WorldWideScience

Sample records for childhood lead poisoning

  1. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning prevention...

  2. 75 FR 66771 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning...

  3. 76 FR 62071 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention(ACCLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... developments and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and...

  4. 76 FR 78263 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub... childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead...

  5. 78 FR 40743 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub... childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead...

  6. Are local laws the key to ending childhood lead poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfmacher, Katrina S; Hanley, Michael L

    2013-08-01

    Although lead paint was banned by federal law in 1978, it continues to poison children living in homes built before that time. The lifelong effects of childhood exposure to even small amounts of lead are well established by medical research. Federal and state laws have reduced rates of lead poisoning significantly in the past three decades. However, pockets of high rates of lead poisoning remain, primarily in low-income urban neighborhoods with older housing stock. Recently, several municipalities have passed local lead laws to reduce lead hazards in high-risk areas. There has been no systematic attempt to compare the design and effectiveness of these local policies. To address this gap, we conducted comparative case studies of eight innovative lead laws promulgated since 2000. The laws used a wide variety of legal structures and tools, although certain elements were common. The impact of the policies was intertwined with local housing, economic, and legal environments. While data do not yet exist to systematically evaluate the impact of these laws on lead poisoning rates, our analysis suggests that local laws hold great promise for reducing lead hazards in children's homes.

  7. Childhood lead poisoning: the torturous path from science to policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, David C; Bellinger, Andrew M

    2006-04-01

    The long history of lead poisoning provides many lessons about the process by which scientific knowledge is translated into public health policy. In the United States, lead was added to paint and to gasoline in enormous quantities long after medical evidence clearly showed that excessive lead exposure caused considerable morbidity in the population. This article discusses some of the factors that contributed to the slow pace of efforts to address this problem, including the ubiquity and magnitude of lead exposure during much of the twentieth century, which produced a distorted notion about the blood lead level that can be considered "normal"; the prevailing model of disease during this period, notably the novelty of the concept of subclinical disease; the fact that childhood lead poisoning affected mostly families that were politically and economically disenfranchised, fostering a "blame the victim" attitude; and that controlling lead exposure would have impeded efforts to achieve other desirable goals, illustrating the role that value trade-offs often play in policy decisions.

  8. Childhood lead poisoning: the torturous path from science to policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bellinger, David C; Bellinger, Andrew M.

    2006-01-01

    The long history of lead poisoning provides many lessons about the process by which scientific knowledge is translated into public health policy. In the United States, lead was added to paint and to gasoline in enormous quantities long after medical evidence clearly showed that excessive lead exposure caused considerable morbidity in the population. This article discusses some of the factors that contributed to the slow pace of efforts to address this problem, including the ubiquity and magni...

  9. The Status of Childhood Lead Poisoning and Prevention in Nevada, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Rothweiler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the first steps in addressing the problem of childhood lead poisoning is to identify the possible sources of exposure in specific communities and target high-risk populations with appropriate interventions. Due to several factors, such as lack of funding and lack of blood lead reporting, little information exists regarding the occurrence of childhood lead poisoning and the prevalence of potential exposure sources in the state of Nevada. Following the recent establishment of a Nevada-based Lead Poisoning Program, we compiled the most current information available on Nevadans, and use this knowledge to suggest future research objectives and outreach activities for the state. Accordingly, we identify the characteristics of the vulnerable Nevada populations, explore possible sources of lead exposure unique to Nevada, and summarize the existing data on childhood lead poisoning. Emerging data indicates that Nevada is an area of rapid population growth, characterized by increasing immigration from Latin America, increasing numbers of children from low-income families with no health insurance. Also, childhood lead poisoning may arise from exposure to non-paint sources of lead. After presenting the Nevada statistics, we propose and recommend a set of research and outreach strategies that best suit the needs of Nevada residents.

  10. 76 FR 65728 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on October 6... INFORMATION: Claudine Johnson, Program Operation Assistant or Tiffany Turner, Healthy Homes and Lead...

  11. Childhood lead poisoning in a Somali refugee resettlement community in New Hampshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Rosemary M; Tshabangu-Soko, Thandi; Finefrock, Krysten

    2013-08-01

    Despite the gradual decrease in childhood lead poisoning in the United States, the risk for lead poisoning among African refugee children who resettle in the United States remains elevated. Communication methods implemented by resettlement agencies in the public health system for preventing childhood lead poisoning in this at-risk population warrant further investigation. We utilized structured interviews with key stakeholders (resettlement agencies, social service agencies developed by African refugees and resettled Somali refugees) involved in the refugee resettlement process to (1) describe the agency's role in the refugee resettlement process; (2) examine communication methods utilized and barriers experienced by the public health system in reference to childhood lead poisoning; (3) describe the refugee population's perception of childhood lead poisoning; (4) examine general challenges experienced by the public health system and the refugee population during the resettlement process; and (5) describe stakeholders' recommendations to improve health communication efforts. Based on our findings, we propose that communities are important determinants in health-related problems for refugee populations. Each community has its own environment and public health system that interacts with each other to influence health risks and risk perceptions of its populations. We advocate that understanding a community's ecology and implementing a culture-centered approach is essential for the public health system to help educate and prevent communication inequalities and health disparities among an at-risk African refugee population. This action can reduce a population's resistance to communication and help build a community's capacity to address a persistent public health problem, such as childhood lead poisoning.

  12. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  13. Investigation of Childhood Lead Poisoning from Parental Take-Home Exposure from an Electronic Scrap Recycling Facility — Ohio, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Nick; Jones, Camille; Page, Elena; Ceballos, Diana; Oza, Aalok

    2015-07-17

    Lead affects the developing nervous system of children, and no safe blood lead level (BLL) in children has been identified. Elevated BLLs in childhood are associated with hyperactivity, attention problems, conduct problems, and impairment in cognition. Young children are at higher risk for environmental lead exposure from putting their hands or contaminated objects in their mouth. Although deteriorating lead paint in pre-1979 housing is the most common source of lead exposure in children, data indicate that ≥30% of children with elevated BLLs were exposed through a source other than paint. Take-home contamination occurs when lead dust is transferred from the workplace on employees' skin, clothing, shoes, and other personal items to their car and home. Recycling of used electronics (e-scrap) is a relatively recent source of exposure to developmental neurotoxicants, including lead. In 2010, the Cincinnati Health Department and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit (PEHSU) investigated two cases of childhood lead poisoning in a single family. In 2012, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) learned about the lead poisonings during an evaluation of the e-scrap recycling facility where the father of the two children with lead poisoning worked. This report summarizes the case investigation. Pediatricians should ask about parents' occupations and hobbies that might involve lead when evaluating elevated BLLs in children, in routine lead screening questionnaires, and in evaluating children with signs or symptoms of lead exposure.

  14. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... menopause.) Once the lead is released from the mother's bones, it re-enters the blood stream and ... drinks. Avoid eating off any colorfully painted ceramic plates, and avoid drinking from any ceramic mugs unless ...

  15. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... OTHERS: Lead has recently been found in some plastic mini-blinds and vertical blinds which were made ...

  16. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  17. Linking geology and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behrooz, Behbod; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

  18. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs and tissues that need it, thus causing anemia. Most lead ends up in the bone, where it causes ... vomiting or nausea constipation pallor (pale skin) from ... look for lead poisoning or other health problems. Treatment Treatment for ...

  19. Occupational lead poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Augusto V; Médico del Trabajo. American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

    2013-01-01

    Lead, a ubiquitous heavy metal, has been found in places as unlikely as Greenland’s fossil ice. Egyptians and Hebrews used it. In Spain, Phoenicians c. 2000 BC worked ores of lead. At the end of the XX century, occupational lead’s poisoning became a public health problem in developed countries. In non-developed countries occupational lead poisoning is still frequent. Diagnosis is directed to recognize lead existence at the labor environment and good clinical and occupational documentation. Di...

  20. Peeling Lead Paint Turns into Poisonous Dust. Guess Where It Ends Up? A Media Campaign to Prevent Childhood Lead Poisoning in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Danielle; Tehranifar, Parisa; DeMartini, Diana P.; Faciano, Andrew; Nagin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Successful public health media campaigns promote messages, increase awareness, engage the public, and encourage behavior change. Between 2004 and 2006, the Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted a media campaign grounded in social learning theory and the social marketing model to…

  1. Round and round it goes: the epidemiology of childhood lead poisoning, 1950-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, B

    1993-01-01

    In the 40 years from 1950 to 1990, lead epidemiology and public policy based on it made enormous strides. Exposure levels that caused concern in the medical and public health community fell from 80 to 10 micrograms/dL of blood. In the space of 20 years, beginning in 1970, first the surgeon general and then the CDC lowered the official "level of concern" from 50 or 60 to 10 micrograms/dL. The public health community has turned its attention from the prevention of poisoning that results in encephalopathy, mental retardation, and death to the reduction of exposure to avoid subtle neurobehavioral deficits that are detectable only in fairly large epidemiological studies. Numerous advances in technology and analysis have facilitated progress in lead epidemiology. In order to show that intellectual deficits were related to lead exposure rather than to such confounding variables as parental education, parental IQ, income, or parents' age at time of birth, researchers performed extensive regression analyses of fairly large sample populations, controlling for as many as 39 confounding variables. These analyses would have been virtually impossible but for the development of computer software programs that became available beginning in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Handling of large data bases, such as NHANES II, also required access to computer hardware and software not generally available earlier. The existence of the data depended on other technological innovations that made screening of large populations inexpensive and relatively simple. In 1973, erythrocyte protoporphyrin screening transformed testing for lead poisoning. With the advent of atomic absorption spectroscopy and rapid improvement in equipment for blood lead analysis, obtaining blood lead levels became less expensive and easier and produced more accurate results. Increasing attention both to preventing environmental contamination of samples and to controlling laboratory quality also improved the accuracy of

  2. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  3. Childhood lead poisoning data for California by county, age, and blood lead level for the years 2007-2009; and age of housing data for 2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts and percentages of blood lead levels among children tested for lead poisoning during 2007-2009 within California . The data are...

  4. CLINICAL PROFILE OF CHILDHOOD POISONING IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Accidents including poisoning are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children in the west. Poisoning, while never accounting for a large number of accidental deaths, have acquired prominence now because they have not decreased at the same rate as the infectious diseases. METHODS An observational study was done in Department of Paediatrics KIMS Bangalore to know the incidence and pattern of childhood poisoning, to know the morbidity and mortality resulting from childhood poisoning. 86 children aged between 0-18 years were admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit with history of poisoning during the 2-year period of the study (Nov 13-Nov 15 were included. Diagnosis of poisoning was made on the basis of history and examination findings, Relevant investigations were done and Profile of patients with poisoning, their symptoms, type of poisoning and outcome were analysed. RESULTS The average duration of stay in the hospital was 2.7 days. Poisoning was accidental in 80 (93% patients whereas suicidal intent was present in only 6 (7% patients. Total 5 (5.8% patients died of which 4 were due to insecticide and pesticide poisoning and one was due to kerosene poisoning. CONCLUSION In the present study the probable reason for higher incidence of poisoning by insecticides & pesticides could be the involvement of higher age group and more involvement of adolescent children.

  5. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

  6. Revisiting Nonresidential Environmental Exposures and Childhood Lead Poisoning in the US: Findings from Kansas, 2000–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ann Brink

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although blood lead levels (BLLs in US children have dramatically declined over the past 40 years, there remain pockets of children living in areas with elevated BLLs. While some increases (≥10 μg/dL may be associated with legacy lead paint, ambient air lead may be contributing to the problem. A deidentified dataset of information on over 60,000 Kansas children under 3 years of age who were tested for BLL was provided through the Kansas Environmental Public Health Tracking Network for the period 2000–2005. Using ArcGIS, we calculated distance (in miles from a lead-emitting industry referred to as a toxic release inventory (TRI site. The USEPA TRI database tracks the management of certain toxic chemicals that may pose a threat to human health. US facilities in different industry sectors must report annually amount of substances like lead into the environment including their exact location. Distance from a TRI site was inversely related to BLL after controlling for area-level poverty and pre-1950 housing. The results of our evaluation indicate there is a significant relationship between proximity to lead industry and childhood BLLs. Proximity to sources of lead emissions should be evaluated as a possible factor when identifying children for targeted BLL testing.

  7. Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use.

  8. Chronic lead poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, H.D.; Burau, R.G.

    1973-05-01

    Chronic lead poisoning in horses was manifested as anorexia, loss of body weight, muscular weakness, anemia, laryngeal hemiplegia, and, terminally, inhalation pneumonia. Some deaths were sudden and unexplained. The lead content in liver specimens from 10 horses was greater than that considered indicative of lead intoxication; however, the lead content of blood was equivocal. The most conclusive laboratory finding was increased urine lead concentration after chelation therapy. The concentration of lead in a sample of vegetation considered to be representative of what a horse would eat if he was grazing in the area sampled was 325 ppM (oven-dry basis). It was determined that a 450-kg horse grazing grass of this lead content would consume 2.9 Gm of lead daily (6.4 mg/kg of body weight), an amount considered toxic for horses. Leaching lowered the calcium content of the forage but failed to reduce the lead concentration of the plants significantly, thus opening the possibility that winter rains might have influenced the onset of poisoning. Airborne fallout from a nearby lead smelter was proposed as the primary mode of pasture contamination.

  9. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  10. The epidemiology of childhood poisonings in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliou, Maria; Ioannou, Chrystalla; Andreou, Kyriaki; Petridou, Alexandra; Soteriades, Elpidoforos Soterakis

    2010-07-01

    Information on childhood poisonings in Cyprus is limited. Our objective was to examine the epidemiology of poisonings among children in Cyprus. All children up to 15 years of age admitted for poisoning to the Archbishop Makarios Hospital in Nicosia, Cyprus between 2005 and 2008 were included in our study. All hospital poisoning records were reviewed. A total of 257 children were admitted for poisoning. The mean age of children was 3.1 years, of which 83.7% were below the age of 5 years old, while 53% were boys. The poisoning hospitalizations accounted for about 3% of all admissions to the pediatric department during the study period (4 years). The annual cumulative incidence of childhood poisoning hospitalizations was 116 per 100,000 children. Medications accounted for 46.1% of all poisonings, the most frequent cause being paracetamol (9.8%), cardiovascular medications (5.3%), antitussive medications (4.5%), and other painkillers (4.1%). Another 37.6% of hospitalizations involved household products such as household cleaning products (11.8%), petroleum products (11.0%), and rodenticides (5.7%). Among children who ingested petroleum distillates, 55.6% developed clinical symptomatology. The vast majority of cases were accidental (93.8%). Suicidal cases involved children 8-14 years old, mainly girls, and the most frequent poisoning ingested was paracetamol (46.7%). Poisoning hospitalizations represent an important cause of morbidity among children in Cyprus. Preventive strategies should include the education of caregivers on the handling of medications and household products as well as legislation requiring child-resistant packaging for all medications and household products including petroleum distillates.

  11. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  12. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…

  13. Lead poisoning in captive wild animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, B.C.; Sauer, R.M.; Garner, F.M.

    1972-07-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed post-mortem in 34 simian primates, 11 parrots, and 3 Australian fruit bats at the National Zoological Park. Diagnoses were made by the finding of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelia or hepatocytes and, in most cases, by finding excess lead in samples of liver. The estimated prevalence of lead intoxication among autopsied primates and parrots was 44% and 50% respectively. Leaded paint was found in many animal enclosures at this zoo and it was available to all the lead-poisoned animals in this study. The finding of renal intranuclear inclusion bodies in animals at several zoos, scattered reports of lead intoxication of animals dwelling in various zoos, the occurrence of leaded paint in many zoos and the high incidence of lead poisoning at this zoo, indicated that lead poisoning of zoo animals is much more common than was previously thought.

  14. Lead Poisoning in the World and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Azizi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a relatively ubiquitous heavy metal with particular features such as resistance to corrosion, high malleability and wide variety of industrial applications. In medicine, however, it is considered as a slow-acting toxic substance affecting multiple body systems, specifically functioning as a potent neurotoxin in the central nervous system. Lead poisoning may be acute or chronic and can be due to occupational or environmental exposures. The history of lead poisoning dates back to ancient times. The present paper briefly describes the worldwide historical accounts of lead poisoning with a special focus on Iran.

  15. Interpreting and managing blood lead levels of less than 10 microg/dL in children and reducing childhood exposure to lead: recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Helen J; Campbell, Carla; Brown, Mary Jean

    2007-11-01

    Lead is a common environmental contaminant. Lead exposure is a preventable risk that exists in all areas of the United States. In children, lead is associated with impaired cognitive, motor, behavioral, and physical abilities. In 1991, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defined the blood lead level that should prompt public health actions as 10 microg/dL. Concurrently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also recognized that a blood lead level of 10 microg/dL did not define a threshold for the harmful effects of lead. Research conducted since 1991 has strengthened the evidence that children's physical and mental development can be affected at blood lead levels of children they examine, provide families with lead-prevention counseling, and follow blood lead screening recommendations established for their areas. As circumstances permit, clinicians should consider referral to developmental programs for children at high risk for exposure to lead and more frequent rescreening of children with blood lead levels approaching 10 microg/dL. In addition, clinicians should direct parents to agencies and sources of information that will help them establish a lead-safe environment for their children. For these preventive strategies to succeed, partnerships between health care providers, families, and local public health and housing programs should be strengthened.

  16. Lead poisoning in six captive avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owls were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminoievulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to III ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in red-winged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically

  17. Lead poisoning in China: a health and human rights crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jane E; Amon, Joseph J

    2012-12-15

    Acute and chronic lead poisoning is occurring throughout China and is a major cause of childhood morbidity. The Chinese government's emphasis on industrial development and poverty reduction has, over the past three decades, decreased by 500 million the number of people surviving on less than one dollar per day, but has caused significant environmental degradation that threatens public health. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 with families affected by lead poisoning, environmental activists, journalists, government and civil society organization officials in Shaanxi, Henan, Hunan, and Yunnan provinces, as well as a review of scientific and Chinese media, and health and environmental legal and policy analysis, we examine the intersection of civil, political, economic, and social rights related to access to information, screening, treatment, and remediation related to lead poisoning. In-depth interviews in each province uncovered: censorship and intimidation of journalists, environmental activists, and parents seeking information about sources and prevention of lead poisoning; denial of screening for lead poisoning, often based upon arbitrary eligibility criteria; and inadequate and inappropriate treatment being promoted and provided by health facilities. Over the past decade, the Chinese government has prioritized health care and invested billions of dollars towards universal health coverage, and strengthened environmental to address industrial pollution and guarantee access to information on the environment. Yet, despite these reforms, information remains constrained and citizens seeking information and redress are sometimes arrested, in violation of Chinese and international law. Local government officials and national environmental policies continue to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. To effectively address lead poisoning requires an emphasis on prevention, and to combat industrial pollution requires

  18. Undue Lead Absorption and Lead Poisoning in Children: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin-Fu, J. S.

