanced surveillance. It is unknown what the change to universal screening without enhanced surveillance has meant for vaccination coverage among children born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers and what risk factors exist for incomplete vaccination. This retrospective cohort study included 699 children of mothers positive for HBsAg. Information on vaccination and risk factors was collected from central registers. In total, 93% (651/699) of the children were vaccinated within 48 hours of birth, with considerable variation between birthplaces. Only 64% (306/475) of the children had received all four vaccinations through their general practitioner (GP) at the age of two years, and 10% (47/475) of the children had received no hepatitis B vaccinations at all. Enhanced surveillance was correlated positively with coverage of birth vaccination but not with coverage at the GP. No or few prenatal examinations were a risk factor for incomplete vaccination at the GP. Maternity wards and GPs are encouraged to revise their vaccination procedures and routines for pregnant women, mothers with chronic HBV infection and their children.

  19. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of the Long-term Influences of Early Indomethacin Exposure on Language Processing in the Brains of Prematurely Born Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ment, Laura R.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Meltzer, Jed A.; Vohr, Betty; Allan, Walter; Katz, Karol H.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Schneider, Karen C.; Duncan, Charles C.; Makuch, Robert W.; Constable, R. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that indomethacin lowers the incidence and decreases the severity of intraventricular hemorrhage, as well as improves the cognitive outcome, in prematurely born male infants. Objective The purpose of this work was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that neonatal indomethacin treatment would differentially affect brain activation across genders in school-aged, prematurely born children during performance of a language task. Methods Forty-seven prematurely born children (600–1250-g birth weight) and 24 matched term control subjects were evaluated using a functional magnetic resonance imaging passive language task and neurodevelopmental assessments that included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised. Neural activity was assessed during both phonologic and semantic processing in the functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol. Results Neurodevelopmental assessments demonstrated significant differences in full-scale, verbal, and performance intelligence quotient, as well as Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores, between the preterm and term control subjects. Rates of perinatal complications did not differ significantly across preterm treatment groups, but male preterm subjects randomly assigned to saline tended to have lower Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised scores than did all of the other preterm groups. During phonological processing, a significant treatment-by-gender effect was demonstrated in 3 brain regions: the left inferior parietal lobule, the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area), and the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Conclusions These data demonstrate a differential effect of indomethacin administration early in postnatal life on the subsequent development of neural systems that subserve language functioning in these male and female preterm infants. PMID:16950986

  20. Language and reading skills in school-aged children and adolescents born preterm are associated with white matter properties on diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Heidi M; Lee, Eliana S; Yeatman, Jason D; Yeom, Kristen W

    2012-12-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for deficits in language and reading. They are also at risk for injury to the white matter of the brain. The goal of this study was to determine whether performance in language and reading skills would be associated with white matter properties in children born preterm and full-term. Children born before 36 weeks gestation (n=23, mean±SD age 12.5±2.0 years, gestational age 28.7±2.5 weeks, birth weight 1184±431 g) and controls born after 37 weeks gestation (n=19, 13.1±2.1 years, 39.3±1.0 weeks, 3178±413 g) underwent a battery of language and reading tests. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans were processed using tract-based spatial statistics to generate a core white matter skeleton that was anatomically comparable across participants. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was the diffusion property used in analyses. In the full-term group, no regions of the whole FA-skeleton were associated with language and reading. In the preterm group, regions of the FA-skeleton were significantly associated with verbal IQ, linguistic processing speed, syntactic comprehension, and decoding. Combined, the regions formed a composite map of 22 clusters on 15 tracts in both hemispheres and in the ventral and dorsal streams. ROI analyses in the preterm group found that several of these regions also showed positive associations with receptive vocabulary, verbal memory, and reading comprehension. Some of the same regions showed weak negative correlations within the full-term group. Exploratory multiple regression in the preterm group found that specific white matter pathways were related to different aspects of language processing and reading, accounting for 27-44% of the variance. The findings suggest that higher performance in language and reading in a group of preterm but not full-term children is associated with higher fractional anisotropy of a bilateral and distributed white matter network.

  1. Perinatal outcomes in 6,338 singletons born after intrauterine insemination in Denmark, 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchau, Sara Sofia; Loft, Anne; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris;

    2014-01-01

    . INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA). RESULT(S): Children born after IUI-H had higher risks of PTB, LBW, and SGA vs. SC singletons (adjusted odds ratios [aOR] 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-1.5; 1.4; 95% CI, 1......OBJECTIVE: To study perinatal outcomes in singletons born after intrauterine insemination (IUI) compared with children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and spontaneous conception (SC), and to assess predictors of poor outcome in singletons born after IUI......, exploring the effect of ovarian stimulation. DESIGN: National cohort study, 2007-2012. SETTING: Danish national registries. PATIENT(S): Four thousand two hundred twenty-eight singletons born after insemination with partner semen (IUI-H) and 1,881 singletons born after insemination with donor semen...

  2. Asthma and atopy in children born by caesarean section: effect modification by family history of allergies – a population based cross-sectional study

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    Kolokotroni Ourania

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the association of birth by caesarean section (C/S and allergies have produced conflicting findings. Furthermore, evidence on whether this association may differ in those at risk of atopy is limited. This study aims to investigate the association of mode of delivery with asthma and atopic sensitization and the extent to which any effect is modified by family history of allergies. Methods Asthma outcomes were assessed cross-sectionally in 2216 children at age 8 on the basis of parents’ responses to the ISAAC questionnaire whilst skin prick tests to eleven aeroallergens were also performed in a subgroup of 746 children. Adjusted odds ratios of asthma and atopy by mode of delivery were estimated in multivariable logistic models while evidence of effect modification was examined by introducing interaction terms in the models. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, children born by C/S appeared significantly more likely than those born vaginally to report ever wheezing (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.07-1.71, asthma diagnosis (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.09-1.83 and be atopic (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.08-2.60. There was modest evidence that family history of allergies may modify the effect of C/S delivery on atopy (p for effect modification=0.06 but this was not the case for the asthma outcomes. Specifically, while more than a two-fold increase in the odds of being a topic was observed in children with a family history of allergies if born by C/S (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.38-5.00, no association was observed in children without a family history of allergies (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.64-2.11. Conclusions Birth by C/S is associated with asthma and atopic sensitization in childhood. The association of C/S and atopy appears more pronounced in children with family history of allergies.

  3. A molecular study of tick-borne haemoprotozoan parasites (Theileria and Babesia) in small ruminants in Northern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'ghirbi, Youmna; Ros-García, Amaia; Iribar, Pilar; Rhaim, Adel; Hurtado, Ana; Bouattour, Ali

    2013-11-15

    In this study, the frequency of Theileria and Babesia species in sheep and goats was assessed via reverse line blotting (RLB). A total of 263 apparently healthy sheep and goats, from 16 randomly selected flocks located in 9 localities situated in 3 bioclimatic zones in Tunisia, were investigated for the blood protozoans. RLB hybridization with polymerase chain reaction detected only Theileria ovis in sheep and goats, accounting for 22.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17.6-27.1%) positive samples. The infection rate in sheep (28.1%; 95% CI: 23.8-32.3%) was higher than in goats (4.7%; 95% CI: -10.9 to 20.4%). Neither Babesia nor mixed infections were detected. Only two Ixodid tick species (Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus bursa) were collected from the examined sheep and goats in 5 localities. R. turanicus was the dominant species (95.5%) collected mainly in the humid zone, while apparently rare in the sub-humid zone. R. bursa was the only species collected in the semi-arid area. RLB analysis identified six different piroplasms in ticks, with an overall prevalence of 31.5% (95% CI: 28.1-34.9%). Twenty percent (95% CI: 14.4-25.5%) of the collected ticks tested positive for Theileria spp., 3% (95% CI: -5.6 to 11.6%) for Babesia spp. and 0.9% (95% CI: -8.1 to 9.9%) of the ticks harbored both genera; several of these species are not known to occur in small ruminants. This is the first report on the detection of Theileria and Babesia species DNA in small ruminants and ticks in Tunisia.

  4. Short communication: high prevalence of drug resistance in HIV type 1-infected children born in Honduras and Belize 2001 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Leda; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Murillo, Wendy; Naver, Lars; Largaespada, Natalia; Albert, Jan; Karlsson, Annika C

    2011-10-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has had a great impact on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1. However, development of drug resistance, which could be subsequently transmitted to the child, is a major concern. In Honduras and Belize the prevalence of drug resistance among HIV-1-infected children remains unknown. A total of 95 dried blood spot samples was obtained from HIV-1-infected, untreated children in Honduras and Belize born during 2001 to 2004, when preventive antiretroviral therapy was often suboptimal and consisted of monotherapy with nevirapine or zidovudine. Partial HIV-1 pol gene sequences were successfully obtained from 66 children (Honduras n=55; Belize n=11). Mutations associated with drug resistance were detected in 13% of the Honduran and 27% of the Belizean children. Most of the mutations detected in Honduras (43%) and all mutations detected in Belize were associated with resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, which was expected from the wide use of nevirapine to prevent MTCT during the study period. In addition, although several mothers reported that they had not received antiretroviral therapy, mutations associated with resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors were found in Honduras. This suggests prior and unreported use of these drugs, or that these women had been infected with resistant virus. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, the presence of drug resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1-infected Honduran and Belizean children.

  5. Loss of integrity of thyroid morphology and function in children born to mothers with inadequately treated Graves' disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempers, M.J.E.; Trotsenburg, A.S. van; Rijn, R.R. van; Smets, A.M.; Smit, B.J.; Vijlder, J.J. de; Vulsma, T.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Central congenital hypothyroidism (CH-C) in neonates born to mothers with inadequately treated Graves' disease usually needs T(4) supplementation. The thyroid and its regulatory system have not yet been extensively studied after T(4) withdrawal, until we observed disintegrated thyroid gland

  6. Roles of Perinatal Problems on Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors among Children Born after 33 Completed Weeks: A Prospective Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoko; Rajendran, Khushmand; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is uncertainty about the extent to which mildly sub-optimal perinatal characteristics among individuals born near-term (greater than 33 weeks of gestation) are associated with various subsequent childhood problems, including antisocial behavior. There is even more uncertainty about whether the pathway to antisocial behavior…

  7. Parental educational level and injury incidence and mortality among foreign-born children: a cohort study with 46 years follow-up

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    Omid Beiki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Injury risk during childhood and adolescence vary depending on socio-economic factors. The aim of this study was to study if the risk of fatal and non-fatal unintentional injuries among foreign-born children was similar across parental educational level or not. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we followed 907,335 children between 1961 and 2007 in Sweden. We established the cohort by linkage between Swedish national registers including cause of death register and in-patient register, through unique Personal Identification Numbers. The main exposure variable was parental (maternal and paternal educational level. The cohorts was followed from start date of follow-up period, or date of birth whichever occurred last, until exit date from the cohort, which was date of hospitalization or death due to unintentional injury, first emigration, death due to other causes than injury or end of follow-up, whichever came first. We calculated hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI by Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: Overall, we found 705 and 78,182 cases of death and hospitalization due to unintentional injuries, respectively. Risk of death and hospitalization due to unintentional injuries was statistically significantly 1.48 (95% CI: 1.24-1.78 and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.08-1.12 times higher among children with lowest parental educational level (9 years and shorter years of study compared to children with highest parental educational level (+13 years of study. We found similar results when stratified our study group by sex of children, by maternal and paternal educational level separately, and injury type (traffic-related, fall, poisoning, burn and drowning. Conclusions: It seems injury prevention work against unintentional injuries is less effective among children with low parental education compared with those with higher parental education. We recommend designing specific preventive interventions

  8. Use and preference of advice on small children's food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Vassard, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the influence of acculturation on parental attitudes to, and use of, different sources of health advice about young children's food in Denmark. Using combined ethnic position of the children's parents as a proxy for household acculturation, the authors conducted a postal survey...... practitioners, and hospital staff as information sources, while households with ethnic majority status were more likely to use mothers’ peer groups and written material. In all types of household municipal public health nurses were relied on as a source of advice on young children's food, but households...... of 2,511 households with young children (6 months to 3.5 years) occupying ethnic minority, ethnic majority, or ethnic mixed position. The analysis showed that the use of advice differed in the 3 groups. Households with ethnic minority status were more likely to use the child's grandparents, general...

  9. Peritoneal dialysis and neurological outcome in infants and small children

    OpenAIRE

    Laakkonen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Although improved outcomes for children on peritoneal dialysis (PD) have been seen in recent years, the youngest patients continue to demonstrate inferior growth, more frequent infections, more neurological sequelae, and higher mortality compared to older children. Also, maintain-ing normal intravascular volume status, especially in anuric patients, has proven difficult. This study was designed to treat and monitor these youngest PD patients, which are relatively many due to the high pre...

  10. Molecular evidence of tick-borne hemoprotozoan-parasites (Theileria ovis and Babesia ovis) and bacteria in ticks and blood from small ruminants in Northern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouadi, Atef; Leulmi, Hamza; Boucheikhchoukh, Mehdi; Benakhla, Ahmed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    Using qPCR, standard PCR and/or sequencing, we investigated the presence of tick-associated microorganisms in ticks and blood from sheep and goats from Souk Ahras, Algeria. Borrelia theileri, was detected in (7/120, 5.8%) blood from sheep and (13/120, 10.8%) goats. Anaplasma ovis was screened in (38/73, 52%) Rhipicephalus bursa and (5/22, 22.7%) R. turanicus and in (74/120, 61.7%), (65/120, 54.2%) blood of sheep and goats respectively. Coxiella burnetii tested positive in R. bursa (4/73, 5.5%) and (7/120, 5.8%) blood of sheep and (2/120, 1.7%) goats. Theileria ovis was detected in (50/147, 34%) R. bursa and (3/22, 13.6%) R. turanicus and in (64/120, 53.3%) blood of sheep and (25/120, 20.8%) goats. Babesia ovis was screened positive in (23/147, 15.6%) R. bursa and (7/48, 14.6%) R. turanicus. Our findings expand knowledge about the repertoire of tick-borne microorganisms present in ectoparasites and/or the blood of small ruminants in Algeria.

  11. Pointing to the future : New insights into elementary visuomotor processes in typically developing and preterm born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Braeckel, Koenraad Noëlla Josephine Antoon

    2008-01-01

    As a result of improved care in the last few decades, up to 3000 children survive preterm birth in the Netherlands. The minority of this group of children develops cerebral palsy. Although the majority survives without serious neonatal medical complications, follow-up studies show subtle cognitive a

  12. Postural control of small for gestational age infants born at term Controle postural de lactentes nascidos a termo pequenos para a idade gestacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Campos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study compared the postural control of small (SGA and appropriate (AGA for gestational age infants born at term, at the ages of 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. METHOD: This was a cohort study of infants born at term, with birth weight less than the 10th percentile for the SGA group and between the 10th and 90th percentiles for the AGA group. Infants with genetic syndromes, malformations, congenital infections and internment in neonatal intensive care unit were excluded. The evaluation instrument was the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. RESULTS: Comparison of the SGA and AGA groups did not show any significant differences (p>0.05 at the assessment times. However, the postural control of the SGA group was influenced by the gestational age (r=-0.83; p= 0.006 and 5th minute Apgar (r= 0.79; p= 0.01 in the 3rd month, and by maternal occupation (r= 0.67; p= 0.01 in the 6th month. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the postural control was similar in the groups. However, the postural control of the SGA group was influenced by biological and environmental factors.OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve por objetivo comparar o controle postural de lactentes nascidos a termo, pequenos (PIG e adequados para a idade gestacional (AIG nos 3º, 6º, 9º e 12º meses. MÉTODO: Estudo longitudinal de lactentes nascidos a termo, com peso de nascimento menor que o percentil 10 para o grupo PIG e entre o percentil 10 e 90 para o grupo AIG. Síndromes genéticas, más-formações, infecções congênitas e internados em unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal foram excluídos. O instrumento de avaliação foi Alberta Infant Motor Scale. RESULTADOS: A comparação do grupo PIG e AIG não mostrou diferença significativa (p> 0,05 nos meses avaliados. Entretanto, o controle postural do grupo PIG foi influenciado pela idade gestacional (r= -0,83/p= 0,006 e Apgar de 5' (r= 0,79/p= 0,01 no 3º mês; e pela ocupação materna (r= 0,67/p= 0,01 no 6º mês. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que o

  13. Methane production and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in children living in a slum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carolina Santos Mello; Soraia Tahan; Lígia Cristina FL Melli; Mirian Silva do Carmo Rodrigues; Ricardo Martin Pereira de Mello; Isabel Cristina Affonso Scaletsky; Mauro Batista de Morais

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To analyze small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in school-aged children and the relationship between hydrogen and methane production in breath tests.METHODS:This transversal study included 85 children residing in a slum and 43 children from a private school,all aged between 6 and 10 years,in Osasco,Brazil.For characterization of the groups,data regarding the socioeconomic status and basic housing sanitary conditions were collected.Anthropometric data was obtained in children from both groups.All children completed the hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) breath test in order to assess small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).SIBO was diagnosed when there was an increase in H2 ≥ 20 ppm or CH4 ≥ 10 ppm with regard to the fasting value until 60 min after lactulose ingestion.RESULTS:Children from the slum group had worse living conditions and lower nutritional indices than children from the private school.SIBO was found in 30.9% (26/84) of the children from the slum group and in 2.4% (1/41) from the private school group (P =0.0007).Greater hydrogen production in the small intestine was observed in children from the slum group when compared to children from the private school (P =0.007).A higher concentration of hydrogen in the small intestine (P < 0.001) and in the colon (P < 0.001) was observed among the children from the slum group with SIBO when compared to children from the slum group without SIBO.Methane production was observed in 63.1% (53/84) of the children from the slum group and in 19.5% (8/41) of the children from the private school group (P < 0.0001).Methane production was observed in 38/58 (65.5%) of the children without SIBO and in 15/26 (57.7%) of the children with SIBO from the slum.Colonic production of hydrogen was lower in methaneproducing children (P =0.017).CONCLUSION:Children who live in inadequate environmental conditions are at risk of bacterial overgrowth and methane production.Hydrogen is a substrate for methane

  14. Impact of maternal obesity on inhaled corticosteroid use in childhood: a registry based analysis of first born children and a sibling pair analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J Lowe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that maternal obesity during pregnancy may increase the risk that the child develops allergic disease and asthma, although the mechanisms underpinning this relationship are currently unclear. We sought to assess if this association may be due to confounding by genetic or environmental risk factors that are common to maternal obesity and childhood asthma, using a sibling pair analysis. METHODS: The study population comprised a Swedish national cohort of term children born between 1992 and 2008 to native Swedish parents. Maternal body mass index (BMI was measured at 8-10 weeks gestation. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to determine if maternal obesity was associated with increased risk of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS in 431,718 first-born children, while adjusting for potential confounders. An age-matched discordant sib-pair analysis was performed, taking into account shared genetic and environmental risk factors. RESULTS: Maternal over-weight and obesity were associated with increased risk that the child would require ICS (for BMI≥35 kg/m(2, aOR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.10-1.52 compared with normal weight mothers in children aged 6-12 years. Similar effects were seen in younger children, but in children aged 13-16 years, maternal obesity (BMI≥30 was related to increased risk of ICS use in girls (aOR = 1.28, 95%CI = 1.07-1.53 but not boys (OR = 1.05, 95%CI = 0.87-1.26. The sib-pair analysis, which included 2,034 sib-pairs older than six years who were discordant for both ICS use and maternal BMI category, failed to find any evidence that increasing maternal weight was related to increased risk of ICS use. CONCLUSION: Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of childhood ICS use up to approximately 12 years of age, but only in girls after this age. These effects could not be confirmed in a sib pair analysis, suggesting either limited statistical power, or the effects

  15. Development Status of 4-24 Months Children Born to Teenage Mothers Referred to Health Care Centers in Yasuj, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afraz SF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: A developmental delay in children is considered as one of the world's health problems in developing and developed countries. This has a massive impact on children’s health and eventually has broader scale effect on society. The purpose of this study was to assess the developmental status of children age 4-24 months to teenage mothers referred to health care centers related to Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran, in 2013. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 mothers less than 19 years of age with children of 4-24 months referred to health centers of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences which were selected by multistage sampling. Data collection was conducted using demographic, midwifery ages and stages questionnaire in children aged 24-4 months. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test and chi-square test. Results: The results showed that the mean age of mothers during pregnancy were16.64±1.22 years with age range 12 to 18 years. Prevalence of delayed development in 4-24 month children was reported to be 7%. Most developmental delay was observed in gross motor area and the lowest was in the private personal and social domains. In this study, a significant difference was seen in birth weight between two groups of children, so that birth weight of children with developmental delay significantly lowers than children with normal development (P=0.027. Conclusion: the Pregnancy under the age of 19 years is considered as risk factors for children’s developmental disorder that by the implementation of appropriate education to reduce high-risk pregnancies in this age range can be prevented the developmental disorders and their adverse outcome.

  16. Infantile Accountability: When Big Data Meet Small Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, Terry; Wormwell, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This article examines a government attempt to impose testing of 4-year-olds as a baseline against which to "hold primary schools accountable" for children's subsequent progress. It examines the various forms of baseline testing in this experiment and analyses the misleading claims made for the "predictive validity" of baseline…

  17. Side effects of oral antibiotics in small children with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Karin Riisager; Bregnballe, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Frequent antibiotic treatment is common in the care of patients with cystic fibrosis. The aim of the study was to explore digestion related side effects of oral antibiotics in small children with CF. Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out. All parents of children from 0 to 6...... years followed at the CF centre in Aarhus were invited to participate. Areas of interest were diarrhoea, stomach pain, nausea, small appetite, and oral fungal infection. Results: Parents of 31 children aged 0 to 6 years participated in the study. 71% of the parents reported their child to have diarrhoea...

  18. Mitotic crossover promotes leukemogenesis in children born with TEL-AML1 via the generation of loss of heterozygosity at 12p

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    Ivan Ivanovski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available TEL-AML1 (ETV6-RUNX1 fusion gene which is formed prenatally in 1% of the newborns, is a common genetic abnormality in childhood Bcell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. But only one child out of a hundred children born with this fusion gene develops leukemia (bottleneck phenomenon later in its life, if contracts the second mutation. In other words, out of a hundred children born with TEL-AML1 only one child is at risk for leukemia development, which means that TEL-AML1 fusion gene is not sufficient for overt leukemia. There is a stringent requirement for a second genetic abnormality for leukemia development and this is the real or the ultimate cause of the leukemia bottleneck phenomenon. In most cases of TEL-AML1+ leukemia, the translocation t(12;21 is complemented with the loss of the normal TEL gene, not involved in the translocation, on the contralateral 12p. The loss of the normal TEL gene, i.e. loss of heterozygosity at 12p, occurs postnatally during the mitotic proliferation of TEL-AML1+ cell in the mitotic crossing over process. Mitotic crossing over is a very rare event with a frequency rate of 10–6 in a 10 kb region. The exploration and identification of the environmental exposure(s that cause(s proliferation of the TELAML1+ cell in which approximately 106 mitoses are generated to cause 12p loss of heterozygosity, i.e. TEL gene deletion, may contribute to the introduction of preventive measures for leukemia.

  19. Teacher-Involved Conversations with Young Children during Small Group Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, Tonia; Dangel, Julie Rainer

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the conversations of two preschool teachers with two- and three-year-old children during small-group activity settings in two high-quality child development centers. Using interviews, observations and videotaping of small-group activities, the conversations are characterized in terms of the kind and function of…

  20. Farm-level risk factors for fish-borne zoonotic trematode infection in integrated small-scale fish farms in northern Vietnam.

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    Van Thi Phan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Northern Vietnam is an endemic region for fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT, including liver and intestinal flukes. Humans acquire the FZT infection by eating raw or inadequately cooked fish. The production of FZT-free fish in aquaculture is a key component in establishing a sustainable program to prevent and control the FZT transmission to humans. Interventions in aquaculture should be based on knowledge of the main risk factors associated with FZT transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A longitudinal study was carried out from June 2006 to May 2007 in Nam Dinh province, Red River Delta to investigate the development and risk factors of FZT infections in freshwater cultured fish. A total of 3820 fish were sampled six times at two-month intervals from 96 fish farms. Logistic analysis with repeated measurements was used to evaluate potential risk factors based on information collected through questionnaire interviews with 61 fish farm owners. The results showed that the FZT infections significantly increased from first sampling in June to July 2006 (65% to sixth sampling in April to May, 2007 (76%. The liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis and different zoonotic intestinal flukes including Haplochis pumilio, H. taichui, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus formosanus and Procerovum varium were found in sampled fish. Duration of fish cultured (sampling times, mebendazole drug self-medication of household members, presence of snails in the pond, and feeding fish with green vegetation collected outside fish farms all had a significant effect on the development of FZT prevalence in the fish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The FZT prevalence in fish increased by 11 percentage points during a one-year culture period and the risk factors for the development of infection were identified. Results also highlight that the young fish are already highly infected when stocked into the grow-out systems. This knowledge should be incorporated into control

  1. Pediatric cardiac emergencies: Children are not small adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frazier Aisha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with adults, cardiac emergencies are infrequent in children and clinical presentation is often quite variable. In adults, cardiac emergencies are most commonly related to complications of coronary artery disease; however, in pediatric cases, the coronaries are only rarely the underlying problem. Pediatric cardiac emergencies comprise a range of pathology including but not limited to undiagnosed congenital heart disease in the infant; complications of palliated congenital heart disease in children; arrhythmias related to underlying cardiac pathology in the teenager and acquired heart disease. The emergency room physician and pediatric intensivist will usually be the first and second lines of care for pediatric cardiac emergencies and thus it is imperative that they have knowledge of the diverse presentations of cardiac disease in order to increase the likelihood of delivering early appropriate therapy and referral. The objective of this review is to outline cardiac emergencies in the pediatric population and contrast the presentation with adults.

  2. Renal function and histology in children after small bowel transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Olivia; Noto, Cristian; De Serre, Natacha Patey-Mariaud; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Dechaux, Michèle; Goulet, Olivier; Niaudet, Patrick; Lacaille, Florence

    2013-02-01

    CKD is a frequent long-term complication after SBTx. CNIs are a well-known factor, but probably not the only cause. We assessed the incidence, risk factors, and severity of CKD in 27 children with SBTx (15 combined liver/SBTx) and prednisone/TAC-based maintenance immunosuppression. Median follow-up was seven yr (3-21). A renal biopsy was performed in 14 patients, 1-18 yr post-SBTx. A reduced GFR was observed in 17 children (63%) during the follow-up with none requiring dialysis. CNI toxicity was observed in 11/14 biopsies, as early as two yr post-transplant, and could occur with a normal mGFR. The dose of TAC was reduced by 50% in 13 patients with CKD and/or significant kidney histological lesions, and six were also given MMF. This led to a significant improvement in renal function: mGFR normalized in eight patients and improved or stabilized in five. No rejection occurred. At last follow-up, 37% had CKD stage 2 and 15% had CKD stage 3. In conclusion, CKD is frequent in children after SBTx and probably multifactorial. Less nephrotoxic immunosuppressive protocols may improve mGFR and should be further considered. The kidney histology helps in designing personalized immunosuppression strategies for patients.

  3. Giving birth to life--again!: bereaved parents' experiences with children born following the death of an adult son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Rosenfeld, Sarah; Buchbinder, Eli

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative study examining the experiences of parents that lost a son during military service in Israel and consequently choose to give birth to another child. Seven couples and 3 mothers were interviewed for the study, and their interviews were analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. Three main themes were extracted from parents' descriptions of their experiences: (a) "From the place where pain and sadness was sown, a new smile was grown," relating to transforming the experience of loss into a new meaning for life; (b) "No to a child memorial," focusing on parents' awareness of the burden placed on the child who was born; and (c) "Different parenting," dealing with participant's parenting following their loss. The study's findings are discussed in the context of literature dealing with reconstructing meaning through coping and bereavement.

