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  1. Before the teaching begins: Managing patient anxiety prior to providing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Pamela L

    2006-04-01

    Patients experiencing cancer also can experience anxiety. Moderate to severe levels of anxiety can interfere with patients' ability to concentrate and comprehend new information. The condition is particularly troublesome when trying to present educational material related to recommended treatment interventions. Patients' understanding of the material is critical to ensure informed consent. Informed consent can be compromised if patients are unable to understand the information being provided. Nurses must be cognizant of the impact that anxiety has on patient education and assess patients prior to initiating patient teaching. By managing anxiety before beginning education, nurses can provide an environment more conducive to learning.

  2. Beginnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2012-01-01

    in the history of gastrointestinal endocrinology from classic studies of digestive juice secretion over peptide chemistry, immunochemistry, and molecular genetics to modern receptor pharmacology and drug development. From shadowy beginnings, gastrointestinal endocrinology has emerged as a central discipline...

  3. Imposition of a delay prior to beginning radiotherapy: impact on mood states for cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merker, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Waiting lists for radiotherapy are a recent phenomenon in highly populated areas and, coupled with the public's awareness of the nature of cancer and the need for immediate treatment, a psychological dilemma has emerged. Since virtually all patients are now assigned to the radiotherapy waiting list, a random sample of patients who would begin radiotherapy immediately following their initial consultation was created. Quality of life, in terms of self-reported mood indices, was assessed at five points in time for each patient using the Profile of Mood States. Approximately 25% of the delayed patients chose to leave the waiting list and seek treatment elsewhere. The most striking finding was that patients who began radiotherapy immediately experienced improved quality of life during the course of treatment as per Forester, et al., (1985). In contrast, the patients who spent time (1-8 weeks) on a treatment waiting list experienced a decrease in quality of life over their course of radiotherapy and even more so at a month following the end of treatment

  4. Prior childhood sexual abuse in mothers of sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, R K; Tebbutt, J; Swanston, H; Lynch, D L; O'Toole, B I

    1998-11-01

    To see if mothers who were sexually abused in their own childhood are at increased risk of their children being sexually abused and to see if prior sexual abuse in mothers affects their parenting abilities. Sixty-seven mothers whose children had been sexually abused by others and 65 control mothers were asked about sexual abuse in their own childhood. The sexually abused children of mothers who had been sexually abused in their own childhood were compared with the sexually abused children of mothers who had not suffered child sexual abuse as children. Comparisons were made on self-esteem, depression and behavior in the children. Thirty-four percent of mothers of sexually abused children gave a history of sexual abuse in their own childhoods, compared with 12% of control mothers. Assessment of the sexually abused children for self-esteem, depression and behavior at the time of diagnosis, after 18 months and after 5 years showed no difference in any of these measures at any of the three time intervals between those whose mothers had suffered child sexual abuse and those whose mothers had not been abused. In this study, sexual abuse in a mother's own childhood was related to an increased risk of sexual abuse occurring in the next generation, although prior maternal sexual abuse did not effect outcome in children who were sexually abused.

  5. 38 CFR 3.950 - Helpless children; Spanish-American and prior wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Helpless children; Spanish-American and prior wars. 3.950 Section 3.950 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... § 3.950 Helpless children; Spanish-American and prior wars. Marriage is not a bar to the payment of...

  6. Preschool Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The Beginnings of Elevated Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Lauren C.; Yiallourou, Stephanie R.; Biggs, Sarah N.; Nixon, Gillian M.; Davey, Margot J.; Trinder, John A.; Walter, Lisa M.; Horne, Rosemary S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: In adults and older children, snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP). However, BP has not been assessed in preschool children, the age of highest OSA prevalence. We aimed to assess overnight BP in preschool children with snoring and OSA using pulse transit time (PTT), an inverse continuous indicator of BP changes. Design: Overnight polysomnography including PTT. Children were grouped according to their obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI); control (no snoring, with OAHI of one event or less per hour), primary snoring (OAHI one event or less per hour), mild OSA (OAHI greater than one event to five events per hour) and moderate-severe OSA (OAHI more than five events per hour). Setting: Pediatric sleep laboratory. Patients: There were 128 clinically referred children (aged 3-5 years) and 35 nonsnoring community control children. Measurement and Results: PTT was averaged for each 30-sec epoch of rapid eye movement (REM) or nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and normalized to each child's mean wake PTT. PTT during NREM was significantly higher than during REM sleep in all groups (P Biggs SN; Nixon GM; Davey MJ; Trinder JA; Walter LM; Horne RSC. Preschool children with obstructive sleep apnea: the beginnings of elevated blood pressure? SLEEP 2013;36(8):1219-1226. PMID:23904682

  7. The Effects of Prior Knowledge on Children's Memory and Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elischberger, Holger B.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 5- and 6-year-olds were read a story and asked to recall its details. Two independent factors-prestory knowledge and poststory suggestions-were crossed to examine the effects on children's story recall. The results indicated that prestory social knowledge about the story protagonist as well as academic knowledge relating to the…

  8. Prior opportunities to identify abuse in children with abusive head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letson, Megan M; Cooper, Jennifer N; Deans, Katherine J; Scribano, Philip V; Makoroff, Kathi L; Feldman, Kenneth W; Berger, Rachel P

    2016-10-01

    Infants with minor abusive injuries are at risk for more serious abusive injury, including abusive head trauma (AHT). Our study objective was to determine if children with AHT had prior opportunities to detect abuse and to describe the opportunities. All AHT cases from 7/1/2009 to 12/31/2011 at four tertiary care children's hospitals were included. A prior opportunity was defined as prior evaluation by either a medical or child protective services (CPS) professional when the symptoms and/or referral could be consistent with abuse but the diagnosis was not made and/or an alternate explanation was given and accepted. Two-hundred-thirty-two children with AHT were identified; median age (IQR) was 5.40 (3.30, 14.60) months. Ten percent (22/232) died. Of the 232 patients diagnosed with AHT, 31% (n=73) had a total of 120 prior opportunities. Fifty-nine children (25%) had at least one prior opportunity to identify abuse in a medical setting, representing 98 prior opportunities. An additional 14 (6%) children had 22 prior opportunities through previous CPS involvement. There were no differences between those with and without a prior opportunity based on age, gender, race, insurance, mortality, or institution. Children with prior opportunities in a medical setting were more likely to have chronic subdural hemorrhage (48 vs. 17%, p<0.01) and healing fractures (31 vs. 19%, p=0.05). The most common prior opportunities included vomiting 31.6% (38/120), prior CPS contact 20% (24/120), and bruising 11.7% (14/120). Improvements in earlier recognition of AHT and subsequent intervention might prevent additional injuries and reduce mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Indicators of dental anxiety in children just prior to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majstorovic, M; Morse, D E; Do, D; Lim, L l; Herman, N G; Moursi, A M

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between child dental anxiety and selected child and parental characteristics. Children and their parents were interviewed at the New York University, College of Dentistry, Pediatric Dentistry Clinic. The Children's Fear Survey Schedule - Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) evaluated child self-reported anxiety; the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) measured self-reported parental anxiety when the parent received dental treatment. Ninety-three children and their parents completed the questionnaires. Mean CFSS-DS scores were higher for girls than boys (32.5 vs. 26.3, p=0.003) and for children whose accompanying parents had MDAS scores of 11+ vs. ≥ 11 (32.8 vs. 26.6, p=0.001). There was little difference in mean CFSS-DS scores among those aged 6-10 yrs. vs. 11-14 yrs. (30.1 vs. 29.3). Significant correlations were found between CFSS-DS and both gender (Spearman's rho, rs=0.31) and MDAS scores (rs=0.33), but not between CFSS-DS and child age (rs=-0.05). Controlling simultaneously for gender, MDAS score and child age, a high CFSS-DS score (38+ vs. ≥ 38) was positively associated with girls (ORadj=3.76, 95% CI: 1.13-12.54) and an MDAS score of ≤ 15 vs. ≥ 11 (ORadj=2.50, 0.73-8.54), but weakly and inversely associated with age (ORadj=0.80, 0.25-2.52). Child gender and parental anxiety are indicators of child dental anxiety.

  10. Parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M; Baur, Louise A

    2013-12-01

    Parenting style may have a role in the development of young children's dietary behaviour, and a better understanding of parenting style may lead to better-targeted childhood obesity prevention interventions. This study aimed to investigate the association of parental self-efficacy, parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. A cross-sectional study with 242 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in one of the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of south-western Sydney, in 2007-2010. Parental self-efficacy, parenting style (warmth and hostility) and children's dietary behaviours (consumption of vegetables, fruit, soft-drink and snacks) were assessed by face-to-face interviews with participating mothers in the control group when their children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between parenting style and the child's dietary behaviour. Mothers with higher levels of global parental self-efficacy and self-efficacy for an infant were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetables per day, with odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (95%CI 1.35-4.27, P=0.003) and OR 1.88 (95%CI 1.06-3.36, P=0.03), respectively. A higher level of global parental self-efficacy or self-efficacy for an infant was significantly associated with having 2 serves of fruit per day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.46 (95%CI 1.35-4.48, P=0.003) and AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.00-3.41, P=0.048), respectively, after adjusting for annual household income. Mothers with a higher level of parental warmth were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetable per day with OR 1.85 (95%CI 1.06-3.25, P=0.03). Parental self-efficacy and parenting style were associated, cross-sectionally, with important children's dietary behaviours. Interventions which target parental self-efficacy and parenting style may improve eating habits of young children, and

  11. Experience of family members providing care for HIV-exposed children: beginning of the trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willyane de Andrade Alvarenga

    Full Text Available During and after pregnancy, mothers with HIV can undergo treatment that is capable of preventing vertical transmission (VT to their babies. The purpose of this study was to analyze the experience of family members that provide care for children whose mothers have HIV, to reduce the risk of VT, with emphasis on the beginning of this trajectory. This study was based on the qualitative approach and Symbolic Interactionism was adopted as a theoretical framework. A total of 36 family members participated in the study, all of whom were carers of children aged up to 18 months and waiting for confirmation of the HIV diagnosis. Data were collected in a hospital in north-eastern Brazil, between December 2012 and February 2013, and examined by means of content analysis. Child care began during pregnancy, when the possibility of the child having HIV was expected. Some had previous experience in providing care for exposed children. Understanding the early trajectory of care will help find ways to provide better support for carers during the trajectory of diagnosis confirmation.

  12. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R.

    2017-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, multilingual children show different vocabulary sizes or rates of vocabulary growth, (3) the age of onset of second-language acquisition for multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth, and (4) the sociolinguistic context of the languages spoken by multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth. Results showed increases in vocabulary size across time for all children, with a steeper increase prior to school entry. A significant difference between monolingual and multilingual children who speak a minority language was observed with regards to vocabulary size at school entry and vocabulary growth prior to school entry, but growth rate differences were no longer present following school entry. Taken together, results suggest that which languages children speak may matter more than being multilingual per se. PMID:29354017

  13. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea A N; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R

    2018-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, multilingual children show different vocabulary sizes or rates of vocabulary growth, (3) the age of onset of second-language acquisition for multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth, and (4) the sociolinguistic context of the languages spoken by multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth. Results showed increases in vocabulary size across time for all children, with a steeper increase prior to school entry. A significant difference between monolingual and multilingual children who speak a minority language was observed with regards to vocabulary size at school entry and vocabulary growth prior to school entry, but growth rate differences were no longer present following school entry. Taken together, results suggest that which languages children speak may matter more than being multilingual per se.

  14. Sex of prior children and risk of stillbirth in subsequent pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Nygaard, Ulrikka

    2010-01-01

    (singleton) between 1980 and 1998 (n = 499,731) using the Danish Birth Registry. These women had subsequent singleton births through 2004 (n = 558,314). We assessed the risk of stillbirth conditional on sex of prior children. RESULTS: The risk of stillbirth was increased by 12% after deliver of boys compared...

  15. Children's views on research without prior consent in emergency situations: a UK qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Louise; Sherratt, Frances C; Young, Bridget; McNamara, Paul; Dawson, Angus; Appleton, Richard; Crawley, Esther; Frith, Lucy; Gamble, Carrol; Woolfall, Kerry

    2018-06-09

    We explored children's views on research without prior consent (RWPC) and sought to identify ways of involving children in research discussions. Qualitative interview study. Participants were recruited through a UK children's hospital and online advertising. 16 children aged 7-15 years with a diagnosis of asthma (n=14) or anaphylaxis (n=2) with recent (<12 months) experience of emergency care. Children were keen to be included in medical research and viewed RWPC as acceptable in emergency situations if trial interventions were judged safe. Children trusted that doctors would know about their trial participation and act in their best interests. All felt that children should be informed about the research following their recovery and involved in discussions with a clinician or their parent(s) about the use of data already collected as well as continued participation in the trial (if applicable). Participants suggested methods to inform children about their trial participation including an animation. Children supported, and were keen to be involved in, clinical trials in emergency situations. We present guidance and an animation that practitioners and parents might use to involve children in trial discussions following their recovery. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R.

    2017-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, mult...

  17. Own and Others' Prior Experiences Influence Children's Imitation of Causal Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rebecca A; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2011-07-01

    Young children learn from others' examples, and they do so selectively. We examine whether the efficacy of prior experiences influences children's imitation. Thirty-six-month-olds had initial experience on a causal learning task either by performing the task themselves or by watching an adult perform it. The nature of the experience was manipulated such that the actor had either an easy or a difficult experience completing the task. Next, a second adult demonstrated an innovative technique for completing it. Children who had a difficult first-person experience, and those who had witnessed another person having difficulty, were significantly more likely to adopt and imitate the adult's innovation than those who had or witnessed an easy experience. Children who observed another were also more likely to imitate than were those who had the initial experience themselves. Imitation is influenced by prior experience, both when it is obtained through one's own hands-on motor manipulation and when it derives from observing the acts of others.

  18. The Very Beginnings of Togetherness in Shared Play among Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayna, Sylvie

    2001-01-01

    Presents three examples of the beginnings of togetherness among young peers, ages 1-3 years. Considers psychological processes underlying their activities and the characteristics of the settings in which these activities occur. Discusses these examples in the context of a definition of the social interactive dimension of learning, and the…

  19. Beginnings and Beyond: The Relationship between Television Violence and Neurodevelopment of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes research findings on the effect of televised violence on young children's behavior and neurodevelopment. Suggests ways parents can manage their child's television viewing and outlines activities for early childhood educators to incorporate into their curriculum to help children cope with television. Asserts that it is essential that…

  20. Refractory status epilepticus in children with and without prior epilepsy or status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Jackson, Michele C; Abend, Nicholas S; Arya, Ravindra; Brenton, James N; Carpenter, Jessica L; Chapman, Kevin E; Gaillard, William D; Gaínza-Lein, Marina; Glauser, Tracy A; Goldstein, Joshua L; Goodkin, Howard P; Helseth, Ashley; Kapur, Kush; McDonough, Tiffani L; Mikati, Mohamad A; Peariso, Katrina; Riviello, James; Tasker, Robert C; Topjian, Alexis A; Wainwright, Mark S; Wilfong, Angus; Williams, Korwyn; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2017-01-24

    To compare refractory convulsive status epilepticus (rSE) management and outcome in children with and without a prior diagnosis of epilepsy and with and without a history of status epilepticus (SE). This was a prospective observational descriptive study performed from June 2011 to May 2016 on pediatric patients (1 month-21 years of age) with rSE. We enrolled 189 participants (53% male) with a median (25th-75th percentile) age of 4.2 (1.3-9.6) years. Eighty-nine (47%) patients had a prior diagnosis of epilepsy. Thirty-four (18%) patients had a history of SE. The time to the first benzodiazepine was similar in participants with and without a diagnosis of epilepsy (15 [5-60] vs 16.5 [5-42.75] minutes, p = 0.858). Patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy received their first non-benzodiazepine (BZD) antiepileptic drug (AED) later (93 [46-190] vs 50.5 [28-116] minutes, p = 0.002) and were less likely to receive at least one continuous infusion (35/89 [39.3%] vs 57/100 [57%], p = 0.03). Compared to patients with no history of SE, patients with a history of SE received their first BZD earlier (8 [3.5-22.3] vs 20 [5-60] minutes, p = 0.0073), although they had a similar time to first non-BZD AED (76.5 [45.3-124] vs 65 [32.5-156] minutes, p = 0.749). Differences were mostly driven by the patients with an out-of-hospital rSE onset. Our study establishes that children with rSE do not receive more timely treatment if they have a prior diagnosis of epilepsy; however, a history of SE is associated with more timely administration of abortive medication. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Young Children Write: The Beginnings. Program in Language and Literacy Occasional Paper No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milz, Vera E.

    Focusing on writing as a language process, this booklet describes a framework for writing instruction that has as a major consideration the totality of language. The first section discusses writing as a language process, emphasizing that as children learn to write, they can also learn to listen, speak, and read. The second section focuses on the…

  2. Wild Beginnings: How a San Antonio Initiative Instills the Love of Nature in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharod, Deepti; Arreguín-Anderson, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an environmental education initiative called Starting out Wild (SoW) designed for toddlers and their caretakers. The program, developed by staff and volunteers of a city parks department, engages children ages 1-3 and their parents and caretakers through outdoor learning experiences. We suggest that environmental education…

  3. The ripples of adolescent motherhood: social, educational, and medical outcomes for children of teen and prior teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Douglas P; Roos, Noralou P; Brownell, Marni D; Briggs, Gemma; MacWilliam, Leonard; Roos, Leslie L

    2010-01-01

    We examined medical, educational and social risks to children of teen mothers and children of nonadolescent mothers with a history of teen birth (prior teen mothers) and considered these risks at both the individual and societal level. A population-based, retrospective cohort study tracked outcomes through young adulthood for children born in Manitoba, Canada (n = 32 179). chi(2) and logistic regression analyses examined risk of childhood death or hospitalization, failure to graduate high school, intervention by child protective services, becoming a teen mother, and welfare receipt as a young adult. For children of both teen and prior teen mothers, adjusted likelihoods of death during infancy, school-aged years, and adolescence were more than 2-fold higher than for other children. Risks for hospitalization, high hospital use, academic failure, and poor social outcomes were also substantially higher. At a societal level, only 16.5% of cohort children were born to teen and prior teen mothers. However, these children accounted for 27% of first-year hospitalizations, 34% of deaths (birth to 17 years), 30% of failures to graduate high school, 51% in foster care, 44% on welfare as young adults, and 56% of next-generation young teen mothers. Children of prior teen mothers had increased risks for poor health and for educational and social outcomes nearly equal to those seen in children of teen mothers. Combined, these relatively few children experienced a large share of the negative outcomes occurring among young people. Our results suggest the need to expand the definition of risk associated with adolescent motherhood and target their children for enhanced medical and social services. Copyright 2010 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of vicariously learned fear in children using positive modeling and prior exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Chris; Reynolds, Gemma; Fielding-Smith, Sarah; Field, Andy P

    2016-02-01

    One of the challenges to conditioning models of fear acquisition is to explain how different individuals can experience similar learning events and only some of them subsequently develop fear. Understanding factors moderating the impact of learning events on fear acquisition is key to understanding the etiology and prevention of fear in childhood. This study investigates these moderators in the context of vicarious (observational) learning. Two experiments tested predictions that the acquisition or inhibition of fear via vicarious learning is driven by associative learning mechanisms similar to direct conditioning. In Experiment 1, 3 groups of children aged 7 to 9 years received 1 of 3 inhibitive information interventions-psychoeducation, factual information, or no information (control)-prior to taking part in a vicarious fear learning procedure. In Experiment 2, 3 groups of children aged 7 to 10 years received 1 of 3 observational learning interventions-positive modeling (immunization), observational familiarity (latent inhibition), or no prevention (control)-before vicarious fear learning. Results indicated that observationally delivered manipulations inhibited vicarious fear learning, while preventions presented via written information did not. These findings confirm that vicarious learning shares some of the characteristics of direct conditioning and can explain why not all individuals will develop fear following a vicarious learning event. They also suggest that the modality of inhibitive learning is important and should match the fear learning pathway for increased chances of inhibition. Finally, the results demonstrate that positive modeling is likely to be a particularly effective method for preventing fear-related observational learning in children. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. An Equal Start: Absence of Group Differences in Cognitive, Social and Neural Measures Prior to Music or Sports Training in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assal eHabibi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies comparing adult musicians and non-musicians have provided compelling evidence for functional and anatomical differences in the brain systems engaged by musical training. It is not known, however, whether those differences result from long term musical training or from pre-existing traits favoring musicality. In an attempt to begin addressing this question, we have launched a longitudinal investigation of the effects of childhood music training on cognitive, social and neural development. We compared a group of 6-7 year old children at the start of intense after-school musical training, with two groups of children: one involved in high intensity sports training but not musical training, another not involved in any systematic training. All children were tested with a comprehensive battery of cognitive, motor, musical, emotional and social assessments and underwent magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography. Our first objective was to determine whether children who participate in musical training were different, prior to training, from children in the control groups in terms of cognitive, motor, musical, emotional and social behavior measures as well as in structural and functional brain measures. Our second objective was to determine whether musical skills, as measured by a music perception assessment prior to training, correlates with emotional and social outcome measures that have been shown to be associated with musical training. We found no neural, cognitive, motor, emotional or social differences among the three groups. In addition, there was no correlation between music perception skills and any of the social or emotional measures. These results provide a baseline for an ongoing longitudinal investigation of the effects of music training.

  6. An equal start: absence of group differences in cognitive, social, and neural measures prior to music or sports training in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Assal; Ilari, Beatriz; Crimi, Kevin; Metke, Michael; Kaplan, Jonas T; Joshi, Anand A; Leahy, Richard M; Shattuck, David W; Choi, So Y; Haldar, Justin P; Ficek, Bronte; Damasio, Antonio; Damasio, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Several studies comparing adult musicians and non-musicians have provided compelling evidence for functional and anatomical differences in the brain systems engaged by musical training. It is not known, however, whether those differences result from long-term musical training or from pre-existing traits favoring musicality. In an attempt to begin addressing this question, we have launched a longitudinal investigation of the effects of childhood music training on cognitive, social and neural development. We compared a group of 6- to 7-year old children at the start of intense after-school musical training, with two groups of children: one involved in high intensity sports training but not musical training, another not involved in any systematic training. All children were tested with a comprehensive battery of cognitive, motor, musical, emotional, and social assessments and underwent magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography. Our first objective was to determine whether children who participate in musical training were different, prior to training, from children in the control groups in terms of cognitive, motor, musical, emotional, and social behavior measures as well as in structural and functional brain measures. Our second objective was to determine whether musical skills, as measured by a music perception assessment prior to training, correlates with emotional and social outcome measures that have been shown to be associated with musical training. We found no neural, cognitive, motor, emotional, or social differences among the three groups. In addition, there was no correlation between music perception skills and any of the social or emotional measures. These results provide a baseline for an ongoing longitudinal investigation of the effects of music training.

  7. Age, Race, and Gender Differences in Antipsychotic Medication Use among Children Prior to Entry to Out-of-Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robst, John; Armstrong, Mary; Dollard, Norin

    2009-01-01

    There is growing literature examining the use of psychotropic medications and specifically antipsychotic medications among youth in the United States. This study uses administrative claims data to assess antipsychotic medication use among children prior to being served in therapeutic out-of-home care settings and whether there are utilization…

  8. Insufficient evidence for the use of a physical examination to detect maltreatment in children without prior suspicion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva Mm; Teeuw, Arianne H; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Leenders, Arnold G E; van der Lee, Johanna H

    2013-12-06

    Although it is often performed in clinical practice, the diagnostic value of a screening physical examination to detect maltreatment in children without prior suspicion has not been reviewed. This article aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of a complete physical examination as a screening instrument to detect maltreatment in children without prior suspicion. We systematically searched the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and ERIC, using a sensitive search strategy. Studies that i) presented medical findings of a complete physical examination for screening purposes in children 0-18 years, ii) specifically recorded the presence or absence of signs of child maltreatment, and iii) recorded child maltreatment confirmed by a reference standard, were included. Two reviewers independently performed study selection, data extraction, and quality appraisal using the QUADAS-2 tool. The search yielded 4,499 titles, of which three studies met the eligibility criteria. The prevalence of confirmed signs of maltreatment during screening physical examination varied between 0.8% and 13.5%. The designs of the studies were inadequate to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a screening physical examination for child maltreatment. Because of the lack of informative studies, we could not draw conclusions about the diagnostic value of a screening physical examination in children without prior suspicion of child maltreatment.

  9. Self-Handicapping Prior to Academic-Oriented Tasks in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Medication Effects and Comparisons with Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Craig, Rebecca; Pelham, William E., Jr.; King, Sara

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with and without ADHD and examined whether stimulant medication influenced self-handicapping. Participants were 61 children ages 6 to 13, including 22 children with ADHD tested after taking a placebo, 21 children with ADHD tested after taking stimulant medication,…

  10. A Community-Based Intervention to Prevent Obesity Beginning at Birth among American Indian Children: Study Design and Rationale for the PTOTS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; Jobe, Jared B.; Maupome, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that…

  11. Beginning C

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, Ivor

    2013-01-01

    Beginning C, 5th Edition teaches you how to program using the widely-available C language. You'll begin from first-principles and progress through step-by-step examples to become a competent, C-language programmer. All you need are this book and any of the widely available free or commercial C or C++ compilers, and you'll soon be writing real C programs. C is a foundational language that every programmer ought to know. C is the basis for C# used in Microsoft .NET programming. It is the basis for Objective-C used in programming for the iPhone, the iPad, and other Apple devices. It is the basis

  12. Beginning topology

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Sue E

    2009-01-01

    Beginning Topology is designed to give undergraduate students a broad notion of the scope of topology in areas of point-set, geometric, combinatorial, differential, and algebraic topology, including an introduction to knot theory. A primary goal is to expose students to some recent research and to get them actively involved in learning. Exercises and open-ended projects are placed throughout the text, making it adaptable to seminar-style classes. The book starts with a chapter introducing the basic concepts of point-set topology, with examples chosen to captivate students' imaginations while i

  13. Beginning F#

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Functional programming is perhaps the next big wave in application development. As experienced developers know, functional programming makes its mark by allowing application builders to develop solutions to complicated programming situations cleanly and efficiently. A rich history of functional languages, including Erlang and OCaml, leads the way to F#, Microsoft's effort to bring the elegance and focus of functional programming into the world of managed code and .NET. With Beginning F#, you have a companion that that will help you explore F# and functional programming in a .NET environment. T

  14. Beginning Hibernate

    CERN Document Server

    Linwood, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Beginning Hibernate, Second Edition is ideal if you're experienced in Java with databases (the traditional, or "connected," approach), but new to open source, lightweight Hibernate-the de facto object-relational mapping and database-oriented application development framework. This book packs in brand-new information about the latest release of the Hibernate 3.5 persistence layer and provides a clear introduction to the current standard for object-relational persistence in Java. And since the book keeps its focus on Hibernate without wasting time on nonessential third-party tools, you

  15. Beginning Hibernate

    CERN Document Server

    Minter, Dave; Ottinger, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Beginning Hibernate, Third Edition is ideal if you're experienced in Java with databases (the traditional, or "connected," approach), but new to open-source, lightweight Hibernate, a leading object-relational mapping and database-oriented application development framework.This book packs in information about the release of the Hibernate 4.x persistence layer and provides a clear introduction to the current standard for object-relational persistence in Java. And since the book keeps its focus on Hibernate without wasting time on nonessential third-party tools, you'll be able to immediately star

  16. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  17. Beginning Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Poe, Curtis 'Ovid'

    2012-01-01

    Everything beginners need to start programming with Perl Perl is the ever-popular, flexible, open source programming language that has been called the programmers’ Swiss army knife. This book introduces Perl to both new programmers and experienced ones who are looking to learn a new language. In the tradition of the popular Wrox Beginning guides, it presents step-by-step guidance in getting started, a host of try-it-out exercises, real-world examples, and everything necessary for a Perl novice to start programming with confidence. Introduces Perl to both new programmers and experienced o

  18. Beginning Scala

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, David

    2009-01-01

    The open source Scala language is a Java--based dynamic scripting, functional programming language. Moreover, this highly scalable scripting language lends itself well to building Cloud--based/deliverable Software as a Service (SaaS) online applications. Written by Lift Scala web framework founder and lead Dave Pollak, Beginning Scala takes a down--to--earth approach to teaching Scala that leads you through simple examples that can be combined to build complex, scalable systems and applications. This book introduces you to the Scala programming language and then guides you through Scala constr

  19. Placing of tunneled central venous catheters prior to induction chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handrup, Mette Møller; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Frydenberg, Morten

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs) are inevitable in children with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of CVC-related complications in children with ALL in relation to timing of catheter placement and type of catheter. PROCEDURE: All...

  20. The Effects of Current Mood and Prior Depressive History on Self-Schematic Processing in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Brian A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Explores recall of positive and negative self-descriptive adjectives by children with current or past histories of diagnosable depression; these children showed even stronger recall of negative self-descriptive adjectives than in previous research. However, extent of previous depression did not predict degree of negativity of current self-schema…

  1. Matters of Accuracy and Conventionality: Prior Accuracy Guides Children's Evaluations of Others' Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Jason; Gilpin, Ansley Tullos; Pierucci, Jillian; Morgan, Reed

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that children trust previously reliable sources over previously unreliable ones (e.g., Koenig, Clement, & Harris, 2004). However, it is unclear from these studies whether children rely on accuracy or conventionality to determine the reliability and, ultimately, the trustworthiness of a particular source. In the current study, 3- and…

  2. A Community-Based Intervention to Prevent Obesity Beginning at Birth among American Indian Children: Study Design and Rationale for the PTOTS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; Jobe, Jared B.; Maupomé, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that American Indian (AI) children have higher rates of overweight and obesity than children of other races/ethnicities. The Prevention of Toddler Obesity and Teeth Health Study (PTOTS) is a community-partnered randomized controlled trial designed to prevent obesity beginning at birth in AI children. PTOTS was developed to test the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention designed to: promote breastfeeding, reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, appropriately time the introduction of healthy solid foods, and counsel parents to reduce sedentary lifestyles in their children. A birth cohort of 577 children from five AI tribes is randomized by tribe to either the intervention (three tribes) or the comparison condition (two tribes). The strengths and weaknesses of PTOTS include a focus on a critical growth phase, placement in the community, and intervention at many levels, using a variety of approaches. PMID:23001689

  3. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception - a longterm study (results 1986)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, T.; Rupprecht, E.; Voigtmann, L.; Kuchheuser, W.

    1988-11-01

    Five or ten years after a first examination, 55 children were submitted to a check-up investigation of their physical and intellectual development. The group of twenty irradiated fathers received an average dose to the gonads of 0.55 Gy (0.01 to 6.4 Gy), the group of twenty irradiated mothers 0.72 Gy (0.01 to 8.0 Gy). In all parents the most frequent finding was Hodgkin's disease, which was diagnosed as a neoplams in 23 cases. The proof of paternity was made with a 86% accuracy for ten out of twenty fathers by determination of HLA types. A conception was demonstrated beyond all doubt after a dose to the testicles of 1.2 Gy in the irradiated fathers and after a dose to the ovaries of 3.0 Gy in the irradiated mothers. The offspring of the F/sub 1/ generation showed no modification in the sex ratio. A rate of 5.5% of severe malformations was found (trisomy E, bradyacousia of the inner ear, cleft hands and feet). 24% of the children had malformations which needed a treatment (hernias, torticollis, hip dysplasia). 18 out of 55 children (33%) presented abnormalities in the widest sense of the word. Three children (5.5%) were premature infants, and there is a general tendency towards shortened pregnancy (-3.6 days). Hernias (7/55) are a frequent finding. In children of both sexes, carporadiography shows a delayed development which is not compensated in the check-up examinations at five or ten years, but does not cause an underdevelopment in body height as compared to great normal collectives. The results suggest a slightly increased malformation rate among children whose parents were treated by radiotherapy. Above all the connective and supporting tissue seems involved. Some proposals are made how to give a radiogenetic advice to tumor patients who want to have children.

  4. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception - a longterm study (results 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, T.; Rupprecht, E.; Voigtmann, L.; Kuchheuser, W.; Medizinische Akademie, Dresden; Medizinische Akademie, Magdeburg

    1988-01-01

    Five or ten years after a first examination, 55 children were submitted to a check-up investigation of their physical and intellectual development. The group of twenty irradiated fathers received an average dose to the gonads of 0.55 Gy (0.01 to 6.4 Gy), the group of twenty irradiated mothers 0.72 Gy (0.01 to 8.0 Gy). In all parents the most frequent finding was Hodgkin's disease, which was diagnosed as a neoplams in 23 cases. The proof of paternity was made with a 86% accuracy for ten out of twenty fathers by determination of HLA types. A conception was demonstrated beyond all doubt after a dose to the testicles of 1.2 Gy in the irradiated fathers and after a dose to the ovaries of 3.0 Gy in the irradiated mothers. The offspring of the F 1 generation showed no modification in the sex ratio. A rate of 5.5% of severe malformations was found (trisomy E, bradyacousia of the inner ear, cleft hands and feet). 24% of the children had malformations which needed a treatment (hernias, torticollis, hip dysplasia). 18 out of 55 children (33%) presented abnormalities in the widest sense of the word. Three children (5.5%) were premature infants, and there is a general tendency towards shortened pregnancy (-3.6 days). Hernias (7/55) are a frequent finding. In children of both sexes, carporadiography shows a delayed development which is not compensated in the check-up examinations at five or ten years, but does not cause an underdevelopment in body height as compared to great normal collectives. The results suggest a slightly increased malformation rate among children whose parents were treated by radiotherapy. Above all the connective and supporting tissue seems involved. Some proposals are made how to give a radiogenetic advice to tumor patients who want to have children. (orig.) [de

  5. Cortisol and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels Prior to Treatment in Children With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Şeref; Gençoğlan, Salih; Yüksel, Tuğba; Kaplan, İbrahim; Alaca, Rümeysa

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol levels between children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) prior to treatment and healthy controls. In addition, the study aimed to assess any correlations between OCD symptom severity and BDNF, ACTH, and cortisol levels. Twenty-nine children, aged from 7 to 17 years (male/female: 21/8) and diagnosed with OCD according to DSM-IV prior to treatment, were compared with 25 healthy control subjects (male/female: 16/9). The study was conducted between December 2012 and December 2013. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL), Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) were administered to the children. BDNF, ACTH, and cortisol levels were detected using a prepared kit with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. BDNF, ACTH, and cortisol levels in the OCD group were significantly higher when compared with the control group (P = .02, P = .03, and P = .046, respectively). No association was detected between the severity and duration of OCD symptoms and BDNF, ACTH, and cortisol levels. CDI scores in both groups were similar. The mean (SD) duration of OCD symptoms was 17.9 (18.5) months. Our findings suggest that BDNF levels adaptively increase as a result of the damaging effects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity on brain tissue in the early stages of OCD. HPA axis abnormalities and BDNF may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  6. Asthma and allergy in children with and without prior measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Osuna, Christa Elyse; Steuerwald, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    with asthma and allergic diseases at ages 5, 7 and 13 years in a birth cohort. METHODS: In the Faroe Islands, 640 children were followed from birth. Follow-up examinations at ages 5, 7 and 13 years included a physical examination and a maternal questionnaire about the child's health. At age 7, total and grass...

  7. Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Imitate in the Context of Others' Prior Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Tai; Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Hung, Chao-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorder have some understanding of intentions behind others' goal-directed actions on objects. It is not clear whether they understand intentions at a high level of abstraction reliant on the context in which the actions occur. This study tested their understanding of others' prior…

  8. Using an Ecocultural Approach to Explore Young Children's Experiences of Prior-to-School Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Rebekah; Bowes, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the discussion around methodologies effective in gathering the perspectives of young children for the purposes of research. It describes ecocultural theory, a theoretical model that has grown out of anthropology and cross-cultural psychology, and argues for the benefits of applying an ecocultural approach to interviews…

  9. "Strong Mothers Make Strong Children": Sports, Eugenics and Nationalism in Brazil at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goellner, Silvana Vilodre; Votre, Sebastiao Josue; Pinheiro, Maria Claudia Brandao

    2012-01-01

    Based on post-structural feminist and gender studies, the present article analyses the importance given to the practice of physical education, sports and exercise as part of the national policy to strengthen the Caucasian-Brazilian population at the beginning of the twentieth century, emphasising the priority made of the White female body as the…

  10. The devil is in the detail: children's recollection of details about their prior experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Deryn; Hayne, Harlene

    2013-01-01

    Adults sometimes report highly specific details of childhood events, including the weather, what they or others were wearing, as well as information about what they or others said or were thinking at the time. When these details are reported in the course of research they shape our theories of memory development; when they are reported in a criminal trial they influence jurors' evaluation of guilt or innocence. The key question is whether these details were encoded at the time the event took place or have been added after the fact. We addressed this question prospectively by examining the memory accounts of children. In Experiment 1 we coded the reports of 5- to 6-year-olds and 9- to 10-year-olds who had experienced a unique event. We found that spontaneous mentions of these specific details were exceedingly rare. In Experiment 2 we questioned additional children about a similar event using specific questions to extract those details. We found that 9- to 10-year-olds were able to accurately answer, while 5- to 6-year-olds had considerable difficulty. Moreover, when the younger children did respond they provided generic, forensically inadequate, information. These data have important implications for the courtroom and for current theories of memory development and childhood amnesia.

  11. Children's agenda-based regulation: The effects of prior performance and reward on elementary school children's study choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowski, Stacy; Ariel, Robert; Tauber, Sarah K; Dunlosky, John

    2017-12-01

    The main goal of the current experiments was to examine the influence of monitoring and reward on elementary school children's study decisions. First and third graders studied names for 10 animals (e.g., "The elephant's name is Suzy") and then were given a cued recall test on which they were shown the animal and needed to recall the name. Next, they were given an opportunity to restudy the animal-name pairs, and some of these pairs were slated to earn a reward (a sticker) if correctly recalled. In Experiment 1, both groups of children were (a) more likely to restudy previously unrecalled pairs than previously recalled pairs and (b) more likely to restudy pairs that were slated to receive a reward. In Experiment 2, we further explored children's use of reward using a forced-choice selection task. Namely, during selection, pairs were presented in dyads where one pair was slated for a reward and the other pair was not, and the children could choose only one pair from each dyad for restudy. Both first and third graders chose to restudy pairs slated for a reward. Thus, even young elementary school children consider both rewards and performance monitoring when regulating their learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hospitalisation for infection prior to diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Therese Risom; Rostgaard, Klaus; Grau, Katrine

    2013-01-01

    . PROCEDURE: A nation-wide cohort encompassing all Danish children aged 0-14 years and born between 1977 and 2008 (N = 1,778,129) was established and followed for hospitalisations for infectious diseases and risk of childhood ALL. The exposure was lagged 1 year to limit reverse causality. In the statistical...... analyses exposure was defined as (time dependent) number of early or late (before 2 or at/after 2 years of age) hospitalisations to further explore possible age-dependent associations. RESULTS: A total of 815 children were diagnosed with ALL during follow-up. Risk of ALL was associated neither...... with hospitalisations for infectious diseases before (incidence rate ratio = 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.78-1.07) nor at/after 2 years of age (incidence rate ratio = 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.81-1.32). This also applied to subsets of ALL supposedly initiated prenatally. CONCLUSION: The absence of association...

  13. Single stage reduction and stabilization of basilar invagination after failed prior fusion surgery in children with Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedequist, Daniel; Bekelis, Kimon; Emans, John; Proctor, Mark R

    2010-02-15

    We describe an innovative single-stage reduction and stabilization technique using modern cervical instrumentation. We hypothesis modern instrumentation has made more aggressive surgical corrections possible and has reduced the need for transoral resection of the odontoid and traction reduction in children with basilar invagination. Craniocervical junction abnormalities, including atlantoaxial instability and progressive basilar invagination, are relatively common phenomenon in Down's syndrome patients, and can lead to chronic progressive neurologic deficits, catastrophic injury, and death. This patient population also can be a difficult one in which to perform successful stabilization and fusion. We reviewed the records and films on 2 children with Down's syndrome and atlantoaxial instability who had undergone prior occipital-cervical fusion and then presented with symptomatic progressive basilar invagination due to atlantoaxial displacement. In both cases, the children had progressive symptoms of spinal cord and brain stem compression. Multiple approaches for surgical correction, including preoperative traction and transoral odontoid resection, were considered, but ultimately it was elected to perform a single stage posterior operation. In both patients, we performed fusion takedown, intraoperative realignment with reduction of the basilar invagination, and stabilization using modern occipito-cervical instrumentation. In both children, excellent cranio-cervical realignment was achieved; along with successful fusion and improvement in clinical symptoms. In this article we will discuss the clinical cases and review the background of craniocervical junction abnormalities in Down's syndrome patients. We hypothesis modern instrumentation has made more aggressive surgical corrections possible and has reduced the need for transoral resection of the odontoid and traction reduction in children with basilar invagination.

  14. Motor excitability is reduced prior to voluntary movements in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Stephen R; Parkinson, Amy; Manfredi, Valentina; Millon, Guy; Hollis, Chris; Jackson, Georgina M

    2013-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuro-developmental disorder characterized by the occurrence of motor and vocal tics: involuntary, repetitive, stereotyped behaviours that occur with a limited duration, often typically many times in a single day. Previous studies suggest that children and adolescents with TS may undergo compensatory, neuroplastic changes in brain structure and function that help them gain control over their tics. In the current study we used single-pulse and dual-site paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), in conjunction with a manual choice reaction time task that induces high levels of inter-manual conflict, to investigate this conjecture in a group of children and adolescents with TS, but without co-morbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We found that performance on the behavioural response-conflict task did not differ between the adolescents with TS and a group of age-matched typically developing individuals. By contrast, our study demonstrated that cortical excitability, as measured by TMS-induced motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), was significantly reduced in the TS group in the period immediately preceding a finger movement. This effect is interpreted as consistent with previous suggestions that the cortical hyper-excitability that may give rise to tics in TS is actively suppressed by cognitive control mechanisms. Finally, we found no reliable evidence for altered patterns of functional inter-hemispheric connectivity in TS. These results provide evidence for compensatory brain reorganization that may underlie the increased self-regulation mechanisms that have been hypothesized to bring about the control of tics during adolescence. PMID:22804795

  15. Antibiotic Usage Prior and During Hospitalization for Clinical Severe Pneumonia in Children under Five Years of Age in Rabat, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Ruiz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Scarce and limited epidemiological, clinical and microbiological data are available regarding pediatric respiratory tract infections in the Kingdom of Morocco, a middle-income country in Northwestern Africa. Data on antibiotic usage for such infections are also scarce. A good understanding of pre-admission and intra-hospital usage of antibiotics in children with respiratory infections linked with an adequate surveillance of the antibiotic susceptibility from circulating pathogens could help policy makers improve their recommendations on management of respiratory infections. We hereby present data on antibiotic usage prior and during admission and antibiotic susceptibility of major circulating respiratory pathogens in children under five years of age admitted to the Hôpital d’Enfants de Rabat, Morocco, with a diagnosis of clinical severe pneumonia (using World Health Organization (WHO standardized case definitions during a period of 14 months (November 2010–December 2011, as part of a larger hospital-based surveillance study designed to understand the etiology and epidemiology of severe pneumonia cases among children.