    The toxic effects of lead, a useful metal ubiquitous in the human environment, have long been known. The occupational hazards of lead poisoning were well established by the early 19th century, but plumbism in children caused by paint ingestion was not reported until the turn of the century. Even in 1924, the child was said to live in a "lead…

  19. Recent Advances in the Clinical Management of Lead Poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Kianoush

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning is a historic universal disease. Acute or chronic lead exposure may cause reversible or even permanent damages in human beings. Environmental lead exposure is a global health concern in children. Occupational lead poisoning is still a health issue, particularly in developing countries. During the last decades, new methods and medications have been advocated for the prevention and treatment of lead poisoning. This review deals mainly with recent developments in the management of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure are introduced, and methods for the primary prevention of lead poisoning are discussed. Details for the screening of adults and children are also explained to serve as a practical guideline for the secondary prevention. Standard chelation therapy in different groups and up-to-date less toxic new medications for the treatment of lead poisoning are finally discussed. Our published clinical research on the therapeutic effects of garlic tablets in mild to moderate occupational lead poisoning will also be discussed.

  20. Lead poisoning of children in Africa, III. Kaduna, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nriagu, J; Oleru, N T; Cudjoe, C; Chine, A

    1997-04-30

    This study investigated the prevalence of elevated blood lead (PbB) levels in children 1-6 years old in Kaduna, a medium size city in northern Nigeria. Mean PbB was found to be 10.6 micrograms/dl, and 2% of the children had PbB levels greater than 30 micrograms/dl. Highest average PbB levels were found in children 5 years old and was attributed to the tendency for this age group to play longer in contaminated outdoor environments. The strongest associations were found between PbB and whether the family owned a car or lived in a house on a tarred road. Potential sources of lead in the city as well as household and behavior risk factors likely to result in exposure of children to lead are discussed. This study provides additional data pointing to childhood lead poisoning as being a major public health problem in urban areas of Africa.

  1. Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunturu Krishna S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation. Chemical analysis of the medication showed high levels of lead. Following treatment with an oral chelating agent, the patient's symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities normalized. This case highlights the need for increased awareness that some Ayurvedic medicines may contain potentially harmful levels of heavy metals and people who use them are at risk of developing associated toxicities.

  2. Appendectomy due to lead poisoning: a case-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghilinejad M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead poisoning is a common occupational health hazard in developing countries and many misdiagnoses and malpractices may occur due to unawareness of lead poisoning symptoms. Case presentation We report a case of occupational lead poisoning in an adult battery worker with abdominal colic who initially underwent appendectomy with removal of normal appendix. Later on he was diagnosed with lead poisoning and was treated appropriately with lead chelator (CaNa2EDTA. Conclusion Lead poisoning is frequently overlooked as the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen which may result in unnecessary surgery. Appropriate occupational history taking is helpful in making a correct diagnosis. Occupational lead poisoning is a preventable disorder and a serious challenge for the health and labor authorities in developing countries.

  3. Lead shot poisoning of a Pacific loon in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H.M.; Oyen, J.L.; Sileo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Lead poisoning, associated with ingestion of spent lead shot, was diagnosed in an adult female Pacific loon (Gavia pacifica) observed with partial paralysis on 13 June 2002 and found dead on 16 June 2002 on Kigigak Island, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, western Alaska, USA. A necropsy revealed three pellets of ingested lead shot in the loona??s gizzard and a lead liver concentration of 31 ppm wet weight, which was consistent with metallic lead poisoning. This is the first report of lead poisoning in a Pacific loon and is the only account of lead toxicosis associated with ingestion of lead shot in any loon species breeding in Alaska.

  4. Chronic Lead Poisoning in Iran; a Silent Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mahrpour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning is one of the oldest, permanent hazards in the world and Iran is not excluded and has the same risk of lead toxicity. Humans have known about the potential hazards of lead poisoning for centuries. Lead is widespread in natural substances, and almost all people are in touch with this insidiously toxic heavy metal in different ways either in workplace or at homes. The level of exposure is higher in most of countries because of extensive use of lead containing materials in normal life and the environment.

  5. Lead poisoning and cystatin-C in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Lead pollution is a global problem both in developed and developing countries. Lead poisoning is associated with decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR and is a risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI. Serum cystatin-C is a more precise test of GFR than serum creatinine level, as serum cystatin-C levels rise earlier than serum creatinine, when GFR decreases. Objective To assess for a possible correlation between lead poisoning and cystatin-C levels in children. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in children aged 6-11 years with a history of lead poisoning from elementary schools in Talawaan District, North Minahasa Regency from July to October 2013. Cystatin-C and blood lead levels (BLL were measured in all subjects. Spearman’s rho test was used to analyze a potential correlation between BLL and cystatin-C level. Results This study included 41 children, comprising 21 boys and 20 girls. Their median age was 8.50 (range 6.8-10.7 years. Elevated levels of cystatin-C did not exceed normal values, however, we found a positive correlation between BLL and cystatin C (r=0.419, P=0.006. Conclusion There is a positive correlation between BLL and cystatin C level in children with lead poisoning. Regular monitoring of BLL, medical intervention, and an epidemiological study to help find the sources of contamination are needed for children with lead poisoning.

  6. [Implication of lead poisoning in psychopathology of Vincent van Gogh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Luque, F J; Montejo González, A L

    1997-01-01

    The authors, by means of documental research, study the possibility that the physical and psychic symptoms of Vincent van Gogh may have been due to chronic lead poisoning. The technique and materials used by Van Gogh are analysed as the cause of repeated exposure to lead as well as the possible means of penetration of the metal. Through historical-biographical analysis, the progressive symptoms of the illness are compared with those of lead poisoning. The authors conclude that the excessive and continuous use by Van Gogh of pigments which were highly toxic due to their high lead content, such as white lead (lead carbonate) and yellow chrome (lead chromium), could have penetrated his organism by digestive system (primarily) in minimal daily amounts, giving rise to a clinical condition of chronic lead poisoning. This type of poisoning coincides with the clinical symptoms Van Gogh describes in his autographed letters: initial debilitation, stomatitis with loss of teeth, recurring abdominal pains, anaemia (with a "plumbic" skin tone), neuropathy of the radial and saturnine encephalopathy including epileptic crises, progressive character changes and periods of delirium. The clinical symptoms shown by Van Gogh meet present criteria for diagnosis of Organic Mental Disorder due to cerebral lesion or somatic illness (F.06; CIE-10) (DSM-IV-R), and Organic Character Disorder (F.07; CIE-10) (DSM-IV-R).

  7. Olive leaf extract inhibits lead poisoning-induced brain injury**

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wang; Shengqing Wang; Wenhui Cui; Jiujun He; Zhenfu Wang; Xiaolu Yang

    2013-01-01

    Olive leaves have an antioxidant capacity, and olive leaf extract can protect the blood, spleen and hippocampus in lead-poisoned mice. However, little is known about the effects of olive leaf extract on lead-induced brain injury. This study was designed to determine whether olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury, and whether this effect is associated with antioxidant capacity. First, we established a mouse model of lead poisoning by continuous intragastric administration of lead acetate for 30 days. Two hours after successful model establishment, lead-poisoned mice were given olive leaf extract at doses of 250, 500 or 1 000 mg/kg daily by intragastric administration for 50 days. Under the transmission electron microscope, olive leaf extract attenuated neuronal and capil ary injury and reduced damage to organel es and the matrix around the capil aries in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex in the lead-poisoned mice. Olive leaf extract at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg had the greatest protective effect. Spectrophotometry showed that olive leaf extract significantly in-creased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phospha-tase, while it reduced malondialdehyde content, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, im-munohistochemical staining revealed that olive leaf extract dose-dependently decreased Bax pro-tein expression in the cerebral cortex of lead-poisoned mice. Our findings indicate that olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury by increasing antioxidant capacity and reducing apop-tosis.

  8. Renovate Right: Prevent Lead Poisoning in Children

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Maria Doa, Director of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Program Chemicals Division, discusses EPA's new rule for renovations, repairs, and painting activities. The new rule includes information on lead-safe work practices when conducting renovations, repairs, and painting in pre-1978 homes and schools to prevent the spread of lead dust.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  9. Recommended Diagnostic Criteria for Occupational Chronic Lead Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNJIN-BAI; WANGJIN-PING

    1995-01-01

    The present study aims to recommend the normal upper limit,the acceptable upper limit,the subclinical lead absorption and intoxication diagnostic criteria in an effort to re-evaluate the current national diagnostic criteria for the occupational chronic lead poisoning.The study was conducted on 330 lead exposed workers and 100 non-exposed controls based on the determination of blood and urinary lead,porphyrin metabolism indices,as well as other indices under a nationwide quality control program.The data were subsequently treated by the curve fitting,multi-step transformation to Gauss distribution,and discriminant analysis with the aid of a SAS software package.The relationships between the air lead and blood lead level with certain biological parameters indicative of excessive lead exposure and poisoning were well established.The sensitivity,specificity,accuracy,false positive and false negative results of these critical values were also fully evaluated.This study would be useful for the amendment of the new edition of the national diagnostic criteria for the occupational chronic lead poisoning in China and would provide new approaches for similar investigations.

  10. Uso de los datos de plumbemia para evaluar y prevenir el envenenamiento infantil por plomo en Latinoamérica Use of blood lead data in epidemiological studies to assess and prevent childhood lead poisoning in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La exposición al plomo es una amenaza seria para la salud de los niños, que se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en la Región de América Latina. Los funcionarios de salud pública necesitan identificar fuentes de exposición al plomo, así como sus efectos en la salud, para poder diseñar, implantar y evaluar las actividades preventivas y de control. Para evaluar la magnitud del problema del plomo es necesario definir tres elementos clave: a las fuentes potenciales de exposición, b los indicadores que se utilizarán para evaluar los efectos en la salud y la exposición en el medio ambiente, y c las estrategias de muestreo de la población en riesgo. Se pueden utilizar varias estrategias con el fin de seleccionar la población blanco dependiendo de los objetivos del estudio, el tiempo límite y los recursos disponibles. Si el objetivo es evaluar la magnitud y las fuentes del problema pueden emplearse los siguientes métodos de muestreo: a el muestreo al azar basado en la población; b el muestreo al azar basado en las facilidades dentro de los hospitales, las guarderías o las escuelas; c el muestreo objetivo de los grupos de alto riesgo; d el muestreo de conveniencia (de voluntarios, y e el reporte de los casos (éste puede conducir a la identificación de las poblaciones en riesgo, además de las fuentes de exposición. Para todos los diseños de muestreo, la información debe incluir tanto el uso de un cuestionario para el informe general de los participantes y de las fuentes potenciales locales de exposición, como la recolección de las muestras biológicas. En la interpretación de los datos se debe considerar el tipo de muestreo utilizado, el porcentaje de falta de respuesta y los factores que pueden influir en las mediciones del plomo en sangre, como la edad y la variación de la temporada. Las mediciones del plomo en la sangre se deben integrar dentro de una estrategia general para la prevención de toxicidad.Exposure to lead is a

  11. 24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The requirements of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint...

  12. Acute lead poisoning in two users of illicit methamphetamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcott, J.V. III; Barnhart, R.A.; Mooney, L.A.

    1987-07-31

    Acute lead poisoning can present a difficult diagnostic dilemma, with symptoms that mimic those of hepatitis, nephritis, and encephalopathy. The authors report two cases in intravenous methamphetamine users who presented with abnormal liver function values, low hematocrit values, basophilic stippling of red blood cells, and elevated blood lead levels. Both patients excreted large amounts of lead in their urine after treatment with edetic acid, followed by resolution of their symptoms. Lead contamination was proved in one drug sample. Basophilic stippling of the red blood cells was the one key laboratory result that led to the definitive diagnosis in both cases.

  13. Strategies for safe and effective therapeutic measures for chronic arsenic and lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Kiran; Flora, Swaran J S

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to toxic metals remains a widespread occupational and environmental problem in world. There have been a number of reports in the recent past suggesting an incidence of childhood lead poisoning and chronic arsenic poisoning due to contaminated drinking water in many areas of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh has become a national calamity. Low level metal exposure in humans is caused by air, food and water intake. Lead and arsenic generally interferes with a number of body functions such as the central nervous system (CNS), the haematopoietic system, liver and kidneys. Over the past few decades there has been growing awareness and concern that the toxic biochemical and functional effects are occurring at a lower level of metal exposure than those that produce overt clinical and pathological signs and symptoms. Despite many years of research, we are still far from an effective treatment of chronic plumbism and arsenicosis. Medical treatment of acute and chronic lead and arsenic toxicity is furnished by chelating agents. Chelating agents are organic compounds capable of linking together metal ions to form complex ring-like structures called chelates. They have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic poisoning. 2, 3-dimercaprol (BAL) has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning. Meso 2, 3, -dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) has been tried successfully in animals as well as in a few cases of human lead and arsenic poisoning. DMSA could be a safe and effective method for treating lead or arsenic poisoning, but one of the major disadvantages of chelation with DMSA has been its inability to remove lead from the intracellular sites because of its lipophobic nature. Further, it does not provide protection in terms of clinical/ biochemical recovery. A new trend in chelation therapy is to use combined treatment. This includes the use of structurally different chelators or a combination of an adjuvant and a chelator to

  14. Group and insidious tetraethyl lead poisoning occurred in industry of plastic weaving: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Bai, Ying; Zhu, Baoli; Zhu, Wenjing; Ye, Mingxian

    2016-05-01

    Tetraethyl lead (TEL) poisoning has declined sharply with decreasing consumption of gasoil and other chemicals contained TEL. Here we reported group TEL poisoning in the plastic weaving factory. We investigated 16 cases with the typical nerves disorder which is similar to organotin poisoning, and the result suggested that the poisoning may cause by applied "white oil" contented TEL. Despite its rareness, our cases emphasize that clinicians should pay attention to the difference from the treatment of organic tin poisoning.

  15. Lead arthropathy: a cause of delayed onset lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peh, W.C.G. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong); Reinus, W.R. [Mallinckrodt Inst. of Radiology, Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Patients who suffer gun shot wounds often have retained bullet fragments within their bodies. These are usually of no clinical consequence. We describe three patients with retained bullets within their hip joints. One of these patients, who had extensive ground intra-articular bullet fragments and secondary osteoarthritis of the hip, presented with signs, symptoms, and laboratory data consistent with lead intoxication. The bullet und metallic fragments were removed surgically with good clinical response. Two patients whose bullets were implanted entirely within the femoral head and whose joints showed smaller degrees of lead fragmentation had no symptoms of lead intoxication. The degree of intra-articular fragmentation of the bullet and the surface area of lead exposed to synovial fluid are emphasized as decisive factors with respect to appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  16. Experimental lead poisoning in Turkey Vultures, Cathartes aura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Pattee, O.H.; Fritts, S.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Royle, J. Andrew; Smith, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Lead-induced mortality appears to have been a major factor in the decline of the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus. We orally dosed turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) with BB-sized lead shot from January 1988 through July 1988 to determine physiological response (delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase inhibition, erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels, anemia), diagnostic tissue lead concentrations (blood, liver, and kidney), and comparative sensitivity of this species. Two turkey vultures died and two became so intoxicated they were euthanized. Overall, responses of measured parameters were comparable to other species exposed to lead although there was considerable individual variation. Survival time (143-211 days), even with the large number of shot and constant redosing, was much longer than reported for other species of birds, suggesting considerable tolerance by turkey vultures to the deleterious effects of lead ingestion. Based on these observations, turkey vultures appear to be poor models for assessing the risk of lead poisoning to California condors or predicting their physiological response.

  17. Lead poisoning among Arab American and African American children in the Detroit metropolitan area, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nriagu, Jerome; Senthamarai-Kannan, Raghavendra; Jamil, Hikmet; Fakhori, Monty; Korponic, Summer

    2011-09-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that acculturation is a risk factor for childhood lead poisoning in the Detroit area of Michigan. Blood lead levels (BLLs) were determined in 429 Arab American and African American children, aged 6 months to 15 years, who were receiving well-child examination in three Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) clinics in the city. Mean BLL was 3.8 ± 2.3 μg/dL (range: 1-18 μg/dL) and 3.3% of the children tested had blood lead values above the 10 μg/dL level of concern. Neither the age of the dwelling units nor ethnicity of the child was significantly associated with the BLL. Multivariable analyses instead identified a number of acculturation-related factors that are associated with elevation in blood lead including paternal education, language spoken at home (English only, English and Arabic, or Arabic only), home ownership, smoking in the home, and exposure of child to home health remedies. The difference in blood lead between Arab American children from families where Arabic only versus Arabic and English is spoken at home was found to be statistically significant. This study provides information showing that immigrant children are at heightened risk of being poisoned by lead which can be useful in identifying groups at risk of atypical exposures.

  18. Buyers beware: lead poisoning due to Ayurvedic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, J Matthew R; Estrada, Carlos A; Mathews, Ronnie E

    2012-10-01

    A 29-year-old man, who recently emigrated from India, presented with a 2-week history of abdominal pain, as well as nausea, constipation, and fatigue. He underwent removal of a parathyroid adenoma 6 weeks prior to admission and received a locally made Indian traditional medicine (Ayurveda) for pain control; however, this information was not initially available. He was instructed to take approximately 15 g/day. Initial evaluation revealed a normocytic anemia, but other workup including imaging and endoscopy was unrevealing. Given his recent use of Ayurvedic medicines, we tested for lead poisoning and found a blood lead level of 72 mcg/dl. We sent his medicine for analysis and found it had a high lead concentration of 36,000 mcg/g, which is over 25,000 times the maximum daily dose. He improved with cessation of the medicine and treatment with succimer. Lead poisoning can present with a variety of nonspecific signs and symptoms, including abdominal pain and anemia. Ayurvedic medicines, as well as traditional medicines from other cultures, may be a source of lead or other heavy metals. It is essential for physicians to be aware of adverse effects of Ayurvedic medicines as they are easily available and increasing in popularity.

  19. Chronic renal failure with gout: a marker of chronic lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craswell, P.W.; Price, J.; Boyle, P.D.; Heazlewood, V.J.; Baddeley, H.; Lloyd, H.M.; Thomas, B.J.; Thomas, B.W.

    1984-09-01

    EDTA (calcium disodium edetate) lead mobilization and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) finger bone lead tests were done in 42 patients with chronic renal failure and without persisting lead intoxication. Nineteen of 23 patients with gout and 8 of 19 without gout had positive EDTA lead mobilization tests. Those patients with gout excreted significantly more excess lead chelate than those without gout. In the gout group 17 patients denied any childhood or industrial exposure to lead. They had a greater number of positive tests and excreted significantly more excess lead chelate than 14 patients with neither gout nor lead exposure. These results confirm that gout in the presence of chronic renal failure is a useful marker of chronic lead poisoning. Of 27 patients with positive lead mobilization tests, only 13 had elevated XRF finger bone lead concentrations (sensitivity 48%). Three of 15 patients with negative lead mobilization tests had elevated XRF finger bone lead concentrations (specificity 80%). Although the XRF finger bone lead test is a convenient noninvasive addition to the diagnostic evaluation of patients with chronic renal failure and gout, its application is limited due to the lack of sensitivity of the method.