  4. Aspectos neuropsicológico e neurológico de crianças nascidas prematuras e com peso inferior a 1.500 gramas Neurological and neuropsychological aspects of children born preterm and with weight lower than 1,500 grams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ferreira Campos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Crianças nascidas prematuras, especialmente aquelas com peso Preterm children - especially those with birth weight <1,500g - often present neonatal complications and higher risk of suffering from developmental disorders. Twenty children aged seven, with average intelligence and normal neurological exams, born with gestational age <33 weeks and weight <1,500g, were enrolled in a study and compared with 20 children born at full term. Intelligence was measured by WISC-III and behavior by the Conners Questionnaire. Lefèvre Evolutive Neurological Examination was applied in the preterm children. Children born preterm had lower IQ than those born at full term. In the Conners, there was no difference between groups. Only 20% of preterm children performed all tests from the Evolutive Exam for their age. This study highlights the importance of specific cognitive evaluations in preterm children during school age, even if they have normal neurological exams.

  5. Minor neurological dysfunction and behaviour in 9-year-old children born at term : evidence for sex dimorphism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, Hedwig K.; de Jong, Corina; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to assess associations between minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and behaviour, with specific attention to sex differences. MethodThis was an observational cohort study in which 341 9-year-old children (177 male, 164 female) without perinatal risk were neurologically

  6. Analysis of Small Intestinal Microbiome in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    overgrowth of specific populations of bacteria and analyze the relationship between the intestinal flora and behavior. Our current sub-contractor...determine if there is an overgrowth of specific populations of bacteria and analyze the relationship between the intestinal flora and behavior. In aim 1, we...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0477 TITLE: Analysis of Small Intestinal Microbiome

  7. Changes in prevalence, aetiology, age at detection, and associated disabilities in preschool children with hearing impairment born in Göteborg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin, N; Hanner, P; Thiringer, K

    1997-12-01

    The prevalence of hearing impairment (HI) in preschool children born in Göteborg in 1980 to 1984 was 2.0 per 1000. This was significantly lower than the 3.8 per 1000 found in a previous study for 1970 to 1974. The decrease took place in the moderate to severe range of HI, while deafness and mild HI remained unchanged during the period. The cause was considered to be prenatal in 58% with heredity in 33% as the main causative factor. Following the introduction of the MPR (Morbilli-Parotitis-Rubella) vaccination programme in Sweden, no cases of rubella- or mumps-induced HI could be found. The number of HI of perinatal origin decreased by half, in spite of the fact that the figures for preterm baby survival almost doubled during the period. Associated disabilities were diagnosed in 62% of the children with HI; speech retardation in 33%, visual abnormalities in 30%, mental retardation in 12% and neuropsychiatric disorders in 9% of the cases. The importance of collaborative efforts between the otolaryngologist and the neurologically and neuropsychiatrically interested paediatrician in the complete evaluation of additional difficulties in the HI child is emphasized.

  8. Vaccination technique, PPD reaction and BCG scarring in a cohort of children born in Guinea-Bissau 2000-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Sodemann, Morten; Jensen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The rates of positive tuberculin skin test (TST) reactions and BCG scarring after BCG vaccination vary between studies and populations. Tuberculin reactivity and BCG scarring may be related to better child survival in low-income countries. We therefore studied determinants for TST reaction......=2225) of age. In a subgroup of the children the vaccination technique was monitored by direct observation of post-vaccination wheal and route of administration. Three different types of BCG vaccine supplied by the local Extended Programme on Immunization were used. At 6 months of age the rate of PPD.......66 (1.24-2.21)). In the multivariable analyses of BCG-vaccinated children assessed at 6 months of age, monitoring of vaccination technique and type of BCG vaccine were important. This was not changed by control for other determinants, including sex, season, vaccination place, birthplace, ethnic group...

  9. Effect of air pollution on preterm birth among children born in Southern California between 1989 and 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, B; Yu, F; Chapa, G; Fruin, S

    2000-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of air pollution exposure during pregnancy on the occurrence of preterm birth in a cohort of 97,518 neonates born in Southern California. We used measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter less than 10 microm (PM10) collected at 17 air-quality-monitoring stations to create average exposure estimates for periods of pregnancy. We calculated crude and adjusted risk ratios (RRs) for premature birth by period-specific ambient pollution levels. We observed a 20% increase in preterm birth per 50-microg increase in ambient PM10 levels averaged over 6 weeks before birth [RRcrude = 1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09-1.33] and a 16% increase when averaging over the first month of pregnancy (RRcrude = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.06-1.26). PM10 effects showed no regional pattern. CO exposure 6 weeks before birth consistently exhibited an effect only for the inland regions (RRcrude = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.08-1.18 per 3 parts per million), and during the first month of pregnancy, the effect was weak for all stations (RRcrude = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.09 per 3 parts per million). Exposure to increased levels of ambient PM10 and possibly CO during pregnancy may contribute to the occurrence of preterm births in Southern California.

  10. Social identity and self-esteem among Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, British born Chinese and white Scottish children

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese community is the fastest growing non-European ethnic group in the UK, with 11.2% annual growth between 2001 and 2007. According to the National Statistics office (2005), there are over a quarter of a million Chinese in Britain. Compared to other ethnic minority groups, the Chinese group is socio-economically widespread, characterized by high academic achievements and high household income. It is estimated that there are about 30,000 Chinese immigrant children stu...

  11. Parent-reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in US-born children: an assessment of changes within birth cohorts from the 2003 to the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieve, Laura A; Rice, Catherine; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Boyle, Coleen A; Kogan, Michael D; Drews, Carolyn; Devine, Owen

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) was twice the 2003 NSCH estimate for autism. From each NSCH, we selected children born in the US from 1990 to 2000. We estimated autism prevalence within each 1-year birth cohort to hold genetic and non-genetic prenatal factors constant. Prevalence differences across surveys thus reflect survey measurement changes and/or external identification effects. In 2003, parents were asked whether their child was ever diagnosed with autism. In 2007, parents were asked whether their child was ever diagnosed with an ASD and whether s/he currently had an ASD. For the 1997-2000 birth cohorts (children aged 3-6 years in 2003 and 7-10 years in 2007), relative increases between 2003 autism estimates and 2007 ASD estimates were 200-600 %. For the 1990-1996 birth cohorts (children aged 7-13 years in 2003) increases were lower; nonetheless, differences between 2003 estimates and 2007 "ever ASD" estimates were >100 % for 6 cohorts and differences between 2003 estimates and 2007 "current ASD" estimates were >80 % for 3 cohorts. The magnitude of most birth cohort-specific differences suggests continuing diagnosis of children in the community played a sizable role in the 2003-2007 ASD prevalence increase. While some increase was expected for 1997-2000 cohorts, because some children have later diagnoses coinciding with school entry, increases were also observed for children ages ≥ 7 years in 2003. Given past ASD subtype studies, the 2003 "autism" question might have missed a modest amount (≤ 33 %) of ASDs other than autistic disorder.

  12. Altered microstructural connectivity of the superior and middle cerebellar peduncles are related to motor dysfunction in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia born preterm: A DTI tractography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shanshan, E-mail: jelly_66@126.com; Fan, Guo Guang, E-mail: cjr.fanguoguang@vip.163.com; Xu, Ke, E-mail: cjr.xuke@vip.163.com; Wang, Ci, E-mail: xiangxuehai19850224@yahoo.cn

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the microstructural integrity of superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) and middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP) by using DTI tractography method, and further to detect whether the microstructural integrity of these major cerebellar pathways is related to motor function in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) born preterm. Materials and methods: 46 children with diffuse PVL (30 males and 16 females; age range 3–48 months; mean age 22.4 ± 6.7 months; mean gestational age 30.5 ± 2.2 weeks) and 40 healthy controls (27 males and 13 females; age range 3.5–48 months; mean age 22.1 ± 5.8 months) were enrolled in this study. DTI outcome measurements, fractional anisotropy (FA), for the SCP, MCP and cortical spinal tract (CST) were calculated. The gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) was used for assessing motor functions. Results: Compared to the controls, patients with diffuse PVL had a significantly lower FA in bilateral SCP, MCP and CST. There was a significant negative correlation between GMFCS levels and FA in bilateral SCP, MCP and CST in the patients group. In addition, significant inverse correlation of FA value was found between not only the contralateral but also the ipsilateral CST and SCP/MCP. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the injury of SCP and MCP may contribute to the motor dysfunction of diffuse PVL. Moreover, the correlations we found between supratentorial and subtentorial injured white matter extend our knowledge about the cerebro-cerebellar white matter interaction in children with diffuse PVL.

  13. Calcium Absorption in Infants and Small Children: Methods of Determination and Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining calcium bioavailability is important in establishing dietary calcium requirements. In infants and small children, previously conducted mass balance studies have largely been replaced by stable isotope-based studies. The ability to assess calcium absorption using a relatively short 24-hour urine collection without the need for multiple blood samples or fecal collections is a major advantage to this technique. The results of these studies have demonstrated relatively small differences in calcium absorption efficiency between human milk and currently available cow milk-based infant formulas. In older children with a calcium intake typical of Western diets, calcium absorption is adequate to meet bone mineral accretion requirements.

  14. Potential of diffusion tensor MR imaging in the assessment of cognitive impairments in children with periventricular leukomalacia born preterm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shanshan, E-mail: jelly_66@126.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Fan, Guoguang, E-mail: cjr.fanguoguang@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Xu, Ke, E-mail: cjr.xuke@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Wang, Ci, E-mail: xiangxuehai19850224@yahoo.cn [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To investigate MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tractography (FT) in the assessment of altered major white matter fibers correlated with cognitive functions in preterm infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), to explore the neural foundation for PVL children's cognitive impairments. Materials and methods: Forty six preterm infants (16 ± 4.7 months) suffered from PVL and 16 age-matched normal controls were recruited. Developmental quotient (DQ) was recorded to evaluate PVL children's cognitive functions. According to the DQ scores, patients were divided into three groups: mild, moderate and severe cognitive impairment groups. DTI scan was performed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values of major white matter fibers were measured and their correlation with cognitive levels was evaluated. Results: Compared with the control group, the PVL group showed a significant mean FA reduction in bilateral corticospinal tract (CST), anterior/posterior limb of internal capsule (ICAL/ICPL), arcuate fasciculus (AF), corona radiate (CR), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), splenium of corpus callosum (SCC) (p < 0.05) and bilateral posterior thalamic radiation (PTR) (p < 0.01). The FA values of left CST, bilateral AF, anterior cingulum (ACG), SLF, ICAL, ICPL, PTR, CR, genu of corpus callosum (GCC), SCC and middle cerebellar peduncle showed significant negative correlations with the cognitive levels. Conclusions: DTI can provide more information for understanding the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in preterm infants with PVL.

  15. Urban soil pollution and the playfields of small children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jartun, M.; Ottesen, R. T.; Steinnes, E.

    2003-05-01

    The chemical composition of urban surface soil in Tromsø, northern Norway has been mapped to describe the environmental load of toxic elements in different parts of the city. Surface soil samples were collected from 275 locations throughout the city center and nearby suburban areas. Natural background concentrations were determined in samples of the local bedrock. Surface soil in younger, suburban parts of the city shows low concentrations of heavy metals, reflecting the local geochemistry. The inner and older parts of the city are generally polluted with lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and tin (Sn). The most important sources of this urban soil pollution are probably city fires, industrial and domestic waste, traffic, and shipyards. In this paper two different approaches have been used. First, as a result of the general mapping, 852 soil and sand samples from kindergartens and playgrounds were analyzed. In this study concentrations of arsenic (As) up to 1800ppm were found, most likely due to the extensive use of CCA (copper, chromium, arsenic) impregnated wood in sandboxes and other playground equipment. This may represent a significant health risk especially to children having a high oral intake of contaminated sand and soil. Secondly a pattern of tin (Sn) concentrations was found in Tromsøcity with especially high values near shipyards. Further investigation indicated that this pattern most probably reflected the use of the highty toxic tributyltin (TBT). Thus détermination of total Sn in surface soils could be a cost-effective way to localize sources of TBT contamination in the environment.

  16. Two-year morbidity-mortality and alternatives to prolonged breast-feeding among children born to HIV-infected mothers in Cote d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Becquet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term safety of infant feeding interventions aimed at reducing breast milk HIV transmission in Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In 2001-2005, HIV-infected pregnant women having received in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, a peripartum antiretroviral prophylaxis were presented antenatally with infant feeding interventions: either artificial feeding, or exclusive breast-feeding and then early cessation from 4 mo of age. Nutritional counseling and clinical management were provided for 2 y. Breast-milk substitutes were provided for free. The primary outcome was the occurrence of adverse health outcomes in children, defined as validated morbid events (diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, or malnutrition or severe events (hospitalization or death. Hazards ratios to compare formula-fed versus short-term breast-fed (reference children were adjusted for confounders (baseline covariates and pediatric HIV status as a time-dependant covariate. The 18-mo mortality rates were also compared to those observed in the Ditrame historical trial, which was conducted at the same sites in 1995-1998, and in which long-term breast-feeding was practiced in the absence of any specific infant feeding intervention. Of the 557 live-born children, 262 (47% were breast-fed for a median of 4 mo, whereas 295 were formula-fed. Over the 2-y follow-up period, 37% of the formula-fed and 34% of the short-term breast-fed children remained free from any adverse health outcome (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87-1.38; p = 0.43. The 2-y probability of presenting with a severe event was the same among formula-fed (14% and short-term breast-fed children (15% (adjusted HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.75-1.91; p = 0.44. An overall 18-mo probability of survival of 96% was observed among both HIV-uninfected short-term and formula-fed children, which was similar to the 95% probability observed in the long-term breast-fed ones of the

  17. Higher risk of orofacial clefts in children born to mothers with angina pectoris: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizel, Andrew E; Vereczkey, Attila; Bánhidy, Ferenc

    2015-02-01

    Previously an unexpected association of maternal angina pectoris (MAP) during pregnancy with a higher risk of orofacial clefts in their children was found. There were three objectives of this study: (i) to evaluate the validity of MAP-diagnoses in the previous study and the recent history of mothers with MAP in a follow-up study; (ii) to estimate the prevalence of other congenital abnormalities in the offspring of mothers with MAP; and (iii) to analyze the possible effect of confounders for the risk of orofacial clefts. The large dataset of population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996 was evaluated including 22 843 cases with congenital abnormalities and 38 151 controls without any defect. Twenty-two cases (0.10%) and 12 controls (0.03%) were born to mothers with medically recorded MAP (odds ratio [OR] with 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7, 1.8-7.3). Of 22 cases, six had isolated cleft lip ± palate (OR with 95% CI: 13.3, 4.9-35.9) and two were affected with isolated cleft palate (OR with 95% CI: 10.5, 2.3-47.6). The diagnosis of MAP was confirmed in seven women visited at home in 2009-2010, two had recent myocardial infarction and five were smokers. There was no higher risk for other congenital abnormalities. In conclusion the higher risk of orofacial clefts was confirmed in the children of mothers with MAP and smoking may trigger the genetic predisposition of both MAP and orofacial clefts. However, the number of cases was limited and therefore further studies are needed to confirm or reject this theoretically and practically important observation.

  18. Exploring Young Children's Response to Three Genres of Literature in Small-Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jennifer Adams

    2010-01-01

    This teacher research studied second graders' small-group, peer-led discussions about three genres of literature--realistic fiction, biography picture books, and science information books--across one school year (during three units in the fall, winter, and spring). It set out to explore how this peer talk, in general, mediated children's responses…

  19. Pallor as a sign of anaemia in small Tanzanian children at different health care levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Christian B; Sørensen, Jeff E; Bjorkman, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Anaemia is a major complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among small children in sub-Saharan Africa. We studied the performance of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) recommended assessment of no/some/severe pallor as predictor of anaemia in health surveys at community...

  20. Gas cooking is associated with small reductions in lung function in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshammer, H.; Fletcher, T.; Heinrich, J.; Hoek, G.; Hruba, F.; Pattenden, S.; Rudnai, P.; Slachtova, H.; Speizer, F.E.; Zlotkowska, R.; Neuberger, M.

    2010-01-01

    Inconsistent effects of gas cooking on lung function have been reported. In a previous study from Austria, we demonstrated a significant, though small, reduction of lung function parameters in children living in homes with gas stoves. We used a larger international database to check if this finding

  1. Social Skills and Leadership Abilities among Children in Small-Group Literature Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certo, Janine L.

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood educators are attempting to shift from the dominant "recitation" format of discussions found in today's classrooms. This study draws on reader response, and sociocognitive and sociocultural theories to investigate children's perceptions of social skills and leadership moves after participating in small-group discussions of…

  2. Impact of Early Nutrition on Body Composition in Children Aged 9.5 Years Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Sonja; Gohlke, Bettina; Peiler, Annika; Schreiner, Felix; Born, Mark; Bartmann, Peter; Woelfle, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate body composition, metabolism and growth as well as their interaction with early nutrition in former extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW), we assessed qualitative and quantitative nutritional intake during initial hospitalization and infantile growth parameters in 61 former ELBW infants with a birth weight <1000 g. In two follow-up exams, physical and biochemical development were measured at 5.7 and at 9.5 years. At the second follow-up, in addition to biochemical reassessment, body composition was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Protein intake between birth and discharge was associated with weight gain in the first six months of life (r = 0.51; p < 0.01). Weight catch-up preceded height catch-up. Protein intake in early infancy correlated highly significantly with abdominal fat mass (r = 0.49; p < 0.05), but not with lean body mass at 9.5 years (r = 0.30; not significant (n.s.). In contrast to nutrient intake, birth weight was associated with lean body mass (r = 0.433; p < 0.001). Early protein and carbohydrate intake were associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and early catch-up growth correlated with fasting insulin at follow-up. Stepwise linear regression demonstrated that protein intake predicted fat mass (p < 0.05), whereas only gender and birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) contributed significantly to lean body mass variation (p < 0.05). Our results suggest an important impact of early nutrient intake on body composition and metabolism in later childhood in ELBW children. PMID:28208596

  3. Impact of Early Nutrition on Body Composition in Children Aged 9.5 Years Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Stutte

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate body composition, metabolism and growth as well as their interaction with early nutrition in former extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, we assessed qualitative and quantitative nutritional intake during initial hospitalization and infantile growth parameters in 61 former ELBW infants with a birth weight <1000 g. In two follow-up exams, physical and biochemical development were measured at 5.7 and at 9.5 years. At the second follow-up, in addition to biochemical reassessment, body composition was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Protein intake between birth and discharge was associated with weight gain in the first six months of life (r = 0.51; p < 0.01. Weight catch-up preceded height catch-up. Protein intake in early infancy correlated highly significantly with abdominal fat mass (r = 0.49; p < 0.05, but not with lean body mass at 9.5 years (r = 0.30; not significant (n.s.. In contrast to nutrient intake, birth weight was associated with lean body mass (r = 0.433; p < 0.001. Early protein and carbohydrate intake were associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, and early catch-up growth correlated with fasting insulin at follow-up. Stepwise linear regression demonstrated that protein intake predicted fat mass (p < 0.05, whereas only gender and birth weight standard deviation score (SDS contributed significantly to lean body mass variation (p < 0.05. Our results suggest an important impact of early nutrient intake on body composition and metabolism in later childhood in ELBW children.

  4. [Use of dried blood spots in early diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in children born to HIV-infected mothers as part of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiakpe, E; Hounto-Ogouyemi, A; Diop Ndiaye, H; Diouara, A A M; Aïssi, A K; Keke, R K; Kpangon, A A; Lafia, B; Métadokou, D; Bouraïma, B; Anthony, D; Hounsinou, A; Alao, M J; Azondekon, A; Ahouidi, A D; Bei, A K; Mbengue, M A S; Touré Kane, C; Zannou, D M

    2016-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate using the molecular diagnosis, infection transmission rate of HIV in children born to HIV-1 positive mothers as part of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in Benin. The sample consisted of 524 dried blood spots (DBS) of children born to HIV-1 positive mothers, from 30 sites (PMTCT) taken between October 2009 and June 2010. The diagnosis of HIV-1 was performed by the qualitative detection of viral nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) in DBS on filter paper using the Abbott RealTime(®) HIV-1 Qualitative assay. We found that 51 DBS were positive (9.7%) and 473 were negative (90.3%). The failure rate of PMTCT among 420 mothers who received antiretroviral prophylaxis was 6.7% (28/420). This failure rate was significantly higher among children born to infected mothers on antiretroviral monotherapy than on triple therapy (HAART). The results of our study enrich the data in the literature on highly active antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis to reduce the transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child.

  5. Small bowel obstruction in children: usefulness of CT for diagnosis and localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Cheol; Kim, Young Tong; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of CT for the diagnosis of the cause and localization of small bowel obstruction. Out of a group of children who underwent a CT examination for a suspected small bowel obstruction, 19 patients with confirmed underlying disorders were identified and included in the study. Neonates and patients with duodenal obstruction were excluded from the study. The CT findings were analyzed for the location of obstruction site, abnormalities of the mesentery and mesenteric vessels, bowel wall thickening, closed loop obstruction, and strangulation. The obstruction site was divided into five parts. The preoperative CT diagnosis was compared with the final diagnosis. Causes of small bowel obstruction were intussusception (n = 6), appendiceal perforation (n = 4), transmesenteric internal hernia (n = 2), postoperative bands (n = 1), idiopathic multiple bands (n = 1), a foreign body (n = 1), a small bowel adenocarcinoma (n = 1), Meckel's diverticulitis (n = 1), tuberculous peritonitis (n = 1) and Salmonella enteritis with bowel perforation (n = 1). The CT findings showed mesenteric vascular prominence (n = 13), omental or mesenteric infiltration (n = 10), localized bowel wall thickening (n = 7) closed loops obstruction (n = 3) and strangulation (n = 1). The obstruction site was identified in all cases. The causes of obstruction could be diagnosed preoperatively in 14 cases, but a preoperative diagnosis was difficult in 5 cases. The causes of small bowel obstruction in children are variable, and CT is useful for evaluating the cause and localization of small bowel obstruction.

  6. 306例出生缺陷患儿追踪结局分析%Analysis of the outcome of 306 children born with birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 彭振耀; 刘凯波; 潘迎

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解活产出生缺陷患儿的结局.方法 对306例2007年7月~2008年9月分娩且家长均居住在北京市海淀区的306例活产出生缺陷患儿,分娩6~8个月时通过电话调查方式询问出生缺陷惠儿家长.结果 306例出生缺陷种类主要为先天性心脏病、多指/趾、除小耳和无耳的外耳畸形、睾丸未降、尿道下裂,占调查总数的75.16%o出生缺陷患儿分娩后6~8个月时的追踪结局主要包括:死亡15例(占4.90%),到医院复诊过至少1次的208例(占67.97%),未到医院复查的76例(占27.13%),家长拒绝承认孩子有出生缺陷的7例(占2.29%).结论 先天性心脏病仍然是影响婴儿死亡和健康的最主要的出生缺陷;应提高出生缺陷的筛查、诊断水平,明确出生缺陷诊断标准;加强医生与出生缺陷患儿家长的沟通.%Objective: To describe the outcome of children born with birth defects. Methods: Between July 2007 and September 2008, 306 live bom cases of birth defects were diagnosed and registered by the Beijing Birth Defects Monitoring network-a hospital based birth defects registry system. Their parents were called to assess their survival status from birth up to the age of 6 - 8 months. Results: The major birth defects types were congenital heart defects, polydactyly, congenital malformations of ear excluding absence of ear, undescended testicle, hypospadias, the total proportions of all was 75. 16%. The proportions of all live born infants with birth defects , died at the end of the 6-8 months, having been to the hospital once at least, not having been to the hospital, not acknowledging the fact of infants' birth defects were 4. 90% , 67. 97% , 27. 13% , and 2. 29% respectively. Conclusions; Congenital heart disease make an important contribution to infant mortality and health. The level of screening and diagnosis of birth defects should be improved. The relationship of physician and parents of children bom with birth defects should

  7. A Register-Based Study of Diseases With an Autosomal Recessive Origin in Small Children in Denmark According to Maternal Country of Origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlund, Anna; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Pedersen, Grete Skøtt

    2015-01-01

    information on consanguinity is lacking, this suggestion is difficult to test. With an indirect approach, we addressed this question by comparing the risk of diseases with autosomal recessive inheritance in children born in Denmark of Danish-born women and of women born in these five countries, respectively....... METHODS: All children born in Denmark (1994-2010) were followed until 5 years of age or end-of-study period for the risk of hospitalisation with diseases of autosomal recessive aetiology, and therefore considered consanguinity-related. Diagnoses of autosomal recessive diseases were identified using two...... different methods: a literature review of consanguinity-associated diseases and a search in the Online Catalogue of Human Genes and Genetic Disorders. Risks were also calculated for diseases with known non-autosomal recessive aetiology (considered non-consanguinity-related). We estimated adjusted hazard...

  8. Estimating Steatosis Prevalence in Overweight and Obese Children: Comparison of Bayesian Small Area and Direct Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Khalkhali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Often, there is no access to sufficient sample size to estimate the prevalence using the method of direct estimator in all areas. The aim of this study was to compare small area’s Bayesian method and direct method in estimating the prevalence of steatosis in obese and overweight children. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, was conducted on 150 overweight and obese children aged 2 to 15 years referred to the Children's digestive clinic of Urmia University of Medical Sciences- Iran, in 2013. After Body mass index (BMI calculation, children with overweight and obese were assessed in terms of primary tests of obesity screening. Then children with steatosis confirmed by abdominal Ultrasonography, were referred to the laboratory for doing further tests. Steatosis prevalence was estimated by direct and Bayesian method and their efficiency were evaluated using mean-square error Jackknife method. The study data was analyzed using the open BUGS3.1.2 and R2.15.2 software. Results: The findings indicated that estimation of steatosis prevalence in children using Bayesian and direct methods were between 0.3098 to 0.493, and 0.355 to 0.560 respectively, in Health Districts; 0.3098 to 0.502, and 0.355 to 0.550 in Education Districts; 0.321 to 0.582, and 0.357 to 0.615 in age groups; 0.313 to 0.429, and 0.383 to 0.536 in sex groups. In general, according to the results, mean-square error of Bayesian estimation was smaller than direct estimation (P

  9. Algorithm for the diagnosis of anaemia without laboratory facilities among small children in a malaria endemic area of rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Christian B; Soerensen, Jeff; Bjorkman, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Anaemia among small children in tropical Africa is common and often caused by infection with Plasmodium falciparum. The diagnosis of anaemia is difficult without a laboratory estimation of haemoglobin. The aim of this study was to examine if clinical findings related to malaria and anaemia would...... help to detect moderate and/or severe anaemia in children in rural Tanzania....