  16. Referential Interactions of Turkish-Learning Children with Their Caregivers about Non-Absent Objects: Integration of Non-Verbal Devices and Prior Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Beyza S.; Küntay, Aylin C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the way children younger than two use non-verbal devices (i.e., deictic gestures and communicative functional acts) and pay attention to discourse status (i.e., prior mention vs. newness) of referents in interactions with caregivers. Data based on semi-naturalistic interactions with caregivers of four children, at ages 1;00,…

  17. Balance Assessment in Deaf Children and Teenagers Prior to and Post Capoeira Practice through the Berg Balance Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rubianne

    2017-12-01

    Hearing loss changes the functionality and body structure a disability that limits activity and restricts the participation of the individual in situations of daily life. It is believed that capoeira can help people with visual disabilities to minimize these deficits. BSE is a low specificity scale that evaluates objectively and functionally aspects of balance and risk of falls in the elderly and children, including the effect of environment on balance function. The objective of the research is to analyze deaf children and adolescents prior to and post-practice of capoeira using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Quantitative, clinical and observational studies. Twenty five deaf children between 10 and 16 years old of both genders were assessed. BBS was applied in two stages: before starting capoeira and after 6 months of training. The one-hour classes were held once a week for quantitative evaluation purposes. The subjects were divided and evaluated in two groups (10-13 years old and 14-16 years old). There was a significant statistical difference in BBS scores. The general group and the group of 10-13 years old (p = 0.0251) showed an increase in scores after practicing capoeira (p = 0.0039). There were no statistically significant differences in the group from 14 to 16 years of age (p = 0.0504). Using the Berg Balance Scale, it was possible to observe an improvement in the balance of the group of children and adolescents who practiced capoeira, and consequently, a decrease in the risk of falling.

  18. Cost-Savings Analysis of the Better Beginnings, Better Futures Community-Based Project for Young Children and Their Families: A 10-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ray DeV; Petrunka, Kelly; Khan, Shahriar; Howell-Moneta, Angela; Nelson, Geoffrey; Pancer, S Mark; Loomis, Colleen

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the long-term cost-savings of the Better Beginnings, Better Futures (BBBF) initiative, a community-based early intervention project for young children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods during their transition to primary school. A quasi-experimental, longitudinal two-group design was used to compare costs and outcomes for children and families in three BBBF project neighborhoods (n = 401) and two comparison neighborhoods (n = 225). A cost-savings analysis was conducted using all project costs for providing up to 4 years of BBBF programs when children were in junior kindergarten (JK) (4 years old) to grade 2 (8 years old). Data on 19 government service cost measures were collected from the longitudinal research sample from the time the youth were in JK through to grade 12 (18 years old), 10 years after ending project participation. The average family incremental net savings to government of providing the BBBF project was $6331 in 2014 Canadian dollars. When the BBBF monetary return to government as a ratio of savings to costs was calculated, for every dollar invested by the government, a return of $2.50 per family was saved. Findings from this study have important implications for government investments in early interventions focused on a successful transition to primary school as well as parenting programs and community development initiatives in support of children's development.

  19. The prevalence of recurrent abdominal pain and some relative factors among children beginning primary school in Bushehr port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pouladfar

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP is a common problem in children and adolescence. The functional abdominal pain is the most common cause of RAP. The conceptual models of RAP are multivariate and acknowledge the contributions of a variety of biological, psychological, and social factors. Among the 6-7 year-old population of Bushehr port, 485 (50.1% male, 49.9%female children starting primary school were randomly selected. Questionnaires were completed by direct interview during the National Program of Health Surveillance of Schoolchildren in 2000. According to Apley's criteria, 49 children had RAP (9.1% male and 11.2% female. Abdominal pain pattern such as frequency, duration, location, radiation, associated symptoms was relatively similar to other investigations. The signs of environmental reinforcement of pain behavior such as specific attention and medication at time of pain were commonly observed (32.6% and 71.4%, respectively. Prolonged duration of involvement (73.5%, more than one year and frequent referral to physician (30.6%, at least three referral were detected. Some psychosocial stress such as father unemployment and history of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS in parents were significantly more frequent in RAP group (p values= 0.038 and 0.01, respectively. History of RAP in siblings and appendectomy, peptic disease and migraine were mildly more frequent in RAP group. Separation of one of the parents, change of address, parent education and mother employment, sibling number and order and weight and height had not significant differences between two groups. Among 22 patients, giardia cyst was detected in the stool of 4 patients (18.2 %. In conclusion, RAP is a common problem in Bushehr port and its pattern was relatively similar to other regions. The father unemployment and the history of IBS in parents, two psychosocial stresses, were associated with RAP.

  20. Math Learning Begins at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Sarah H.; Levine, Susan C.

    2017-01-01

    Children demonstrate gaps in the math knowledge that they possess by the time they begin school, and these gaps have been found to predict long-term outcomes not only in math but also in reading. Consequently, it is important to identify what accounts for these early differences and how they can be addressed to ensure that all children enter…

  1. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Danish children, 1996-2007, prior to the introduction of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde N; Kristensen, Tim D; Kaltoft, Margit S

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology, microbiology and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children vaccine (PCV7) into the Danish routine...... children vaccination....... immunization programme October 2007. Methods: Clinical and microbiological records on cases of IPD in children children

  2. Optical treatment of amblyopia in older children and adults is essential prior to enrolment in a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tina Y; Anstice, Nicola; Babu, Raiju J; Black, Joanna M; Bobier, William R; Dai, Shuan; Guo, Cindy X; Hess, Robert F; Jenkins, Michelle; Jiang, Yannan; Kearns, Lisa; Kowal, Lionel; Lam, Carly S Y; Pang, Peter C K; Parag, Varsha; South, Jayshree; Staffieri, Sandra Elfride; Wadham, Angela; Walker, Natalie; Thompson, Benjamin

    2018-03-01

    Optical treatment alone can improve visual acuity (VA) in children with amblyopia, thus clinical trials investigating additional amblyopia therapies (such as patching or videogames) for children require a preceding optical treatment phase. Emerging therapies for adult patients are entering clinical trials. It is unknown whether optical treatment is effective for adults with amblyopia and whether an optical correction phase is required for trials involving adults. We examined participants who underwent optical treatment in the Binocular Treatment for Amblyopia using Videogames (BRAVO) clinical trial (ANZCTR ID: ACTRN12613001004752). Participants were recruited in three age groups (7 to 12, 13 to 17, or ≥18 years), and had unilateral amblyopia due to anisometropia and/or strabismus, with amblyopic eye VA of 0.30-1.00 logMAR (6/12 to 6/60, 20/40 to 20/200). Corrective lenses were prescribed based on cycloplegic refraction to fully correct any anisometropia. VA was assessed using the electronic visual acuity testing algorithm (e-ETDRS) test and near stereoacuity was assessed using the Randot Preschool Test. Participants were assessed every four weeks up to 16 weeks, until either VA was stable or until amblyopic eye VA improved to better than 0.30 logMAR, rendering the participant ineligible for the trial. Eighty participants (mean age 24.6 years, range 7.6-55.5 years) completed four to 16 weeks of optical treatment. A small but statistically significant mean improvement in amblyopic eye VA of 0.05 logMAR was observed (S.D. 0.08 logMAR; paired t-test p < 0.0001). Twenty-five participants (31%) improved by ≥1 logMAR line and of these, seven (9%) improved by ≥2 logMAR lines. Stereoacuity improved in 15 participants (19%). Visual improvements were not associated with age, presence of strabismus, or prior occlusion treatment. Two adult participants withdrew due to intolerance to anisometropic correction. Sixteen out of 80 participants (20%) achieved better than 0

  3. Prior trauma exposure and serious illness at end of life: A national study of children in the US foster care system from 2005 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa C; Slayter, Elspeth M

    2018-06-08

    Children in foster care suffer with serious illness at end of life. However, the relationship between prior trauma exposure and serious illness has received little empirical attention. The objectives were to examine the prevalence and type of trauma exposure, and investigate the relationship between prior trauma and serious illness among foster children at end of life. We used national longitudinal foster care data. We included children who were less than 18 years with residence in the United States. Serious illness (i.e., physical health, mental/behavioral health, developmental disabilities) was measured via the foster care files. Three measures of prior trauma exposure (i.e., maltreatment, drug/alcohol exposure, psychosocial stressors) were created. Using multivariate logistic regressions, we evaluated the influence of prior trauma on serious illness at end of life, while controlling for demographic, geographic, and foster care support characteristics. Sixty-eight percent of children experienced maltreatment, 28% exposure to parental drug/alcohol misuse, and 39% psychosocial stressors prior to entering foster care. Maltreatment was positively associated with physical health and developmental disabilities, while parental drug/alcohol exposure was inversely related to developmental disabilities. Psychosocial stressors contributed to the prediction of poor physical, mental, and developmental health. These findings suggest that trauma-informed end-of-life care may be a critical need among children in foster care with serious illness. Future directions are discussed, including collaboration between end-of-life clinicians and social service workers and the importance of future research to understand and improve the quality of health at end of life for this underserved population. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Motor Skills of Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prior to and Following Treatment with Stimulant Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Majnemer, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Motor difficulties are common in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although preliminary evidence has suggested that methylphenidate can improve the motor skills in children with ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), the effect of stimulant medication on motor performance in children newly diagnosed with…

  5. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Danish children, 1996-2007, prior to the introduction of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde N; Kristensen, Tim D; Kaltoft, Margit S

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology, microbiology and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into the Danish routine...... immunization programme October 2007. Methods: Clinical and microbiological records on cases of IPD in children Hospital, Denmark 1996-2007, were retrospectively reviewed. Results: We identified 106 cases of IPD. The annual incidence of IPD was 11 per 100 000 in children

  6. Teaching Beginning Trombone Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallis, Todd L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the process of introducing the trombone to beginning students and addresses the issue of warming-up. Provides resources for beginning trombone methods, band methods, and daily warm-up studies. Includes resources for scale studies and etudes for beginning to intermediate trombone players. (CMK)

  7. I like to jump on my trampoline: an analysis of drawings from 8- to 12-year-old children beginning a weight-management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kathleen; Caine-Bish, Natalie; Wait, Samantha

    2009-07-01

    The main objective of this exploratory study was to assess children's perceptions of their activity choices as they began a weight-management program for overweight children and their families. During pretesting of a 10-week weight-management program, participating children were asked to draw pictures of themselves doing something. The drawings of 35 children, ages 8 to 12, were qualitatively analyzed. The analysis focused on (a) the type of activities (i.e., physical or sedentary) children chose to convey, (b) the specific focus of the activities described, (c) the children's future activity choices, and (d) the children's responses to the activities they drew. Seventy-one percent of the participating children drew themselves engaged in a physical activity. These results are notable and suggest positive perceptions of physical activities. Children's views related to their activity choices might play a role in designing weight-management programs that successfully increase children's adherence to long-term physical activity.

  8. Guanfacine extended release for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: efficacy following prior methylphenidate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huss M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael Huss,1 Vanja Sikirica,2 Amaia Hervas,3,4 Jeffrey H Newcorn,5 Valerie Harpin,6 Brigitte Robertson71Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany; 2Global Health Economics, Outcomes Research and Epidemiology, Shire, Wayne, PA, USA; 3Child and Adolescent Mental Health Unit, University Hospital Mútua de Terressa, Barcelona, Spain; 4Developmental Disorders Unit (UETD, Hospital San Juan de Dios, Barcelona, Spain; 5Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; 6Ryegate Children’s Centre, Sheffield Children’s NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, UK; 7Global Clinical Development, Shire, Wayne, PA, USAAbstract: Guanfacine extended release (GXR and atomoxetine (ATX are nonstimulant treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. As nonstimulant treatments are often used after stimulants in ADHD, GXR was assessed relative to prior stimulant treatment in a randomized controlled trial (RCT, in which ATX was included as a reference arm, and in the open-label phase of a randomized-withdrawal study (RWS. Participants were 6–17 years old with ADHD Rating Scale version IV (ADHD-RS-IV scores ≥32 and Clinical Global Impressions – Severity scores ≥4. RCT participants received dose-optimized GXR (1–7 mg/day, ATX (10–100 mg/day, or placebo for 10–13 weeks. RWS participants received dose-optimized GXR (1–7 mg/day for 13 weeks. Participants’ last stimulant medication prior to enrolment, and reasons for stopping this medication, were collected at baseline. Change from baseline ADHD-RS-IV score and the proportion of responders were assessed by prior stimulant exposure. Of 163 RCT and 296 RWS participants who had previously received stimulant treatment, 142 and 224, respectively, had received methylphenidate (MPH; due to the low number of participants and the heterogeneity of non-MPH treatments, we only report data for prior MPH treatment. The most

  9. Anemia, micronutrient deficiencies, and malaria in children and women in Sierra Leone prior to the Ebola outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    To identify the factors associated with anemia and to document the severity of micronutrient deficiencies, malaria and inflammation, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted. A three-stage sampling procedure was used to randomly select children <5 years of age and adult women...

  10. Reduced breath condensate pH in asymptomatic children with prior wheezing as a risk factor for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Jagwitz, Marie; Pessler, Frank; Akmatov, Manas; Li, Jialiang; Range, Ursula; Vogelberg, Christian

    2011-07-01

    Early noninvasive detection of increased risk of asthma with exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH measurement has not been applied to preschool children. We sought to evaluate the ability of EBC pH measurement to identify young asymptomatic children at risk of asthma using the combination of recurrent wheezing and atopic sensitization as a proxy for a high risk of asthma. pH values were measured in deaerated EBC from 191 children (median age, 4.4 years [interquartile range, 2.2 years]). Children were divided into one of 5 groups: asymptomatic children with recurrent wheezy bronchitis with (group 1, n = 34) or without (group 2, n = 64) allergic sensitization, acute wheezy bronchitis (group 3, n = 18), allergic rhinoconjunctivitis without recurrent wheezy bronchitis (group 4, n = 15), and healthy control subjects (group 5, n = 60). The Asthma Predictive Index score was calculated for groups 1 and 2. Statistical significance was evaluated with the appropriate nonparametric tests, and the discriminatory accuracy was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic analysis. Deaerated EBC pH values were significantly lower in groups 1 and 3 than in groups 2, 4, and 5 (median, 7.49 [interquartile range, 0.94] and 7.44 [interquartile range, 0.70] vs 7.93 [interquartile range, 0.23], 8.02 [interquartile range, 0.17], and 7.96 [interquartile range, 0.25], respectively; P < .001 and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve ≥0.80 in all comparisons). The area under the curve for the differentiation between groups 1 and 2 improved from 0.80 to 0.94 (sensitivity, 0.94; specificity, 0.84; positive predictive value, 0.76) when breath condensate pH values and Asthma Predictive Index scores were combined. A reduced deaerated EBC pH value might help identify young asymptomatic children at high risk of asthma. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced cis-platinum ototoxicity in children with brain tumours who have received simultaneous or prior cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.A.; Pillow, J.; Waters, K.D.; Keir, E.

    1989-01-01

    We report on four children who received cis-platinum simultaneously with, or in one case 10 months after, cranial irradiation and experienced exaggerated ototoxicity affecting all audible frequencies. The hearing loss was severe, affecting the critical areas for speech perception, and necessitated the provision of bilateral hearing aids. The audiograms of these patients are shown and compared to those of four children who had received cis-platinum as part of their treatment for neuroblastoma but without cranial irradiation. The precipitation of the exaggerated hearing loss with the administration of cis-platinum in one patient 10 months after finishing cranial irradiation suggests that care should be taken in the timing of cis-platinum administration in relation to concurrent or previous cranial irradiation

  12. How parents and practitioners experience research without prior consent (deferred consent) for emergency research involving children with life threatening conditions: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfall, Kerry; Frith, Lucy; Gamble, Carrol; Gilbert, Ruth; Mok, Quen; Young, Bridget

    2015-09-18

    Alternatives to prospective informed consent to enable children with life-threatening conditions to be entered into trials of emergency treatments are needed. Across Europe, a process called deferred consent has been developed as an alternative. Little is known about the views and experiences of those with first-hand experience of this controversial consent process. To inform how consent is sought for future paediatric critical care trials, we explored the views and experiences of parents and practitioners involved in the CATheter infections in CHildren (CATCH) trial, which allowed for deferred consent in certain circumstances. Mixed method survey, interview and focus group study. 275 parents completed a questionnaire; 20 families participated in an interview (18 mothers, 5 fathers). 17 CATCH practitioners participated in one of four focus groups (10 nurses, 3 doctors and 4 clinical trial unit staff). 12 UK children's hospitals. Some parents were momentarily shocked or angered to discover that their child had or could have been entered into CATCH without their prior consent. Although these feelings resolved after the reasons why consent needed to be deferred were explained and that the CATCH interventions were already used in clinical care. Prior to seeking deferred consent for the first few times, CATCH practitioners were apprehensive, although their feelings abated with experience of talking to parents about CATCH. Parents reported that their decisions about their child's participation in the trial had been voluntary. However, mistiming the deferred consent discussion had caused distress for some. Practitioners and parents supported the use of deferred consent in CATCH and in future trials of interventions already used in clinical care. Our study provides evidence to support the use of deferred consent in paediatric emergency medicine; it also indicates the crucial importance of practitioner communication and appropriate timing of deferred consent discussions

  13. How parents and practitioners experience research without prior consent (deferred consent) for emergency research involving children with life threatening conditions: a mixed method study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfall, Kerry; Frith, Lucy; Gamble, Carrol; Gilbert, Ruth; Mok, Quen; Young, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Objective Alternatives to prospective informed consent to enable children with life-threatening conditions to be entered into trials of emergency treatments are needed. Across Europe, a process called deferred consent has been developed as an alternative. Little is known about the views and experiences of those with first-hand experience of this controversial consent process. To inform how consent is sought for future paediatric critical care trials, we explored the views and experiences of parents and practitioners involved in the CATheter infections in CHildren (CATCH) trial, which allowed for deferred consent in certain circumstances. Design Mixed method survey, interview and focus group study. Participants 275 parents completed a questionnaire; 20 families participated in an interview (18 mothers, 5 fathers). 17 CATCH practitioners participated in one of four focus groups (10 nurses, 3 doctors and 4 clinical trial unit staff). Setting 12 UK children's hospitals. Results Some parents were momentarily shocked or angered to discover that their child had or could have been entered into CATCH without their prior consent. Although these feelings resolved after the reasons why consent needed to be deferred were explained and that the CATCH interventions were already used in clinical care. Prior to seeking deferred consent for the first few times, CATCH practitioners were apprehensive, although their feelings abated with experience of talking to parents about CATCH. Parents reported that their decisions about their child's participation in the trial had been voluntary. However, mistiming the deferred consent discussion had caused distress for some. Practitioners and parents supported the use of deferred consent in CATCH and in future trials of interventions already used in clinical care. Conclusions Our study provides evidence to support the use of deferred consent in paediatric emergency medicine; it also indicates the crucial importance of practitioner communication

  14. Plaque bacterial microbiome diversity in children younger than 30 months with or without caries prior to eruption of second primary molars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective is to phylogenetically characterize the supragingival plaque bacterial microbiome of children prior to eruption of second primary molars by pyrosequencing method for studying etiology of early childhood caries. METHODS: Supragingival plaque samples were collected from 10 caries children and 9 caries-free children. Plaque DNA was extracted, used to generate DNA amplicons of the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, and subjected to 454-pyrosequencing. RESULTS: On average, over 22,000 sequences per sample were generated. High bacterial diversity was noted in the plaque of children with caries [170 operational taxonomical units (OTU at 3% divergence] and caries-free children (201 OTU at 3% divergence with no significant difference. A total of 8 phyla, 15 classes, 21 orders, 30 families, 41 genera and 99 species were represented. In addition, five predominant phyla (Firmicute, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria and seven genera (Leptotrichia, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Neisseria, and Veillonella constituted a majority of contents of the total microbiota, independent of the presence or absence of caries. Principal Component Analysis (PCA presented that caries-related genera included Streptococcus and Veillonella; while Leptotrichia, Selenomonas, Fusobacterium, Capnocytophaga and Porphyromonas were more related to the caries-free samples. Neisseria and Prevotella presented approximately in between. In both groups, the degree of shared organism lineages (as defined by species-level OTUs among individual supragingival plaque microbiomes was minimal. CONCLUSION: Our study represented for the first time using pyrosequencing to elucidate and monitor supragingival plaque bacterial diversity at such young age with second primary molar unerrupted. Distinctions were revealed between caries and caries-free microbiomes in terms of microbial community

  15. Is There a Downside to Anticipating the Upside? Children's and Adults' Reasoning About How Prior Expectations Shape Future Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Karen Hjortsvang; Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Kramer, Hannah J

    2017-11-24

    Four- to 10-year-olds and adults (N = 205) responded to vignettes involving three individuals with different expectations (high, low, and no) for a future event. Participants judged characters' pre-outcome emotions, as well as predicted and explained their feelings following three events (positive, attenuated, and negative). Although adults rated high-expectation characters more negatively than low-expectation characters after all outcomes, children shared this intuition starting at 6-7 years for negative outcomes, 8-10 years for attenuated, and never for positive. Comparison to baseline (no expectation) indicated that understanding the costs of high expectations emerges first and remains more robust across age than recognition that low expectations carry benefits. Explanation analyses further clarified this developing awareness about the relation between thoughts and emotions over time. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Patterns of Analogical Reasoning among Beginning Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington-Flint, Lee; Wood, Clare; Canobi, Katherine H.; Faulkner, Dorothy

    2004-01-01

    Despite compelling evidence that analogy skills are available to beginning readers, few studies have actually explored the possibility of identifying individual differences in young children's analogy skills in early reading. The present study examined individual differences in children's use of orthographic and phonological relations between…

  17. Mother-Child Relationship Quality and Effective Discipline as Mediators of the 6-Year Effects of the New Beginnings Program for Children from Divorced Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Sandler, Irwin N.; Millsap, Roger E.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Dawson-McClure, Spring R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether program effects on mother-child relationship quality and effective discipline mediated the 6-year longitudinal effects of the New Beginnings Program (NBP) to improve mental health and competence outcomes in 218 adolescents from divorced families in a randomized experimental trial. The NBP is a theory-based and…

  18. Beginning Microsoft Excel 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Abbott

    2010-01-01

    Beginning Microsoft Excel 2010 is a practical, step-by-step guide to getting started with the world's most widely used spreadsheet application. The book offers a hands-on approach to learning how to create and edit spreadsheets, use various calculation formulas, employ charts/graphs, and get work done efficiently. Microsoft is rolling out several new features with Excel 2010 - perhaps the most notable is the ability to use Excel 2010 online and this collaborate on a project in real time. Beginning Microsoft Office 2010 keeps you up-to-date with all of these new features and more. What you'll l

  19. Beginning ASPNET Security

    CERN Document Server

    Dorrans, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Beginning ASP.NET 3.5 Security is geared for novice to intermediate ASP.NET programmers who wish to protect and defend their web sites against attack and exploitation. Beginning with a discussion of why we need security and the things that may occur when it is ignored and an overview of how ASP.NET works, readers are taken through the common steps in developing a web site, the security problems each area exposes and how these can be exploited. Visual Studio Security MVP Barry Dorrans teaches readers how they can defend their applications using the standard .NET framework, industry patterns and

  20. Beginning Ubuntu Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Raggi, Emilio; Channelle, Andy; Parsons, Trevor; Van Vugt, Sander

    2010-01-01

    Ubuntu Linux is the fastest growing Linux-based operating system, and Beginning Ubuntu Linux, Fifth Edition teaches all of us - including those who have never used Linux - how to use it productively, whether you come from Windows or the Mac or the world of open source. Beginning Ubuntu Linux, Fifth Edition shows you how to take advantage of the newest Ubuntu release, Lucid Lynx. Based on the best-selling previous edition, Emilio Raggi maintains a fine balance between teaching Ubuntu and introducing new features. Whether you aim to use it in the home or in the office, you'll be introduced to th

  1. Maternal influences on early development: preferred temperature prior to oviposition hastens embryogenesis and enhances offspring traits in the Children's python, Antaresia childreni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorioux, Sophie; DeNardo, Dale F; Gorelick, Root; Lourdais, Olivier

    2012-04-15

    Embryonic life is particularly sensitive to its surroundings, and the developmental environment can have long-lasting effects on offspring. In oviparous species, the impacts of the developmental environment on offspring traits are mostly examined during development within the egg. However, as more than 25% of the development of squamate reptiles can occur prior to oviposition, we explored the effect of thermal conditions on development prior to oviposition in an oviparous snake species, the Children's python (Antaresia childreni). We housed gravid female pythons under three thermal cycles: an optimal regime that reflected maternal preference in a non-constrained environment (constant preferred body temperature of gravid females, T(set)=31.5°C) and two mildly suboptimal regimes that shared the same mean temperature of 27.7°C, but differed in the duration at T(set). In one of the constraining regimes, females had access to T(set) for 4 h daily whereas in the other regime, females never reached T(set) (maximal temperature of 29.0°C). Thermal treatments were maintained throughout gravidity in all three groups, but, after oviposition, all eggs were incubated at T(set) until hatching. Compared with the optimal regime, the two suboptimal regimes had a longer duration of gravidity, which resulted in delayed hatching. Between the two suboptimal regimes, gravidity was significantly shorter in the treatment that included time at T(set). Furthermore, suboptimal regimes influenced offspring traits at hatching, including body morphology, antipredator behavior, strength and metabolism. However, partial access to maternal T(set) significantly enhanced several offspring traits, including performance. Our results demonstrate the importance of time at T(set) on early development and suggest an adaptive significance of maternal thermoregulation prior to oviposition.

  2. [Depression in children at the beginning of school education. Prevalence of the phenomenon and its relation to the child's adaptive capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba, J; Jaklewicz, H

    1990-01-01

    Depression in children has an unfavourable influence on the psychosocial development of the individual, therefore it requires suitable therapeutic and prophylactic approach. The dependencies between school-age immaturity and the prevalence of depression in children were evaluated in the prospective study. The school maturity, and one year later the prevalence of depression were studied in a representative sample of 502 "0"-grade children from the large urban population. The school immaturity was found in 10.56% of probands. More common symptoms were: withdrawal and antisocial behaviour. Depression was found in 32.79% of first-grade students, more frequent children with adaptation difficulties, especially among school-immature boys. The premature biological development, the symptoms of organic brain damage, and low I.Q. do not explain sufficiently neither the school-immaturity nor the prevalence of depression in children. It was found that emotional and social immaturity to the school duties facilitates the onset of depression among I grade students, while the role of the family and school in the genesis of both phenomena studied requires further investigations.

  3. Health Begins at Home

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-30

    Clean and well-maintained homes can prevent many illnesses and injuries. This podcast discusses how good health begins at home.  Created: 3/30/2009 by Coordinating Center for Environmental Health and Injury Prevention (CCEHIP).   Date Released: 3/30/2009.

  4. Challenge Beginning Teacher Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannin, John K.; Chval, Kathryn B.

    2013-01-01

    As beginning teachers start to recognize the complexity of teaching mathematics in elementary school classrooms and how their new vision for teaching mathematics creates new challenges, they experience discomfort--a healthy awareness that much is to be learned. Brousseau (1997) notes that changes in the roles that are implicitly assigned to the…

  5. Cloud point extraction for determination of lead in blood samples of children, using different ligands prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: A multivariate study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Faheem, E-mail: shah_ceac@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Naeemullah, E-mail: khannaeemullah@ymail.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology, Bannu, KPK (Pakistan); Baig, Jameel Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Trace levels of lead in blood samples of healthy children and with different kidney disorders {yields} Pre-concentration of Pb{sup +2} in acid digested blood samples after chelating with two complexing reagents. {yields} Multivariate technique was used for screening of significant factors that influence the CPE of Pb{sup +2} {yields} The level of Pb{sup +2} in diseased children was significantly higher than referents of same age group. - Abstract: The phase-separation phenomenon of non-ionic surfactants occurring in aqueous solution was used for the extraction of lead (Pb{sup 2+}) from digested blood samples after simultaneous complexation with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) separately. The complexed analyte was quantitatively extracted with octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental factors. Acidic ethanol was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). The detection limit value of Pb{sup 2+} for the preconcentration of 10 mL of acid digested blood sample was 1.14 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The accuracy of the proposed methods was assessed by analyzing certified reference material (whole blood). Under the optimized conditions of both CPE methods, 10 mL of Pb{sup 2+} standards (10 {mu}g L{sup -1}) complexed with APDC and DDTC, permitted the enhancement factors of 56 and 42, respectively. The proposed method was used for determination of Pb{sup 2+} in blood samples of children with kidney disorders and healthy controls.

  6. STATUS REPORT, BEGIN TO DEVELOP COMPLETE OPERATIONS MANUALS FOR THE COHORT: PREPARE TO IMPLEMENT A COHORT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a precursor to the National Children's Study (NCS), the North Carolina Cohort Study (NC Cohort Study) will provide the opportunity to field test procedures to better inform the implementation of the NCS. In order to test some of the study hypotheses, it will be important to ob...

  7. Where It All Begins: The Impact of Preconceptional and Prenatal Care on Early Childhood Development. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Michael C.; Bragonier, Robert; Silver, Ellen R.; Bemis-Heys, Rose

    In 1998, California voters approved Proposition 10, the Children and Families First Act, which placed an additional tax on cigarette sales; monies generated will be used to improve early childhood development for birth to five. In terms of early childhood development, the starting point is not birth but long before; care of women of reproductive…

  8. Beginning German in Grade Three: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational German to Third-Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittman, Nora E.; And Others

    This guide is planned to help the FLES teacher develop pleasurable language learning experiences in spoken German for children at the third-grade level. Experiences included in this guide present German in life situations, as well as insight into German culture. The guide offers suggestions for classroom procedures, and detailed directions are…

  9. Beginning Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    Dovey, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective-C is today's fastest growing programming language, at least in part due to the popularity of Apple's Mac, iPhone and iPad. Beginning Objective-C is for you if you have some programming experience, but you're new to the Objective-C programming language and you want a modern-and fast-way forwards to your own coding projects. Beginning Objective-C offers you a modern programmer's perspective on Objective-C courtesy of two of the best iOS and Mac developers in the field today, and gets you programming to the best of your ability in this important language.  It gets you rolling fast into

  10. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or

  11. Partnership Cultures: Beginning at the Beginning through Parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Rando

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Partnership cultures begin with the smallest units of society, the family. Creating partnership families requires evaluating internalized parenting scripts, discarding domination practices, and acting to nurture and form healthy relationships. Care and respect are foundational to partnership parenting, creating a safe environment in which children’s neurophysiologies flourish. Parenting practices that promote safety and calm, such as use of touch and communication that appreciates feelings, buffer children from the effects of stress. Policies and practices that support parents toward partnership -- particularly parents living with overwhelming stress, depression, addictions, and/or childhood histories of abuse and neglect -- may improve children’s lifetime physical and mental health outcomes as well as improve our society.

  12. Relational development in children with cleft lip and palate: influence of the waiting period prior to the first surgical intervention and parental psychological perceptions of the abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grollemund Bruno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The birth of a child with a cleft lip, whether or not in association with a cleft palate, is a traumatic event for parents. This prospective, multidisciplinary and multi-centre study aims to explore the perceptions and feelings of parents in the year following the birth of their child, and to analyse parent–child relationships. Four inclusion centres have been selected, differing as to the date of the first surgical intervention, between birth and six months. The aim is to compare results, also distinguishing the subgroups of parents who were given the diagnosis in utero and those who were not. Methods/Design The main hypothesis is that the longer the time-lapse before the first surgical intervention, the more likely are the psychological perceptions of the parents to affect the harmonious development of their child. Parents and children are seen twice, when the child is 4 months (T0 and when the child is one year old (T1. At these two times, the psychological state of the child and his/her relational abilities are assessed by a specially trained professional, and self-administered questionnaires measuring factors liable to affect child–parent relationships are issued to the parents. The Alarme Détresse BéBé score for the child and the Parenting Stress Index score for the parents, measured when the child reaches one year, will be used as the main criteria to compare children with early surgery to children with late surgery, and those where the diagnosis was obtained prior to birth with those receiving it at birth. Discussion The mental and psychological dimensions relating to the abnormality and its correction will be analysed for the parents (the importance of prenatal diagnosis, relational development with the child, self-image, quality of life and also, for the first time, for the child (distress, withdrawal. In an ethical perspective, the different time lapses until surgery in the different protocols and their

  13. Relational development in children with cleft lip and palate: influence of the waiting period prior to the first surgical intervention and parental psychological perceptions of the abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grollemund, Bruno; Guedeney, Antoine; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Picard, Arnaud; Soupre, Véronique; Pellerin, Philippe; Simon, Etienne; Velten, Michel; Dissaux, Caroline; Kauffmann, Isabelle; Bruant-Rodier, Catherine; Danion-Grilliat, Anne

    2012-06-08

    The birth of a child with a cleft lip, whether or not in association with a cleft palate, is a traumatic event for parents. This prospective, multidisciplinary and multi-centre study aims to explore the perceptions and feelings of parents in the year following the birth of their child, and to analyse parent-child relationships. Four inclusion centres have been selected, differing as to the date of the first surgical intervention, between birth and six months. The aim is to compare results, also distinguishing the subgroups of parents who were given the diagnosis in utero and those who were not. The main hypothesis is that the longer the time-lapse before the first surgical intervention, the more likely are the psychological perceptions of the parents to affect the harmonious development of their child. Parents and children are seen twice, when the child is 4 months (T0) and when the child is one year old (T1). At these two times, the psychological state of the child and his/her relational abilities are assessed by a specially trained professional, and self-administered questionnaires measuring factors liable to affect child-parent relationships are issued to the parents. The Alarme Détresse BéBé score for the child and the Parenting Stress Index score for the parents, measured when the child reaches one year, will be used as the main criteria to compare children with early surgery to children with late surgery, and those where the diagnosis was obtained prior to birth with those receiving it at birth. The mental and psychological dimensions relating to the abnormality and its correction will be analysed for the parents (the importance of prenatal diagnosis, relational development with the child, self-image, quality of life) and also, for the first time, for the child (distress, withdrawal). In an ethical perspective, the different time lapses until surgery in the different protocols and their effects will be analysed, so as to serve as a reference for improving

  14. Beginning software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Rod

    2015-01-01

    Beginning Software Engineering demystifies the software engineering methodologies and techniques that professional developers use to design and build robust, efficient, and consistently reliable software. Free of jargon and assuming no previous programming, development, or management experience, this accessible guide explains important concepts and techniques that can be applied to any programming language. Each chapter ends with exercises that let you test your understanding and help you elaborate on the chapter's main concepts. Everything you need to understand waterfall, Sashimi, agile, RAD, Scrum, Kanban, Extreme Programming, and many other development models is inside!

  15. Begining Java EE 7

    CERN Document Server

    Gonclaves, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE) continues to be one of the leading Java technologies and platforms. Beginning Java EE 7 is the first tutorial book on Java EE 7. Step by step and easy to follow, this book describes many of the Java EE 7 specifications and reference implementations, and shows them in action using practical examples. This definitive book also uses the newest version of GlassFish to deploy and administer the code examples. Written by an expert member of the Java EE specification request and review board in the Java Community Process (JCP), this book contains the best information possible, from an expert’s perspective on enterprise Java technologies.

  16. Cosmology without a beginning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Most of the puzzles with standard big bang cosmology can be avoided if the big bang is NOT identified with the beginning of time. The short-distance cutoff and duality symmetries of superstring theory suggest a new (so-called pre-big bang) cosmology in which the birth of our Universe is the result of a long classical evolution characterized by a gravitational instability. I will motivate and describe this heretical scenario and compare its phenomenological implications with those of ortodox (post-big bang) inflation.

  17. Beginning Android 3

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The vibrant and rich Android development platform, created by Google and the Open Handset Alliance, continues to be a platform in its truest sense, encompassing hundreds of classes beyond the traditional Java classes and open source components that ship with the software development kit. Android's continued growth includes support for Flash and Flash gaming apps, Wi-Fi tethering, improved performance, WebM or WebMedia integration for HTML5-based video and other multimedia APIs, Chrome OS (WebOS) integration, and more. With Beginning Android 3, you'll learn how to develop applications for Andro

  18. Beginning Swift programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Wei-Meng

    2014-01-01

    Enter the Swift future of iOS and OS X programming Beginning Swift Programming is your ideal starting point for creating Mac, iPhone, and iPad apps using Apple's new Swift programming language. Written by an experienced Apple developer and trainer, this comprehensive guide explains everything you need to know to jumpstart the creation of your app idea. Coverage includes data types, strings and characters, operators and functions, arrays and dictionaries, control flow, and looping, with expert guidance on classes, objects, class inheritance, closures, protocols, and generics. This succinct - ye

  19. Cinder begin creative coding

    CERN Document Server

    Rijnieks, Krisjanis

    2013-01-01

    Presented in an easy to follow, tutorial-style format, this book will lead you step-by-step through the multi-faceted uses of Cinder.""Cinder: Begin Creative Coding"" is for people who already have experience in programming. It can serve as a transition from a previous background in Processing, Java in general, JavaScript, openFrameworks, C++ in general or ActionScript to the framework covered in this book, namely Cinder. If you like quick and easy to follow tutorials that will let yousee progress in less than an hour - this book is for you. If you are searching for a book that will explain al

  20. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres

  1. Beginning Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever. Beginning Windows 8 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes with it. From tips and tweaks to easy-to-follow guides and d

  2. Field Trips. Beginnings Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Sally; Aronson, Susan S.; Stacey, Susan; Winbush, Olga

    2001-01-01

    Five articles highlight benefits and organization of field trips: (1) "Field Trips Promote Child Learning at Its Best"; (2) "Planning for Maximum Benefit, Minimum Risk"; (3) "Coaching Community Hosts"; (4) "The Story of a Field Trip: Trash and Its Place within Children's Learning and Community"; and (5) "Field Trip Stories and Perspectives" (from…

  3. New Beginnings: Documentary Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Screenings 2010:
 Seattle Children's Film Festival, USA (January). 2009: Galway Junior Film Fleadh, Ireland (November). Culture Ireland Film Festival, Bucharest, Romania (July). v. Team Spirit (2008, Ireland, 5-min), Co-Producer, FOMACS Production. 2009:
 ICCL 'Human Rights' screening, Cork Film Festival, Ireland (November). Galway Junior Film Fleadh, Ireland (November). Culture Ireland Film Festival, Bucharest, Romania (July). 2008:
 Shortlisted, ICCL...

  4. Mozart Effect: Sound Beginnings? Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Rick

    1999-01-01

    Notes that outcomes of the "Mozart Effect" on early brain development are not thoroughly proven and presents challenges for future research. Points out that it is still unknown at what age exposure to musical concepts should begin, and that parents should allow children to pursue musical interests at their own pace to avoid burnout at a…

  5. Video Games - Did They Begin at Brookhaven

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Video Games – Did They Begin at Brookhaven? Additional Web program led to the pioneering development of video games. William Higinbotham William Higinbotham First Pong, now Space Invaders, next Star Castle – video games have mesmerized children of at all ages

  6. When does personhood begin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, P

    1983-01-01

    Participants at the Human Life Symposium: An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Concept of Person, held in Houston in March, 1982, considered the question of when life and personhood begin. Previously all such discussions have been held in the political arena and in right to life publications. In 1973 the Supreme Court had refused to resolve the question. In 1981 Senator Helms Human Life Amendment (2038) to debt ceiling legislation stated that life begins at conception and the fetus was entitled to protection under the law. This would have created severe abortion funding restrictions and has not yet been passed. From the scientific point of view it was concluded that biology alone is not able to determine the point at which personhood is established. Several scientists expressed their view on personhood covering such areas as subjective awareness including personality, a sense of self and consciousness, social status rights and obligations. Reasons for not defining the fetus as a person included the negative impact on providing medical services to the mother and the fetus, and ethical issues in fetal surgery. The legal impact of bestowing personhood on the fetus would not resolve the abortion issue, and historically the law has treated the fetus differently for different purposes. If a fetus were legally defined as a person, additional areas of conflict in consitutional law, tax law and others would arise. A final area discussed was whether any of the criteria which define death could help define life; results were inconclusive. The participants agreed that while further explorations of the question are necessary, legislative action seems inappropriate at this time.

  7. Habilidades especializadas do tênis: um estudo de intervenção na iniciação esportiva com crianças escolares Tennis specialized skills: a beginning sport intervention study with school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Muller Píffero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa, de delineamento quase-experimental e correlacional, foi verificar a influência de um Programa de Iniciação ao Tênis (PIT com duas abordagens, Clássica (AC e de Contexto Motivacional para a Maestria (AM, no desempenho de habilidades motoras especializadas do Tênis (HMET e investigar as associações entre o desenvolvimento das habilidades especializadas e as fundamentais. Participaram do estudo 61 crianças (29 meninas e 32 meninos, com idades de seis a 12 anos (M = 9,4, sendo 30 crianças da AC e 31 crianças da AM. Para as avaliações das crianças foram utilizados o Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2 e o instrumento de Habilidades Motoras Especializadas do Tênis (HMET. O PIT foi desenvolvido em 26 semanas, implementando, para a AM os pressupostos da estrutura TARGET e do Sport Education Model e para a AC os modelos clássicos de aprendizagem do Tênis. Os resultados indicaram que 1 mudanças positivas e significantes (p The purpose of the present study, with a quasi-experimental and correlational design, was to verify the influence of a Beginning Tennis Program (BTP with two approaches - the Classical approach (CA and the Mastery Motivational Climate approach (MA - on the development of specialized tennis motor skills (STMS and the associations between the specialized skills and fundamental skills. The participantes were 61 children (29 girls and 32 boys, aged 6-12 yr. (M = 9.4. Thirty children were submitted to the CA and 31 to the MA. The children were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2 and the Specialized Tennis Motor Skills instrument. The BTP was carried out in 26 weeks and implemented for MA the assumptions of the TARGET structure and the Sport Education Model, and for CA the classical models for tennis learning. Results indicated that 1 all children showed positive and significant changes (p < 0.01 in STMS; 2 there was a non significant interaction of age group (p = 0

  8. Six Beginning Music Teachers' Music Teacher Role Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paise, Michele Paynter

    2010-01-01

    In this study, I used a qualitative approach to explore the music teacher role identities of six beginning music teachers prior to, during, and after their student teaching experience. Data collection included participant-observation, interviews, and e-mail communication. Specifically, I looked at what each of these beginning music teachers…

  9. A new beginning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Martignetti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available John A MartignettiMount Sinai School of Medicine, Departments of Genetics and Genomic Science, Pediatrics, and Oncological Sciences, New York, USAIf you, as Oedipus was, were a traveler in ancient Thebes you may have been met by a perched chimeric interrogator posing a question only slightly more foreboding than “Why a new genetics journal?” The mythical Sphinx, literally interpreted as representing the old pre-Olympian culture on the precipice of replacement, guarded the entrance to Thebes, and asked a riddle of all travelers prior to granting them entry.“Which creature is it that in the morning goes on four legs, at midday on two, and in the evening upon three?”Similarly, as you question why submit your work to, or review for, and indeed, even become the Editor-in-Chief of a new online access journal a sense of fear may overwhelm. While the Sphnix’s punishment of being torn asunder and devoured may at least seem quick and to the point, would the efforts of being part of a new endeavor somehow be more inhumane.

  10. In the Beginning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Having just emerged from the warmest decade on record and watching as the oceans acidify and sea level rises, global resources peak, the world's population continues to climb, and nearly half of all known species face extinction by the end of the century. We stand on the threshold of one of the most important transition in human history-the transition from hunting-and-gathering our energy to cultivating sustainable, carbon-neutral, environmentally-friendly energy supplies. Can we develop an alternative to fossil fuels in time to make a difference for our children and the "children" of all species? NASA puts people into outer space, where all resources (food, water, air, pressure, gravity, energy) are limited and far away and where conditions (temperature, radiation, vacuum) are problematic and dangerous-the life expectancy of an unprotected astronaut (physically exposed to the space environment) is 15 seconds. Therefore, by necessity, NASA has explored and developed "life-support systems" that optimize the use of resources, minimize the use of energy, and recycle, refurbish, re-use everything that on earth would be considered a waste material. Emerging from the legacy of life-support systems, the NASA OMEGA project uses microalgae, municipal wastewater, and the encroaching oceans to address our global needs for a sustainable, carbon-neutral, environmentally friendly energy supply that does not compete with agriculture. The OMEGA project is focused on producing aviation fuel, treating municipal wastewater, and sequestering carbon dioxide. More generally, however, OMEGA is an example of an "ecology of technologies" in which all processes are integrated and inter-dependent and wastes become resources. From a NASA perspective, the OMEGA project is also a reminder that "we are not passengers on Spaceship Earth, we are the crew."