  20. Lead poisoning in a West Bank Arab Village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, C; Abrahamov, A; Moreb, J; Hersh, M; Shiffman, R; Shahin, A; Richter, E D; Konijn, A M; Weissenberg, E; Graver, F

    1984-10-01

    Eleven patients from the West Bank village of Es-Sawiyeh were admitted with lead poisoning to two Jerusalem hospitals between November 1982 and January 1983. They all belonged to several households of a single large family. Colicky abdominal pains were present in five patients, weakness in four, behavioral changes ranging from irritability to frank psychosis in four, and paralysis in one. Anemia of various degrees was seen in all patients. Basophilic stippling and reticulocytosis were encountered in all patients with moderate to severe anemia. Therapy with edetate disodium calcium and penicillamine resulted in clinical improvement in all patients. A preliminary survey of 270 subjects in the same village disclosed 84 subjects with abnormally elevated blood lead levels, 17 of whom had grade IV lead burden according to the Centers for Disease Control risk classification. Contamination of homemade flour by lead used for stabilizing the metal parts of stone mills was the source of poisoning. As the method of milling in many West Bank villages is similar, these findings may have important implications to the well being of a large section of the rural West Bank population.

  1. Lead Poisoning: An Alarming Public Health Problem in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. K. Bashar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the risk of lead poisoning among preschool and school-aged children in Bangladesh, 345 children were screened for blood lead levels (BLLs from one rural and two urban areas in Bangladesh from September 2007 through January 2008. An urban industrial area at Tongi was identified as a disaster area, where 99% (104/105 of those tested had BLLs ≥10 µg/dL. Industrial emissions and use of leaded gasoline by two-stroke engine vehicles were identified as possible sources of lead in that area. A rural nonindustrial area at Chirirbandar, Dinajpur was identified as another high-risk area, where 14% of the children screened had BLLs ≥10 µg/dL. BLLs at the urban industrial area were significantly higher than those at the rural and urban nonindustrial areas (24.58 ± 10.32, 7.24 ± 6.31, and 2.47 ± 3.32 µg/dL, respectively; p <0.001. Weight-for-age z-scores of the urban children were significantly lower than that of the rural children (-1.41 ± 1.88 vs. 0.20 ± 1.16, p <0.001. Children with elevated BLLs had poorer nutritional status (p = 0.05 than those with normal BLLs. Over 90% of the parents did not know that lead causes health problems. In conclusion, the problem of lead poisoning in children was found to be high in both urban and rural Bangladesh. A universal lead screening for preschool and school-aged children and a lead education program for parents are recommended for implementation in Bangladesh.

  2. Lead poisoning: an alarming public health problem in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Amal K; Haque, Akhlaque; Islam, Manirul; Bashar, S A M K

    2009-01-01

    To assess the risk of lead poisoning among preschool and school-aged children in Bangladesh, 345 children were screened for blood lead levels (BLLs) from one rural and two urban areas in Bangladesh from September 2007 through January 2008. An urban industrial area at Tongi was identified as a disaster area, where 99% (104/105) of those tested had BLLs >or= 10 microg/dL. Industrial emissions and use of leaded gasoline by two-stroke engine vehicles were identified as possible sources of lead in that area. A rural nonindustrial area at Chirirbandar, Dinajpur was identified as another high-risk area, where 14% of the children screened had BLLs >or= 10 microg/dL. BLLs at the urban industrial area were significantly higher than those at the rural and urban nonindustrial areas (24.58 +/- 10.32, 7.24 +/- 6.31, and 2.47 +/- 3.32 microg/dL, respectively; p <0.001). Weight-for-age z-scores of the urban children were significantly lower than that of the rural children (-1.41 +/- 1.88 vs. 0.20 +/- 1.16, p <0.001). Children with elevated BLLs had poorer nutritional status (p = 0.05) than those with normal BLLs. Over 90% of the parents did not know that lead causes health problems. In conclusion, the problem of lead poisoning in children was found to be high in both urban and rural Bangladesh. A universal lead screening for preschool and school-aged children and a lead education program for parents are recommended for implementation in Bangladesh.

  3. Secondary lead poisoning a projectile housed in the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bernardo Gerstner Garcés

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 72 1024x768 Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE With the increase of violence and use of firearms in Colombia, we may see more cases of lead poisoning in our environment, and must be prepared to diagnose and treat them. Subtle signs and symptoms as unexplained anemia, gastro-intestinal discomfort and abdominal cramps, and severe as changes in behavior and neurological status, nephropathy, and unexplained death, may be associated with a history of gunshot wounds and projectiles in the human body, and must offer the patient knowledge and management strategies of pathology.

  4. Chronic lead poisoning in steers eating silage contaminated with lead shot - diagnostic criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, D.A.; McLoughlin, M.F.; Blanchflower, W.J.; Thompson, T.R.

    1987-10-01

    Lead ingestion is one of the most common causes of poisoning in cattle. Toxicity results most commonly from the consumption of a single high dose of lead although cumulative toxicity resulting from the ingestion of small doses over a prolonged time also occurs. The sources of lead most commonly involved in disease outbreaks are paint, batteries, felt, linoleum and oil. It has traditionally been held that ingested metallic lead does not present a major toxicity risk to cattle because of its low solubility in the rumen and reticulum. More recent evidence suggests that lead shot, if present in silage, can induce toxicity when such silage is eaten by cattle. This communication describes a poisoning outbreak in steers eating lead shot contaminated grass silage. It presents and discusses the limitations of the criteria used for arriving at a diagnosis, including the use of whole blood amino levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) concentrations in fresh whole blood and after reactivation with dithiothreitol. Three are differences of opinion, in the literature, regarding the response of erythrocyte ALAD to ingested lead in the bovine. Consequently the results of a small lead feeding trial are also reported here. These results demonstrate a large ALAD response to lead ingestion and justify the use of this test in the confirmation of field cases of lead poisoning in cattle such as the one reported here.

  5. Lead poisoning and trace elements in common eiders from Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J.C.; Poppenga, R.H.; Hario, Martti; Kilpi, Mikael

    1998-01-01

    We collected carcasses of 52 common eider Somateria mollissima adults and ducklings and blood samples from 11 nesting eider hens in the Gulf of Finland near Helsinki in 1994, 1995 and 1996. Samples of liver tissue were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc. Blood was analysed for lead, mercury and selenium. Most of the 21 adults examined at necropsy were emaciated with empty gizzards, and no ingested shotgun pellets or other metal were found in any of the birds. Three adult females had a combination of lesions and tissue lead residues characteristic of lead poisoning. Two of these birds had acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelial cells and high concentrations of lead (73.4 and 73.3 ppm; all liver residues reported on dry weight basis) in their livers. The third was emaciated with a liver lead concentration of 47.9 ppm. An adult male had a liver lead concentration of 81.7 ppm, which is consistent with severe clinical poisoning. Two other adults, one male and one female, had liver lead concentrations of 14.2 and 8.03 ppm, respectively. Lead concentrations in the blood of hens ranged from 0.11 to 0.63 ppm wet weight. Selenium residues of A?60 ppm were found in the livers of five adult males. Selenium concentrations in the blood of hens ranged from 1.18 to 3.39 ppm wet weight. Arsenic concentrations of 27.5-38.5 ppm were detected in the livers of four adult females. Detectable concentrations of selenium, mercury and molybdenum were found more frequently in the livers of adult males arriving on the breeding grounds than in incubating females, while the reverse was true for arsenic, lead and chromium. Mean concentrations of selenium, copper and molybdenum were higher in the livers of arriving males than in the livers of incubating hens, but hens had greater concentrations of iron and magnesium. Concentrations of trace elements were lower in the livers of ducklings than

  6. 24 CFR 200.77 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 200.77 Section 200.77 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-based paint poisoning prevention. Requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 35 apply to these programs....

  7. Correlation between biochemical indicators of lead exposure and semen quality in a lead-poisoned firearms instructor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher-Fischbein, J.; Fischbein, A.; Melnick, H.D.; Bardin, C.W.

    1987-02-13

    Lead poisoning is a disease of great public health concern, particularly because of the hazards that lead can pose to children as a result of ingestion of lead-based paint and perhaps as a consequence of the effects of lead pollution of the ambient air. However, lead poisoning is also a common occupational disease among adults. Persons who work as instructors at indoor firing ranges are likewise at high risk for occupational lead poisoning. The typical biochemical features of lead poisoning include inhibition of heme synthesis manifested by elevated levels of erythrocyte protoporphyrin and decreased activity of sigma-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Reproductive effects of lead have been reported in both men and women, but these effects rarely present themselves as practical clinical problems in occupational medicine practice. The current Department of Labor standard for occupational exposure to inorganic lead has been promulgated with special emphasis on the protection of the worker from damage to the reproductive system. The authors had the opportunity of measuring biologic indicators of lead exposure and of assessing semen quality in a firearms instructor with lead poisoning and infertility, who was treated and who fathered a child. They report herein the results of these longitudinal observations.

  8. Metabolism of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid in lead-poisoned children and normal adults.

    OpenAIRE

    P. ASIEDU; Moulton, T; Blum, C B; Roldan, E.; Lolacono, N J; Graziano, J H

    1995-01-01

    Meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, or succimer) is an oral chelating agent for heavy-metal poisoning. While studying the urinary elimination of unaltered DMSA, altered DMSA (i.e., its mixed disulfides), and lead in children with lead poisoning, we observed a pattern of urinary drug elimination after meals suggestive of enterohepatic circulation. The excretion of lead in urine patterned the elimination of altered DMSA rather than the parent molecule. In addition, the half-life of eliminat...

  9. Poisoning of wild birds from exposure to anticholinesterase compounds and lead: diagnostic methods and selected cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Smith, Milton R.

    1999-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate compounds have largely replaced chlorinated hydrocarbons for pesticidal use in the United States, and many cases of poisoning resulting from exposure to these anticholinesterase agents have occurred in free-living birds. Although lead shot has been prohibited for waterfowl hunting throughout the United States since 1991, lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is still occasionally seen in wild birds, and lead poisoning from the ingestion of fishing sinkers is an emerging issue of concern. A thorough history, a complete necropsy evaluation, and appropriate laboratory analysis of tissues are required to diagnose toxicoses in wild birds, including those caused by anticholinesterase compounds and lead. The interpretation of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity results depends on the methods of analysis and comparison with expected normal enzyme activities in brain tissue from the same species. Although lead residues in tissues vary among species, many lead poisoned birds have tissue residues that are much higher than the lower threshold commonly accepted for a diagnosis of lead poisoning. We review histories, necropsy findings, and analytical methodologies and results for selected anticholinesterase and lead poisoning cases diagnosed in wild raptors, waterfowl, and loons.

  10. Forensic case of lead poisoning from a battery manufacturing company in Nakuru, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaria, James M; Ochodo, C; Nguta, Joseph Mwanzia

    2013-02-01

    Acute sickness involving dairy cattle (n = 5) with a morbidity of 100% occurred in a farm in Nakuru, Kenya. A case study was undertaken with the objective of establishing the cause of the sickness. Samples of blood, soil and industrial waste contained high levels of lead. The symptoms, results of postmortem and history of the case were used to establish the diagnosis of acute lead poisoning. This is a forensic case in court between the owner of the animals and a lead recycling company that dumped the industrial waste that was associated with the poisoning. There could be many unreported cases of lead poisoning in Kenya areas with heavy industrial activities since data on of lead poisoning in Kenya is scanty.

  11. NWIL Final Report 1983-84 Lead Poisoning Monitoring Program White River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Evidence of lead poisoning at White River National Wildlife Refuge was demonstrated by examination of tissues from hunter-killed and trapped waterfowl. Elevated...

  12. NWHL final report 1984 [ to ] 1985 lead poisoning monitoring program Modoc National Wildlife Refuge California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Twelve carcasses were submitted for necropsy from Modoc National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) during the 1984-85 Lead Poisoning Monitoring Program; one Canada goose was...

  13. World's leading physics lab shut for poisoning water

    CERN Multimedia

    Popham, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Gran Sasso National Laboratory, the most advanced laboratory in the world for underground research into astroparticle physics, has been shut after polluting the environment. The laboratory, deep beneath the Apenninnes is said to have poisoned an aqueduct with waste from its equipment and committed numerous other infringements and ommissions (1 page)

  14. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... team will provide additional treatment. They can use methods to get rid of the poison before it causes more harm. Some types of poison have antidotes. These work by reversing the poison’s effects and curing it. Treatment also includes measures to relieve symptoms. ...

  15. Lead Poisoning: Historical Aspects of a Paradigmatic "Occupational and Environmental Disease"

    OpenAIRE

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Lafranconi, Alessandra; D'Orso, Marco Italo; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    Lead poisoning is one of the earliest identified and most known occupational disease. Its acute effects have been recognized from antiquity when this condition principally afflicted manual workers and slaves, actually scarcely considered by the medicine of that time. The Industrial Revolution caused an epidemic of metal intoxication, urging scientists and physician of that period to study and identify specific symptoms and organ alterations related to chronic lead poisoning. During the 20th c...

  16. [Lead poisoning. A surprising cause of constipation, abdominal pain and anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmanová, Iva; Kačírková, Petra; Kučerová, Irena; Ševčík, Rudolf; Sánchez, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    This article reports on patient that has been presented with sudden onset of constipation, abdominal pain and normocytic anemia. Gastroscopy and colonoscopy ruled out an organic diseases. In peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirates mears, coarse basophilic stippling of erythrocyte (and erythroblasts) point out a possibility of heavy metal poisoning. The level of plumbemia exceeded 8.4 times the maximal permitted value for common (non-professional) population. A source of poisoning was indentified from a glaze on a ceramic jug, from which the patient had drank tea with lemon for three months. A lead concentration in the tea extract was 227 mg/kg. In developed countries, lead poisoning is a rare diagnosis. As the symptoms are nonspecific, missed diagnoses could occur, especially in sporadic, non-occupational exposure. However, a microscopic evaluation of the peripheral bloods mear with finding of predominantly coarse basophilic stippling of erythrocyte mayle ad to suspicion of lead poisoning.

  17. Effect of Problem Based Learning Scenario on Knowledge of Third Class Students About Childhood Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Karaoğlu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is stated that students cannot carry their knowledge on basic medical sciences that they gained with classical education to clinical classes and clinical practice and problem based learning (PBL can compensate this drawback. It was aimed to evaluate the effect of PBL scenario written on this topic on level of knowledge about childhood poisoning of third class students who completed the most of theoretical pharmacology education.Materials and Method: A questionnaire form prepared by researchers was applied to randomly chosen PBL groups without writing names and on the basis of voluntariness before and after a case of childhood poisoning which was applied as the second PBL scenario in the second midterm of 2009-2010 academic years. Numbers, percentages, chi-square and student’s t-test were used for evaluation of the questionnaire form comprised of demographic data, open-closed ended questions for measuring attitudes and level of knowledge against case of poisoning and statements as making a priority ranking.Results: In the study group, 89 students took part in pre-test and 96 students took part in post-test. In the answers to the list including the substances that are the most common causes of admission according to data of Refik Saydam National Poison Center (e.g. lotion, bath foam, cosmetics, water color and calamine lotions, the substances that the students stated to be toxic in pre-test were answered correctly in the post-test (p<0.05. Number of correct answers increased significantly for knowledge about commonly used drugs in clinical practice like anti-depressants, calcium canal blockers, oral antidiabetics that were marked as non-toxic by the students although they are toxic (p<0.05. While mean knowledge score for these 40 items was 17.52±5.82 in pre-test, it increased to 27.89±8.79 in post-test (p<0.001.Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that PBL scenario applied to the students who learned pharmacology

  18. [Chronic lead poisoning in children today. A pathology of poverty and social exclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnaeve, O; Berthier, M; Guillard, O; Perault, M C; Oriot, D

    1999-07-01

    Despite the recognition of lead poisoning in children as a major public health problem in France since the 1980's, the setting-up of systematic detection of lead poisoning at a national level has not yet been done. The main source of intoxication in children is in paintings containing ceruse in housing built before 1948. Moderate chronic poisoning, although leading to irreversible lesions, particularly of the central nervous system, remains usually unnoticed. The biological diagnosis is mainly based upon blood lead level, completed by the protoporphyrine-zinc level. Large scale identification of dangerous housing and the control of rehabilitation are the only means available to decrease the incidence of lead posioning. Targeted screening is difficult because it concerns children excluded from classical health care systems. Prevention and long-term treatment requires elimination of the source of lead intoxication after an environmental inquiry. This raises the problems of rehousing and follow-up of intoxicated children.

  19. The Risk Factors of Child Lead Poisoning in China: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the risk factors of child lead poisoning in China. Methods: A document retrieval was performed using MeSH (Medical subject heading terms and key words. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS was used to assess the quality of the studies, and the pooled odd ratios with a 95% confidence interval were used to identify the risk factors. We employed Review Manager 5.2 and Stata 10.0 to analyze the data. Heterogeneity was assessed by both the Chi-square and I2 tests, and publication bias was evaluated using a funnel plot and Egger’s test. Results: Thirty-four articles reporting 13,587 lead-poisoned children met the inclusion criteria. Unhealthy lifestyle and behaviors, environmental pollution around the home and potential for parents’ occupational exposure to lead were risk factors of child lead poisoning in the pooled analyses. Our assessments yielded no severe publication biases. Conclusions: Seventeen risk factors are associated with child lead poisoning, which can be used to identify high-risk children. Health education and promotion campaigns should be designed in order to minimize or prevent child lead poisoning in China.

  20. Occupational lead poisoning in Ohio: surveillance using worker's compensation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, P.J.; Halperin, W.E.; Mullan, R.J.; Frazier, T.M.

    1986-11-01

    To determine the utility of workers' compensation (WC) data in a system for the surveillance of occupational lead poisoning, we reviewed workers' compensation claims for lead poisoning in Ohio. For the period 1979 through 1983, 92(81 per cent) of the 114 claims attributed to lead met our case definition of lead poisoning. The likelihood that a company had a case of lead poisoning was strongly correlated with the number of claims against the company. Thirty companies accounted for the 92 cases; two companies accounted for 49 per cent of these. Inspection by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) occurred at 14 of these companies, all of which were cited for violations of the OSHA lead standard. Comparison of the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes for the 14 companies inspected by OSHA with the 15 companies not inspected by OSHA revealed that OSHA inspected battery manufacturers, non-ferrous foundries, secondary smelters, and primary lead smelters, but not bridge painters, manufacturers of electronic components, mechanical power transmission equipment, pumps, and paints, nor a sheriff's office where firing range slugs were remelted to make new bullets. Neither the number of cases of lead poisoning at a company nor the size of a company was related to the likelihood of being inspected by OSHA. Claims for WC appear to be useful adjunct to an occupational lead poisoning surveillance system; their usefulness should be compared to that of other systems such as laboratory reports of elevated blood lead levels in adults.