  10. HIV感染孕产妇所生儿童的死亡状况分析%An analysis of mortality situation of children born by HIV-infected mothers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方利文; 邢再玲; 王临虹; 王前; 张伟; 孙定勇; 黄越华; 张燕

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解我国艾滋病高流行地区艾滋病感染孕产妇所生儿童的死亡状况.方法 于2008年8~11月在我国艾滋病高发4省7县/区对2004年1月~2007年12月期间艾滋病感染孕产妇所生儿童的死亡状况进行回顾性调查,分析儿童死亡原因及死亡水平.结果 艾滋病感染孕产妇所生新生儿死亡率为33.71‰,婴儿死亡密度为110.78/1 000人年,5岁以下儿童死亡密度为59.83/1 000人年;艾滋病感染婴儿死亡率为352.94‰,艾滋病感染孕产妇所生非艾滋病感染婴儿死亡率为62.50‰;艾滋病感染孕产妇所生的5岁以下死亡儿童中,44.90%死于艾滋病,15.56%死于早产低出生体重.结论 我国艾滋病高流行地区艾滋病感染孕产妇所生儿童死亡率处于较高水平,艾滋病感染孕产妇所生儿童死亡的首要原因是艾滋病,其次是早产低出生体重.%Objective To investigate mortality rate of children born by HIV-infected mothers in some HIV highly prevalent areas in China. Methods The mortality situation of children born by HIV-positive mothers in 7 counties or prefectures of 4 provinces of HIV highly prevalent areas in China in a period from January, 2004~December, 2007 was investigated retrospectively for cause of death and mortality rate from August to November, 2008. Results The mortality rate of neonate born by HIV-infected mothers was 33.71‰, the infantile mortality density was 110.78 /1 000 infant-year, the mortality density of children under 5 years was 59.83 /1 000 child-year; the mortality rate in HIV-infected infants was 352.94‰; the mortality rate in HIV-uninfected infants born by HIV-infected mothers was 62.50‰. Among dead children under 5 years, 44.90% of them died from HIV/AIDS and 15.56% of them died from premature low birth weight. Conclusion The mortality rate of children born by HIV-infected mothers in HIV highly prevalent areas in China is high. The first cause of death of children born by HIV

  11. Prevalence of dental caries in children born prematurely or at full term Prevalência de cárie dentária em crianças nascidas prematuramente e a termo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuze Batista Lamas Gravina

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries in 192 children, 96 born prematurely and 96 at full term, in a regional hospital in Brazil. Mean age at clinical examination was 40.72 months in the full-term group (G1 and 30.44 months in the premature group (G2. The children were divided in two age subgroups: 0 to 3 and 4 to 6 years. Statistical results (Student's t and Kruskal-Wallis tests showed that dmft was 0.43 for G1 and 0.01 for G2 in the 0-3 age subgroup, and 1.7 for G1 and 1.1 for G2 in the 4-6 age subgroup. Differences were significant between G1 and G2 only in the 0-3 age subgroup (p = 0.047. Caries evaluation showed that, of the 96 children in G1, 75 were caries free, while in G2, 84 did not have the disease. These differences were not significant (p = 0.088. The lower mean dmft found in the 0-3 age subgroup in G2 may be attributed to routines established by the hospital's neonatology staff, such as frequent dental visits and preventive instructions about oral habits, oral hygiene and diet. After this age, with the completion of the primary dentition, values increased and became similar between the G1 and G2 groups. Results also suggested a highly skewed distribution since most caries were found in only a small number of children.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência da cárie dentária em 192 crianças, 96 nascidas prematuramente e 96 a termo, em um hospital regional no Brasil. A média de idade ao exame clínico foi de 40,72 meses e 30,44 meses para os grupos a termo (G1 e prematuro (G2, respectivamente. As crianças foram divididas em faixas etárias de 0 a 3 e 4 a 6 anos. Os resultados estatísticos (testes t de Student e Kruskal-Wallis mostraram que, entre 0 a 3 anos, o ceo-d foi 0,43 para o G1 e 0,01 para o G2. Entre 4 e 6 anos, o ceo-d foi 1,7 e 1,1 para G1 e G2, respectivamente. Os resultados foram significativos entre G1 e G2 apenas na faixa etária entre 0 e 3 anos (p = 0,047. A

  12. Little Babies: Born Too Soon--Born Too Small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD. Office of Research Reporting.

    The booklet describes the condttion known as low birth weight and suggests ways in which a mother can take precautions against its occurring in her own child. Problems and maternal factors associated with low birth weight babies are discussed, and research on the causes of prematurity and growth retardation are reviewed. (SBH)

  13. Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering from thin polymer films with lamellar structures - the scattering cross section in the distorted-wave Born approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posselt, Dorthe; Busch, Peter; Rauscher, Markus;

    2006-01-01

    Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray or neutron scattering of thin polymer films reveals information about the ordering and preferential orientations of the phase-separated microdomains within the films. The grazing-incidence geometry enhances the surface sensitivity; however, the scattering has t...

  14. Características de comportamento do filho único vs filho primogênito e não primogênito Behavioral characteristics of the only child vs first-born and children with siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B. Tavares

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto de ser filho único sobre as caraterísticas de relacionamento com amigos e pais, desempenho escolar, comportamento social e sexual. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo, incluindo um total de 360 adolescentes identificados no terceiro ano do ensino médio de uma escola privada de Porto Alegre, em 2000 e 2001. Adolescentes do sexo masculino e feminino, com idade entre 15 e 19 anos foram selecionados para participar de um estudo transversal. Um questionário anônimo, pré-testado e auto-administrado foi preenchido em sala de aula com dados demográficos, educação dos pais, ordem de nascimento (filho único, primogênito e não primogênito, tabagismo, consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, uso de drogas ilícitas, desempenho escolar, comportamento social e sexual e outras características. RESULTADOS: Identificaram-se 8% de adolescentes filhos únicos, 35% primogênitos e 57% não primogênitos em uma amostra socioeconomicamente homogênea. Comportamento social, relacionamento com os pais e amigos, prática de esportes, tabagismo e uso de drogas não se associaram com ordem de nascimento. Os filhos únicos menos freqüentemente relataram intoxicação alcoólica (39% comparativamente aos primogênitos (68,9%; p=0,03 e adolescentes com irmãos (72,3%; pOBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of being an only child on characteristics of parental and peer relationships, school achievement, social and sexual behavior. METHODS: In the total, 360 adolescents identified at third year of high school were sampled from a private school from Porto Alegre in 2000 and 2001. Fifteen to nineteen years old male and female were selected in a cross-sectional study. Assessment of demographic data, education of the parents, birth order (only child, first born and non-first born children, cigarette smoking, alcoholic beverages consumption, illicit drug use, school achievement, social and sexual behavior were gathered with a pre-tested self

  15. Estudo longitudinal das crianças nascidas em 1982 em Pelotas, RS, Brasil: metodologia e resultados preliminares Study in length of children born in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 1982: metodology and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Gomes Victora

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available Tentou-se acompanhar a morbi-mortalidade e o crescimento de uma coorte de 6.011 crianças urbanas nascidas em 1982 nos hospitais de Pelotas, RS, através de visitas domiciliares aos 12 meses (para uma amostra de 30% das crianças e aos 20 meses (para toda a população. Estas crianças representaram mais de 99% de todos os nascimentos urbanos naquele ano. Foi possível localizar 81% das crianças aos 12 meses e 86% aos 20 meses, devido a uma mudança na estratégia de trabalho de campo. A metodologia empregada e as principais dificuldades encontradas são descritas e as características ao nascer das crianças localizadas no acompanhamento são comparadas com as características das crianças não localizadas. A potencialidade de uso dos dados coletados é exemplificada através de alguns resultados preliminares mostrando as associações entre o peso ao nascer, a renda familiar e o estado nutricional aos 12 meses. O estudo mostra que é possível acompanhar, com uma perda relativamente pequena, uma coorte de crianças com base populacional em uma cidade brasileira de tamanho médio.A cohort of 6,011 urban children born in 1982 in the hospitals of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, was followed up so that their morbidity, mortality and growth could be assessed. These children accounted for over 99% of all births in the city. A 30% sample of the children were visited at home when approximately 12 months old, and the whole population was visited at about 20 months of age. It was possible to locate 81% of the children at 12 months. This proportion increased to 86% at 24 months, due to a change in the logistics of the field work which then included visiting all 69,000 households in the city to locate children whose families had moved within the urban area. The methodology and main difficulties encountered are discussed, and the characteristics at birth of children who were located at the first follow-up visit was compared to those of children lost to

  16. Long-term neurological outcome of term-born children treated with two or more anti-epileptic drugs during the neonatal period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Mariska J.; Roze, Elise; van der Veere, Christa N.; ter Horst, Hendrik J.; Brouwer, Oebele F.; Bos, Arend F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neonatal seizures may persist despite treatment with multiple anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Objective: To determine in term-born infants with seizures that required two or more AEDs, whether treatment efficacy and/or the underlying disorder were related to neurological outcome. Design/met

  17. Nacer pequeño para la edad gestacional puede depender de la curva de crecimiento utilizada To born small for gestational age may depend on the growth curve used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ayerza Casas

    2011-08-01

    medio. La correcta identificación de los PEG permitirá valorar con mejor criterio los riesgos a corto y largo plazo de estos RN.Introduction and objective: Population standards of intrauterine growth are necessary to evaluate if the newborn has grown well, if their nutritional conditions are appropriate and to identify groups at risk as those small for gestational age (SGA. Differences in the number of SGA newborns identified, depending on the standard applied, have been analyzed in this study. Material and methods: Cross-sectional study conducted in 4,486 Caucasian newborns (2,361 boys and 2,125 girls, born between 35 and 41 weeks. Weight and length valuation was performed following the standard methodology. Percentage of children under the 10th percentile for weight and length was calculated depending on the standard used (Olsen et al. 2010, Lubchenco et al. 1966, Delgado et al. 1996, Carrascosa et al. 2008, being diagnosed of SGA. Results: Weight and length were significantly higher in boys than in girls at all ages. 10th percentile values defined for every gestational age are globally similar among the different standards and our population, with the clear exception of Lubchenco curves whose 10th percentile values are even 300 g. lower for the newborns at the highest gestational ages. Lubchenco charts do not fit the pattern of intrauterine growth of our population and identify a smaller number of SGA. The percentage of SGA of our sample ranged between 1.7% and 14% in depending on the standard, sex and gestational age considered. Conclusion: The number of children classified as SGA is different according to each standard used. Lubchenco charts identify a smaller number of SGA than the others. The rest of curves show similar values and seem to be well adapted for our population. The correct identification of SGA will allow a better assessment of short and long-term risks of these newborns.

  18. Action mechanism of small and large molecule surfactant-based clove oil nanoemulsions against food-borne pathogens and real-time detection of their subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Hamid; Antoniou, John; Shoemaker, Charles F; Fang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometry exactly discriminated three subpopulations, i.e., viable, damage and sublethal cells of L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and E. coli when treated at their MIC values. Purity gum ultra (PGU) a large molecule surfactant-based CO nanoemulsion exerted significant impact on cellular subpopulations of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, with more membrane-damaged cells. On the other hand, when compared with bulk CO the results showed minimum membrane damage and more viable cells, whereas PGU CO nanoemulsion showed minimum effect on cellular subpopulation and represented more viable than damaged cells in case of E. coli. Similarly, Tween 80 a small molecule surfactant-based CO nanoemulsion showed limited overall activity against three tested microorganisms with more viable cells. We conclude that it was due to sequestration of CO constituents in interfaces, less availability in aqueous phase and finally inhibit bactericidal activity. Moreover, both CO and CO nanoemulsions showed membrane damage as primary inactivation mechanism of tested bacterial cells.

  19. Evolutional neurologic evaluation of seven year-old children born prematurely Avaliação neurológica evolutiva aos sete anos de idade de crianças nascidas prematuras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Ohiweiler

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 51 children aged 7 with a history of prematurity was compared to 44 age-matched children who were born at term at the HCPA. The premature children had had gestational ages up to 37 weeks and 6 days and were born weighing less than 2500g. The control group consisted of children born with gestational age between 38 and 42 weeks and weights above 2S00g. The evaluation criteria were clinical examination, neurological examination and the evolutional neurological evaluation (ENE. The results pointed out that impulsiveness, aggressiveness, disorganization and enuresis were prevalent symptoms of developmental disturbances in the sample of prematures. Alterations at neurological examination did not discriminate between the two groups, although cerebral palsy occurred only in the proup of prematures. The ENE functions which differentiated the two groups studied were dynamic balance, appendicular and trunk-limb coordination and motor persistence.Para estudar o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor em amostra de prematuros aos 7 anos de idade, foram avaliadas 51 crianças prematuras e comparadas com 44 a termo. O grupo de prematuros tinha idade gestacional de até 37 semanas e 6 dias e peso de nascimento até 2500g. O grupo controle foi constituído de crianças com idade gestacional entre 38 e 42 semanas e acima de 2500g. Os instrumentos de avaliação utilizados foram os exames clinico, neurológico e neurológico evolutivo (ENE. Os resultados mostraram que impulsividade, agressividade, desorganização e enurese foram sintomas prevalentes nos prematuros. As alterações no exame neurológico não discriminaram os grupos, embora paralisia cerebral só tenha ocorrido nos prematuros. As funções do ENE que distinguiram os grupos foram equilíbrio dinâmico, coordenação tronco-membros e persistência motora, constituindo-se esta no comprometimento dominante nos prematuros e as alterações na coordenação tronco-membros em achado peculiar neste

  20. A possible role of the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile in screening for autism: a proof-of-concept study in the specific sample of prematurely born children with birth weights <1,500 g

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranova, Stepanka; Stoklasa, Jan; Dudova, Iva; Markova, Daniela; Kasparova, Martina; Zemankova, Jana; Urbanek, Tomas; Talasek, Tomas; Luukka, Pasi; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the potential of the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP) as a screening tool for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in prematurely born children. Methods Parents of 157 children with birth weights tools subsequently underwent clinical examination including the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Results We used classification trees to answer the question whether ITSP (or some of its subscales) could be combined with the M-CHAT and/or the CSBS-DP-ITC or its subscales into an effective ASD screening tool. Using the CSBS-DP-ITC, overall score, and the Sensation Seeking subscale of the ITSP, we obtained a screening tool that was able to identify all of the ASD children in our sample (confirmed by cross-validation). The proposed screening tool is scored as follows: 1) if the overall CSBS-DP-ITC value is <45.5, then the screening is positive; 2) if the overall CSBS-DP-ITC value is ≥45.5 and the z-score of the Sensation Seeking subscale of ITSP is ≥1.54, then the screening is positive; 3) otherwise, the screening is negative. Conclusion The use of CSBS-DP-ITC in combination with the Sensation Seeking subscale of the ITSP improved the accuracy of autism screening in preterm children. PMID:28182143

  1. Structural and functional development of small intestine in intrauterine growth retarded porcine offspring born to gilts fed diets with differing protein ratios throughout pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickiewicz, M; Zabielski, R; Grenier, B;

    2012-01-01

    from sows fed a control (C, 12.1% protein), a high protein (HP, 30% protein), or a low protein (LP, 6.5% protein) diet during pregnancy. Newborns were classified as IUGR (birth weight =1.18 kg) and non-IUGR (birth weight >1.18 kg). The piglets were euthanized on postnatal day (PD)1, PD28 and PD188......Protein level in the maternal diet plays a crucial role in fetal programming during pregnancy. Low or high protein level increases the risk of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The aim of this study was to investigate the structural and functional development of the small intestine in piglets....... The LP diet in non-IUGR neonates resulted in decreased body weight on PD1. The LP and HP diets resulted in both decreased body weight and delayed catch-up growth in the IUGR piglets. The HP and LP-diets increased the length of villi on PD1 in non-IUGRs but not in IUGRs. At birth, the expressions of Ki67...

  2. The Effectiveness of the Constant Time Delay Procedure in Teaching Pre-School Academic Skills to Children with Developmental Disabilities in a Small Group Teaching Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, Ozgul; Gursel, Oguz

    2014-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are trained using different teaching arrangements. One of these arrangements is called small-group teaching. It has been ascertained that a small-group teaching arrangement is more effective than a one-to-one teaching arrangement. In that sense, teaching academic skills to pre-school children in small-group…

  3. Innovative Born Globals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Sascha; Brem, Alexander; Muench, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Internationalization is a hot topic in innovation management, whereby the phenomenon of “Born Globals” is still limited to research in the domains of Entrepreneurship and International Management. As business model design plays a key role for Born Globals, we link these two concepts. For this, we...

  4. Food-borne Zoonoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The awareness of food borne illness has shifted over the years as international agribusiness and transportation have steadily increased. At least 30 food borne agents have been identified, with one-third emerging in the last 3 decades. Despite an increased emphasis on control measures, t...

  5. Screening for Dysregulation among Toddlers Born Very Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; MacLean, Peggy; Duvall, Susanne Woolsey; Lowe, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children born very low birth weight (VLBW) are at increased risk for regulatory difficulties. However, identifying toddlers at risk has been impeded by a lack of screening measures appropriate for this population. Methods: We studied the nature of dysregulation in toddlers born VLBW (N = 32) using the Infant-Toddler Social and…

  6. Estudo longitudinal do desenvolvimento de crianças nascidas pré-termo no primeiro ano pós-natal Longitudinal study of the development of children born preterm in the first year of post-natal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Dantas Andréz Nobre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar indicadores de desenvolvimento de crianças nascidas pré-termo e comparar o desempenho nas faixas de 5 a 7 e 10 a 14 meses de idade corrigida. Foram relacionados indicadores do desenvolvimento com variáveis neonatais e do ambiente familiar e sexo. Trinta crianças foram avaliadas pelo Denver-II. As cuidadoras responderam à entrevista e o prontuário médico foi analisado. Na faixa de 5 a 7 meses, 20 % das crianças apresentaram risco para problemas de desenvolvimento e 27% de 10 a 14 meses. Houve diferença significativa entre as fases com mais risco na linguagem na faixa de 10 a 14 meses. As crianças nascidas com menor peso e idade gestacional, que permaneceram mais tempo hospitalizadas e com situações familiares adversas apresentaram mais problemas de desenvolvimento.The aim of the study was to assess the development of children born preterm and to compare the performance in the ranges of 5-7 and 10-14 months of corrected age. The children's development indicators and the variables of neonatal period and familial environment were correlated. Thirty children were assessed by Denver-II. The caregivers were interviewed and the medical chart was examined. Twenty per cent of children presented risk for developmental problems at 5-7 months, and 27% at 10-14 months. There was statistical significant difference between ages in language, with high risk at 10-14. The children with lower birthweight, lower gestational age, longer time stay in the hospital, and with adverse family situations showed higher risk for developmental problems.

  7. Less efficient elementary visuomotor processes in 7- to 10-year-old preterm-born children without cerebral palsy : An indication of impaired dorsal stream processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Butcher, P.R.; Geuze, R.H.; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Bos, Arie; Bouma, A

    2008-01-01

    Follow-up studies of preterm children without serious neurological complications have consistently found deficits in visuomotor skills. To determine whether these deficits may be related to impaired elementary visuomotor processes, we investigated movement programming and execution of simple pointin

  8. The case for addressing primary resistance mutations to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors to treat children born from mothers living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khady Kébé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV drug resistance mutations (DRMs was estimated in 25 untreated infants who were living with HIV-1, younger than 13 months and living in Senegal. Antiretroviral DRMs were detected in 8 of 25 (32% children. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI DRMs were present in all (100% children whose viruses harboured DRMs: K103N in 43%; Y181C, K101E and V106M each in 29%; and Y188L in 14%. The D67N thymidine-analogue mutation was observed in only two children whose mothers had received chemoprophylaxis of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT. The proportion of children whose viruses harboured DRMs was then 6.5-fold higher in children whose mother–child couples had received nevirapine (NVP-based chemoprophylaxis than in other couples without prophylaxis [7 of 13 (53.8% vs. 1 of 12 (8.3%]. These findings point to the absolute need to address primary resistance mutations in case of virological failure in young children treated by antiretroviral drugs, and to make more effective treatment regimens available to NVP-exposed infants living with HIV-1 in Senegal.

  9. Analysis of cytokine gene expression in stimulated T cells of small children by semi-quantitative PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Koning (Hedda); M.R.M. Baert (Miranda); R. de Groot (Ronald); H.J. Neijens (Herman); H.F.J. Savelkoul (Huub)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractOnly limited amounts of peripheral blood samples can be obtained from small children. Therefore, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) aided analysis of cytokine gene expression by PBMC or T cells is a valuable tool. We present a combination of procedures to obtain an accurate estimation of

  10. Popularity of processed foodstuffs for infants and small children among parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Górecka

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of seven groups of processed foodstuffs (soups, dinners, pulverized fruits and vegetables, desserts, dairy desserts, juices, teas for infants and small children aged 4 months up to 3 years, available on the market and comprising a total of 154 products, was investigated in this study. A survey was carried out in the group of 100 individuals. They were mothers and fathers bringing their children to crèche as well as buying analysed products. Among 24 soups vegetable soup with rabbit meat, vegetable soup and vegetable soup with chicken turned out to be most popular, as they were bought by 26%, 25% and 24% parents, respectively. In the group of second courses the most popular included vegetable with rabbit meat (19%, vegetables with lamb and groats (17% and lamb in vegetable stew (16%. The most popular pulverized fruits and vegetables included apple (32%, apple with blueberries (27%, carrot and apple (26% and carrot, apple and forest berries (23%. In the group of fruit and cereal desserts mango with banana and passion fruit juice turned out to be the most popular (22%, while among dairy desserts it was vanilla dessert (23%. Out of 30 kinds of juices, parents purchased most frequently carrot and apple juice (52% and apple juice (37%, while in the group of teas it was fennel tea as well as camomile tea and herbal tea for colds. A total of 33% and 29% parents, respectively, bought the above mentioned teas. Most respondents were of the opinion that the taste of these products was slightly inferior to those prepared at home and the price was too high, but they bought them for their convenience.

  11. Women in History--Marian Wright Edelman: Crusader for Civil and Children's Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Shirley J.

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Marian Wright Edelman, a crusader for civil and children's rights. She was born June 6, 1939, at a time when prejudice and segregation were the norm. The Wright family lived in a small, southern town of Bennetsville, South Carolina, where Marian was the youngest of five children. Her father, the Reverend Arthur Jerome Wright,…

  12. Children’s E-books are Born: How E-books for Children are Leading E-book Development and Redefining the Reading Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Schreurs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Children’s e-books waited to emerge until technology could support their advanced requirements. Recent technologies such as colour e-readers and tablets like Apple’s iPad provide support for heavy visual content and opportunities for interactivity. E-books for children have grown in availability and popularity and now include puzzles, games, music, video, and audio features that boost narratives and create a unique reading experience that is further from print than ever before. This article positions e-books for children as leaders in e-book development. It reviews concepts, practices, and scholarship in the area of e-books for children and highlights issues with definitions and research caused by the rapid growth of enhanced and interactive e-books. There is little argument among scholars and practitioners that the reading experience is changing, and the new generation of readers may have different opinions, assumptions, and preferences for the meanings of ‘book’ and ‘reading’. Managing these shifts in the reading experience, which is still strongly tied to notions from print culture, is an important role for LIS scholars, librarians, educators, and parents. Recent research on e-books for children focuses largely on literacy and education. Little attention has been paid to if and why children enjoy the e-reading experience. Additionally, the majority of current research examines children’s e-reading from an adult perspective with most surveys and interviews consulting parent participants and not children. An examination of relevant research as well as literature on the history and conceptualization of e-books and reading as an evolving experience reveals that, from new technologies to new experiences and new definitions, e-books for children are pushing toward the future of reading.

  13. 河南省农村HIV阳性产妇分娩婴儿营养状况评价%Nutritional assessment of children born to HIV infected mothers in Henan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奇; 韩萍; 孙定勇; 王玲; 王旗

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nutrition status of children born to human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) -infected mothers in rural area of Henan province. Methods Totally 160 children were included in the research. Z scores of weight for age,height for age,and weight for height were calculated using WHO Anthro 2010 at birth and 1,3,6,9, 12,and 18 months of age. Z scores based on WHO standard were used to evaluate nutrition status of the children. Results Among the children, 128 were HIV negative and 32 HIV positive. The incidence of underweight in the HIV-negative children was lower than in HIV-positive children except for the children at the age of 3 months (P <0. 05). The incidence of stunning in HIV-negative children was lower than in HIV-positive children at 6,12, and 18 months of age( P < 0. 05). The growth trend of Z values for age-related weight (WAZ) in HIV-negative children was better than in HIV-positive children (P <0. 05) and the WAZ ranged from - 0. 59 to 0. 79 for HIV-negative children and - 1. 41 to - 0. 04 for HIV-positive children. There were significant differences in Z values for age-related height (HAZ) at 9 and 18 months of age between two groups and HAZ ranged from - 1. 22 to - 0. 17 for HIV-negative children and - 1. 89 to - 0. 14 for HIV-positive children. The length and weight of the children at different months of age were lower than the normal standards significantly. Conclusion The incidence of malnutrition in the children born to HIV infected mothers in rural area of Henan province is high, especially in the HIV-positive children.%目的 了解河南省农村地区艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染母亲分娩婴幼儿的营养状况.方法 使用WHO的Anthro 2010软件,分别计算160名婴幼儿在满1、3、6、9、12、18月龄的年龄别体重、年龄别身高、身高别体重Z值评分,以WHO参考人群为标准评估婴幼儿的营养状况.结果 共调查满18月龄存活婴幼儿160人,其中HIV阳性婴幼儿32

  14. Hepatitis B virus (HBV status of children born to HIV/HBV co-infected women in a French hospital: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Sellier

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV Mother-To-Child-Transmission (MTCT and prevention by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART have been extensively studied. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV MTCT from HIV/HBV co-infected women and prevention by antiretroviral therapy with dual activity have been poorly studied. The aim of the study was to assess HBV MTCT from HIV/HBV co-infected women in a developed country with a large access to cART. Materials and Methods: HIV/HBV co-infected pregnant women attending the Obstetrics Department from 1st January 2000 to 1st January 2012 could be included in the study (NCT02044068. Antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy, injection of immunoglobulin and/or vaccine to newborns was retrospectively recorded. We assessed HBV status of children at least as old as two years. Results: Forty nine (9.2% from 530 HIV-infected women followed in the hospital were HIV/HBV co-infected. 34 (69.4% had given birth to 57 children in the hospital. 13 of these women (22 children were lost-to-follow-up, 21 women (35 children could be studied. Twenty six children (74.3% had HBs Ab at a protective level, 22 of them had received immunoglobulin at birth; 24 had received a complete vaccine schedule during the first six months of life (with immunoglobulin in 21 cases. The women had been given lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine during eight and nine pregnancies respectively. Eight children (22.8% were tested negative for HBs Ag, HBs Ab and HBc Ab: 4 (11.4% had received immunoglobulin and a complete vaccine schedule; in two children, immunoglobulin was uncertain; in one child, the vaccine schedule was incomplete; in the last one, data about immunoglobulin and the vaccine schedule were lacking. The women had been given lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine during five and two pregnancies respectively. One child had HBc Ab and HBs Ab, immunoglobulin was uncertain and the vaccine schedule was incomplete. The woman had been given lamivudine

  15. No Place: Small Children in Norwegian Asylum-Seeker Reception Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeberg, Marie Louise; Bagge, Cecilie; Enger, Truls Andre

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on empirical material from fieldwork among young children living with their families in two Norwegian reception centres for asylum-seekers, this article compares their realities to the norms and realities for other children in Norway. Children's spatial and social situations within the centres stand out in stark contrast to Norwegian…

  16. Birth Defects Among Children Born to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Protocols 219 and 219C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogly, Susan B.; Abzug, Mark J.; Watts, D. Heather; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Williams, Paige L.; Oleske, James; Conway, Daniel; Sperling, Rhoda S.; Spiegel, Hans; Van Dyke, Russell B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Some studies have detected associations between in utero antiretroviral therapy (ARV) exposure and birth defects but evidence is inconclusive. Methods: A total of 2202 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed children enrolled in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219 and 219 C p

  17. Depression, Somatization, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children Born of Occupation After World War II in Comparison With a General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Marie; Kuwert, Philipp; Braehler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide

    2015-10-01

    At the end of World War II and during the first decade after the war, roughly 200,000 children were fathered in intimate contacts between German women and foreign soldiers. The experiences of these German occupation children (GOC) have been so far described in case reports and from historical perspective only. Research on psychosocial consequences of growing up as a GOC has been missing so far. This study examined traumatic experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatization, and depression in GOC (N = 146) using self-report instruments: Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire. Findings have then been compared with a representative birth cohort-matched sample from the German general population (N = 977). German occupation children showed significantly higher prevalence rates of most traumatic experiences, higher point prevalence rates of full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and somatization than the control group. In summary, GOC often grew up under difficult conditions (e.g., poverty, single mothers, and stigmatization). Even decades later, they showed higher rates of different mental disorders and higher comorbidity. These findings underline the complex and long-term impact of their burdened social, financial, and familial conditions. The results underpin the importance of conceptualizing occupation children as a vulnerable group in postconflict settings.