  11. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  12. Parenting and Temperament Prior to September 11, 2001, and Parenting Specific to 9/11 as Predictors of Children's Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Following 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna C.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Smith, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Parenting is related to children's adjustment, but little research has examined the role of parenting in children's responses to disasters. This study describes parenting responses specific to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and examines pre-9/11 parenting, child temperament, and 9/11-specific parenting as predictors of children's posttraumatic stress…

  13. Developing New Reading Assessments to Promote Beginning Reading in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…

  14. Assessing Self-Assessment: Can Age and Prior Literacy Attainment Predict the Accuracy of Children's Self-Assessments in Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Lainey; Griffin, Claire P.

    2018-01-01

    Self-assessment practices have been advocated in recent Irish educational documents due to their potential to enhance school children's learning and self-regulatory skills. However, the literature has highlighted how some children struggle to make accurate self-assessments of their academic work, which diminishes such positive effects (Keane and…

  15. Insights into the Feelings, Thoughts, and Behaviors of Children with Visual Impairments: A Focus Group Study Prior to Adapting a Cognitive Behavior Therapy-Based Anxiety Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, Lisa; Loxton, Helene; Stallard, Paul; Silverman, Wendy K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Anxiety is the most common psychological problem reported among children with visual impairments. Although cognitive behavior therapy interventions have proven successful in treating childhood anxiety, it is unclear whether they are suitable and accessible for children who have visual impairments. This study aimed to determine if and…

  16. An Investigation of the Views of Parents in Otago on Dental Care for Primary School-Aged Children by the Community Oral Health Service Prior to the Introduction of the Hub-Based Clinic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, B K; Gaffney, M; Marshall, K

    2016-12-01

    Prior to the introduction of the Southern District Health Board's reconfigured Community Oral Health Service in Otago, a project was undertaken with parents to investigate their knowledge, understanding and views of the historical School Dental Service and of the Community Oral Health Service that was being introduced. Focus groups were run during 2011 in ten selected schools (parents with children in years 1-8) across two areas in Otago to represent ur ban and rural settings and to represent parents who were already travelling to dental services. Parents valued the traditional School Dental Service in Otago highly, generally agreeing that the service based in schools was accessible and convenient for parents and children. Rural parents who had always taken their children to dental appointments viewed it as a normal process, accepting that there could not be a service located in every school. Parents were aware that facilities were out-of-date. They highlighted the challenges of locating therapists since they started moving from school to school in the later 1990s and felt it was difficult for children seeing different therapists at each recall. There were diverse views on the proposed new system. Some parents felt that school-aged children should go to dental clinics on their own or with peers, while other parents welcomed the opportunity to attend when their child was having health care. It appears that the Community Oral Health Services should have an ongoing process to seek the views of parents and children about the service.

  17. Reflective Methodology: The Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Ronald K.; Siefert, Thomas E.

    1970-01-01

    Offers a variety of specific techniques which will help the beginning teacher to implement reflective methodology and create an inquiry-centered classroom atmosphere, at the same time meeting the many more pressing demands of first-year teaching. (JES)

  18. ‘Why does it happen like this?’ Consulting with users and providers prior to an evaluation of services for children with life limiting conditions and their families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Erica; Coad, Jane; Staniszewska, Sophie; Hacking, Suzanne; Chesworth, Brigit; Chambers, Lizzie

    2015-01-01

    Children with life limiting conditions and their families have complex needs. Evaluations must consider their views and perspectives to ensure care is relevant, appropriate and acceptable. We consulted with children, young people, their parents and local professionals to gain a more informed picture of issues affecting them prior to preparing a bid to evaluate services in the area. Multiple methods included focus groups, face-to-face and telephone interviews and participatory activities. Recordings and products from activities were analysed for content to identify areas of relevance and concern. An overarching theme from parents was ‘Why does it happen like this?’ Services did not seem designed to meet their needs. Whilst children and young people expressed ideas related to quality of environment, services and social life, professionals focused on ways of meeting the families’ needs. The theme that linked families’ concerns with those of professionals was ‘assessing individual needs’. Two questions to be addressed by the evaluation are (1) to what extent are services designed to meet the needs of children and families and (2) to what extent are children, young people and their families consulted about what they need? Consultations with families and service providers encouraged us to continue their involvement as partners in the evaluation. PMID:24270996

  19. Constrained noninformative priors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.

    1994-10-01

    The Jeffreys noninformative prior distribution for a single unknown parameter is the distribution corresponding to a uniform distribution in the transformed model where the unknown parameter is approximately a location parameter. To obtain a prior distribution with a specified mean but with diffusion reflecting great uncertainty, a natural generalization of the noninformative prior is the distribution corresponding to the constrained maximum entropy distribution in the transformed model. Examples are given

  20. Mindfulness and the Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernay, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews a hermeneutic phenomenological study of five beginning teachers who were introduced to mindfulness during their initial teacher education programme. The participants kept fortnightly journals and engaged in three interviews with the researcher to assess the benefits of using mindfulness during the first year of teaching. The…

  1. In the beginning was information

    CERN Document Server

    Gitt, Werner, Dr

    2006-01-01

    Information is the cornerstone of life, yet it is something people don't often think about. In his fascinating new book, In the Beginning Was Information, Dr. Werner Gitt helps the reader see how the very presence of information reveals a Designer.

  2. Hepatitis A seroprevalence in public school children in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, prior to the introduction of the hepatitis A universal childhood vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charbell Miguel Kury

    Full Text Available Abstract: This cross-sectional study was carried out between August 2011 and July 2012 in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Dried blood spot samples were collected on filter paper from 919 individuals between the ages of 1 and 19 and were tested for antibodies against the hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV. The total prevalence was 20.7%, while 94.7% of children under the age of 5 were found to be susceptible to HAV infection. The prevalence of anti-HAV increased with age, reaching 33.3% among individuals aged between 15 and 19, thereby indicating that this municipality has a low level of endemicity for hepatitis A. Age, non-white skin color, accustomed to swimming in the river and more than five people living at home were the factors that were associated with an increase in the chance of a positive anti-HAV result. Mother's education level (secondary or tertiary was considered a protective factor for HAV infection. The data obtained showed that a large proportion of the children from Campos dos Goytacazes were at risk of HAV infection, which should be minimized with the introduction of the vaccination program against hepatitis A that was launched in the municipality in 2011.

  3. Music and Movement. Beginnings Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cindy; Moore, Thomas; Carlton, Elizabeth B.; Kranowitz, Carol Stock

    2000-01-01

    Four articles address music and movement in early childhood education: (1) "For the Love of Music--and Children"(Cindy Smith); (2) "Music: The Great Connector" (Thomas Moore); (3) "Learning through Music: The Support of Brain Research" (Elizabeth B. Carlton); and (4) "Music and Movement Bring Together Children of…

  4. Anemia, Micronutrient Deficiencies, and Malaria in Children and Women in Sierra Leone Prior to the Ebola Outbreak - Findings of a Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P; Rohner, Fabian; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Koroma, Aminata S; Russel, Feimata; Sesay, Fatmata; Dominguez, Elisa; Petry, Nicolai; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; de Onis, Mercedes; Hodges, Mary H

    2016-01-01

    To identify the factors associated with anemia and to document the severity of micronutrient deficiencies, malaria and inflammation, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted. A three-stage sampling procedure was used to randomly select children anemia (76.3%; 95% CI: 71.8, 80.4), malaria (52.6%; 95% CI: 46.0, 59.0), and acute and chronic inflammation (72.6%; 95% CI: 67.5, 77.1) were high. However, the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (17.4%; 95% CI: 13.9, 21.6) was moderate, and the prevalence of iron deficiency (5.2%; 95% CI: 3.3, 8.1) and iron-deficiency anemia (3.8%; 95% CI: 2.5, 5.8) were low. Malaria and inflammation were associated with anemia, yet they explained only 25% of the population-attributable risk. In women, 44.8% (95% CI: 40.1, 49.5), 35.1% (95% CI: 30.1, 40.4), and 23.6% (95% CI: 20.4, 27.3) were affected by anemia, malaria, or inflammation, respectively. The prevalence rates of iron deficiency (8.3%; 95% CI: 6.2, 11.1), iron-deficiency anemia (6.1%; 95% CI: 4.4, 8.6), vitamin A deficiency (2.1%; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.1) and vitamin B12 deficiency (0.5%; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.4) were low, while folate deficiency was high (79.2%; 95% CI: 74.1, 83.5). Iron deficiency, malaria, and inflammation were significantly associated with anemia, but explained only 25% of cases of anemia. Anemia in children and women is a severe public health problem in Sierra Leone. Since malaria and inflammation only contributed to 25% of anemia, other causes of anemia, such as hemoglobinopathies, should also be explored. PMID:27163254

  5. The Beginning of Protohaykian Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broutian, G. H.

    2017-07-01

    From its foundation, studies in the field of history of Armenian astronomy and Armenian calendars were integral to astrophysical researches of the Byurakan Observatory. It is important to note the monographs and articles of H. Badalian and B. Toumanian in this field. As the result of our work in this field, beginning of the Haykian calendar (BC 2341) and the concept of Protohaykian calendar were established. In the present work an attempt is made to determine the beginning of the oldest Armenian calendar-the Protohaykian calendar. It is shown that Protohaykian calendar was originated when the heliacal rising of the star Spica (α Virgo) was observable from Armenia 8 days before summer solstice. Calculations made on this basis provide date of the beginning of this calendar as BC 9000 with an error not to exceed 80 years. This date is in correspondence with the date of observations of the Pleiades from Metsamor (about BC 9000), that was found a few years ago. Meanwhile, it also corresponds to the geological data, which prove, that the oldest lake (Araratian Sea) in the territory of modern Araratian valley was dried out at the same time. There is also good correlation with the time of cultivation of crops that was done in the territory of historical Armenia about 12000 years ago.

  6. The Prior-project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engerer, Volkmar Paul; Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette; Albretsen, Jørgen

    digitisation of Arthur Prior’s Nachlass kept in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. The DH infrastructure in question is the Prior Virtual Lab (PVL). PVL was established in 2011 in order to provide researchers in the field of temporal logic easy access to the papers of Arthur Norman Prior (1914-1969), and officially......In this paper, we present a DH research infrastructure which relies heavily on a combination of domain knowledge with information technology. The general goal is to develop tools to aid scholars in their interpretations and understanding of temporal logic. This in turn is based on an extensive...

  7. Arthur Prior and 'Now'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2016-01-01

    ’s search led him through the work of Castañeda, and back to his own work on hybrid logic: the first made temporal reference philosophically respectable, the second made it technically feasible in a modal framework. With the aid of hybrid logic, Prior built a bridge from a two-dimensional UT calculus...

  8. Prior Knowledge Assessment Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    assessment in a reasonable amount of time. Hands-on assessments can be extremely diverse in makeup and administration depending on the subject matter...DEVELOPING AND USING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENTS TO TAILOR TRAINING D-3 ___ Brush and scrub ___ Orchards ___ Rice

  9. Doha Round: the endless beginning

    OpenAIRE

    Popa, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to research existing literature on the collapse of the Doha Round and its causes. The first part is a review of significant paper in the vast literature on the history of international trade from the end of the Second World War until the present, focusing especially, on the beginning of the Doha Ministerial Conference as part of World Trade Organization, but also, the results of the negotiations that followed it. The second part illustrated, briefly, some of the causes that le...

  10. Beginning Silverlight 4 in C#

    CERN Document Server

    Lair, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    The growing popularity of Web 2.0 applications is increasing user expectations for high-quality web site design, presentation, and functionality. It is into this climate that Microsoft is releasing Silverlight 4, the third and latest iteration of its cross-browser web presentation technology. Beginning Sliverlight 4 brings you to the cutting-edge of Web 2.0 application design and includes plenty of practical guidance to get you started straightaway. Silverlight design tools have important differences compared to those used to create Ajax and JavaScript functionality. Robert Lair takes you on a

  11. Beginning Windows 8.1

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever and the 8.1 update enhances the paradigm further. Beginning Windows 8.1 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the fullest possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes w

  12. Beginning Django E-Commerce

    CERN Document Server

    McGaw, James

    2009-01-01

    Beginning Django E-Commerce guides you through producing an e-commerce site using Django, the most popular Python web development framework. Topics covered include how to make a shopping cart, a checkout, and a payment processor; how to make the most of Ajax; and search engine optimization best practices. Throughout the book, you'll take each topic and apply it to build a single example site, and all the while you'll learn the theory behind what you're architecting. * Build a fully functional e-commerce site. * Learn to architect your site properly to survive in an increasingly competitive onl

  13. Engineering drawing from the beginning

    CERN Document Server

    Cousins, M F

    1970-01-01

    Engineering Drawing from the Beginning, Volume 2 discusses the methods for communicating technical engineering concepts through illustrations and drawings. This volume covers the more advance techniques in engineering drawing. The coverage of the text includes the helix, which is the path traced by a point moving uniformly around the surface of a right cylinder that is moving axially. The book also covers drawings of solid objects such as prisms, pyramids, and cones, along with hollow objects made from sheet material. In Chapter 5, the text presents the conventional representations of common

  14. Beginning RPG Maker VX Ace

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Darrin

    2014-01-01

    Beginning RPG Maker VX Ace takes you through the process of using the RPG Maker VX Ace game development engine to create your very own role playing game. The book has been designed with the complete beginner in mind who has little to no experience with the engine. Tutorials and exercises will take you from installing the software to putting the final touches upon your first project. Game design can be quite a daunting challenge, as it generally involves a large amount of programming know-how on top of having to plan everything out that makes a good game what it is. RPG Maker VX Ace

  15. Individualizing Teaching in Beginning Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald Connor, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The best way to teach children how to read has been debated for more than a century. Accumulating research now shows that there is no one best way to teach reading. The effect of various types of instruction depends on the constellation of skills learners bring to the classroom. In this article, we discuss the idea of…

  16. Beginning Shakespeare 4-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Joe; Tandy, Miles

    2012-01-01

    Shakespeare's plays are widely regarded as the greatest inheritance in English literature and recent years have seen a growing interest in introducing them to children in their primary schools. In this book, the authors bring a blend of clear thinking, playful and inventive practice and straightforward practical advice to bear on teaching…

  17. Accelerated evolution of the ASPM gene controlling brain size begins prior to human brain expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalay Kouprina

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary microcephaly (MCPH is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global reduction in cerebral cortical volume. The microcephalic brain has a volume comparable to that of early hominids, raising the possibility that some MCPH genes may have been evolutionary targets in the expansion of the cerebral cortex in mammals and especially primates. Mutations in ASPM, which encodes the human homologue of a fly protein essential for spindle function, are the most common known cause of MCPH. Here we have isolated large genomic clones containing the complete ASPM gene, including promoter regions and introns, from chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and rhesus macaque by transformation-associated recombination cloning in yeast. We have sequenced these clones and show that whereas much of the sequence of ASPM is substantially conserved among primates, specific segments are subject to high Ka/Ks ratios (nonsynonymous/synonymous DNA changes consistent with strong positive selection for evolutionary change. The ASPM gene sequence shows accelerated evolution in the African hominoid clade, and this precedes hominid brain expansion by several million years. Gorilla and human lineages show particularly accelerated evolution in the IQ domain of ASPM. Moreover, ASPM regions under positive selection in primates are also the most highly diverged regions between primates and nonprimate mammals. We report the first direct application of TAR cloning technology to the study of human evolution. Our data suggest that evolutionary selection of specific segments of the ASPM sequence strongly relates to differences in cerebral cortical size.

  18. Growth deficits in cystic fibrosis mice begin in utero prior to IGF-1 reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Darrah

    Full Text Available Growth deficits are common in cystic fibrosis (CF, but their cause is complex, with contributions from exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, pulmonary complications, gastrointestinal obstructions, and endocrine abnormalities. The CF mouse model displays similar growth impairment despite exocrine pancreatic function and in the absence of chronic pulmonary infection. The high incidence of intestinal obstruction in the CF mouse has been suggested to significantly contribute to the observed growth deficits. Previous studies by our group have shown that restoration of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR in the intestinal epithelium prevents intestinal obstruction but does not improve growth. In this study, we further investigate growth deficits in CF and gut-corrected CF mice by assessing insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1. IGF-1 levels were significantly decreased in CF and gut-corrected CF adult mice compared to wildtype littermates and were highly correlated with weight. Interestingly, perinatal IGF-1 levels were not significantly different between CF and wildtype littermates, even though growth deficits in CF mice could be detected late in gestation. Since CFTR has been suggested to play a role in water and nutrient exchange in the placenta through its interaction with aquaporins, we analyzed placental aquaporin expression in late-gestation CF and control littermates. While significant differences were observed in Aquaporin 9 expression in CF placentas in late gestation, there was no evidence of placental fluid exchange differences between CF and control littermates. The results from this study indicate that decreased IGF-1 levels are highly correlated with growth in CF mice, independent of CF intestinal obstruction. However, the perinatal growth deficits that are observed in CF mice are not due to decreased IGF-1 levels or differences in placenta-mediated fluid exchange. Further investigation is necessary to understand the etiology of early growth deficits in CF, as growth has been shown to be a significant factor in disease outcomes.

  19. Comecon links begin to unravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.

    1990-01-01

    The last year has seen a rapid disintegration of Comecon as an economic group and the basis of trade between the East European countries and the Soviet Union is still changing. For the nuclear industry, the most important change in Comecon trade is the Soviet Union's decision to charge for all its services. The Comecon countries share a number of problems, largely with Soviet equipment. The European Community expects to make grants available for some upgrading work but this plan has not met with unqualified enthusiasm. The Comecon countries are losing nuclear generating capacity as Western assessments of their technology are accepted, and conventional capacity is being lost as environment legislation starts to take effect. The danger is that when the economies begin to expand they may be held back by power shortages. (author)

  20. Did the Big Bang begin?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy-Leblond, J.

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that the age of the universe may well be numerically finite (20 billion years or so) and conceptually infinite. A new and natural time scale is defined on a physical basis using group-theoretical arguments. An additive notion of time is obtained according to which the age of the universe is indeed infinite. In other words, never did the Big Bang begin. This new time scale is not supposed to replace the ordinary cosmic time scale, but to supplement it (in the same way as rapidity has taken a place by the side of velocity in Einsteinian relativity). The question is discussed within the framework of conventional (big-bang) and classical (nonquantum) cosmology, but could easily be extended to more elaborate views, as the purpose is not so much to modify present theories as to reach a deeper understanding of their meaning

  1. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  2. Sets of priors reflecting prior-data conflict and agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, G.M.; Coolen, F.P.A.; Carvalho, J.P.; Lesot, M.-J.; Kaymak, U.; Vieira, S.; Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Yager, R.R.

    2016-01-01

    Bayesian inference enables combination of observations with prior knowledge in the reasoning process. The choice of a particular prior distribution to represent the available prior knowledge is, however, often debatable, especially when prior knowledge is limited or data are scarce, as then

  3. Prior indigenous technological species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary open questions of astrobiology is whether there is extant or extinct life elsewhere the solar system. Implicit in much of this work is that we are looking for microbial or, at best, unintelligent life, even though technological artefacts might be much easier to find. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) work on searches for alien artefacts in the solar system typically presumes that such artefacts would be of extrasolar origin, even though life is known to have existed in the solar system, on Earth, for eons. But if a prior technological, perhaps spacefaring, species ever arose in the solar system, it might have produced artefacts or other technosignatures that have survived to present day, meaning solar system artefact SETI provides a potential path to resolving astrobiology's question. Here, I discuss the origins and possible locations for technosignatures of such a prior indigenous technological species, which might have arisen on ancient Earth or another body, such as a pre-greenhouse Venus or a wet Mars. In the case of Venus, the arrival of its global greenhouse and potential resurfacing might have erased all evidence of its existence on the Venusian surface. In the case of Earth, erosion and, ultimately, plate tectonics may have erased most such evidence if the species lived Gyr ago. Remaining indigenous technosignatures might be expected to be extremely old, limiting the places they might still be found to beneath the surfaces of Mars and the Moon, or in the outer solar system.

  4. Antecedents of Norwegian Beginning Teachers' Turnover Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiplic, Dijana; Brandmo, Christian; Elstad, Eyvind

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at exploring several individual, organizational, and contextual factors that may affect beginning teachers' turnover intentions during their first years of practice. The sample consists of 227 beginning teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers'…

  5. Prior Elicitation, Assessment and Inference with a Dirichlet Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Evans

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Methods are developed for eliciting a Dirichlet prior based upon stating bounds on the individual probabilities that hold with high prior probability. This approach to selecting a prior is applied to a contingency table problem where it is demonstrated how to assess the prior with respect to the bias it induces as well as how to check for prior-data conflict. It is shown that the assessment of a hypothesis via relative belief can easily take into account what it means for the falsity of the hypothesis to correspond to a difference of practical importance and provide evidence in favor of a hypothesis.

  6. SPIG From Beginning To Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labat, J.

    2010-07-01

    Rapid growth of nuclear physics in fifties attracted attention of numerous scientists, mainly physicists. At the same time, governments become interested in the field, expecting various advantages, and to be honest, in the first place the nuclear weapons. As a result, also in the country at that time called Yugoslavia, the Federal Nuclear Agency has been formed, and generously funds have been given to support the research. In Yugoslavia three nuclear centers have been founded: in Belgrade (Serbia), Zagreb (Croatia) and Ljubljana (Slovenia). The nuclear research and applications to related fields, inevitably was related to the physics of ionized gases. Just to mention electro-magnetic separation of isotopes, mass spectrometry, gas filled nuclear radiation detectors, accelerator ion sources, sources for analytical spectroscopy and others. Right from the beginning a common problem has been met: lack of basic knowledge on elementary collision processes and in general on the matter in ionized state. Groups of physicists in the mentioned institutes have started paying full attention to these problems. They found it of interest to exchange the results and cooperate not only between themselves but also with research centers in other countries. It was felt that at least one national meeting should be organized, where an overview of activities in the field of ionized gases could be presented. Thanks to extraordinary efforts of prof. B. Perovic, supported, backed and simulated by prof. A. Milojevic, prof. Z. Sternberg, prof. Dj. Bosan and prof. A. Moljk first such meeting was prepared. In 1962 the "Ist Yugoslav Symposium an the Physics of Ionized Gases" was organized in Belgrade. Six invited lectures and 26 original contributions were presented. Two years later, in 1964, the second meeting of the same title was held in Zagreb (Croatia). The large number of participants and unexpected interest in field has initiated an idea that the study of different fields related to the

  7. Beginning ASP.NET 4 in C# and VB

    CERN Document Server

    Spaanjaars, Imar

    2010-01-01

    This book is for anyone who wants to learn how to build rich and interactive web sites that run on the Microsoft platform. With the knowledge you gain from this book, you create a great foundation to build any type of web site, ranging from simple hobby-related web sites to sites you may be creating for commercial purposes. Anyone new to web programming should be able to follow along because no prior background in web development is assumed although it helps if you do have a basic understanding of HTML and the web in general. The book starts at the very beginning of web development by showing

  8. Beginning C# 2008 databases from novice to professional

    CERN Document Server

    Fahad Gilani, Syed; Reid, Jon; Raghuram, Ranga; Huddleston, James; Hammer Pedersen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    This book is for every C# programmer. It assumes no prior database experience and teaches through hands-on examples how to create and use relational databases with the standard database language SQL and how to access them with C#.Assuming only basic knowledge of C# 3.0, Beginning C# 3.0 Databases teaches all the fundamentals of database technology and database programming readers need to quickly become highly proficient database users and application developers. A comprehensive tutorial on both SQL Server 2005 and ADO.NET 3.0, this book explains and demonstrates how to create database objects

  9. Changing concerns of beginning Dutch university teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the concerns of beginning university teachers about learning to teach in the context of an induction programme. Design/methodology/approach: The author asked 162 beginning teachers at Dutch universities of applied sciences to express their concerns

  10. Sjogren's Syndrome: A Place to Begin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials – What’s Involved Video: A Place to Begin Family & Friends Information Sjögren’s FAQs Glossary Sjögren’s Tip > Dry ... Trials – What’s Involved Video: A Place to Begin Family & Friends Information Sjögren’s FAQs Glossary Sjögren’s Tip Survival ...

  11. The Universe Adventure - The Beginnings of Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Universe Adventure [ next ] [ home ] Go The Beginnings of Cosmology Since the beginning of of stars? What do the stars tell us about the future? Where did the Universe come from? Cosmology is will introduce you to Cosmology and the study of the structure, history, and fate of the Universe. In

  12. Sjogren's Syndrome: A Place to Begin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What’s Involved Video: A Place to Begin Family & Friends Information Sjögren’s FAQs Glossary Sjögren’s Tip > Dry Eye ... What’s Involved Video: A Place to Begin Family & Friends Information Sjögren’s FAQs Glossary Sjögren’s Tip Survival Tips ...

  13. Accommodating Uncertainty in Prior Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, Richard Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vander Wiel, Scott Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-19

    A fundamental premise of Bayesian methodology is that a priori information is accurately summarized by a single, precisely de ned prior distribution. In many cases, especially involving informative priors, this premise is false, and the (mis)application of Bayes methods produces posterior quantities whose apparent precisions are highly misleading. We examine the implications of uncertainty in prior distributions, and present graphical methods for dealing with them.

  14. Beginning Programming with Java For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Burd, Barry

    2012-01-01

    One of the most popular beginning programming books, now fully updated Java is a popular language for beginning programmers, and earlier editions of this fun and friendly guide have helped thousands get started. Now fully revised to cover recent updates for Java 7.0, Beginning Programming with Java For Dummies, 3rd Edition is certain to put more first-time programmers and Java beginners on the road to Java mastery.Explores what goes into creating a program, putting the pieces together, dealing with standard programming challenges, debugging, and making the program work Offers new options for

  15. The Prior Internet Resources 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engerer, Volkmar Paul; Albretsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    The Prior Internet Resources (PIR) are presented. Prior’s unpublished scientific manuscripts and his wast letter correspondence with fellow researchers at the time, his Nachlass, is now subject to transcription by Prior-researchers worldwide, and form an integral part of PIR. It is demonstrated...

  16. The Importance of Prior Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Linda Miller

    1989-01-01

    Recounts a college English teacher's experience of reading and rereading Noam Chomsky, building up a greater store of prior knowledge. Argues that Frank Smith provides a theory for the importance of prior knowledge and Chomsky's work provided a personal example with which to interpret and integrate that theory. (RS)

  17. Beginning Teacher Induction: A Report on Beginning Teacher Effectiveness and Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Zewelanji; Bozeman, Leslie A.

    National statistics show a rise in the number of beginning teachers undergoing formal induction in their first year of teaching. This report discusses the effectiveness of induction programs and resulting outcomes for beginning teacher retention, beginning teacher effectiveness, and mentor participation. The various components of induction…

  18. A Healthy Start Can Begin Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy pregnancy begins before you ever become pregnant. Give yourself the best chance for a healthy pregnancy and healthy baby before you start down the road to motherhood. If you smoke, now’s a great time to quit.

  19. Beginning Typewriting: A Fifty-Fifty Proposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarie, Ted

    1976-01-01

    Beginning typewriting should be a 50-50 proposition with equal time devoted to machine operation and skill development and to language arts instruction in elementary and secondary education. (Author/LH)

  20. Systemic Perspectives on Beginning Teacher Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.; Whitford, Betty Lou

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the importance of basing beginning teacher programs in schools where roles are structured to support induction and provide exemplary education for students. Addresses structural and political issues, human resource development, and symbolism. (RJC)

  1. Attaining Success for Beginning Special Education Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marjorie; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Three case studies are presented that highlight problem scenarios relating to beginning special education intern teachers and explain how the teachers attained success. The cases focus on classroom management, adaptation of the core curriculum, and knowledge of instructional practices. (JDD)

  2. Charity begins at home : How socialization experiences influence giving and volunteering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows that charity begins at home. Using retrospective reports on youth experiences from the Giving in the Netherlands Panel Survey (n=1,964, 2001) I find that (1) parents who volunteer when their children are young promote giving and volunteering of their children once they have become

  3. Pioneers - The Beginning of Danish Electronic Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af dobbelt-cd'en Pioneers - The Beginning of Danish Electronic Music, der dokumenterer de tidligste år af dansk elektronisk musiks historie fra 1960-1978. Udgivelsesdato: 29.10......Anmeldelse af dobbelt-cd'en Pioneers - The Beginning of Danish Electronic Music, der dokumenterer de tidligste år af dansk elektronisk musiks historie fra 1960-1978. Udgivelsesdato: 29.10...

  4. Answering the Questions of Beginning Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    Research reports that despite new or beginning teachers being well received by the education profession, their first year experience is often traumatic and difficult nature. This is not a new phenomenon and is a problem shared by many new teachers nationwide and in the western world. Consequently, the retention rate for new teachers is decreasing at an alarming rate and is currently reported that 33% of beginning teachers in New South Wales do not expect to be teaching in public schools withi...

  5. Identifying the Dimensionality of Oral Language Skills of Children with Typical Development in Preschool through Fifth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Milburn, Trelani F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Language is a multidimensional construct from prior to the beginning of formal schooling to near the end of elementary school. The primary goals of this study were to identify the dimensionality of language and to determine whether this dimensionality was consistent in children with typical language development from preschool through 5th…

  6. Recruiting for Prior Service Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    perceptions, expectations and issues for re-enlistment • Develop potential marketing and advertising tactics and strategies targeted to the defined...01 JUN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Recruiting for Prior Service Market 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Command First Handshake to First Unit of Assignment An Army of One Proud to Be e e to Serve Recruiting for Prior Service Market MAJ Eric Givens / MAJ Brian

  7. Aquinas and Contemporary Cosmology: Creation and Beginnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, William E.

    Discussions in the Middle Ages about creation and the temporal beginning of the world involved sophisticated analyses in theology, metaphysics, and natural philosophy. Mediaeval insights on this subject, especially Thomas Aquinas' defense of the intelligibility of an eternal, created universe, can help to clarify reflections about the philosophical and theological implications of contemporary cosmological theories: from the "singularity" of the Big Bang, to "quantum tunneling from nothing," to multiverse scenarios. Thomas' insights help us to see the value of Georges Lemaître's insistence that his cosmological reflections must be kept separate from an analysis of creation. This essay will look at different senses of "beginning" and examine the claim that creation, in its fundamental meaning, tells us nothing about whether there is a temporal beginning to the universe. Multiverse models, like that recently proposed by Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow, may challenge certain views of a Grand Designer, but not of a Creator.

  8. Ivor Horton's beginning visual C++ 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, Ivor

    2014-01-01

    Learn C++ with the best tutorial on the market! Horton's unique tutorial approach and step-by-step guidance have helped over 100,000 novice programmers learn C++. In Ivor Horton's Beginning Visual C++ 2013, Horton not only guides you through the fundamentals of the standard C++ language, but also teaches you how C++ is used in the latest Visual Studio 2013 environment. Visual Studio 2013 includes major changes to the IDE and expanded options for C++ coding. Ivor Horton's Beginning Visual C++ 2013 will teach you the latest techniques to take your Visual C++ coding to an all-new level.C++ langua

  9. Beginning iPad Application Development

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Wei-Meng

    2010-01-01

    A hands-on approach to iPad application development. Beginning iPad Application Development is written to help jumpstart beginning iPad developers. It covers the various topics in such a manner that you will progressively learn without being overwhelmed by the details. It adopts the philosophy that the best way to learn is by doing, hence the numerous Try It Out sections in all the chapters, which first show you how to build something and then explain how things work. Although iPad programming is a huge topic, the aim for this book is to get you started with the fundamentals, and help you unde

  10. Beginning Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Get up to speed on the extensive changes to the newest release of Microsoft SQL Server The 2012 release of Microsoft SQL Server changes how you develop applications for SQL Server. With this comprehensive resource, SQL Server authority Robert Vieira presents the fundamentals of database design and SQL concepts, and then shows you how to apply these concepts using the updated SQL Server. Publishing time and date with the 2012 release, Beginning Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Programming begins with a quick overview of database design basics and the SQL query language and then quickly proceeds to sho

  11. The Role of Genre in Reflective Practice: Tracing the Development of a Beginning Teacher's Journaling Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Heidi; Adam, Amy Rousselo

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a teacher educator and a first-year teacher identify the role that genre, in a rhetorical sense, plays in reflective practice. As reflection in teacher education has been criticized for its potential to reinforce prior attitudes and dispositions within pre-service and beginning teachers, we see how meta-knowledge of genre is…

  12. Enumeration of Mars years and seasons since the beginning of telescopic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueux, Sylvain; Byrne, Shane; Titus, Timothy N.; Hansen, Candice J.; Kieffer, Hugh H.

    2015-01-01

    A clarification for the enumeration of Mars Years prior to 1955 is presented, along with a table providing the Julian dates associated with Ls = 0° for Mars Years -183 (beginning of the telescopic study of Mars) to 100. A practical algorithm for computing Ls as a function of the Julian Date is provided. No new science results are presented

  13. School Culture's Influence on Beginning Agriculture Teachers' Job Satisfaction and Teacher Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselquist, Laura; Herndon, Kevin; Kitchel, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    This study explored first and second year agriculture teachers' job satisfaction and teacher selfefficacy through their perceived levels of school culture support. Prior research indicated one possible contributor to poor teacher retention is a lack of belonging teachers feel to their schools. Data were collected from beginning teachers in three…

  14. Tacit Information Literacies in Beginning College Students: Research Pedagogy in Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Nicholas; Sheldon, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Whereas instruction on how to conduct original research can build on beginning college students' tacit information literacies, the explicit articulation of existing processes for information gathering is rarely elicited by instructors prior to students' submission of a final research paper. In this essay, authors Nicholas Bauch and Christina…

  15. Sjogren's Syndrome: A Place to Begin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Friends Information Sjögren’s FAQs Glossary Sjögren’s Tip > Dry Eye Tips > Dry Mouth ... Sjögren’s Syndrome: A Place To Begin from Sjögren’s Syndrome Foundation ...

  16. The Oxford Picture Dictionary. Beginning Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Marjorie

    The beginning workbook of the Oxford Picture Dictionary is in full color and offers vocabulary reinforcement activities that correspond page for page with the dictionary. Clear and simple instructions with examples make it suitable for independent use in the classroom or at home. The workbook has up-to-date art and graphics, explaining over 3700…

  17. Sjogren's Syndrome: A Place to Begin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sheets Books, CDs & More! Donate Today Your support will help us continue to meet the needs of ... don't know where to begin. This program will introduce you to three Sjögren’s patients who will ...

  18. Sjogren's Syndrome: A Place to Begin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the SSF Blog: Conquering Sjögren’s SSF Social Network Host an SSF Event SSF Store - Books, CDs & More ... Trials – What’s Involved Video: A Place to Begin Family & Friends Information Sjögren’s FAQs Glossary Sjögren’s Tip Survival ...

  19. Beginnings and advances in heavy ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, P.

    1979-01-01

    The very important field of heavy ion research is briefly reviewed from the beginnings up to the present time. The article was intended to be a scientific lecture for the general public read on the occasion of the 70th birthday of Prof. Schmelzer. (KBE)

  20. Sjogren's Syndrome: A Place to Begin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sjögren's Survey Sjögren’s Clinical Trial Locations Clinical Trials – What’s Involved Video: A Place to Begin Family & Friends Information Sjögren’s FAQs Glossary Sjögren’s Tip > Dry Eye Tips > Dry Mouth Tips > Other Dryness Tips > Diet & Food Tips > Peripheral Neuropathy Tips > Surgery Tips Survival Tips ...

  1. Examining Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of Workplace Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Alison; Deaney, Rosemary; Wilson, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper, taking a participatory perspective of learning, seeks to look at the interaction between individuals and their workplace, focusing on the perceptions of workplaces and self by beginning teachers in terms of support for their learning. Design/methodology/approach: The study presents an analysis of 37 interviews from 17…

  2. Sjogren's Syndrome: A Place to Begin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Groups > International Sjögren’s Network International Sjögren’s Network Volunteer as Patient Support Become an Awareness Ambassador Bold Blue ... hope you will have a place to begin as you develop a partnership and treatment plan with ...

  3. Sjogren's Syndrome: A Place to Begin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eyes >> Resources > Dry Mouth Diagnosis Treatments Patient Information Faces of Sjögren's Living with Sjögren's Survey Sjögren’s ... Involved Video: A Place to Begin Family & Friends Information Sjögren’s FAQs Glossary Sjögren’s Tip > Dry Eye Tips > ...

  4. An ENSO beginning in the year 2000?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.

    Several models have been developed over the last few decades to predict the advent of new ENSO events several months in advance of the actual event. None of the models have predicted a warm event beginning by the year 2000. Positive SST anomalies...

  5. Sjogren's Syndrome: A Place to Begin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Involved Video: A Place to Begin Family & Friends Information Sjögren’s FAQs Glossary Sjögren’s Tip Survival Tips Brochures & Resource Sheets Books, CDs & More! Donate Today Your support will help us continue to meet the needs of millions of people with Sjögren's and those ...

  6. On New Beginnings and Democratic Legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Larsen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to discuss the enigma of revolutionary new political beginnings of constitutional orders. The problem is that when a political community is constituted, the act of constituting per definition is unconstitutional or extra-legal. For this reason the question of new beginnings is a political and not a legal question. The question of what the authority of the constituent act is presents an important question since the constitution is the fundamental law from which the legitimacy or authority of all other laws is derived. The problem for this paper is whether and in what way it is possible to think new beginnings that are not merely institutionalizations of factual relations of domination or arbitrary acts of violence. This problem is discussed on basis of two revolutionary theories in the tradition of constituent power—Emmanuel Sieyès and Hannah Arendt—that both understand power to emanate from below and not from above whereby they both, though in different way, present arguments against the understanding that new beginnings merely are institutionalizations of relations of domination and arbitrary acts of violence. The question of whether and to what extent they are successful and whether their theories are democratic will finally be discussed.

  7. Perceptions of Beginning Public School Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes a study to determine principal's perceptions of their competency in primary responsibility areas and their greatest challenges and frustrations. Beginning principals are challenged by delegating responsibilities and becoming familiar with the principal's role, the local school, and school operations. Their major frustrations are role…

  8. Sjogren's Syndrome: A Place to Begin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy > Social Security Disability & Sjögren’s Board of Directors Conflict of Interest Statement Privacy Policy Whistleblower Policy Medical & ... Trials – What’s Involved Video: A Place to Begin Family & Friends Information Sjögren’s FAQs Glossary Sjögren’s Tip Survival ...

  9. From the beginning of radon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettmann, W.

    1986-01-01

    The revival of the radon therapy in several countries since the end of the Second World War was the occasion for a review to the beginnings of this special form of radiotherapy. Initially the early history of radioactivity research is described which among others led to the detection of the emanation as a daughter product of radium. After this followed the evidence of the emanation as a constituent of the natural atmosphere. The establishment of its presence in spring-waters led to the knowledge that there are more than average concentrations of emanation in several mineral springs. In the second part of the article the therapeutic use of the natural radon springs initiated by this is described in its development and importance for Austria (Badgastein, St. Joachimsthal) and Germany (Bad Brambach) up to the beginning of the First World War. (author)

  10. Radiotherapy in veterinary medicine: beginnings and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marco A.R.; Andrade, Alexandre L.; Luvizoto, Maria C.R.; Piero, Juliana R.; Ciarlini, Luciana D.R.P.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a brief historical about the use of ionizing radiations in Veterinary Medicine, instructing the physical beginnings and techniques wrapped in the realization of the proceedings of radiotherapy in animals, illustrating some treated cases, highlighting the difficulties and pointing to the perspectives and importance of the acting of the medical physics in this kind of therapeutic still little used in the national scenery. (author)

  11. Quantum steganography using prior entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Steganography is the hiding of secret information within innocent-looking information (e.g., text, audio, image, video, etc.). A quantum version of steganography is a method based on quantum physics. In this paper, we propose quantum steganography by combining quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. In many steganographic techniques, embedding secret messages in error-correcting codes may cause damage to them if the embedded part is corrupted. However, our proposed steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. The intrinsic form of the cover message does not have to be modified for embedding secret messages. - Highlights: • Our steganography combines quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. • Our steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. • Errors in cover messages do not have affect the recovery of secret messages. • We embed a secret message in the Steane code as an example of our steganography

  12. Quantum steganography using prior entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihara, Takashi, E-mail: mihara@toyo.jp

    2015-06-05

    Steganography is the hiding of secret information within innocent-looking information (e.g., text, audio, image, video, etc.). A quantum version of steganography is a method based on quantum physics. In this paper, we propose quantum steganography by combining quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. In many steganographic techniques, embedding secret messages in error-correcting codes may cause damage to them if the embedded part is corrupted. However, our proposed steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. The intrinsic form of the cover message does not have to be modified for embedding secret messages. - Highlights: • Our steganography combines quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. • Our steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. • Errors in cover messages do not have affect the recovery of secret messages. • We embed a secret message in the Steane code as an example of our steganography.

  13. Prior information in structure estimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Nedoma, Petr; Khailova, Natalia; Pavelková, Lenka

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 6 (2003), s. 643-653 ISSN 1350-2379 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS1075102; GA AV ČR IBS1075351; GA ČR GA102/03/0049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : prior knowledge * structure estimation * autoregressive models Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2003 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/karny-0411258.pdf

  14. Beginning database design from novice to professional

    CERN Document Server

    Churcher, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Beginning Database Design, Second Edition provides short, easy-to-read explanations of how to get database design right the first time. This book offers numerous examples to help you avoid the many pitfalls that entrap new and not-so-new database designers. Through the help of use cases and class diagrams modeled in the UML, you'll learn to discover and represent the details and scope of any design problem you choose to attack. Database design is not an exact science. Many are surprised to find that problems with their databases are caused by poor design rather than by difficulties in using th

  15. Beginning C# Object-Oriented Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Beginning C# Object-Oriented Programming brings you into the modern world of development as you master the fundamentals of programming with C# and learn to develop efficient, reusable, elegant code through the object-oriented programming (OOP) methodology. Take your skills out of the 20th century and into this one with Dan Clark's accessible, quick-paced guide to C# and object-oriented programming, completely updated for .NET 4.0 and C# 4.0. As you develop techniques and best practices for coding in C#, one of the world's most popular contemporary languages, you'll experience modeling a "real

  16. Beginning programming with Java for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Burd, Barry

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to programming with Java Beginning Programming with Java For Dummies, 4th Edition is a comprehensive guide to learning one of the most popular programming languages worldwide. This book covers basic development concepts and techniques through a Java lens. You'll learn what goes into a program, how to put the pieces together, how to deal with challenges, and how to make it work. The new Fourth Edition has been updated to align with Java 8, and includes new options for the latest tools and techniques. Java is the predominant language used to program Android and cloud app

  17. Beginning ASPNET 4 in C# 2010

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The most up-to-date and comprehensive introductory ASP.NET book you'll find on any shelf, Beginning ASP.NET 4 in C# 2010 guides you through Microsoft's latest technology for building dynamic web sites. This book will enable you to build dynamic web pages on the fly, and assumes only the most basic knowledge of C#. The book provides exhaustive coverage of ASP.NET, guiding you from your first steps right up to the most advanced techniques, such as querying databases from within a web page and tuning your site for optimal performance. Within these pages, you'll find tips for "best practices&

  18. Beginning ASPNET 4 in VB 2010

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The most up-to-date and comprehensive introductory ASP.NET book you'll find on any shelf, Beginning ASP.NET 4 in VB 2010 guides you through Microsoft's latest technology for building dynamic web sites. This book will enable you to build dynamic web pages on the fly, and assumes only the most basic knowledge of Visual Basic. The book provides exhaustive coverage of ASP.NET, guiding you from your first steps right up to the most advanced techniques, such as querying databases from within a web page and tuning your site for optimal performance. Within these pages, you'll find tips for best practi

  19. Beginning programming with Python for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul

    2014-01-01

    Learn Python-the fun and easy way-and get in the programming game today! Python is one of the fastest growing programming languages, and no wonder. It requires three to five times less time than developing in Java, is a great building block for learning both procedural and object-oriented programming concepts, and is an ideal language for data analysis. Beginning Programming with Python For Dummies is the perfect guide to this dynamic and powerful programming language-even if you''ve never coded before! Author John Paul Mueller draws on his vast programming knowledge and experience to guide yo

  20. Behaviorism and the beginnings of close reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Many of close reading's most enduring assumptions and techniques have their origins in psychological behaviorism. Beginning with I. A. Richards's critical work from the 1920s, this article demonstrates the central place of behaviorist ideas in New Critical theories of poetry. Despite explicitly disparaging Richards's behavioristic poetics, Brooks's Well Wrought Urn and Wimsatt and Beardsley's "intentional fallacy" perpetuated behaviorism's influence on literary criticism. This article traces how the New Critics translated behavioristic psychology into poetic formalism and discusses the implications of this for contemporary critical practice.