  1. Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead poisoning among children in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albalak, Rachel; Noonan, Gary; Buchanan, Sharunda; Flanders, W. Dana; Gotway-Crawford, Carol; Blumenthal, Wendy; Curtis, Gerald; McGeehin, Michael A. [Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop E-19, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Kim, Dennis; Tan, Regina [Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop D-18, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Jones, Robert L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop F-18, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Sulaiman, Rini [Swisscontact, Jl. Wijaya XII No. 44, Jakarta (Indonesia) 12160

    2003-01-01

    The phase-out of leaded gasoline began in Jakarta, Indonesia on July 1, 2001. We evaluated mean blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated BLLs of Jakarta school children and assessed risk factors for lead exposure in these children before the beginning of the phase-out activities. The study involved a population-based, cross-sectional blood lead survey that included capillary blood lead sampling and a brief questionnaire on risk factors for lead poisoning. A cluster survey design was used. Forty clusters, defined as primary schools in Jakarta, and 15 2nd- and 3rd-grade children in each cluster were randomly selected for participation in the study. The average age of children in this study was 8.6 years (range 6-12) and the geometric mean BLL of the children was 8.6 {mu}g/dl (median: 8.6 {mu}g/dl; range: 2.6-24.1 {mu}g/dl) (n=397). Thirty-five percent of children had BLLs {>=}10 {mu}g/dl and 2.4% had BLLs {>=}20 {mu}g/dl. Approximately one-fourth of children had BLLs 10-14.9 {mu}g/dl. In multivariate models, level of education of the child's primary caregiver, water collection method, home varnishing and occupational recycling of metals, other than lead, by a family member were predictors of log BLLs after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs of children who lived near a highway or major intersection were significantly higher than those of children who lived near a street with little or no traffic when level of education was not included in the model. Water collection method was a significant predictor of BLLs {>=}10 {mu}g/dl after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs in children in this study were moderately high and consistent with BLLs of children in other countries where leaded gasoline is used. With the phase-out of leaded gasoline, BLLs of children in Jakarta are expected to rapidly decline as they have in other countries that have phased lead out of gasoline.

  2. Identification of community flour mills as the source of lead poisoning in West Bank Arabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Weissenberg, E; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Hershko, C

    1985-10-01

    Following the discovery of severe lead poisoning in members of several households in a West Bank village, studies were carried out to establish the magnitude of the problem in the community and to identify the source of lead poisoning. Forty-three patients with Centers for Disease Control risk group IV lead poisoning were identified and treated in three villages within a radius of about 10 km of each other. The prevalence of increased lead burden among 563 schoolchildren aged 10 to 18 years was 19% for Centers for Disease Control risk groups I and II and 11% for groups III and IV. A survey of potential sources excluded all items, except for locally ground flour, which was heavily contaminated in all affected households. Examination of community flour mills revealed that, in contrast to unprocessed grain, freshly ground flour contained large amounts of lead originating from lead fillings employed to fasten the housing of the driveshafts to the millstones. Systematic screening of 146 community stone mills in 92 West Bank villages showed significant lead contamination of flour in 33 mills (23%). In all cases, the source of lead contamination was identical. As methods of milling in the area are similar, a prompt investigation of this potential source of lead poisoning in other near-Eastern countries is indicated.

  3. The lead-poisoned genius: saturnism in famous artists across five centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Santiago, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Lead poisoning (saturnism) has been present throughout the history of mankind. In addition to possible ingestion from contaminated food, one of the most important ways in which poisoning caused morbid processes was by occupational exposure. This exposition was pandemic in the Roman Empire, and it has been claimed that it contributed to its fall, but it also caused numerous epidemics in Western countries until the nineteenth century. In the case of artists, and since the Renaissance period, this toxicity has been called painter's colic or painter's madness. The latter term is partly due to the mental disorders displayed by some of the great masters, including Michelangelo and Caravaggio, although it was long recognized that even house and industrial painters were prone to the disorder. This chapter examines the historical evidence of recognition of such toxicity and discusses the controversies raised by the possibility of professional lead poisoning in great artists. In addition to those mentioned above, many other artists across several centuries will be discussed, some being Rubens, Goya, Fortuny, Van Gogh, Renoir, Dufy, Klee, Frida Kahlo, and Portinari. This chapter also briefly mentions the possibility of lead poisoning in two famous composers: Beethoven and Handel. Whether suffering from lead poisoning or not, about which we cannot always be sure, we should still highlight and admire such geniuses fighting their disorders to bequeath us their immortals works.

  4. Lead Poisoning Due to Lead-Pellet Ingestion in Griffon Vultures ( Gyps fulvus ) From the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvm, Manuela A Carneiro; Oliveira, Paula A; Brandão, Ricardo; Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago; Colaço, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    Avian scavengers that typically include game birds and mammals in their diets are at risk of lead poisoning from ingestion of carcasses with fragmented or residual lead ammunition that is used in hunting. Thus, lead may be one of the threats that the griffon vulture ( Gyps fulvus ) faces in the Iberian Peninsula and particularly in Portugal, where their conservation status is considered to be near-threatened. This is the first report that details 3 cases of lead poisoning, associated with the ingestion of lead shot, in adult female griffon vultures found in the Iberian Peninsula. The birds were found prostrate and immediately transferred to a wildlife rehabilitation center, where they died within 24 hours after supportive treatment. Necropsy and histopathologic examinations were done in 2 birds and metal analyses were done in all birds to determine the birds' causes of death. In one vulture, 9 uneroded lead pellets were recovered from the stomach, and moderate to severe hemosiderosis was seen histologically in the liver, lungs, and kidneys. Diagnosis of lead poisoning was confirmed by results of metal analyses, which revealed extremely high lead concentrations in blood (969-1384 μg/dL), liver (309-1077 μg/g dry weight), and kidneys (36-100 μg/g dry weight) for all 3 vultures. To prevent lead poisoning in vultures and preserve their populations in the Iberian Peninsula, more resources are needed for diagnosis and treatment of wildlife in rehabilitation centers, new regulations enabling the abandonment of fallen stock in the field must be approved, and lead ammunition must be prohibited in big-game hunting.

  5. Lead poisoning of waterfowl by contaminated sediment in the Coeur d'Alene River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, L; Creekmore, L H; Audet, D J; Snyder, M R; Meteyer, C U; Franson, J C; Locke, L N; Smith, M R; Finley, D L

    2001-10-01

    The Coeur d'Alene River basin in Idaho has been contaminated by mine tailings that have impaired the health of wildlife since the early 1900s. In other parts of the world, virtually all lead poisoning of waterfowl is caused by the ingestion of manmade lead artifacts, primarily spent lead shotshell pellets or, occasionally, fishing sinkers. However, in the Coeur d'Alene River basin in Idaho, nonartifactual lead poisoning was the ultimate cause of death of most of 219 (77%) of 285 waterfowl carcasses that had been found sick or dead from 1992 through 1997. The majority of these 219 waterfowl (172 tundra swans [Cygnus columbianus], 33 Canada geese [Branta canadensis], and 14 other species) were poisoned by ingesting river sediment that was contaminated with lead. The next most common cause of death (20 instances, 7%) was lead poisoning accompanied by ingested shotshell pellets. The remaining 46 waterfowl succumbed to trauma, infectious diseases (aspergillosis, avian cholera, tuberculosis), or miscellaneous problems, or the cause of death was not determined.

  6. [Lead poisoning: towards a paleo-epidemiologic re-interpretation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdieu, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Lead is a major public health issue. Its use has been increasing since Neolithic times, climaxing in the Ancient Rome and the nineteenth century. Defining the frequency of plumbism before modern times proves to be a difficult matter because of its various and delayed symptoms, and of diagenetic processes affecting bones. After reviewing various methods of lead measurement in bone and tooth, we will expose ways to ascertain lead measurement interpretation in order to estimate the epidemiology of plumbism in ancient times.

  7. Lead poisoning in a sample of Maryland mourning doves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.

    1967-07-01

    A sick mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) collected in Maryland with 2 lead shot in the gizzard showed acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidney tubular cells. The liver and the tibia contained 72 ppm and 187 ppm lead (wet weight) respectively. Four gizzards from 62 doves killed by hunters contained lead shot. The lead content of 43 dove livers ranged from 0.4-14.0 ppm (wet weight); 40 of these doves were collected by hunters, and the other 3 were dying of trichomoniasis.

  8. 24 CFR 242.81 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 242.81 Section 242.81 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... prevention. Requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 35 apply to this program....

  9. [Description of several cases of preclinical lead poisoning in decorators of ceramic tiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelio, G; De Zotti, R

    1983-05-01

    Tha AA report 10 cases of subclinical lead poisoning in a small ceramic factory for artistic painting of building tiles . The decoration was done by hand, using lead glazes . In spite of the extremely low lead air level, the decorators , whose time of exposure was 6-18 months had on average 1868 (SD: 810) micrograms Pbu EDTA/24h and 18,2 (SD: 14,8) mg ALAu /l. Hematochemical data were within the normal range, all but serum iron (144 +/- 33 micrograms %). The cases are presented as a clear example of working conditions where lead intake occurs mainly by gastrointestinal absorption. The AA emphasize the importance of biological monitoring as essential to complete the data of environmental pollution. Moreover the prevention of lead poisoning, especially in small factories, requires the implementation of those general hygienic measures recommended in the recent EEC directive.

  10. Lead poisoning among migrant children in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P J; Nelson, D M; Stewart, R E

    1976-04-01

    Potentially hazardous painted surfaces were found in 40% of 166 dwelling units surveyed in 97 upstate New York migrant labor camps, a figure substantially lower than comparable surveys in upstate New York high risk urban areas. Blood samples obtained from 79 migrant children in 1972 revealed only one child with blood lead level above 40 mug per 100 ml as compared to a 21.6% yield from 5,733 high risk urban area children. A second screening program in 1974 yielded only three children of 190 tested with proven blood lead levels above 40 mug per 100 ml, although seven additional children with possible elevations were lost to follow-up.

  11. Relation between blood lead levels and childhood anemia in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nitin B; Laden, Francine; Guller, Ulrich; Shankar, Anoop; Kazani, Shamsah; Garshick, Eric

    2005-05-15

    Lead pollution is a substantial problem in developing countries such as India. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has defined an elevated blood lead level in children as > or = 10 microg/dl, on the basis of neurologic toxicity. The US Environmental Protection Agency suggests a threshold lead level of 20-40 microg/dl for risk of childhood anemia, but there is little information relating lead levels anemia. Therefore, the authors examined the association between lead levels as low as 10 mug/dl and anemia in Indian children under 3 years of age. Anemia was divided into categories of mild (hemoglobin level 10-10.9 g/dl), moderate (hemoglobin level 8-9.9 g/dl), and severe (hemoglobin level Lead levels lead levels > or = 10-19.9 microg/dl and 97 (9%) had levels > or = 20 microg/dl. After adjustment for child's age, duration of breastfeeding, standard of living, parent's education, father's occupation, maternal anemia, and number of children in the immediate family, children with lead levels > or = 10 microg/dl were 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 1.7) times as likely to have moderate anemia as children with lead levels anemia was 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.6). Health agencies in India should note the association of elevated blood lead levels with anemia and make further efforts to curb lead pollution and childhood anemia.

  12. Use of 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate in treatment of lead poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, J J; Thomas, D J

    1985-12-01

    2,3-Dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) is a water-soluble metal complexing agent. Administration to lead-poisoned children of 5-day courses of 200 or 400 mg of DMPS per m2 surface area per day given p.o. in divided doses resulted in a significant decline in the concentration of lead in blood. DMPS treatment did not significantly alter the concentrations of zinc or copper in plasma. Urinary excretion of lead, zinc and copper was increased by DMPS administration and these increases were sustained throughout the 5-day course of treatment. No significant changes in hepatic, renal or hematological function were found in DMPS-treated children and no side effects attributable to DMPS were noted. It is concluded that a 5-day course of DMPS given p.o. may be safe and effective in the treatment of asymptomatic lead poisoning in children.

  13. Extreme gastric dilation caused by chronic lead poisoning: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vesna Begovic; Darko Nozic; Srdjan Kupresanin; Dino Tarabar

    2008-01-01

    Lead is a toxic metal that affects many organ systems and functions in humans.In the majority of adults,chronic lead poisoning comes from exposures to work places and can occur in numerous work settings, such as manufacturing, lead smelting and refinement, or due to use of batteries, pigments, solder, ammunitions,paint, car radiators, cable and wires, certain cosmetics.In some countries, lead is added to petrol.We present a rare case of gastric dilation caused by long-term petrol ingestion.A 16-year-old young man was admitted to our hospital due to a 6-mo history of exhaustion, dizziness,nausea, abdominal cramps and constipation.X-ray examination revealed dilated stomach descending into the pelvis and small bowel distension.After a long clinical observation, we found that the reason for the chronic lead poisoning of the patient was due to a 3-year history of petrol ingestion.The patient spontaneously recovered and stomach returned to its normal position and size.Lead poisoning should be taken into consideration in all unexplained cases of gastric dilation.

  14. Fatores de risco que contribuem para o envenenamento pediátrico Risk factors contributing to childhood poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Luiza Job Ramos

    2010-10-01

    eventos tóxicos na infância, respectivamente.OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the lack of knowledge of toxic agents in households is a risk factor for individual unintentional childhood poisoning. METHODS: The case group (n = 25 was composed of caregivers of children under 60 months of age who underwent accidental oral poisoning and were treated at two reference hospitals in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, and recorded in the Toxicology Information Center database. The control group (n = 25 was composed of caregivers of children matched for sex, age, and presence in their homes of the same toxic agents found in the case group, who sought emergency medical care at the same hospitals, but for other reasons. A structured questionnaire was administered to verify the following questions: sociodemographic data, clinical history, behavioral antecedents of caregivers, storage of toxic agents, history of previous poisoning accidents. RESULTS: The children's mean age was 31.8 months (±0.97 and mean height was 93 cm (±11. Families, in both groups, were aware of the toxic action of agents available in their homes; however, caregivers in the control group were twice as likely to have such knowledge compared to the case group. Distraction was 15 times more likely to occur among caregivers of children who underwent poisoning compared to the control group. Storage of toxic agents below 150 cm was approximately 17 times more likely to occur in the group of children who underwent poisoning compared to children in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of knowledge of the toxic action of agents stored in households is not a risk factor for childhood poisoning. The attributable risks described in this study indicated that the elimination of other factors, such as distraction and storage below 150 cm, would lead to the prevention of 13 and 19% of poisonings in childhood, respectively.

  15. Lead poisoning in new immigrant children from the mainland of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌绍祥; 周镇邦; 陈恩和; 谢江; 莫国荣; 吴瑞芬

    2002-01-01

    Objective To define the prevalence, severity and risk factors for lead poisoning in new immigrant children from the mainland of China to Hong Kong, China.Methods New immigrant children from the mainland of China under 18 years of age were invited to join the study. Their growth parameters and venous blood lead levels (BLL) were measured within 7 days of arrival. Those with elevated BLL i.e. >10?μg/dl (0.48?μmol/L) were assessed for signs, symptoms and risk factors of lead poisoning. Education on the prevention of lead poisoning and follow up BLL measurements were offered until their BLL normalized.Results Four hundred and fifty-seven children were recruited. Among them, 18.1% and 2.6% had BLL >0.48 and 0.71?μmol/L, respectively. None had BLL >0.96?μmol/L. Possible risk factors included contaminated drinking water (19%), herb ingestion (17.5%), pica, playing in dumping grounds, residing near paint factories or highways, habitual inhalation of car exhaust and cooking with petroleum. Symptoms and signs included abdominal pain, headache, short stature, and learning difficulties but did not correlate with BLL. None required treatment except for counseling on the avoidance of risk factors. About 94.7% showed a reduction in BLL 2-3 months after arrival and before counseling. All had normalized BLL by 9 months except 1 who had an X-ray feature of lead line.Conclusions Lead poisoning is common in new immigrant children from the mainland of China. Environmental factors were most important while behavioral factors like regular herb ingestion might have contributed to the persistence of high BLL in the minority.

  16. Lead poisoning: altered urinary catecholamine metabolites as indicators of intoxication in mice and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbergeld, E.K. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore); Chisolm, J.J. Jr.

    1976-04-09

    Whether neuropsychological impairment occurs in children with increased lead absorption who are without clinical symptoms is of current concern. This issue, which involves potentially large numbers of children, remains unresolved, in part because of the lack of sensitive biochemical indicators of the effects of lead on the nervous system. In experimental subclinical lead poisoning in mice, significant increases in homovanillic acid and vanillylmandelic acid have been found in brain and urine. In children with increased lead absorption, these acids were measured in urine collected quantitatively under controlled dietary conditions; preliminary results show fivefold increases in the daily output of these compounds. These data suggest that the altered catecholamine metabolism also occurs in children.

  17. Environmental lead poisoning among children in Porto Alegre state, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Maleronka Ferron

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of lead poisoning in children and to identify associated factors, as well as possible local sources of contamination. METHODS: A cross-sectional prevalence study conducted in 2006 with a random sample of 97 children age zero to five years from a neighborhood in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Blood lead levels were measured and a questionnaire administered to collect information on sociodemographics, recycling and dwelling. A preliminary environmental evaluation was carried out with direct analysis of soil and indirect analysis of air pollution with bioindicators to identify possible sources of contamination. To analyze lead concentrations from the different collection sites, for each type of material studied, ANOVA was performed with a Brown-Forsythe adjustment for heteroscedasticity and with Dunnett's T3 procedure for multiple comparisons of unequal variances. RESULTS: Blood lead levels > 10.0 µg/dL was found in 16.5% of children. Recycling of waste at home, low father's education level, and increased age of children were associated with increase blood lead levels. High lead levels were found in soil, and there was little indication of lead air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of lead poisoning was identified, and the potential sources of contamination in this community appear related to waste recylcing activities. Studies should be conducted with other populations of Brazilian children and evaluate potential sources of local and general contamination, to accurately characterize this issue in Brazil.

  18. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 157. Woolf AD, Goldman R, Bellinger DC. Update on the clinical ... by: Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by ...

  19. [Brief history of lead poisoning: from Egyptian civilization to the Renaissance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Osorio, María Ludivina; Sabath, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    The exposition to lead in the Antiquity is one of the first environmental health risks in the history of the mankind. In the ancient cultures of Egypt, Crete and Sumer there was no reports of an important exposition to this metal. The first clinical data is described in the Corpus Hipocraticcus, however was Nicandrus of Colophon the first to make a thorough description of the clinical manifestations of this disease. There was an increase in the exposition to this metal in times of the Roman empire and even some researchers propose that Julius Cesar and Octavio had clinical manifestations associated with lead poisoning. Paul of Aegina in the 7th century (a.C.) describes the first epidemic associated with lead intoxication, however in the Middle Ages the use of lead decrease until the Renaissance period in which lead poisoning affects mostly painters, metal-smithers and miners. Some studies done in the ice-layers of Greenland showed that the environmental pollution by lead during the Roman empire and the Renaissance was important.