  18. Description of the methodology used in an ongoing pediatric care interventional study of children born with cleft lip and palate in South America [NCT00097149

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariona Alejandra

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The contribution of birth defects, including cleft lip and palate, to neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity is substantial. As other mortality and morbidity causes including infections, hygiene, prematurity, and nutrition are eradicated in less developed countries, the burden of birth defects will increase proportionally. Methods/Design We are using cleft lip and palate as a sentinel birth defect to evaluate its burden on neonatal and infant health and to assess the effectiveness of systematic pediatric care during the first month and first two years of life in decreasing this burden. The neonatal intervention, consisting of weekly pediatric evaluation and referral to appropriate care, is delivered to about 696 infants born with cleft lip and/or palate in 47 hospitals in South America. Neonatal mortality in this group will be compared to that in a retrospective control group of about 464 infants born with cleft lip and/or palate in the same hospitals. The subgroup of infants with isolated clefts of both the lip and palate (about 264 is also randomized into two groups, intervened and non-intervened, and further followed up over 2 years. Intervened cases are evaluated by pediatricians every three months and referred for appropriate care. The intervened and non-intervened cases will be compared over study outcomes to evaluate the intervention effectiveness. Non-intervened cases are matched and compared to healthy controls to assess the burden of cleft lip and palate. Outcomes include child's neurological and physical development and family social and economic conditions. Discussion Large-scale clinical trials to improve infant health in developing countries are commonly suggested, making it important to share the methods used in ongoing studies with other investigators implementing similar research. We describe here the content of our ongoing pediatric care study in South America. We hope that this may help researchers

  19. [Incidence of congenital heart disease and factors associated with mortality in children born in two Hospitals in the State of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendieta-Alcántara, Gustavo Gabriel; Santiago-Alcántara, Elia; Mendieta-Zerón, Hugo; Dorantes-Piña, Ramsés; Ortiz de Zárate-Alarcón, Gabriela; Otero-Ojeda, Gloria A

    2013-01-01

    We studied the incidence, survival, and risk factors for mortality in a cohort of infants for a period of five years, born in two hospitals, one a second-level General Hospital, the second a tertiary perinatal hospital, both in the City of Toluca. The analysis of survival was performed with the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox regression was used to estimate the risk of death according to different factors. We found an overall incidence of 7.4 per 1,000 live births; in preterm infants, the rate was 35.6 per 1,000, and in term newborns it was 3.68 per 1,000. The most common heart disease was the ductus arteriosus in the overall group and in preterm infants; in term newborns the most common was the atrial septal defect. The specific mortality was 18.64%, follow-up was 579 days, where we found, according to Kaplan-Meier, survival of an average of 437.92 days, with 95% confidence intervals of 393.25 to 482.6 days, with a standard error of 22.79 days; the cumulative probability of survival was 0.741, with a standard error of 0.44. In Cox regression, two variables had a high hazard ratio (HR): these were the presence or absence of cyanosis and the hospital where they were treated as newborns.

  20. Higher weight status of only and last-born children. Maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes among 4-8 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosli, Rana H; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Miller, Alison L

    2015-09-01

    Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behavior, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values < 0.05). The association between youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions.

  1. (Influence of environmental factors on the spread of lambliasis in collectivities of small children)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munteanu, E.; Munteanu, I.; Csueroes, V.

    1980-01-01

    In 1977, coproparazitological examinations, prophylactic and therapeutical studies were carried on 225 children in 14 day nurseries and homes in Cluj-Napoca; 21.57% of children suffered from intestinal parasitosis, giardiasis being found in 92.13% of the infested children. The high incidence of giardiasis led the authors to investigate the hygienic level of the environment. The high frequency of enterobacteriaceae opportunists (77.59%), identified on the hands of the personnel and on certain objects manipulated by the children, pointed to fecal pollution and poor sanitary conditions. The contaminated objects are sources of propagation of Giardia lamblia cysts. The increased incidence of giardiasis and of enterobacteriaceae opportunists in the environment were found both in the communities with many children and in those with few children.

  2. Childrens' Recollections of the Falklands Crisis: A Small-Scale Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Joyce

    1984-01-01

    Children in Great Britain were asked about their recollections of the Falklands crisis six months after it ended. Children recalled facts, sequences of events, their feelings, and media coverage of the war. Implications of these findings on what is seen as normal and the formation of nationalistic attitudes are discussed. (Author/IS)

  3. Academic performance in adolescents born after ART—a nationwide registry-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangmose, Anne Lærke; Malchau, Sara; Schmidt, Lone

    2017-01-01

    when compared with SC singletons, yet the differences were small and probably not of clinical relevance. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous studies have shown similar intelligence quotient (IQ) levels in ART and SC children, but only a few have been on adolescents. Academic performance measured...... with two SC control cohorts: a randomly selected singleton population (n = 5660) and all twins (n = 7064) born from 1995 to 1998 in Denmark. Nine children who died during the follow-up period were excluded from the study. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Mean test scores on a 7-point-marking scale...... singletons and ART twins. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Missing data on educational test scores occurred in 6.6% of adolescents aged 15-16 years for the birth cohorts 1995-1997, where all of the children according to their age should have passed the ninth grade exam at the time of data retrieval...

  4. Major Congenital Metabolic Disorders in the First 12 years of Life in 79,100 Consecutively Born Children in Qazvin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Movafagh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDeficient enzyme activity may cause congenital metabolic defects. These defectsare inherited in an autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linkedpatterns. This study was aimed at investigating the occurrence of metabolicdiseases in Qazvin Province.Materials & MethodsThis cross-sectional study was performed on 79,100 children aged 12 years orless between 2000 and 2010. Clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and allother essential information were assessed to precisely diagnose the metabolicdiseases. The sorted information on congenital metabolic defects of the patients,information included in a checklist, and data were analyzed usnig SPSS.ResultsA total of 57 metabolic disorders were recorded. The difference in the prevalenceof metabolic disorders between male (29 cases and female (28 cases wasnot statistically significant. The most frequent congenital metabolic disorderamong our patients was phenylketonuria (PKU; 5 per 1,000 cases, and the leastcommon disorder was galactosemia (3 per 1,000 cases.ConclusionTimely detection and management of congenital metabolic disorders canhelp save the affected children. Prenatal screening programs, molecular genetherapy, and counseling for consanguineous marriage can play important rolesin reducing the rate of metabolic disorders in this province.Keywords: Congenital metabolic disorders; prevalence; population; Qazvin

  5. Major Congenital Metabolic Disorders in the First 12 years of Life in 79,100 Consecutively Born Children in Qazvin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Movafagh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDeficient enzyme activity may cause congenital metabolic defects. These defectsare inherited in an autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linkedpatterns. This study was aimed at investigating the occurrence of metabolicdiseases in Qazvin Province.Materials & MethodsThis cross-sectional study was performed on 79,100 children aged 12 years orless between 2000 and 2010. Clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and allother essential information were assessed to precisely diagnose the metabolicdiseases. The sorted information on congenital metabolic defects of the patients,information included in a checklist, and data were analyzed usnig SPSS.ResultsA total of 57 metabolic disorders were recorded. The difference in the prevalenceof metabolic disorders between male (29 cases and female (28 cases wasnot statistically significant. The most frequent congenital metabolic disorderamong our patients was phenylketonuria (PKU; 5 per 1,000 cases, and the leastcommon disorder was galactosemia (3 per 1,000 cases.ConclusionTimely detection and management of congenital metabolic disorders canhelp save the affected children. Prenatal screening programs, molecular genetherapy, and counseling for consanguineous marriage can play important rolesin reducing the rate of metabolic disorders in this province.

  6. A study of indoor soccer practice by small children (“category fraldinha”: na ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Adriano Tagliari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Futsal practice in the Fraldinha Category (7 and 8 years old in the Athletic Association of Banco do Brasil (AABB, in Maringa, based on ecological approach. The study is characterized as a descriptive research. The sample, of an intentional kind, was constituted of 10 children. The research was conducted by means of filming, files for observation and a semi-structured interview. Based on the results one can conclude that: the activities that accounted both for significance and temporal persistency were kicking, penalty and collective game. The intepersonal relationships have been basically presented about the children's observations in relation to the coach's explanations, which were not always understood by de children. Besides children had no opportunity to experience different roles during the trainings. There are evidences that the trainings have not given priority to factors that are essential for the development of children at this age.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel in children with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease: evaluation of disease activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexopoulou, Efthymia; Loggitsi, Dimitra; Economopoulos, Nikos; Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Kelekis, Nikolaos L. [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, General University Hospital, Second Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Roma, Eleftheria; Panagiotou, Ioanna; Pahoula, Ioanna [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aghia Sofia Children' s Hospital, First Department of Paediatrics, Athens (Greece)

    2009-08-15

    Examinations using ionizing radiation are frequently used in the evaluation of disease activity in children affected by idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To develop an MR imaging protocol without the need for fluoroscopic insertion of an enteral tube and to assess the disease activity in children with IBD. Included in the study were 37 children (22 girls and 15 boys; age range 7-15 years, mean 11.67 years) with IBD who underwent MR imaging of the small bowel. Of these 37 children, 32 had Crohn disease and 5 had indeterminate colitis. A water solution containing herbal fibres was administered orally or through a nasogastric tube. Patients were imaged on a 1.5-T MR scanner with T1-weighted and {tau}2-weighted sequences followed by a dynamic study using 3-D T1-W images after intravenous administration of gadolinium. The percentage enhancement of the bowel wall was significantly increased in patients with abnormal C-reactive protein (CRP) values compared to patients with CRP values in the normal range (P<0.001). A relatively weak but significant correlation between percentage enhancement of the bowel wall and CRP values was noted during all phases of enhancement. This MR imaging protocol is a safe and well-tolerated method for evaluating disease activity and extraintestinal manifestations of IBD in children. (orig.)

  8. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  9. Tick-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics Tick-Borne Disease Hazards to Outdoor Workers Physical Hazards Heat Stress Cold Stress Sun Exposure Noise Biological Hazards Insects ... No Longer Available Lyme Disease Hazards to Outdoor Workers Physical Hazards Heat Stress Cold Stress Sun Exposure Noise Biological Hazards Insects ...

  10. Adiposity in children born small for gestational age is associated with ?-cell function, genetic variants for insulin resistance and response to growth hormone treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Endocrine Society via http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2015-3019 Background: Genetic susceptibility to insulin resistance is associated with lower adiposity in adults. Insulin resistance, and therefore adiposity, may alter sensitivity to Growth Hormone (GH). We aimed to determine the relationship between adiposity, genetic susceptibility to insulin resistance or insulin secretion, and response to GH treatment in s...

  11. MRI measurements of the pons and cerebellum in children born preterm; associations with the severity of periventricular leukomalacia and perinatal risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Xydis, V.; Argyropoulou, P.I.; Efremidis, S.C. [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina (Greece); Drougia, A.; Andronikou, S. [Neonatology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Medical School, University of Ioannina (Greece); Tzoufi, M. [Department of Paediatrics, Medical School, University of Ioannina (Greece); Bassounas, A. [Department of Computer Science, Unit of Medical Technology and Intelligent Information Systems, University of Ioannina (Greece)

    2003-10-01

    Our purpose was to measure the size of the pons and cerebellum in preterm babies with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), and to study their relationship with the severity of PVL and with perinatal risk factors. We examined 33 premature children, mean gestational age 31 weeks, range 26-36 weeks with PVL on MRI, and 27 full-term controls. On MRI at 0.4-5.5 years (mean 1.4 years) we measured the area of the corpus callosum and vermis, the anteroposterior diameter of the pons and the volume of the cerebellum. The area of the corpus callosum was used as a marker of white matter loss and PVL severity. All regional brain measurements except that of the vermis were significantly lower in patients than controls: corpus callosum (mm{sup 2}): 239.6{+-}92.5 vs 434.8{+-}126.8, P <0.01; pons (mm): 14.8{+-}3.0 vs 17.9{+-}1.4, P <0.01; cerebellum (cm{sup 3}): 68.2{+-}31.6 vs 100.6{+-}28.3, P <0.01; vermis (mm{sup 2}): 808.1{+-}292.2 vs 942.2{+-}246.2, NS. Significant reduction in the area of the vermis: 411.3{+-}203.3 vs 935{+-}252.6 mm{sup 2}; cerebellar volume: 16.3{+-}12.5 vs 96.6{+-}20.2 mm{sup 3}; and the diameter of the pons: 10.1{+-}2.2 vs 17.5{+-}1.3 mm (P <0.01) were observed in seven children with gestational age {<=}28 weeks, severe hypotension and large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). There was a significant correlation between the duration of mechanical ventilation and the size of the vermis, pons and cerebellum (R=-0.65, -0.57 and -0.73, respectively, P <0.01). (orig.)

  12. 早产低出生体质量儿乳牙萌出和相关影响因素的调查研究%Deciduous tooth eruption time in low birth-weight prematurely born children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋; 卢东旭; 邓文娇; 李海飞; 江文; 刘寿桃

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究早产低出生体质量儿乳牙初萌时间,并追踪观察早产低出生体质量儿多个时间点乳牙萌出的数目,探索影响乳牙萌出的相关因素.方法:选择早产低出生体质量儿35例和足月出生婴儿71例为对象,定期进行口腔检查并记录牙齿初萌时间、萌出牙位、萌出数目,统计分析孕周、出生体质量、性别、分娩方式、胎数、喂养方式等因素对乳牙萌出有无影响.结果:①两组最早萌出的牙均为下颌乳前牙,足月儿乳牙初萌明显早于早产低出生体质量儿(P<0.05),其中早产低出生体质量儿乳牙初萌年龄平均为出生后8.9个月,足月儿为出生后7个月;②按照牙齿初萌的生理年龄计算,早产低出生体质量儿牙齿初萌为70.4周,而足月儿为67.3周,两组婴儿间无统计学差异(P>0.05);③早产低出生体质量儿在出生后9个月、12个月时牙齿萌出数目明显低于足月儿(P<0.05);④在影响牙齿萌出的相关因素中,孕周、出生体质量与牙齿初萌年龄呈明显负相关,与牙齿萌出数目明显正相关;而喂养方式、性别、分娩方式以及胎数对乳牙萌出时间没有影响.结论:早产低出生体质量儿乳牙初萌明显较足月儿推迟,但以生理年龄计算,两组婴儿牙齿初萌时间无统计学差异.出生体质量与孕周是影响牙齿初萌时间和牙齿萌出数目的相关因素.%AIM: To compare the eruption time of first deciduous tooth in low birth-weight prematurely bom children with normal birth weight full-term born children so as to find out whether the eruption of first deciduous tooth is affected by the birth status. METHODS: Thirty-five low birth weight prematurely born infants and 71 normal birth weight full-term born children were included in this study. Dental examination was performed at 6, 9 and 12 months and all the eruption teeth were recorded. Birth status data was obtained from the medical history of hospital. RESULTS

  13. Interhemispheric Temporal Lobe Connectivity Predicts Language Impairment in Adolescents Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, Gemma B.; Liegeois, Frederique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.; Baldeweg, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways…

  14. An unusual cause of small bowel obstruction in children: lentil soup bezoar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plataras, Christos; Sardianos, Nektarios; Vlatakis, Stephanos; Nikas, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Bezoars are an unusual cause of acute intestinal obstruction in children. Most cases are trichobezoars in adolescent girls who swallow their hair. Lactobezoars are another unusual but occasionally reported cause of intestinal obstruction in neonates. Phytobezoars and food bolus bezoars are the least common types of intestinal obstruction that have been reported in children. Of the few paediatric cases that have been described, the majority involve persimmons. Moreover, all of these cases involve the ingestion of raw fibres or fruit that have not been cooked. We report a case of a girl who presented with acute ileal obstruction because of lentil soup bezoar. Given the wide use of this otherwise nutritional foodstuff, we highlight the danger from its inappropriate preparation to the health of children. This is the first reported case of intestinal obstruction caused by lentils in children and we hope to raise concern among paediatricians regarding this matter.

  15. Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tick-borne Encephalitis (TBE) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tick-borne encephalitis, or TBE, is a human viral ...

  16. EVALUATION OF THE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE SMALL INTESTINE OF HIV INFECTED CHILDREN BY TRANSMISSION AND SCANNING ELECTRONIC MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Araujo Chaves LEITE

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To describe HIV children's small intestinal ultrastructural findings. Methods Descriptive, observational study of small intestine biopsies performed between August 1994 and May 1995 at São Paulo, SP, Brazil. This material pertained to 11 HIV infected children and was stored in a laboratory in paraffin blocks. Scanning and transmission electronic microscopy were used to view those intestine samples and ultrastructural findings were described by analyzing digitalized photos of this material. Ethical Committee approval was obtained. Results In most samples scanning microscopy showed various degrees of shortening and decreasing number of microvilli and also completes effacements in some areas. Derangement of the enterocytes was seen frequently and sometimes cells well defined borders limits seemed to be loosened. In some areas a mucous-fibrin like membrane with variable thickness and extension appeared to partially or totally coat the epithelial surface. Fat drops were present in the intestinal lumen in various samples and a bacterium morphologically resembling bacilli was seen in two occasions. Scanning microscopy confirmed transmission microscopy microvilli findings and also showed little “tufts” of those structures. In addition, it showed an increased number of vacuoles and multivesicular bodies inside various enterocytes, an increased presence of intraepithelial lymphocytes, mitochondrial vacuolization and basement membrane enlargement in the majority of samples analyzed. However, some samples exhibited normal aspect. Conclusions Our study showed the common occurrence of various important intestinal ultrastructural alterations with variable degrees among HIV infected children, some of them in our knowledge not described before.

  17. [Food-borne botulism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuko; Sawada, Mikio; Ikeguchi, Kunihiko; Nakano, Imaharu

    2012-08-01

    Botulism is a neuroparalytic disease caused by neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, and classically presents as palsies of cranial nerves and acute descending flaccid paralysis. Food-borne botulism is the most common form of botulism, and caused by preformed neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. Electrophysiological studies play an important role in the early diagnosis. Confirmation of the diagnosis is based on the detection of botulinum toxins in the patient's serum or stool. In Japan, decades ago, botulism type E occurred, though only sporadically, almost every year, but in recent years, has dramatically decreased in frequency. Botulism is a curable disease when treated early and adequately. Differential diagnosis of cranial nerves and limb muscle palsies with rapid exacerbation should include food-borne botulism.

  18. Where was Joseph Babinski born?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H A G Teive

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy in the neurological literature about where Joseph Babinski was born, including a myth propounded by various important authors that he was born in Lima, Peru. However, according to the most consistent biographical data, he was in fact born in Paris, France, and became a medical celebrity there and in Poland as well as around the world.

  19. Where was Joseph Babinski born?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio A G; Munhoz, Renato P; de Souza, Leonardo Cruz

    2011-01-01

    There is controversy in the neurological literature about where Joseph Babinski was born, including a myth propounded by various important authors that he was born in Lima, Peru. However, according to the most consistent biographical data, he was in fact born in Paris, France, and became a medical celebrity there and in Poland as well as around the world.

  20. Small-World Brain Functional Networks in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Revealed by EEG Synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Chen, Yanni; Lin, Pan; Wang, Jue

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the topologic properties of human brain attention-related functional networks associated with Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT) performance using electroencephalography (EEG). Data were obtained from 13 children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 13 normal control children. Functional connectivity between all pairwise combinations of EEG channels was established by calculating synchronization likelihood (SL). The cluster coefficients and path lengths were computed as a function of degree K. The results showed that brain attention functional networks of normal control subjects had efficient small-world topologic properties, whereas these topologic properties were altered in ADHD. In particular, increased local characteristics combined with decreased global characteristics in ADHD led to a disorder-related shift of the network topologic structure toward ordered networks. These findings are consistent with a hypothesis of dysfunctional segregation and integration of the brain in ADHD, and enhance our understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism of this illness.

  1. Perinatal outcomes among foreign-born and US-born Chinese Americans, 1995-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Keith, Louis G; Kirby, Russell S

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines nativity differences in adverse perinatal outcomes of Chinese-American mothers. Singleton live births to US-resident Chinese women (150,620 foreign-born, 15,040 US-born) and a random sample of 150,620 non-Hispanic White mothers were selected from 1995 to 2000 national linked birth/infant death certificate files. Associations between maternal nativity status and adverse perinatal outcomes were assessed using multivariable logistic regressions. Compared to US-born Chinese mothers, foreign-born Chinese mothers were less likely to be unmarried, teen mothers, have a non-Hispanic White or other race partner, be rural residents, and more likely to be less educated, or utilize prenatal care inadequately. Controlling for these factors, foreign-born Chinese-American mothers had significantly lower risks for low birth weight, preterm birth, and small-for-gestational age, whereas risks for infant mortality, neonatal mortality, and post-neonatal mortality did not differ significantly from those of infants of US-born Chinese mothers. Chinese Americans exhibited clear nativity differentials for adverse birth outcomes.

  2. Foreign-Born Instructors in the U.S.: Intercultural Competence, Teaching Strategies, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilik, Oksana

    2011-01-01

    This study examines intercultural competence, teaching strategies, and job satisfaction of foreign-born instructors in a small U.S. higher education institution. The research questions addressed by this study are: (1) How do foreign-born instructors score on intercultural competence? (2) How do foreign-born instructors' teaching strategies differ…

  3. SGA Children in Pediatric Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gallo MD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiologic evidences suggest a strong association between low birth weight and some diseases in adult life ( hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases.Aim of this study was to evaluate the obesity/overweight prevalence in a population of children born small for gestation age, SGA children 400, 208 males and 192 females compared to a population of children born appropriate for gestational age 6818 AGA children, 3502 males and 3316 females, during childhood. Our intention was also to build the natural history of weight gain during prepubertal age in children born SGA and AGA. Design and Methods: Observational prospective longitudinal study. We followed our patients from January2001 up to December 2010; weight, height and body mass index (BMI were evaluated in all the SGA and AGA children. BMI z-score range for defining overweight and obesity was, respectively, 1.13 to 1.7 and >1.7 according to CDC growth charts. Results: In transversal evaluation, we prove that 10-year-old SGA females are twice obese and more overweight compared to equal age AGA females. In longitudinal evaluation, we highlight different observations: SGA children obese at 2 years are still obese at 10 years; the number of obese SGA children increases gradually until the age of 10; AGA children, appear to be less obese than SGA children at 10 years. Conclusion: SGA males and females are more obese at 5 and 10 years compared to the AGA population. Primary care pediatricians, through early detection of the children at risk, can carry out an effective obesity prevention project in SGA children.

  4. Orange but not apple juice enhances ferrous fumarate absorption in small children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrous fumarate is a common, inexpensive iron form increasingly used instead of ferrous sulfate as a food iron supplement. However, few data exist as to whether juices enhance iron absorption from ferrous fumarate. We studied 21 children, ages 4.0 to 7.9 years using a randomized crossover design. S...

  5. A Classroom-Based Study of Small-Group Planned Improvisation with Fifth-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and describe children's music improvisations and the interactions that transpired within their four-person groups during regular weekly music classes as they planned and performed music improvisations in response to three different prompts: a poem, a painting, and a musical composition. Participants were…

  6. [Treatment of children with intestinal failure: intestinal rehabilitation, home parenteral nutrition or small intestine transplantation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E.G.; Oers, H.A. van; Escher, J.C.; Damen, G.M.; Rings, E.H.; Tabbers, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal failure is characterised by inadequate absorption of food or fluids, which is caused by insufficient bowel surface area or functioning. Children with chronic intestinal failure are dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN), which can be provided at home (HPN). In the Netherlands, HPN for chi

  7. An investigation into infant feeding in children born with cleft lip and (or) palate%唇腭裂患儿早期喂养状况的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华; 李秀娥; 杨鹏远; 杨园园; 梁爽

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the status and influencing factors of infant feeding in children born with cleft lip and (or) palate.Methods Using a descriptive cross-sectional study and convenient sampling,data on early infant feeding status were collected on 92 children with cleft lip and(or) palate aged less than 3 years.Results The main infant feeding mode of the involved children was milk feeding.The rate of breastfeeding was low and only 15 cases(16.3%) experienced breastfeeding more than 6 months.The main feeding difficulties of children with cleft lip and(or) palate were frequent coughing for choke and overflowing with milk,lack of proper feeding equipments and frequent upper respiratory tract infections.Their body weights at 1 month and 3 months after delivery were significantly lower than the average body weight of healthy infants(P<0.05).Breast-feeding and hospitalization had influence on the body weight gain in the first month.Conclusions Feeding problems of children with cleft lip and(or) palate mainly exist in the initial stage.It is suggested to provide feeding intervention for the parents as soon as possible,strengthen feeding skills training for obstetric nurses and intensify the training cleft palate specialist nurses.%目的 了解唇腭裂患儿的早期喂养现状及相关影响因素.方法 采用描述性研究设计,方便选取年龄≤3岁的腭裂伴或不伴有唇裂的患儿92例,通过自设问卷调查患儿母亲及患儿的一般资料和患儿早期喂养的相关情况.结果 唇腭裂患儿的早期喂养方式主要为人工喂养,母乳喂养率较低,只有15例(16.3%)患儿母乳喂养时间超过6个月.唇腭裂患儿主要的喂养困难是“呛咳溢奶频发”、“没有合适的喂养工具”和“上呼吸道感染频发”.唇腭裂患儿第1个月、第3个月的平均体重明显低于同月龄正常儿童(P<0.05);是否母乳喂养及是否因病入院对患儿的满月体重增长情况有影响.结论

  8. 极低出生体重儿童学龄期的行为适应分析%Analysis of behavioral adjustment in school-aged children born with very low birth weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小璐; 钟敏泉; 岑超群; 邹小兵; 杨杰; 钟向明

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To evaluate behavioral adjustment and its influential factors among school-aged children born with very low birth weight(VLBW). [Method] The BASICS Behavioral Adjustment Scale was used to investigate 235 very low birth weight children and 396 normal birth weight(NBW) children who studied in mainstream schools, parents of the children completed the questionaire. [Results] A total of 570 out of 631 questionaires were completed, with a response rate of 90. 3%. Scores for VLBW group in dimension of achievement, self-relations, internal state and total scores were significantly higher than those of the NBW group (respectively 3. 06±0. 93,3. 62 ± 0. 88,4. 11 ± 1. 18 and 3. 19 ± 0. 71 vs 2. 29 ± 0. 85,2. 27 ± 0. 78,2. 45 ± 0. 86 and 2. 31 ± 0. 75,P all<0. 05). Multiple regression analysis showed that higer family economics status and main caregiver education level were predictors of better behavioral adjustment among the VLBW group. While those with neonatal intracranial hemorrhage and higer doses of corticosteroid had worse behavioral adjustment.[conclusion] VLBW children have increased behavior problems, early evaluation and intervention is recommended.%[目的]评估极低出生体重(very low birth weight,VLBW)儿童学龄期行为适应状况并探讨相关的影响因素. [方法]采用BASICS行为适应量表对235名就读主流学校的极低出生体重儿童和396名正常出生体重儿童的家长进行问卷调查. [结果]调查的631个家庭中570个家庭完成问卷,应答率90.3%.极低出生体重儿童组成就[(3.06±0.93)分]、自我关系[(3.62±0.88)分]、内在状态[(4.11±1.18)分]得分及行为适应总分[(3.19±0.71)分]高于正常出生体重儿童组,分别为[(2.29±0.85)分],[(2.27±0.78)分],[(2.45±0.86)分]和[(2.31±0.75)分],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).多元线性回归分析结果显示,家庭收入高、主要管教者受教育程度高的VLBW儿童行为适应较好,新生儿期患颅内出血

  9. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M; Grob, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order, and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children's age, sex, nationality, number of children's books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: the more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings. The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions.

  10. Born-Infeld Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    García-Salcedo, R; Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo; Breton, Nora

    2000-01-01

    We present a model for an inhomogeneous and anisotropic early universe filled with a nonlinear electromagnetic field of Born-Infeld (BI) type. The effects of the BI field are compared with the linear case (Maxwell). Since the curvature invaria nts are well behaved then we conjecture that our model does not present an initial big bang singularity. The existence of the BI field modifies the curvature invariants at t=0 as well as sets bounds on the amplitude of the conformal metric function

  11. Small is the new big: An overview of newer supraglottic airways for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhee Goyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all supraglottic airways (SGAs are now available in pediatric sizes. The availability of these smaller sizes, especially in the last five years has brought a marked change in the whole approach to airway management in children. SGAs are now used for laparoscopic surgeries, head and neck surgeries, remote anesthesia; and for ventilation during resuscitation. A large number of reports have described the use of SGAs in difficult airway situations, either as a primary or a rescue airway. Despite this expanded usage, there remains little evidence to support its usage in prolonged surgeries and in the intensive care unit. This article presents an overview of the current options available, suitability of one over the other and reviews the published data relating to each device. In this review, the author also addresses some of the general concerns regarding the use of SGAs and explores newer roles of their use in children.