  1. Bryophyte in the Beginning of Terrestrial Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan ŞİMŞEK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of life has been wondered by human beings since ancient ages. The widely accepted opinion is that life began in water and after that landed. In this process, the landing of plants and adapting to terrestrial life of plants are important stages. The last 20 years it’s been done many researches to find out the relationship of bryophytes and tracheophytes. The results of these researches revealed that in evolutionary development process bryophytes and tracheophytes are sister groups. Thesis about earliest land plants are bryophytes is widely accepted recent years. To understand evolutionary process and plants of today’s better, researches about bryophytes must increase.

  2. Superbend era begins swiftly at the ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Art; Tamura, Lori

    2001-11-29

    The successful installation and commissioning of high-field superconducting bend magnets (superbends) in three curved sectors of ALS storage ring was the first time the magnet lattice of an operating synchrotron light source has been retrofitted in this fundamental way. As a result, the ALS now offers an expanded spectral range well into the hard x-ray region without compromising either the number of undulators or their high brightness in the soft x-ray region for which the ALS design was originally optimized. In sum, when the superbend-enhanced ALS started up for user operations in October 2001, it marked the beginning of a new era in its history.

  3. Beginning Python from novice to professional

    CERN Document Server

    Hetland, Magnus Lie

    2005-01-01

    ""Beginning Python: From Novice to Professional"" is the most comprehensive book on the Python ever written. Based on ""Practical Python,"" this newly revised book is both an introduction and practical reference for a swath of Python-related programming topics, including addressing language internals, database integration, network programming, and web services. Advanced topics, such as extending Python and packaging/distributing Python applications, are also covered. Ten different projects illustrate the concepts introduced in the book. You will learn how to create a P2P file-sharing applicati

  4. Charity Begins At Home: How Socialization Experiences Influence Giving and Volunteering

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows that charity begins at home. Using retrospective reports on youth experiences from the Giving in the Netherlands Panel Survey (n=1,964, 2001) I find that (1) parents who volunteer when their children are young promote giving and volunteering of their children once they have become adults; (2) the intensity of youth participation in nonprofit organizations is positively related to current giving and volunteering; (3) that parental volunteering and youth participation promote c...

  5. Qualitative alteration of peripheral motor system begins prior to appearance of typical sarcopenia syndrome in middle-aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro eTamaki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative changes in the peripheral motor system were examined using Young, Adult, Middle-aged and Old-aged rats in order to assess before and after the appearance of sarcopenia symptoms. Significant loss of muscle mass and strength, and slow-type fiber grouping with a loss of innervated nerve fibers were used as typical markers of sarcopenia. Dynamic twitch and tetanus tension and evoked electromyogram (EEMG were measured via electrical stimulation through the sciatic nerve under anesthesia using our force-distance transducer system before and after sciatectomy. Digital and analogue data sampling was performed and shortening and relaxing velocity of serial twitches was calculated with tension force. Muscle tenderness in passive stretching was also measured as stretch absorption ability, associated with histological quantitation of muscle connective tissues. The results indicated the validity of the present model, in which Old-aged rats clearly showed the typical signs of sarcopenia, specifically in the fast-type plantaris muscles, while the slow-type soleus showed relatively mild syndromes. These observations suggest the following qualitative alterations as the pathophysiological mechanism of sarcopenia: 1 reduction of shortening and relaxing velocity of twitch; 2 decline of muscle tenderness following an increase in the connective tissue component; 3 impaired recruitment of motor units (sudden depression of tetanic force and EEMG in higher stimulation frequencies over 50-60 Hz; and 4 easy fatigability in the neuromuscular junctions. These findings are likely to be closely related to significant losses in fast-type motor units, muscle strength and contraction velocity, which could be a causative factor in falls in the elderly. Importantly, some of these symptoms began in Middle-aged rats that showed no other signs of sarcopenia. Thus, prevention should be started in middle age that could be retained relatively higher movement ability.

  6. Where It Begins: Parental Strategies that Impact the Kindergarten Readiness of African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Katrina E.

    2010-01-01

    The need to close the educational gap between Black and White students necessitated a search for answers through parental strategies that impact school readiness. Educational and child development literature support the fact that what a caregiver/parent does and/or does not do for their children, essentially, beginning at birth , has an impact on…

  7. Disparities in Diagnoses Received Prior to a Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, David S.; Ittenbach, Richard F.; Levy, Susan E.; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This study estimated differences by ethnicity in the diagnoses assigned prior to the diagnosis of autism. In this sample of 406 Medicaid-eligible children, African-Americans were 2.6 times less likely than white children to receive an autism diagnosis on their first specialty care visit. Among children who did not receive an autism diagnosis on…

  8. Beginning iPhone Games Development

    CERN Document Server

    Cabera, P; Marsh, Ian; Smith, Ben; Wing, Eric

    2010-01-01

    iPhone games are hot! Just look at the numbers. Games make up over 25 percent of total apps and over 70 percent of the most popular apps. Surprised? Of course not! Most of us have filled our iPhone or iPod touch with games, and many of us hope to develop the next best-selling, most talked-about game. You've probably already read and mastered Beginning iPhone 3 Development; Exploring the iPhone SDK, the best-selling, the second edition of Apress's highly acclaimed introduction to the iPhone and iPod touch by developers Dave Mark and Jeff LaMarche. This book is the game-specific equivalent, prov

  9. Before the beginning our universe and others

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, Martin

    1997-01-01

    "Although we cannot observe them (and they may be forever inaccessible), other universes are a natural expectation from current cosmology. Moreover, many features of our universe that otherwise seem baffling fall into place once we recognize this." Sir Martin Rees, the British Astronomer Royal, gives a vivid, occasionally acid tour of current astrophysics and cosmology, with insights into scientific politics, such as the enormous increase in the cost of the space telescope because of its association with the Space Shuttle. He also offers keen observations on personalities such as Subrahmayan Chandrasekhar and Isaac Newton, Yakov Zeldovich and Albert Einstein. Joseph Silk calls Before the Beginning "an unusual blend of wit, asperity and cosmology ... a combination of clarity and conciseness."

  10. How to Begin a Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Samuel A; Harel, Ziv; McQuillan, Rory; Weizman, Adam V; Thomas, Alison; Chertow, Glenn M; Nesrallah, Gihad; Bell, Chaim M; Chan, Christopher T

    2016-05-06

    Quality improvement involves a combined effort among health care staff and stakeholders to diagnose and treat problems in the health care system. However, health care professionals often lack training in quality improvement methods, which makes it challenging to participate in improvement efforts. This article familiarizes health care professionals with how to begin a quality improvement project. The initial steps involve forming an improvement team that possesses expertise in the quality of care problem, leadership, and change management. Stakeholder mapping and analysis are useful tools at this stage, and these are reviewed to help identify individuals who might have a vested interest in the project. Physician engagement is a particularly important component of project success, and the knowledge that patients/caregivers can offer as members of a quality improvement team should not be overlooked. After a team is formed, an improvement framework helps to organize the scientific process of system change. Common quality improvement frameworks include Six Sigma, Lean, and the Model for Improvement. These models are contrasted, with a focus on the Model for Improvement, because it is widely used and applicable to a variety of quality of care problems without advanced training. It involves three steps: setting aims to focus improvement, choosing a balanced set of measures to determine if improvement occurs, and testing new ideas to change the current process. These new ideas are evaluated using Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, where knowledge is gained by testing changes and reflecting on their effect. To show the real world utility of the quality improvement methods discussed, they are applied to a hypothetical quality improvement initiative that aims to promote home dialysis (home hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis). This provides an example that kidney health care professionals can use to begin their own quality improvement projects. Copyright © 2016 by the American

  11. The Effect of Working Memory Training on Auditory Stream Segregation in Auditory Processing Disorders Children

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollah Moossavi; Saeideh Mehrkian; Yones Lotfi; Soghrat Faghih zadeh; Hamed Adjedi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the efficacy of working memory training for improving working memory capacity and related auditory stream segregation in auditory processing disorders children. Methods: Fifteen subjects (9-11 years), clinically diagnosed with auditory processing disorder participated in this non-randomized case-controlled trial. Working memory abilities and auditory stream segregation were evaluated prior to beginning and six weeks after completing the training program...

  12. Jazz Guitar Improvisation: Beginning with Guide-Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andersen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses an approach to teaching linear improvisation to beginning jazz guitarists through the function of voice leading in harmonic progressions. The student may gain a clear understanding of improvising melodies by establishing clear visual and aural relationships between the chordal and melodic textures. Three dominant 7th chord voicings are introduced and applied to a twelve bar blues progression in F major. After learning the rhythm guitar accompaniment, single note guide tones consisting of the flat 7th and 3rd chord tones of each dominant seventh chord are extracted from the chord voicings and applied in a melodic texture following chromatic voice leading principles within the harmonic progression. Musicality within the exercises is increased by the addition of a series of rhythmic variations that are applied to the guide-tone lines. Continuing with the concept, full dominant seventh arpeggios are introduced in order to expand the available note choices as a way to build a solid foundation for improvising within harmonic progressions prior to using diatonic scales.

  13. The Beginnings of Australian Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T.

    The early stages of Australian radio astronomy, especially the first decade after World War II, are described in detail. These include the transition of the CSIRO Radiophysics Laboratory, under the leadership of Joseph Pawsey and Taffy Bowen, from a wartime laboratory in 1945 to, by 1950, the largest and one of the two most important radio astronomy groups in the world (with the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University). The initial solar investigations are described, including discovery of the hot corona and development of the sea-cliff interferometer. During this same period painstaking `radio star' observations by John Bolton and colleagues led to the first suggested optical identifications of Taurus-A (the Crab Nebula), Centaurus-A (NGC 5128), and Virgo-A (M87). The factors that led to the extraordinary early success of the Radiophysics Laboratory are analyzed in detail, followed by discussion of how the situation changed significantly in the second decade of 1955-1965. Finally, the development of major Australian instruments, from the Parkes Radio Telescope (1961) to the Australia Telescope (1988), is briefly presented. This chapter is a direct reprint of the following research paper: Sullivan, W., 2005. The beginnings of Australian radio astronomy. Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 8, 11-32.

  14. Liverpool Telescope 2: beginning the design phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copperwheat, Christopher M.; Steele, Iain A.; Barnsley, Robert M.; Bates, Stuart D.; Bode, Mike F.; Clay, Neil R.; Collins, Chris A.; Jermak, Helen E.; Knapen, Johan H.; Marchant, Jon M.; Mottram, Chris J.; Piascik, Andrzej S.; Smith, Robert J.

    2016-07-01

    The Liverpool Telescope is a fully robotic 2-metre telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the Canary Island of La Palma. The telescope began routine science operations in 2004, and currently seven simultaneously mounted instruments support a broad science programme, with a focus on transient followup and other time domain topics well suited to the characteristics of robotic observing. Work has begun on a successor facility with the working title `Liverpool Telescope 2'. We are entering a new era of time domain astronomy with new discovery facilities across the electromagnetic spectrum, and the next generation of optical survey facilities such as LSST are set to revolutionise the field of transient science in particular. The fully robotic Liverpool Telescope 2 will have a 4-metre aperture and an improved response time, and will be designed to meet the challenges of this new era. Following a conceptual design phase, we are about to begin the detailed design which will lead towards the start of construction in 2018, for first light ˜2022. In this paper we provide an overview of the facility and an update on progress.

  15. Helicobacter pylori: Beginning the Second Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Matisko

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Beginning the Second Decade’ - a recent international meeting on Helicobacter pylori - was held in conjunction with the VIIth International Workshop on Gastroduodenal Pathology and H pylori and with the meeting of the European Helicobacter pylori Study Group in Houston, Texas from September 30 to October 1, 1994. A menu of 476 abstracts, published in the American Journal of Gastroenterology (1994;89:8, highlighted the explosion of advances in this area. The Houston meeting was followed by the Tenth World Congresses of Gastroenterology from October 2 to 7, 1994 in Los Angeles, California, again with scores of presentations and posters on topics ranging from the epidemiology of H pylori infection to steps towards the development of a human vaccine. All this was in addition to important new work presented earlier in 1994 in New Orleans during Digestive Diseases Week. In this digest of these important meetings, the authors will not regurgitate what the informed reader already knows, but will instead focus on the recent developments in important areas, providing selected key published references for background, and referring to this new work in abstract form which is at the cutting edge of “yesterday’s tomorrow today”.

  16. Drawing as a beginning: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković-Pavlović Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of patients with affective disorders during hospitalisation at the Institute of Mental Health includes pharmacotherapy, individual supportive therapy, group and expressive therapies including art therapy. Art therapy takes a place weekly, it lasts one hour during which patients paint for twenty minutes and then discuss their paintings in the group for the next forty minutes. In this paper the case of a patient who has been treated as recurrent depressive disorder (F33 and mixed personality disorder (F61 is presented. During previous years of treatment the patient had no inability to verbalise his symptoms and feelings, which led to difficult understanding of his actual psychopathology. After applied integrative treatment, pharmaco – and psychotherapy including expressive – art therapy, with the help of the supportive group, the patient for the first time since the beginning of the treatment spoke about his thoughts and feelings of hopelessness, sorrow, alienation and loneliness. All of the applied psychometric scales have shown improvement, for depression – MADRS, for anxiety – VAS and for functionality – SDS. This clinical example shows how the art therapy and interreaction with the group, which was supportive and highly associative, can turn the non-verbal into verbal and non-communication into communication.

  17. Galen and the beginnings of Western physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2014-07-15

    Galen (129-c. 216 AD) was a key figure in the early development of Western physiology. His teachings incorporated much of the ancient Greek traditions including the work of Hippocrates and Aristotle. Galen himself was a well-educated Greco-Roman physician and physiologist who at one time was a physician to the gladiators in Pergamon. Later he moved to Rome, where he was associated with the Roman emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. The Galenical school was responsible for voluminous writings, many of which are still extant. One emphasis was on the humors of the body, which were believed to be important in disease. Another was the cardiopulmonary system, including the belief that part of the blood from the right ventricle could enter the left through the interventricular septum. An extraordinary feature of these teachings is that they dominated thinking for some 1,300 years and became accepted as dogma by both the State and Church. One of the first anatomists to challenge the Galenical teachings was Andreas Vesalius, who produced a magnificent atlas of human anatomy in 1543. At about the same time Michael Servetus described the pulmonary transit of blood, but he was burned at the stake for heresy. Finally, with William Harvey and others in the first part of the 17th century, the beginnings of modern physiology emerged with an emphasis on hypotheses and experimental data. Nevertheless, vestiges of Galen's teaching survived into the 19th century. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Febrile seizures prior to sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stampe, Niels Kjær; Glinge, Charlotte; Jabbari, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Febrile seizure (FS) is a common disorder affecting 2-5% of children up to 5 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine whether FS in early childhood are over-represented in young adults dying from sudden cardiac death (SCD). Methods and results: We included all deaths (n = 4595...... with FS was sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (5/8; 62.5%). Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrates a significantly two-fold increase in the frequency of FS prior to death in young SCD cases compared with the two control groups, suggesting that FS could potentially contribute in a risk......) nationwide and through review of all death certificates, we identified 245 SCD in Danes aged 1-30 years in 2000-09. Through the usage of nationwide registries, we identified all persons admitted with first FS among SCD cases (14/245; 5.7%) and in the corresponding living Danish population (71 027/2 369 785...

  19. First Contact: Expectations of Beginning Astronomy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, T. L.; Slater, T. F.

    1999-05-01

    Three hundred seven undergraduate students enrolled in Introductory Astronomy were surveyed at the beginning of class to determine their expectations for course content. The course serves as a survey of astronomy for non-science majors and is a distribution course for general education core requirements. The course has no prerequisites, meets three times each week for 50 minutes, and represents three semester credit hours. The university catalog describes the course with the title "PHYSICS 101 - Mysteries of the Sky" and the official course description is: a survey of the struggle to understand the Universe and our place therein. The structure, growth, methods, and limitations of science will be illustrated using the development of astronomy as a vehicle. Present day views of the Universe are presented. Two questions were asked as open response items: What made you decide to take this course? and What do you expect to learn in this course? The reasons that students cited to take the course, in order of frequency, were: interested in astronomy, interesting or fun sounding course, required general education fulfillment, recommendation by peer. Secondary reasons cited were required for major or minor, general interest in science, and was available in the schedule. Tertiary reasons listed were recommendation by advisor or orientation leader, inflate grade point average, and heard good things about the teacher. The students' expectations about what they would learn in the course were numerous. The most common objects listed, in order of frequency, were: stars, constellations, planets, galaxies, black holes, solar system, comets, galaxies, asteroids, moon, and Sun. More interesting were the aspects not specifically related to astronomy. These were weather, atmosphere, UFOs and the unexplained, generally things in the sky. A mid-course survey suggests that students expected to learn more constellations and that the topics would be less in-depth.

  20. [The beginning of the Cuban demographic revolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Castellon, R

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of the Cuban demographic revolution associated with the main economic, political, and social changes in the country are analyzed. The authors begin with a brief historical outline of the political-economic situation in the country in the middle of the 19th century. There is emphasis on the dependency of the Cuban economy and its monoproducer nature (with sugar being the major export). This was due to the Spanish colonization and to the subsequent American neocolonization. The discovery of the cause for yellow fever by a Cuban physician and the sanitation campaign conducted by the Americans contributed to a diminishing of mortality. A great migratory flow occurred due to the price of sugar in the world market. This must have influenced Cuban demographic patterns which are a major factor linked to the demographic revolution. The influence on proliferation of urbanization and educational trends is emphasized. The low participation in economic activities of women during the early part of the century did affect fertility levels. The trends in mortality throughout the period 1907-43 are pointed out. It was found that 1 major aspect which had a bearing on Cuban demographic patterns was the 2 large migratory flows. An analysis of growth rates in the population--which also confirms the demographic changes in Cuba--is presented. It is concluded that the 4th decade of this century witnessed Cuba's entry in a new stage of the demographic revolution, a stage in which decreased fertility and mortality go together to create a new period. (author's)

  1. Epilepsy genetics: clinical beginnings and social consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J A; Rees, M I; Smith, P E M

    2009-07-01

    The approach to epilepsy care has transformed in the last 30 years, with more and better anti-epileptic medications, improved cerebral imaging and increased surgical options. Alongside this, developments in neuroscience and molecular genetics have furthered the understanding of epileptogenesis. Future developments in pharmacogenomics hold the promise of antiepileptic drugs matched to specific genotypes. Despite this rapid progress, one-third of epilepsy patients remain refractory to medication, with their seizures impacting upon day-to-day activity, social well-being, independence, economic output and quality of life. International genome collaborations, such as HapMap and the Welcome Trust Case-Control Consortium single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping project have identified common genetic variations in diseases of major public health importance. Such genetic signposts should help to identify at-risk populations with a view to producing more effective pharmaceutical treatments. Neurological disorders, despite comprising one-fifth of UK acute medical hospital admissions, are surprisingly under-represented in these projects. Epilepsy is the commonest serious neurological disorder worldwide. Although physically, psychologically, socially and financially disabling, it rarely receives deserved attention from physicians, scientists and governmental bodies. As outlined in this article, research into epilepsy genetics presents unique challenges. These help to explain why the identification of its complex genetic traits has lagged well behind other disciplines, particularly the efforts made in neuropsychiatric disorders. Clinical beginnings must underpin any genetic understanding in epilepsy. Success in identifying genetic traits in other disorders does not make the automatic case for genome-wide screening in epilepsy, but such is a desired goal. The essential clinical approach of accurately phenotyping, diagnosing and interpreting the dynamic nature of epilepsy

  2. Spirit Begins Drive Around Home Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,829th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (Feb. 24, 2009). On Sol 1829, Spirit drove 6.29 meters (21 feet) northwestward, away from the northern edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The track dug by the dragged right-front wheel as the rover drove backward is visible in this image, receding toward the southeast. Rock layers of the northern slope of Home Plate are visible in the upper right portion of the image. In sols prior to 1829, the rover team had been trying to maneuver Spirit to climb onto the northern edge of Home Plate, ready to drive southward across the top of the plateau toward science destinations south of Home Plate. The Sol 1829 drive was the first move of a revised strategy to circle at least partway around Home Plate on the trek toward the sites south of the plateau.

  3. Divergent Priors and well Behaved Bayes Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Strachan (Rodney); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDivergent priors are improper when defined on unbounded supports. Bartlett's paradox has been taken to imply that using improper priors results in ill-defined Bayes factors, preventing model comparison by posterior probabilities. However many improper priors have attractive properties

  4. 75 FR 72780 - Advisory Committee on Beginning Farmers and Ranchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Beginning Farmers and Ranchers AGENCY: Departmental Management, Office of Advocacy and Outreach, USDA... advise the public that meetings of the Advisory Committee on Beginning Farmers and Ranchers (Committee... Beginning Farmers and Ranchers.'' DATES: The public meetings will be held December 15th and 16th, 2010...

  5. 7 CFR 761.209 - Loan funds for beginning farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan funds for beginning farmers. 761.209 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.209 Loan funds for beginning farmers. Each fiscal year, the Agency reserves a portion of direct and guaranteed FO and OL loan funds for beginning farmers in accordance with...

  6. Using Blackboard and Skype for Mentoring Beginning Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk Hwang, Young; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the nature of the Blackboard and Skype-based electronic mentoring system for beginning teachers. The Quality Teachers for Quality Students project developed an electronic mentoring system between beginning teachers and experienced teachers to support beginning teachers' instructional and classroom…

  7. Iterated random walks with shape prior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pujadas, Esmeralda Ruiz; Kjer, Hans Martin; Piella, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    the parametric probability density function. Then, random walks is performed iteratively aligning the prior with the current segmentation in every iteration. We tested the proposed approach with natural and medical images and compared it with the latest techniques with random walks and shape priors......We propose a new framework for image segmentation using random walks where a distance shape prior is combined with a region term. The shape prior is weighted by a confidence map to reduce the influence of the prior in high gradient areas and the region term is computed with k-means to estimate....... The experiments suggest that this method gives promising results for medical and natural images....

  8. Evaluation of the macula prior to cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeague, Marta; Sharma, Priya; Ho, Allen C

    2018-01-01

    To describe recent evidence regarding methods of evaluation of retinal structure and function prior to cataract surgery. Studies in patients with cataract but no clinically detectable retinal disease have shown that routine use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) prior to cataract surgery can detect subtle macular disease, which may alter the course of treatment or lead to modification of consent. The routine use of OCT has been especially useful in patients being considered for advanced-technology intraocular lenses (IOLs) as subtle macular disease can be a contraindication to the use of these lenses. The cost-effectiveness of routine use of OCT prior to cataract surgery has not been studied. Other technologies that assess retinal function rather than structure, such as microperimetry and electroretinogram (ERG) need further study to determine whether they can predict retinal potential in cataract patients. There is growing evidence for the importance of more detailed retinal evaluation of cataract patients even with clinically normal exam. OCT has been the most established and studied method for retinal evaluation in cataract patients, but other technologies such as microperimetry and ERG are beginning to be studied.

  9. Change in Autism Diagnoses Prior to and Following the Introduction of DSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Catherine A.; Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    Change over time in the age and number of children registered for autism-specific funding was examined, prior to and following introduction of the revised diagnostic criteria (the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fifth edition; DSM-5). De-identified data for 32,199 children aged under 7 years between 2010 and 2015 was…

  10. Penalised Complexity Priors for Stationary Autoregressive Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Sø rbye, Sigrunn Holbek; Rue, Haavard

    2017-01-01

    The autoregressive (AR) process of order p(AR(p)) is a central model in time series analysis. A Bayesian approach requires the user to define a prior distribution for the coefficients of the AR(p) model. Although it is easy to write down some prior, it is not at all obvious how to understand and interpret the prior distribution, to ensure that it behaves according to the users' prior knowledge. In this article, we approach this problem using the recently developed ideas of penalised complexity (PC) priors. These prior have important properties like robustness and invariance to reparameterisations, as well as a clear interpretation. A PC prior is computed based on specific principles, where model component complexity is penalised in terms of deviation from simple base model formulations. In the AR(1) case, we discuss two natural base model choices, corresponding to either independence in time or no change in time. The latter case is illustrated in a survival model with possible time-dependent frailty. For higher-order processes, we propose a sequential approach, where the base model for AR(p) is the corresponding AR(p-1) model expressed using the partial autocorrelations. The properties of the new prior distribution are compared with the reference prior in a simulation study.

  11. Penalised Complexity Priors for Stationary Autoregressive Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Sørbye, Sigrunn Holbek

    2017-05-25

    The autoregressive (AR) process of order p(AR(p)) is a central model in time series analysis. A Bayesian approach requires the user to define a prior distribution for the coefficients of the AR(p) model. Although it is easy to write down some prior, it is not at all obvious how to understand and interpret the prior distribution, to ensure that it behaves according to the users\\' prior knowledge. In this article, we approach this problem using the recently developed ideas of penalised complexity (PC) priors. These prior have important properties like robustness and invariance to reparameterisations, as well as a clear interpretation. A PC prior is computed based on specific principles, where model component complexity is penalised in terms of deviation from simple base model formulations. In the AR(1) case, we discuss two natural base model choices, corresponding to either independence in time or no change in time. The latter case is illustrated in a survival model with possible time-dependent frailty. For higher-order processes, we propose a sequential approach, where the base model for AR(p) is the corresponding AR(p-1) model expressed using the partial autocorrelations. The properties of the new prior distribution are compared with the reference prior in a simulation study.

  12. VLT Data Flow System Begins Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    their proposed observations and provide accurate estimates of the amount of telescope time they will need to complete their particular scientific programme. Once the proposals have been reviewed by the OPC and telescope time is awarded by the ESO management according to the recommendation by this Committee, the successful astronomers begin to assemble detailed descriptions of their intended observations (e.g. position in the sky, time and duration of the observation, the instrument mode, etc.) in the form of computer files called Observation Blocks (OBs) . The software to make OBs is distributed by ESO and used by the astronomers at their home institutions to design their observing programs well before the observations are scheduled at the telescope. The OBs can then be directly executed by the VLT and result in an increased efficiency in the collection of raw data (images, spectra) from the science instruments on the VLT. The activation (execution) of OBs can be done by the astronomer at the telescope on a particular set of dates ( visitor mode operation) or it can be done by ESO science operations astronomers at times which are optimally suited for the particular scientific programme ( service mode operation). An enormous VLT Data Archive ESO PR Photo 25b/99 ESO PR Photo 25b/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 465 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 929 pix - 568k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3483 pix - 5.5M] Caption to ESO PR Photo 25b/99 : The first of several DVD storage robot at the VLT Data Archive at the ESO headquarters include 1100 DVDs (with a total capacity of about 16 Terabytes) that may be rapidly accessed by the archive software system, ensuring fast availbility of the requested data. The raw data generated at the telescope are stored by an archive system that sends these data regularly back to ESO headquarters in Garching (Germany) in the form of CD and DVD ROM disks. While the well-known Compact Disks (CD ROMs) store about 600 Megabytes (600,000,000 bytes) each, the

  13. Reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces of Gaussian priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaart, van der A.W.; Zanten, van J.H.; Clarke, B.; Ghosal, S.

    2008-01-01

    We review definitions and properties of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces attached to Gaussian variables and processes, with a view to applications in nonparametric Bayesian statistics using Gaussian priors. The rate of contraction of posterior distributions based on Gaussian priors can be described

  14. Improving Open Access through Prior Learning Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuangxu; Kawachi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores and presents new data on how to improve open access in distance education through using prior learning assessments. Broadly there are three types of prior learning assessment (PLAR): Type-1 for prospective students to be allowed to register for a course; Type-2 for current students to avoid duplicating work-load to gain…

  15. Quantitative Evidence Synthesis with Power Priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322847796

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to provide the applied researcher with a practical approach for quantitative evidence synthesis using the conditional power prior that allows for subjective input and thereby provides an alternative tgbgo deal with the difficulties as- sociated with the joint power prior

  16. Benchmarking of NESTLE against measured PWR data at beginning of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosteller, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The NESTLE advanced nodal code was developed at North Carolina State University with support from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This paper presents the first comparisons of NESTLE predictions with measured data from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Specifically, NESTLE predictions for critical soluble boron concentrations and isothermal temperature coefficients of reactivity (ITCs) are compared with beginning-of-life (BoL) measurements from four PWRs. All of those measurements were made at hot-zero-power (HZP) conditions prior to ascension to power

  17. Benchmarking of NESTLE against measured PWR data at beginning of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosteller, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The NESTLE advanced nodal code was developed at North Carolina State University with support from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This paper presents the first comparisons of NESTLE predictions with measured data from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Specifically, NESTLE predictions for critical soluble boron concentrations and isothermal temperature coefficients (ITCs) of reactivity are compared with beginning-of-life (BOL) measurements from four PWRs. All of those measurements were made at hot-zero-power (HZP) conditions prior to ascension to power

  18. Sense of Efficacy among Beginning Teachers in Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshidi, Rahmah; Konting, Mohd Majid; Elias, Habibah; Fooi, Foo Say

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the level of teachers' sense of efficacy among beginning teachers in Sarawak, Malaysia. It also sought to investigate whether there is any difference in beginning teachers' sense of efficacy in relation to gender, race and types of teacher preparation program. The study was conducted by using the teacher sense of efficacy…

  19. Exploring Beginning Teachers' Attrition in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Brok, Perry; Wubbels, Theo; van Tartwijk, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Based on a review of recent studies and reports, this research investigates attrition among beginning teachers in the Netherlands as well as reasons for teacher attrition, and compares the finding with studies on this topic conducted elsewhere in the world. The findings suggest that attrition among beginning teachers in the Netherlands with a…

  20. Bidrag til "Life begins at 100 - Secrets of the supercentenarians"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Bidrag til: "Life begins at 100 - Secrets of the supercentenarians". Uddrag fra Human Genetics, vol. 119 p 1432. Udgivelsesdato: 5 september......Bidrag til: "Life begins at 100 - Secrets of the supercentenarians". Uddrag fra Human Genetics, vol. 119 p 1432. Udgivelsesdato: 5 september...

  1. Beginning Teachers' Perception of Their Induction into the Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Lynda; Brown, Natalie; Fitzallen, Noleine

    2015-01-01

    Beginning teachers' induction into the teaching profession needs to be personally and professionally fulfilling, which is often not the case. The main objective of this mixed method study was to gain a deeper understanding of beginning teachers' experiences and the perceptions of their induction into the teaching profession and the support they…

  2. CURRENCY OF THE MICROFLORA CORRECTION WHEN BEGINNING FEEDING WITH ADDITIONAL FOOD AND ARTIFICIAL MILK FORMULAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Toptchiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children feeding with breast milk have significantly lower risk of gastrointestinal infectious diseases development, than children feeding with artificial milk formulas. At the beginning of feeding with additional food influence of allogenic antigens on child’s organism is increasing, which can lead to disturbances in microbiocoenosis of the gastro-intestinal tract. This causes stool disorders, intestinal colic, dyspepsia, dermatitis, allergic reactions, immunodeficiency with recurrent relapses of infections and development of non-infectious disease and their transition into chronic condition. Forming of the malabsorption syndrome at the background of such conditions leads to growth and mental development retardation of children. Numerous clinical trials proved the beneficial effects of the probiotic Hylak Forte on intestinal microflora in disbiosis.

  3. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; Bernardi, L A; Christiansen, O B

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from...... different centres. In our opinion, terminology and definitions should be based on clinical findings, and when possible, transvaginal ultrasound. With this Early Pregnancy Consensus Statement, it is our goal to provide clear and consistent terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability....

  4. A Simulation of Pell Grant Awards and Costs Using Prior-Prior Year Financial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelchen, Robert; Jones, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    We examine the likely implications of switching from a prior year (PY) financial aid system, the current practice in which students file the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) using income data from the previous tax year, to prior-prior year (PPY), in which data from two years before enrollment is used. While PPY allows students to…

  5. Prior Authorization of PMDs Demonstration - Status Update

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS implemented a Prior Authorization process for scooters and power wheelchairs for people with Fee-For-Service Medicare who reside in seven states with high...

  6. Short Report Biochemical derangements prior to emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MMJ VOL 29 (1): March 2017. Biochemical derangements prior to emergency laparotomy at QECH 55. Malawi Medical Journal 29 (1): March 2017 ... Venepuncture was performed preoperatively for urgent cases, defined as those requiring.

  7. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis.

  8. Varying prior information in Bayesian inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Matthew; Curtis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Bayes' rule is used to combine likelihood and prior probability distributions. The former represents knowledge derived from new data, the latter represents pre-existing knowledge; the Bayesian combination is the so-called posterior distribution, representing the resultant new state of knowledge. While varying the likelihood due to differing data observations is common, there are also situations where the prior distribution must be changed or replaced repeatedly. For example, in mixture density neural network (MDN) inversion, using current methods the neural network employed for inversion needs to be retrained every time prior information changes. We develop a method of prior replacement to vary the prior without re-training the network. Thus the efficiency of MDN inversions can be increased, typically by orders of magnitude when applied to geophysical problems. We demonstrate this for the inversion of seismic attributes in a synthetic subsurface geological reservoir model. We also present results which suggest that prior replacement can be used to control the statistical properties (such as variance) of the final estimate of the posterior in more general (e.g., Monte Carlo based) inverse problem solutions. (paper)

  9. Search begins for missing radiation sources in Republic of Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    An international team assembled by the IAEA will begin a search today for two abandoned Strontium 90 generators in a ca. 550 sq. km area of Western Georgia. About 80 people will take part in the two-week search beginning on Monday, 10 June. Radiation experts for the IAEA, India, France, Turkey and the U.S. are also part of the team, which will set out on horseback, foot and by car. The second phase - an aerial and road survey covering different territory - is scheduled to begin in early September. The objective is to locate and recover other known or suspected orphaned radioactive sources in the country

  10. Serotipos de neumococo en niños portadores antes de la vacunación antineumocócica en el Perú Pneumococcal serotypes in carrier children prior to the introduction of anti-pneumococcal vaccines in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik H. Mercado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la frecuencia y distribución de serotipos de S. pneumoniae en portadores nasofaríngeos sanos menores de dos años previa al uso universal de la vacuna conjugada antineumocócica en el Perú. Materiales y métodos. Entre los años 2007 y 2009 se tomaron muestras de hisopado nasofaríngeo a 2123 niños sanos entre 2 y 24 meses de edad en los consultorios de crecimiento y desarrollo o vacunación de hospitales y centros de salud de siete ciudades del Perú: costa (Lima, Piura; sierra (Cusco, Abancay, Arequipa y Huancayo y selva (Iquitos. Las cepas de neumococo fueron aisladas e identificadas en el laboratorio central del proyecto en Lima y serotipificadas por reacción de Quellung en el Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococo del Centro de Control y Prevención de Enfermedades. Resultados. Se encontró 27,0% (573/2123 de portadores nasofaríngeos sanos de neumococo. En las 526 cepas analizadas se encontraron 42 serotipos; los más frecuentes fueron: 19F (18,1%, 6B (14,3%; 23F (8,9% y 14 (6,5%. Conclusiones. La distribución de serotipos vacunales en las cepas analizadas fue de 50,0% para los serotipos presentes en la vacuna conjugada heptavalente; 50,2% para los serotipos presentes en la vacuna decavalente y 57,2% para la vacuna 13-valente.Objectives. To determine the carriage rate and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nasopharynx of healthy children younger than 2 years prior to the universal use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Peru. Materials and methods. Between 2007 and 2009 we collected nasopharyngeal swab samples from 2,123 healthy children aged 2 to 24 months in the vaccination and healthy children consultation offices of pediatric hospitals and health centers in 7 cities in Peru: on the coast (Lima, Piura, highlands (Cusco, Abancay, Arequipa and Huancayo and amazon basin (Iquitos. The pneumococcal strains were isolated and identified at the central laboratory of the project in Lima

  11. Heuristics as Bayesian inference under extreme priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpart, Paula; Jones, Matt; Love, Bradley C

    2018-05-01

    Simple heuristics are often regarded as tractable decision strategies because they ignore a great deal of information in the input data. One puzzle is why heuristics can outperform full-information models, such as linear regression, which make full use of the available information. These "less-is-more" effects, in which a relatively simpler model outperforms a more complex model, are prevalent throughout cognitive science, and are frequently argued to demonstrate an inherent advantage of simplifying computation or ignoring information. In contrast, we show at the computational level (where algorithmic restrictions are set aside) that it is never optimal to discard information. Through a formal Bayesian analysis, we prove that popular heuristics, such as tallying and take-the-best, are formally equivalent to Bayesian inference under the limit of infinitely strong priors. Varying the strength of the prior yields a continuum of Bayesian models with the heuristics at one end and ordinary regression at the other. Critically, intermediate models perform better across all our simulations, suggesting that down-weighting information with the appropriate prior is preferable to entirely ignoring it. Rather than because of their simplicity, our analyses suggest heuristics perform well because they implement strong priors that approximate the actual structure of the environment. We end by considering how new heuristics could be derived by infinitely strengthening the priors of other Bayesian models. These formal results have implications for work in psychology, machine learning and economics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. External Prior Guided Internal Prior Learning for Real-World Noisy Image Denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, David

    2018-06-01

    Most of existing image denoising methods learn image priors from either external data or the noisy image itself to remove noise. However, priors learned from external data may not be adaptive to the image to be denoised, while priors learned from the given noisy image may not be accurate due to the interference of corrupted noise. Meanwhile, the noise in real-world noisy images is very complex, which is hard to be described by simple distributions such as Gaussian distribution, making real noisy image denoising a very challenging problem. We propose to exploit the information in both external data and the given noisy image, and develop an external prior guided internal prior learning method for real noisy image denoising. We first learn external priors from an independent set of clean natural images. With the aid of learned external priors, we then learn internal priors from the given noisy image to refine the prior model. The external and internal priors are formulated as a set of orthogonal dictionaries to efficiently reconstruct the desired image. Extensive experiments are performed on several real noisy image datasets. The proposed method demonstrates highly competitive denoising performance, outperforming state-of-the-art denoising methods including those designed for real noisy images.

  13. Prior alcohol use enhances vulnerability to compulsive cocaine self-administration by promoting degradation of HDAC4 and HDAC5

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Edmund A.; Melas, Philippe A.; Zhou, Royce; Li, Yang; Mercado, Peter; Kempadoo, Kimberly A.; Stephenson, Stacy; Colnaghi, Luca; Taylor, Kathleen; Hu, Mei-Chen; Kandel, Eric R.; Kandel, Denise B.

    2017-01-01

    Addiction to cocaine is commonly preceded by experiences with legal or decriminalized drugs, such as alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana. The biological mechanisms by which these gateway drugs contribute to cocaine addiction are only beginning to be understood. We report that in the rat, prior alcohol consumption results in enhanced addiction-like behavior to cocaine, including continued cocaine use despite aversive consequences. Conversely, prior cocaine use has no effect on alcohol preference....

  14. Analyte variations in consecutive 24-hour urine collections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Jonathan S; Hollingsworth, John M; Langman, Craig B; Asplin, John R; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Yan, Phyllis; Bierlein, Maggie; Barraza, Mark A; Defoor, William R; Figueroa, T Ernesto; Jackson, Elizabeth C; Jayanthi, Venkata R; Johnson, Emilie K; Joseph, David B; Shnorhavorian, Margarett

    2017-12-01

    The metabolic evaluation of children with nephrolithiasis begins with a 24-h urine collection. For adults, the diagnostic yield increases with consecutive collections; however, little is known regarding the variability of multiple 24-h studies in the pediatric population. We sought to evaluate the variability of consecutive 24-h urine collection in children through a multi-institutional study hypothesizing that compared with a single collection, consecutive 24-h urine collections would reveal a greater degree of clinically useful information in the evaluation of children at risk for nephrolithiasis. Including data from six institutions, we identified children less than 18 years of age considered at risk for recurrent nephrolithiasis, undergoing metabolic evaluation. We evaluated a subset of patients performing two collections with urine creatinine varying by 10% or less during a 7-day period. Discordance between repeat collections based on normative urine chemistry values was evaluated. A total of 733 children met inclusion criteria, and in over a third both urine calcium and urine volume differed by 30% or more between samples. Urine oxalate demonstrated greater variation between collections in children collections prior to targeted intervention to modify stone risk are advised to increase diagnostic yield in children at risk for nephrolithiasis. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Offending prior to first psychiatric contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, H; Agerbo, E; Dean, K

    2012-01-01

    There is a well-established association between psychotic disorders and subsequent offending but the extent to which those who develop psychosis might have a prior history of offending is less clear. Little is known about whether the association between illness and offending exists in non-psychot......-psychotic disorders. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between mental disorder and offending is present prior to illness onset in psychotic and non-psychotic disorders.......There is a well-established association between psychotic disorders and subsequent offending but the extent to which those who develop psychosis might have a prior history of offending is less clear. Little is known about whether the association between illness and offending exists in non...

  16. GENERAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE PRIOR DISCIPLINARY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRA PURAN (DASCĂLU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Disciplinary research is the first phase of the disciplinary action. According to art. 251 paragraph 1 of the Labour Code no disciplinary sanction may be ordered before performing the prior disciplinary research.These regulations provide an exception: the sanction of written warning. The current regulations in question, kept from the old regulation, provides a protection for employees against abuses made by employers, since sanctions are affecting the salary or the position held, or even the development of individual employment contract. Thus, prior research of the fact that is a misconduct, before a disciplinary sanction is applied, is an essential condition for the validity of the measure ordered. Through this study we try to highlight some general issues concerning the characteristics, processes and effects of prior disciplinary research.

  17. Bayesian Prior Probability Distributions for Internal Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.; Little, T.T.; Martz, H.F.; Schillaci, M.E

    2001-07-01

    The problem of choosing a prior distribution for the Bayesian interpretation of measurements (specifically internal dosimetry measurements) is considered using a theoretical analysis and by examining historical tritium and plutonium urine bioassay data from Los Alamos. Two models for the prior probability distribution are proposed: (1) the log-normal distribution, when there is some additional information to determine the scale of the true result, and (2) the 'alpha' distribution (a simplified variant of the gamma distribution) when there is not. These models have been incorporated into version 3 of the Bayesian internal dosimetric code in use at Los Alamos (downloadable from our web site). Plutonium internal dosimetry at Los Alamos is now being done using prior probability distribution parameters determined self-consistently from population averages of Los Alamos data. (author)

  18. [History of pediatric anesthesia: from the beginnings to the end of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourdin, N

    2013-12-01

    The first intuitions and descriptions of anesthesia can be found in the antique civilizations. In the 19th century, the invention of anesthesia took place in Boston, and quickly spread to Europe. In France, regulations and structures were created before the beginning of the 20th century to organize this new profession, for children as well as for adults. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Can natural selection encode Bayesian priors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Juan Camilo; Marshall, James A R

    2017-08-07

    The evolutionary success of many organisms depends on their ability to make decisions based on estimates of the state of their environment (e.g., predation risk) from uncertain information. These decision problems have optimal solutions and individuals in nature are expected to evolve the behavioural mechanisms to make decisions as if using the optimal solutions. Bayesian inference is the optimal method to produce estimates from uncertain data, thus natural selection is expected to favour individuals with the behavioural mechanisms to make decisions as if they were computing Bayesian estimates in typically-experienced environments, although this does not necessarily imply that favoured decision-makers do perform Bayesian computations exactly. Each individual should evolve to behave as if updating a prior estimate of the unknown environment variable to a posterior estimate as it collects evidence. The prior estimate represents the decision-maker's default belief regarding the environment variable, i.e., the individual's default 'worldview' of the environment. This default belief has been hypothesised to be shaped by natural selection and represent the environment experienced by the individual's ancestors. We present an evolutionary model to explore how accurately Bayesian prior estimates can be encoded genetically and shaped by natural selection when decision-makers learn from uncertain information. The model simulates the evolution of a population of individuals that are required to estimate the probability of an event. Every individual has a prior estimate of this probability and collects noisy cues from the environment in order to update its prior belief to a Bayesian posterior estimate with the evidence gained. The prior is inherited and passed on to offspring. Fitness increases with the accuracy of the posterior estimates produced. Simulations show that prior estimates become accurate over evolutionary time. In addition to these 'Bayesian' individuals, we also

  20. Recognition of Prior Learning: The Participants' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Marta C.; Ornelas, José H.; Maroco, João P.