  20. Lead poisoning in a 16-year-old girl: a case report and a review of the literature (CARE compliant)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mărginean, Cristina Oana; Meliţ, Lorena Elena; Moldovan, Horaţiu; Lupu, Vasile Valeriu; Mărginean, Maria Oana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Lead is a toxic element of the environment which leads to major complications once it enters the blood stream, affecting multiple organs and systems of the body. Methods: We present the case of a 16-year-old girl, diagnosed with lead poisoning after occupational exposure due to the fact that the girl was actively involved in the family's pottery business. History revealed that the girl participated in the process of pottery, her father was also diagnosed with lead poisoning 2 years before. The patient's personal history underlined that approximately 1 year ago she presented with severe abdominal pain, being diagnosed with acute appendicitis and she underwent appendectomy, but the pain persisted, thus due to family history of lead poisoning, the suspicion of saturnine colic rose, and she was diagnosed with lead poisoning. The main symptoms and signs were severe abdominal pain, vomiting, and arterial hypertension. The clinical evolution was favorable under symptomatic treatment and chelation therapy. Results: Lead toxicity is a life-threatening condition because of its severe acute and chronic complications. In children, there is no safe blood lead level, prevention methods are, therefore, very important in order to avoid toxic multiorganic effects of this metal. Conclusion: Even though the diagnosis of lead poisoning remains difficult in children, it must also be taken into consideration by the clinician facing a child with gastrointestinal or neurological involvement. PMID:27661040

  1. Public health implications of lead poisoning in backyard chickens and cattle: four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roegner A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amber Roegner,1 Federico Giannitti,2 Leslie W Woods,2 Asli Mete,2 Birgit Puschner1,2 1Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA; 2California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA Abstract: Lead intoxication in livestock has historically been associated with cattle turned out to pasture and accidental ingestion of lead from drinking crankcase oil, licking grease from machinery, chewing on plumbing or batteries, or drinking water contaminated from leaching materials. Even with the decrease in manufactured items produced with lead, contaminants persist in the landscape and may enter the food supply through animal products. Changing patterns of open range herds moving to new pasture and the increased popularity of urban/suburban backyard chickens or other livestock necessitates public awareness about the clinical signs of lead intoxication, the potential for subclinical animals, public health concerns, particularly for exposure in children, and testing options available. Cases of lead intoxication in livestock demand a thorough case work-up to identify all sources of lead, address subclinical cases, evaluate risk to consumers, and make management suggestions for future prevention. We discuss four recent cases of confirmed lead poisoning in backyard chickens and open range cattle and assess the public health implications therein. Taken as a whole and considering the potential of the remaining herd or flock to be affected without necessarily showing signs, public health officials and veterinarians should be prepared to advise clients on case work-up and management and prevention considerations. Backyard chickens and cattle may not present for suspected lead poisoning as in several of the cases discussed herein yet may still contain concerning tissue or blood levels. The authors believe increased

  2. The persistent problem of lead poisoning in birds from ammunition and fishing tackle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Fair, Jeanne M.; Gervais, Jennifer; Herring, Garth; Rivers, James W.; Schulz, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a metabolic poison that can negatively influence biological processes, leading to illness and mortality across a large spectrum of North American avifauna (>120 species) and other organisms. Pb poisoning can result from numerous sources, including ingestion of bullet fragments and shot pellets left in animal carcasses, spent ammunition left in the field, lost fishing tackle, Pb-based paints, large-scale mining, and Pb smelting activities. Although Pb shot has been banned for waterfowl hunting in the United States (since 1991) and Canada (since 1999), Pb exposure remains a problem for many avian species. Despite a large body of scientific literature on exposure to Pb and its toxicological effects on birds, controversy still exists regarding its impacts at a population level. We explore these issues and highlight areas in need of investigation: (1) variation in sensitivity to Pb exposure among bird species; (2) spatial extent and sources of Pb contamination in habitats in relation to bird exposure in those same locations; and (3) interactions between avian Pb exposure and other landscape-level stressors that synergistically affect bird demography. We explore multiple paths taken to reduce Pb exposure in birds that (1) recognize common ground among a range of affected interests; (2) have been applied at local to national scales; and (3) engage governmental agencies, interest groups, and professional societies to communicate the impacts of Pb ammunition and fishing tackle, and to describe approaches for reducing their availability to birds. As they have in previous times, users of fish and wildlife will play a key role in resolving the Pb poisoning issue.

  3. Long-term effects of lead poisoning on bone mineralization in vultures exposed to ammunition sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangoso, Laura [Department of Conservation Biology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, C.S.I.C., Avda Ma Luisa s/n, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: laurag@ebd.csic.es; Alvarez-Lloret, Pedro [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avda Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: pedalv@ugr.es; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro A.B. [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avda Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: anava@ugr.es; Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)], E-mail: Rafael.Mateo@uclm.es; Hiraldo, Fernando [Department of Conservation Biology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, C.S.I.C., Avda Ma Luisa s/n, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: hiraldo@ebd.csic.es; Donazar, Jose Antonio [Department of Conservation Biology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, C.S.I.C., Avda Ma Luisa s/n, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: donazar@ebd.csic.es

    2009-02-15

    Long-lived species are particularly susceptible to bioaccumulation of lead in bone tissues. In this paper we gain insights into the sublethal effects of lead contamination on Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus). Our approach was done on the comparison of two populations (Canary Islands and Iberian Peninsula) differing in exposures to the ingestion of lead ammunition. Blood lead levels were higher in the island population (Canary Islands range: 5.10-1780 {mu}g L{sup -1}n = 137; Iberian Peninsula range: 5.60-217.30 {mu}g L{sup -1}n = 32) showing clear seasonal trends, peaking during the hunting season. Moreover, males were more susceptible to lead accumulation than females. Bone lead concentration increased with age, reflecting a bioaccumulation effect. The bone composition was significantly altered by this contaminant: the mineralization degree decreased as lead concentration levels increased. These results demonstrate the existence of long-term effects of lead poisoning, which may be of importance in the declines of threatened populations of long-lived species exposed to this contaminant. - Bone lead accumulation decreases the degree of bone mineralization in vultures exposed to ammunition sources.

  4. Use of isotope ratios to identify sources contributing to pediatric lead poisoning in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeher, Luke P; Rubin, Carol S; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Noonan, Gary P; Paschal, Dan; Narciso, Juan; Lain, Rocio Espinoza; Gastanaga, Carmen; Almeyda, Rosa; Jarrett, Jeff; Caldwell, Kathleen L; McGeehin, Michael

    2003-09-01

    In 1998, a school-based blood lead level (BLL) survey of 2,510 children, conducted in Lima and Callao, Peru, revealed elevated BLLs in children from 2 Callao schools (mean BLL = 25.6 microg/dl; n = 314) and in children from Callao overall (mean BLL = 15.2 microg/dl; n = 898), compared with children from Lima (mean BLL = 7.1 microg/dl; n = 1,612). Public health officials at Peru's Direccion General de Salud Ambiental (DIGESA) hypothesized that a possible source of the elevated pediatric BLLs observed in Callao was a large depository near the port where mineral concentrates are stored prior to shipment. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention worked with DIGESA to identify source(s) that contributed to the pediatric lead poisonings by comparing isotopic profiles of lead in blood, mineral, gasoline, and air filter samples. The lead isotope ratio (IR) observed in mineral samples from the depository in Callao differed from those in gasoline samples from Lima and Callao. The blood lead IRs of children living near the depository were similar to the IRs of the mineral samples and different from the IRs of the gasoline samples, suggesting that lead from the depository-and not gasoline-was the primary source of lead in these children. Lead IR analysis of regional air filter samples supported these findings.

  5. Cumulative lead poisoning in horses in a mining area contaminated with galena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, D.A.; O' Cuill, T.

    1970-06-20

    The diagnosis of lead poisoning in horses exposed to galena-contaminated herbage and air was based on clinical signs, response to calcium versenate therapy and laboratory findings. Chemical analyses of six herbage samples from the area yielded a mean value of 580 ppM lead D/M. Analyses of samples from a nursing mare showed lead values in ppM as follows: faeces, 180 D/M; blood, 0.32 increasing to 0.38 after two weeks; colostrum, 0.24, 0.34, 0.34 Days 1, 2 and 3 respectively, and kidney cortex, 40 wet tissue. Her five-day-old foal had a blood lead value of 0.25 ppM. Samples from a horse, which responded to therapy, had the following lead values in ppM: faeces, 140 D/M; blood, 0.28 increasing to 0.44 after two weeks. Kidney cortices from three dead horses had lead values of 65, 25 and 140 ppM wet tissue. One liver had a lead value of 45 ppM wet tissue. Bovine colostrum and late lactation milk had lead values of 0.54 and 0.28 ppM respectively. 6 references, 3 tables.

  6. Relationship between oxidative stress, pathology, and behavioral signs of lead poisoning in mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Ramis, A.

    2003-01-01

    Some of the adverse effects of lead (Pb) may be associated with oxidative damage of lipids, proteins or DNA. In a previous study a linkage was observed between the susceptibilities of waterfowl species to Pb poisoning with oxidative stress. To investigate this relationship among the individuals of a single species, four groups of 12 mallards were fed for three weeks diets containing high or low levels of vitamin E (20 or 220 UI/kg) and high or low levels of Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). During the first week of Pb exposure, mallards developed hemolytic anemia, and during the second week, signs of neurological impairment. Histological findings in the Pb exposed mallards were hemosiderosis, demyelinization of sciatic and brachial nerves, and tumefaction of renal tubular epithelium with the presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies. Lipid peroxidation increased with Pb exposure in blood, liver, bile and brain, but decreased in nerves. Glutathione (GSH) increased with Pb exposure in liver and bile, and its oxidized/reduced ratio only increased in bile. Pb exposure inhibited GSH peroxidase activity (GPX) in plasma, liver and brain, and decreased protein thiols (PSH) in blood and liver. Vitamin E significantly prevented lipid peroxidation in nerves, but did not alleviate any sign of Pb poisoning. Pb-induced pathological changes associated with hepatic and nervous functions were significantly correlated with lower GPX activity and PSH concentrations in these tissues rather than lipid peroxidation. Data suggest that inhibition of antioxidant enzymes and interaction with sulfhydryl groups of proteins may play a more important role in Pb poisoning of waterfowl than lipid peroxidation.

  7. Lead poisoning of horses in the vicinity of a battery recycling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, H.; Iribarren, I.; Olalla, M.J.; Cala, V. [Departamento de Quimica Agricola, Geologia y Geoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2002-05-06

    The diagnosis of lead poisoning in horses living on farmland in the vicinity of a battery recycling plant was based on clinical signs as well as on laboratory findings. Chemical analysis of six surface soils (0-15 cm) and herbage samples taken at different distances to the recycling plant showed very high total lead levels in the closest sites to the facility and a clear decrease with distance. Total lead levels in soil samples ranged from 127 to 5657 mg kg{sup -1}, with more than 70% of lead extractable by EDTA in the most polluted soils. Lead levels in the aerial part of herbage samples were in the range of 113-4741 mg kg{sup -1}. A water washing pre-treatment of the vegetal samples considerably diminished the concentration of lead, suggesting that airborne lead particles from the facility emissions were fixed on the shoots. The analysis of samples taken from six dead horses showed lead concentrations, expressed as mg kg{sup -1} (d.w.), as follows: blood: 0.20-0.89; liver: 2.5-15; kidney: 1.70-6.75. Lead intake levels, estimated according to the ingestion rate of Grammineae forage, illustrates that the apported lead through the ingestion of vegetation growing in the closest sites to the recycling plant was approximately 99.5 mg Pb/kg body weight/day surpassing the fatal dosage for horses of 2.4 mg Pb/kg body weight/day reported by Hammond and Aronson, Ann NY Acad Sci, 1964; 111: 595-611.

  8. Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead poisoning in children and caregivers in Chuuk State, Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lisa M; Kim, Dennis; Yomai, Anamaria; Meyer, Pamela A; Noonan, Gary P; Huff, Daniel; Flanders, W D

    2005-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a preventable environmental disease. Children and developing fetuses are especially vulnerable; even low blood lead levels (BLLs) are linked with learning and behavioral problems. We assessed children's and their caregivers' BLLs and risk factors for lead exposure in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia. Children aged 2-6 years were randomly selected within 20 randomly selected villages. Children and caregivers provided venous blood, and caregivers offered information about possible risk factors for lead exposure. Mean BLLs were 39 microg/l for children and 16 microg/l for caregivers. Children with BLLs of > or = 100 microg/l (elevated) were 22.9 (95% CI: 4.5-116.0) times more likely to have a caregiver with an elevated BLL, 6.2 (95% CI: 1.4-27.3) times more likely to live on an outer island, and 3.4 (95% CI: 1.7-6.9) times more likely to have a family member who made lead fishing weights than did other children even after controlling for age and sex. For children, 61% of elevated BLLs could be attributed to making fishing weights. Caregivers with elevated BLLs were 5.9 (95% CI: 1.5-23.7) times more likely to live in a household that melted batteries than other caregivers even after controlling for age and education. For caregivers, 37% of the elevated BLLs could be attributed to melting batteries. The association of elevated BLLs in children and their caregiver suggests a common environmental exposure. Melting batteries to make fishing sinkers is a preventable source of lead exposure for children and their caregivers in Chuuk. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Using a geographic information system to improve childhood lead-screening efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Robert

    2013-06-13

    The Idaho Division of Public Health conducted a pilot study to produce a lead-exposure-risk map to help local and state agencies better target childhood lead-screening efforts. Priority lead-screening areas, at the block group level, were created by using county tax assessor data and geographic information system software. A series of maps were produced, indicating childhood lead-screening prevalence in areas in which there was high potential for exposure to lead. These maps could enable development of more systematically targeted and cost-effective childhood lead-screening efforts.

  10. 浅谈小儿铅中毒的症状及其护理%Symptoms and Nursing of Lead Poisoning in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐继辉

    2015-01-01

    目的:铅中毒是儿童时期的常见病之一。主要源于过多接触受到污染的废气、食用含铅的食物等。对于铅中毒的防治,应以预防为主,治疗为辅。方法举例说明铅中毒的常见症状,以及对某些症状的区别观察,总结出必要且常见的护理方法。结果通过对患儿的护理措施有效的配合治疗,帮助患儿尽早摆脱病痛折磨,恢复健康。结论铅中毒并非难以救治的疑难杂症,只要正确观察患儿的症状,并通过准确的判断及时救治,配合以科学、系统的综合护理措施,就可以帮助患儿有效的治疗恢复,缩短患儿的康复时间,帮助其尽早摆脱病痛折磨。%Objective Lead poisoning is one of the common diseases of childhood. Mainly due to excessive contact with contaminated waste gas,the consumption of lead-containing food. For the prevention and treatment of lead poisoning,should be based on prevention,treatment, supplemented.Methods Illustrated common symptoms of lead poisoning,and the difference between the observation of some of the symptoms, summed necessary and common methods of care.Results Based on the children's care measures with effective treatment to help children as early as possible to get rid of the pain and suffering and restore health.Conclusion Lead poisoning is difficult to treat incurable diseases are not, as long as the correct symptoms observed in children and timely treatment through accurate judgments,in line with the comprehensive care measures scientific,systematic,it can help children resume effective treatment,to shorten suffering children's recovery time to help them as soon as possible to get rid of the pain and suffering.

  11. The important health impact of where a child lives: neighborhood characteristics and the burden of lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivier, Patrick M; Hauptman, Marissa; Weitzen, Sherry H; Bell, Scott; Quilliam, Daniela N; Logan, John R

    2011-11-01

    Toxins and other health threats can cause health problems, whether they are present in the child's own home, other neighborhood homes where the child spends time, or common areas such as playgrounds. We assess the impact of where a child lives on the burden of lead poisoning. Statewide lead screening data was obtained from the Rhode Island Department of Health. Block group level indicators of old housing and poverty were obtained from the US Census. Of the 204,746 study children, 35,416 (17.3%) had a blood lead level≥10 μg/dL. The proportion of study children who were lead poisoned in each block group ranged from 0.0 to 48.6%. The proportion of study children with an elevated blood lead level increased from 8% among children living in block groups in the lowest quintile of poverty to 31% for those in the highest quintile for poverty. Old housing also had an important impact on the risk of lead poisoning. The proportion of children with an elevated blood lead level increased from 7% among children living in block groups in the lowest quintile for pre-1950 housing to 27% for those in the highest quintile for pre-1950 housing. The adjusted odds ratio was 1.64 for the highest quintile of poverty and 1.77 for the highest quintile of pre-1950 housing. The findings of this large, statewide study demonstrate the powerful impact of where children live on the risk of lead poisoning. The findings have important implications for understanding the problem of lead poisoning and for planning primary prevention programs.

  12. Saturnismo: a propósito de un caso Lead poisoning: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Honorio Labanda Urbano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Profesora de pintura sobre vidrio y restauración de vidrieras de 65 años acude a la Unidad Médica de Valoración de Incapacidades del Instituto Nacional de la Seguridad Social (INSS con diagnóstico de exposición laboral a plomo. La paciente ha permanecido en Incapacidad Temporal por astenia durante varios meses, y se le detecta tras una reincorporación al trabajo plumbemia elevada, asociada a otros síntomas típicos de la intoxicación por plomo, por lo que se la separa de su ambiente de trabajo. Finalmente, el Equipo de Valoración de Incapacidades, reunido para valorar su caso resuelve Incapacidad Laboral Permanente Total derivada de enfermedad profesional para trabajos en que haya exposición a plomo y otros ototóxicos, exposición a ruidos de riesgo, y para aquellos trabajos en que sea necesaria una comunicación verbal fluida en frecuencias conversacionales normales. Con este caso clínico pretendemos revisar los síntomas del cuadro clínico de saturnismo, así como hacer una reflexión sobre los efectos de la prevención de riesgos para el trabajador.Lead poisoning is most commonly caused by occupational exposure. We report a case of a 65-year-old woman, paint teacher, which was working in reparation of stained glass window. She consults the Medical Incapacity Valoration Unit of National Institute of Social Security with diagnosis of lead occupational intoxication. The patient was not able to word for several months because of presenting asthenia. After reporting for work high lead blood levels were detected, in association with physical symptoms. She was evaluated by a tribunal which settled total long sick-leave due to occupational lead exposure and was restricted for loud works and other ones that need verbal communication in conversational frequencies. With this clinical case we try to check the symptoms of lead poisoning, as well as to think about the effects of prevention of occupational hazards.

  13. The effects of chronic lead poisoning on the values of hypertension in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Jovan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the treatment of Roma children from Kosovska Mitrovica suffering from chronic lead poisoning (which began in the second half of the last decade, hypertension has also been observed. The examination and treatment were conducted under the patronage of World Health Organization, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Serbia and local administration. Aim of this work is show correlation between lead levels in blood and hypertension in children. Materials and methods: Lead from capillary blood flow was measured by Lead care analyzer. Extracted blood from a vein measured lead level in the toxicological laboratory of the Institute 'Karajović' Belgrade. The pressure was measured by standard devices with changeable cuffs and has been expressed in mmHg. Hypertension has been observed in 159 children. They were divided into four groups. First group: non-Roma children (n = 32 with blood lead level of up to 10 mcg/dl. Second group: Roma children (n = 31 with blood lead level of up to 10 mcg/dl. Third group: Roma children (n = 53 with blood lead levels of 10-45 mcg/dl. Fourth group: Roma children (n = 43 with blood lead levels more than 45 mcg/dl, with an average value of 61.6 mcg/dl. Results: There is a statistically significant difference in the elevation of systolic blood pressure between group (chi-square = 31,179; p < 0,001, the first (x = 107,2 mmHg and the fourth group (x = 114,6 mmHg, the second (x = 104,5 mmHg and fourth group, third (x =106,4 mmHg and fourth group. There is a statistically significant difference in the elevation of diastolic blood pressure between group (chi-square = 32,028; p < 0,001, the first (x = 67,7 mmHg and the fourth group (x =73,4 mmHg, the second (x = 66 mmHg and third group (x = 69 mmHg, second and fourth group, third and fourth group of children. It is concluded that when the value of lead in the blood was higher its effect on blood pressure was more pronounced. Conclusion: Most children with lead

  14. Acute methaemoglobinaemia initially treated as organophosphate poisoning leading to atropine toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kakhandki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of unknown compound poisoning is presented. It was initially treated as organophosphate poisoning with lack of response. A timely diagnosis of acute methaemoglobinaemia and iatrogenic atropine toxicity was made based on clinical evaluation. Treatment of methaemoglobinaemia using oral methylene blue and of atropine toxicity with supportive measures could save the patient.