  12. Small is the new big: An overview of newer supraglottic airways for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Rakhee

    2015-01-01

    Almost all supraglottic airways (SGAs) are now available in pediatric sizes. The availability of these smaller sizes, especially in the last five years has brought a marked change in the whole approach to airway management in children. SGAs are now used for laparoscopic surgeries, head and neck surgeries, remote anesthesia; and for ventilation during resuscitation. A large number of reports have described the use of SGAs in difficult airway situations, either as a primary or a rescue airway. Despite this expanded usage, there remains little evidence to support its usage in prolonged surgeries and in the intensive care unit. This article presents an overview of the current options available, suitability of one over the other and reviews the published data relating to each device. In this review, the author also addresses some of the general concerns regarding the use of SGAs and explores newer roles of their use in children.

  13. Analysis of cyt0kine gene expression in stimulated T cells of small children by semi-quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Koning

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Only limited amounts of peripheral blood samples can be obtained from small children. Therefore, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR aided analysis of cytokine gene expression by PBMC or T cells is a valuable tool. We present a combination of procedures to obtain an accurate estimation of the expression of the cytokines IL-4 and IFN-γ. This can be performed on T cells purified from blood samples of up to 5 ml in volume from children aged 0–4 years with allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. This procedure includes multiple sampling of PCR products to determine the linear phase of the PCR; inter-experiment correction using a helper T-cell clone, expressing both IL-4 and IFN-γ; interpatient correction by comparing the expression of a housekeeping gene (HPRT; and finally the development of specific software to analyse densitometric data obtained by scanning photographs of agarose gels, separating PCR products. In this way it is possible to study cytokine gene expression from a very small amount of material.

  14. Deceased donor liver transplantation in infants and small children: are partial grafts riskier than whole organs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, Ryan P; Vakili, Khashayar; Potanos, Kristina; Fullington, Nora; Graham, Dionne A; Finkelstein, Jonathan A; Kim, Heung Bae

    2013-07-01

    Infants have the highest wait-list mortality of all liver transplant candidates. Although previous studies have demonstrated that young children may be at increased risk when they receive partial grafts from adult and adolescent deceased donors (DDs), with few size-matched organs available, these grafts have increasingly been used to expand the pediatric donor pool. We aimed to determine the current adjusted risks of graft failure and mortality in young pediatric recipients of partial DD livers and to determine whether these risks have changed over time. We analyzed 2683 first-time recipients of DD livers alone under the age of 24 months in the United Network for Organ Sharing database (1995-2010), which included 1118 partial DD livers and 1565 whole DD organs. Transplant factors associated with graft loss in bivariate analyses (P organs in 2006-2010 [hazard ratio (HR) for graft failure = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.56-1.18; HR for mortality = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.66-1.71]. In conclusion, partial DD liver transplantation has become less risky over time and now has outcomes comparable to those of whole liver transplantation for infants and young children. This study supports the use of partial DD liver grafts in young children in an attempt to significantly increase the pediatric organ pool.

  15. 人工助孕子代的体格和神经精神发育状况%Physiological and neuropsychological development in children born after assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑思锐; 任榕娜; 刘芸

    2012-01-01

    neuropsychological development in children born after assisted reproductive technology(ART),and to evaluate the safety of ART.Methods Eighty-four 6-month-old to 6-year-old children born after ART performed from January 1st,2006 to June 30th,2011 in Reproduction Center of Fuzhou General Hospital were taken as ART group; and 84 matched children born after spontaneous conception were as control group.The physiological and neuropsychological states of these children in their newborn stage and 6-month-old to 6-year-old duration were compared with Chi-square or t test.Results There was no statistical difference in childbearing age of mothers,the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and hypcrtensive disorder complicating pregnancy,delivery mode,living environment,parents' education level,newborn birth length,birth weight,the rate of premature birth,low birth weight,asphyxia and hospitalized to neonatal intensive care unit between two groups (P>0.05).In ART group,the incidence of growth retardation and abnormal social life skills was 6.0 % (5/84) and 1.2 % (1/84),and no statistical difference were found comparing with control guoup [4.8%(4/84) and 1.2%(1/84),x2 =0.12 and 0.00,P>0.05],neither the developmental quotient (95.9±6.1 vs 94.8±5.1,t=1.25,P=0.21).Twins had higher rates of preterm birth [41.8% (33/79) vs 10.1%(9/89),x2 =22.37,OR=6.38,95%CI:2.81-14.50,P=0.00],low birth weight [51.9%(41/79) vs 6.7%(6/89),x2=42.35,OR=14.93,95% CI:5.84-38.16,P=0.00],asphyxia [10.1 % (8/79) vs 1.1 %(1/89),x2 =6.69,OR=9.92,95% CI:1.21~81.15,P=0.01],hospitalized to neonatal intensive care unit [36.7 % (29/79) vs 14.6 % (13/89),x2 =10.90,OR =3.39,95%CI:1.61-7.14,P=0.00] and growth retardation [11.4%(9/79) vs 0.0%(0/89),x2=10.71,RR=0.11,P=0.00] than singleton.Conclusions ART has no negative effects on children's physical and neuropsychological development.It could increase the incidence of twins,so that it might increase the incidences of preterm labor and

  16. Teaching Play Skills to Children with Autism through Video Modeling: Small Group Arrangement and Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Arzu; Batu, Sema; Birkan, Binyamin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine if video modeling was an effective way of teaching sociodramatic play skills to individuals with autism in a small group arrangement. Besides maintenance, observational learning and social validation data were collected. Three 9 year old boys with autism participated in the study. Multiple probe…

  17. Neuroendoscopic Intraventricular Biopsy in Children with Small Ventricles Using Frameless VarioGuide System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avecillas-Chasin, Josué M; Budke, Marcelo; Villarejo, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Endoscopic biopsy for intraventricular tumors in pediatric patients with small ventricles is a challenging procedure because of the risk of morbidity during the intraventricular approach. We describe the use of the VarioGuide system for intraventricular endoscopic biopsy in 9 consecutive pediatric patients with intraventricular lesions and small ventricular size. All patients had lesions in the anterior part of the third ventricle with a median frontal and occipital horn ratio of 0.33. Patients presented with growth failure (n = 4), visual disturbances (n = 4), and seizures (n = 1). The VarioGuide system consists of an ergonomic arm with 3 joints for gross adjustment. The 3 rotational joints on the distal side of the system are adjusted according to the angles of the planned trajectory. The endoscope is adjusted to the distal side of the VarioGuide and inserted through the ring, previously set for the diameter of the endoscope and for the planned trajectory. The accuracy of the trajectory and correct ventricular cannulation are confirmed under endoscopic guidance. The biopsy is carried out according to the standard technique. In all cases, the biopsy sample provided the definitive diagnosis. Diagnoses included germinomas in 4 patients, hamartoma in 1 patient, hypothalamic astrocytoma in 2 patients, and craniopharyngioma in 2 patients. The use of the VarioGuide system for intraventricular endoscopic biopsy is highly recommended for pediatric patients with small ventricle size. This technique may help minimize the risk of unnecessary brain damage during the entrance to small ventricles.

  18. From small beginnings: the euthanasia of children with disabilities in Nazi Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lee

    2011-08-01

    Although they are the lesser known Nazi atrocities, it is estimated that some 5000-8000 children with physical and intellectual disabilities were killed in Nazi Germany under a programme of euthanasia. Chronologically, they were a precedent, being the Nazis' first organised and systematic killing programme that would later enlarge to include adults with disabilities and ultimately, to the broader programme of racially motivated 'euthanasia' of the holocaust. The programme intimately involved medical staff, including a number of paediatricians, many of whom would go unpunished and continue to practice for many years after the war. This paper outlines the origins and development of the programme, examines how families were involved and affected and looks at what motivated the medical staff involved with the killing. The history of the Nazi child euthanasia programme has a number of important lessons for practicing doctors and health policy-makers in the 21st century.

  19. Sera from children with autism induce autistic features which can be rescued with a CNTF small peptide mimetic in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Faraz Kazim

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6, which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism.

  20. Sera from children with autism induce autistic features which can be rescued with a CNTF small peptide mimetic in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Cardenas-Aguayo, Maria Del Carmen; Arif, Mohammad; Blanchard, Julie; Fayyaz, Fatima; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6), which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism.

  1. Small Intestinal and Ileocecal Tuberculosis in Children%儿童小肠及回盲部结核

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟麟; 胡廷泽; 郎诗民

    1992-01-01

    Intestinal tuberculosis in children is rare.Its diagnosis is very difficult preoperatively.Sixteen children with small intestinal and ileocecal tuberculosis were treated in our hospital since 1956.Six were male and 10 were female,patient's age ranged from 3 to 14 years.The diagnosis was confirmed by surgery and pathological study.The surgical complication developed precperatively in all cases (intestinal obstruction 9,inflammatory mass 4 and intestinal fistula D.The diagnosis and the principle of management were discussed in the text.%16例经手术和病理证实的小肠及回盲部结核,术前均以外科并发症就诊,肠梗阻9例,炎性肿块4例,肠穿孔2例,肠瘘1例.结合文献就儿童肠结核的诊断及并发症的处理进行讨论.

  2. Determinants of oral bioavailability of soil-borne contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, Agnes Guadalupe

    2001-01-01

    Children ingest soil, either accidentally via hand-to-mouth behavior or deliberately. In this manner, a child ingests on average between 50 and 200 mg soil/day, although amounts of as much as 60 g/day have also been observed. Hence, soil ingestion can be a main route of exposure to soil-borne

  3. Imitation by Second-Borns in Adult-Sibling Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Albert F.; LaVoie, Joseph C.

    Five- to seven-year-old second-born children from white, middle-class, intact families were the subjects for this study. Older siblings served as role model for each child, and the parent surrogate models were selected from a pool and trained to act as the child's real parent. The imitation task emphasized verbal, postural, and motor responses of…

  4. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eKeller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: The more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings.The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions.

  5. Early Recollections of First-Borns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakouri, M. Ebrahim; Hafner, James L.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the early recollections of 50 first-borns and 98 later-borns. The first-borns mentioned significantly more nonfamily members, illness/injury, hospital/doctor's office. Later-borns mentioned significantly more siblings than did first-borns. Findings were discussed in the context of Adler's personality theory. (JAC)

  6. Long-Term Cognitive Outcomes of Infants Born Moderately and Late Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odd, David Edward; Emond, Alan; Whitelaw, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether infants born late preterm have poorer cognitive outcomes than term-born infants. Method: A cohort study based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Cognitive measures were assessed between the ages of 8 and 11 years. Exposure groups were defined as moderate/late preterm (32-36 weeks' gestation) or term…

  7. Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from foreign-born and Japan-born residents in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Miyazawa, M; Miyoshi-Akiyama, T; Kanno, Y; Takasaki, J; Kirikae, T; Kobayashi, N

    2015-03-01

    Sequences of the full genomes of 259 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, obtained from foreign-born and Japan-born patients in Tokyo, Japan, were determined, and a phylogenetic tree constructed by concatenated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequences. The 259 isolates were clustered into four clades: Lineage 2 (East Asian or "Beijing" genotype; n = 182, 70.3%), Lineage 4 (Euro-American, n = 46, 17.8%), Lineage 1 (Indo-Oceanic, n = 23, 8.9%), and Lineage 3 (East African-Indian, n = 8, 3.1%). Of the 259, 36 (13.9%) were resistant to at least one drug. There was no multi-drug-resistant isolate. Drug resistance was greater for the strains in Lineage 2 than the non-Lineage 2. The proportion of Lineage 2 isolates was significantly smaller in foreign-born (n = 43/91, 47.3%) than in Japan-born (n = 139/168, 82.7%) patients, whereas the proportion of Lineage 1 isolates was significantly larger in foreign-born (n = 19/91, 20.9%) than in Japan-born (n = 4/168, 2.4%) patients. We also found eight SNPs specific to the typical Beijing sub-genotype in Lineage 2, including 4 non-synonymous SNPs. Of the 259 isolates, 244 had strain-specific SNP(s) and small (1-30-bp) insertions and deletions (indels). The numbers of strain-specific SNPs and indels per isolate were significantly larger from foreign-born (median 89, range 0-520) than from Japan-born (median 23, range 0-415) (p 3.66E-15) patients. These results suggested that M. tuberculosis isolates from foreign-born patients had more genetic diversity than those from Japan-born patients.

  8. Microemboli generation, detection and characterization during CPB procedures in neonates, infants, and small children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Khin N; Wang, Shigang; Undar, Akif

    2008-01-01

    In our laboratory, we study different factors that influence the microemboli counts in the extracorporeal circuit using a simulated pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) model identical to the one used in our operating rooms. For monitoring and classification of microemboli, we use the novel Emboli Detection and Classification (EDAC) Quantifier system which allows for real-time monitoring, localization, and size characterization of microemboli as small as 10 microm. Our results show that high flow rates, low perfusate temperature, use of vacuum assisted venous drainage (VAVD), use of roller pump, and pulsatile flow results in higher microemboli counts at postpump site. Microemboli counts at postoxygenator, and postfilter sites are significantly less. This indicates that hollow fiber membrane oxygenator was able to remove most of the microemboli, and an opened arterial filter purge line augments the removal of microemboli that were not captured by the oxygenator. Majority of the microemboli detected at all sites were CPB procedure.

  9. Born-Infeld cosmology with scalar Born-Infeld matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Soumya; Kar, Sayan

    2016-09-01

    Cosmology in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity is investigated using a scalar Born-Infeld field (e.g. tachyon condensate) as matter. In this way, both in the gravity and matter sectors we have Born-Infeld-like structures characterized by their actions and via two separate constants, κ and αT2 , respectively. With a particular choice of the form of ϕ ˙ (the time derivative of the Born-Infeld scalar), analytical cosmological solutions are found. Thereafter, we explore some of the unique features of the corresponding cosmological spacetimes. For κ >0 , our solution has a de Sitter-like expansion both at early and late times, with an intermediate deceleration sandwiched between the accelerating phases. On the other hand, when κ 0 solution are as good as in Λ CDM cosmology. However, the κ <0 solution has to be discarded due to the occurrence of a bounce at an unacceptably low redshift.

  10. Born : vastutustundlikud tulevikus edukad / Kerstin Born ; interv. Kristo Kiviorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Born, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Vastutustundliku ettevõtluse Euroopa organisatsiooni CSR Europe'i juht Kerstin Born vastab küsimustele ettevõtete vastutustundlikkuse kohta ühiskonnas. Vt. samas: Käivitus vastutustundliku ettevõtluse indeks

  11. Born-Infeld cosmology with scalar Born-Infeld matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Cosmology in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity is investigated using a scalar Born-Infeld field (eg. tachyon condensate) as matter. In this way, both in the gravity and matter sectors we have Born-Infeld-like structures characterised by their actions and via two separate constants, $\\kappa$ and $\\alpha_T^2$ respectively. With a particular choice of the form of $\\dot{\\phi}$ (time derivative of the Born-Infeld scalar), analytical cosmological solutions are found. Thereafter, we explore some of the unique features of the corresponding cosmological spacetimes. For $\\kappa>0$, our solution has a de Sitter-like expansion both at early and late times, with an intermediate deceleration sandwiched between the accelerating phases. On the other hand, when $\\kappa0$ solution, are as good as in $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology. However, the $\\kappa<0$ solution has to be discarded due to the occurrence of a bounce at an unacceptably low redshift.

  12. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäderberg, Ida; Thomsen, Simon F; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Skytthe, Axel; Backer, Vibeke

    2012-03-01

    We examined the risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Data on atopic diseases and assisted reproduction in 9694 twin pairs, 3-20 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry were collected via multidisciplinary questionnaires. The risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction was compared with the risk in twins born after spontaneous conception using logistic regression and variance components analysis. Children born after assisted reproduction did not have a different risk of atopic outcomes (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for asthma: 0.95 [0.85, 1.07], P = 0.403; hay fever: 1.01 [0.86, 1.18], P = 0.918; and atopic dermatitis: 1.02 [0.81, 1.11], P = 0.773 respectively) compared with children born after spontaneous conception. Assisted reproduction did not modify the heritability of atopic diseases. This study does not support an association between assisted reproduction and development of atopic diseases. This result must be confirmed in subsequent studies, preferably of singleton populations.

  13. Nanostructures: Scattering beyond the Born approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, S. V.; Syromyatnikov, A. V.; Chumakov, A. P.; Grigoryeva, N. A.; Napolskii, K. S.; Roslyakov, I. V.; Eliseev, A. A.; Petukhov, A. V.; Eckerlebe, H.

    2010-03-01

    The neutron scattering on a two-dimensional ordered nanostructure with the third nonperiodic dimension can go beyond the Born approximation. In our model supported by the exact theoretical solution a well-correlated hexagonal porous structure of anodic aluminum oxide films acts as a peculiar two-dimensional grating for the coherent neutron wave. The thickness of the film L (length of pores) plays important role in the transition from the weak to the strong scattering regimes. It is shown that the coherency of the standard small-angle neutron scattering setups suits to the geometry of the studied objects and often affects the intensity of scattering. The proposed theoretical solution can be applied in the small-angle neutron diffraction experiments with flux lines in superconductors, periodic arrays of magnetic or superconducting nanowires, as well as in small-angle diffraction experiments on synchrotron radiation.

  14. CMB-lensing beyond the Born approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozzi, Giovanni; Fanizza, Giuseppe; Di Dio, Enea; Durrer, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the weak lensing corrections to the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies considering effects beyond the Born approximation. To this aim, we use the small deflection angle approximation, to connect the lensed and unlensed power spectra, via expressions for the deflection angles up to third order in the gravitational potential. While the small deflection angle approximation has the drawback to be reliable only for multipoles l lesssim 2500, it allows us to consistently take into account the non-Gaussian nature of cosmological perturbation theory beyond the linear level. The contribution to the lensed temperature power spectrum coming from the non-Gaussian nature of the deflection angle at higher order is a new effect which has not been taken into account in the literature so far. It turns out to be the leading contribution among the post-Born lensing corrections. On the other hand, the effect is smaller than corrections coming from non-linearities in the matter power spectrum, and its imprint on CMB lensing is too small to be seen in present experiments.

  15. Overnight Levels of Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Growth Hormone before and during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Treatment in Short Boys Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaay, Danielle C. M.; de Jong, Frank H.; Rose, Susan R.; Odink, Roelof J. H.; Bakker-van Waarde, Willie M.; Sulkers, Eric J.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate if 3 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment results in sufficient suppression of pubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) profile patterns in short pubertal small for gestational age (SGA) boys. To compare growth hormone

  16. Overnight levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and growth hormone before and during gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue treatment in short boys born small for gestational age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.M. van der Kaay (Danielle); F.H. de Jong (Frank); S.R. Rose (Susan); R.J.H. Odink (Roelof); W.M. Bakker-Van Waarde (Willie); E.J. Sulkers (Eric); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAims: To evaluate if 3 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment results in sufficient suppression of pubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) profile patterns in short pubertal small for gestational age (SGA) boys. To compare gro

  17. Determinants of Bilingualism among Children

    OpenAIRE

    Chiswick, Barry R.; Gindelsky, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of bilingualism (i.e., speaks a language other than English at home) among children age 5 to 18 years in the American Community Survey, 2005-2011. Two groups of children are considered: those born in the US (native born) and foreign-born children who immigrated prior to age 14 (the 1.5 generation). The analyses are conducted overall, within genders, and within racial and ethnic groups. Bilingualism is more prevalent if the parents are foreign born, less pr...

  18. Born-Infeld gravity coupled to Born-Infeld electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    We investigate spherically symmetric, static spacetimes in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity coupled to Born-Infeld electrodynamics. The two constants, $b^2$ and $\\kappa$ which parametrise the Born-Infeld structures in the electrodynamics (matter) and gravity sectors, characterise the features of our analytical solutions. Black holes or naked singularities are found to arise, depending on the values of $b^2$ and $\\kappa$, as well as charge and mass. Several such solutions are classified and understood through the analysis of the associated metric functions. Interestingly, for a particular relation between these two parameters, $b^2=1/{4\\kappa},\\, \\kappa >0$, we obtain a solution resembling the well-known Reissner-Nordstr\\" om line element, albeit some modifications. We study null geodesics and gravitational lensing using this particular solution. Among interesting features we note $(i)$ a decrease in the radius of the photon sphere with increasing $\\kappa$ and $(ii)$ a net negative contribution in the le...

  19. Low lactase activity in a small-bowel biopsy specimen : Should dietary lactose intake be restricted in children with small intestinal mucosal damage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, HA; Vonk, RJ; Gonera-de Jong, GBC; Priebe, MG; Antoine, JM; Stellaard, F; Sauer, PJJ

    2006-01-01

    Objective. Small intestinal mucosal damage can result in decreased lactase activity (LA). When LA is low in a small-bowel biopsy (SBB) specimen, a reduction of dietary lactose intake is usually advised. This is often done by reducing dietary dairy products, which also reduces the intake of calcium,

  20. CMB-lensing beyond the Born approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Marozzi, Giovanni; Di Dio, Enea; Durrer, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the weak lensing corrections to the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies considering effects beyond the Born approximation. To this aim, we use the small deflection angle approximation, to connect the lensed and unlensed power spectra, via expressions for the deflection angles up to third order in the gravitational potential. While the small deflection angle approximation has the drawback to be reliable only for multipoles $\\ell\\lesssim 2500$, it allows us to consistently take into account the non-Gaussian nature of cosmological perturbation theory beyond the linear level. The contribution to the lensed temperature power spectrum coming from the non-Gaussian nature of the deflection angle at higher order is a new effect which has not been taken into account in the literature so far. It turns out to be the leading contribution among the post-Born lensing corrections. On the other hand, the effect is smaller than corrections coming from non-linearities in the matter power spectrum...

  1. Developmental trajectories of attention and executive functioning in infants born preterm: The influence of perinatal risk factors and maternal interactive styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, E.

    2009-01-01

    Infants born preterm (born before 37 weeks of gestation) are at a heightened risk for developmental delay and learning disabilities. Even children born preterm who have intellectual abilities within the normal range at school age often require special educational services. The preterm population is

  2. Miracles Born of Love

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2008-01-01

    <正>Time stopped at 14:28 on May 12, 2008. Wenchuan of Sichuan Province, an unknown small county hidden in the mountains became the centre of attention in China and the world as well. An 8.0-magnitude earthquake struck Wenchuan, ripping open the ground, causing landslides that blocked highways and rivers, collapsing buildings, and sending tremors across the country. This tranquil county town was reduced to ruins in a couple of minutes. The earthquake affected a total area of 410,000 square kilometres including provinces of Sichuan, Gansu, Shaanxi and Yunnan, and Chongqing Municipality, of which an area of 100,000 square kilometres suffered devastating damages. By June 4, the earthquake has claimed 69,122 lives, injured 373,606 people and 17,991 were still missing. The estimated direct economic loss reached 600 billion yuan (86 billion US dollars).

  3. Risk factors for late onset septicemia in very low birth weight infants born small for gestational age%小于胎龄极低出生体质量儿晚发型败血症危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 王杨; 赵倩; 徐豆豆

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨新生儿重症监护室小于胎龄极低出生体质量儿( VLBWI)晚发型败血症的危险因素. 方法 回顾性分析安徽医科大学第一附属医院新生儿重症监护室2009年1月至2014年12月收治的胎龄7 d VLBWI的相关临床资料,分析其中小于胎龄VLBWI晚发型败血症临床特点、实验室结果、危险因素及预后等. 结果 296例纳入本研究的VLBWI中,小于胎龄儿组165例,其中发生晚发型败血症者56例,经单因素分析结果显示,小于胎龄VLBWI晚发型败血症危险因素包括极早产(胎龄18 h、预防应用抗菌药物>7 d、经外周中心静脉插管>7d、经鼻持续气道正压通气、机械通气、留置胃管>7d、静脉营养时间及住院时间长等. 有统计学意义的变量进入logistic多元回归分析显示,其独立危险因素为留置胃管>7 d和胎膜早破>18 h. 结论 在VLBWI中小于胎龄儿更易发生晚发型败血症,今后临床工作中应对这一特殊群体采取个性化预防措施,凡胎膜早破>18 h者需动态连续监测血象指标,尽早开始经口肠道微量喂养,缩短留置胃管时间.%Objective To investigate the risk factors for late onset septicemia(LOS) in very low birth weight(VLBW)infants born small for gestational age(SGA). Methods The VLBW infants whose birth weight were less than 1500g and hospital stays were more than 7 days in neonatal intensive care unit( NICU) of The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from January 2009 to December 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Outcomes were compared between VLBW infants born SGA( birth weight less than tenth percentile according to gestational age and gender) and non-SGA infants. Clinical characteristics,laboratory features,risk factors and prognosis of VLBWI born small for gestational age with late onset septicemia were analyzed. Result 296 VLBW infants were included,of them,165 cases were SGA ,among them 56 episodes of late onset septicemia were

  4. 儿童吸入性和血源性金黄色葡萄球菌肺炎临床特点及其致病株耐药性分析%Clinical features of inhaled and blood-borne Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia and analysis of antibiotic resistance of the pathogen in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光莉; 刘茹; 张慧; 李颖; 张东伟; 李俊奇; 张思颖; 朱军; 罗征秀

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical manifestations between inhaled and blood-borne Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia (SAP) and the antibiotic resistance between the isolates of inhaled and blood-borne Staphylococcus aureus. Methods The clinical data of 44 pediatric SAP cases in the Children's Hospital, Chongqing Medical University from January 2008 to December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty-four cases were identified as inhaled SAP, and 20 cases as blood-borne SAP. Results Inhaled SAP was more common in children younger than 3 years of age, while blood-borne SAP was more prevalent in children older than 6 years of age. Patients with inhaled SAP had signiifcantly higher incidence rates of cough, wheeze, moist rales, dyspnea and empyema than those with blood-borne SAP (P<0.05). The patients with blood-borne SAP were more vulnerable to severe fever, unconsciousness, dysfunction of liver and kidney, pyogenic osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, sepsis, and abscess of skin and soft tissues (P<0.05). Inhaled SAP isolates had signiifcantly higher rates of resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, oxacillin, and cefoxitin than blood-borne SAP isolates (P<0.05), while the latter had a higher rate of resistance to cotrimoxazole (P<0.05). Conclusions Inhaled SAP often occurs in children younger than 3 years of age, and the respiratory manifestations are commonly seen. Blood-borne SAP often occurs in children older than 6 years of age, with the infectious-toxic symptoms that result in multiple organ infection and dysfunction. The isolates of inhaled and blood-borne SAP have different antibiograms.%目的:比较吸入性和血源性金黄色葡萄球菌肺炎(Staphy1ococcus aureus pneumonia, SAP)的临床特点及分离菌株的耐药性。方法回顾分析该院2008年1月至2013年12月确诊为SAP的44例患儿的临床资料。44例患儿中,24例为吸入性感染,20例为血源性感染。结果吸入性SAP以3岁以下婴幼儿多见,血源性SAP以6

  5. Asteroids Were Born Big

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro; Nesvorny, David; Levison, Harold F

    2009-01-01

    How big were the first planetesimals? We attempt to answer this question by conducting coagulation simulations in which the planetesimals grow by mutual collisions and form larger bodies and planetary embryos. The size frequency distribution (SFD) of the initial planetesimals is considered a free parameter in these simulations, and we search for the one that produces at the end objects with a SFD that is consistent with asteroid belt constraints. We find that, if the initial planetesimals were small (e.g. km-sized), the final SFD fails to fulfill these constraints. In particular, reproducing the bump observed at diameter D~100km in the current SFD of the asteroids requires that the minimal size of the initial planetesimals was also ~100km. This supports the idea that planetesimals formed big, namely that the size of solids in the proto-planetary disk ``jumped'' from sub-meter scale to multi-kilometer scale, without passing through intermediate values. Moreover, we find evidence that the initial planetesimals ...