    2016-01-01

    The current narrative on lifelong learning goes beyond formal education and training, including learning at work, in the family and in the community. Recognition of prior learning is a process of evaluation of those skills and knowledge acquired through life experience, allowing them to be formally recognized by the qualification systems. It is a…

  1. Validity in assessment of prior learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    2015-01-01

    , the article discusses the need for specific criteria for assessment. The reliability and validity of the assessment procedures depend on whether the competences are well-defined, and whether the teachers are adequately trained for the assessment procedures. Keywords: assessment, prior learning, adult...... education, vocational training, lifelong learning, validity...

  2. PET reconstruction via nonlocal means induced prior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingfeng; Huang, Jing; Bian, Zhaoying; Chen, Wufan; Ma, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Bayesian priors for maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction methods usually incorporate local neighborhood interactions that penalize large deviations in parameter estimates for adjacent pixels; therefore, only local pixel differences are utilized. This limits their abilities of penalizing the image roughness. To achieve high-quality PET image reconstruction, this study investigates a MAP reconstruction strategy by incorporating a nonlocal means induced (NLMi) prior (NLMi-MAP) which enables utilizing global similarity information of image. The present NLMi prior approximates the derivative of Gibbs energy function by an NLM filtering process. Specially, the NLMi prior is obtained by subtracting the current image estimation from its NLM filtered version and feeding the residual error back to the reconstruction filter to yield the new image estimation. We tested the present NLMi-MAP method with simulated and real PET datasets. Comparison studies with conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and a few iterative reconstruction methods clearly demonstrate that the present NLMi-MAP method performs better in lowering noise, preserving image edge and in higher signal to noise ratio (SNR). Extensive experimental results show that the NLMi-MAP method outperforms the existing methods in terms of cross profile, noise reduction, SNR, root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (CORR).

  3. Prior learning assessment and quality assurance practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of RPL (Recognition of Prior Learning) in higher education to assess RPL candidates for admission into programmes of study met with a lot of criticism from faculty academics. Lecturers viewed the possibility of admitting large numbers of under-qualified adult learners, as a threat to the institution's reputation, or an ...

  4. Action priors for learning domain invariances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available behavioural invariances in the domain, by identifying actions to be prioritised in local contexts, invariant to task details. This information has the effect of greatly increasing the speed of solving new problems. We formalise this notion as action priors...

  5. Socio-cultural context, child development and beginning reading in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Thorne

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the fact that many children in Peru are not able to read fluently when they finish elementary school. To analyze this shortcoming it presents an overview of the Peruvian context, the education system, the multilingual and the socio-cultural background and identifies the difficult conditions in which Peruvian children grow and its consequences in child development and beginning reading. The paper discusses different aspectsof developmental psychology and puts the accent on Bronfenbrenner's theory and the developmental approach to education. It offers, also, a review of several studies on reading in Peru. Finally it emphasizes the advantages of incorporating the ecological theory and the developmental approach to education

  6. Impact of antibiotic administration on blood culture positivity at the beginning of sepsis: a prospective clinical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Christian S; Fuchs, Christian; Gründling, Matthias; Vollmer, Marcus; Bast, Juliane; Bohnert, Jürgen A; Zimmermann, Kathrin; Hahnenkamp, Klaus; Rehberg, Sebastian; Kuhn, Sven-Olaf

    2018-06-04

    Sepsis guidelines recommend obtaining blood cultures before starting anti-infective therapy in patients with sepsis. However, little is known how antibiotic treatment prior to sampling affects bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to compare the results of blood cultures drawn prior to and under antibiotic therapy. Prospective clinical cohort study of septic patients. Adult ICU patients with 2 or 3 blood culture (BC) sets at the beginning of sepsis between 2010 and 2017 were included. Patients with blood culture samplings obtained prior to antibiotic therapy were compared to patients with samplings under antibiotic therapy. Blood culture positivity, defined as microbiological pathogen finding, was compared between the groups. Logistic regression was performed to adjust the impact of different factors with respect to blood culture positivity. In total, 559 patients with 1364 blood culture sets at the beginning of sepsis were analyzed. BC positivity was 50.6% (78/154) among septic patients who did not receive antibiotics and only 27.7% (112/405) in those who were already under antibiotics (Pcultures under antibiotic therapy is associated with a significant loss of pathogen detection. This strongly emphasizes the current recommendation to obtain blood cultures prior to antibiotic administration in patients with sepsis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Beginning Amazon Web Services with Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Shackelford, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Beginning Amazon Web Services with Node.js teaches any novice Node.js developer to configure, deploy, and maintain scalable small to large scale Node.js applications in Amazon Web Services. Hosting a Node.js application in a production environment usually means turning to PaaS hosting, but this approach brings problems. Deploying Node.js directly to AWS solves the problems you encounter in these situations, enabling you to cut out the middle man. You will begin with a basic RESTful web service in Node.js, using the popular Express.js framework, pre-built and ready to run in your local env

  8. The beginnings of soccer in Ðakovo

    OpenAIRE

    Bijelić, Borislav

    2008-01-01

    We do not know much about the beginnings of soccer in Ðakovo. Based on modest and not always representative historical sources, as well as memories of the first soccer activists, I feel that we are today nevertheless able to offer a sufficiently coherent genesis of football in Ðakovo from its beginnings till the outbreak of World War I. Soccer first began to be played in an organized fashion within the Section of the sport society “Hrvatski sokol” that was established in 1908, and afterwards ...

  9. Beginning teachers’ challenges in their pursuit of effective teaching practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Confait

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the context and experiences of three beginning teachers in their effort to improve their teaching and to implement and align themselves with their schools’ expectations of effective teaching practices. Research findings emerging from a sociocultural-ethnographic framework revealed that participants challenged their own beliefs about effective teaching practices in aligning themselves with their schools’ expectations. In complying with routine expectations, they embraced predominantly teacher-centred practices, rather than a student-centred approach. Given the ongoing effort to augment the quality of education in the Seychelles, beginning teachers’ implementation of and access to evidenced-based practices could be recognised as part of this endeavour.

  10. Beginning ASPNET Web Pages with WebMatrix

    CERN Document Server

    Brind, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Learn to build dynamic web sites with Microsoft WebMatrix Microsoft WebMatrix is designed to make developing dynamic ASP.NET web sites much easier. This complete Wrox guide shows you what it is, how it works, and how to get the best from it right away. It covers all the basic foundations and also introduces HTML, CSS, and Ajax using jQuery, giving beginning programmers a firm foundation for building dynamic web sites.Examines how WebMatrix is expected to become the new recommended entry-level tool for developing web sites using ASP.NETArms beginning programmers, students, and educators with al

  11. The Math Gap: a description of the mathematics performance of preschool-aged deaf/hard-of-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, Claudia M; Kritzer, Karen L

    2013-04-01

    Over decades and across grade levels, deaf/hard-of-hearing (d/hh) student performance in mathematics has shown a gap in achievement. It is unclear, however, exactly when this gap begins to emerge and in what areas. This study describes preschool d/hh children's knowledge of early mathematics concepts. Both standardized and nonstandardized measures were used to assess understanding in number, geometry, measurement, problem solving, and patterns, reasoning and algebra. Results present strong evidence that d/hh students' difficulty in mathematics may begin prior to the start of formal schooling. Findings also show areas of strength (geometry) and weakness (problem solving and measurement) for these children. Evidence of poor foundational performance may relate to later academic achievement.

  12. Prior Knowledge Improves Decoding of Finger Flexion from Electrocorticographic (ECoG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoguan eWang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs use brain signals to convey a user's intent. Some BCI approaches begin by decoding kinematic parameters of movements from brain signals, and then proceed to using these signals, in absence of movements, to allow a user to control an output. Recent results have shown that electrocorticographic (ECoG recordings from the surface of the brain in humans can give information about kinematic parameters (eg{} hand velocity or finger flexion. The decoding approaches in these studies usually employed classical classification/regression algorithms that derive a linear mapping between brain signals and outputs. However, they typically only incorporate little prior information about the target movement parameter. In this paper, we incorporate prior knowledge using a Bayesian decoding method, and use it to decode finger flexion from ECoG signals. Specifically, we exploit the anatomic constraints and dynamic constraints that govern finger flexion and incorporate these constraints in the construction, structure, and the probabilistic functions of the prior model of a switched non-parametric dynamic system (SNDS. Given a measurement model resulting from a traditional linear regression method, we decoded finger flexion using posterior estimation that combined the prior and measurement models. Our results show that the application of the Bayesian decoding model, which incorporates prior knowledge, improves decoding performance compared to the application of a linear regression model, which does not incorporate prior knowledge. Thus, the results presented in this paper may ultimately lead to neurally controlled hand prostheses with full fine-grained finger articulation.

  13. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Dietary Intake among WIC Families Prior to Food Package Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela M.; Schiffer, Linda A.; Berbaum, Michael L.; Porter, Summer J.; Blumstein, Lara; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diets of African American and Hispanic families in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) prior to the 2009 food package revisions. Methods: Mother-child dyads were recruited from 12 WIC sites in Chicago, IL. Individuals with 1 valid 24-hour recall were included in the analyses…

  14. Feedback Both Helps and Hinders Learning: The Causal Role of Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Emily R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Feedback can be a powerful learning tool, but its effects vary widely. Research has suggested that learners' prior knowledge may moderate the effects of feedback; however, no causal link has been established. In Experiment 1, we randomly assigned elementary school children (N = 108) to a condition based on a crossing of 2 factors: induced strategy…

  15. Random template placement and prior information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roever, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In signal detection problems, one is usually faced with the task of searching a parameter space for peaks in the likelihood function which indicate the presence of a signal. Random searches have proven to be very efficient as well as easy to implement, compared e.g. to searches along regular grids in parameter space. Knowledge of the parameterised shape of the signal searched for adds structure to the parameter space, i.e., there are usually regions requiring to be densely searched while in other regions a coarser search is sufficient. On the other hand, prior information identifies the regions in which a search will actually be promising or may likely be in vain. Defining specific figures of merit allows one to combine both template metric and prior distribution and devise optimal sampling schemes over the parameter space. We show an example related to the gravitational wave signal from a binary inspiral event. Here the template metric and prior information are particularly contradictory, since signals from low-mass systems tolerate the least mismatch in parameter space while high-mass systems are far more likely, as they imply a greater signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and hence are detectable to greater distances. The derived sampling strategy is implemented in a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm where it improves convergence.

  16. The Role of Hand Dominance in Beginning Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tessa

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the role of "hand dominance" in beginning braille readers. "Hand dominance" refers to whether an individual is "right handed" or "left handed." The data for these analyses were taken from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study (ABC Braille Study). The ABC Braille Study was a five-year nonrandomized…

  17. Mentoring Beginning Teachers in Primary Schools: Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner-Lane, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    While mentoring programmes have proven to be successful in reducing attrition and improving teaching ability in beginning teachers, there remains a lack of research delineating the key components of effective mentoring programmes in primary education. This integrative research review examines empirical studies conducted since 2000 on the nature…

  18. Challenges Confronting Beginning Researchers in Conducting Literature Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Der-Thanq; Wang, Yu-Mei; Lee, Wei Ching

    2016-01-01

    Conducting literature review is a complicated, sometimes confusing and laborious process that beginning educational researchers, especially graduate students, often find challenging. However, in the past these challenges were hardly considered, but in more recent times they have been increasingly considered by various faculties and graduate…

  19. Early Integration of Tutorial Support in Beginning Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copus, Colleen; McKinney, Betsy

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal observations reveal that most students with strong arithmetic skills will succeed in the Beginning Algebra course even if they have no previous experience with algebra. In trying to quantify this with an initial teacher-created survey of arithmetic skills, it was observed, for three consecutive semesters, that students who scored in the…

  20. Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2009-01-01

    During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…

  1. Mathematical Content of Curricula and Beginning Salaries of Graduating Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B. Brian; Lee, Jungsun

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined an association between mathematical content in college-level curricula and beginning salaries of graduating students on the basis of data collected from a public university in the southern region of the United States. The authors classified the mathematical content requirements of the curricula into the following 5 groups…

  2. Phau Xyaum Nyeem Zaj Lus = Beginning Hmong Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ge

    A collection of lessons for beginning reading instruction in Hmong includes 22 lessons on (1) natural resources (soil, water, rock and stone, trees, non-flowering fruit trees, and flowering fruit trees); (2) Hmong agricultural practices (planting vegetable gardens, choosing seeds, seed development, corn, cuttings, and spreading and standing…

  3. Creative Teaching: Why It Matters and where to Begin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevich, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Current research indicates that creativity in teaching can and should be enhanced in order to promote student learning. This article begins by stressing the importance of creativity in education and the ways in which creative teaching benefits students. Next, it addresses key points for better understanding classroom creativity by identifying…

  4. Memories of a Fledgling Teacher: A Beginning Teacher's Autobiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottland, Helg

    2004-01-01

    By evoking the concept of memory pictures, the author recalls her early years as a teacher. Rather than calling herself a beginning teacher, she characterizes herself as a fledgling teacher to capture the insecurity associated with the first years of teaching. This experience is narrated through five memory pictures: (1) the new school's many…

  5. Teaching Beginning Chemistry Students Simple Lewis Dot Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiff, Peter; Czerwinski, Wendy A.

    2015-01-01

    Students beginning their initial study of chemistry often have a difficult time mastering simple Lewis dot structures. Textbooks show students how to manipulate Lewis structures by moving valence electron dots around the chemical structure so each atom has an octet or duet. However, an easier method of teaching Lewis structures for simple…

  6. The Hannan Crusaid Treatment Centre – early beginnings and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Hannan Crusaid Treatment Centre – early beginnings and lessons learnt. R Kaplan, C Orrell, SD Lawn, L-G Bekker, R Wood. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/sajhivmed.1040 · AJOL African ...

  7. One Year Later: Beginning Teachers Revisit Their Preparation Program Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housego, Billie E.; Badali, Salvador J.

    1996-01-01

    Survey of 48 beginning teachers elicited assessment of their experiences in the elementary teacher education program at the University of British Columbia. Teachers assessed the importance of teaching particular knowledge, skills, and understandings and the program's potential and success in doing so. As in similar studies, findings indicate the…

  8. Working Downstream: A Beginning EL Teacher Negotiating Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsbary, Christine Brigid; Appelgate, Mollie H.

    2016-01-01

    This case study describes how a beginning teacher struggled to meet her students' needs in an ESL classroom. Her struggle demonstrated the interrelated nature of policy and practice: Policy effects in her school isolated her and made her feel solely responsible for the achievement of her newly arrived English-learning (EL) students. Her case…

  9. Collaborative Lesson Planning as Professional Development for Beginning Primary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauml, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study describes how one beginning primary grade teacher benefited from collaborative lesson-planning meetings with her grade-level colleagues. The teacher accumulated knowledge of curriculum, pedagogy, and professional contexts as she participated in planning meetings each week during her first year of teaching. Furthermore,…

  10. Beginning science teachers' performances: Assessment in times of reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzinsky, Fie K.

    2000-10-01

    The current reform in science education and the research on effective teaching and student learning have reinforced the importance of teacher competency. To better measure performances in the teaching of science, performance assessment has been added to Connecticut's licensure process for beginning science teachers. Teaching portfolios are used to document teaching and learning over time. Portfolios, however, are not without problems. One of the major concerns with the portfolio assessment process is its subjectivity. Assessors may not have opportunities to ask clarifying or follow-up questions to enhance the interpretation of a teacher's performance. In addition, portfolios often contain components based on self-documentation, which are subjective. Furthermore, the use of portfolios raises test equity issues. These concerns present challenges for persons in charge of establishing the validity of a portfolio-based licensure process. In high-stakes decision processes, such as teaching licensure, the validity of the assessment instruments must be studied. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the criterion-related validity of the Connecticut State Department of Education's Beginning Science Teaching Portfolio by comparing the interpretations of performances from science teaching portfolios to those derived from another assessment method, the Expert Science Teaching Educational and Evaluation Model, (ESTEEM). The analysis of correlations between the Beginning Science Teaching Portfolio and ESTEEM instrument scores was the primary method for establishing support for validity. The results indicated moderate correlations between all Beginning Science Teaching Portfolio and ESTEEM category and total variables. Multiple regression was used to examine whether differences existed in beginning science teachers' performances based on gender, poverty group, school level, and science discipline taught. None of these variables significantly contributed to the

  11. The impact of children on divorce risks of Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, G

    1997-06-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of children on divorce risks in 1971-1994 for first-married Swedish women. This impact is examined using two measures of family composition, namely the number of children and the age of the youngest child, and we find an independent effect from each of these factors on the propensity to divorce. There is an additional impact of births prior to marriage on the subsequent divorce risk.... The general picture of Swedish divorce-risk trends shows a strong increase in 1974, mostly among childless women, in response to a reform of the divorce legislation. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the risks have increased steadily, mostly among mothers." (EXCERPT)

  12. Language-Rich Early Childhood Classroom: Simple but Powerful Beginnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Erin Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This article highlights research exploring the benefits of small-group storytelling as a way to promote rich language in early childhood classrooms. Using the storytelling of children from a preschool classroom serving lower SES children, the author explores the collaborative affordances of story circles. Results show that small-group storytelling…

  13. The Beginnings of Resilience: A View Across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A close read of studies of children's development says that remarkably large numbers of children mature successfully despite exposure to poverty, war, violence, family dislocation, cultural genocide, sexual abuse, physical injury, mental illness, loss of a parent, loneliness, hunger, neglect and the numerous other crimes one commits against…

  14. Uniquely Human Self-Control Begins at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Misch, Antonia; Hernandez-Lloreda, Victoria; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have remarkable skills of self-control, but the evolutionary origins of these skills are unknown. Here we compare children at 3 and 6 years of age with one of humans' two nearest relatives, chimpanzees, on a battery of reactivity and self-control tasks. Three-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their abilities to…

  15. Brotherhood/Sisterhood Begin at Home: Notes on Sibling Rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.

    Parents who are frequently frustrated and troubled by rivalry among their children may find the following suggestions helpful. If fighting between siblings is bothersome, stop it. Don't lecture, moralize or nag. Once the unpleasant behavior is stopped, look for possible causes and ways of dealing with it. Children's versions of disputes and other…

  16. Beginning Reading: Are We Doing Only Half the Job?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Arnold L.

    1979-01-01

    Current theories about teaching children to read overemphasize use of the left brain hemisphere. Children with a right-hemisphere dominance are likely to experience difficulties unless reading experiences are planned which capitalize on right-brain characteristics: divergent thinking and creative activities, hands-on experiences, and free reading.…

  17. Distinguishing between casual talk and academic talk beginning in the preschool years: an important consideration for speech-language pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleeck, Anne

    2014-11-01

    The need for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to consider an academic talk (AT) register in addition to an everyday casual talk (CT) register of oral language with children beginning in the preschool years is presented, the AT and CT registers are distinguished in a comprehensive manner, ideas regarding AT language assessment are proposed, and suggestions for fostering children's skills with the AT register are offered. Extant research and scholarship from a wide variety of disciplines are integrated and organized. The author discusses the role of the SLP in supporting AT skills beginning in the preschool years and the added risk of difficulties with the AT register for children with language impairment who are from diverse backgrounds. Two broad categories-social-interactive and cognitive-that give rise to linguistic features that differentiate between the CT and AT registers are deduced from extant scholarship. SLPs should consider children's competence with the AT register as they work to prepare preschoolers and older children for the language demands of school.

  18. Sparse Multivariate Modeling: Priors and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo

    This thesis presents a collection of statistical models that attempt to take advantage of every piece of prior knowledge available to provide the models with as much structure as possible. The main motivation for introducing these models is interpretability since in practice we want to be able...... a general yet self-contained description of every model in terms of generative assumptions, interpretability goals, probabilistic formulation and target applications. Case studies, benchmark results and practical details are also provided as appendices published elsewhere, containing reprints of peer...

  19. Genome position specific priors for genomic prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Su, Guosheng; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2012-01-01

    casual mutation is different between the populations but affects the same gene. Proportions of a four-distribution mixture for SNP effects in segments of fixed size along the genome are derived from one population and set as location specific prior proportions of distributions of SNP effects...... for the target population. The model was tested using dairy cattle populations of different breeds: 540 Australian Jersey bulls, 2297 Australian Holstein bulls and 5214 Nordic Holstein bulls. The traits studied were protein-, fat- and milk yield. Genotypic data was Illumina 777K SNPs, real or imputed Results...

  20. Models for Validation of Prior Learning (VPL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Søren

    The national policies for the education/training of adults are in the 21st century highly influenced by proposals which are formulated and promoted by The European Union (EU) as well as other transnational players and this shift in policy making has consequences. One is that ideas which in the past...... would have been categorized as utopian can become realpolitik. Validation of Prior Learning (VPL) was in Europe mainly regarded as utopian while universities in the United States of America (USA) were developing ways to obtain credits to those students which was coming with experiences from working life....

  1. A matter of prior knowledge: Canadian young children’s conceptions about the future in the global community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottilia Chareka

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Young Canadian boys and girls aged nine to eleven were asked to consider their personal futures, the future of their community and the future of the world. Mixed methods were employed for data collection and analysis. Responses were compared with those given by children in eight countries and the discussion focused on the importance prior knowledge, in this case, prior knowledge of global issues, holds for effective teaching and learning about global issues. Canadian children were optimistic about the future for themselves and their community but less so for the globe. More so than other children, Canadian children were concerned with issues of social justice, issues such as discrimination and racism, and with improving the environment, which might be attributed to the emphasis that is placed on these issues in their school curriculum. Assessing prior knowledge should be a priority for those considering development and implementation of global education curricula.

  2. The Motor and Cognitive Development of Overweight Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krombholz, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of overweight compared with healthy-weight children attending kindergartens in Munich, Germany. Mean age of the children at the beginning of the study was 53.2 months (SD = 7.5); the duration of the study was 20 months. At the beginning of the study children were classified as overweight (n…

  3. Beginning iPhone 4 Development Exploring the IOS SDK

    CERN Document Server

    Nutting, Jack; LaMarche, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The authors of the bestselling Beginning iPhone 3 Development are back, with the same excellent material completely updated for iOS 4 and written from the ground up using the latest version of Apple's Xcode 3. All source code has been updated to use the latest Xcode templates and current APIs, and all-new screenshots show Xcode 3 in action. Beginning iPhone 4 Development is a complete course in iOS development. You'll master techniques that work on iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. We start with the basics, showing you how to download and install the tools you'll need, and how to create your first

  4. Tinea pedis due to Cylindrocarpon lichenicola beginning onycholysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadim Diongue

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 33 year old woman presented with both feet, humid and white Tinea pedis at the second, third and fourth inter-toes areas associated with a beginning onycholysis of the nails lasting for 18 months. KOH mount of the samples was positive for fungal hyphae. The fungus was isolated on Sabouraud-chlorampphenicol agar and identified as Cylindrocarpon lichenicola. The patient was treated with an association of terbinafine tablet and terbinafine cream and presented clinical cure after three months.

  5. Myasthenia Gravis – a beginning with no end

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croitoru Cristina Georgiana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis is one of the neurological diseases with a relatively recent history, full of mistakes, in which the British and German neurology schools have attempted to find answers when confronted with the unknown. The paper aims at making a historical account of the disease from its discovery in the 16th century, when the first case of myasthenia gravis was medically diagnosed, to the beginning of the 20th century, when the dawn of modern therapy started to show.

  6. Beginning phase of career manager for non-formal education

    OpenAIRE

    Kostková, Blanka

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the beginning phase of career manager for organization non- formal education. The work examines the process that precedes the onset school manager to executive positions primarily in terms of motivation, expectations and subsequent reality. It describes the initial phase of his work in a new role in life from the perspective of the management of school facilities and other activities associated with this process . The work is mapped to what extent the entrance to the Di...

  7. Depth image enhancement using perceptual texture priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Duhyeon; Shim, Hyunjung

    2015-03-01

    A depth camera is widely used in various applications because it provides a depth image of the scene in real time. However, due to the limited power consumption, the depth camera presents severe noises, incapable of providing the high quality 3D data. Although the smoothness prior is often employed to subside the depth noise, it discards the geometric details so to degrade the distance resolution and hinder achieving the realism in 3D contents. In this paper, we propose a perceptual-based depth image enhancement technique that automatically recovers the depth details of various textures, using a statistical framework inspired by human mechanism of perceiving surface details by texture priors. We construct the database composed of the high quality normals. Based on the recent studies in human visual perception (HVP), we select the pattern density as a primary feature to classify textures. Upon the classification results, we match and substitute the noisy input normals with high quality normals in the database. As a result, our method provides the high quality depth image preserving the surface details. We expect that our work is effective to enhance the details of depth image from 3D sensors and to provide a high-fidelity virtual reality experience.

  8. An Interview with Crosby Bonsall: A Writer for Beginning Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Carole

    1985-01-01

    Crosby Bonsall, a prolific author-illustrator for young readers, comments on many topics related to writing, illustrating, and young children's initial independent encounters with print in books. (HOD)

  9. The beginning of African biblical interpretation: The bible among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prior to the translation of the Bible in Africa, Africans were already engaging with the Bible, initially as an iconic object of power and then as an aural object. In the first section of this article I attempt to detect elements of the early reception of the Bible among the BaTlhaping people. The second section of the article then ...

  10. Phenological models for the beginning of apple blossom in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, Frank M.; Bluemel, Klaus; Henniges, Yvonne [Humboldt-Univ. of Berlin (Germany). Agricultural Climatology; Blanke, Michael [Univ. of Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Horticultural Science; Weber, Roland W.S. [Fruit Growing Research Institute Jork (Germany); Zoth, Michael [Competence Centre Fruit Growing Bodensee, Ravensburg-Bavendorf (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Five phenological models (M1-M5) were examined with respect to their suitability to calculate the beginning of apple blossom in Germany, the most important fruit crop in Western Europe. Blossoming is the most sensitive period, e.g.to frost, and determines the fruit set of the apple trees. Phenological observations and temperature data from the German Weather Service in the period 1961-2005 were used to fit these five models. For the calculations data from, 5,630 phenological and 523 temperature stations were attributed to a 10 km x 10 km grid using second order universal kriging. Model parameters were optimised on 3,672 grid points for the nationwide approach for Germany and on 148 points for 11 fruit growing regions. Root mean square errors (RMSE) between modelled and observed apple blossom data varied from 4.2 to 5.0 days for the internal and from 4.6 to 5.6 days for the external verification on the basis of phenological records from three fruit growing research centres. The very simple statistical model approach M5 had the advantage of causing the least effort to calculate the bloom date, but it never performed better than any of the best mechanistic models M1-M4. Also, the 'thermal time model' M1 and the sequential model M2 were both easy to handle which makes them a preferable choice for predictions and management decisions in apple orchards. These two models M1 and M2 are also suitable to be implemented in yield models and water budget models in order to replace the use of fixed developmental stages by dynamical calculations. The two combined chilling/forcing models M2 - a sequential model - and M3 - a parallel model - exhibited the lowest average RMSE. Both models (M2 and M3) could preferably be used to project the impact of climate change on the beginning of apple blossom, since these models can compensate a possible lack of chilling by a higher demand for forcing. The present study showed that a) all five models were able to calculate the

  11. Evaluating a Collaborative Approach to Improve Prior Authorization Efficiency in the Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Emily E; Vranek, Kathryn; Hynicka, Lauren M; Gripshover, Janet; Potosky, Darryn; Mattingly, T Joseph

    A team-based approach to obtaining prior authorization approval was implemented utilizing a specialty pharmacy, a clinic-based pharmacy technician specialist, and a registered nurse to work with providers to obtain approval for medications for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the time to approval for prescribed treatment of HCV infection. A retrospective observational study was conducted including patients treated for HCV infection by clinic providers who received at least 1 oral direct-acting antiviral HCV medication. Patients were divided into 2 groups, based on whether they were treated before or after the implementation of the team-based approach. Student t tests were used to compare average wait times before and after the intervention. The sample included 180 patients, 68 treated before the intervention and 112 patients who initiated therapy after. All patients sampled required prior authorization approval by a third-party payer to begin therapy. There was a statistically significant reduction (P = .02) in average wait time in the postintervention group (15.6 ± 12.1 days) once adjusted using dates of approval. Pharmacy collaboration may provide increases in efficiency in provider prior authorization practices and reduced wait time for patients to begin treatment.

  12. Extended Linear Models with Gaussian Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinonero, Joaquin

    2002-01-01

    In extended linear models the input space is projected onto a feature space by means of an arbitrary non-linear transformation. A linear model is then applied to the feature space to construct the model output. The dimension of the feature space can be very large, or even infinite, giving the model...... a very big flexibility. Support Vector Machines (SVM's) and Gaussian processes are two examples of such models. In this technical report I present a model in which the dimension of the feature space remains finite, and where a Bayesian approach is used to train the model with Gaussian priors...... on the parameters. The Relevance Vector Machine, introduced by Tipping, is a particular case of such a model. I give the detailed derivations of the expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm used in the training. These derivations are not found in the literature, and might be helpful for newcomers....

  13. Savings for visuomotor adaptation require prior history of error, not prior repetition of successful actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; de Rugy, Aymar; Marinovic, Welber; Riek, Stephan; Carroll, Timothy J

    2016-10-01

    When we move, perturbations to our body or the environment can elicit discrepancies between predicted and actual outcomes. We readily adapt movements to compensate for such discrepancies, and the retention of this learning is evident as savings, or faster readaptation to a previously encountered perturbation. The mechanistic processes contributing to savings, or even the necessary conditions for savings, are not fully understood. One theory suggests that savings requires increased sensitivity to previously experienced errors: when perturbations evoke a sequence of correlated errors, we increase our sensitivity to the errors experienced, which subsequently improves error correction (Herzfeld et al. 2014). An alternative theory suggests that a memory of actions is necessary for savings: when an action becomes associated with successful target acquisition through repetition, that action is more rapidly retrieved at subsequent learning (Huang et al. 2011). In the present study, to better understand the necessary conditions for savings, we tested how savings is affected by prior experience of similar errors and prior repetition of the action required to eliminate errors using a factorial design. Prior experience of errors induced by a visuomotor rotation in the savings block was either prevented at initial learning by gradually removing an oppositely signed perturbation or enforced by abruptly removing the perturbation. Prior repetition of the action required to eliminate errors in the savings block was either deprived or enforced by manipulating target location in preceding trials. The data suggest that prior experience of errors is both necessary and sufficient for savings, whereas prior repetition of a successful action is neither necessary nor sufficient for savings. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Precursory changes in well water level prior to the March, 2000 eruption of Usu Volcano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomo; Akita, Fujio

    The height of water levels in two wells located near Usu volcano, Japan, changed in a systematic fashion for several months prior to the eruption of Usu volcano on 31 March 2000. In one well, water-level decrease relative to normal levels was first observed at the beginning of October 1999. The decreasing water-level is postulated to result from groundwater flow into cracks widened by intruding magma during dike formation. From the beginning of January 2000, the rate of decrease became higher. During this time, the water level of the second well increased by 0.05 m and then gradually decreased. The water-level changes are consistent with volumetric expansion of magma inside the magma chamber, followed by intrusion of magma into the fracture system associated with widening of cracks. We conclude that water-level observations can provide information that may potentially be used to predict further volcanic eruptions.

  15. Beginning Java programming the object-oriented approach

    CERN Document Server

    Baesens, Bart; vanden Broucke, Seppe

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive Java guide, with samples, exercises, case studies, and step-by-step instruction Beginning Java Programming: The Object Oriented Approach is a straightforward resource for getting started with one of the world's most enduringly popular programming languages. Based on classes taught by the authors, the book starts with the basics and gradually builds into more advanced concepts. The approach utilizes an integrated development environment that allows readers to immediately apply what they learn, and includes step-by-step instruction with plenty of sample programs. Each chapter c

  16. Congenital biliary atresia: liver injury begins at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makin, Erica; Quaglia, Alberto; Kvist, Nina

    2009-01-01

    -note review for infants with definite BA who underwent laparotomy within first week of life. RESULTS: Three infants were identified who had occlusive BA evident on the first day of life. In all cases, their liver was grossly normal, and histologic changes were trivial. CONCLUSION: This suggests...... that the detrimental cholestatic liver injury, later characteristic of BA, only begins from the time of birth despite a prenatal occlusive biliary pathology. It may be that tissue injury only occurs with the onset of the perinatal bile surge initiating periductal bile leakage and the triggering of an inflammatory...

  17. Criterion of damage beginning: experimental identification for laminate composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiebaud, F.; Perreux, D.; Varchon, D.; Lebras, J.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a criterion of damage beginning for laminate composite. The materials is a glass-epoxy laminate [+55 deg.,-55 deg.[ n performed by winding filament process. First of all a description of the damage is performed and allows to define a damage variable. Thanks to the potential of free energy, an associated variable is defined. The damage criterion is written by using this last one. The parameter of the criterion is identified using mechanical and acoustical methods. The result is compared and exhibit a good agreement. (authors). 13 refs., 5 figs

  18. Beginning Swift games development for iOS

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwill, James

    2015-01-01

    Game apps are one of the most popular categories in the Apple iTunes App Store. Well, the introduction of the new Swift programming language will make game development even more appealing and easier to existing and future iOS app developers. In response, James Goodwill, Wesley Matlock and Apress introduce you to this book, Beginning Swift Games Development for iOS. In this book, you'll learn the fundamental elements of the new Swift language as applied to game development for iOS. In part 1, you'll start with a basic 2D game idea and build the game throughout the book introducing each Sprit

  19. Best Fed Beginnings: A Nationwide Quality Improvement Initiative to Increase Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman-Winter, Lori; Ustianov, Jennifer; Anastasio, Julius; Butts-Dion, Sue; Heinrich, Patricia; Merewood, Anne; Bugg, Kimarie; Donohue-Rolfe, Sarah; Homer, Charles J

    2017-07-01

    In response to a low number of Baby-Friendly-designated hospitals in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded the National Institute for Children's Health Quality to conduct a national quality improvement initiative between 2011 and 2015. The initiative was entitled Best Fed Beginnings and enrolled 90 hospitals in a nationwide initiative to increase breastfeeding and achieve Baby-Friendly designation. The intervention period lasted from July 2012 to August 2014. During that period, data on process indicators aligned with the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding and outcome measures (overall and exclusively related to breastfeeding) were collected. In addition, data on the Baby-Friendly designation were collected after the end of the intervention through April 2016. Hospitals assembled multidisciplinary teams that included parent partners and community representatives. Three in-person learning sessions were interspersed with remote learning and tests of change, and a Web-based platform housed resources and data for widespread sharing. By April 2016, a total of 72 (80%) of the 90 hospitals received the Baby-Friendly designation, nearly doubling the number of designated hospitals in the United States. Participation in the Best Fed Beginnings initiative had significantly high correlation with designation compared with hospital applicants not in the program (Pearson's r [235]: 0.80; P initiative of maternity care hospitals accomplished rapid transformative changes to achieve Baby-Friendly designation. These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in exclusive breastfeeding. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Genetic Diversity of Circulating Rotavirus Strains in Tanzania Prior to the Introduction of Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Sabrina J.; Blomberg, Bjørn; Hanevik, Kurt; Kommedal, Oyvind; Vainio, Kirsti; Maselle, Samuel Y.; Langeland, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Background Tanzania currently rolls out vaccination against rotavirus-diarrhea, a major cause of child illness and death. As the vaccine covers a limited number of rotavirus variants, this study describes the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus among children under two years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, prior to implementation of vaccination. Methods Stool specimens, demographic and clinical information, were collected from 690 children admitted to hospital due to diarrhea (cases) and 545 children without diarrhea (controls) during one year. Controls were inpatient or children attending child health clinics. Rotavirus antigen was detected using ELISA and positive samples were typed by multiplex semi-nested PCR and sequencing. Results The prevalence of rotavirus was higher in cases (32.5%) than in controls (7.7%, Protavirus prevalence was higher in cool (23.9%) than hot months (17.1%) of the year (P = 0.012). We also observed significant seasonal variation of G genotypes. Rotavirus was most frequently found in the age group of four to six months. The prevalence of rotavirus in cases was lower in stunted children (28.9%) than in non-stunted children (40.1%, P = 0.003) and lower in HIV-infected (15.4%, 4/26) than in HIV-uninfected children (55.3%, 42/76, PRotavirus infection and circulating genotypes showed seasonal variation. This study also suggests that rotavirus may not be an opportunistic pathogen in children infected with HIV. PMID:24844631

  1. Evaluation of stream crossing methods prior to gas pipeline construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.H.; Rogers, J.S.; Ricca, A.

    1995-01-01

    Stream surveys are conducted along proposed gas pipeline routes prior to construction to assess potential impacts to stream ecosystems and to recommend preferred crossing methods. Recently, there has been a high level of scrutiny from the Public Service Commission (PSC) to conduct these stream crossings with minimal effects to the aquatic community. PSC's main concern is the effect of sediment on aquatic biota. Smaller, low flowing or intermittent streams are generally crossed using a wet crossing technique. This technique involves digging a trench for the pipeline while the stream is flowing. Sediment control measures are used to reduce sediment loads downstream. Wider, faster flowing, or protected streams are typically crossed with a dry crossing technique. A dry crossing involves placing a barrier upstream of the crossing and diverting the water around the crossing location. The pipeline trench is then dug in the dry area. O'Brien and Gere and NYSEG have jointly designed a modified wet crossing for crossing streams that exceed maximum flows for a dry crossing, and are too wide for a typical wet crossing. This method diverts water around the crossing using a pumping system, instead of constructing a dam. The trench is similar to a wet crossing, with sediment control devices in place upstream and downstream. If streams are crossed during low flow periods, the pumping system will be able to reduce the majority of water flow and volume form the crossing area, thereby reducing ecological impacts. Evaluation of effects of this crossing type on the stream biota are currently proposed and may proceed when construction begins

  2. Inclusive intervention to enhance the fundamental movement skills of children without hearing: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursel, Ferda

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess an intervention program on the fundamental movement skill of students with and without hearing impairment, using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) standardized Turkish norm. Preschool children with and without hearing impairment participated in this study. At the beginning of the study, most of the children with hearing impairment demonstrated developmental delay on the Locomotor subscale (6/7), as did about one-third (4/11) of the children without hearing impairment. For the Object control subscale, 4/7 of children with hearing impairment and none without hearing impairment showed developmental delay prior to the intervention program. After the intervention program, 3/7 children with hearing impairment had developmental delay on the Locomotor subscale. On the Object control subscale, 2/7 children with hearing impairment and none without hearing impairment showed developmental delay. The six-week intervention program improved TGMD-2 scores of children with hearing impairment, yet did not yield statistically significant improvement of fundamental movement skills.

  3. The Beginning of Variable star astronomy in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsoldos, Endre

    Variable star astronomy began in Hungary as elsewhere: new objects have been recognized in the sky. Comets appeared in 16th - 17th century chronicles. The first mention of the new star of 1572 seems to be the "Prognosticon" of Wilhelm Misocacus, printed in 1578. New stars were discussed in the 17th century by Jesuits as well as Protestants. The work of Jacob Schnitzler is especially interesting from this point. The Cartesians dealt with new stars with less enthusiasm, they hardly mentioned them. The beginning of the 19th century saw the development of science in Hungarian, variable stars, however, were left out. The birth of variable star astronomy might be linked to the Ógyalla Observatory, originally a private observatory of Miklós Konkoly Thege. The 1885 supernova in the Andromeda Nebula were observed there, as well as the spectra of a few interesting variable stars. Theoretical astrophysics also has its beginnings in Ógyalla through the work of Radó Kövesligethy. Professional variable star astronomy started here in the early 20th century through the work of Antal Tass

  4. Pre-Post Tornado Effects on Aggressive Children's Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment Through One-Year Postdisaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochman, John E; Vernberg, Eric; Powell, Nicole P; Boxmeyer, Caroline L; Jarrett, Matthew; McDonald, Kristina; Qu, Lixin; Hendrickson, Michelle; Kassing, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Using a risk-resilience framework, this study examined how varying levels of exposure to a natural disaster (EF-4 tornado) and children's characteristics (sex; anxiety) influenced the behavioral and psychological adjustment of children who shared a common risk factor predisaster (elevated aggression) prior to exposure through 1-year postdisaster. Participants included 360 children in Grades 4-6 (65% male; 78% African American) and their parents from predominantly low-income households who were already participating in a longitudinal study of indicated prevention effects for externalizing outcomes when the tornado occurred in 2011. Fourth-grade children who were screened for overt aggressive behavior were recruited in 3 annual cohorts (120 per year, beginning in 2009). Parent-rated aggression and internalizing problems were assessed prior to the tornado (Wave 1), within a half-year after the tornado (Wave 2), and at a 1-year follow-up (Wave 3). Children and parents rated their exposure to aspects of tornado-related traumatic experiences at Wave 3. Children displayed less reduction on aggression and internalizing problems if the children had experienced distress after the tornado or fears for their life, in combination with their pre-tornado level of anxiety. Higher levels of children's and parents' exposure to the tornado interacted with children's lower baseline child anxiety to predict less reduction in aggression and internalizing problems 1 year after the tornado. Higher levels of disaster exposure negatively affected at-risk children's level of improvement in aggression and internalizing problems, when life threat (parent- and child-reported) and child-reported distress after the tornado were moderated by baseline anxiety.

  5. Putting Priors in Mixture Density Mercer Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for automatic knowledge driven data mining based on the theory of Mercer Kernels, which are highly nonlinear symmetric positive definite mappings from the original image space to a very high, possibly infinite dimensional feature space. We describe a new method called Mixture Density Mercer Kernels to learn kernel function directly from data, rather than using predefined kernels. These data adaptive kernels can en- code prior knowledge in the kernel using a Bayesian formulation, thus allowing for physical information to be encoded in the model. We compare the results with existing algorithms on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The code for these experiments has been generated with the AUTOBAYES tool, which automatically generates efficient and documented C/C++ code from abstract statistical model specifications. The core of the system is a schema library which contains template for learning and knowledge discovery algorithms like different versions of EM, or numeric optimization methods like conjugate gradient methods. The template instantiation is supported by symbolic- algebraic computations, which allows AUTOBAYES to find closed-form solutions and, where possible, to integrate them into the code. The results show that the Mixture Density Mercer-Kernel described here outperforms tree-based classification in distinguishing high-redshift galaxies from low- redshift galaxies by approximately 16% on test data, bagged trees by approximately 7%, and bagged trees built on a much larger sample of data by approximately 2%.

  6. Prior expectations facilitate metacognition for perceptual decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R

    2015-09-01

    The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Washing of waste prior to landfilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana

    2012-05-01

    The main impact produced by landfills is represented by the release of leachate emissions. Waste washing treatment has been investigated to evaluate its efficiency in reducing the waste leaching fraction prior to landfilling. The results of laboratory-scale washing tests applied to several significant residues from integrated management of solid waste are presented in this study, specifically: non-recyclable plastics from source separation, mechanical-biological treated municipal solid waste and a special waste, automotive shredded residues. Results obtained demonstrate that washing treatment contributes towards combating the environmental impacts of raw wastes. Accordingly, a leachate production model was applied, leading to the consideration that the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), parameters of fundamental importance in the characterization of landfill leachate, from a landfill containing washed wastes, are comparable to those that would only be reached between 90 and 220years later in the presence of raw wastes. The findings obtained demonstrated that washing of waste may represent an effective means of reducing the leachable fraction resulting in a consequent decrease in landfill emissions. Further studies on pilot scale are needed to assess the potential for full-scale application of this treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pitch perception prior to cortical maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Bonnie K.