  15. Lead Poisoning Disturbs Oligodendrocytes Differentiation Involved in Decreased Expression of NCX3 Inducing Intracellular Calcium Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb poisoning has always been a serious health concern, as it permanently damages the central nervous system. Chronic Pb accumulation in the human body disturbs oligodendrocytes (OLs differentiation, resulting in dysmyelination, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, Pb at 1 μM inhibits OLs precursor cells (OPCs differentiation via decreasing the expression of Olig 2, CNPase proteins in vitro. Moreover, Pb treatment inhibits the sodium/calcium exchanger 3 (NCX3 mRNA expression, one of the major means of calcium (Ca2+ extrusion at the plasma membrane during OPCs differentiation. Also addition of KB-R7943, NCX3 inhibitor, to simulate Pb toxicity, resulted in decreased myelin basic protein (MBP expression and cell branching. Ca2+ response trace with Pb and KB-R7943 treatment did not drop down in the same recovery time as the control, which elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentration reducing MBP expression. In contrast, over-expression of NCX3 in Pb exposed OPCs displayed significant increase MBP fluorescence signal in positive regions and CNPase expression, which recovered OPCs differentiation to counterbalance Pb toxicity. In conclusion, Pb exposure disturbs OLs differentiation via affecting the function of NCX3 by inducing intracellular calcium overload.

  16. Impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis activity, spermatogenesis, and sperm function promote infertility in males with lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Jason; Hernandez, Rafael J; Chen, Andrew; Smith, Noel L; Sheynkin, Yefim R; Joshi, Gargi; Khan, Sardar Ali

    2017-02-10

    Lead poisoning is a stealthy threat to human physiological systems as chronic exposure can remain asymptomatic for long periods of time before symptoms manifest. We presently review the biophysical mechanisms of lead poisoning that contribute to male infertility. Environmental and occupational exposure of lead may adversely affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, impairing the induction of spermatogenesis. Dysfunction at the reproductive axis, namely testosterone suppression, is most susceptible and irreversible during pubertal development. Lead poisoning also appears to directly impair the process of spermatogenesis itself as well as sperm function. Spermatogenesis issues may manifest as low sperm count and stem from reproductive axis dysfunction or testicular degeneration. Generation of excessive reactive oxygen species due to lead-associated oxidative stress can potentially affect sperm viability, motility, DNA fragmentation, membrane lipid peroxidation, capacitation, hyperactivation, acrosome reaction, and chemotaxis for sperm-oocyte fusion, all of which can contribute to deter fertilization. Reproductive toxicity has been tested through cross-sectional analysis studies in humans as well as in vivo and in vitro studies in animals.

  17. Suspected lead poisoning in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) in South Africa, in 2008 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michelle A; Lane, Emily P; Marnewick, Kelly; Caldwell, Peter; Carlisle, Glen; Hoffman, Louw C

    2015-08-13

    Whilst lead poisoning in raptors, scavenging birds and waterfowl is well studied and common knowledge, there is surprisingly little literature detailing the risk to mammalian scavengers and captive carnivores fed hunted meat. This case report describes the death of two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) following acute onset of nervous symptoms. Clinical signs included hyper-excitability, seizures, arched back, tail held abnormally high and hyper-salivation. Necropsy findings included bullets or a bullet in their stomachs. Kidney and liver lead levels from one cheetah (15.6 ppm and 17 ppm respectively) were consistent with a diagnosis of lead poisoning; liver from the second cheetah was not available for testing. Both animals were routinely fed hunted antelope or game birds. This is the first report of oral lead poisoning in captive large carnivores, although these are unlikely to be the first cases. Without awareness of the risks of feeding hunted game, lead exposure will continue to be an underdiagnosed reality in the rehabilitation of endangered carnivores.

  18. Suspected lead poisoning in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus in South Africa, in 2008 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. North

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Whilst lead poisoning in raptors, scavenging birds and waterfowl is well studied and common knowledge, there is surprisingly little literature detailing the risk to mammalian scavengers and captive carnivores fed hunted meat. This case report describes the death of two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus following acute onset of nervous symptoms. Clinical signs included hyper-excitability, seizures, arched back, tail held abnormally high and hyper-salivation. Necropsy findings included bullets or a bullet in their stomachs. Kidney and liver lead levels from one cheetah (15.6 ppm and 17 ppm respectively were consistent with a diagnosis of lead poisoning; liver from the second cheetah was not available for testing. Both animals were routinely fed hunted antelope or game birds. This is the first report of oral lead poisoning in captive large carnivores, although these are unlikely to be the first cases. Without awareness of the risks of feeding hunted game, lead exposure will continue to be an underdiagnosed reality in the rehabilitation of endangered carnivores.

  19. Genetic susceptibility of lead poisoning%儿童铅中毒易感基因研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珊珊; 王琳琳; 赵娟

    2013-01-01

    遗传因素影响机体对铅毒性的易感性.δ-氨基乙酰丙酸脱水酶(ALAD)基因、维生素D受体(VDR)基因、血色素基因(HFE)基因、基质γ-羧基谷氨酸蛋白(MGP)T-138C、X射线交错互不修复基因1(XRCC1)和X射线交错互不修复基因3(XRCC3)的不同基因多态性对铅中毒的易感性有一定影响.铅毒性基因的易感性研究将会为儿童铅中毒的易感人群筛选和铅中毒治疗提供遗传学的依据,以便及早识别易感者,尽早保护易感人群,防止或减少铅中毒的发生并采取针对性的健康教育宣传.%Genetic factors affect the susceptibility of lead toxicity. It has certain influence to the susceptibility of lead poisoning that is the different gene polymorphism of delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase ( ALAD) gene, vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, hemoglobin gene (HFE), matrix-carboxyl glutamic acid protein (MGP) T-138C, X ray staggered no repair gene 1 (XRCC1) and X ray staggered no repair gene 3 (XRRC3). The research of lead toxicity genetic susceptibility will provide the basis for the children lead poisoning at-risk group screening and lead poisoning treatments, in order to recognise and protect the susceptible person, prevent or reduce the occurrence of lead poisoning and take pertinent the health education propaganda.

  20. Lead poisoning in pregnant women who used Ayurvedic medications from India--New York City, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Lead poisoning still occurs in the United States despite extensive prevention efforts and strict regulations. Exposure to lead can damage the brain, kidneys, and nervous and reproductive systems. Fetal exposure to lead can adversely affect neurodevelopment, decrease fetal growth, and increase the risk for premature birth and miscarriage. During 2011-2012, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) investigated six cases of lead poisoning associated with the use of 10 oral Ayurvedic medications made in India. All six cases were in foreign-born pregnant women assessed for lead exposure risk by health-care providers during prenatal visits, as required by New York state law. Their blood lead levels (BLLs) ranged from 16 to 64 µg/dL. Lead concentrations of the medications were as high as 2.4%; several medications also contained mercury or arsenic, which also can have adverse health effects. DOHMH distributed information about the medications to health-care providers, product manufacturers, and government agencies in the United States and abroad, via postal and electronic mail. DOHMH also ordered a local business selling contaminated products to cease sales. Health-care providers should ask patients, especially foreign-born or pregnant patients, about any use of foreign health products, supplements, and remedies such as Ayurvedic medications. Public health professionals should consider these types of products when investigating heavy metal exposures and raise awareness among health-care providers and the public regarding the health risks posed by such products.

  1. Paraffin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax poisoning - paraffin ... Paraffin ... Eating a lot of paraffin can lead to intestinal obstruction, which can cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and possible constipation. If the paraffin contains a ...

  2. Childhood Lead Exposure from Battery Recycling in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Daniell, William E.; Lo Van Tung; Wallace, Ryan M.; Havens, Deborah J.; Karr, Catherine J; Nguyen Bich Diep; Croteau, Gerry A.; Beaudet, Nancy J.; Nguyen Duy Bao

    2015-01-01

    Background. Battery recycling facilities in developing countries can cause community lead exposure. Objective. To evaluate child lead exposure in a Vietnam battery recycling craft village after efforts to shift home-based recycling outside the village. Methods. This cross-sectional study evaluated 109 children in Dong Mai village, using blood lead level (BLL) measurement, parent interview, and household observation. Blood samples were analyzed with a LeadCare II field instrument; highest BLLs...

  3. Environmental lead exposure as a risk for childhood aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, M; Akhtar, M J; Verma, S; Kumar, A; Siddiqui, M K J

    2011-01-01

    Concern about environmental lead exposure as a significant public health threat has increased as evidence has accumulated regarding adverse health effects at successively lower levels. Aplastic anemia is a hematological disorder of unknown etiology with a high lethality rate. Lead is a known toxicant for the hematopoietic system. Oxidative stress appears to be the possible mode of lead toxicity. We evaluated the effects of blood lead level on oxidative stress parameters in children suffering from aplastic anemia disease. Seventeen children with aplastic anemia disease (15 male and 2 female, age 3-12 y) were recruited in the study group. Fifty one healthy children (45 male and 6 female, age 3-12 y) having normal blood profiles and not suffering from any chronic disease(s) were used as controls. Blood lead level and oxidative stress parameters were determined. Mean blood lead level was significantly higher while δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity, a biomarker for lead exposure was significantly lower in the study group as compared to the control group (p lead levels with δ-ALAD (r = -0.45; p lead induces oxidative stress in children suffering from aplastic anemia. Lead-induced oxidative stress as an underlying mechanism for aplastic anemia warrants further research.

  4. Can Ingestion of Lead Shot and Poisons Change Population Trends of Three European Birds: Grey Partridge, Common Buzzard, and Red Kite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn B Meyer

    Full Text Available Little is known about the magnitude of the effects of lead shot ingestion alone or combined with poisons (e.g., in bait or seeds/granules containing pesticides on population size, growth, and extinction of non-waterbird avian species that ingest these substances. We used population models to create example scenarios demonstrating how changes in these parameters might affect three susceptible species: grey partridge (Perdix perdix, common buzzard (Buteo buteo, and red kite (Milvus milvus. We added or subtracted estimates of mortality due to lead shot ingestion (4-16% of mortality, depending on species and poisons (4-46% of mortality reported in the UK or France to observed mortality of studied populations after models were calibrated to observed population trends. Observed trends were decreasing for partridge (in continental Europe, stable for buzzard (in Germany, and increasing for red kite (in Wales. Although lead shot ingestion and poison at modeled levels did not change the trend direction for the three species, they reduced population size and slowed population growth. Lead shot ingestion at modeled rates reduced population size of partridges by 10%, and when combined with bait and pesticide poisons, by 18%. For buzzards, decrease in mean population size by lead shot and poisons combined was much smaller (≤ 1%. The red kite population has been recovering; however, modeled lead shot ingestion reduced its annual growth rate from 6.5% to 4%, slowing recovery. If mortality from poisoned baits could be removed, the kite population could potentially increase at a rapid annual rate of 12%. The effects are somewhat higher if ingestion of these substances additionally causes sublethal reproductive impairment. These results have uncertainty but suggest that declining or recovering populations are most sensitive to lead shot or poison ingestion, and removal of poisoned baits can have a positive impact on recovering raptor populations that frequently

  5. Childhood Lead Exposure from Battery Recycling in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Daniell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Battery recycling facilities in developing countries can cause community lead exposure. Objective. To evaluate child lead exposure in a Vietnam battery recycling craft village after efforts to shift home-based recycling outside the village. Methods. This cross-sectional study evaluated 109 children in Dong Mai village, using blood lead level (BLL measurement, parent interview, and household observation. Blood samples were analyzed with a LeadCare II field instrument; highest BLLs (≥45 μg/dL were retested by laboratory analysis. Surface and soil lead were measured at 11 households and a school with X-ray fluorescence analyzer. Results. All children had high BLLs; 28% had BLL ≥45 μg/dL. Younger age, family recycling, and outside brick surfaces were associated with higher BLL. Surface and soil lead levels were high at all tested homes, even with no recycling history. Laboratory BLLs were lower than LeadCare BLLs, in 24 retested children. Discussion. In spite of improvements, lead exposure was still substantial and probably associated with continued home-based recycling, legacy contamination, and workplace take-home exposure pathways. There is a need for effective strategies to manage lead exposure from battery recycling in craft villages. These reported BLL values should be interpreted cautiously, although the observed field-laboratory discordance may reflect bias in laboratory results.

  6. Childhood lead exposure in an enslaved African community in Barbados

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Hannes; Shuler, Kristrina; Chenery, Simon

    2013-01-01

    a clear association between low (i.e., below 1 ppm) enamel lead concentrations and higher enamel 87Sr/86Sr ratios which have previously been interpreted as being indicative of African birth, suggesting that individuals with low enamel lead levels were indeed born in Africa as opposed to the New World...... the colonial period....

  7. The neurobehavioral consequences of low lead exposure in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, H L

    1982-01-01

    Children attending non-remedial first and second grades were classified according to the concentration of lead in their shed deciduous teeth. Children in the lowest and highest tenth percentile were studied with a detailed neuropsychological battery under blind conditions. Thirty-nine non-lead covariates were controlled either by matching or in the biostatistical analysis. High lead children tended to have significantly lower IQ scores particularly on the verbal scales of the WISC-R, impaired auditory and language processing, increased reaction times at longer intervals of delay. Their teachers who were blind to the dentine lead levels found an increased incidence of disordered classroom behavior in direct relationship to the concentration of lead in their teeth. Quantitative electroencephalographic analysis demonstrated decreased midline alpha and increased midline delta in high lead subjects. Four years later a subsample of these children was followed up and observed during quiet classroom activity. High lead children tended to spend more time off tasks staring at classmates, out the window or at the observer. These observations demonstrate that lead at doses below those which are associated with frank clinical symptoms produce deficits in intelligence, attention, auditory-language function and disordered classroom behavior.

  8. Pharmacokinetic Potentiation of Mixed Organophosphate and Pyrethroid Poison Leading to Prolonged Delayed Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Meenakshi; Amin, Ruhul; Nagiri, Shivashankar Kaniyoor; Kudru, Chandrashekar Udyavara

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) and mixed pesticide poisoning remains an important cause of hospital admission. Therefore, physician must be aware of atypical presentations of delayed neurological complications of poisoning by taking proper patient history. We report a case of a 23-year-old female who presented with high stepping gait and muscle wasting in hands. Patient history revealed consumption of approximately 4ml of mixed pesticide, consisting of 50% chlorpyrifos with synthetic pyrethroid, 5% cypermethrin. The prolonged and severe nature of delayed peripheral neuropathy, persisting at two years of follow-up, suggests that even small quantities of OP taken in combination with a pyrethroid can result in significant morbidity and is irreversible. PMID:28050396

  9. Osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasia: a skeletal dysplasia that may mimic lead poisoning in a child with hypotonia and seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennel, Emilie A. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas (United States); John, Susan D. [Department of Radiology, University of Texas-Houston Medical School, 6431 Fannin-MSB2.100, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2003-01-01

    We report the case of a 23-month-old male with hypotonia, developmental delay, and complex seizures. Radiographs revealed profound sclerosis of the metaphyses and epiphyses of the long and short bones in the extremities, with a unique pattern of distribution. Sclerosis also involved the anterior ribs, iliac crests, talus, and calcaneus. The skull and vertebral bodies appeared unaffected. Blood lead levels were normal. We believe that this constellation of clinical and radiographic abnormalities closely resembles osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasia (OMD) due to an autosomal recessive defect. Characteristic skeletal findings were instrumental in determining the diagnosis. OMD is a very rare sclerosing bone disorder, first described in 1993. The syndrome is characterized clinically by developmental delay of a progressive nature, hypotonia, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and late-onset spastic paraplegia. We encountered a young child with these neurologic symptoms who displayed sclerotic metaphyseal changes on hand radiographs obtained to determine the bone age. Lead poisoning, a known cause of metaphyseal sclerosis, was initially suspected. Careful analysis of the metaphyseal bone changes helped to distinguish this bone dysplasia from lead poisoning and other causes of metaphyseal sclerosis. (orig.)

  10. Therapeutic efficiency of succimer used with calcium and ascorbic acid in the treatment of mild lead-poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yaping; Yu, Fei; Liao, Yingjun; Liu, Shaoxia; Liu, Meimei; Xu, Jianhong; Yang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore therapeutic efficiency of succimer used with calcium and ascorbic acid in the treatment of mildly lead-poisoned mice and preschool children. Mice were exposed to lead by drinking water, and then treated with saline solution, 50mg/kg body weight (b.w.) succimer, 100mg/kg b.w. succimer, or 50mg/kg b.w. succimer plus calcium and ascorbic acid by gavage. Seventy-two children aged 48-72 months were randomly assigned into combined treatment or nutritional intervention group. Lead levels in blood and bone were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Activities of aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in blood were determined by colorimetric method. Results of animal experiment showed that succimer used alone could reduce lead levels in blood and bone and reverse activities of ALAD in blood, however, a better therapeutic efficiency in mobilizing bone lead could be achieved by succimer used with calcium and ascorbic acid. Findings from the clinical study showed that reduction of blood lead levels (BLLs) between the end and initiation of therapy in the combined treatment group was significantly greater than that in the nutritional intervention group. Percentage of children with BLLs less than 10μg/dL at the end of therapy and the eighth week after therapy in the combined treatment group was significantly higher than that in the nutritional intervention group. In conclusion, combined use of succimer with calcium and ascorbic acid seemed to be a choice in the treatment of mildly lead poisoned children.

  11. Association of prenatal and childhood blood lead concentrations with criminal arrests in early adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Wright

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood lead exposure is a purported risk factor for antisocial behavior, but prior studies either relied on indirect measures of exposure or did not follow participants into adulthood to examine the relationship between lead exposure and criminal activity in young adults. The objective of this study was to determine if prenatal and childhood blood lead concentrations are associated with arrests for criminal offenses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Pregnant women were recruited from four prenatal clinics in Cincinnati, Ohio if they resided in areas of the city with a high concentration of older, lead-contaminated housing. We studied 250 individuals, 19 to 24 y of age, out of 376 children who were recruited at birth between 1979 and 1984. Prenatal maternal blood lead concentrations were measured during the first or early second trimester of pregnancy. Childhood blood lead concentrations were measured on a quarterly and biannual basis through 6.5 y. Study participants were examined at an inner-city pediatric clinic and the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. Total arrests and arrests for offenses involving violence were collected from official Hamilton County, Ohio criminal justice records. Main outcomes were the covariate-adjusted rate ratios (RR for total arrests and arrests for violent crimes associated with each 5 microg/dl (0.24 micromol/l increase in blood lead concentration. Adjusted total arrest rates were greater for each 5 microg/dl (0.24 micromol/l increase in blood lead concentration: RR = 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.85 for prenatal blood lead, 1.07 (95% CI 0.88-1.29 for average childhood blood lead, and 1.27 (95% CI 1.03-1.57 for 6-year blood lead. Adjusted arrest rates for violent crimes were also greater for each 5 microg/dl increase in blood lead: RR = 1.34 (95% CI 0.88-2.03 for prenatal blood lead, 1.30 (95% CI 1.03-1.64 for average childhood blood lead, and 1.48 (95% CI 1

  12. [Recommendations for the prevention of poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintegi, S; Esparza, M J; González, J C; Rubio, B; Sánchez, F; Vila, J J; Yagüe, F; Benítez, M T

    2015-12-01

    Poisoning is the fifth leading cause of death from unintentional injury in the WHO European region, while Spain is in the group with a lower rate. Most involuntary poisonings occur in young children while they are at the home, due to unintentional ingestion of therapeutic drugs or household products. Of these, a large percentage is stored in non-original containers and/or within reach of children. In this article, the Committee on Safety and Non-Intentional Injury Prevention in Childhood of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics provides a series of recommendations, educational as well as legal, to prevent such cases.