  6. Early Postoperative Obstruction of Small Bowel in Children%小儿术后早期小肠梗阻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍连康; 张丽瑜; 蔡民宇

    1992-01-01

    报道腹腔内手术3041例(不包括新生儿)在术后1个月内因肠梗阻再手术者39例(1.28%).术中发现粘连性肠梗阻22例,肠套叠及肠扭转各5例,绞窄内疝3例,盲攀综合征2例,拖出结肠系膜过紧压迫十二指肠空肠交界处1例,功能性肠梗阻2例.本组治愈36例(92.30%),死亡3例(7.70%).对诊断标准,发病情况,诊断和治疗进行了讨论.%3041 laparotmies were performed on infants and children(excluding neonates)between January 1980 and December 1990.39 were complicated by a postoperative small bowel obstruction(SBO), and a secondary laparotorny performed within the first month after the primary operation. 22(56.41%)cases were due to intraperitoneal adhesions(including a strangulated internal hernia), 5 postoperative intussusception and 5 volvulus respectively, 2 internal hernins into mesenterie defect after abdominoperineal resection for Hirschsprung's disease end anorectal malformation. The other two cases caused by blind loop syndrome, and another one by mesenterie comprossion at duodenoiejunal region after rectal pull-through procedure. Functional SBO was found in two. The all round mortality was 7.7%(3 cases).

  7. Brothers and reduction of the birth weight of later-born siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Mortensen, Laust; Nygaard, Ulrikka;

    2008-01-01

    of later-born siblings. The population was identified in the Danish Birth Registry and consisted of all Danish women who gave birth to their first-born singleton from 1980 to 1998. The women were followed until 2004, and their subsequent births were recorded. A total of 545,839 second- to fourth......-born children were identified. The authors used linear regression to analyze the association between sex of preceding children and birth weight of subsequent siblings. Brothers compared with sisters reduced the birth weight of later-born siblings. One or two brothers, respectively, reduced the mean birth weight...... of later-born boys by 29 g (p = 0.0001) and 38 g (p = 0.0001) and later-born girls by 17 g (p = 0.0001) and 21 g (p = 0.0001) compared with later-born siblings with no brothers. Part of this association was due to a shorter gestation among later-born siblings with brothers. An explanation for these results...

  8. Whole-body counter surveys of over 2700 babies and small children in and around Fukushima Prefecture 33 to 49 months after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    CERN Document Server

    Hayano, Ryugo S; Miyazaki, Makoto; Ozaki, Akihiko; Shimada, Yuki; Kambe, Toshiyuki; Nemoto, Tsuyoshi; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakura, Yu; Shimmura, Hiroaki; Akiyama, Junichi; Tokiwa, Michio

    2015-01-01

    BABYSCAN, a whole body counter (WBC) for small children was developed in 2013, and units have been installed at three hospitals in Fukushima Prefecture. Between December, 2013 and March, 2015, 2702 children between the ages of 0 and 11 have been scanned, and none had detectable levels of radioactive cesium. The minimum detectable activities (MDAs) for $^{137}$Cs were $\\leq 3.5$ Bq kg$^{-1}$ for ages 0-1, decreasing to $\\leq 2$ Bq kg$^{-1}$ for ages 10-11. Including the $^{134}$Cs contribution, these translate to a maximum committed effective dose of $\\sim 16 \\mu$Sv y$^{-1}$ even for newborn babies, and therefore the internal exposure risks can be considered negligibly small. Analysis of the questionnaire filled out by the parents of the scanned children regarding their families' food and water consumption revealed that the majority of children residing in the town of Miharu regularly consume local or home-grown rice and vegetables, while in Minamisoma, a majority avoid tap water and produce from Fukushima. Th...

  9. Whole-body counter surveys of over 2700 babies and small children in and around Fukushima Prefecture 33 to 49 months after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAYANO, Ryugo S.; TSUBOKURA, Masaharu; MIYAZAKI, Makoto; OZAKI, Akihiko; SHIMADA, Yuki; KAMBE, Toshiyuki; NEMOTO, Tsuyoshi; OIKAWA, Tomoyoshi; KANAZAWA, Yukio; NIHEI, Masahiko; SAKUMA, Yu; SHIMMURA, Hiroaki; AKIYAMA, Junichi; TOKIWA, Michio

    2015-01-01

    BABYSCAN, a whole-body counter (WBC) for small children was developed in 2013, and units have been installed at three hospitals in Fukushima Prefecture. Between December, 2013 and March, 2015, 2707 children between the ages of 0 and 11 have been scanned, and none had detectable levels of radioactive cesium. The minimum detectable activities (MDAs) for 137Cs were ≤3.5 Bq kg−1 for ages 0–1, decreasing to ≤2 Bq kg−1 for ages 10–11. Including the 134Cs contribution, these translate to a maximum committed effective dose of ∼16 µSv y−1 even for newborn babies, and therefore the internal exposure risks can be considered negligibly small. Analysis of the questionnaire filled out by the parents of the scanned children regarding their families’ food and water consumption revealed that the majority of children residing in the town of Miharu regularly consume local or home-grown rice and vegetables, while in Minamisoma, a majority avoid tap water and produce from Fukushima. The data show, however, no correlation between consumption of locally produced food and water and the children’s body burdens. PMID:26460321

  10. Neurological Condition of Infants Born After In Vitro Fertilization With Preimplantation Genetic Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, Karin J.; Heineman, Maas J.; Haadsma, Maaike L.; Bos, Arend F.; Kok, Joke H.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) on neurodevelopmental outcome in children. We conducted a prospective follow-up Study of children born to women randomly assigned to in vitro fertilization with or without PGS. Primary outcome was adverse neurolo

  11. Premature Delivery of Children Born after Assisted Reproductive Technology and Spontaneous Conceptions:A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Study%辅助生殖技术后新生儿早产状况研究的 Meta 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏宏伟; 任春娥; 韩海艳; 乔鹏云; 姜俊怡

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare premature delivery of children who were born after assisted reproductive technology and after natural pregnancy.Methods Searched PubMed,EBSCO,Cochrane Library,China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database ,VIP Data-base for Chinese Technical Periodicals ,and references of the involved studies ,which included premature delivery of infants born after assisted reproductive technology and spontaneous conceptions .Cochrane Collaborations RevMan 5.0 software was used to do data analyses .Results Ninteen studies including 2 453 288 children were involved.Studies showed that the rate of preterm births in ART group was obviously higher than that in the natural pregnancy group (P<0.05).Conclusion Children born after ART may have higher risk of preterm births .There-fore,the pregnant women after assisted reproductive technology should make good antenatal care work and try to avoid premature delivery .%  目的评价辅助生殖技术后新生儿的早产状况。方法计算机检索中国学术期刊网络出版总库,维普中文科技期刊全文数据库,PubMed,EBSCO全文数据库和Cochrane Library等,并辅以手工检索等方式,纳入辅助生殖技术后妊娠和自然妊娠的新生儿早产状况比较的队列研究文献,并用RevMan 5.0软件进行Meta分析。结果共有19个研究文献纳入,新生儿共2453288例。 Meta分析结果表明:辅助生殖技术后新生儿早产发生率高于自然妊娠儿(P<0.05),其OR为2.47,95%CI为(1.87,3.27)。结论辅助生殖技术后新生儿发生早产的风险比自然妊娠儿高。因此,经辅助生殖技术后妊娠的孕妇,应积极做好产前保健工作,尽量避免早产发生。

  12. Small-bowel MRI in children and young adults with Crohn disease: retrospective head-to-head comparison of contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Henning; Evangelista, Laura; Wirth, Clemens; Beer, Meinrad [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Institute of Radiology, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Pabst, Thomas; Machann, Wolfram; Koestler, Herbert; Hahn, Dietbert [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Institute of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Dick, Anke [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Paediatrics, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Small-bowel MRI based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences has been challenged by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for detection of inflammatory bowel lesions and complications in patients with Crohn disease. To evaluate free-breathing DWI, as compared to contrast-enhanced MRI, in children, adolescents and young adults with Crohn disease. This retrospective study included 33 children and young adults with Crohn disease ages 17 {+-} 3 years (mean {+-} standard deviation) and 27 matched controls who underwent small-bowel MRI with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences and DWI at 1.5 T. The detectability of Crohn manifestations was determined. Concurrent colonoscopy as reference was available in two-thirds of the children with Crohn disease. DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI correctly identified 32 and 31 patients, respectively. All 22 small-bowel lesions and all Crohn complications were detected. False-positive findings (two on DWI, one on contrast-enhanced MRI), compared to colonoscopy, were a result of large-bowel lumen collapse. Inflammatory wall thickening was comparable on DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI. DWI was superior to contrast-enhanced MRI for detection of lesions in 27% of the assessed bowel segments and equal to contrast-enhanced MRI in 71% of segments. DWI facilitates fast, accurate and comprehensive workup in Crohn disease without the need for intravenous administration of contrast medium. Contrast-enhanced MRI is superior in terms of spatial resolution and multiplanar acquisition. (orig.)

  13. A Case Study of the Features of Oral Narratives Produced by a Small Group of Children with Sensory Processing Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Helen Chen

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates that oral narrative is the discourse form that functions as a bridge between conversational oral language and language skills that contribute to the acquisition of literacy in children (Westby, 1991). Learning to tell stories, therefore, is important to children's literacy development. Mastering extended discourse tasks such as…

  14. Start small, think big: Growth monitoring, genetic analysis, treatment and quality of life in children with growth disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Stalman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to focus on issues that arise when dealing with children with growth disorders – from growth monitoring and genetic analysis to treatment effects on growth and quality of life. The first part of this thesis focuses on guidelines for diagnostic workup of children with growth

  15. EVALUATION OF THE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE SMALL INTESTINE OF HIV INFECTED CHILDREN BY TRANSMISSION AND SCANNING ELECTRONIC MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Araujo Chaves LEITE

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To describe HIV children's small intestinal ultrastructural findings. Methods Descriptive, observational study of small intestine biopsies performed between August 1994 and May 1995 at São Paulo, SP, Brazil. This material pertained to 11 HIV infected children and was stored in a laboratory in paraffin blocks. Scanning and transmission electronic microscopy were used to view those intestine samples and ultrastructural findings were described by analyzing digitalized photos of this material. Ethical Committee approval was obtained. Results In most samples scanning microscopy showed various degrees of shortening and decreasing number of microvilli and also completes effacements in some areas. Derangement of the enterocytes was seen frequently and sometimes cells well defined borders limits seemed to be loosened. In some areas a mucous-fibrin like membrane with variable thickness and extension appeared to partially or totally coat the epithelial surface. Fat drops were present in the intestinal lumen in various samples and a bacterium morphologically resembling bacilli was seen in two occasions. Scanning microscopy confirmed transmission microscopy microvilli findings and also showed little “tufts” of those structures. In addition, it showed an increased number of vacuoles and multivesicular bodies inside various enterocytes, an increased presence of intraepithelial lymphocytes, mitochondrial vacuolization and basement membrane enlargement in the majority of samples analyzed. However, some samples exhibited normal aspect. Conclusions Our study showed the common occurrence of various important intestinal ultrastructural alterations with variable degrees among HIV infected children, some of them in our knowledge not described before. Objetivos Descrever achados ultra-estruturais do intestino delgado de crianças infectadas pelo HIV. Métodos Estudo descritivo, observacional de biopsias do intestino delgado, realizada entre agosto de

  16. Analysis of impulse oscillometric measures of lung function and respiratory system model parameters in small airway-impaired and healthy children over a 2-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Pat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Is Impulse Oscillometry System (IOS a valuable tool to measure respiratory system function in Children? Asthma (A is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease in children. Therefore, early and accurate assessment of respiratory function is of tremendous clinical interest in diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of respiratory conditions in this subpopulation. IOS has been successfully used to measure lung function in children with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity to small airway impairments (SAI and asthma. IOS measures of airway function and equivalent electrical circuit models of the human respiratory system have been developed to quantify the severity of these conditions. Previously, we have evaluated several known respiratory models based on the Mead's model and more parsimonious versions based on fitting IOS data known as extended RIC (eRIC and augmented RIC (aRIC models have emerged, which offer advantages over earlier models. Methods IOS data from twenty-six children were collected and compared during pre-bronchodilation (pre-B and post- bronchodilation (post-B conditions over a period of 2 years. Results and Discussion Are the IOS and model parameters capable of differentiating between healthy children and children with respiratory system distress? Children were classified into two main categories: Healthy (H and Small Airway-Impaired (SAI. The IOS measures and respiratory model parameters analyzed differed consistently between H and SAI children. SAI children showed smaller trend of "growth" and larger trend of bronchodilator responses than H children. The two model parameters: peripheral compliance (Cp and peripheral resistance (Rp tracked IOS indices of small airway function well. Cp was a more sensitive index than Rp. Both eRIC and aRIC Cps and the IOS Reactance Area, AX, (also known as the "Goldman Triangle" showed good correlations. Conclusions What are the most useful IOS and model parameters? In

  17. Iodine status of young Burkinabe children receiving small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements and iodised salt: a cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Sonja Y; Abbeddou, Souheila; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-12-14

    The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of providing small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) on the I status of young Burkinabe children. In total, thirty-four communities were assigned to intervention (IC) or non-intervention cohorts (NIC). IC children were randomly assigned to receive 20 g lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)/d containing 90 µg I with 0 or 10 mg Zn from 9 to 18 months of age, and NIC children received no SQ-LNS. All the children were exposed to iodised salt through the national salt iodization programme. Spot urinary iodine (UI), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and total thyroxine (T4) in dried blood spots as well as plasma thyroglobulin (Tg) concentrations were assessed at 9 and 18 months of age among 123 IC and fifty-six NIC children. At baseline and at 18 months, UI, TSH and T4 did not differ between cohorts. Tg concentration was higher in the NIC v. IC at baseline, but this difference did not persist at 18 months of age. In both cohorts combined, the geometric mean of UI was 339·2 (95% CI 298·6, 385·2) µg/l, TSH 0·8 (95% CI 0·7, 0·8) mU/l, T4 118 (95 % CI 114, 122) nmol/l and Tg 26·0 (95% CI 24·3, 27·7) µg/l at 18 months of age. None of the children had elevated TSH at 18 months of age. Marginally more children in NIC (8·9%) had low T4 (15 ppm). A reduction of SQ-LNS I content could be considered in settings with similarly successful salt iodisation programmes.

  18. Determinants of oral bioavailability of soil-borne contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Oomen, Agnes Guadalupe

    2001-01-01

    Children ingest soil, either accidentally via hand-to-mouth behavior or deliberately. In this manner, a child ingests on average between 50 and 200 mg soil/day, although amounts of as much as 60 g/day have also been observed. Hence, soil ingestion can be a main route of exposure to soil-borne contaminants to children. To estimate the health risk associated to this exposure route, and to assess intervention values for contaminants in soils, one needs to know the oral bioavailability of the soi...

  19. The Danish High Risk and Resilience Study--VIA 7--a cohort study of 520 7-year-old children born of parents diagnosed with either schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or neither of these two mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne A E; Jepsen, Jens Richardt; Ellersgaard, Ditte Vestbjerg

    2015-01-01

    and environment as well as gene-environment-interactions contribute to the risk of developing the disease. We aim to analyse the influences of genetic risk and environmental factors in a population of 520 7-year-old children with either 0, 1 or 2 parents diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis or bipolar...... disorder on mental health and level of functioning. We hypothesize that a larger proportion of children growing up with an ill parent will display abnormal or delayed development, behavioural problems or psychiatric symptoms compared to the healthy controls. METHODS/DESIGN: We are establishing a cohort...... of 5207 year old children and both their parents for a comprehensive investigation with main outcome measures being neurocognition, behaviour, psychopathology and neuromotor development of the child. Parents and children are examined with a comprehensive battery of instruments and are asked for genetic...

  20. Risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among term and preterm infants born small-for-gestational-age: secondary analyses of the WHO Multi-Country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ota

    Full Text Available Small for gestational age (SGA is not only a major indicator of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but also the morbidity risks in later in life. We aim to estimate the association between the birth of SGA infants and the risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among twenty-nine countries in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and Asia in 359 health facilities in 2010-11.We analysed facility-based, cross-sectional data from the WHO Multi-country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. We constructed multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for facilities and countries to estimate the risk factors for SGA infants using country-specific birthweight reference standards in preterm and term delivery, and SGA's association with adverse perinatal outcomes. We compared the risks and adverse perinatal outcomes with appropriate for gestational age (AGA infants categorized by preterm and term delivery.A total of 295,829 singleton infants delivered were analysed. The overall prevalence of SGA was highest in Cambodia (18.8%, Nepal (17.9%, the Occupied Palestinian Territory (16.1%, and Japan (16.0%, while the lowest was observed in Afghanistan (4.8%, Uganda (6.6% and Thailand (9.7%. The risk of preterm SGA infants was significantly higher among nulliparous mothers and mothers with chronic hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia (aOR: 2.89; 95% CI: 2.55-3.28 compared with AGA infants. Higher risks of term SGA were observed among sociodemographic factors and women with preeclampsia/eclampsia, anaemia and other medical conditions. Multiparity (> = 3 (AOR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.92 was a protective factor for term SGA. The risk of perinatal mortality was significantly higher in preterm SGA deliveries in low to high HDI countries.Preterm SGA is associated with medical conditions related to preeclampsia, but not with sociodemographic status. Term SGA is associated with sociodemographic status and various medical conditions.

  1. Growth and Predictors of Growth Restraint in Moderately Preterm Children Aged 0 to 4 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, I.F.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; de Winter, A.F.; Bos, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe growth in moderately preterm-born children, determine the prevalence of growth restraint at the age of 4, and identify predictors of growth restraint. We hypothesized that growth in moderately preterm-born children differs from growth in term-born children and that growth rest

  2. Differential effects of preterm birth and small gestational age on cognitive and motor development

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, J; Pharoah, P; Cooke, R.; Stevenson, R

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the differential effects of preterm birth and being small for gestational age on the cognitive and motor ability of the child.
METHODS—A longitudinal cohort of all infants of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks born to mothers resident in the counties of Cheshire and Merseyside in 1980-1 was studied. The children were assessed at the age of 8 to 9 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, the Neale analysis of reading ability, and the Stott-Moyes-Henderson test of mot...

  3. The enigma of number: why children find the meanings of even small number words hard to learn and how we can help them do better.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ramscar

    Full Text Available Although number words are common in everyday speech, learning their meanings is an arduous, drawn-out process for most children, and the source of this delay has long been the subject of inquiry. Children begin by identifying the few small numerosities that can be named without counting, and this has prompted further debate over whether there is a specific, capacity-limited system for representing these small sets, or whether smaller and larger sets are both represented by the same system. Here we present a formal, computational analysis of number learning that offers a possible solution to both puzzles. This analysis indicates that once the environment and the representational demands of the task of learning to identify sets are taken into consideration, a continuous system for learning, representing and discriminating set-sizes can give rise to effective discontinuities in processing. At the same time, our simulations illustrate how typical prenominal linguistic constructions ("there are three balls" structure information in a way that is largely unhelpful for discrimination learning, while suggesting that postnominal constructions ("balls, there are three" will facilitate such learning. A training-experiment with three-year olds confirms these predictions, demonstrating that rapid, significant gains in numerical understanding and competence are possible given appropriately structured postnominal input. Our simulations and results reveal how discrimination learning tunes children's systems for representing small sets, and how its capacity-limits result naturally out of a mixture of the learning environment and the increasingly complex task of discriminating and representing ever-larger number sets. They also explain why children benefit so little from the training that parents and educators usually provide. Given the efficacy of our intervention, the ease with which it can be implemented, and the large body of research showing how early

  4. Emerging food-borne parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorny, P; Praet, N; Deckers, N; Gabriel, S

    2009-08-07

    Parasitic food-borne diseases are generally underrecognised, however they are becoming more common. Globalization of the food supply, increased international travel, increase of the population of highly susceptible persons, change in culinary habits, but also improved diagnostic tools and communication are some factors associated with the increased diagnosis of food-borne parasitic diseases worldwide. This paper reviews the most important emerging food-borne parasites, with emphasis on transmission routes. In a first part, waterborne parasites transmitted by contaminated food such as Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium and Giardia are discussed. Also human fasciolosis, of which the importance has only been recognised in the last decades, with total numbers of reported cases increasing from less than 3000 to 17 million, is looked at. Furthermore, fasciolopsiosis, an intestinal trematode of humans and pigs belongs to the waterborne parasites as well. A few parasites that may be transmitted through faecal contamination of foods and that have received renewed attention, such as Toxoplasma gondii, or that are (re-)emerging, such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Echinococcus spp., are briefly reviewed. In a second part, meat-borne parasite infections are reviewed. Humans get infected by eating raw or undercooked meat infected with cyst stages of these parasites. Meat inspection is the principal method applied in the control of Taenia spp. and Trichinella spp. However, it is often not very sensitive, frequently not practised, and not done for T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. Meat of reptiles, amphibians and fish can be infected with a variety of parasites, including trematodes (Opisthorchis spp., Clonorchis sinensis, minute intestinal flukes), cestodes (Diphyllobothrium spp., Spirometra), nematodes (Gnathostoma, spp., anisakine parasites), and pentastomids that can cause zoonotic infections in humans when consumed raw or not properly cooked. Another important zoonotic food-borne

  5. Born Reciprocity and Cosmic Accelerations

    CERN Document Server

    Bolognesi, S

    2015-01-01

    The trans-Planckian theory is a model that realizes concretely the Born reciprocity idea, which is the postulate of absolute equivalence between coordinate $x$ and momenta $p$. This model is intrinsically global, and thus it is naturally implemented in a cosmological setting. Cosmology and Born reciprocity are made for each other. Inflation provides the essential mechanism to suppress the terms coming from the dual part of the action. The trans-Planckian theory, on the other hand, provides an explanation for the accelerated periods of the universe scale factor, both the inflationary period and the present period dominated by dark energy. All of this is possible just considering a simple model that contains gravity, one gauge field plus one matter field (to be identified with dark matter) together with the reciprocity principle.

  6. Brand Building of Born Globals

    OpenAIRE

    Cederäng, Jesper; Norberg, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this thesis was to increase the understanding of two early internationalizing firms (Born Globals) brand building efforts. By performing case studies on these companies we wished to discover similarities and differences in their marketing efforts. The companies that we studied were CTEK Sweden AB, a battery charger manufacturer and POC Sweden AB, who designs advanced protective gear for the alpine ski market. The theoretical framework was divided according to the four ...

  7. Tuberculous meningitis in child born in the US to immigrants from a tuberculosis-endemic country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric J; Toll, Elizabeth; Montague, Brian T; Alexander-Scott, Nicole; Van Scoyoc, Erin

    2014-01-05

    This is a case of a child born in the US to immigrant parents from a tuberculosis (TB)-endemic area of Liberia who was diagnosed with TB meningitis after a greater than 1-month history of unremitting fever. This report aims to highlight the importance of early identification of TB in the pediatric population with risk factors for TB and considering TB as a diagnosis among US born children to immigrants from TB-endemic countries.

  8. Use and Preference of Advice on Small Children's Food: Differences Between Parents From Ethnic Minority, Ethnic Majority, and Mixed Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Vassard, Ditte; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the influence of acculturation on parental attitudes to, and use of, different sources of health advice about young children's food in Denmark. Using combined ethnic position of the children's parents as a proxy for household acculturation, the authors conducted a postal survey of 2,511 households with young children (6 months to 3.5 years) occupying ethnic minority, ethnic majority, or ethnic mixed position. The analysis showed that the use of advice differed in the 3 groups. Households with ethnic minority status were more likely to use the child's grandparents, general practitioners, and hospital staff as information sources, while households with ethnic majority status were more likely to use mothers' peer groups and written material. In all types of household municipal public health nurses were relied on as a source of advice on young children's food, but households with ethnic minority status were more likely to find the advice obtained in this way incompatible with their family eating habits. Although existing dietary health communication strategies delivered by public health nurses appear to work well in all household types, parents from minority households seem to experience dilemmas. These may be related to their cultural and generational status at the time of receiving the advice. Adjustments to current communication strategies on young children's food are suggested.

  9. Study on the influence of maternal physiology, mentality and prenatal health care on children born with low birth weight%孕妇生理心理与孕期保健对低出生体重儿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣莲; 陈烈平; 陈起燕; 修晓燕; 陈菊芳; 王晓梅

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨孕妇生理心理与孕期保健对低出生体重儿(LBW)的影响.方法 采用回顾性LBW-小于胎龄儿(SGA)-对照(正常)三组病例对照研究方法,对2004年11月至2006年6月在福建省妇幼保健院住院分娩的婴儿及产妇,于产后对896例的产妇进行问卷调查和摘取病历相关资料.将所得变量采用χ2检验进行单因素分析,再将有意义的变量入选logistic回归多因素分析.结果 22个变量因素中有统计学意义的单因素有15个,包括孕妇心理因素2个、生理因素4个、病理因素6个、孕期保健因素3个.经logistic回归多因素分析结果显示孕妇身高、产检次数、无应激试验异常、脐带绕颈、脐血流阻力异常、初检孕周、胎膜早破、孕妇对婴儿性别的企盼、异常家族史等9个因素是LBW的主要影响因素,健康教育知识获取与否是保护因素,说明有些LBW可以在孕期预防.结论 LBW的发生是多种因素综合作用的结果.%Objective To explore the role of maternal physiology, mentality and prenatal health care on low birth weight (LBW). Methods A LBW-small for gestation age (SGA)-control group retrospective study was conducted based upon a population of infants born from November 2004 to June 2006. 896 cases involved in this study were entirely under voluntary participation and subject could withdraw their consent at any point. All subject recruitment and enrollment took place at Fujian Provincial Maternal and Children Hospital at the time of delivery. Using χ2 test for single factor analysis and logistic regression for multiple analyses Results There were 15 out of 22 single factors having statistical significances, including 2 maternal psychological, 4 physiological, 6 pathological and 3 prenatal health care factors respectively. When multi-factorial stepwise regression analyses was performed, there were 9 factors for main relative factors of LBW ,including women's height, number of prenatal

  10. Resonant-state expansion Born Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Doost, M B

    2015-01-01

    The Born Approximation is a fundamental formula in Physics, it allows the calculation of weak scattering via the Fourier transform of the scattering potential. I extend the Born Approximation by including in the formula the Fourier transform of a truncated basis of the infinite number of appropriately normalised resonant states. This extension of the Born Approximation is named the Resonant-State Expansion Born Approximation or RSE Born Approximation. The resonant-states of the system can be calculated using the recently discovered RSE perturbation theory for electrodynamics and normalised correctly to appear in spectral Green's functions via the flux volume normalisation.

  11. Prediction of height achievement at five years of age in children born very preterm or with very low birth weight : Continuation of catch-up growth after two years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qvigstad, E.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Ens-Dokkum, M.H.; Schreuder, A.M.; Veen, S.; Brand, R.; Oostdijk, W.; Ruys, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    To predict height at five years in a cohort of 565 very preterm and/or very low-birth-weight children, hypothesized growth determinants were subjected to discriminant analysis. Many neonatal parameters were not significantly associated with short stature at five years of age. A correct classificatio

  12. Third World Children: Promise and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verna

    1988-01-01

    Discusses issues which concern children born to families in developing countries. Focuses on: (1) population impact on children; (2) family planning; (3) infant feeding; (4) oral rehydration therapy and immunizations; and (5) education. (RJC)

  13. Big Atoms for Small Children: Building Atomic Models from Common Materials to Better Visualize and Conceptualize Atomic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Laura; Ferrari, Lia A.

    2016-01-01

    A hands-on approach to introduce the chemical elements and the atomic structure to elementary/middle school students is described. The proposed classroom activity presents Bohr models of atoms using common and inexpensive materials, such as nested plastic balls, colored modeling clay, and small-sized pasta (or small plastic beads).