    Pitch perception plays an important role in many complex auditory tasks including speech perception, music perception, and sound source segregation. Because of the protracted and extensive development of the human auditory cortex, pitch perception might be expected to mature, at least over the first few months of life. This dissertation investigates complex pitch perception in 3-month-olds, 7-month-olds and adults -- time points when the organization of the auditory pathway is distinctly different. Using an observer-based psychophysical procedure, a series of four studies were conducted to determine whether infants (1) discriminate the pitch of harmonic complex tones, (2) discriminate the pitch of unresolved harmonics, (3) discriminate the pitch of missing fundamental melodies, and (4) have comparable sensitivity to pitch and spectral changes as adult listeners. The stimuli used in these studies were harmonic complex tones, with energy missing at the fundamental frequency. Infants at both three and seven months of age discriminated the pitch of missing fundamental complexes composed of resolved and unresolved harmonics as well as missing fundamental melodies, demonstrating perception of complex pitch by three months of age. More surprisingly, infants in both age groups had lower pitch and spectral discrimination thresholds than adult listeners. Furthermore, no differences in performance on any of the tasks presented were observed between infants at three and seven months of age. These results suggest that subcortical processing is not only sufficient to support pitch perception prior to cortical maturation, but provides adult-like sensitivity to pitch by three months.

  9. Worldwide child and adolescent mental health begins with awareness: a preliminary assessment in nine countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoven, Christina W; Doan, Thao; Musa, George J; Jaliashvili, Tea; Duarte, Cristiane S; Ovuga, Emilio; Ismayilov, Fuad; Rohde, Luis A; Dmitrieva, Tatjana; Du, Yasong; Yeghiyan, Maruke; Din, Amira Seif El; Apter, Alan; Mandell, Donald J

    2008-06-01

    To temper untoward mental health outcomes in children and adolescents, the World Psychiatric Association's Presidential Global Child Mental Health Programme, in collaboration with the WHO and the International Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professionals, established a Child Mental Health Awareness Task Force headed by Sam Tyano. Its task was to develop methodologies to increase awareness among policy-makers, community leaders, health professionals, teachers, parents, and children. Based on a prior comprehensive international search for effective techniques for information dissemination, an awareness manual was written for use by health professionals in diverse communities so as to guide the design and implementation of location specific awareness campaigns. We assessed the children, parents and teachers both before and after the campaign to determine changes in knowledge, attitudes and understanding of mental health. The school-based studies were conducted in selected communities in nine countries on five different continents distinguished by their different languages, cultures and their differing levels of economic development: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Brazil, China, Egypt, Georgia, Israel, Russia, and Uganda. In the six sites that completed all assessments, indicators of positive change in awareness of child mental health were identified, and results demonstrated an increased willingness to discuss emotional problems freely. These data support the utility of collaborating with schools so as to foster better child mental health in such under-resourced communities.

  10. Teaching Identity Matching of Braille Characters to Beginning Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Karen A.; Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Saunders, Kathryn J.

    2017-01-01

    We taught three children with visual impairments to make tactile discriminations of the braille alphabet within a matching-to-sample format. That is, we presented participants with a braille character as a sample stimulus, and they selected the matching stimulus from a three-comparison array. In order to minimize participant errors, we initially…

  11. Young People and Prostitution: An End to the Beginning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayre, Patrick; Barrett, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines some reasons for the failure to protect young people in England and Wales from sexual abuse inherent in prostitution. Identifies characteristics of the child protection system which fit poorly for work with these youth. Argues that lasting improvement of these children's well-being depends on the creation of "joined-up,"…

  12. School and Public Library Relationships: Deja Vu or New Beginnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbons, Shirley A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses school and public library relationships and maintains that an integrated, coordinated, and systematic planning process at both local and state levels will meet the needs of children and young adults. Topics include developments in the 1990s, barriers to cooperative efforts, examples of cooperative projects, and combined school-public…

  13. A matter of prior knowledge: Canadian young children’s conceptions about the future in the global community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottilia CHAREKA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Young Canadian boys and girls aged nine to eleven were asked to consider their personal futures, the future of their community and the future of the world. Mixed methods were employed for data collection and analysis. Responses were compared with those given bychildren in eight countries and the discussion focused on the importance prior knowledge, in this case, prior knowledge of global issues, holds for effective teaching and learning about global issues. Canadian children were optimistic about the future for themselves and their community but less so for the globe. More so than other children, Canadian children were concerned with issues of social justice, issues such as discrimination and racism, and withimproving the environment, which might be attributed to the emphasis that is placed on these issues in their school curriculum. Assessing prior knowledge should be a priority for those considering development and implementation of global education curricula.

  14. The Influence of Spanish Vocabulary and Phonemic Awareness on Beginning English Reading Development: A Three-Year (K-2nd) Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael F.; Roe, Mary; Blanchard, Jay; Atwill, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined the influence of varying levels of Spanish receptive vocabulary and phonemic awareness ability on beginning English vocabulary, phonemic awareness, word reading fluency, and reading comprehension development across kindergarten through second grade. The 80 respondents were Spanish speaking children with no English…

  15. Endocarditis - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...

  16. Brain Magnetic Resonance Immediately Prior To Surgery In Single Ventricles and Surgical Postponement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Mark A.; Pawlowski, Tom; Schwab, Peter J.; Nicolson, Susan C.; Montenegro, Lisa M.; Berenstein, Laura Diaz; Spray, Thomas L.; Gaynor, J William; Fuller, Stephanie; Keller, Marc S.; Harris, Matthew A.; Whitehead, Kevin K.; Vossough, Arastoo; Licht, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Single ventricle patients undergoing surgical reconstruction experience a high rate of brain injury; incidental findings on pre-operative brain scans may result in safety considerations involving hemorrhage extension during cardiopulmonary bypass that result in surgical postponement. Methods Single ventricle patients were studied with brain scans immediately preoperatively as part of a National Institute of Health study and were reviewed by neuroradiology immediately prior to cardiopulmonary bypass. Results One hundred and thirty four consecutive subjects recruited into the project were studied: 33 prior to stage I (3.7±1.8 days), 34 prior to bidirectional Glenn (5.8±3.5 months) and 67 prior to Fontan (3.3±1.1 years). Six (4.5%) surgeries were postponed because of concerning imaging findings on brain MRI; 2 prior to stage I, 3 prior to bidirectional Glenn and 1 prior to Fontan. Five were due to unexpected incidental findings of acute intracranial hemorrhage and one due to diffuse cerebellar cytotoxic edema; none who proceeded to surgery had these lesions. Prematurity as well as genetic syndromes were not present in any with postponed surgery. Four of 4 prior to bidirectional Glenn/Fontan with surgical delays had hypoplastic left heart syndrome compared with 44/97 who did not (P=0.048). After observation and follow up, all eventually had successful surgeries with bypass. Conclusion Preoperative brain MRI performed in children with single ventricles disclosed injuries in 4.5% leading to surgical delay; hemorrhagic lesions were most common and raised concerns for extension during surgery. The true risk of progression and need for delay of surgery due to heparinization associated with these lesions remains uncertain. PMID:25149046

  17. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prior image constrained scatter correction in cone-beam computed tomography image-guided radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Stephen; Nett, Brian E; Tolakanahalli, Ranjini; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2011-02-21

    X-ray scatter is a significant problem in cone-beam computed tomography when thicker objects and larger cone angles are used, as scattered radiation can lead to reduced contrast and CT number inaccuracy. Advances have been made in x-ray computed tomography (CT) by incorporating a high quality prior image into the image reconstruction process. In this paper, we extend this idea to correct scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT image-guided radiation therapy. Specifically, this paper presents a new scatter correction algorithm which uses a prior image with low scatter artifacts to reduce shading artifacts in cone-beam CT images acquired under conditions of high scatter. The proposed correction algorithm begins with an empirical hypothesis that the target image can be written as a weighted summation of a series of basis images that are generated by raising the raw cone-beam projection data to different powers, and then, reconstructing using the standard filtered backprojection algorithm. The weight for each basis image is calculated by minimizing the difference between the target image and the prior image. The performance of the scatter correction algorithm is qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated through phantom studies using a Varian 2100 EX System with an on-board imager. Results show that the proposed scatter correction algorithm using a prior image with low scatter artifacts can substantially mitigate scatter-induced shading artifacts in both full-fan and half-fan modes.

  19. Size and modality effects in Braille learning: Implications for the blind child from pre-reading sighted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow-Brown, Fiona; Barker, Christopher; Harris, Margaret

    2018-06-17

    Beginning readers are typically introduced to enlarged print, and the size of this print decreases as readers become more fluent. In comparison, beginning blind readers are expected to learn standard-sized Braille from the outset because past research suggests letter knowledge cannot be transferred across different sizes of Braille. The study aims to investigate whether learning Braille using an oversized pegboard leads to faster, transferable, letter learning and whether performance is mediated by either tactile or visual learning. Sixty-eight children participated in the study. All children were sighted pre-readers with no previous knowledge of Braille. The children came from two nursery schools with an average age of 47.8 months. Children were taught specific Braille letters using either an enlarged pegboard or standard Braille. Two other groups of children were taught using visually presented Braille characters in either an enlarged or standard size and a further control group mirrored the experience of blind children in receiving non-specific tactile training prior to being introduced to Braille. In all tactile conditions it was ensured that the children did not visually experience any Braille for the duration of the study. Results demonstrated that initially training children with large Braille tactually led to the best subsequent learning of standard Braille. Despite the fact that both initial visual and large tactual learning were significantly faster than learning standard Braille, when transferring letter knowledge to standard tactile Braille, previous tactile experience with the large pegboard offered the most efficient route. Braille letter knowledge can be transferred across size and modality particularly effectively with large tactile Braille. This has significant implications for the education of blind children. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  20. "Dark Victory" (prognosis negative): The beginnings of neurology on screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2016-04-12

    In "Dark Victory," released in theaters in 1939, the diagnosis and management of a progressive brain tumor was a central part of the screenplay, and this film marked the beginnings of the depiction of neurologic disease in cinema. Bette Davis' cinematic portrayal of a young woman dying from a brain tumor is close to the reality of denial, bargaining, a hope for a cure, and final acceptance. "Dark Victory" includes part of a neurologic examination (funduscopy, testing of strength, testing of stereognosis, and tendon reflexes). The film also alludes to decisions on what to tell the patient (better say nothing) and shows an implausible clinical course (an abrupt peaceful ending). The film is unusual in depicting the presentation of a brain tumor, but the cinematic portrayal of the vicissitudes of living with a brain tumor is often close to reality. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. New Beginnings in Alzheimer's Disease: The Most Prevalent Tauopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Félix; Llorens-Martín, María; Bolós, Marta; Pérez, Mar; Cuadros, Raquel; Pallas-Bazarra, Noemí; Zabala, Juan C; Avila, Jesús

    2018-03-16

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of two aberrant structures: namely senile plaques, composed of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), and neurofibrillary tangles, composed of tau protein. In this regard, Aβ and tau protein have been widely studied in research efforts aiming to find a therapy for AD. Aβ and tau pathologies do not always overlap. The precursor of Aβ is expressed in peripheral tissues and in the central nervous system (CNS), whereas tau is mainly a neuronal protein. Since AD is a disease of the CNS, it has been proposed that Aβ may initiate the disease process, with tau being the executor. In this review, we will focus on future studies of tau pathology, although we will comment on new beginnings for AD, as other molecules other than Aβ and tau may be involved in the onset of dementia.

  2. Sacred Space: A Beginning Framework for Off-Planet Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T. K.

    As governments and corporations continue to engage space security, commerce, exploration and colonization, the Christian Church will not be far behind. Historically the Church has always been part of the first waves of explorers and colonizers, with its ideological interests being easily supported by generous resources and strong infrastructures. The exploring Church has not always been a friendly guest, however, and at times has initiated or condoned great harm. This paper offers a beginning framework as one way of insuring an appropriate presence in space for the Church. This framework is built with three common religious planks, namely, theology, ecclesiology and church worker vocation. Each of these is recast in terms of the off-planet scenario. This paper concludes that an appropriate off-planet Church will be founded on an "exomissiological" theology, will embrace an ecclesiology that emphasizes religious health, and will adequately select, train and monitor its off-planet church workers.

  3. Mining: The beginning and the end of the nuclear cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, J.

    1991-01-01

    Mining is one of the world's oldest industries, with a rich history that has evolved into modern times. A new chapter in that history is currently being written in southeastern New Mexico at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The beginning phase of the nuclear industry occurred when uranium was mined from the underground and processed to develop the first fuel source for the nuclear history. The WIPP may well be the final chapter in closing out the nuclear cycle, by the disposal of nuclear waste 2150 feet in the underground repository. At the WIPP, traditional procedures for underground mining activities have been significantly altered in order to ensure underground safety and project adherence to numerous regulatory requirements. Innovative techniques have been developed for the WIPP underground procedures, mining equipment, and operating environments. The mining emphasis is upon quality of the excavation, not, as in conventional mines, in the production of ore

  4. The beginnings of piezoelectricity a study in mundane physics

    CERN Document Server

    Katzir, Shaul; Gavroglu, Kostas

    2006-01-01

    Involving electricity, elasticity, thermodynamics and crystallography, several scientific traditions and approaches and leading physicists, the history of piezoelectricity provides an advantageous perspective on late nineteenth century physics and its development. The beginnings of piezoelectricity, the first history of the subject, exhaustively examines how these diverse influences led to the discovery of the phenomenon in 1880, and how they shaped its subsequent research until the consolidation of an empirical and theoretical knowledge of the field circa 1895. It studies a particular subdiscipline representative of many similar "mundane" branches of physics that did not bear revolutionary consequences beyond their field. Although most research is of this kind, such branches have rarely been studied by historians of science. Shaul Katzir's historical account shows that this mundane science was an intriguing intellectual and practical enterprise, which involved, among other things, originality, surprises and ...

  5. Discoveries that guided the beginning of perpendicular magnetic recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, S.

    2001-01-01

    The speculations and discoveries that guided the beginning of perpendicular magnetic recording, which have never been systematically discussed before, are described in this paper. Especially, four important discoveries of perpendicular magnetization, Co-Cr film, effect of double layered medium, and complementarity law are described in detail. The studies on thin film media and recording mechanisms at short wavelengths aiming at the advancement of longitudinal magnetic recording in the 1960's lead to the realization of the new perpendicular magnetic recording through these discoveries. None of these works was on any list of research targets in the 1960's. The study of perpendicular magnetic recording has taught us that research should proceed systematically with definite targets and that it is important to have an attitude not to neglect phenomena that are different from the common sense at the time

  6. Can observations look back to the beginning of inflation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2016-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background can measure the inflaton potential only if inflation lasts sufficiently long before the time of horizon crossing of observable fluctuations, such that non-linear effects in the time evolution of Green's functions lead to a loss of memory of initial conditions for the ultraviolet tail of the spectrum. Within a derivative expansion of the quantum effective action for an interacting scalar field we discuss the most general solution for the correlation function, including arbitrary pure and mixed quantum states. In this approximation no loss of memory occurs – cosmic microwave observations see the initial spectrum at the beginning of inflation, processed only mildly by the scale-violating effects at horizon crossing induced by the inflaton potential.

  7. Can observations look back to the beginning of inflation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cosmic microwave background can measure the inflaton potential only if inflation lasts sufficiently long before the time of horizon crossing of observable fluctuations, such that non-linear effects in the time evolution of Green's functions lead to a loss of memory of initial conditions for the ultraviolet tail of the spectrum. Within a derivative expansion of the quantum effective action for an interacting scalar field we discuss the most general solution for the correlation function, including arbitrary pure and mixed quantum states. In this approximation no loss of memory occurs – cosmic microwave observations see the initial spectrum at the beginning of inflation, processed only mildly by the scale-violating effects at horizon crossing induced by the inflaton potential.

  8. Own and Others’ Prior Experiences Influence Children’s Imitation of Causal Acts

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Rebecca A.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    Young children learn from others’ examples, and they do so selectively. We examine whether the efficacy of prior experiences influences children’s imitation. Thirty-six-month-olds had initial experience on a causal learning task either by performing the task themselves or by watching an adult perform it. The nature of the experience was manipulated such that the actor had either an easy or a difficult experience completing the task. Next, a second adult demonstrated an innovative technique fo...

  9. Beginning and end in the acquisition of the perfective aspect in Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Sabine

    2005-11-01

    The goal of this research is to determine the relevant factors that aid in the acquisition of the perfective aspect in Russian. Results confirm the findings of previous research, which say that aspect is not learned as a uniform category, but rather interrelates with the acquisition of Aktionsarten. This study focuses on the factors responsible for the difference in the rate of the acquisition of two complementary Aktionsarten in the perfective aspect: telic verbs (verbs including a result/goal of the denoted event) and ingressive verbs (verbs including the beginning of the event). Since the usage of Aktionsarten strongly depends on the surrounding discourse, two experiments that varied in their discourse complexity were conducted. One study looked at the production of isolated utterances (thirty-nine children aged 3;0 to 6;11) and the other study focused on complex texts (fifty-two children aged 3;0 to 6;11). It was found that while telics are used independently of discourse context, ingressives depend strongly on contextual information. These results suggest that discourse complexity and narrative competence define the acquisitional process for ingressives, yet are irrelevant in the acquisition of telics.

  10. Prior Mental Fatigue Impairs Marksmanship Decision Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Head

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Mental fatigue has been shown to impair subsequent physical performance in continuous and discontinuous exercise. However, its influence on subsequent fine-motor performance in an applied setting (e.g., marksmanship for trained soldiers is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether prior mental fatigue influences subsequent marksmanship performance as measured by shooting accuracy and judgment of soldiers in a live-fire scenario.Methods: Twenty trained infantry soldiers engaged targets after completing either a mental fatigue or control intervention in a repeated measure design. Heart rate variability and the NASA-TLX were used to gauge physiological and subjective effects of the interventions. Target hit proportion, projectile group accuracy, and precision were used to measure marksmanship accuracy. Marksmanship accuracy was assessed by measuring bullet group accuracy (i.e., how close a group of shots are relative to center of mass and bullet group precision (i.e., how close are each individual shot to each other. Additionally, marksmanship decision accuracy (correctly shooting vs. correctly withholding shot when engaging targets was used to examine marksmanship performance.Results: Soldiers rated the mentally fatiguing task (59.88 ± 23.7 as having greater mental workload relative to the control intervention [31.29 ± 12.3, t(19 = 1.72, p < 0.001]. Additionally, soldiers completing the mental fatigue intervention (96.04 ± = 37.1 also had lower time-domain (standard deviation of normal to normal R-R intervals heart rate variability relative to the control [134.39 ± 47.4, t(18 = 3.59, p < 0.001]. Projectile group accuracy and group precision failed to show differences between interventions [t(19 = 0.98, p = 0.34, t(19 = 0.18, p = 0.87, respectively]. Marksmanship decision errors significantly increased after soldiers completed the mental fatigue intervention (48% ± 22.4 relative to the control

  11. Digital communication constraints in prior space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Nathan K.

    2004-01-01

    Digital communication is crucial for space endeavors. Jt transmits scientific and command data between earth stations and the spacecraft crew. It facilitates communications between astronauts, and provides live coverage during all phases of the mission. Digital communications provide ground stations and spacecraft crew precise data on the spacecraft position throughout the entire mission. Lessons learned from prior space missions are valuable for our new lunar and Mars missions set by our president s speech. These data will save our agency time and money, and set course our current developing technologies. Limitations on digital communications equipment pertaining mass, volume, data rate, frequency, antenna type and size, modulation, format, and power in the passed space missions are of particular interest. This activity is in support of ongoing communication architectural studies pertaining to robotic and human lunar exploration. The design capabilities and functionalities will depend on the space and power allocated for digital communication equipment. My contribution will be gathering these data, write a report, and present it to Communications Technology Division Staff. Antenna design is very carefully studied for each mission scenario. Currently, Phased array antennas are being developed for the lunar mission. Phased array antennas use little power, and electronically steer a beam instead of DC motors. There are 615 patches in the phased array antenna. These patches have to be modified to have high yield. 50 patches were created for testing. My part is to assist in the characterization of these patch antennas, and determine whether or not certain modifications to quartz micro-strip patch radiators result in a significant yield to warrant proceeding with repairs to the prototype 19 GHz ferroelectric reflect-array antenna. This work requires learning how to calibrate an automatic network, and mounting and testing antennas in coaxial fixtures. The purpose of this

  12. Estimating security betas using prior information based on firm fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosemans, M.; Frehen, R.; Schotman, P.C.; Bauer, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach for estimating time-varying betas of individual stocks that incorporates prior information based on fundamentals. We shrink the rolling window estimate of beta towards a firm-specific prior that is motivated by asset pricing theory. The prior captures structural

  13. Beginning ASP.NET 4.5 in C#

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This book is the most comprehensive and up to date introduction to ASP.NET ever written. Focussing solely on C#, with no code samples duplicated in other languages, award winning author Matthew MacDonald introduces you to the very latest thinking and best practices for the ASP.NET 4.5 technology.Assuming no prior coding experience, you'll be taught everything you need to know from the ground up.  Starting from first principals, you'll learn the skills you need to be an effective ASP.NET developer who is ready to progress to more sophisticated projects and professional work. You'll be taught ho

  14. The Children's House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Lili E.

    2013-01-01

    Lili Peller's "The Children's House" essay begins where Maria Montessori left off in her description of space articulations. Peller does not name Montessori specifically as she always had a desire to become independent in her own right as a neo-Freudian child analyst. But the Haus Der Kinder founded in summer of 1922 suggests a total…

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Jewelry and other accessories should be left at home if possible, or removed prior to the MRI ... she is sufficiently awake to be safely sent home. In general, children who have recently been ill ...

  16. Generalized Bayesian inference with sets of conjugate priors for dealing with prior-data conflict : course at Lund University

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, G.

    2015-01-01

    In the Bayesian approach to statistical inference, possibly subjective knowledge on model parameters can be expressed by so-called prior distributions. A prior distribution is updated, via Bayes’ Rule, to the so-called posterior distribution, which combines prior information and information from

  17. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on the Retrieval-Directed Function of Note Taking in Prior Knowledge Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzels, Sandra A. J.; Kester, Liesbeth; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Broers, Nick J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prior knowledge activation facilitates learning. Note taking during prior knowledge activation (i.e., note taking directed at retrieving information from memory) might facilitate the activation process by enabling learners to build an external representation of their prior knowledge. However, taking notes might be less effective in…

  18. Prior Sensitivity Analysis in Default Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Sara; Mulder, Joris; Oberski, Daniel L

    2017-11-27

    Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) has recently gained popularity because it enables researchers to fit complex models and solve some of the issues often encountered in classical maximum likelihood estimation, such as nonconvergence and inadmissible solutions. An important component of any Bayesian analysis is the prior distribution of the unknown model parameters. Often, researchers rely on default priors, which are constructed in an automatic fashion without requiring substantive prior information. However, the prior can have a serious influence on the estimation of the model parameters, which affects the mean squared error, bias, coverage rates, and quantiles of the estimates. In this article, we investigate the performance of three different default priors: noninformative improper priors, vague proper priors, and empirical Bayes priors-with the latter being novel in the BSEM literature. Based on a simulation study, we find that these three default BSEM methods may perform very differently, especially with small samples. A careful prior sensitivity analysis is therefore needed when performing a default BSEM analysis. For this purpose, we provide a practical step-by-step guide for practitioners to conducting a prior sensitivity analysis in default BSEM. Our recommendations are illustrated using a well-known case study from the structural equation modeling literature, and all code for conducting the prior sensitivity analysis is available in the online supplemental materials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Neural correlates of accelerated auditory processing in children engaged in music training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Assal; Cahn, B Rael; Damasio, Antonio; Damasio, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    Several studies comparing adult musicians and non-musicians have shown that music training is associated with brain differences. It is unknown, however, whether these differences result from lengthy musical training, from pre-existing biological traits, or from social factors favoring musicality. As part of an ongoing 5-year longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of a music training program on the auditory development of children, over the course of two years, beginning at age 6-7. The training was group-based and inspired by El-Sistema. We compared the children in the music group with two comparison groups of children of the same socio-economic background, one involved in sports training, another not involved in any systematic training. Prior to participating, children who began training in music did not differ from those in the comparison groups in any of the assessed measures. After two years, we now observe that children in the music group, but not in the two comparison groups, show an enhanced ability to detect changes in tonal environment and an accelerated maturity of auditory processing as measured by cortical auditory evoked potentials to musical notes. Our results suggest that music training may result in stimulus specific brain changes in school aged children. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Aeons the search for the beginning of time

    CERN Document Server

    Gorst, Martin

    2001-01-01

    The story of man's attempt to discover the moment that time began, from James Ussher's confident assertion in 1650 that the world was 5654 years old to the Hubble Space telescope's images of a world 13 billion years old, with a starry cast of eccentrics, mystics, scientists and visonaries. The moment of the beginning of time is one of science's Holy Grails, pursued by devotees and obsessives across the ages. Few were more committed than Bishop James Ussher who lost his sight in his 50-year quest, laboriously outlined in his 2000 Latin pages of Annals - a chronology of all known history - that is now famous only for one spectacularly inaccurate date: 4004BC, the creation of the world. Theology failed Ussher, just as it thwarted Theophilus of Antioch and many others before him. Geology was next to fail the test of time: the Comte de Buffon, working out the rate at which the Earth was supposed to have cooled, came up with age of 74,832 years, even though he suspected this was far too little. Biology had a go in ...

  1. The beginnings of Christianity in Cyprus. Religious and cultural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Burkiewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The history of Christianity in Cyprus has a long and beautiful tradition, whose beginnings are connected with four important figures: Saint Lazarus and apostles Paul, Barnabas and Mark. The apostles came to Cyprus in the first half of the 1st century, when the island was under the Roman rule. According to tradition, by preaching God’s Word they became the founders of the Cypriot Church. Their mission was not an easy one, and the pressure of the indignant Jewish community led to the capture of Paul in Paphos and his consequent whipping at the whipping post. The post can still be seen today among the ruins of the church of Agia Kyriaki Chrysopolitissa. Barnabas sacrificed his life for his faith: he was captured in Salamis, and then burnt at the stake by a Jewish mob. Roman Proconsul Quintus Sergius Paulus became the first important Roman official who converted to Christianity, and Cyprus became the first Roman province which adopted Christianity. Tradition also links Saint Lazarus with the island: allegedly, after being miraculously resurrected by Jesus in Bethany, he came to Cyprus, where he became a bishop and where he preached God’s Word and converted pagans into Christianity for the next 30 years.

  2. Dismantling of JPDR begins: to demonstrate advanced technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-01

    The first dismantling of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR, BWR, 90 MWt, 12.5 MWe) began on December 4, 1986, claiming the attention of nuclear interests in Japan and overseas. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute undertook the project as the second phase of the six year program for dismantling the JPDR at the Tokai Research Establishment. It is the demonstration of the technology developed in the first phase of the program from 1981 to 1986, aiming at establishing a total system for dismantling commercial nuclear power plants in the furture. At the ceremony for the beginning of dismantling held on December 4 at the site, a special switch was operated to fire a gas burner, and cutting of the upper head of the reactor pressure vessel on the service floor of the reactor building began. The long term program on the development and utilization of nuclear energy in 1982 decided the basic policy on reactor decommissioning. Under this policy, in July, 1984, the nuclear subcommittee of the Advisory Committee for Energy set up the guideline for standardized decommissioning suitable to the actual situation in Japan. The schedule of the program, the development of eight fundamental techniques, disassembling techniques, decontamination, measurement and robotics are described. (Kako, I.).

  3. Can Life Begin on Enceladus? A Perspective from Hydrothermal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deamer, David; Damer, Bruce

    2017-09-01

    Enceladus is a target of future missions designed to search for existing life or its precursors. Recent flybys of Enceladus by the Cassini probe have confirmed the existence of a long-lived global ocean laced with organic compounds and biologically available nitrogen. This immediately suggests the possibility that life could have begun and may still exist on Enceladus. Here we will compare the properties of two proposed sites for the origin of life on Earth-hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor and hydrothermal volcanic fields at the surface-and ask whether similar conditions could have fostered the origin of life on Enceladus. The answer depends on which of the two sites would be more conducive for the chemical evolution leading to life's origin. A hydrothermal vent origin would allow life to begin in the Enceladus ocean, but if the origin of life requires freshwater hydrothermal pools undergoing wet-dry cycles, the Enceladus ocean could be habitable but lifeless. These arguments also apply directly to Europa and indirectly to early Mars. Key Words: Enceladus-Hydrothermal vents-Hydrothermal fields-Origin of life. Astrobiology 17, 834-839.

  4. Mining: The beginning and the end of the nuclear cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, J.

    1991-01-01

    Mining is one of the world's oldest industries, with a rich history that has evolved into modern times. A new chapter in that history is currently being written in southeastern New Mexico at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The beginning phase of the nuclear industry occurred when uranium was mined from the underground and processed to develop the first fuel source for the nuclear industry. The WIPP may well be the final chapter in closing out the nuclear cycle by the disposal of nuclear waste 2,150 ft into the underground repository. The WIPP is a US Department of Energy project located ∼ 30 miles southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico, where the nation's first underground engineered nuclear repository is being constructed. The WIPP site was selected because of its location amidst a 2,000-ft-thick bed that provides a remarkably stable rock formation for the permanent storage of nuclear waste. The WIPP has taken an industry that is steeped in the tradition of mining hard rock with brute force to yield the highest quantity and has married it to a concept that demands superior safety and has a conservative approach to produce the highest quality. The process has been refined and has produced cultural shock in the local attitude toward mining

  5. Beginnings-The Kidney and Nephrology in Ancient Mesopotamian Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2016-05-01

    A defining period in the history of civilization occurred in ancient Mesopotamia. While some of Mesopotamian contributions to knowledge (writing, mathematics, astronomy) have been recognized, those made to medicine are just beginning to be studied and appreciated. The medicine of the time developed in a theocratic society where local gods controlled all aspects of life and their healers were learned scribes who established the priestly medicine of old. For their use of prayers and incantations as a component of therapy Mesopotamian medicine has been belittled and relegated to magic. In fact, the Mesopotamian healers established the basic medical skills of observation, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment and, over time, systematically produced an expanding corpus of medical knowledge that had not existed theretofore. The kidney as an organ, the components of the urogenital tract, some signs and symptoms of renal diseases, and the art of urinalysis were first conceptualized, studied, and codified in Mesopotamia. In doing so, the Mesopotamians set the foundations of rational medicine that would follow after the introduction of the phonetic alphabet and the Socratic method of questioning and debate to stimulate critical analysis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. At What Time a Day Begins in the Korean History?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyeon Ahn

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We have reproduced the records of lunar occultation recorded in the History of Three Kingdoms, the History of the Koryo Dynasty, the Annals of the Choson Dynasty, the Daily Records of Royal Secretariat of the Choson Dynasty, and obtained the epochs of their realizations. We analysed these results to understand how the system of hours had been kept and when a day began. During most of the periods encompassed by these annals, the 12 double hours and the system of 100 divisions of the day had been used when the lunar and the solar eclipses were calculated by royal astronomers. In these systems, the starting point of a day is midnight. On the other hand, the five watch system of hours, in which a night is divided into five watches, was also used. In this system, a day begins at the sunrise. We found that the traditional twilight, called dusk and dawn and used in the east Asian countries, largely corresponds to the nautical twilight in modern concepts. This fact means that the Korean expressions and words for time system in every day life had originated from the five watch system of hours. We pointed out that the sunrise and sunset were convenient boundary lines to ancient astronomers, as well as to farmers in the agricultural society. Our results can be used to determine the exact epoch of each astronomical record in chronicles.

  7. Children Balance Theories and Evidence in Exploration, Explanation, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Friel, Daniel; Schulz, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We look at the effect of evidence and prior beliefs on exploration, explanation and learning. In Experiment 1, we tested children both with and without differential prior beliefs about balance relationships (Center Theorists, mean: 82 months; Mass Theorists, mean: 89 months; No Theory children, mean: 62 months). Center and Mass Theory children who…

  8. Beginning science teachers' strategies for communicating with families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Nena E.

    Science learning occurs in both formal and informal spaces. Families are critical for developing student learning and interest in science because they provide important sources of knowledge, support and motivation. Bidirectional communication between teachers and families can be used to build relationships between homes and schools, leverage family knowledge of and support for learners, and create successful environments for science learning that will support both teaching and student learning. To identify the communication strategies of beginning science teachers, who are still developing their teaching practices, a multiple case study was conducted with seven first year secondary science teachers. The methods these teachers used to communicate with families, the information that was communicated and shared, and factors that shaped these teachers' continued development of communication strategies were examined. Demographic data, interview data, observations and documentation of communication through logs and artifacts were collected for this study. Results indicated that the methods teachers had access to and used for communication impacted the frequency and efficacy of their communication. Teachers and families communicated about a number of important topics, but some topics that could improve learning experiences and science futures for their students were rarely discussed, such as advancement in science, student learning in science and family knowledge. Findings showed that these early career teachers were continuing to learn about their communities and to develop their communication strategies with families. Teachers' familiarity with their school community, opportunities to practice strategies during preservice preparation and student teaching, their teaching environment, school policies, and learning from families and students in their school culture continued to shape and influence their views and communication strategies. Findings and implications for

  9. A Sense of Autonomy in Young Children's Special Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carie

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood is a significant time when children begin to develop their place identity. As they discover their environment, young children claim special places in which to construct their own experiences. In exploring ways to connect children with place, particularly nature, caregivers need to consider children's place perspectives in the…

  10. Before we begin. The importance of antenatal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Mary

    2012-04-01

    A review of the impact of universal antenatal education found that group based programmes which promote the transition to parenthood by focusing on relationships (between the couple and with the baby), and which are participative and build social support, are most likely to be effective (McMillan et al 2009). An Expert Reference Group convened by the Department of Health has designed a Preparation for Birth and Beyond programme to incorporate the evidence about what works and which draws on neurology, sociology and psychology including theories about fetal programming, social capital, self-efficacy, adult learning and health promotion. Learning from the Family Nurse Partnership, the PBB programme builds on parents' strengths and their intrinsic motivation to be the best parents they can for their children.

  11. Things begin to happen around Supernova 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    On 23 February 1994, it will be exactly seven years since the explosion of Supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud [1] was first observed, at a distance of approx. 160,000 light-years. It was the first naked-eye supernova to be seen in almost four hundred years. Few events in modern astronomy have met with such an enthusiastic response by the scientists and this famous object has been under constant surveillance ever since. After several years of relative quiescence, things are now beginning to happen in the immediate neighbourhood of SN 1987A. Recent observations with the ESO 3.5 m New Technology Telescope (NTT) indicate that interaction between the stellar material which was ejected during the explosion and the surrounding ring-shaped nebulae has started. This signals the beginning of a more active phase during which the supernova is likely to display a number of new and interesting phenomena, never before observed. SEVEN YEARS IN THE LIFE OF A SUPERNOVA After brightening to maximum light at about magnitude 3 a few months after the explosion, the long period of steady fading which is typical for supernovae, set in by mid-1987. The matter ejected by the explosion took the form of an expanding fireball, which began to spread through the nearly empty space around the supernova with a velocity of almost 10,000 km/sec. As it cooled, the temperature and therefore the total brightness decreased and the supernova became fainter and fainter. At the present moment, the magnitude of SN 1987A is about 18.5, that is almost 2 million times fainter than it was at maximum. Various phenomena have been observed around SN 1987A during the past years. Already in early 1988, light echoes were seen as concentric, slowly expanding luminous circles; they represent the reflections of the explosion light flash in interstellar clouds inside the Large Magellanic Cloud, between the supernova and us. In 1989, high-resolution observations with the NTT showed an elliptical ``ring

  12. Cognitive, Linguistic and Print-Related Predictors of Preschool Children's Word Spelling and Name Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Trelani F.; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice; Pelletier, Janette; Girolametto, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children begin to represent spoken language in print long before receiving formal instruction in spelling and writing. The current study sought to identify the component skills that contribute to preschool children's ability to begin to spell words and write their name. Ninety-five preschool children (mean age = 57 months) completed a…

  13. The Role of Prior Knowledge in International Franchise Partner Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Catherine; Altinay, Levent

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the role of prior knowledge in the international franchise partner recruitment process and to evaluate how cultural distance influences the role of prior knowledge in this process. Design/Methodology/Approach A single embedded case study of an international hotel firm was the focus of the enquiry. Interviews, observations and document analysis were used as the data collection techniques. Findings Findings reveal that prior knowledge of the franchisor enab...

  14. Spectrally Consistent Satellite Image Fusion with Improved Image Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Aanæs, Henrik; Jensen, Thomas B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Here an improvement to our previous framework for satellite image fusion is presented. A framework purely based on the sensor physics and on prior assumptions on the fused image. The contributions of this paper are two fold. Firstly, a method for ensuring 100% spectrally consistency is proposed......, even when more sophisticated image priors are applied. Secondly, a better image prior is introduced, via data-dependent image smoothing....

  15. Acquisition of multiple prior distributions in tactile temporal order judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito eNagai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Bayesian estimation theory proposes that the brain acquires the prior distribution of a task and integrates it with sensory signals to minimize the effect of sensory noise. Psychophysical studies have demonstrated that our brain actually implements Bayesian estimation in a variety of sensory-motor tasks. However, these studies only imposed one prior distribution on participants within a task period. In this study, we investigated the conditions that enable the acquisition of multiple prior distributions in temporal order judgment (TOJ of two tactile stimuli across the hands. In Experiment 1, stimulation intervals were randomly selected from one of two prior distributions (biased to right hand earlier and biased to left hand earlier in association with color cues (green and red, respectively. Although the acquisition of the two priors was not enabled by the color cues alone, it was significant when participants shifted their gaze (above or below in response to the color cues. However, the acquisition of multiple priors was not significant when participants moved their mouths (opened or closed. In Experiment 2, the spatial cues (above and below were used to identify which eye position or retinal cue position was crucial for the eye-movement-dependent acquisition of multiple priors in Experiment 1. The acquisition of the two priors was significant when participants moved their gaze to the cues (i.e., the cue positions on the retina were constant across the priors, as well as when participants did not shift their gazes (i.e., the cue positions on the retina changed according to the priors. Thus, both eye and retinal cue positions were effective in acquiring multiple priors. Based on previous neurophysiological reports, we discuss possible neural correlates that contribute to the acquisition of multiple priors.

  16. A well-started beginning elementary teacher's beliefs and practices in relation to reform recommendations about inquiry-based science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2017-06-01

    Given reform recommendations emphasizing scientific inquiry and empirical evidence pointing to the difficulties beginning teachers face in enacting inquiry-based science, this study explores a well-started beginning elementary teacher's (Sofia) beliefs about inquiry-based science and related instructional practices. In order to explore Sofia's beliefs and instructional practices, several kinds of data were collected in a period of 9 months: a self-portrait and an accompanying narrative, a personal philosophy assignment, three interviews, three journal entries, ten lesson plans, and ten videotaped classroom observations. The analysis of these data showed that Sofia's beliefs and instructional practices were reform-minded. She articulated contemporary beliefs about scientific inquiry and how children learn science and was able to translate these beliefs into practice. Central to Sofia's beliefs about science teaching were scientific inquiry and engaging students in investigations with authentic data, with a prevalent emphasis on the role of evidence in the construction of scientific claims. These findings are important to research aiming at supporting teachers, especially beginning ones, to embrace reform recommendations.

  17. Selecting "App"ealing and "App"ropriate Book Apps for Beginning Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Maria; McGill-Franzen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Beginning with a brief rationale for selecting quality digital picture book apps for beginning readers, the authors describe the elements of digital picture books and provide a brief review of the instructional benefits of digital picture book use for beginning readers. They then present a detailed taxonomy for selecting quality picture book apps.…

  18. Training shortest-path tractography: Automatic learning of spatial priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew George; Reislev, Nina Linde

    2016-01-01

    Tractography is the standard tool for automatic delineation of white matter tracts from diffusion weighted images. However, the output of tractography often requires post-processing to remove false positives and ensure a robust delineation of the studied tract, and this demands expert prior...... knowledge. Here we demonstrate how such prior knowledge, or indeed any prior spatial information, can be automatically incorporated into a shortest-path tractography approach to produce more robust results. We describe how such a prior can be automatically generated (learned) from a population, and we...

  19. Crowdsourcing prior information to improve study design and data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Chrabaszcz

    Full Text Available Though Bayesian methods are being used more frequently, many still struggle with the best method for setting priors with novel measures or task environments. We propose a method for setting priors by eliciting continuous probability distributions from naive participants. This allows us to include any relevant information participants have for a given effect. Even when prior means are near-zero, this method provides a principle way to estimate dispersion and produce shrinkage, reducing the occurrence of overestimated effect sizes. We demonstrate this method with a number of published studies and compare the effect of different prior estimation and aggregation methods.

  20. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiemke Katharina Schmidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After one week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments one week (r = .350 and 12 weeks (r = .316 later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments one week later (correlations between r = .194 to r = .394. Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics.

  1. Phyllodes tumors and fibroadenoma common beginning and different ending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprić, Svetlana; Oprić, Dejan; Gugić, Damir; Granić, Miroslav

    2012-03-01

    , Wilcoxon sum test and Kendall test). It was concluded that fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors arise from intralobular fibrous tissue, both changes have very close histology in the beginning and divergent growth starts later. Differences are present in stromal component. Phyllodes tumor has two component stroma. Stromal cells in phyllodes tumors are more PCNA positive than in fibroadenomas, also Ki-67 and androgen receptors are more positive in phyllodes tumors. Histologically phyllodes tumors have perforated capsule with finger like projections. These data determine surgical procedure, wide excision in phyllodes and simple excision in fibroadenomas.

  2. Chromosomal differences between acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in patients with prior solid tumors and prior hematologic malignancies. A study of 14 cases with prior breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuris, Z.; Dumont, J.; Dutrillaux, B.; Aurias, A.

    1989-01-01

    A cytogenetic study of 14 patients with secondary acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (S-ANLL) with prior treatment for breast cancer is reported. The chromosomes recurrently involved in numerical or structural anomalies are chromosomes 7, 5, 17, and 11, in decreasing order of frequency. The distribution of the anomalies detected in this sample of patients is similar to that observed in published cases with prior breast or other solid tumors, though anomalies of chromosome 11 were not pointed out, but it significantly differs from that of the S-ANLL with prior hematologic malignancies. This difference is principally due to a higher involvement of chromosome 7 in patients with prior hematologic malignancies and of chromosomes 11 and 17 in patients with prior solid tumors. A genetic determinism involving abnormal recessive alleles located on chromosomes 5, 7, 11, and 17 uncovered by deletions of the normal homologs may be a cause of S-ANLL. The difference between patients with prior hematologic malignancies or solid tumors may be explained by different constitutional mutations of recessive genes in the two groups of patients

  3. Testability evaluation using prior information of multiple sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Testability plays an important role in improving the readiness and decreasing the life-cycle cost of equipment. Testability demonstration and evaluation is of significance in measuring such testability indexes as fault detection rate (FDR and fault isolation rate (FIR, which is useful to the producer in mastering the testability level and improving the testability design, and helpful to the consumer in making purchase decisions. Aiming at the problems with a small sample of testability demonstration test data (TDTD such as low evaluation confidence and inaccurate result, a testability evaluation method is proposed based on the prior information of multiple sources and Bayes theory. Firstly, the types of prior information are analyzed. The maximum entropy method is applied to the prior information with the mean and interval estimate forms on the testability index to obtain the parameters of prior probability density function (PDF, and the empirical Bayesian method is used to get the parameters for the prior information with a success-fail form. Then, a parametrical data consistency check method is used to check the compatibility between all the sources of prior information and TDTD. For the prior information to pass the check, the prior credibility is calculated. A mixed prior distribution is formed based on the prior PDFs and the corresponding credibility. The Bayesian posterior distribution model is acquired with the mixed prior distribution and TDTD, based on which the point and interval estimates are calculated. Finally, examples of a flying control system are used to verify the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is feasible and effective.