  13. Implementation of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act at Navy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    intoxication can cause emotional changes such as hostility, depression, and generalized unhappiness. In addition to the danger of acute and chronic lead...fact Lhat there have probably been no great changes in the amount of lead-based paintI the children and salvage workers are exposed to or in the kind of...clearly indicated that the most hazardous accumulations of lead-based paint are exterior wooden surfaces of residential structures. Epidemics biof lead

  14. Kohl, Kajal, Al-Kahl, or Surma: By Any Name, Beware of Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among the effects associated with high levels of lead exposure are anemia, kidney problems, and neurological damage that may include seizures, coma, and death. Even at relatively low levels, chronic exposure to lead may lead to learning and behavior problems. The ...

  15. Study on Life Quality of Patients with Chronic Benzene Poisoning and Chronic Lead Poisoning in Wuhan City%武汉市苯中毒和铅中毒患者生存质量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛晓慧; 毕勇毅

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the quality of life (QOL) of patients with chronic benzene poisoning and chronic lead poisoning and the influencing factors. [Methods]The study object were collected from Wuhan Occupational Disease Prevention Hospital, who were diagnosed as chronic benzene poisoning or lead poisoning. Their QOL was evaluated by WHOQOL-BREF ( Chinese Version). Meanwhile, 100 health workers were chosen by the random sampling method as control group, who came from the Wuhan Turbine Engine Plant. Also, the average QOLs level of the nation were used as reference. A multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the relationship between the factors and the scores of the four domains. [Results]The objects were 36 cases of chronic benzene poisoning patients, 68 cases of chronic lead poisoning patients and 100 health works. There were difference about 3 groups QOL scores and their influencing factors. The physical, psychological, social and environmental scores (x ±s) of the chronic benzene poisoning patients were (10.57 ±2.09), (11.51 ±2.76) , (12.63 ±2.12) , (8.97 ±2.33), which were lower than the average levels of the nation , the scores of the chronic lead poisoning and the scores of the health workers. The physical, psychological, social and environmental scores (x ± s) of the chronic lead poisoning patients were (14.01 ±2.31), (13.91 ±1.77), (14.54 ±2. 89), (11. 81 ±2. 25), which were higher than the scores of the chronic benzene poisoning patients. The physical, psychological scores of the chronic lead poisoning patients were higher than the average levels of the nation, but the social domain was reverse. The influencing factors of the chronic lead poisoning patients and the chronic benzene poisoning patients QOL were age, personal income, education, medical history, systems of work, daily working hours, appetite. [ Conclusion] ] Comparing with the average QOLlevel of the nation, all of the 3 groups 'QOL were poor, especially for the chronic

  16. LEAD POISONING OF WATERFOWL AS INDICATORS OF WATER POLLUTION BY HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhmud M.E.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of lead shot in waterfowl gizzards, surveyed in 1969-1985 years was considered in the south ofWestern Siberia and in the southern Ukraine. The gastric contents were investigated of 1722 birds of 13 species. ForMallard, Garganey, Eurasian Teal, and Common Pochard the lead shot was detected in the coastal areas of theDanube Delta. Maximum infestation was registered for Garganey (33,3% and Common Pochard (25,0%. Theresults are compared with data for other European countries. The necessity and effectiveness of interventions aimedat reducing the extent of lead contamination of waterfowl was discussed.

  17. LEAD POISONING OF WATERFOWL AS INDICATORS OF WATER POLLUTION BY HEAVY METALS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhmud M.E.; Koshelev A. I.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of lead shot in waterfowl gizzards, surveyed in 1969-1985 years was considered in the south ofWestern Siberia and in the southern Ukraine. The gastric contents were investigated of 1722 birds of 13 species. ForMallard, Garganey, Eurasian Teal, and Common Pochard the lead shot was detected in the coastal areas of theDanube Delta. Maximum infestation was registered for Garganey (33,3%) and Common Pochard (25,0%). Theresults are compared with data for other European countries. The...

  18. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  19. Childhood lead toxicity and impaired release of thyrotropin-stimulating hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseman, C.A.; Moriarty, C.M.; Angle, C.R.

    1987-04-01

    Decreased stature of children is epidemiologically associated with increased blood lead independent of multiple socioeconomic and nutritional variables. Since endocrine dysfunction occurs in adult lead workers, they studied two girls, 2 years of age, before and after calcium disodium edetate chelation for blood leads (PbB) of 19-72 ..mu..g/dl. The height of both children had crossed from the 50th to below the 10th percentile during the course of chronic lead toxicity. Basal free T/sub 4/, T/sub 4/, T/sub 3/, cortisol, somatomedin C, and sex steroids were normal. A decrease in the growth hormone response and elevation of basal prolcatin and gonadotropins were noted in one. Both children demonstrated blunted thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH) responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in six of seven challenges. This prompted in vitro studies of cultured cells from rat pituitarities. After incubation of pituitary cells with 0.1-10 ..mu..M Pb/sup 2 +/ for 2 hr, followed by the addition of TRH, there was a dose-dependent inhibition of TSH release Lead did not interfere with the assay of TSH. To investigate the interaction of lead and calcium, /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ kinetic analyses were done on rat pituitary slices after 1 hr incubation with 1.0 ..mu..M lead. The impaired late efflux was consistent with a decrease in the size and exchangeability of the tightly bound pool of intracellular microsomal or mitochondrial calcium. The rat pituitary cell model provides a model for the decreased TSH release of lead poisoning, supports the biological plausibility of a neuroendocrine effect on growth, and suggests that interference with calcium-mediated intracellular responses is a basic mechanism of lead toxicity.

  20. Biological and societal dimensions of lead poisoning in birds in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J Christian; Anderson, William L.

    2008-01-01

    The ingestion of spent lead shot was known to cause mortality in wild waterfowl in the US a century before the implementation of nontoxic shot regulations began in 1972. The biological foundation for this transition was strongly supported by both field observations and structured scientific investigations. Despite the overwhelming evidence, various societal factors forestalled the full transition to nontoxic shot for waterfowl hunting until 1991. Now, nearly 20 years later, these same factors weigh heavily in current debates about nontoxic shot requirements for hunting other game birds, requiring nontoxic bullets for big game hunting in California Condor range and for restricting the use of small lead sinkers and jig heads for sport-fishing. As with waterfowl, a strong science-based foundation is requisite for further transitions to nontoxic ammunition and fishing weights. Our experiences have taught us that the societal aspects of this transition are as important as the biological components and must be adequately addressed before alternatives to toxic lead ammunition, fishing weights, and other materials will be accepted as an investment in wildlife conservation.

  1. Experimental lead poisoning and intestinal transport of glucose, amino acids, and sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapnir, R A; Exeni, R A; McVicar, M; Lipshitz, F

    1977-03-01

    Juvenile rats fed a diet containing 1% lead acetate for 7 weeks, in addition to an impaired growth rate and renal function derangements, suffered malabsorption of glucose and certain amino acids, as assessed by an in vivo perfusion technique. The reduction in glucose absorption ranged between 10% and 31% when the carbohydrate was pumped in concentrations of 2-80 mM. This alteration was compatible with a noncompetitive type of transport inhibition. The intestinal absorption of glycine, lysine, and phenylalanine were, respectively, decreased 22, 18, and 15% when these amino acids were present at 1 mM levels. Sodium transport was severely reduced (57.6 +/- 17.9 (SEM) vs. 124.2 +/- 17.4 muEq/min-cm) and intestinal mucosa (Na+-K+)-ATPase was concomitantly lower in the lead-intoxicated rats (186.4 +/- 19.0 vs 268.4 +/- 29.8 nmol P/min-mg protein). However, this enzyme was not altered in liver and kidney. Furthermore, intestinal mucosa fructose-1,6-diphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, and tryptophan hydroxylase were not different in experimental and control animals. These studies substantiate the presence of functional and biochemical abnormalities in the intestinal mucosa of young rats when fed substantial amounts of a soluble lead salt. It is, therefore, reasonable to accept the possibility that physiologic damage occurs in tissues directly subjected to high and persistent levels of a toxic agents, as it occurs in other organs, underscoring the parallelism between transport mechanisms at the renal and intestinal levels.

  2. Clinical analysis of 129 children with lead poisoning%儿童铅中毒129例门诊病例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜振彦; 徐健; 古桂雄; 颜崇淮

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the distribution of blood lead levels and the sources of lead exposure in children with lead poisoning,and thus to offer recommendations for clinical diagnosis and treatment of childhood lead poisoning.Methods The clinical data of 129 patients with lead poisoning was collected and analyzed at the Out-patient Department of Lead Poisoning Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine during Sep.2012 and Aug.2013 were collected and analyzed.All children were required to fill out the " outpatient questionnaire on heavy metal" (including children's demographic data,growth assessment,frequency of hand-mouth behavior,and the behavior of washing hands before eating,dietary,sources of lead exposure,and the family environment,etc.).Other data of medical history,physical examinations (height,weight,growth and development) were also collected.Blood samples were collected to measure blood lead level by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.Results (1) The above 129 patients were from 14 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions),including 64 cases in Zhejiang (49.6%),30 cases in Shanghai (23.0%),13 cases in Jiangsu (10.1%),6 cases in Jiangxi (4.7%),5 cases in Hebei (3.9%),2 cases in Anhui and Guangdong (1.6%) ;and 1 case in Fujian,Henan,Hunan,Jilin,Inner Mongolia,Heilongjiang and Shandong (0.8%),respectively.(2) In the patients,the blood lead level was 17.0-892.0 μg/L[(251.5 ±155.8) μg/L] and the median was 235.0 μg/L.(3)The mean age of the children was 4.3 years.Fifteen cases were less than 1 year old,and the mean blood lead level was (367.8 ± 137.7) μg/L.Thirty-seven cases were 1-3 years old children,and the mean blood lead level was (250.5 ± 116.3) μg/L.Fifty cases were 3-6 years old children,and the mean blood lead level was (237.7 ± 179.7) μg/L.Twenty-seven cases were over 6 years old,and the mean blood lead level was (213.9 ± 141.8) μg/L.(4) One hundred and eleven cases of the

  3. Lead - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead poisoning - nutritional considerations; Toxic metal - nutritional considerations ... Markowitz M. Lead poisoning. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, ... Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ...

  4. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  5. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  6. Evaluation of nanoselenium (Nano-Se) effect on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of rat in experimentally lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Dehkordi, A; Mohebbi, A N; Aslani, M R; Ghoreyshi, S M

    2016-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of nanoselenium (Nano-Se) on hematological and biochemical parameters of rats experimentally intoxicated with lead (Pb). Thirty male rats were randomly divided into six groups as follows: the control, selenite, Nano-Se, Pb group, Pb + selenite, and Pb + Nano-Se groups. After 35 days, blood was collected from rats and hematology and serum biochemical parameters of oxidative stress were measured. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level of Pb group was significantly higher than other groups. Also, TBARS level was significantly lower in the Pb + Nano-Se group than Pb + selenite group. The serum superoxide dismutase activities were significantly lower in Pb group than the control, Pb + selenite, and Pb + Nano-Se groups. The catalase activities in the Pb group showed no significant change when compared to other groups. In the Pb group, packed cell volume was lower than the control group. A significant difference was observed between the control group and the Pb, Pb + selenite, and Pb + Nano-Se groups. In the Pb group, the numbers of white blood cell (WBC) decreased in comparison with the control group. Also, there was significant increase in WBC counts in the Pb + Nano-Se and Pb + selenite groups in comparison with Pb group. The number of lymphocytes in the Pb group decreased in comparison with the control group. By comparing the means of the Pb + Nano-Se and Pb + selenite groups together, it was determined that there were significant differences in the lymphocytes and neutrophil counts. In conclusion, usage of selenium compounds particularly Nano-Se particles inhibits the adverse effects of Pb on antioxidant activity and immune system function in the Pb poisoning.

  7. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a naturally occurring metal used in everything from construction materials to batteries, can cause serious health problems, ... and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours ...

  8. 一起疑似职业性慢性铅中毒的案例评析%Case Analysis of Suspected Occupational Chronic Lead Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓红平; 朱士新; 蔡见远; 朱鸣; 顾永生; 赵林辉; 周思远; 汪亮

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查某铅蓄电池加工企业铅污染引起的疑似职业性慢性铅中毒1例.方法 采用职业流行病学调查、检验检测等方法,依据相关法律法规,综合分析判断.结果 该厂厂房简陋,生产设施落后,劳动防护用品缺乏,大量铅尘、铅烟逸出,是引起职业中毒的主要原因.经检测病人尿铅含量为2.39 μmol/L,结合职业史、症状体征以及现场调查,初步判断为疑似职业性慢性铅中毒.结论 该厂生产条件落后,未提供有效的防护用品,铅蒸气严重污染环境,对工人健康造成危害.%[ Objective] To investigate 1 case of suspected occupational chronic lead poisoning in a lead-acid battery enterprise.[Methods] Occupational epidemiolngy investigation, inspection and test, etc were adopted for comprehensive analysis and judgment, according to relevant laws and regulations. [ Results] The crude plant, backward production facilities, lack of labor protection articles, large amount of lead dust, lead smoke escape were the main reasons inducing occupational poisoning. The lead content in urine of patient was 2.39 μmol/L, combined with occupational history, symptoms and signs, and field investigation, the incident was primarily identified as occupational chronic lead poisoning. [ Conclusion]The production condition is poor in this factory. The lack of effective protection articles and serious environmental pollution by lead vapor are harmful to workers'health.

  9. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Jimsonweed poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Nicotine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Bee poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002847.htm Bee poison To use the sharing features on this page, ... of insect, if possible Time of the sting Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  16. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition Time the gasoline was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Poison Ivy KidsHealth > For Kids > Poison Ivy Print A ... the leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the ...

  19. 血铅中毒对少年儿童生长发育的影响%The Influence of Blood Lead Poisoning to Children's Growth and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何九军

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a highly toxic heavy metal element. It do not have any physiological function in the human body. With the improvement of blood lead level, it can produce toxic effects in the blood, nerve, kidney, endocrine and immune system. Based on relevant research data, the author summarizes the influence factors of blood lead poisoning to children's growth and development and puts forward some suggestions on reducing the children lead poisoning contact and promote children's health.%铅是一种毒性极强的重金属元素,在人体内无任何生理作用。随人体内血铅水平的提高,可对全身血液、神经、肾脏、内分泌和免疫等系统产生毒性作用。在查阅相关研究资料的基础上,综述了血铅中毒对儿童生长发育的影响因素,并针对减少少年儿童铅污染接触,促进少年儿童健康提出了建议。

  20. Zinc and lead poisoning in wild birds in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Dalgam, J.; Dudding, S.; French, J.B.; Mateo, R.; Miesner, J.; Sileo, L.; Spann, J.

    2004-01-01

    contaminated with Pb, Cd, and Zn from mining, milling and smelting. Metals have been dispersed heterogeneously throughout the District in the form of milled mine waste ('chat'), as flotation tailings and from smelters as aerial deposition or slag. This study was conducted to determine if the habitat has been contaminated to the extent that the assessment populations of wild birds are exposed to toxic concentrations of metals. American robins (Turdus migratorius), northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), and waterfowl had increased Pb tissue concentrations (p 50% in red blood cells in these birds (p < 0.05). Several birds had tissue concentrations of Pb that have been associated with impaired biological functions and external signs of poisoning. Cadmium was increased in kidneys of songbirds (p < 0.05), but no proximal tubule cell necrosis associated with Cd poisoning was observed. Zinc concentrations in liver and kidney of waterfowl were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than reference values. The increased environmental concentrations of Zn associated with mining in the District accounted for the pancreatitis previously observed in five waterfowl from the District. The District is the first site at which free-flying wild birds have been found to be suffering severe effects of Zn poisoning.

  1. Effect of a lead-expelling food on lead poisoning in mice%排铅食品对铅中毒小鼠的排铅作用及对矿物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞; 陈玉柱; 张惠英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a lead-expelling food on expelling mineral matters and expelling lead from lead poisoning mice induced by acetate lead. Methods Seventy-five Kuming male mice weighted 18 - 22 g were randomly divided into five groups: negative control group, lead poisoning model group and three intervention groups fed with low, medium and high dosage of lead-expelling food. Deionized water was provided for the negative control group and 1.00 g/L lead acetate solution was provided for the lead-poisoning model group and three intervention groups freely. The lead-expelling food for the low, medium and high dose intervention groups was administrated intragastrically with 5-, 10- or 20-fold of the recommended dosage for human use (0. 60 g/kg BW). The general situation and body weight changes were observed in 30 days. The content of lead, calcium, iron, zinc and copper in blood, liver, femur, kidney and brain were determined. Results The lead content of liver, kidney and brain in low, medium and high-dose intervention groups were lower than those in the lead-poisoning model group (P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01 ). The lead content of blood and femur in medium and high-dose intervention group were lower than those in lead-poisoning model group ( P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01 ). The calcium of liver, zinc of brain, copper of kidney in low-, medium- and high-dose intervention group were higher than those in the lead-poisoning model group (P <0. 05or P < 0. 01 ). The calcium of blood, kidney and brain, the iron, zinc and copper of blood, the blood and copper of brain in middle- and high-dose intervention groups were higher than those in lead-poisoning model group (P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01 ). Iron of femur in high-dose intervention group was higher than that in lead-poisoning model group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The lead-expelling food plays a role in promoting lead elimination from mice, and can improve calcium, iron, zinc and copper metabolism

  2. Traditional medicine: a rare cause of lead poisoning in Western countries [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2c6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima Muller

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old man from Bhutan was admitted to the emergency department with a 5-day history of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Enhanced abdominal CT scan was found negative, however laboratory tests showed hemolytic anemia and basophilic stippling which are often seen in lead and heavy metal poisoning. Additional tests revealed a high level of lead in blood and urine. The patient was administered a chelator treatment with rapid improvement of the symptoms. A detailed interview revealed that the patient had been taking daily Bhutanese traditional medicines to treat a Bell’s palsy from which he had been suffering for a few months. The analysis of these medicines confirmed the presence of a high level of lead.

  3. Gitelman syndrome manifesting in early childhood and leading to delayed puberty: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Farhan

    2012-10-01

    . Conclusion Diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome is usually made incidentally during adolescence or early adulthood based on clinical and biochemical findings. We report that Gitelman syndrome can present during the early childhood years. If undiagnosed and untreated, it can lead to growth retardation and delayed puberty.