  14. [Evaluating children health conditions in a small community: the study of Itapirapuã, Ribeira Valley, SP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    César, J A; Victora, C G

    1990-01-01

    A household survey for evaluating the mortality, morbidity, nutritional status and health services utilization of children aged under five years was carried out in a rural village in Ribeira, São Paulo State. Most children belonged to families of rural laborers earning less than 80 US dollars per month and living under inadequate environmental conditions. The infant mortality rate was equal to 83 per thousand and 35% of the children were affected by moderate or severe stunting, rates which are well above those for the State. The main reasons for clinic attendances and hospital admissions were acute respiratory infections and diarrhea. The median duration of breastfeeding was 14.4 months, the highest reported for Brazil. Only 40% of the mothers had received antenatal care, and 56% delivered in a hospital - of whom 35% had a caesarean section. Vaccine coverage reached 65% of children aged 12 months or more. This survey revealed an enclave of high morbidity and mortality within Brazil's richest state. It also showed that with a limited budget and within a short time it is possible to obtain valuable information for planning child survival strategies.

  15. 心理干预结合辅助生殖技术对出生婴儿体格及精神运动发育状况的影响%Influence of psychological intervention on physical and psychomotor development of children born of assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向红; 蒙顺好; 骆绮云; 陈玉珍; 于雯昶; 阙文清

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of psychological intervention on the physical and psychomotor development of children born of assisted reproductive technology. Methods 329 cases of ART born children in our hospital were set as the experimental group,the parturients were given pertinent psychological intervention.254 cases of children of spontaneous pregnancy were selected as the control group.The two groups were given follow-up for 24 months.Their physical condition at birth and psychomotor development during follow - up period were compared. Results Compared with the control group,length of infants at birth,body mass of the experimental group were significantly lower,and the incidence rate of premature birth,low birth weight,NICU stay during neonatal stage were higher.But there were no differences in psychomotor development between two groups. Conclusions ART born children of 24-month old show normal psychomotor development,but there are still more unfavorable physical factors,therefore,pertinent nursing intervention should be given based upon psychological intervention in clinic.%目的 探讨心理干预结合辅助生殖技术对出生婴儿的体格和精神运动发育状况的影响.方法 将利用现代辅助生殖技术(assisted reproductive technology,ART)出生的329例婴儿列为实验组,并对其家长进行相应的心理干预;另选取同期出生的254例自然妊娠婴儿列为对照组.随访至24月龄,对2组婴儿出生时的体格状况及随访期的精神运动发育状况进行比较.结果 2组相比,实验组婴儿出生时的身长、体质量均显著低于对照组,而其早产、低出生体质量、新生儿期入住NICU等的发生率均显著高于对照组;但2组的精神运动发育指标比较无显著差异.结论 24个月内的ART婴儿精神运动发育正常,但其还存在着较多的体格不利因素,因此临床上应在结合心理干预的基础上予以针对性的措施.

  16. Guardians of New-Borns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    WITH 38 years of history, the Beijing Maternity Hospital gained fame as the birthplace of one-fifth of all Beijingers in the 1960s. Today, some 5,000 babies are born here each year. As Beijing’s oldest hospital specializing in gynaecology and obstetrics treatment and research, the Beijing Maternity Hospital ranks top among all maternity hospitals in China. Chen Wenshan. 52. oversees 272 nurses working at BMH. A vigorous and extremely strict woman. Chen is both respected and feared by the nurses on her staff. As the director of the Nursing

  17. Detection of Water Borne Protozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Enemark, Heidi L.; Kurtzhals, J.A.L.

    Protozoa of several species play a key role in water borne outbreaks of diarrhea worldwide. Identification of such protozoa depends mainly on parasite detection. However, water contains several hundreds of thousands of microorganisms belonging to different taxa. The exact identification...... of pathogenic protozoa relies on selective isolation and detection that is conducted by experienced technicians. Advanced techniques such as immuno-fluorescent dyes, polymerase chain reaction, and many other techniques, may be used for species-specific identification of pathogenic protozoa. Each diagnostic...... parasitic protozoa from other organisms in the aquatic environment....

  18. Ultrasound measurement of joint cartilage thickness in large and small joints in healthy children: a clinical pilot study assessing observer variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeiffer-Jensen Mogens

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of joint cartilage is a feature of destructive disease in JIA. The cartilage of most joints can be visualized with ultrasonography (US. Our present study focuses on discriminant validity of US in children. We studied reproducibility between and within a skilled and a non-skilled investigator of US assessment of cartilage thickness in small and large joints in healthy children. Methods and results In 11 healthy children (5 girls/6 boys, aged 9.6 years (9.3–10 years, 110 joints were examined. Cartilage thickness of the right and left hip, knee, ankle, 2nd metacarpophalangeal (MCP, and 2nd proximal interphalangeal (PIP joint independently. The joints were examined twice, two days apart by a skilled and a non-skilled investigator. Mean cartilage thickness in the five joints was: hip 2.59 ± 0.41, knee 3.67 ± 0.64, ankle 1.08 ± 0.31, MCP 1.52 ± 0.27 and PIP 0.73 ± 0.15 mm. We found the same mean differences in CTh of 0.6 mm in the inter-observer part with regard of the PIP joint. Within investigators (intra-observer, the smallest mean difference of CTh was found in the MCP joint with -0.004 (skilled and 0.013 mm (non-skilled. Conclusion We found the level of agreement between observers within a 95% Confidence Interval in assessment of cartilage thickness in hip-, knee-, ankle-, MCP-, and PIP joints in healthy children. Observer variability seems not to relate to joint size but to the positioning of the joints and the transducer. These factors seem to be of major importance for reproducible US measurements. The smallest difference in measurement of cartilage thickness between observers was found in the PIP joint, and within observers in the MCP joint and it seems that using EULAR standard US guidelines is feasible for a pediatric setting. The use of US in children is promising. Studies on larger groups of children are needed to confirm the validation and variability of US in children as well as determining the smallest

  19. Reflections on the Child Born with Unknown Parents and the Adoption Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lupşan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available After reading statistics from the adoption domain we have discovered that, in the recent years, the number of abandoned children in health care facilities has increased, therefore two questions arise: do the changes in adoption favor adopting a child born of unknown parents?; is there a link between the abandonment of children subsequently registered as born from unknown parents and adoption? In this material we will answer to these questions, based on the reality of figures and the interpretation of the legislation in the field.

  20. Children conceived after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mau, C; Juul, A; Main, K M;

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth.......The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth....

  1. We have "born digital" - now what about "born semantic"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, Adam; Fredericks, Janet

    2014-05-01

    The phrase "born-digital" refers to those materials which originate in a digital form. In Earth and Space Sciences, this is now very much the norm for data: analogue to digital converters sit on instrument boards and produce a digital record of the observed environment. While much effort has been put in to creating and curating these digital data, there has been little work on using semantic mark up of data from the point of collection - what we term 'born semantic'. In this presentation we report on two efforts to expand this area: Qartod-to-OGC (Q2O) and SenseOCEAN. These projects have taken a common approach to 'born semantic': create or reuse appropriate controlled vocabularies, published to World Wide Web Commission (W3C) standards use standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative to describe instrument setup, deployment and/or outputs using terms from those controlled vocabularies embed URLs from the controlled vocabularies within the SWE documents in a "Linked Data" conformant approach Q2O developed best practices examples of SensorML descriptions of Original Equipment Manufacturers' metadata (model characteristics, capabilities, manufacturer contact, etc ...) set-up and deployment SensorML files; and data centre process-lineage using registered vocabularies to describe terms (including input, output, processes, parameters, quality control flags) One Q2O use case, the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory ADCP Waves instance, uses SensorML and registered vocabularies to fully describe the process of computing wave parameters from sensed properties, including quality control tests and associated results. The European Commission Framework Programme 7 project SenseOCEAN draws together world leading marine sensor developers to create a highly integrated multifunction and cost-effective in situ marine biogeochemical sensor system. This project will provide a quantum leap in the ability to measure crucial biogeochemical

  2. Born Pupils? Natural Pedagogy and Cultural Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-03-01

    The theory of natural pedagogy is an important focus of research on the evolution and development of cultural learning. It proposes that we are born pupils; that human children genetically inherit a package of psychological adaptations that make them receptive to teaching. In this article, I first examine the components of the package-eye contact, contingencies, infant-directed speech, gaze cuing, and rational imitation-asking in each case whether current evidence indicates that the component is a reliable feature of infant behavior and a genetic adaptation for teaching. I then discuss three fundamental insights embodied in the theory: Imitation is not enough for cumulative cultural inheritance, the extra comes from blind trust, and tweaking is a powerful source of cognitive change. Combining the results of the empirical review with these insights, I argue that human receptivity to teaching is founded on nonspecific genetic adaptations for social bonding and social learning and acquires its species- and functionally specific features through the operation of domain-general processes of learning in sociocultural contexts. We engage, not in natural pedagogy, but in cultural pedagogy.

  3. Cerebral MRI findings in very-low-birth-weight and small-for-gestational-age children at 15 years of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skranes, Jon S.; Brubakk, Ann-Mari [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children' s and Women' s Health, Trondheim (Norway); Martinussen, Marit; Smevik, Olaug; Myhr, Gunnar [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Circulation and Imaging, Trondheim (Norway); Indredavik, Marit [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Neuroscience, Trondheim (Norway); Vik, Torstein [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Community Medicine and General Practice, Trondheim (Norway)

    2005-08-01

    A high prevalence of abnormal cerebral MRI findings has been reported in low-birth-weight children. To compare MRI findings in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) and term small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children with controls in early adolescence. Cerebral MRI was used to examine 55 VLBW, 54 SGA and 66 controls at 15 years of age. The MR images were qualitatively assessed, and size of ventricles, white-matter and grey-matter abnormalities were reported. The VLBW teenagers had a higher prevalence of various MRI abnormalities than SGA children and controls. Dilation of the ventricular system, especially of the occipital horns, was found in 82% of the VLBW group, in 19% of the SGA group and in 21% of controls. White-matter reduction was found in 53% of the VLBW, in 6% of the SGA and in 2% of controls. Corpus callosum thinning was found in 47% of the VLBW, in 2% of the SGA and in 6% of controls. Periventricular gliosis was found in 29% of the VLBW, in 4% of the SGA and in 8% of controls. Cerebral MRI pathology in white matter is a common finding in VLBW teenagers. The findings may indicate minor perinatal PVL with resulting loss of white-matter tissue and ventricular dilation. (orig.)

  4. Decreasing the number of small eating occasions (diet quality but not adiposity: a cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-01-28

    Evidence of associations between meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) and diet and obesity in young populations is limited. This cross-sectional study examined MF and SF in relation to dietary intake and adiposity measures in British children aged 4-10 years (n 818) and adolescents aged 11-18 years (n 818). Based on data from a 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15 or diet quality (assessed by the Mediterranean diet score, except for SF based on energy contribution in adolescents). MF based on time, but not based on energy contribution, was associated with higher intakes of confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of fish, protein, PUFA and starch, and, only in children, a lower diet quality. All measures of MF and SF showed no association with adiposity measures. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents suggests that decreasing the number of small eating occasions (diet quality but not adiposity.

  5. Month of Birth and Children's Health in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokshin, Michael; Radyakin, Sergiy

    2012-01-01

    We use data from three waves of India National Family Health Survey to explore the relationship between the month of birth and the health outcomes of young children in India. We find that children born during the monsoon months have lower anthropometric scores compared to children born during the fall-winter months. We propose and test hypotheses…

  6. Improving Children's Life Chances: Estimates from the Social Genome Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannis, Kerry Searle; Sawhill, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    There is ample evidence that children born to poorer families do not succeed at the same rate as children born to the middle class. On average, low-income children lag behind on almost every cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and health measure. These gaps start early--some of the newest research suggests that cognitive gaps are detectable in…

  7. Food-borne botulism in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauchlin, Jim; Grant, K A; Little, C L

    2006-12-01

    Food-borne botulism is a rare but serious disease caused by ingestions of neurotoxin [botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs)] produced as a result of the growth of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum in foods before consumption. The disease is rare in the United Kingdom, and only 62 cases have been recognized between 1922 and 2005. This report provides a brief review of C. botulinum and food-borne botulism as well as descriptions of the six episodes (33 cases with three deaths) of this disease that occurred in the United Kingdom between 1989 and 2005. The six incidents illustrate the importance of the risk factors of poor processing or storage of commercially prepared foods, improper home preservation of foods and travel to countries where botulism is much more common than in the United Kingdom. Even small outbreaks of food-borne botulism can precipitate a national emergency and inundate public health and acute care provision. This report provides a reminder to public health professions of the occurrence, diagnosis, treatment and control of this rare but serious food-borne disease.

  8. Transmission ecology of rodent-borne diseases: New frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, Frédéric; Blasdell, Kim; Morand, Serge

    2015-09-01

    Rodents are recognized reservoir hosts for many human zoonotic pathogens. The current trends resulting from anthropocene defaunation suggest that in the future they, along with other small mammals, are likely to become the dominant mammals in almost all human-modified environments. Recent intricate studies on bat-borne emerging diseases have highlighted that many gaps exist in our understanding of the zoonotic transmission of rodent-borne pathogens. This has emphasized the need for scientists interested in rodent-borne diseases to integrate rodent ecology into their analysis of rodent-borne pathogen transmission in order to identify in more detail the mechanisms of spillover and chains of transmission. Further studies are required to better understand the true impact of rodent abundance and the importance of pathogen sharing and circulation in multi-host- multi-pathogen communities. We also need to explore in more depth the roles of generalist and abundant species as the potential links between pathogen-sharing, co-infections and disease transmission.

  9. Inter -and intraobserver variation of ultrasonographic cartilage thickness assessments in small and large joints in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenbøg Elisabeth

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing interest among pediatric rheumatologist for using ultrasonography (US in the daily clinical examination of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Loss of joint cartilage may be an early feature of destructive disease in JIA. However, US still needs validation before it can be used as a diagnostic bedside tool in a pediatric setting. This study aims to assess the inter- and intraobserver reliability of US measurements of cartilage thickness in the joints of healthy children. Methods 740 joints of 74 healthy Caucasian children (27 girls/47 boys, aged 11.3 (7.11 – 16 years were examined with bilateral US in 5 preselected joints to assess the interobserver variability. In 17 of these children (6 girls/11 boys, aged 10.1(7.11–11.1 years, 170 joints was examined in an intraobserver sub study, with a 2 week interval between the first and second examination. Results In this study we found a good inter- and intraobserver agreement expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV less than 10% in the knee (CV = 9.5%interobserver and 5.9%intraobservserI, 9.3%intraobserverII respectively for the two intraobserver measurements and fairly good for the MCP joints (CV = 11.9%interobserver, 12.9%intraobserverI and 11.9%intraobsevrerII. In the ankle and PIP joints the inter- and intraobserver agreement was within an acceptable limit (CV26%. We found no difference in cartilage thickness between the left and right extremity in the investigated joints. Conclusion We found a good inter -and intraobserver agreement when measuring cartilage thickness with US. The inter- and intraobserver variation seemed not to be related to joint size. These findings suggest that positioning of the joint and the transducer is of major importance for reproducible US measurements. We found no difference in joint cartilage thickness between the left and right extremity in any of the examined joint of the healthy children. This is an

  10. Dengue in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Groot, R. de

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease of expanding geographical range and increasing incidence. The vast majority of dengue cases are children less than 15 years of age. Dengue causes a spectrum of illness from mild fever to severe disease with plasma leakage and shock. Infants and children with

  11. Conceptualizing Innovation in Born Global Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zijdemans, Erik; Tanev, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    This research provides insights from recent literature on innovativeness in the environment of born globals. This article will be relevant to researchers interested in born globals and their business environments and, more specifically, the role that innovation plays in their foundation...... and development. After discussing the internationalization of born globals as an innovation itself and the positive effect that innovation and internationalization have on each other, this article elaborates on the effect of innovativeness on the development of the company and, more in depth, the role...... of knowledge acquisition, networking capabilities and the lean startup approach in born global innovation. Finally, the article addresses the issue of quantifying and measuring innovativeness....

  12. Evolução clínica e laboratorial de recém-nascidos de mães HIV positivas Clinical and laboratory evolution of children born to HIV positive mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Erico Yoshimoto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A transmissão vertical do HIV (vírus da imunodeficiência humana tornou-se o principal alvo da profilaxia com zidovudina (AZT, utilizada durante a gestação, parto e no recém-nascido (RN. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a evolução clínica e laboratorial de RN de mães portadoras do HIV. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo entre 64 RN de mães portadoras do HIV classificados em dois grupos: grupo A constituído de 23 pares de mães e RN que não receberam o AZT, grupo B constituído de 41 pares que receberam AZT em alguma fase da profilaxia. RESULTADOS: A média de idade materna foi de 26,8 anos, o uso de drogas ilícitas ocorreu em 17,2% das gestantes, 20 (31,3% das gestantes apresentavam doenças. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos quanto a freqüência de pré-natal, doenças maternas, antropometria de nascimento e do crescimento durante o seguimento. Os grupos de estudo apresentaram hemogramas e contagens de linfócitos semelhantes. A negativação sorológica ocorreu em média aos 16 meses. A transmissão vertical ocorreu em seis crianças (9,3% e nenhuma criança foi infectada no subgrupo que recebeu a profilaxia em todas as fases. CONCLUSÃO: A profilaxia com AZT em todos os períodos recomendados e o seguimento a longo prazo dos RN de mães HIV positivas constitui uma das melhores estratégias para prevenção da Aids na infância.The vertical transmission of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus has become the main target of prophylactic Zidovudina (AZT therapy during gestation, parturition as well as for the newborn. BACKGROUND: To characterize the clinical and laboratory evolution of HIV exposed children. METHODS: Prospective study of 64 HIV exposed children, classified into two groups. Group A, made up of 23 pairs of mothers and newborns, who did not receive AZT; Group B, made up of 41 pairs, who received AZT at some stage of prophylaxis. RESULTS: The average maternal age was 26.8 years, the use of illicit drugs occurred in 17

  13. The second Born approximation in electron-atom collisions in the presence of a laser field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhoute, A. [UFR de Physique Atomique, Moleculaire et Optique Appliquee, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Moulay Ismail, Meknes (Morocco)]. E-mail: makhoute@fsmek.ac.ma; Khalil, D.; Zitane, M.; Bouzidi, M. [UFR de Physique Atomique, Moleculaire et Optique Appliquee, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Moulay Ismail, Meknes (Morocco)

    2002-02-28

    The second-order Born approximation (SBA) has been used to calculate the differential cross section for electron-hydrogen collisions in the presence of a linearly polarized laser field. We present a more precise treatment of the small-energy region of an incident electron by improving the calculation of the second Born term in this energy region. Detailed calculations of the scattering amplitudes are performed by using the Sturmian basis expansion. Our SBA results agree very well with those obtained in the first-order Born approximation at larger incident electron energies. (author)

  14. Children's Behaviors and Emotions in Small-Group Argumentative Discussion: Explore the Influence of Big Five Personality Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting

    2009-01-01

    The assessment and structure of personality traits and small group learning during classroom discussions are both research fields that have undergone fast development in the past few decades. However, very few studies have investigated the relationship between individual personality characteristics and performance in discussions, especially with…

  15. Small Prizes Increased Plain Milk and Vegetable Selection by Elementary School Children without Adversely Affecting Total Milk Purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Emerson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Pediatric obesity continues to be a major public health issue. Poor food selection in the school cafeteria is a risk factor. Chocolate or strawberry flavored milk is favored by the majority of elementary school students. Previous health promotion efforts have led to increased selection of plain milk, but may compromise total milk purchased. In our study, we examined the effectiveness of small prizes as incentives to improve healthy food and beverage selection by elementary school students; (2 Methods: In a small Midwestern school district, small prizes were given to elementary school students who selected a “Power Plate” (PP, the healthful combination of a plain milk, a fruit, a vegetable and an entrée with whole grain over two academic school years; (3 Results: PP selection increased from 0.05 per student to 0.19, a 271% increase (p < 0.001. All healthful foods had increased selection with plain milk having the greatest increase, 0.098 per student to 0.255, a 159% increase (p < 0.001; (4 Total milk purchased increased modestly from 0.916 to 0.956 per student (p = 0.000331. Conclusion: Giving small prizes as a reward for healthful food selection substantially improves healthful food selection and the effect is sustainable over two academic years.

  16. Sex of the first-born and risk of preterm birth in the subsequent pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Cnattingius, Sven

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that the chance of successfully maintaining a pregnancy may be influenced by the sex of previously born children. We explored a possible relation between sex of the first-born infant and the risk of preterm birth in the second pregnancy. METHODS: Using data from...... the National Medical Birth Registries in Denmark 1980-2004 and Sweden 1980-2001, we selected all women whose first and second births were singleton and who had information on sex of first-born infant and gestational age for the second (Denmark, n = 393,686; Sweden, n = 603,282). Cox proportional hazards...... regression analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratio of preterm birth in the second pregnancy according to the sex of the first-born infant. RESULTS: Compared with women whose first baby was a girl, women with boys had an increased risk of preterm birth in a second pregnancy (hazard ratio = 1.10 [95...

  17. Phonetic description of babbling in Danish toddlers born with and without unilateral cleft lip and palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Albrechstn, Helle

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate prelinguistic vocalization sequences of 1-year-old children with and without cleft lip and palate. Design: Prospective study. Participants: Thirty-eight children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate and 36 control children born without clefts. The cleft children had...... the lip, soft palate, and posterior part of the hard palate repaired at 4 months of age. The lip was closed ad modum Millard, the nose was corrected according to McComb, and the soft palate was closed with a posteriorly based vomer flap. Methods: Data were obtained from a clinical visit during which...... the canonical babbling stage. Results: No significant differences were observed between the cleft and control groups concerning frequency of occurrence of vocalization sequences, contoids, or vocoids. Structural differences between the groups seem to influence the contoid inventory, with a higher frequency...

  18. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrnjaković-Cvjetković Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tick-borne meningoencephalitis virus is a flavivirus that causes the most important vector-borne central nervous system infection in many countries of Europe and Asia. There are three subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus: European, Siberian and the Far-Eastern subtype. Transmission. In endemic areas, the virus remains in transmissive cycles between Ixodes ticks and small rodents. Clinical picture. In most cases (70−98% infection goes asymptomatically. In about one-third of meningitis cases, meningoencephalitis or meningomyelitis is developed. Postencephalytic syndrome may be the complication of the infection, presenting with neurological symptoms. Diagnosis. Etiologic diagnosis of tick-borne meningoencephalitis is only made on basis of laboratory analyses. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction is used for determining the presence of virus in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Antibodies in blood and cerebrospinal fluid can be detected by serological tests. Prevention. The most efficient way to control this potentially severe disease with possible serious long-term consequences is vaccination. It should be recommended to persons who live or travel to endemic areas. Conclusion. In Serbia, tick-borne encephalitis virus infection belongs to the list of reportable diseases; however, there are no reported cases because the diagnostics is not performed routinely. We believe that the significance of this zoonosis must be examined in our country and some of its parts because of preliminary positive serological findings found out in Vojvodina as well as because of reported cases in neighboring countries such as Hungary and Croatia and its worldwide distribution.

  19. Las Born Global: Empresas de Acelerada Internacionalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grettel Brenes Leiva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Las born global son un grupo de pequeñas y medianasempresas emprendedoras que presentan unproceso de internacionalización acelerado, es decir,inician sus actividades comerciales en el mercadomundial justo apenas nacen o en un periodo muycercano a su nacimiento. Estas empresas ingresana los nuevos mercados obviando o se brincándosealgunas de las etapas del proceso tradicional de internacionalización,gradual o por etapas, conocidocomo “modelo Uppsala”. Son entes dinamizadoresde las economías que contribuyen en el desarrolloeconómico de los países, siempre y cuando se creael clima, las condiciones y la infraestructura indispensablepara que puedan alcanzar un desarrollosostenido de sus exportaciones. Este artículo intentacaracterizar a las born global partiendo de las definiciones,características, sostenibilidad y la selección ymodo de ingreso a los mercados globales.   ABSTRACT The born global is a group of small andmedium sized entrepreneurial companies that showan accelerated internationalization process, thatis, they start their commercial activity in worldmarkets just as they are born or in a period veryclose to their conception. These companies enternew markets paying no attention to, or disregardingsome of the steps of the traditional gradual orstepwise internationalization process known as the“Uppsala model”. They are dynamizing entities oftheir economies that contribute to the economicdevelopment of their countries, as long as the essentialoperating climate, conditions and infrastructure arecreated to allow them attain a sustained developmentin their exports. This article attempts to characterizethe born global companies starting from thedefinitions, characteristics, sustainability and theirchoice of ingress mode to global markets.

  20. Conhecimento histórico e crianças pequenas: parques infantis e escola municipal de educação infantil Historical knowledge and small children: children's playgrounds and the state's primary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Aparecida Gobbi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo relata a experiência com o projeto "Os parques infantis de Mário de Andrade ontem e hoje", empreendido por todos os profissionais e crianças de uma escola municipal de Educação Infantil da cidade de São Paulo. A preocupação com o conhecimento histórico e as crianças da primeira infância e suas especificidades, numa perspectiva não-escolarizante e não-antecipatória do Ensino Fundamental, foi a tônica e um desafio. Procura aliar história e memória, estabelecendo relações entre História da Educação, história da escolarização de crianças pequenas e formação docente.This article discusses an experience with the project "The children's playgrounds of Mario de Andrade, yesterday and today", undertaken by all the professionals and children of a state primary school in the city of São Paulo. The concern with historical knowledge and the children in the first years of primary school, with their specific qualities, their un-schooled perspective and their inability to predict the school's teaching approach, was the keynote of this study and the challenge faced. A link between history and memory is sought, establishing a relationship between the History of Education, the history of small children being schooled and teacher training.

  1. Born with a silver spoon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boserup, Simon Halphen; Kopczuk, Wojciech; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2016-01-01

    We study wealth inequality in childhood using Danish wealth records from three decades. While teenagers have some earnings, we estimate that transfers account for at least 50 percent of wealth at age 18, and much more so for the rich children. Inheritance from grandparents does not appear quantit...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  4. An outbreak of food-borne botulism in Scotland, United Kingdom, November 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, L M; Prempeh, H; Little, C; Houston, C; Grant, K; Cowden, J M

    2011-12-08

    An investigation is currently underway to explain an outbreak of food-borne botulism in Scotland. Three children in the same family were confirmed as having botulism following consumption of a meal made with a jar of korma sauce. Residual sauce from the jar, the jar lid and a remnant of the meal, all tested positive for Clostridium botulinum type A toxin. The children are recovering, although two remain ventilated and in intensive care unit.

  5. PEOPLE BORN IN AUTUMN LIVE LONGER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    People born in the autumn live longer an those born in the spring and are less likely to fall chronically ill when they are older,according to an Austrian scientist.Using census data for more than one million people in Austria,Denmark and Australia,scien-

  6. Non-abelian Born-Infeld revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, M. de

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the non-abelian Born-Infeld action, including fermions, as a series in α'. We review recent work establishing the complete result to α'2, and its impact on our earlier attempts to derive the Born-Infeld action using κ-symmetry.

  7. Thermodynamics of Born-Infeld black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chemissany, Wissam A.; de Roo, Mees; Panda, Sudhakar

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the horizon structure for Born-Infeld black holes in the context of Einstein-Born-Infeld gravity. We show that the entropy function formalism agrees with a direct calculation of the entropy. With the entropy function formalism we also obtain the entropy when an axion-dilaton system as wel

  8. The neonate was born with holoprosencephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza saeidi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available holoprosencephaly is a rare congenital brain malformation resulting from failure of diverticulation and cleavage of primitive prosencephalon which occurs at 4 - 8th week of gestation and is usually associated with multiple midline facial anomalies. it is the most common forebrain developmental anomaly in humans with prevalence of 1/16,000 in live borns, an incidence as high as 1:250 in conceptuses, and a worldwide distribution6. The etiology of HPE is very heterogeneous. First, this pathology can be caused by environmental or metabolic factors. The only formally recognized environmental factors are insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (1% risk of HPE and maternal alcoholism with a risk that cumulates with smoking . Clinical expression is variable, extending in unbroken sequence from a small brain with a single cerebral ventricle and cyclopia to clinically unaffected carriers in familial holoprosencephaly. Here. we report a boy 39 weeks neonatal case of holoprosencephaly with Antenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis, with microcephaly, hypotelorism, flat nose, a single nostril, a midline cleft lip and palate microcephaly.