  4. Testability evaluation using prior information of multiple sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chao; Qiu Jing; Liu Guanjun; Zhang Yong

    2014-01-01

    Testability plays an important role in improving the readiness and decreasing the life-cycle cost of equipment. Testability demonstration and evaluation is of significance in measuring such testability indexes as fault detection rate (FDR) and fault isolation rate (FIR), which is useful to the producer in mastering the testability level and improving the testability design, and helpful to the consumer in making purchase decisions. Aiming at the problems with a small sample of testabil-ity demonstration test data (TDTD) such as low evaluation confidence and inaccurate result, a test-ability evaluation method is proposed based on the prior information of multiple sources and Bayes theory. Firstly, the types of prior information are analyzed. The maximum entropy method is applied to the prior information with the mean and interval estimate forms on the testability index to obtain the parameters of prior probability density function (PDF), and the empirical Bayesian method is used to get the parameters for the prior information with a success-fail form. Then, a parametrical data consistency check method is used to check the compatibility between all the sources of prior information and TDTD. For the prior information to pass the check, the prior credibility is calculated. A mixed prior distribution is formed based on the prior PDFs and the corresponding credibility. The Bayesian posterior distribution model is acquired with the mixed prior distribution and TDTD, based on which the point and interval estimates are calculated. Finally, examples of a flying control system are used to verify the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is feasible and effective.

  5. The Presence of Don Quijote in the Beginnings of the Special Education in Galicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodríguez Díaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show the presence of the work of Cervantes, “Don Quijote de la Mancha”, in the unique establishments existing in Galicia at the beginning of the 20th century, dedicated to special education. According to this claim, reference is made to two significant anniversaries in the dissemination of the work. The first one corresponds to the commemoration of the third centenary of the birth of the Cuisse. In this Establishment one would organize in the year 1905, in the free School of blind persons and poor children of To Corunna. A very complete festival as appears in the content of the program, which has recovered of the historical municipal file of the above mentioned city. The second event, refers to the presentation of the novel by Cervantes, written in Braille. Quite a challenge for teachers in special schools of the time, as the College of deaf and blind from Santiago de Compostela, the first school for the teaching of these students, which is established in Spain for the purposes of the law of public instruction of 1857, will assume early.

  6. Oropharyngeal colonization by Haemophilus influenzae in healthy children from Taubaté (São Paulo, prior to the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination program in Brazil Colonização da orofaringe de crianças saudáveis de Taubaté (São Paulo por Haemophilus influenzae, antes da introdução da vacina contra Haemophilus influenzae do tipo b no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ferro Bricks

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae is one of the most important bacterial agents of otitis and sinusitis. H. influenzae type b (Hib is one of the main causes of meningitis, pneumonia, and septicemia in nonvaccinated children under 6 years of age. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of H. influenzae and Hib oropharyngeal colonization prior to the onset of the Hib vaccination program in Brazil in previously healthy children and to assess the susceptibility profile of this microorganism to a selected group of antimicrobials that are used to treat acute respiratory infections. METHOD: Cultures of Haemophilus influenzae were made from oropharynx swabs from 987 children under 6 years of age who were enrolled in 29 day-care centers in Taubaté (a city of São Paulo state, Brazil between July and December 1998. RESULTS: The prevalence of H. influenzae carriers was 17.4%, and only 5.5% of the strains were beta-lactamase producers. The prevalence of Hib carriers was high, 7.3% on average (range, 0.0 - 33.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The low prevalence of colonization by penicillin-resistant strains indicates that it is not necessary to substitute ampicilin or amoxicilin to effectively treat otitis and sinusitis caused by H. influenzae in Taubaté.Haemophilus influenzae é um dos mais importantes agentes bacterianos de otites e sinusites. Em crianças menores de seis anos de idade não vacinadas contra o H. influenzae do tipo b (Hib, essa bactéria é uma das principais causadoras de meningite, pneumonia e sepse. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência da colonização da orofaringe de crianças previamente saudáveis por H. influenzae e Hib e avaliar o perfil de suscetibilidade desses microorganismos a um grupo seleto de antimicrobianos, que habitualmente são utilizados para tratar as infecções respiratórias agudas. MÉTODO: Foram colhidos swabs da orofaringe de 987 crianças menores de seis anos de idade que freqüentavam 29 creches da

  7. Alcohol purchase age laws and the serial beginning drinker in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J

    1995-08-01

    Raising the drinking age twice in New York State in the 1980s might have created a generation of "serial beginning drinkers." Findings indicate that when young adults become beginning drinkers, their chances of drinking-driving increase; when they become serial beginning drinkers, their involvement in drinking-driving remains high over time. The beginning drinkers belong to a special historical period and are only composed of birth cohorts of 3 or 4 years (mainly early 1960s). The effect of the serial beginning drinker should fade out as those birth cohorts grow into maturity.

  8. Relations among conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and procedural flexibility in two samples differing in prior knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Star, Jon R

    2011-11-01

    Competence in many domains rests on children developing conceptual and procedural knowledge, as well as procedural flexibility. However, research on the developmental relations between these different types of knowledge has yielded unclear results, in part because little attention has been paid to the validity of the measures or to the effects of prior knowledge on the relations. To overcome these problems, we modeled the three constructs in the domain of equation solving as latent factors and tested (a) whether the predictive relations between conceptual and procedural knowledge were bidirectional, (b) whether these interrelations were moderated by prior knowledge, and (c) how both constructs contributed to procedural flexibility. We analyzed data from 2 measurement points each from two samples (Ns = 228 and 304) of middle school students who differed in prior knowledge. Conceptual and procedural knowledge had stable bidirectional relations that were not moderated by prior knowledge. Both kinds of knowledge contributed independently to procedural flexibility. The results demonstrate how changes in complex knowledge structures contribute to competence development.

  9. Lessons learned: the effect of prior technology use on Web-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Joanne C; Wade, Shari L; Wolfe, Christopher R

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the role of regular prior technology use in treatment response to an online family problem-solving (OFPS) intervention and an Internet resource intervention (IRI) for pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants were 150 individuals in 40 families of children with TBI randomly assigned to OFPS intervention or an IRI. All families received free computers and Internet access to TBI resources. OFPS families received Web-based sessions and therapist-guided synchronous videoconferences focusing on problem solving, communication skills, and behavior management. All participants completed measures of depression, anxiety, and computer usage. OFPS participants rated treatment satisfaction, therapeutic alliance, and Web site and technology comfort. With the OFPS intervention, depression and anxiety improved significantly more among technology using parents (n = 14) than nontechnology users (n = 6). Technology users reported increasing comfort with technology over time, and this change was predictive of depression at followup. Satisfaction and ease-of-use ratings did not differ by technology usage. Lack of regular prior home computer usage and nonadherence were predictive of anxiety at followup. The IRI was not globally effective. However, controlling for prior depression, age, and technology at work, there was a significant effect of technology at home for depression. Families with technology experience at home (n = 11) reported significantly greater improvements in depression than families without prior technology experience at home (n = 8). Although Web-based OFPS was effective in improving caregiver functioning, individuals with limited computer experience may benefit less from an online intervention due to increased nonadherence.

  10. Construction and test of the PRIOR proton microscope; Aufbau und Test des Protonenmikroskops PRIOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Philipp-Michael

    2015-01-15

    The study of High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) in the laboratory makes great demands on the diagnostics because these states can usually only be created for a short time and usual diagnostic techniques with visible light or X-rays come to their limit because of the high density. The high energy proton radiography technique that was developed in the 1990s at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is a very promising possibility to overcome those limits so that one can measure the density of HEDM with high spatial and time resolution. For this purpose the proton microscope PRIOR (Proton Radiography for FAIR) was set up at GSI, which not only reproduces the image, but also magnifies it by a factor of 4.2 and thereby penetrates matter with a density up to 20 g/cm{sup 2}. Straightaway a spatial resolution of less than 30 μm and a time resolution on the nanosecond scale was achieved. This work describes details to the principle, design and construction of the proton microscope as well as first measurements and simulations of essential components like magnetic lenses, a collimator and a scintillator screen. For the latter one it was possible to show that plastic scintillators can be used as converter as an alternative to the slower but more radiation resistant crystals, so that it is possible to reach a time resolution of 10 ns. Moreover the characteristics were investigated for the system at the commissioning in April 2014. Also the changes in the magnetic field due to radiation damage were studied. Besides that an overview about future applications is given. First experiments with Warm Dense Matter created by using a Pulsed Power Setup have already been performed. Furthermore the promising concept of combining proton radiography with particle therapy has been investigated in context of the PaNTERA project. An outlook on the possibilities with future experiments at the FAIR accelerator facility is given as well. Because of higher beam intensity an energy one can expect even

  11. Chilean Teachers Begin Exchange Program Visit in Magdalena

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Two teachers from the town of San Pedro de Atacama, in the northern desert of the South American nation of Chile, arrive in Magdalena, New Mexico, Sunday, January 28, for a two-week visit that is part of a Sister Cities program sponsored by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), the nonprofit research corporation that operates the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). They will be accompanied by their town's mayor. Myriam Nancy Rivera Mercado, Head of the high school in San Pedro, Gabriela Fernanda Rodriguez Moraleda, a tourism teacher there, and San Pedro Mayor Sandra Berna Martinez will begin a visit that includes classroom observations in the Magdalena schools, a reception hosted by the Magdalena Village Council, and a Mayor's Breakfast with Magdalena Mayor Jim Wolfe. They also will meet local residents, tour the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge with a second-grade class, visit an area ranch, tour the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope, and see Socorro's Community Arts Party. "These teachers will learn much about New Mexico, the United States, and our educational system, and will take this new knowledge back to their students and their community," said NRAO Education Officer Robyn Harrison. The visit is part of a Sister Cities program initiated and funded by AUI, which operates the NRAO for the U.S. National Science Foundation. Radio astronomy is a common link between San Pedro de Atacama and Magdalena. San Pedro is near the site of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international telescope project now under construction with funding by major partners in North America, Europe, and Japan. Magdalena is near the site of NRAO's VLA radio telescope. In Magdalena, the Village Council and Mayor Wolfe formalized their participation in the Sister Cities program last September, and San Pedro ratified the program in December. In San Pedro, the ceremony ratifying the agreement was attended by U.S. Ambassador to Chile Craig K

  12. Adaptive nonparametric Bayesian inference using location-scale mixture priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.; Zanten, van J.H.

    2010-01-01

    We study location-scale mixture priors for nonparametric statistical problems, including multivariate regression, density estimation and classification. We show that a rate-adaptive procedure can be obtained if the prior is properly constructed. In particular, we show that adaptation is achieved if

  13. Nudging toward Inquiry: Awakening and Building upon Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontichiaro, Kristin, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    "Prior knowledge" (sometimes called schema or background knowledge) is information one already knows that helps him/her make sense of new information. New learning builds on existing prior knowledge. In traditional reporting-style research projects, students bypass this crucial step and plow right into answer-finding. It's no wonder that many…

  14. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  15. Personality, depressive symptoms and prior trauma exposure of new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Police officers are predisposed to trauma exposure. The development of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be influenced by personality style, prior exposure to traumatic events and prior depression. Objectives. To describe the personality profiles of new Metropolitan Police Service ...

  16. 34 CFR 303.403 - Prior notice; native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prior notice; native language. 303.403 Section 303.403... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards General § 303.403 Prior notice; native language. (a... file a complaint and the timelines under those procedures. (c) Native language. (1) The notice must be...

  17. On the use of a pruning prior for neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril

    1996-01-01

    We address the problem of using a regularization prior that prunes unnecessary weights in a neural network architecture. This prior provides a convenient alternative to traditional weight-decay. Two examples are studied to support this method and illustrate its use. First we use the sunspots...

  18. Bayesian Inference for Structured Spike and Slab Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Riis; Winther, Ole; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    Sparse signal recovery addresses the problem of solving underdetermined linear inverse problems subject to a sparsity constraint. We propose a novel prior formulation, the structured spike and slab prior, which allows to incorporate a priori knowledge of the sparsity pattern by imposing a spatial...

  19. 5 CFR 6201.103 - Prior approval for outside employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prior approval for outside employment. 6201.103 Section 6201.103 Administrative Personnel EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES § 6201.103 Prior...

  20. Prior authorisation schemes: trade barriers in need of scientific justification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Case C-333/08 Commission v. French Republic ‘processing aids’ [2010] ECR-0000 French prior authorisation scheme for processing aids in food production infringes upon Article 34 TFEU** 1. A prior authorisation scheme not complying with the principle of proportionality, infringes upon Article 34 TFEU.

  1. When does eruption run-up begin? Multidisciplinary insight from the 1999 eruption of Shishaldin volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Daniel J.; Plank, Terry A.; Roman, Diana C.; Power, John A.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Hauri, Erik H.

    2018-03-01

    During the run-up to eruption, volcanoes often show geophysically detectable signs of unrest. However, there are long-standing challenges in interpreting the signals and evaluating the likelihood of eruption, especially during the early stages of volcanic unrest. Considerable insight can be gained from combined geochemical and geophysical studies. Here we take such an approach to better understand the beginning of eruption run-up, viewed through the lens of the 1999 sub-Plinian basaltic eruption of Shishaldin volcano, Alaska. The eruption is of interest due to its lack of observed deformation and its apparent long run-up time (9 months), following a deep long-period earthquake swarm. We evaluate the nature and timing of recharge by examining the composition of 138 olivine macrocrysts and 53 olivine-hosted melt inclusions and through shear-wave splitting analysis of regional earthquakes. Magma mixing is recorded in three crystal populations: a dominant population of evolved olivines (Fo60-69) that are mostly reversely zoned, an intermediate population (Fo69-76) with mixed zonation, and a small population of normally zoned more primitive olivines (Fo76-80). Mixing-to-eruption timescales are obtained through modeling of Fe-Mg interdiffusion in 78 olivines. The large number of resultant timescales provides a thorough record of mixing, demonstrating at least three mixing events: a minor event ∼11 months prior to eruption, overlapping within uncertainty with the onset of deep long-period seismicity; a major event ∼50 days before eruption, coincident with a large (M5.2) shallow earthquake; and a final event about a week prior to eruption. Shear-wave splitting analysis shows a change in the orientation of the local stress field about a month after the deep long-period swarm and around the time of the M5.2 event. Earthquake depths and vapor saturation pressures of Raman-reconstructed melt inclusions indicate that the recharge magma originated from depths of at least 20

  2. Variational segmentation problems using prior knowledge in imaging and vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fundana, Ketut

    This dissertation addresses variational formulation of segmentation problems using prior knowledge. Variational models are among the most successful approaches for solving many Computer Vision and Image Processing problems. The models aim at finding the solution to a given energy functional defined......, prior knowledge is needed to obtain the desired solution. The introduction of shape priors in particular, has proven to be an effective way to segment objects of interests. Firstly, we propose a prior-based variational segmentation model to segment objects of interest in image sequences, that can deal....... Many objects have high variability in shape and orientation. This often leads to unsatisfactory results, when using a segmentation model with single shape template. One way to solve this is by using more sophisticated shape models. We propose to incorporate shape priors from a shape sub...

  3. Logarithmic Laplacian Prior Based Bayesian Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuanghui; Liu, Yongxiang; Li, Xiang; Bi, Guoan

    2016-04-28

    This paper presents a novel Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging (ISAR) algorithm based on a new sparse prior, known as the logarithmic Laplacian prior. The newly proposed logarithmic Laplacian prior has a narrower main lobe with higher tail values than the Laplacian prior, which helps to achieve performance improvement on sparse representation. The logarithmic Laplacian prior is used for ISAR imaging within the Bayesian framework to achieve better focused radar image. In the proposed method of ISAR imaging, the phase errors are jointly estimated based on the minimum entropy criterion to accomplish autofocusing. The maximum a posterior (MAP) estimation and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) are utilized to estimate the model parameters to avoid manually tuning process. Additionally, the fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Hadamard product are used to minimize the required computational efficiency. Experimental results based on both simulated and measured data validate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional sparse ISAR imaging algorithms in terms of resolution improvement and noise suppression.

  4. Total Variability Modeling using Source-specific Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Lee, Kong Aik; Li, Haizhou

    2016-01-01

    sequence of an utterance. In both cases the prior for the latent variable is assumed to be non-informative, since for homogeneous datasets there is no gain in generality in using an informative prior. This work shows in the heterogeneous case, that using informative priors for com- puting the posterior......, can lead to favorable results. We focus on modeling the priors using minimum divergence criterion or fac- tor analysis techniques. Tests on the NIST 2008 and 2010 Speaker Recognition Evaluation (SRE) dataset show that our proposed method beats four baselines: For i-vector extraction using an already...... trained matrix, for the short2-short3 task in SRE’08, five out of eight female and four out of eight male common conditions, were improved. For the core-extended task in SRE’10, four out of nine female and six out of nine male common conditions were improved. When incorporating prior information...

  5. Example-driven manifold priors for image deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jie; Turaga, Pavan; Patel, Vishal M; Chellappa, Rama

    2011-11-01

    Image restoration methods that exploit prior information about images to be estimated have been extensively studied, typically using the Bayesian framework. In this paper, we consider the role of prior knowledge of the object class in the form of a patch manifold to address the deconvolution problem. Specifically, we incorporate unlabeled image data of the object class, say natural images, in the form of a patch-manifold prior for the object class. The manifold prior is implicitly estimated from the given unlabeled data. We show how the patch-manifold prior effectively exploits the available sample class data for regularizing the deblurring problem. Furthermore, we derive a generalized cross-validation (GCV) function to automatically determine the regularization parameter at each iteration without explicitly knowing the noise variance. Extensive experiments show that this method performs better than many competitive image deconvolution methods.

  6. Why is cytoskeletal contraction required for cardiac fusion before but not after looping begins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunfei; Varner, Victor D.; Taber, Larry A.

    2015-02-01

    Cytoskeletal contraction is crucial to numerous morphogenetic processes, but its role in early heart development is poorly understood. Studies in chick embryos have shown that inhibiting myosin-II-based contraction prior to Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) stage 10 (33 h incubation) impedes fusion of the mesodermal heart fields that create the primitive heart tube (HT), as well as the ensuing process of cardiac looping. If contraction is inhibited at or after looping begins at HH10, however, fusion and looping proceed relatively normally. To explore the mechanisms behind this seemingly fundamental change in behavior, we measured spatiotemporal distributions of tissue stiffness, stress, and strain around the anterior intestinal portal (AIP), the opening to the foregut where contraction and cardiac fusion occur. The results indicate that stiffness and tangential tension decreased bilaterally along the AIP with distance from the embryonic midline. The gradients in stiffness and tension, as well as strain rate, increased to peaks at HH9 (30 h) and decreased afterward. Exposure to the myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin reduced these effects, suggesting that they are mainly generated by active cytoskeletal contraction, and finite-element modeling indicates that the measured mechanical gradients are consistent with a relatively uniform contraction of the endodermal layer in conjunction with constraints imposed by the attached mesoderm. Taken together, our results suggest that, before HH10, endodermal contraction pulls the bilateral heart fields toward the midline where they fuse to create the HT. By HH10, however, the fusion process is far enough along to enable apposing cardiac progenitor cells to keep ‘zipping’ together during looping without the need for continued high contractile forces. These findings should shed new light on a perplexing question in early heart development.

  7. Why is cytoskeletal contraction required for cardiac fusion before but not after looping begins?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yunfei; Taber, Larry A; Varner, Victor D

    2015-01-01

    Cytoskeletal contraction is crucial to numerous morphogenetic processes, but its role in early heart development is poorly understood. Studies in chick embryos have shown that inhibiting myosin-II-based contraction prior to Hamburger–Hamilton (HH) stage 10 (33 h incubation) impedes fusion of the mesodermal heart fields that create the primitive heart tube (HT), as well as the ensuing process of cardiac looping. If contraction is inhibited at or after looping begins at HH10, however, fusion and looping proceed relatively normally. To explore the mechanisms behind this seemingly fundamental change in behavior, we measured spatiotemporal distributions of tissue stiffness, stress, and strain around the anterior intestinal portal (AIP), the opening to the foregut where contraction and cardiac fusion occur. The results indicate that stiffness and tangential tension decreased bilaterally along the AIP with distance from the embryonic midline. The gradients in stiffness and tension, as well as strain rate, increased to peaks at HH9 (30 h) and decreased afterward. Exposure to the myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin reduced these effects, suggesting that they are mainly generated by active cytoskeletal contraction, and finite-element modeling indicates that the measured mechanical gradients are consistent with a relatively uniform contraction of the endodermal layer in conjunction with constraints imposed by the attached mesoderm. Taken together, our results suggest that, before HH10, endodermal contraction pulls the bilateral heart fields toward the midline where they fuse to create the HT. By HH10, however, the fusion process is far enough along to enable apposing cardiac progenitor cells to keep ‘zipping’ together during looping without the need for continued high contractile forces. These findings should shed new light on a perplexing question in early heart development. (paper)

  8. Peer Group Rejection and Children's Outgroup Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith; Daly, Josh; McKenzie, David

    2010-01-01

    Two simulation studies examined the effect of peer group rejection on 7 and 9 year old children's outgroup prejudice. In Study 1, children (n = 88) pretended that they were accepted or rejected by their assigned group, prior to competing with a lower status outgroup. Results indicated that rejected versus accepted children showed increased…

  9. The influence of prior knowledge on the retrieval-directed function of note taking in prior knowledge activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, Sandra; Kester, Liesbeth; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Broers, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Wetzels, S. A. J., Kester, L., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Broers, N. J. (2011). The influence of prior knowledge on the retrieval-directed function of note taking in prior knowledge activation. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(2), 274-291. doi: 10.1348/000709910X517425

  10. Immunizing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Jody Macdonald

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the complex contexts within which Canadian health professionals engage in immunizing children and focuses on the Canadian practice guidelines and current scientific evidence that direct Canadian health professional competencies. The article begins by presenting two current global vaccine initiatives and links these to immunization in Canada. A selected literature review identifies current best immunization practices. With the purpose of promoting quality improvement, three key Canadian immunization competencies for health professional are highlighted: communication with parents, including those who are experiencing vaccine hesitancy; administration of immunizing agents; and documentation of immunizations. Health professionals are encouraged to reflect on immunization competencies and ensure evidence-based practices underpin vaccine delivery in their primary care settings.

  11. Memory and selective learning in children with spina bifida-myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vachha Behroze

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective learning is the ability to select items of relevance from among less important items. Limited evidence exists regarding the efficiency with which children with spina bifida-myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus (SB/SH are able to learn information. This report describes initial data related to components of learning and metacognitive skills in children with SB/SH. Methods Twenty six children with SB/SH and 26 controls (age: 7 – 16 y with average intelligence, and monolingual English-speaking backgrounds participated in the study. Exclusion criteria for the SB/SH group were: prior history of shunt infection, history of seizure or shunt malfunction within the previous three months, prior diagnoses of attention disorders and/or clinical depression. Children were presented lists of words with equal exemplars each of two distinct semantic categories (e.g. fruits, animals, and told to make as high a score as possible by learning the words. The value of the words was designated by category membership (e.g. animals = low value; fruits = high value. The total number of words learned across three learning trials was used to determine memory span. Selective learning efficiency (SLE was computed as the efficiency with which items of greater value were selectively learned across three trials. Results Children with SB/SH did worse than controls on memory span (P Conclusion Success in school is often dependent on the ability to recall important facts selectively and ignore less important information. Children with SB/SH in our study had a poor memory span and were unable to monitor and report an efficient and workable metacognitive strategy required to remember a list of words. Preliminary findings may begin to explain our previous clinical and research findings wherein children with SB/SH often focus on extraneous details, but demonstrate difficulty remembering the main gist of a story/event.

  12. Associations of maternal influences with outdoor play and screen time of two-year-olds: Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to investigate if maternal influences are associated with children's outdoor playtime and screen time at the age of 2 years. A cross-sectional study with 497 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in Sydney, Australia during 2007-2010. Maternal influences included their own physical activity and screen time, television rules for their child, perceived neighbourhood environment, parental self-efficacy and parenting style (warmth and hostility). Children's outdoor playtime, screen time and maternal influences were collected through face-to-face interviews with participating mothers when the children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations between maternal influences and children's outdoor play and screen time. Mothers with low levels of parental hostility and high perceived safe outdoor play environment were more likely to have children playing outdoor for ≥ 2 h/day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.65 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68-4.20, P maternal influences were independently associated with children's outdoor play or screen time at an early stage of life. Therefore, different intervention strategies are needed to increase children's outdoor playtime and decrease their screen time. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Learning priors for Bayesian computations in the nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Berniker

    Full Text Available Our nervous system continuously combines new information from our senses with information it has acquired throughout life. Numerous studies have found that human subjects manage this by integrating their observations with their previous experience (priors in a way that is close to the statistical optimum. However, little is known about the way the nervous system acquires or learns priors. Here we present results from experiments where the underlying distribution of target locations in an estimation task was switched, manipulating the prior subjects should use. Our experimental design allowed us to measure a subject's evolving prior while they learned. We confirm that through extensive practice subjects learn the correct prior for the task. We found that subjects can rapidly learn the mean of a new prior while the variance is learned more slowly and with a variable learning rate. In addition, we found that a Bayesian inference model could predict the time course of the observed learning while offering an intuitive explanation for the findings. The evidence suggests the nervous system continuously updates its priors to enable efficient behavior.

  14. Implicit Priors in Galaxy Cluster Mass and Scaling Relation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, A.; Allen, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Deriving the total masses of galaxy clusters from observations of the intracluster medium (ICM) generally requires some prior information, in addition to the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry. Often, this information takes the form of particular parametrized functions used to describe the cluster gas density and temperature profiles. In this paper, we investigate the implicit priors on hydrostatic masses that result from this fully parametric approach, and the implications of such priors for scaling relations formed from those masses. We show that the application of such fully parametric models of the ICM naturally imposes a prior on the slopes of the derived scaling relations, favoring the self-similar model, and argue that this prior may be influential in practice. In contrast, this bias does not exist for techniques which adopt an explicit prior on the form of the mass profile but describe the ICM non-parametrically. Constraints on the slope of the cluster mass-temperature relation in the literature show a separation based the approach employed, with the results from fully parametric ICM modeling clustering nearer the self-similar value. Given that a primary goal of scaling relation analyses is to test the self-similar model, the application of methods subject to strong, implicit priors should be avoided. Alternative methods and best practices are discussed.

  15. Estimating Functions with Prior Knowledge, (EFPK) for diffusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolsøe, Kim; Kessler, Mathieu; Madsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a method is formulated in an estimating function setting for parameter estimation, which allows the use of prior information. The main idea is to use prior knowledge of the parameters, either specified as moments restrictions or as a distribution, and use it in the construction of a...... of an estimating function. It may be useful when the full Bayesian analysis is difficult to carry out for computational reasons. This is almost always the case for diffusions, which is the focus of this paper, though the method applies in other settings.......In this paper a method is formulated in an estimating function setting for parameter estimation, which allows the use of prior information. The main idea is to use prior knowledge of the parameters, either specified as moments restrictions or as a distribution, and use it in the construction...

  16. 29 CFR 452.40 - Prior office holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Candidacy for Office; Reasonable Qualifications § 452.40 Prior office holding. A.... 26 26 Wirtz v. Hotel, Motel and Club Employees Union, Local 6, 391 U.S. 492 at 504. The Court stated...

  17. Form of prior for constrained thermodynamic processes with uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Preety; Johal, Ramandeep S.

    2015-05-01

    We consider the quasi-static thermodynamic processes with constraints, but with additional uncertainty about the control parameters. Motivated by inductive reasoning, we assign prior distribution that provides a rational guess about likely values of the uncertain parameters. The priors are derived explicitly for both the entropy-conserving and the energy-conserving processes. The proposed form is useful when the constraint equation cannot be treated analytically. The inference is performed using spin-1/2 systems as models for heat reservoirs. Analytical results are derived in the high-temperatures limit. An agreement beyond linear response is found between the estimates of thermal quantities and their optimal values obtained from extremum principles. We also seek an intuitive interpretation for the prior and the estimated value of temperature obtained therefrom. We find that the prior over temperature becomes uniform over the quantity kept conserved in the process.

  18. On the prior probabilities for two-stage Bayesian estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.

    1992-01-01

    The method of Bayesian inference is reexamined for its applicability and for the required underlying assumptions in obtaining and using prior probability estimates. Two different approaches are suggested to determine the first-stage priors in the two-stage Bayesian analysis which avoid certain assumptions required for other techniques. In the first scheme, the prior is obtained through a true frequency based distribution generated at selected intervals utilizing actual sampling of the failure rate distributions. The population variability distribution is generated as the weighed average of the frequency distributions. The second method is based on a non-parametric Bayesian approach using the Maximum Entropy Principle. Specific features such as integral properties or selected parameters of prior distributions may be obtained with minimal assumptions. It is indicated how various quantiles may also be generated with a least square technique

  19. Prior Expectations Bias Sensory Representations in Visual Cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, P.; Brouwer, G.J.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Lange, F.P. de

    2013-01-01

    Perception is strongly influenced by expectations. Accordingly, perception has sometimes been cast as a process of inference, whereby sensory inputs are combined with prior knowledge. However, despite a wealth of behavioral literature supporting an account of perception as probabilistic inference,

  20. Bayesian optimal experimental design for priors of compact support

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2016-01-01

    to account for the bounded domain of the uniform prior pdf of the parameters. The underlying Gaussian distribution is obtained in the spirit of the Laplace method, more precisely, the mode is chosen as the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate

  1. What good are actions? Accelerating learning using learned action priors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The computational complexity of learning in sequential decision problems grows exponentially with the number of actions available to the agent at each state. We present a method for accelerating this process by learning action priors that express...

  2. Assessment of prior learning in vocational education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    ’ knowledge, skills and competences during the students’ performances and the methods that the teachers apply in order to assess the students’ prior learning in relation to the regulations of the current VET-program. In particular the study focuses on how to assess not only the students’ explicated knowledge......The article deals about the results of a study of the assessment of prior learning among adult workers who want to obtain formal qualifications as skilled workers. The study contributes to developing methods for assessing prior learning including both the teachers’ ways of eliciting the students...... and skills but also their competences, i.e. the way the students use their skills and knowledge to perform in practice. Based on a description of the assessment procedures the article discusses central issues in relation to the assessment of prior learning. The empirical data have been obtained in the VET...

  3. Valid MR imaging predictors of prior knee arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discepola, Federico; Le, Huy B.Q.; Park, John S.; Clopton, Paul; Knoll, Andrew N.; Austin, Matthew J.; Resnick, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether fibrosis of the medial patellar reticulum (MPR), lateral patellar reticulum (LPR), deep medial aspect of Hoffa's fat pad (MDH), or deep lateral aspect of Hoffa's fat pad (LDH) is a valid predictor of prior knee arthroscopy. Institutional review board approval and waiver of informed consent were obtained for this HIPPA-compliant study. Initially, fibrosis of the MPR, LPR, MDH, or LDH in MR imaging studies of 50 patients with prior knee arthroscopy and 100 patients without was recorded. Subsequently, two additional radiologists, blinded to clinical data, retrospectively and independently recorded the presence of fibrosis of the MPR in 50 patients with prior knee arthroscopy and 50 without. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy for detecting the presence of fibrosis in the MPR were calculated. κ statistics were used to analyze inter-observer agreement. Fibrosis of each of the regions examined during the first portion of the study showed a significant association with prior knee arthroscopy (p < 0.005 for each). A patient with fibrosis of the MPR, LDH, or LPR was 45.5, 9, or 3.7 times more likely, respectively, to have had a prior knee arthroscopy. Logistic regression analysis indicated that fibrosis of the MPR supplanted the diagnostic utility of identifying fibrosis of the LPR, LDH, or MDH, or combinations of these (p ≥ 0.09 for all combinations). In the second portion of the study, fibrosis of the MPR demonstrated a mean sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 72%, PPV of 75%, NPV of 81%, and accuracy of 77% for predicting prior knee arthroscopy. Analysis of MR images can be used to determine if a patient has had prior knee arthroscopy by identifying fibrosis of the MPR, LPR, MDH, or LDH. Fibrosis of the MPR was the strongest predictor of prior knee arthroscopy. (orig.)

  4. Valid MR imaging predictors of prior knee arthroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Discepola, Federico; Le, Huy B.Q. [McGill University Health Center, Jewsih General Hospital, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Park, John S. [Annapolis Radiology Associates, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Annapolis, MD (United States); Clopton, Paul; Knoll, Andrew N.; Austin, Matthew J.; Resnick, Donald L. [University of California San Diego (UCSD), Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    To determine whether fibrosis of the medial patellar reticulum (MPR), lateral patellar reticulum (LPR), deep medial aspect of Hoffa's fat pad (MDH), or deep lateral aspect of Hoffa's fat pad (LDH) is a valid predictor of prior knee arthroscopy. Institutional review board approval and waiver of informed consent were obtained for this HIPPA-compliant study. Initially, fibrosis of the MPR, LPR, MDH, or LDH in MR imaging studies of 50 patients with prior knee arthroscopy and 100 patients without was recorded. Subsequently, two additional radiologists, blinded to clinical data, retrospectively and independently recorded the presence of fibrosis of the MPR in 50 patients with prior knee arthroscopy and 50 without. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy for detecting the presence of fibrosis in the MPR were calculated. {kappa} statistics were used to analyze inter-observer agreement. Fibrosis of each of the regions examined during the first portion of the study showed a significant association with prior knee arthroscopy (p < 0.005 for each). A patient with fibrosis of the MPR, LDH, or LPR was 45.5, 9, or 3.7 times more likely, respectively, to have had a prior knee arthroscopy. Logistic regression analysis indicated that fibrosis of the MPR supplanted the diagnostic utility of identifying fibrosis of the LPR, LDH, or MDH, or combinations of these (p {>=} 0.09 for all combinations). In the second portion of the study, fibrosis of the MPR demonstrated a mean sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 72%, PPV of 75%, NPV of 81%, and accuracy of 77% for predicting prior knee arthroscopy. Analysis of MR images can be used to determine if a patient has had prior knee arthroscopy by identifying fibrosis of the MPR, LPR, MDH, or LDH. Fibrosis of the MPR was the strongest predictor of prior knee arthroscopy. (orig.)

  5. Generalized multiple kernel learning with data-dependent priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qi; Tsang, Ivor W; Gao, Shenghua; Wang, Li

    2015-06-01

    Multiple kernel learning (MKL) and classifier ensemble are two mainstream methods for solving learning problems in which some sets of features/views are more informative than others, or the features/views within a given set are inconsistent. In this paper, we first present a novel probabilistic interpretation of MKL such that maximum entropy discrimination with a noninformative prior over multiple views is equivalent to the formulation of MKL. Instead of using the noninformative prior, we introduce a novel data-dependent prior based on an ensemble of kernel predictors, which enhances the prediction performance of MKL by leveraging the merits of the classifier ensemble. With the proposed probabilistic framework of MKL, we propose a hierarchical Bayesian model to learn the proposed data-dependent prior and classification model simultaneously. The resultant problem is convex and other information (e.g., instances with either missing views or missing labels) can be seamlessly incorporated into the data-dependent priors. Furthermore, a variety of existing MKL models can be recovered under the proposed MKL framework and can be readily extended to incorporate these priors. Extensive experiments demonstrate the benefits of our proposed framework in supervised and semisupervised settings, as well as in tasks with partial correspondence among multiple views.

  6. Fractional Gaussian noise: Prior specification and model comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Sø rbye, Sigrunn Holbek; Rue, Haavard

    2017-01-01

    Fractional Gaussian noise (fGn) is a stationary stochastic process used to model antipersistent or persistent dependency structures in observed time series. Properties of the autocovariance function of fGn are characterised by the Hurst exponent (H), which, in Bayesian contexts, typically has been assigned a uniform prior on the unit interval. This paper argues why a uniform prior is unreasonable and introduces the use of a penalised complexity (PC) prior for H. The PC prior is computed to penalise divergence from the special case of white noise and is invariant to reparameterisations. An immediate advantage is that the exact same prior can be used for the autocorrelation coefficient ϕ(symbol) of a first-order autoregressive process AR(1), as this model also reflects a flexible version of white noise. Within the general setting of latent Gaussian models, this allows us to compare an fGn model component with AR(1) using Bayes factors, avoiding the confounding effects of prior choices for the two hyperparameters H and ϕ(symbol). Among others, this is useful in climate regression models where inference for underlying linear or smooth trends depends heavily on the assumed noise model.

  7. Fractional Gaussian noise: Prior specification and model comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Sørbye, Sigrunn Holbek

    2017-07-07

    Fractional Gaussian noise (fGn) is a stationary stochastic process used to model antipersistent or persistent dependency structures in observed time series. Properties of the autocovariance function of fGn are characterised by the Hurst exponent (H), which, in Bayesian contexts, typically has been assigned a uniform prior on the unit interval. This paper argues why a uniform prior is unreasonable and introduces the use of a penalised complexity (PC) prior for H. The PC prior is computed to penalise divergence from the special case of white noise and is invariant to reparameterisations. An immediate advantage is that the exact same prior can be used for the autocorrelation coefficient ϕ(symbol) of a first-order autoregressive process AR(1), as this model also reflects a flexible version of white noise. Within the general setting of latent Gaussian models, this allows us to compare an fGn model component with AR(1) using Bayes factors, avoiding the confounding effects of prior choices for the two hyperparameters H and ϕ(symbol). Among others, this is useful in climate regression models where inference for underlying linear or smooth trends depends heavily on the assumed noise model.

  8. SUSPENSION OF THE PRIOR DISCIPLINARY INVESTIGATION ACCORDING TO LABOR LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae, GRADINARU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to conduct the prior disciplinary investigation, the employee shall be convoked in writing by the person authorized by the employer to carry out the research, specifying the subject, date, time and place of the meeting. For this purpose the employer shall appoint a committee charged with conducting the prior disciplinary investigation. Prior disciplinary research cannot be done without the possibility of the accused person to defend himself. It would be an abuse of the employer to violate these provisions. Since the employee is entitled to formulate and sustain defence in proving innocence or lesser degree of guilt than imputed, it needs between the moment were disclosed to the employee and the one of performing the prior disciplinary investigation to be a reasonable term for the employee to be able to prepare a defence in this regard. The employee's failure to present at the convocation, without an objective reason entitles the employer to dispose the sanctioning without making the prior disciplinary investigation. The objective reason which makes the employee, that is subject to prior disciplinary investigation, unable to present to the preliminary disciplinary investigation, should be at the time of the investigation in question.

  9. Identification of subsurface structures using electromagnetic data and shape priors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveit, Svenn, E-mail: svenn.tveit@uni.no [Uni CIPR, Uni Research, Bergen 5020 (Norway); Department of Mathematics, University of Bergen, Bergen 5020 (Norway); Bakr, Shaaban A., E-mail: shaaban.bakr1@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Uni CIPR, Uni Research, Bergen 5020 (Norway); Lien, Martha, E-mail: martha.lien@octio.com [Uni CIPR, Uni Research, Bergen 5020 (Norway); Octio AS, Bøhmergaten 44, Bergen 5057 (Norway); Mannseth, Trond, E-mail: trond.mannseth@uni.no [Uni CIPR, Uni Research, Bergen 5020 (Norway); Department of Mathematics, University of Bergen, Bergen 5020 (Norway)

    2015-03-01

    We consider the inverse problem of identifying large-scale subsurface structures using the controlled source electromagnetic method. To identify structures in the subsurface where the contrast in electric conductivity can be small, regularization is needed to bias the solution towards preserving structural information. We propose to combine two approaches for regularization of the inverse problem. In the first approach we utilize a model-based, reduced, composite representation of the electric conductivity that is highly flexible, even for a moderate number of degrees of freedom. With a low number of parameters, the inverse problem is efficiently solved using a standard, second-order gradient-based optimization algorithm. Further regularization is obtained using structural prior information, available, e.g., from interpreted seismic data. The reduced conductivity representation is suitable for incorporation of structural prior information. Such prior information cannot, however, be accurately modeled with a gaussian distribution. To alleviate this, we incorporate the structural information using shape priors. The shape prior technique requires the choice of kernel function, which is application dependent. We argue for using the conditionally positive definite kernel which is shown to have computational advantages over the commonly applied gaussian kernel for our problem. Numerical experiments on various test cases show that the methodology is able to identify fairly complex subsurface electric conductivity distributions while preserving structural prior information during the inversion.

  10. Prior methylphenidate self-administration alters the subsequent reinforcing effects of methamphetamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; Nielsen, Shannon M; Umpierre, Anthony; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2014-12-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is clinically effective in treating the symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; however, its relatively widespread availability has raised public health concerns on nonmedical use of MPD among certain adult populations. Most preclinical studies investigate whether presumed therapeutically relevant doses of MPD alter sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of other drugs, but it remains unclear whether doses of MPD likely exceeding therapeutic relevance impact the subsequent reinforcing effects of drugs. To begin to address this question, the effect of prior MPD self-administration (0.56 mg/kg/infusion) on the subsequent reinforcing effects of methamphetamine (METH, 0.032 or 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. For comparison, it was also determined whether prior experimenter-administered MPD, injected daily at a presumed therapeutically relevant dose (2 mg/kg), altered the subsequent reinforcing effects of METH. Results indicated that, under the current conditions, only a history of MPD self-administration increased sensitivity to the subsequent reinforcing effects of METH. Furthermore, MPD did not impact food-maintained responding, suggesting that the effect of MPD might be specific to drug reinforcers. These data suggest that short-term, nonmedical use of MPD might alter the positive reinforcing effects of METH in a manner relevant to vulnerability to drug use in humans.

  11. Helping Children Develop Resiliency: Providing Supportive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Katharine C.; Malley, Catherine Robertson

    2005-01-01

    Helping children develop resiliency begins with positive, meaningful connections between teachers and students. This article defines the importance of encouraging children to develop characteristics related to resiliency including confidence in their ability to bounce back from setbacks, overcome challenges and frustrations. Furthermore, critical…

  12. Orthographic Learning in Dyslexic Spanish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Ramos, Sara; Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Reading fluency is one of the basic processes of learning to read. Children begin to develop fluency when they are able to form orthographic representations of words, which provide direct, smooth, and fast reading. Dyslexic children of transparent orthographic systems are mainly characterized by poor reading fluency (Cuetos & Suárez-Coalla…

  13. Intervention Strategies for School Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Entremont, Denise Morel

    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a relatively new diagnostic label. As more physicians become familiar with the diagnosis of this syndrome, schools will begin to see children with the label FAS and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE). Children with FAS often do not pick up skills from their environment as easily as some of their peers. They often need to…

  14. 474 Science Activities for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Moira D.

    This book uses a child-initiated, whole language approach to help children have fun while exploring the world of science. The activities are divided into 23 units. Each unit begins with an "Attention Getter," the purpose of which is to introduce the unit to children in a way that grabs their attention, stimulates their interest, and creates…

  15. The difference in pediatric blood pressure between middle childhood and late childhood prior to dental treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Anissa Syaimima bt. Syaiful Azim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Every child will go through several stages in his or her life. They are different from each other as they are in the process of development of cognition, physics, emotion, and personality. For many children, a visit to the dentist can raise their anxiety. This anxiousness will lead to stress that influences the cardiovascular function in the body. The purpose of this research was to determine the difference in pediatric blood pressure between middle childhood and late childhood prior to dental treatment. This research was a clinical trial, pure experimental study. The sample consisted of 30 children within the range of 4-12 years old where they were divided into two groups of age; middle childhood (4-7 years old and late childhood (8-12 years old. The blood pressures were measured before any dental treatment began and the values were recorded. The data were then analyzed using the One-Sample T-Test analysis. The results of blood pressure in middle childhood and late childhood were compared to the average mean values for each age group. It showed that there was a significant difference in the systolic pressure, which was found higher in the middle childhood group compared to the late childhood. From the result can be concluded that there was a difference in the pediatric blood pressure between middle childhood and late childhood prior to dental treatment.

  16. Already at the Table: Patterns of Play and Gambling Involvement Prior to Gambling Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sarah E; LaPlante, Debi A; Gray, Heather M; Tom, Matthew A; Kleschinsky, John H; Shaffer, Howard J

    2018-03-01

    During 2011, the Governor of Massachusetts signed a bill to allow casino gambling in the state (Commonwealth of Massachusetts 2011). As a result, two resort casinos will begin operations during 2018 and 2019; a smaller slots parlor began operations during June 2015. Prior to this expansion, gambling was widely available in Massachusetts, through the state lottery, off-track betting, and gambling opportunities available in neighboring states. Within this context, it is important to understand the patterns of gambling involvement in the population prior to gambling expansion. The current study examined gambling involvement, patterns of play, and gambling-related problems prior to gambling expansion among a sample of 511 Massachusetts residents who were members of a statewide Internet panel. To measure patterns of play, we asked questions about past-year games played and frequency of play. To measure breadth of involvement, we assessed the number of different games played. To measure depth of involvement, we measured time spent gambling, amount wagered, and amount won or lost. Principal component analysis revealed four play pattern components accounting for more than 50% of the variance in game play frequency. Multiple regression analyses revealed that component scores composed of casino gambling and skill-based gambling (e.g., poker, sports) variables uniquely contributed to the prediction of gambling-related problems, even when depth of involvement was controlled. However, the addition of breadth of involvement to the model resulted in a model where no set of variables contributed significantly, suggesting a complex relationship among play patterns, depth, and breadth of involvement. The study established discrete and distinguishable gambling play patterns associated with gambling-related problems and identified groups of individuals potentially vulnerable to the effects of gambling expansion.

  17. Neutrino masses and their ordering: global data, priors and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariazzo, S.; Archidiacono, M.; de Salas, P. F.; Mena, O.; Ternes, C. A.; Tórtola, M.

    2018-03-01

    We present a full Bayesian analysis of the combination of current neutrino oscillation, neutrinoless double beta decay and Cosmic Microwave Background observations. Our major goal is to carefully investigate the possibility to single out one neutrino mass ordering, namely Normal Ordering or Inverted Ordering, with current data. Two possible parametrizations (three neutrino masses versus the lightest neutrino mass plus the two oscillation mass splittings) and priors (linear versus logarithmic) are exhaustively examined. We find that the preference for NO is only driven by neutrino oscillation data. Moreover, the values of the Bayes factor indicate that the evidence for NO is strong only when the scan is performed over the three neutrino masses with logarithmic priors; for every other combination of parameterization and prior, the preference for NO is only weak. As a by-product of our Bayesian analyses, we are able to (a) compare the Bayesian bounds on the neutrino mixing parameters to those obtained by means of frequentist approaches, finding a very good agreement; (b) determine that the lightest neutrino mass plus the two mass splittings parametrization, motivated by the physical observables, is strongly preferred over the three neutrino mass eigenstates scan and (c) find that logarithmic priors guarantee a weakly-to-moderately more efficient sampling of the parameter space. These results establish the optimal strategy to successfully explore the neutrino parameter space, based on the use of the oscillation mass splittings and a logarithmic prior on the lightest neutrino mass, when combining neutrino oscillation data with cosmology and neutrinoless double beta decay. We also show that the limits on the total neutrino mass ∑ mν can change dramatically when moving from one prior to the other. These results have profound implications for future studies on the neutrino mass ordering, as they crucially state the need for self-consistent analyses which explore the

  18. Finding A Minimally Informative Dirichlet Prior Using Least Squares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In a Bayesian framework, the Dirichlet distribution is the conjugate distribution to the multinomial likelihood function, and so the analyst is required to develop a Dirichlet prior that incorporates available information. However, as it is a multiparameter distribution, choosing the Dirichlet parameters is less straightforward than choosing a prior distribution for a single parameter, such as p in the binomial distribution. In particular, one may wish to incorporate limited information into the prior, resulting in a minimally informative prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data. In the case of binomial p or Poisson λ, the principle of maximum entropy can be employed to obtain a so-called constrained noninformative prior. However, even in the case of p, such a distribution cannot be written down in the form of a standard distribution (e.g., beta, gamma), and so a beta distribution is used as an approximation in the case of p. In the case of the multinomial model with parametric constraints, the approach of maximum entropy does not appear tractable. This paper presents an alternative approach, based on constrained minimization of a least-squares objective function, which leads to a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution. The alpha-factor model for common-cause failure, which is widely used in the United States, is the motivation for this approach, and is used to illustrate the method. In this approach to modeling common-cause failure, the alpha-factors, which are the parameters in the underlying multinomial model for common-cause failure, must be estimated from data that are often quite sparse, because common-cause failures tend to be rare, especially failures of more than two or three components, and so a prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data is needed.

  19. Prior-based artifact correction (PBAC) in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heußer, Thorsten; Brehm, Marcus; Ritschl, Ludwig; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Image quality in computed tomography (CT) often suffers from artifacts which may reduce the diagnostic value of the image. In many cases, these artifacts result from missing or corrupt regions in the projection data, e.g., in the case of metal, truncation, and limited angle artifacts. The authors propose a generalized correction method for different kinds of artifacts resulting from missing or corrupt data by making use of available prior knowledge to perform data completion. Methods: The proposed prior-based artifact correction (PBAC) method requires prior knowledge in form of a planning CT of the same patient or in form of a CT scan of a different patient showing the same body region. In both cases, the prior image is registered to the patient image using a deformable transformation. The registered prior is forward projected and data completion of the patient projections is performed using smooth sinogram inpainting. The obtained projection data are used to reconstruct the corrected image. Results: The authors investigate metal and truncation artifacts in patient data sets acquired with a clinical CT and limited angle artifacts in an anthropomorphic head phantom data set acquired with a gantry-based flat detector CT device. In all cases, the corrected images obtained by PBAC are nearly artifact-free. Compared to conventional correction methods, PBAC achieves better artifact suppression while preserving the patient-specific anatomy at the same time. Further, the authors show that prominent anatomical details in the prior image seem to have only minor impact on the correction result. Conclusions: The results show that PBAC has the potential to effectively correct for metal, truncation, and limited angle artifacts if adequate prior data are available. Since the proposed method makes use of a generalized algorithm, PBAC may also be applicable to other artifacts resulting from missing or corrupt data

  20. Finding a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution using least squares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Dana; Atwood, Corwin

    2011-01-01

    In a Bayesian framework, the Dirichlet distribution is the conjugate distribution to the multinomial likelihood function, and so the analyst is required to develop a Dirichlet prior that incorporates available information. However, as it is a multiparameter distribution, choosing the Dirichlet parameters is less straightforward than choosing a prior distribution for a single parameter, such as p in the binomial distribution. In particular, one may wish to incorporate limited information into the prior, resulting in a minimally informative prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data. In the case of binomial p or Poisson λ, the principle of maximum entropy can be employed to obtain a so-called constrained noninformative prior. However, even in the case of p, such a distribution cannot be written down in the form of a standard distribution (e.g., beta, gamma), and so a beta distribution is used as an approximation in the case of p. In the case of the multinomial model with parametric constraints, the approach of maximum entropy does not appear tractable. This paper presents an alternative approach, based on constrained minimization of a least-squares objective function, which leads to a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution. The alpha-factor model for common-cause failure, which is widely used in the United States, is the motivation for this approach, and is used to illustrate the method. In this approach to modeling common-cause failure, the alpha-factors, which are the parameters in the underlying multinomial model for common-cause failure, must be estimated from data that are often quite sparse, because common-cause failures tend to be rare, especially failures of more than two or three components, and so a prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data is needed.

  1. Finding a Minimally Informative Dirichlet Prior Distribution Using Least Squares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Dana; Atwood, Corwin

    2011-01-01

    In a Bayesian framework, the Dirichlet distribution is the conjugate distribution to the multinomial likelihood function, and so the analyst is required to develop a Dirichlet prior that incorporates available information. However, as it is a multiparameter distribution, choosing the Dirichlet parameters is less straight-forward than choosing a prior distribution for a single parameter, such as p in the binomial distribution. In particular, one may wish to incorporate limited information into the prior, resulting in a minimally informative prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data. In the case of binomial p or Poisson, the principle of maximum entropy can be employed to obtain a so-called constrained noninformative prior. However, even in the case of p, such a distribution cannot be written down in closed form, and so an approximate beta distribution is used in the case of p. In the case of the multinomial model with parametric constraints, the approach of maximum entropy does not appear tractable. This paper presents an alternative approach, based on constrained minimization of a least-squares objective function, which leads to a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution. The alpha-factor model for common-cause failure, which is widely used in the United States, is the motivation for this approach, and is used to illustrate the method. In this approach to modeling common-cause failure, the alpha-factors, which are the parameters in the underlying multinomial aleatory model for common-cause failure, must be estimated from data that is often quite sparse, because common-cause failures tend to be rare, especially failures of more than two or three components, and so a prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data is needed.

  2. Advanced prior modeling for 3D bright field electron tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreehari, Suhas; Venkatakrishnan, S. V.; Drummy, Lawrence F.; Simmons, Jeffrey P.; Bouman, Charles A.

    2015-03-01

    Many important imaging problems in material science involve reconstruction of images containing repetitive non-local structures. Model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) could in principle exploit such redundancies through the selection of a log prior probability term. However, in practice, determining such a log prior term that accounts for the similarity between distant structures in the image is quite challenging. Much progress has been made in the development of denoising algorithms like non-local means and BM3D, and these are known to successfully capture non-local redundancies in images. But the fact that these denoising operations are not explicitly formulated as cost functions makes it unclear as to how to incorporate them in the MBIR framework. In this paper, we formulate a solution to bright field electron tomography by augmenting the existing bright field MBIR method to incorporate any non-local denoising operator as a prior model. We accomplish this using a framework we call plug-and-play priors that decouples the log likelihood and the log prior probability terms in the MBIR cost function. We specifically use 3D non-local means (NLM) as the prior model in the plug-and-play framework, and showcase high quality tomographic reconstructions of a simulated aluminum spheres dataset, and two real datasets of aluminum spheres and ferritin structures. We observe that streak and smear artifacts are visibly suppressed, and that edges are preserved. Also, we report lower RMSE values compared to the conventional MBIR reconstruction using qGGMRF as the prior model.

  3. Changes in urine albumin to creatinine ratio with the initiation of hydroxyurea therapy among children and adolescents with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehseen, Sarah; Joiner, Clinton H; Lane, Peter A; Yee, Marianne E

    2017-12-01

    Renal damage is a progressive complication of sickle cell disease (SCD) that begins in childhood and may progress to renal failure and early mortality in 12% of adults with hemoglobin SS (HbSS) SCD. Early sickle nephropathy is characterized by hyperfiltration and microalbuminuria; therefore, urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) is an effective screening tool for its detection. This study investigated the effect of hydroxyurea (HU) therapy on urine ACR levels among children with SCD. A retrospective review was conducted to identify all patients with HbSS or HbSβ 0 thalassemia of age 7-18 years who began HU therapy in 2011-2013; a control group of patients not on HU were matched by age and baseline hemoglobin. All urine ACR measurements ≤24 months prior to and ≥24 months after HU initiation were recorded. There were 63 eligible patients on HU and 13 (25%) with albuminuria prior to HU initiation. Among those with baseline albuminuria, the median ACR was 96 mg/g prior to HU, 39 mg/g at 1 year (P = 0.02), and 25 mg/g at 2 years (P = 0.03). Albuminuria normalized in 37.5% (6/16) after 1 year and 61% (8/13) after 2 years of HU therapy. Among those without albuminuria prior to HU, 13% (6/47) developed albuminuria during HU therapy. Sixteen percent (13/80) of control patients had albuminuria in the beginning of study period, which normalized in 15% (two of 13) of patients at 1-year follow up. Introduction of HU is associated with significant decreases in urine ACR in children with SCD and albuminuria. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Sociological portrait of infanticide in the United states, end XX - beginning of XXI century: victims and perpetrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bogdanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on mortality in children under 5 years in the United States of homicides. Infanticide has become one of the most common crimes against the person in the United States during the second half of XX - beginning of XXI centuries. This fact contributed to the problem of violent crime against children has been actively developed in American criminology. The following article is devoted to mortality from homicides among children under the age of 5 years old in the United States of America. Statistical reports of the Federal Bureau of Investigation during the period of 1980-2013 have been used as an empirical base for research. Carried out a critical analysis of a wide range of research of American specialists in various branches of science (criminologists, sociologists, psychiatrists, physicians, devoted to the problems of infanticide in the United States. The basic parameters of infanticide, the dynamics and characteristics of this type of crime. Revealed a rather complicated dynamics of infanticide in the United States for a designated length of chronological period’s ups and downs in the development of this type of crime. Victimization characteristics of children died of homicides as per sex, age and race have been presented. It is found that among American children under the age of 5 years, the greatest risk of becoming a victim of premeditated murder was in children under the age of 1 year. Generalized characteristics of criminals having committed infanticide during this period of time as per sex, kinship of the victim, means used to murder have been revealed. This study found that during the period under review the chronological development of the United States of persons detained by the police for the murder of a child under the age of 5 years, which is numerically dominated by men. These statistics can be traced in all age groups of persons who have committed infanticide in the United States in the 1980-2013 periods

  5. Exploring the New Paradigm for Researching with Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Dianne; Ellis, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Understanding children's experience is increasingly a key purpose of much educational research. In contrast to traditional approaches to the study of children that emphasized the socialization of children through various stages of development, researchers within the social constructionism perspective begin with an insistence that childhood is a…

  6. Evaluating and Selecting Online Magazines for Children. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mei-Yu

    This Digest provides an overview of children's online magazines, also known as e-zines. It begins with a brief review of factors that contribute to the popularity of these publications, followed by a list of criteria for selecting high-quality online magazines for children. Samples of high-quality children's e-zines are also included in this…

  7. Beginning Teachers' Job Satisfaction: The Impact of School-Based Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Bick-har; Yan, Hoi-fai

    2011-01-01

    Using a longitudinal design, the job satisfaction and career development of beginning teachers are explored in the present study. Beginning teachers were initially interviewed after graduation from the teacher training programme and then after gaining a two-year teaching experience. The results are presented in a fourfold typology in which the…

  8. Teaching Beginning Braille Reading Using an Alphabet or Uncontracted Braille Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Janice Neibaur; McDonnell, Andrea P.; O'Neill, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using a research based print reading program modified to accommodate beginning braille readers using an alphabet or uncontracted braille reading approach with five beginning braille readers. Four of the 5 participants displayed a clear increase in their ability to read high frequency words when they began using…

  9. Determining the Critical Skills Beginning Agriculture Teachers Need to Successfully Teach Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Michael L.; Warnick, Brian K.; Meyers, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    Using the Delphi technique, agriculture teachers with significant experience teaching welding were asked to help determine the critical skills beginning agriculture teachers need to successfully teach welding. The study's objectives sought to (1) identify the knowledge and technical skill competencies that beginning agriculture teachers need to…

  10. 24 CFR 17.134 - Procedures for salary offset: when deductions may begin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: when deductions may begin. 17.134 Section 17.134 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Government Salary Offset Provisions § 17.134 Procedures for salary offset: when deductions may begin. (a...

  11. Teaching Fluid Mechanics to the Beginning Graduate Student--An Objective-Oriented Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Henry

    A premature embarkation in specialized areas of fluid mechanics by the beginning graduate student, without having first thoroughly learned the basics, leads to learning difficulties and destroys zeal for learning. To avoid these problems, many schools in the U.S. offer beginning graduate courses in fluid mechanics (BGCFM). Because the success or…

  12. Beginning Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Stress and the Supposed Effects of Induction Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Slof, Bert; Vermue, Carlien E.; Canrinus, Esther T.

    2012-01-01

    Induction arrangements are implemented in schools all over the world to support beginning teachers (BTs) (novices) in gradually growing into their profession. The aim of this study is to gain more insight into two key psychological processes involved in the work of a qualified beginning teacher, namely perceived stress and self-efficacy. This…

  13. The Importance of the Beginning Teachers' Psychological Contract: A Pathway toward Flourishing in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollansky, Tracy D.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning teachers enter the profession with notions about what their school organization will provide for them and what they will give their organization, in exchange. Psychological contracts, as defined by Schein exist between beginning teachers and their organization. I contend, with the use of a conceptual framework, that if the implicit terms…

  14. Principal-Teacher Interactions and Teacher Leadership Development: Beginning Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Elson; Cheng, Annie Yan-Ni

    2018-01-01

    Teacher leadership lies at the heart of school improvement. Leadership development among beginning teachers, however, is often neglected. This paper examines the role of principal-teacher interactions in the leadership development of a group of beginning teachers. Using a case study design, interviews were conducted and documentary evidence was…

  15. Canadian Perspectives on Beginning Principals: Their Role in Building Capacity for Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackney, Larry; Walker, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper sets out to posit that the new economy places a new set of demands on schools and those who lead. Mindfulness, intentional engagement of people and adaptive confidence are needed developmental features of beginning principal success. The paper examines how beginning principals in Canada respond to the capacity-building work of…

  16. 30 CFR 285.614 - When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... approved SAP? 285.614 Section 285.614 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.614 When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP? (a) You may begin conducting the activities approved in your SAP...

  17. The Influence of Time Management Practices on Job Stress Level among Beginning Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Misty D.; Torres, Robert M.; Tummons, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the stress of teachers continues to be important--particularly stress levels of beginning agriculture teachers. The study sought to describe the relationship between beginning teachers' perceived ability to manage their time and their level of stress. The Time Management Practices Inventory and the Job Stress Survey were used to measure…

  18. Race for a Better Fuel Begins with NREL Researchers | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    produced at NREL registers an estimated octane rating of 107. NREL's fuel is better suited for race cars by Dennis Schroeder Look! Up in the Sky! In addition to race cars, the 85% triptane could find a use Race for a Better Fuel Begins with NREL Researchers Race for a Better Fuel Begins with NREL

  19. Preparing Beginning Teachers for Technology Integration in Education: Ready for Take-Off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondeur, Jo; Pareja Roblin, Natalie; van Braak, Johan; Voogt, Joke; Prestridge, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The overall aims of this study are to explore (1) how beginning teachers integrate technology in their practice and (2) the connections between teachers' technology uses and their pre-service education programmes. Data of this follow-up study were collected through in-depth interviews with beginning teachers. The results reveal that all beginning…

  20. The Learning Needs of Beginning Teachers in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ali S.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning teachers have legitimate learning needs that cannot be grasped in advance or outside the school context. These needs are documented in Western literature, but the skills required by beginning teachers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have not been investigated. The present study responds to this research gap. Data were collected through…

  1. A Review of Standards of Practice for Beginning Teaching. ACER Policy Briefs. Issue 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarson, Lawrence; Kleinhenz, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a critical review and comparison of the following sets of standards of practice for teachers: (1) The Victorian Interim Teacher Class Standards (ITCS), especially Interim Teacher Class Standards for Beginning Teachers; (2) Professional Standards for Teachers; (3) The National Competencies for Beginning Teaching; (4) The…

  2. A Model for Online Support in Classroom Management: Perceptions of Beginning Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Credence; Gentry, James; Larmer, William

    2016-01-01

    Classroom management is a challenge for beginning teachers. To address this challenge, a model to provide support for beginning teachers was developed, consisting of a one-day workshop on classroom management, followed with online support extending over eight weeks. Specific classroom management strategies included (a) developing a foundation…

  3. Stories from the Classroom: The Developing Beliefs and Practices of Beginning Primary Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the developing beliefs and practices of six beginning primary teachers. Their accounts reveal practices indicative of contemporary approaches to teaching and learning in mathematics. Additionally, a consistency appears to exist between the beliefs and practices of the beginning teachers, and the ideals for mathematics teaching…

  4. 30 CFR 250.1400 - How does MMS begin the civil penalty process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does MMS begin the civil penalty process...) Civil Penalties § 250.1400 How does MMS begin the civil penalty process? This subpart explains MMS's... other minerals operations in the OCS has a violation. Whenever MMS determines, on the basis of available...

  5. Deconstructing Content Knowledge: Coping Strategies and Their Underlying Influencers for Beginning Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amber H.; Kitchel, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory qualitative study was to explore how beginning agriculture teachers break down content knowledge for student understanding. The overarching theme that emerged during data collection and analysis was beginning teachers' self-perceived content knowledge deficiency in various subjects within agriculture. This…

  6. Entering the Field: Beginning Teachers' Positioning Experiences of the Staffroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Erin; Rossi, Tony; lisahunter; Tinning, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about beginning teachers' political positioning experiences of the staffroom. This paper employs Bourdieu's conceptual tools of field, habitus and capital to explore beginning health and physical education teachers' positioning experiences and learning in staffrooms, the place in which teachers spend the majority of their…

  7. Beginning teachers' self-efficacy and stress and the supposed effects of induction arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Slof, Bert; Vermue, Carlien E.; Canrinus, Esther. T.

    2012-01-01

    Induction arrangements are implemented in schools all over the world to support beginning teachers (BTs) (novices) in gradually growing into their profession. The aim of this study is to gain more insight into two key psychological processes involved in the work of a qualified beginning teacher,

  8. Assessment of Prior Learning in Adult Vocational Education and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibe Aarkrog

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals about the results of a study of school-based Assessment of Prior Learning of adults who have enrolled as students in a VET college in order to qualify for occupations as skilled workers. Based on examples of VET teachers’ methods for assessing the students’ prior learning in the programs for gastronomes, respectively child care assistants the article discusses two issues in relation to Assessment of Prior Learing: the encounter of practical experience and school-based knowledge and the validity and reliability of the assessment procedures. Through focusing on the students’ knowing that and knowing why the assessment is based on a scholastic perception of the students’ needs for training, reflecting one of the most important challenges in Assessment of Prior Learning: how can practical experience be transformed into credits for the knowledge parts of the programs? The study shows that by combining several Assessment of Prior Learning methods and comparing the teachers’ assessments the teachers respond to the issues of validity and reliability. However, validity and reliability might be even further strengthened, if the competencies are well defined, if the education system is aware of securing a reasonable balance between knowing how, knowing that, and knowing why, and if the teachers are adequately trained for the assessment procedures.

  9. Logarithmic Laplacian Prior Based Bayesian Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanghui Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging (ISAR algorithm based on a new sparse prior, known as the logarithmic Laplacian prior. The newly proposed logarithmic Laplacian prior has a narrower main lobe with higher tail values than the Laplacian prior, which helps to achieve performance improvement on sparse representation. The logarithmic Laplacian prior is used for ISAR imaging within the Bayesian framework to achieve better focused radar image. In the proposed method of ISAR imaging, the phase errors are jointly estimated based on the minimum entropy criterion to accomplish autofocusing. The maximum a posterior (MAP estimation and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE are utilized to estimate the model parameters to avoid manually tuning process. Additionally, the fast Fourier Transform (FFT and Hadamard product are used to minimize the required computational efficiency. Experimental results based on both simulated and measured data validate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional sparse ISAR imaging algorithms in terms of resolution improvement and noise suppression.

  10. Source Localization by Entropic Inference and Backward Renormalization Group Priors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Caticha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A systematic method of transferring information from coarser to finer resolution based on renormalization group (RG transformations is introduced. It permits building informative priors in finer scales from posteriors in coarser scales since, under some conditions, RG transformations in the space of hyperparameters can be inverted. These priors are updated using renormalized data into posteriors by Maximum Entropy. The resulting inference method, backward RG (BRG priors, is tested by doing simulations of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment. Its results are compared with a Bayesian approach working in the finest available resolution. Using BRG priors sources can be partially identified even when signal to noise ratio levels are up to ~ -25dB improving vastly on the single step Bayesian approach. For low levels of noise the BRG prior is not an improvement over the single scale Bayesian method. Analysis of the histograms of hyperparameters can show how to distinguish if the method is failing, due to very high levels of noise, or if the identification of the sources is, at least partially possible.

  11. A Noninformative Prior on a Space of Distribution Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Terenin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a given problem, the Bayesian statistical paradigm requires the specification of a prior distribution that quantifies relevant information about the unknowns of main interest external to the data. In cases where little such information is available, the problem under study may possess an invariance under a transformation group that encodes a lack of information, leading to a unique prior—this idea was explored at length by E.T. Jaynes. Previous successful examples have included location-scale invariance under linear transformation, multiplicative invariance of the rate at which events in a counting process are observed, and the derivation of the Haldane prior for a Bernoulli success probability. In this paper we show that this method can be extended, by generalizing Jaynes, in two ways: (1 to yield families of approximately invariant priors; and (2 to the infinite-dimensional setting, yielding families of priors on spaces of distribution functions. Our results can be used to describe conditions under which a particular Dirichlet Process posterior arises from an optimal Bayesian analysis, in the sense that invariances in the prior and likelihood lead to one and only one posterior distribution.

  12. On Bayesian reliability analysis with informative priors and censoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, F.P.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the statistical literature many methods have been presented to deal with censored observations, both within the Bayesian and non-Bayesian frameworks, and such methods have been successfully applied to, e.g., reliability problems. Also, in reliability theory it is often emphasized that, through shortage of statistical data and possibilities for experiments, one often needs to rely heavily on judgements of engineers, or other experts, for which means Bayesian methods are attractive. It is therefore important that such judgements can be elicited easily to provide informative prior distributions that reflect the knowledge of the engineers well. In this paper we focus on this aspect, especially on the situation that the judgements of the consulted engineers are based on experiences in environments where censoring has also been present previously. We suggest the use of the attractive interpretation of hyperparameters of conjugate prior distributions when these are available for assumed parametric models for lifetimes, and we show how one may go beyond the standard conjugate priors, using similar interpretations of hyper-parameters, to enable easier elicitation when censoring has been present in the past. This may even lead to more flexibility for modelling prior knowledge than when using standard conjugate priors, whereas the disadvantage of more complicated calculations that may be needed to determine posterior distributions play a minor role due to the advanced mathematical and statistical software that is widely available these days

  13. Children balance theories and evidence in exploration, explanation, and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonawitz, E.B.; van Schijndel, T.J.P.; Friel, D.; Schulz, L.

    2012-01-01

    We look at the effect of evidence and prior beliefs on exploration, explanation and learning. In Experiment 1, we tested children both with and without differential prior beliefs about balance relationships (Center Theorists, mean: 82 months; Mass Theorists, mean: 89 months; No Theory children,

  14. Executive Functioning Skills in Preschool-Age Children With Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Jessica; Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) emerge as early as the preschool years. Method Two groups of children ages 3 to 6 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 24 preschoolers who had CIs prior to 36 months of age and 21 preschoolers with normal hearing (NH). All were tested on normed measures of working memory, inhibition-concentration, and organization-integration. Parents completed a normed rating scale of problem behaviors related to EF. Comparisons of EF skills of children with CIs were made to peers with NH and to published nationally representative norms. Results Preschoolers with CIs showed significantly poorer performance on inhibition-concentration and working memory compared with peers with NH and with national norms. No group differences were found in visual memory or organization-integration. When data were controlled for language, differences in performance measures of EF remained, whereas differences in parent-reported problems with EF were no longer significant. Hearing history was generally unrelated to EF. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that EF deficits found in older children with CIs begin to emerge as early as preschool years. The ability to detect these deficits early has important implications for early intervention and habilitation after cochlear implantation. PMID:24686747

  15. Helping Children Explore Their Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Mary L.

    1986-01-01

    Ways children can approach genealogical research are described, beginning with questionning older relatives and leading to libraries and census tract data. There is a certain romance and much pride in the lives of people who lived through great periods of history. (MT)

  16. Innovation and social transmission in experimental micro-societies: exploring the scope of cumulative culture in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Nicola; Burdett, Emily; Burgess, Vanessa; Dean, Lewis; Lucas, Amanda; Vale, Gillian; Whiten, Andrew

    2017-12-05

    The experimental study of cumulative culture and the innovations essential to it is a young science, with child studies so rare that the scope of cumulative cultural capacities in childhood remains largely unknown. Here we report a new experimental approach to the inherent complexity of these phenomena. Groups of 3-4-year-old children were presented with an elaborate array of challenges affording the potential cumulative development of a variety of techniques to gain increasingly attractive rewards. In contrast to a prior study, we found evidence for elementary forms of cumulative cultural progress, with inventions of solutions at lower levels spreading to become shared innovations, and some children then building on these to create more advanced but more rewarding innovations. This contrasted with markedly more constrained progress when children worked only by themselves, or if groups faced only the highest-level challenges from the start. Further experiments that introduced higher-level inventions via the inclusion of older children, or that created ecological change, with the easiest habitual solutions no longer possible, encouraged higher levels of cumulative innovation. Our results show children are not merely 'cultural sponges', but when acting in groups, display the beginnings of cycles of innovation and observational learning that sustain cumulative progress in problem solving.This article is part of the themed issue 'Process and pattern in innovations from cells to societies'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Ge-Si single crystal growth when the begining of an ingot prepared by a new method is used as the begining of the feeding alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahirov, V.I.; Quliyev, A.F.; Hasanov, Z.Y.; Qahramanov, N.F.

    2008-01-01

    Ge-Si system is used to describe binary solid solution single crystal growth when the beginning of the ingot prepared by a new method is used as the beginning of the feeding alloy. At first the feeding ingot is prepared by Bridgman method, then it is exposed to the zone melting. Content distribution of the feeding alloy and the grown crystal is determined by solving the continuity equation. The crystals grown by this method can be used for construction of the vary-zone structures

  18. Superposing pure quantum states with partial prior information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Shruti; Thomas, George; Ghosh, Sibasish; Suter, Dieter

    2018-05-01

    The principle of superposition is an intriguing feature of quantum mechanics, which is regularly exploited in many different circumstances. A recent work [M. Oszmaniec et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 110403 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.110403] shows that the fundamentals of quantum mechanics restrict the process of superimposing two unknown pure states, even though it is possible to superimpose two quantum states with partial prior knowledge. The prior knowledge imposes geometrical constraints on the choice of input states. We discuss an experimentally feasible protocol to superimpose multiple pure states of a d -dimensional quantum system and carry out an explicit experimental realization for two single-qubit pure states with partial prior information on a two-qubit NMR quantum information processor.

  19. Understanding sleep disturbance in athletes prior to important competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliff, Laura E; Halson, Shona L; Peiffer, Jeremiah J

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally many athletes report worse sleep in the nights prior to important competitions. Despite sleep being acknowledged as an important factor for optimal athletic performance and overall health, little is understood about athlete sleep around competition. The aims of this study were to identify sleep complaints of athletes prior to competitions and determine whether complaints were confined to competition periods. Cross-sectional study. A sample of 283 elite Australian athletes (129 male, 157 female, age 24±5 y) completed two questionnaires; Competitive Sport and Sleep questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. 64.0% of athletes indicated worse sleep on at least one occasion in the nights prior to an important competition over the past 12 months. The main sleep problem specified by athletes was problems falling asleep (82.1%) with the main reasons responsible for poor sleep indicated as thoughts about the competition (83.5%) and nervousness (43.8%). Overall 59.1% of team sport athletes reported having no strategy to overcome poor sleep compared with individual athletes (32.7%, p=0.002) who utilised relaxation and reading as strategies. Individual sport athletes had increased likelihood of poor sleep as they aged. The poor sleep reported by athletes prior to competition was situational rather than a global sleep problem. Poor sleep is common prior to major competitions in Australian athletes, yet most athletes are unaware of strategies to overcome the poor sleep experienced. It is essential coaches and scientists monitor and educate both individual and team sport athletes to facilitate sleep prior to important competitions. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neutrino mass priors for cosmology from random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Andrew J.; Raveri, Marco; Hu, Wayne; Dodelson, Scott

    2018-02-01

    Cosmological measurements of structure are placing increasingly strong constraints on the sum of the neutrino masses, Σ mν, through Bayesian inference. Because these constraints depend on the choice for the prior probability π (Σ mν), we argue that this prior should be motivated by fundamental physical principles rather than the ad hoc choices that are common in the literature. The first step in this direction is to specify the prior directly at the level of the neutrino mass matrix Mν, since this is the parameter appearing in the Lagrangian of the particle physics theory. Thus by specifying a probability distribution over Mν, and by including the known squared mass splittings, we predict a theoretical probability distribution over Σ mν that we interpret as a Bayesian prior probability π (Σ mν). Assuming a basis-invariant probability distribution on Mν, also known as the anarchy hypothesis, we find that π (Σ mν) peaks close to the smallest Σ mν allowed by the measured mass splittings, roughly 0.06 eV (0.1 eV) for normal (inverted) ordering, due to the phenomenon of eigenvalue repulsion in random matrices. We consider three models for neutrino mass generation: Dirac, Majorana, and Majorana via the seesaw mechanism; differences in the predicted priors π (Σ mν) allow for the possibility of having indications about the physical origin of neutrino masses once sufficient experimental sensitivity is achieved. We present fitting functions for π (Σ mν), which provide a simple means for applying these priors to cosmological constraints on the neutrino masses or marginalizing over their impact on other cosmological parameters.

  1. Physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraception: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Naomi K; Curtis, Kathryn M; Steenland, Maria W; Marchbanks, Polly A

    2013-05-01

    Provision of contraception is often linked with physical examination, including clinical breast examination (CBE) and pelvic examination. This review was conducted to evaluate the evidence regarding outcomes among women with and without physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. The PubMed database was searched from database inception through March 2012 for all peer-reviewed articles in any language concerning CBE and pelvic examination prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. The quality of each study was assessed using the United States Preventive Services Task Force grading system. The search did not identify any evidence regarding outcomes among women screened versus not screened with CBE prior to initiation of hormonal contraceptives. The search identified two case-control studies of fair quality which compared women who did or did not undergo pelvic examination prior to initiating oral contraceptives (OCs) or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). No differences in risk factors for cervical neoplasia, incidence of sexually transmitted infections, incidence of abnormal Pap smears or incidence of abnormal wet mount findings were observed. Although women with breast cancer should not use hormonal contraceptives, there is little utility in screening prior to initiation, due to the low incidence of breast cancer and uncertain value of CBE among women of reproductive age. Two fair quality studies demonstrated no differences between women who did or did not undergo pelvic examination prior to initiating OCs or DMPA with respect to risk factors or clinical outcomes. In addition, pelvic examination is not likely to detect any conditions for which hormonal contraceptives would be unsafe. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Compressive Online Robust Principal Component Analysis with Multiple Prior Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Luong, Huynh; Deligiannis, Nikos; Seiler, Jürgen

    -rank components. Unlike conventional batch RPCA, which processes all the data directly, our method considers a small set of measurements taken per data vector (frame). Moreover, our method incorporates multiple prior information signals, namely previous reconstructed frames, to improve these paration...... and thereafter, update the prior information for the next frame. Using experiments on synthetic data, we evaluate the separation performance of the proposed algorithm. In addition, we apply the proposed algorithm to online video foreground and background separation from compressive measurements. The results show...

  3. Prior knowledge processing for initial state of Kalman filter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suzdaleva, Evgenia

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2010), s. 188-202 ISSN 0890-6327 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/06/P434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Kalman filtering * prior knowledge * state-space model * initial state distribution Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.729, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/suzdaleva-prior knowledge processing for initial state of kalman filter.pdf

  4. Role of strategies and prior exposure in mental rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D; Neff, Nicole L

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of these two studies was to examine sex differences in strategy use and the effect of prior exposure on the performance on Vandenberg and Kuse's 1978 Mental Rotation Test. A total of 152 participants completed the spatial task and self-reported their strategy use. Consistent with previous studies, men outperformed women. Strategy usage did not account for these differences, although guessing did. Previous exposure to the Mental Rotation Test, American College Test scores and frequent computer or video game play predicted performance on the test. These results suggest that prior exposure to spatial tasks may provide cues to improve participants' performance.

  5. Phase transitions in restricted Boltzmann machines with generic priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Adriano; Genovese, Giuseppe; Sollich, Peter; Tantari, Daniele

    2017-10-01

    We study generalized restricted Boltzmann machines with generic priors for units and weights, interpolating between Boolean and Gaussian variables. We present a complete analysis of the replica symmetric phase diagram of these systems, which can be regarded as generalized Hopfield models. We underline the role of the retrieval phase for both inference and learning processes and we show that retrieval is robust for a large class of weight and unit priors, beyond the standard Hopfield scenario. Furthermore, we show how the paramagnetic phase boundary is directly related to the optimal size of the training set necessary for good generalization in a teacher-student scenario of unsupervised learning.

  6. Prospective regularization design in prior-image-based reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Hao; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Stayman, J Webster

    2015-01-01

    Prior-image-based reconstruction (PIBR) methods leveraging patient-specific anatomical information from previous imaging studies and/or sequences have demonstrated dramatic improvements in dose utilization and image quality for low-fidelity data. However, a proper balance of information from the prior images and information from the measurements is required (e.g. through careful tuning of regularization parameters). Inappropriate selection of reconstruction parameters can lead to detrimental effects including false structures and failure to improve image quality. Traditional methods based on heuristics are subject to error and sub-optimal solutions, while exhaustive searches require a large number of computationally intensive image reconstructions. In this work, we propose a novel method that prospectively estimates the optimal amount of prior image information for accurate admission of specific anatomical changes in PIBR without performing full image reconstructions. This method leverages an analytical approximation to the implicitly defined PIBR estimator, and introduces a predictive performance metric leveraging this analytical form and knowledge of a particular presumed anatomical change whose accurate reconstruction is sought. Additionally, since model-based PIBR approaches tend to be space-variant, a spatially varying prior image strength map is proposed to optimally admit changes everywhere in the image (eliminating the need to know change locations a priori). Studies were conducted in both an ellipse phantom and a realistic thorax phantom emulating a lung nodule surveillance scenario. The proposed method demonstrated accurate estimation of the optimal prior image strength while achieving a substantial computational speedup (about a factor of 20) compared to traditional exhaustive search. Moreover, the use of the proposed prior strength map in PIBR demonstrated accurate reconstruction of anatomical changes without foreknowledge of change locations in

  7. C. A. Meredith, A. N. Prior, and Possible Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Per Frederik Vilhelm; Rybaříková, Zuzana

    of Meredith’s and Prior’s work. On the one hand, it might cause corruption of Meredith’s system of logic and lead to paradoxes, as Prior pointed out in ‘Modal Logic with Functorial Variables and a Contingent Constant’. On the other hand, considering Prior as a mere follower of Meredith could cause......, their understanding of the relevant formal representations and indeed their general approach to modal logic considerably differed. These differences should be pointed out in order to more precisely appreciate the contribution of each of these authors. To neglect the differences could cause the misinterpretation...

  8. Beginning Drupal

    CERN Document Server

    Redding, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    A thorough introduction that lessens the learning curve to Drupal development. Drupal is a free, open source modular framework and content management system written in the programming language PHP that carries with it a reputation of a steep learning curve. This guide to Drupal methodically demystifies Drupal and even aims shorten the learning curve. Author Jacob Redding is deeply embedded in the Drupal community, and walks first-time Drupal developers through the installation and configuration of a Drupal system. In-depth information on key areas of Drupal explore the Drupal hook system, Drup

  9. The beginnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of the radioastronomy of the Sun, from the earliest World War II observations, mainly in the U.K. and Australia, to the end of 1959. The review covers the areas of most interest, namely the Solar Corona, plasma oscillations, radio bursts, sunspots, and the radio techniques developed to study these phenomena, e.g. interferometers, radio spectrographs, and polarimeters. (U.K.)

  10. [Psychoanalysis and criminology prior to the therapeutic community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    From its very beginning, psychoanalysis dealt with delinquency on a theoretical as well as on a clinical level. This paper deals with pioneer contributions, from Freud to Friedlander and Reiwald in the late 1940's, which stressed traumatic milieus in early childhood and the possibilities to correct this experience in treatment. In terms of clinical practice, they offered casuistic material, but also provided important suggestions for contemporary forensic treatment.

  11. The Prior Can Often Only Be Understood in the Context of the Likelihood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gelman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A key sticking point of Bayesian analysis is the choice of prior distribution, and there is a vast literature on potential defaults including uniform priors, Jeffreys’ priors, reference priors, maximum entropy priors, and weakly informative priors. These methods, however, often manifest a key conceptual tension in prior modeling: a model encoding true prior information should be chosen without reference to the model of the measurement process, but almost all common prior modeling techniques are implicitly motivated by a reference likelihood. In this paper we resolve this apparent paradox by placing the choice of prior into the context of the entire Bayesian analysis, from inference to prediction to model evaluation.

  12. Extending Prior Posts in Dyadic Online Text Chat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudini, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    This study explores whether chat users are able to extend prior, apparently completed posts in the dyadic online text chat context. Dyadic text chat has a unique turn-taking system, and most chat softwares do not permit users to monitor one another's written messages-in-progress. This is likely to impact on their use of online extensions as an…

  13. 13 CFR 305.14 - Occupancy prior to completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Occupancy prior to completion. 305.14 Section 305.14 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... the Recipient's risk and must follow the requirements of local and State law. ...

  14. Do managers manipulate earnings prior to management buyouts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Yaping; Renneboog, Luc

    2015-01-01

    To address the question as to whether managers intending to purchase their company by means of a levered buyout transaction manipulate earnings in order to buy their firm on the cheap, we study the different types of earnings management prior to the transaction: accrual management, real earnings

  15. Do Managers Manipulate Earnings Prior to Management Buyouts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Y.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: To address the question as to whether managers manipulate accounting numbers downwards prior to management buyouts (MBOs), we implement an industry-adjusted buyout-specific approach and receive an affirmative answer. In UK buyout companies, negative earnings manipulation (understating the

  16. Recognition of Prior Learning as an integral component of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is irrespective of whether that learning has been acquired through unstructured learning, performance development, off-the-job assessment, or skills and knowledge that meet workplace needs but have been gained through various previous learning experiences. The concept Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) is ...

  17. Investigation into alternative sludge conditioning prior to dewatering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smollen, M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available have proven that the mixture of char and a small quantity of polyelectrolyte (0.5 to 1kg per ton of dry solids), used as a conditioner prior to centrifugation and filtration tests, produced cake solids concentration superior to that obtained by using...

  18. An Adaptively Accelerated Bayesian Deblurring Method with Entropy Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hoon Kim

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of an efficient adaptively accelerated iterative deblurring algorithm based on Bayesian statistical concept has been reported. Entropy of an image has been used as a “prior” distribution and instead of additive form, used in conventional acceleration methods an exponent form of relaxation constant has been used for acceleration. Thus the proposed method is called hereafter as adaptively accelerated maximum a posteriori with entropy prior (AAMAPE. Based on empirical observations in different experiments, the exponent is computed adaptively using first-order derivatives of the deblurred image from previous two iterations. This exponent improves speed of the AAMAPE method in early stages and ensures stability at later stages of iteration. In AAMAPE method, we also consider the constraint of the nonnegativity and flux conservation. The paper discusses the fundamental idea of the Bayesian image deblurring with the use of entropy as prior, and the analytical analysis of superresolution and the noise amplification characteristics of the proposed method. The experimental results show that the proposed AAMAPE method gives lower RMSE and higher SNR in 44% lesser iterations as compared to nonaccelerated maximum a posteriori with entropy prior (MAPE method. Moreover, AAMAPE followed by wavelet wiener filtering gives better result than the state-of-the-art methods.

  19. Structure of NCI Cooperative Groups Program Prior to NCTN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how the National Cancer Institute’s Cooperative Groups Program was structured prior to its being replaced by NCI’s National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN). The NCTN gives funds and other support to cancer research organizations to conduct cancer clinical trials.

  20. Reference Priors For Non-Normal Two-Sample Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, C.; Steel, M.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The reference prior algorithm (Berger and Bernardo, 1992) is applied to locationscale models with any regular sampling density. A number of two-sample problems is analyzed in this general context, extending the dierence, ratio and product of Normal means problems outside Normality, while explicitly