  9. The neonate was born with holoprosencephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza saeidi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available holoprosencephaly is a rare congenital brain malformation resulting from failure of diverticulation and cleavage of primitive prosencephalon which occurs at 4 - 8th week of gestation and is usually associated with multiple midline facial anomalies. it is the most common forebrain developmental anomaly in humans with prevalence of 1/16,000 in live borns, an incidence as high as 1:250 in conceptuses, and a worldwide distribution6. The etiology of HPE is very heterogeneous. First, this pathology can be caused by environmental or metabolic factors. The only formally recognized environmental factors are insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (1% risk of HPE and maternal alcoholism with a risk that cumulates with smoking . Clinical expression is variable, extending in unbroken sequence from a small brain with a single cerebral ventricle and cyclopia to clinically unaffected carriers in familial holoprosencephaly. Here. we report a boy 39 weeks neonatal case of holoprosencephaly with Antenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis, with microcephaly, hypotelorism, flat nose, a single nostril, a midline cleft lip and palate microcephaly.

  10. Blood-Borne Infections in Tattooed People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi-Shahri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Tattoos are associated with blood-borne infections that result from viruses such as the hepatitis B virus (HBV, the hepatitis C virus (HCV, and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. This association is equally evident among people without major risk factors and among those with major risk factors like injected drug users (IDUs. Objectives In this study we evaluated all tattooed patients admitted to our hospital (the Boo-Ali hospital in southeastern Iran between February 2006 to January 2015. Patients and Methods The patients enrolled in our study were admitted to infectious disease wards for different illnesses (e. g., Pneumonia, Sepsis, Tuberculosis, etc..We only studied the patients who agreed to be included in our study. When we found at least one tattooed area, regardless of its size, we took a blood sample and tested it for the presence of HIV, HBV, and HCV. Results Among the 63 patients with tattoos (21% female, 79% male, age range:16 to 79-years-old, four patients (6.3% tested positive for HBsAg and PCR-HBV, seven patients (11% tested positive for HCV, and five (7.9% tested positive for HIV. The last group consisted in IDUs and all five had several tattooed areas on their bodies. Conclusions Upon our results, tattooed people even with a small size of tattoo on the body are more at risk for HCV, HBV, and HIV infection.

  11. Added Centimetres and Their Repercussions: How effective and safe is growth hormone in the treatment of short stature in girls with Turner syndrome and in children born small for gestational age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.K. van Pareren (Yvonne)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe most common clinical characteristic of Turner syndrome (TS) is short stature. Although girls with TS are not growth hormone (GH) deficient, studies show that long-term GH treatment in TS leads to normalisation of height during childhood. In this chapter the results and conclusions

  12. Do currently recommended Bayley III cutoffs overestimate motor impairment in infants born <27 weeks gestation?

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Andrea F; Bann, Carla; Boatman, Cathy; Hintz, Susan R.; Vaucher, Yvonne E.; Vohr, Betty R.; Yolton, Kimberly; Heyne, Roy J.; ,

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a Bayley-III Motor Composite score of 85 may overestimate moderate-severe motor impairment by analyzing Bayley-III motor components and developing cut-point scores for each. Study Design Retrospective study of 1183 children born

  13. Examining the impact of health research facilitated by small peer-reviewed research operating grants in a women's and children's health centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrath Patrick J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been limited research on the impact of research funding for small, institutional grants. The IWK Health Centre, a children and women's hospital in Maritime Canada, provides small amounts (up to $15,000 of research funding for staff and trainees at all levels of experience through its Research Operating Grants. These grants are rigorously peer-reviewed. To evaluate the impact of these grants, an assessment was completed of several different areas of impact. Findings An online questionnaire was sent to 64 Principal Investigators and Co-Investigators from Research Operating Grants awarded from 2004 to 2006. The questionnaire was designed to assess five areas of potential impact: (1 research, (2 policy, (3 practice, (4 society and (5 personal. Research impact reported by participants included publications (72%, presentations (82% and knowledge transfer beyond the traditional formats (51%. Practice impact was reported by 67% of participants, policy impact by 15% and societal impact by 18%. All participants reported personal impact. Conclusions Small research grants yield similar impacts to relatively large research grants. Regardless of the total amount of research funds awarded, rigorously peer-reviewed research projects have the potential for significant impact at the level of knowledge transfer and changes in clinical practice and policy. Additional findings in the present research indicate that small awards have the potential to have significant impact on the individual grant holder across a variety of capacity building variables. These personal impacts are particularly noteworthy in the context of developing the research programs of novice researchers.

  14. Small intestinal mucosa IgE plasma cells and specific anti-cow milk IgE in children with cow milk protein intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrander, J J; Dellevoet, J J; Arends, J W; Forget, P P; Kuijten, R

    1993-05-01

    In a prospective study we looked for the presence of both IgE plasma cells in small bowel mucosa and specific serum IgE antibodies to cow milk in children suspected of cow milk protein intolerance. Thirty-one children with complaints possibly due to cow milk intolerance were submitted to two consecutive cow milk elimination/challenge tests. The diagnosis of cow milk protein intolerance was confirmed in 16 of our 31 patients on the basis of two positive elimination/challenge tests. IgE plasma cells were found in nine of 16 patients with proven cow milk protein intolerance and in only one of the 15 patients without cow milk protein intolerance (p < .01). The RAST for cow milk was positive in six of 16 infants with cow milk protein intolerance and in two of the 15 other infants. Serum IgE level was of no value for the diagnosis of cow milk protein intolerance. Neither of these diagnostic procedures was sensitive enough to be used as a screening test for cow milk protein intolerance. Furthermore, the relationship between specific IgE antibodies for cow milk and the presence of mucosal IgE plasma cells was poor: five of nine infants with cow milk protein intolerance and the presence of mucosal IgE plasma cells had negative RASTs for cow milk.

  15. Quality of Life and Its Associated Factors among School - Aged Children Born with Very Low Birth Weight%极低出生体质量儿童学龄期的生存质量及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小璐; 岑超群; 钟敏泉; 翟琼香; 卢奕云; 杨杰; 钟向明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the quality of life( QOL) and its associated factors among school - aged children born with very low birth weight( VLBW), which may provide scientific evidences for early clinical intervention. Methods In this cross - sectional case control study ,235 children with VLBW and 396 healthy children with normal birth weight( NBW) were recruited from mainstream schools. The postal paediatric quality of life inventory( PedsQLTM4.0) generic core scales containing 23 items was used and completed by the parents.and the proxy questionnaire included questions on physical functioning,emotional functioning,social functioning and role functioning about their children. The scores of total scale and all dimensions were calculated to analyze the differences of QOL between 2 groups and related factors of VI.BW children. Results A total of 570 out of 631 questionnaires sent out were completed,with a response rate of 90.3%. The mean age of VLBW group at the time of PedsQL completion was (9.6 ± 2.5) years old, with 1 004 - 1 498 g[ (1 201 ± 279) g] of birth weight. The mean age of NBW cases was (9.7 ±3.1) years old,with 2 512-3 955 g[ (3 216 ±435) g] of birth weighl,and scores of VLBW group in terms of emotional function, role function and total scores were significantly lower than those of the NBW group [ respectively (73.12 ± 16.67) scores, (70.43 ±20.67) scores, (75.98 ± 17. 53) scores vs (79. 16 ±17. 22) scores, (77. 43 ±19.63) scores, (80. 21 ± 17. 29) scores, P, < 0. 05]. Multiple regression analysis showed that among the VLBW group, children whose mothers had higher educational level had better QOL,while those with neonatal intracranial hemorrhage and retinopathy of prematurity had worse QOL. Conclusions QOL of children born with VLBW are worse than that of NBW children, especially in the aspects of emotional function and role function. Maternal educational level and pathophysiological slate during neonatal period are important influential

  16. Performance of an Early Infant Diagnostic Test, AmpliSens DNA-HIV-FRT, Using Dried Blood Spots Collected from Children Born to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Mothers in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Azarskova, Marianna; Nguyen, Shon; Hurlston, Mackenzie; Sabatier, Jennifer; Zhang, Guoqing; Osmanov, Saladin; Ellenberger, Dennis; Yang, Chunfu; Vitek, Charles; Liulchuk, Maria; Nizova, Natalya

    2015-01-01

    An accurate accessible test for early infant diagnosis (EID) is crucial for identifying HIV-infected infants and linking them to treatment. To improve EID services in Ukraine, dried blood spot (DBS) samples obtained from 237 HIV-exposed children (≤18 months of age) in six regions in Ukraine in 2012 to 2013 were tested with the AmpliSens DNA-HIV-FRT assay, the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM) HIV-1 Qual test, and the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Qualitative assay. In comparison with the paired whole-blood results generated from AmpliSens testing at the oblast HIV reference laboratories in Ukraine, the sensitivity was 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.00) for the AmpliSens and Roche CAP/CTM Qual assays and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.98) for the Abbott Qualitative assay. The specificity was 1.00 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1.00) for the AmpliSens and Abbott Qualitative assays and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.00) for the Roche CAP/CTM Qual assay. McNemar analysis indicated that the proportions of positive results for the tests were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Cohen's kappa (0.97 to 0.99) indicated almost perfect agreement among the three tests. These results indicated that the AmpliSens DBS and whole-blood tests performed equally well and were comparable to the two commercially available EID tests. More importantly, the performance characteristics of the AmpliSens DBS test meets the World Health Organization EID test requirements; implementing AmpliSens DBS testing might improve EID services in resource-limited settings. PMID:26447114

  17. Of ticks, mice and men - shaping the ecology of tick-borne pathogens in Baden-Württemberg

    OpenAIRE

    Littwin, Nina-Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Ticks cause more vector-borne diseases than any other blood-feeding arthropod in Europe; and their abundance is increasing. Influential US studies show that small mammals are key hosts regulating ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBP), serving as blood meal hosts and TBP reservoirs. The relevance of these studies to Europe is, however, unknown. Therefore, my aim was the determination of the relative influence of small mammal hosts and environmental factors on the dynamics of ticks and TBPs in BW.

  18. Living with the Sins of Their Fathers: An Analysis of Self-Representation of Adolescents Born of War Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erjavec, Karmen; Volcic; Zala

    2010-01-01

    Children born of war rape continue to be a taboo theme in many post-war societies, also in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). This study is based on in-depth interviews with eleven adolescents born of war rape in BH. The main goal is to present how these adolescents represent themselves and their life-situations. On the basis of the research we identify…

  19. [Climate- and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.; Konradsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important...... role in disease patterns, it is evident that transmission potential is governed by a complex of factors, including socio-economy, health-care capacity and ecology. In Denmark, malaria and leishmaniasis are unlikely to become public health problems, whereas the potential for tick-borne illnesses may...

  20. The Emergence of `Power with': The Case of a Born Global Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Panteli, Niki

    Thanks to the advancement of Information and Communications Technologies, the past decade has seen the rise of Born Global organizations (Rennie, 1993; Oviatt and McDougall, 1994; Karra and Philips, 2004; Zahra, 2005). Broadly defined as ‘business organizations that, right from inception, seek to derive significant competitive advantages from the use of resources and the sales of outputs in multiple countries’ (Oviatt and McDougall, 1994: 49), Born Global organizations are small, young, and internationally dispersed. While sharing the characteristics of ‘smallness’ and ‘newness’ of Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), Born Global organizations also bear ‘foreignness’, similar to that of Multinational Corporations (Zahra, 2005). Born Globals therefore need to strike a balance between ‘global reach’ and ‘local touch’ as in Multinational Corporations (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 1989); yet they have to do so with scare resources and organizational uncertainty similar to SMEs, and with ‘lean’ and ‘mean’ communications afforded by ICT (e.g. Sproull and Kiesler, 1986). This study is an initial attempt to untangle the combined challenges in Born Globals’ innovative way of management. Through a longitudinal case study, we aim to explore the issue of power in a Born Global’s endeavour to manage its global knowledge via technology mediation.

  1. 综合治理对燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒病区学龄儿童智力的影响%The effects of comprehensive control measures on intelligence of school-age children in coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏娜; 李毅; 邓婕; 徐仕清; 官志忠

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of dental fluorosis,urinary fluoride level and intelligence of children who lived in the coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis areas and to reveal the effects of comprehensive control measures on intelligence of children in this area.Methods Children aged 8-12 who lived in coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis areas in Bijie City of Guizhou Province were selected and divided into two groups according to the duration of comprehensive treatments given:long treatment group (Xiaba Village and Zhongtun Village,furnace stovewas changed and comprehensive control measure of health education was carried out for more than 3 years) and short treatment group(Chadi Village and Maoliping Village,stoves were improved and health education time < 1 year).The children who lived in a non-fluorosis area were selected as controls in 2012.Dental fluorosis was diagnosed by the method of Dean; urinary fluoride was analyzed by the method of fluoride-ion selective electrode; and the intelligence quotient (IQ) was measured by Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices Test.Results The number of children surveyed in control group was 104,long treatment group was 298,short treatment group was 339,and the incidence rates of dental fluorosis were 0 (0/104),725%(216/298) and 85.2% (289/339),respectively,and the incidence rates of dental fluorosis in children lived in the endemic fluorosis areas were significantly increased compared with that of control group; the difference of incidence rates between long treatment group and short treatment group was statistically significantly(x2 =15.736,P < 0.01).Urinary fluoride content were (2.33 ± 0.18) and (3.03 ± 0.16)mg/L,respectively,compared with the control group[(1.34 ± 0.64) mg/L],the values in endemic fluorosis areas were significantly higher(F =306.53,P < 0.01).Above average IQ of children in the control group was 97.1% (101/104),which was significantly higher than that of long and short treatment

  2. Coeliac disease in children of West Indian origin.

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, J C; Phillips, A D; Walker-Smith, J A

    1995-01-01

    Coeliac disease is uncommon in populations of non-European origin. Two English born West Indian children with coeliac disease are presented. The diagnosis should be considered in children of West Indian origin with chronic diarrhoea.

  3. The cost of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas

    In this paper we estimate the opportunity cost of children. The underlying theoretical model is represented by a household production model. In the empirical analysis, we consider three different cohorts for men and women born between 1955 and 1970. For the women in the two oldest cohorts......, the opportunity cost of two children is estimated to 28-29 per cent of full income, which in monetary units is close to estimated income difference between women employed in the public and private sector. The opportunity cost of fatherhood is generally positive, but only significantly positive for men born...

  4. Small and Magical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ant genome study offers promising evidence in medical and anti-aging research While children often love observing ants happily for hours, grownups are more likely to ignore these small creatures. Some scientists, however, show greater interest in ants than children do.

  5. Condições sociodemográficas de crianças de zero a dois anos filhas de mães com HIV/Aids, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil The socio-demographic conditions of children aged 0 to 2 years born to mothers with HIV/AIDS, in the city of Fortaleza, in the Brazilian State of Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Tavares Machado

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar as condições sociodemográficas das crianças de 0 a 2 anos de idade nascidas de mães HIV + / AIDS em Fortaleza, Ceará, Nordeste do Brasil. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal utilizando um questionário semiestruturado com cuidadores (63 mães e 5 avós de crianças no ambulatório de um hospital estadual, entre Dezembro de 2005 e Abril de 2006. RESULTADOS: a idade média das mães foi de 26 anos de idade. Aproximadamente 16% eram analfabetas, 57,3% eram casadas e 5,9% viúvas. Mais de dois terços (79,4% das mulheres participantes do estudo tornou-se ciente de seu status de HIV + no último parto e 51,5% relataram não receber qualquer tipo de assistência social do governo. A idade média das crianças foi de 15,6 meses e 13% não tiveram um teste de HIV. A maioria delas era proveniente de áreas rurais (60,3%, com renda familiar média mensal de R$ 446,32. Verificou-se que 57,9% das crianças viviam em uma casa com cinco ou mais pessoas, e 31% relataram ter quatro ou mais crianças morando na mesma casa. CONCLUSÕES: há necessidade de estratégias de prevenção e promoção à saúde, levando em consideração o contexto social das famílias que vivem com HIV/AIDS.OBJECTIVES: to ascertain the socio-demographic conditions of children aged between 0 and 2 years born to mothers testing positive for HIV / AIDS in the city of Fortaleza, in the Northeastern Brazilian State of Ceará. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was conducted involving the application of a semi-structured questionnaire to women caring for children (63 mothers and 5 grandmothers at a State hospital outpatient clinic, between December 2005 and April 2006. RESULTS: the mean age of the mothers was 26 years. Approximately 16% were illiterate; 57.3% were married and 5.9% widows. More than two thirds (79.4% of the women taking part in the study first became aware of their HIV status during their last delivery. 51.5% reported not having received any kind of

  6. [Tick-borne encefalitis - pathogenesis and -therapeutic approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růžek, D

    2015-10-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a major public health threat in large areas of Central and Eastern Europe and in Russia. This review summarizes the current data on the interactions between the TBE virus and the host, with a particular focus on the mechanisms of neuronal injury, immune response and immunopathology in the central nervous system (CNS), and factors that determine the course and outcome of TBE. Novel trends of experimental therapy of TBE are discussed. Combining small molecule inhibitors targeting viral replication with immunomodulatury agents might be a way to maximize viral clearance and minimize immunopathology in the CNS during TBE.

  7. Tick-Borne Diseases: The Big Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Ticks and Diseases Tick-borne Diseases: The Big Two Past Issues / Spring - ... on the skin where there has been a tick bite. Photo: CDC/James Gathany Lyme disease Lyme ...

  8. Aircraft propeller induced structure-borne noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, James F.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory-based test apparatus employing components typical of aircraft construction was developed that would allow the study of structure-borne noise transmission due to propeller induced wake/vortex excitation of in-wake structural appendages. The test apparatus was employed to evaluate several aircraft installation effects (power plant placement, engine/nacelle mass loading, and wing/fuselage attachment methods) and several structural response modifications for structure-borne noise control (the use of wing blocking mass/fuel, wing damping treaments, and tuned mechanical dampers). Most important was the development of in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection techniques using a combination of ground-based frequency response function testing and in-flight structural response measurement. Propeller wake/vortex excitation simulation techniques for improved ground-based testing were also developed to support the in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection development.

  9. On Born approximation in black hole scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batic, D. [University of West Indies, Department of Mathematics, Kingston (Jamaica); Kelkar, N.G.; Nowakowski, M. [Universidad de los Andes, Departamento de Fisica, Bogota (Colombia)

    2011-12-15

    A massless field propagating on spherically symmetric black hole metrics such as the Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstroem and Reissner-Nordstroem-de Sitter backgrounds is considered. In particular, explicit formulae in terms of transcendental functions for the scattering of massless scalar particles off black holes are derived within a Born approximation. It is shown that the conditions on the existence of the Born integral forbid a straightforward extraction of the quasi normal modes using the Born approximation for the scattering amplitude. Such a method has been used in literature. We suggest a novel, well defined method, to extract the large imaginary part of quasinormal modes via the Coulomb-like phase shift. Furthermore, we compare the numerically evaluated exact scattering amplitude with the Born one to find that the approximation is not very useful for the scattering of massless scalar, electromagnetic as well as gravitational waves from black holes. (orig.)

  10. Born-Infeld action and Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, G A

    2000-01-01

    In the thesis we analize different problems related to the supersymmetric extension of the Dirac-Born-Infeld action. In chapter 2 we introduce the DBI action and show how it appears in string theory, we discuss also it's connection with Dp-branes. Chapter 3 is a self contained introduction to supersymmetry, with emphasis on BPS states. In chapter 4 we construct the N=2 supersymmetric extension of the Born-Infeld-Higgs in three space-time dimensions and discuss it's BPS states and Bogomol'nyi bounds. In chapter 5 we construct the N=1 supersymmetric extension of the non-abelian Born-Infeld theory in four space-time dimensions. Chapter 6 deals with the analisis of BPS and non-BPS solutions of the Dirac-Born-Infeld action and their interpretation in superstring theory. Chapter 7 is devoted to the conclusions. Three appendix complete the work.

  11. Compromised immune response in infants at risk for type 1 diabetes born by Caesarean Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puff, R; D'Orlando, O; Heninger, A-K; Kühn, D; Krause, S; Winkler, C; Beyerlein, A; Bonifacio, E; Ziegler, A-G

    2015-10-01

    Children born by Caesarean Section have a higher risk for type 1 diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether Caesarean Section leads to alterations of the immune response in children with familial risk for type 1 diabetes. We examined measures of innate and adaptive immune responses in 94 prospectively followed children, including 40 born by Caesarean Section. Proinflammatory serum cytokine concentrations were determined at age 6 months. As a measure of vaccine response, IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4 tetanus antibody titers and CD4(+) T cell proliferation against tetanus toxoid were quantified. Compared to infants born by vaginal delivery, infants born by Caesarean Section had lower concentrations of the cytokines IFN-ɣ (p=0.014) and IL-8 (p=0.005), and weaker CD4(+) T cell responses to tetanus measured in the first (p=0.007) and second year (p=0.047) of life. Overall, our findings provide evidence that the mode of delivery influences the immune status and responsiveness during childhood.

  12. Difficulties in Diagnosing Food-Borne Botulism

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Botulism is a muscle-paralyzing disease caused by neurotoxins (types A–G) produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Symptoms of food-borne botulism most commonly appear 12–36 h after eating contaminated food, but the earliest neurological symptoms may in some cases start abruptly. Here, we report the cases of two patients with food-borne botulism who were admitted to the neurological emergency room as candidates for intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke.

  13. Difficulties in diagnosing food-borne botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forss, Nina; Ramstad, Raimo; Bäcklund, Tom; Lindström, Miia; Kolho, Elina

    2012-05-01

    Botulism is a muscle-paralyzing disease caused by neurotoxins (types A-G) produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Symptoms of food-borne botulism most commonly appear 12-36 h after eating contaminated food, but the earliest neurological symptoms may in some cases start abruptly. Here, we report the cases of two patients with food-borne botulism who were admitted to the neurological emergency room as candidates for intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke.

  14. Difficulties in Diagnosing Food-Borne Botulism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Forss

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a muscle-paralyzing disease caused by neurotoxins (types A–G produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Symptoms of food-borne botulism most commonly appear 12–36 h after eating contaminated food, but the earliest neurological symptoms may in some cases start abruptly. Here, we report the cases of two patients with food-borne botulism who were admitted to the neurological emergency room as candidates for intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke.

  15. Randomized GH trial with two different dosages in combination with a GnRH analogue in short small for gestational age children: Effects on metabolic profile and serum GH, IGF1, and IGFBP3 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.M. van der Kaay (Danielle); B. Bakker (Boudewijn); F. van der Hulst (Flip); D. Mul (Dick); J.C. Mulder (Jaap); E.J. Schroor (Eelco); D. van Elswijk (Denise); I. Rowaan (Inge); M. Willeboer (Merel); M.A.J. de Ridder (Maria); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: GnRH analogue (GnRHa) combined with GH treatment has been proposed to increase adult height. Effect on metabolic profile and GH, IGF1, and IGFBP3 levels in short small for gestational age (SGA) children is unknown. Objective: To assess fat mass and lean body mass SDS, percent

  16. Foreign-born Peers and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Dylan

    2015-04-01

    The academic performance of foreign-born youth in the United States is well studied, yet little is known about whether and how foreign-born students influence their classmates. In this article, I develop a set of expectations regarding the potential consequences of immigrant integration across schools, with a distinction between the effects of sharing schools with immigrants who are designated as English language learners (ELL) and those who are not. I then use administrative data on multiple cohorts of Florida public high school students to estimate the effect of immigrant shares on immigrant and native-born students' academic performance. The identification strategy pays careful attention to the selection problem by estimating the effect of foreign-born peers from deviations in the share foreign-born across cohorts of students attending the same school in different years. The assumption underlying this approach is that students choose schools based on the composition of the entire school, not on the composition of each entering cohort. The results of the analysis, which hold under several robustness checks, indicate that foreign-born peers (both those who are ELL and those who are non-ELL) have no effect on their high school classmates' academic performance.

  17. Clinical assessment of language development in children at age 3 years that were born preterm Avaliação da evolução dos aspectos linguísticos em crianças que nasceram prematuras aos 3 anos de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rizzotto Schirmer

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of gestational age and birth weight on language development and neurodevelopmental outcome at age 3 years in children born preterm. METHOD: Cross sectional study including 69 children followed in our developmental outpatient clinic. Patients were consecutively included at the time of the 3 years of age appointment and stratified for birth weight (OBJETIVO: Avaliar influência da idade gestacional (IG e peso ao nascimento na aquisição da linguagem e neurodesenvolvimento em crianças de 3 anos que nasceram prematuras. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal incluindo 69 crianças acompanhadas no Ambulatório de Seguimento Neonatal. Pacientes incluídos tinham 3 anos e foram estratificados por peso ao nascimento (>1500 gramas e entre 1500-2500 gramas. Todos foram avaliados com relação ao neurodesenvolvimento incluindo avaliação neurológica clínica, Denver II, Bayley II e avaliação da linguagem. Para a analise dividimos em dois grupos com e sem alteração na aquisição de linguagem. RESULTADOS: Crianças com DAL apresentam melhores índices nos escores de desenvolvimento no Bayley II (p=1500 gramas tiveram escores menores no Bayley II na idade de 36 m (p=0.002, p=0.007 e p<0.001. Análise multivariada sugere uma associação da IG (p=0,032 e alteração comportamental (p=0,001 com atraso na aquisição da linguagem. Denver II alterado tanto aos 12 m quanto aos 24 m, correlaciona-se com significância estatística a atraso na aquisição de linguagem receptiva e expressiva aos 3 anos de idade (p=<0.01 e p=<0.01. CONCLUSÃO: Crianças nascidas prematuras e com baixo peso ao nascimento, apresentam maior risco de ter um atraso no desenvolvimento da linguagem. Sendo que as crianças que tem atraso no desenvolvimento de linguagem apresentaram um desempenho cognitivo e psicomotor inferior ao das com desenvolvimento normal.

  18. Children of Methadone-Maintained Mothers: Three-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Helen L.; And Others

    The physical and neurobehavioral findings at 3 years of age for 39 children born to mothers on methadone- maintenance and 23 children born to drug-free comparison mothers are reported. The methadone children had a higher incidence of head circumferences less than the third percentile, nystagmus/strabismus, and otitis media. No differences were…

  19. Motor Development of Premature Infants Born between 32 and 34 Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Prins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about motor development in late preterm born infants. Our objective was to determine long-term outcome of motor skills of infants born between 32 and 34 weeks. All infants were assessed at corrected ages of 3 and 9 months, using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. At corrected ages of 4 years, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children was done. Seventy infants were seen at 4 years of age (median of 3 assessments per infant. Abnormal assessment at 3 or 9 months of age resulted in normal outcome in almost 80% at 4 years. On the other hand, a normal outcome in the first year of life resulted in an abnormal outcome at 4 years in 10% of the infants. Our results suggest that long-term followup of these late preterm born infants is necessary, as the assessments in the first year do not predict the long-term outcome.

  20. British-born Chinese teenagers: the influence of Chinese ethnicity on their attitudes towards sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Juping

    2007-03-01

    This paper explores the influence of ethnicity on attitudes towards sexual behavior of British-born Chinese teenagers. Using an ethnographic approach and snowball sampling, data were collected through in-depth interviews with 20 British-born Chinese teenagers and 20 Chinese-born parents. The parents highlighted the influence of Chinese culture and religion on their sexual values and wanted to convey these values to their children. Although direct communication about sex-related topics was rare within these families because of a number of barriers, the parents used other strategies to pass on their values. The paper concludes that sexual values within families and the influence of culture need to be considered in order to provide culturally competent health services. Chinese parents need extra support and help to discuss sex-related topics and pass on their values, which encourage teenage sexual abstinence. Considering the fundamental influence of the parents, this support will be crucial.