  4. Low-level environmental lead exposure in childhood and adult intellectual function: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregas Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early life lead exposure might be a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment in adulthood. Objectives We sought to assess the relationship between early life environmental lead exposure and intellectual function in adulthood. We also attempted to identify which time period blood-lead concentrations are most predictive of adult outcome. Methods We recruited adults in the Boston area who had participated as newborns and young children in a prospective cohort study that examined the relationship between lead exposure and childhood intellectual function. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. The association between lead concentrations and IQ scores was examined using linear regression. Results Forty-three adults participated in neuropsychological testing. Childhood blood-lead concentration (mean of the blood-lead concentrations at ages 4 and 10 years had the strongest relationship with Full-Scale IQ (β = -1.89 ± 0.70, p = 0.01. Full-scale IQ was also significantly related to blood-lead concentration at age 6 months (β = -1.66 ± 0.75, p = 0.03, 4 years (β = -0.90 ± 0.41, p = 0.03 and 10 years (β = -1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.02. Adjusting for maternal IQ altered the significance of the regression coefficient. Conclusions Our study suggests that lead exposure in childhood predicts intellectual functioning in young adulthood. Our results also suggest that school-age lead exposure may represent a period of increased susceptibility. Given the small sample size, however, the potentially confounding effects of maternal IQ cannot be excluded and should be evaluated in a larger study.

  5. Effect of acute lead poisoning on pathological damage in mice testis%急性铅中毒对小鼠睾丸病理损伤研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙相和; 孔令芸; 李冲; 陈玲丽; 宁红梅; 葛亚明

    2014-01-01

    为了研究急性铅中毒对小鼠睾丸病理变化的影响,通过对小鼠饲喂含有醋酸铅的去离子水建立铅负荷小鼠模型.处理10 d后取材,分析体质量、睾丸指数和睾丸病理剖检变化.结果显示:与对照组相比,铅中毒组小鼠体质量无明显变化,睾丸指数降低,且差异显著(P<0.05);小鼠睾丸中支持细胞、生精细胞和间质细胞数量减少.铅对小鼠睾丸具有显著损害作用,从而影响小鼠的生殖健康.%To investigate the effect of acute lead poisoning on pathological changes in mice testis,mice were orally administered with lead acetate for 10 days to establish a lead poisoning mice model.After 10 days,some indexes,such as body weight,testis index,necropsy and histopathology,were analyzed.The results showed that the body weight change of mice was not relevant significantly to the dosage of lead acetate.Compared with the control group,the difference of testis relative index in dosage group was significant (P<0.05).The amount of sertoli cells,germ cells and Leydig’s cells in mice tesis was decreased.The results suggested that lead could damage mice testis significantly and then affect the reproductive health of mice.

  6. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin ... tips to avoid it. back to top Recognizing Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, and Poison Sumac Open PDF ...

  7. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  8. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 76. Borron SW. Pyrethins, repellants, ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ...

  9. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  10. Methylmercury poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grain that was treated with this from of mercury. Poisoning from eating fish from water that is contaminated ... into the body. Many of the symptoms of mercury poisoning are similar to symptoms of cerebral palsy . In ...

  11. Merbromin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a vein (by IV) Laxatives Medicine called an antidote to reverse the effect of the poison Tube ... chance for recovery. If the person takes an antidote to reverse the poison within 1 week, recovery ...

  12. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t be awakened is at risk of dying. Alcohol poisoning is an emergency If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning — even if you don't see the ... immediately. Never assume the person will sleep off alcohol poisoning. Be prepared to provide information. If you ...

  13. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  14. A single center, prospective study on the epidemiology of acute childhood poisoning%儿童急性中毒流行病学单中心前瞻性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雪笛; 高恒妙; 廖琨; 王新伟; 王龙; 赵光远; 霍枫; 钱素云

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析儿童急性中毒的流行病学特征,探讨预防儿童急性中毒的方法.方法 应用儿童中毒病例信息收集表前瞻性收集2013年1月1日至12月31日就诊于北京儿童医院中毒患儿的流行病学资料,分析儿童急性中毒的年龄、原因、途径、种类和后果.结果 共收集中毒病例353例.<1岁28例(8.0%),~4岁255例(72.2%),~9岁35例(9.9%),≥9岁35例(9.9%).中毒发生在家庭305例(86.4%),家庭以外48例(13.6%).经消化道中毒348例(98.5%),吸入5例(1.5%).患儿自己误服281例(79.4%),家长喂错药或超量喂药48例(13.6%),医源性7例(2.1%),试图自杀12例(3.4%).药物中毒206例(58.4%),化学制剂55例(15.6%),鼠药26例(7.3%),农药45例(12.7%),有毒植物16例(4.5%).353例中,急诊留观治疗297例(84.1%),因病情危重住PICU 56例(15.9%),死亡4例(1.1%).结论 中毒好发年龄为1~4岁,主要原因为误服,毒物种类第一位是药物,导致死亡或严重中毒的种类包括精神类药物、农药、鼠药.预防工作重点为防止幼儿家中误服,主要措施有加强儿童监管、妥善保管家中药物及有毒物品、鼓励使用药品安全包装.%Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of acute childhood poisoning and to explore the methods of prevention.Methods The epidemiological information of each poisoning child presented to Emergency Department, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University from Jan 1 st to Dec 31st 2013 were collected with an information collection table.The children's age, causes of poisoning, poison types, ways of poisoning and the consequences of poisoning were analyzed.Results A total of 353 poisoning children presented to our emergency department in 2013.Twenty-eight patients (8.0%) were < 1 year-old.Two hundred and fifty-five patients(72.2%) were between 1 to < 4 year-old.Thirty-five patients (9.9%) were between 4 to <9 year

  15. Photographic fixative poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form ...

  16. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuAnn L. Brink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007 by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas.

  17. Applying social learning theory to childhood and adolescent firesetting: can it lead to serial murder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Stephen D; Hensley, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    Despite the fact that serial murder has existed for centuries, it has been given little academic attention in the social science literature. Existing studies have primarily examined the motivational factors involved in the commission of serial murder. However, research examining the childhood and adolescent backgrounds of serial murderers is scant. Based on three case studies of serial murderers, this study contributes to the existing literature by exploring the possible link between childhood and/or adolescent fire setting and adult serial murder by applying social learning theory.

  18. [Suicidal poisoning with benzodiazepines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J

    1997-01-01

    In the period from 1987 to 1996, 103 patients with suicidal benzodiazepines poisoning were treated, including 62 women and 41 men from 16 to 79 (mean 34) years old. 23 persons were poisoned only by benzodiazepines, in 80 remaining cases intoxications were mixed eg. including benzodiazepines and alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, opioids, phenothiazines. The main causes of suicides were mainly depression, drug addiction and alcoholism. Nobody died in the benzodiazepines group, while mortality rate in the group of mixed poisoning was 4%. Prescribing benzodiazepines by physicians was quite often not justified and facilitated, among others, accumulation of the dose sufficient for suicide attempt. Flumazenil was efficient for leading out from coma in 86% of cases with poisoning only by benzodiazepines and 13% of cases with mixed intoxications mainly containing benzodiazepines and alcohol or carbamazepine.

  19. Peer victimization during middle childhood as a lead indicator of internalizing problems and diagnostic outcomes in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2015-01-01

    We examined evidence that peer victimization in middle childhood is a lead indicator of internalizing behavior problems and diagnostic outcomes during adolescence. This research was conducted as part of an ongoing multisite longitudinal investigation. The participants were 388 children (198 boys, 190 girls). Peer victimization was assessed with a peer nomination inventory that was administered when the average age of the participants was approximately 8.5 years. Internalizing problems were assessed using a behavior problem checklist completed by mothers in 9 consecutive years, and a structured clinical interview was administered to the participants in the summer following high school graduation (10-11 years after the victimization assessment). Peer victimization in middle childhood was correlated with internalizing problems on a bivariate basis through the late years of adolescence. Multilevel analyses also revealed associations between peer victimization and increases in internalizing problems over time. In addition, peer victimization had a modest link to unipolar depressive disorders in late adolescence. Victimization in the peer group during middle childhood appears to be a marker of long-term risk for internalizing behavior problems and unipolar depression.

  20. Cascading impacts of anthropogenically driven habitat loss: deforestation, flooding, and possible lead poisoning in howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos; Olguín, Eugenia J; Garcia-Feria, Luis; Tapia-Fierro, Karla; Chapman, Colin A

    2015-01-01

    To construct informed conservation plans, researchers must go beyond understanding readily apparent threats such as habitat loss and bush-meat hunting. They must predict subtle and cascading effects of anthropogenic environmental modifications. This study considered a potential cascading effect of deforestation on the howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) of Balancán, Mexico. Deforestation intensifies flooding. Thus, we predicted that increased flooding of the Usumacinta River, which creates large bodies of water that slowly evaporate, would produce increased lead content in the soils and plants, resulting in lead exposure in the howler monkeys. The average lead levels were 18.18 ± 6.76 ppm in the soils and 5.85 ± 4.37 ppm in the plants. However, the average lead content of the hair of 13 captured howler monkeys was 24.12 ± 5.84 ppm. The lead levels in the animals were correlated with 2 of 15 blood traits (lactate dehydrogenase and total bilirubin) previously documented to be associated with exposure to lead. Our research illustrates the urgent need to set reference values indicating when adverse impacts of high environmental lead levels occur, whether anthropogenic or natural, and the need to evaluate possible cascading effects of deforestation on primates.

  1. 儿童中度铅中毒治疗效果及安全性分析%Analysis of the efficacy and safety of moderate lead poisoning in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣; 赖燕; 李颖; 张晓华; 李莉

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To understand clinical characteristics of moderate lead poisoning in children.To evaluate the efficacy and safety of EDTA drive lead therapy and nutrition intervention therapy.Methods:A retrospective analysis of moderate lead poisoning in children in two incidences of lead poisoning cases who were treated in our hospital.Results:61.32% children with moderate lead poisoning in children was male,66.04% was aged 1-6.The clinical manifestation of moderate lead poisoning in children was non specific,42.45% children with moderate lead poisoning in children had no clinical manifestations.Blood lead was significantly reduced after treatment,blood lead in drive lead + nutrition intervention therapy group declined more than that in simple nutritional intervention treatment group.There were no complications in treatment process.Conclusion:Nutrition intervention and drive lead therapy is of high safety,good therapeutic effect.Drive lead + nutrition intervention therapy is superior to the simple nutritional intervention therapy.%目的:了解儿童中度铅中毒临床特点及依地酸二钠钙驱铅治疗、营养干预治疗的疗效及安全性.方法:回顾性分析我院收治的两起铅冶炼厂污染环境事件中的儿童中度铅中毒病例,对其临床特点、治疗效果及安全性进行分析总结.结果:儿童中度铅中毒的患儿中男性占61.32%,1~6岁儿童占66.04%;儿童铅中毒临床表现无特异性,42.45%的患儿无明显临床表现;治疗后血铅明显降低,营养干预加驱铅治疗组血铅下降幅度大于单纯营养干预组;治疗过程中无一例出现并发症.结论:营养干预、驱铅治疗疗效好、安全性高,且营养干预加驱铅治疗效果明显优于单纯营养干预.

  2. Poison Ivy Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Poison ivy rash By Mayo Clinic Staff Poison ivy rash is caused by an allergic reaction to an oily resin ... is in the leaves, stems and roots of poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac. Wash your ...

  3. Investigation of the Poisoning Mechanism of Lead on the CeO2-WO3 Catalyst for the NH3-SCR Reaction via in Situ IR and Raman Spectroscopy Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yue; Si, Wenzhe; Li, Xiang; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Junhua; Crittenden, John; Hao, Jiming

    2016-09-01

    The in situ IR and Raman spectroscopy measurements were conducted to investigate lead poisoning on the CeO2-WO3 catalysts. The deactivation mechanisms were studied with respect to the changes of surface acidity, redox property, nitrate/nitrite adsorption behaviors, and key active sites (note that the results of structure-activity relationship of CeO2-WO3 were based on our previous research). (1) Lewis acid sites originated from CeO2 and crystalline WO3, whereas Brønsted acid sites originated from Ce2(WO4)3. The poisoned catalysts exhibited a lower surface acidity than the fresh catalysts: the number of acid sites decreased, and their thermal stability weakened. (2) The reducibility of catalysts and the amount of active oxygen exhibited a smaller influence after poisoning because lead preferred to bond with surface WOx species rather than CeO2. (3) The quantity of active nitrate species decreased due to the lead coverage on the catalyst and the partial bridged-nitrate species induced by lead exhibited a low degree of activity at 200 °C. (4) Crystalline WO3 and Ce2(WO4)3 originated from the transformation of polytungstate sites. These sites were the key active sites during the SCR process. The formation temperatures of polytungstate on the poisoned catalysts were higher than those on the fresh catalysts.

  4. Evaluation of the source and extent of lead poisoning at Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge, Bennett County, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The presence of lead shot at levels which would warrant remediation were not identified on any of the study plots. However, trumpeter swans and at least in prior...

  5. 喷替酸锌钠对铅中毒小鼠的驱铅作用研究%Study of the Effect of Pentetate Zinc Trisodium on Excretion of Lead in Lead Poisoned Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨树; 陈立; 尹艳艳; 董俊兴

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究喷替酸锌钠对慢性铅中毒小鼠体内铅的排泄效果,为临床用药提供实验依据.方法 小鼠随机分为6组,连续10d腹腔注射醋酸铅溶液,每日剂量为10 mg/kg,建立小鼠慢性铅中毒模型,末次染铅后24 h开始给药,连续7d肌肉注射喷替酸锌钠或Ca-DTPA,喷替酸锌钠每日剂量分别为50,150,450 mg/kg,Ca-DTPA每日剂量为150 mg/kg.于注射开始后即每日收集尿液.停药后24 h处死动物,取血液、脑和双侧股骨,通过石墨炉原子吸收分光光度计法测小鼠血铅、脑铅、骨铅和7d总的尿铅含量.结果 喷替酸锌钠可显著降低染铅小鼠血、脑、骨骼中铅含量,明显增加尿铅含量.结论 喷替酸锌钠对于慢性铅中毒小鼠体内的铅有明显的促排效果.%Objective To provide experimental evidence for clinical use of the drug by studying the effect of pentetate zinc trisodium(Zn-DTPA) on excretion of lead in chronic lead poisoned mice. Methods Mice were randomly divided into six groups. The lead poisoned mice model was established by injecting lead acetate intraperitoneally once daily for ten consecutive days at a daily dose of 10 mg/kg. Then pentetate zinc trisodium or pentetate calcium trisodium was administered intramuscularly to mice once daily for seven consecutive days Their urine was collected every day. The daily dose of pentetate zinc trisodium was 50,150 and 450 mg/kg respectively and the daily does of pentetate calcium trisodium was 150 mg/kg. Twenty-four hours after the final injection,the mice were sacrificed and the lead concentration in the blood, brain, femur and urine was determined by atomic absorption sepectrophotometer. Results Pentetate zinc trisodium could reduce lead concentration in the blood, brain and femur significantly and increase the content of lead in urine markedly. Conclusion Pentetate zinc trisodium can promote the excretion of lead in chronic lead-poisoned mice.

  6. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) ... to kill and control insects on crops and in gardens. The government also uses it to kill mosquitoes in large ...

  7. Neurotoxicity and aggressiveness triggered by low-level lead in children: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Gonçalves, Claudia; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques

    2009-09-01

    Lead-induced neurotoxicity acquired by low-level long-term exposure has special relevance for children. A plethora of recent reports has demonstrated a direct link between low-level lead exposure and deficits in the neurobehavioral-cognitive performance manifested from childhood through adolescence. In many studies, aggressiveness and delinquency have also been suggested as symptoms of lead poisoning. Several environmental, occupational and domestic sources of contaminant lead and consequent health risks are largely identified and understood, but the occurrences of lead poisoning remain numerous. There is an urgent need for public health policies to prevent lead poisoning so as to reduce individual and societal damages and losses. In this paper we describe unsuspected sources of contaminant lead, discuss the economic losses and urban violence possibly associated with lead contamination and review the molecular basis of lead-induced neurotoxicity, emphasizing its effects on the social behavior, delinquency and IQ of children and adolescents.

  8. Reductions in blood lead overestimate reductions in brain lead following repeated succimer regimens in a rodent model of childhood lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangle, Diane E; Strawderman, Myla S; Smith, Donald; Kuypers, Mareike; Strupp, Barbara J

    2004-03-01

    Although many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of succimer chelation in reducing blood and brain lead levels, the relative efficacy of the drug in the two tissues is less well understood. This issue is important because blood lead levels after chelation are used clinically to estimate reductions in the brain, the most critical organ in considering lead-induced neurotoxicity. The present study was designed to further investigate this issue, using multiple chelation regimens. Long-Evans rats were exposed to one of three lead exposure regimens from birth until postnatal day 40, followed by treatment with succimer (one or two 3-week regimens) or vehicle. The results indicated that one succimer regimen was significantly superior to vehicle treatment in lowering lead levels in both blood and brain across the entire 8-week follow-up period. Similarly, a second succimer regimen offered significant additional benefit relative to one regimen for both blood and brain across the 4-week follow-up period. However, several findings revealed that succimer-induced reductions in brain lead lagged behind reductions in blood lead and were generally smaller in magnitude. Furthermore, a rebound was detected in blood, but not brain, lead levels after both succimer regimens. Given the results of this study, we urge caution in using blood lead as a surrogate for brain lead levels, particularly during and immediately after chelation treatment when reductions in blood lead levels overestimate reductions in brain lead levels. The present results suggest that, in clinical use, succimer treatment may need to extend beyond the point at which blood lead levels have dropped to an "acceptable" target value in order to effectively reduce brain lead levels and minimize neurotoxicity.

  9. INTRAUTERINE EXPOSURE TO LEAD MAY ENHANCE SENSITIZATION TO COMMON INHALANT ALLERGENS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD. A PROSPECTIVE PREBIRTH COHORT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica; Maugeri, Umberto; Miller, Rachel L.; Rembiasz, Maria; Flak, Elzbieta; Mroz, Elzbieta; Majewska, Renata; Zembala, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Background Several in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that metal-rich particles may enhance allergic responses to house dust mites and induce an increased release of allergy-related cytokines. Objectives The main goal of this analysis is to define the possible association of intrauterine exposure to lead and mercury with the occurrence of skin sensitization to common aeroallergens in early childhood. Material and Methods The present study refers to a sample of 224 women in the second trimester of pregnancy recruited from Krakow inner city area who had full term pregnancies and whose children underwent skin prick testing (SPT) at the age of 5. Lead and mercury levels were assessed in cord blood and retested in children at age of 5 years. Aeroallergen concentrations in house dust were measured at the age of 3 years. The main health outcome (atopic status) was defined as the positive SPT to at least one common aeroallergen (Der f1, Der p1, Can f1 and Fel d1) at the age of 5 years. In the statistical analysis of the association between atopic status of children and exposure to metals, the study considered a set of covariates such as maternal characteristics (age, education, atopy), child’s gender, number of older siblings, prenatal (measured via cord blood cotinine) and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke together with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) as measured by PAH-DNA adducts. Results and conclusion In the binary regression analysis, which controlled for the confounders, the risk ratio (RR) estimate for atopic sensitization was significantly associated with the lead exposure (RR =2.25, 95%CI: 1.21–4.19). In conclusion, the data suggest that even very low-level of prenatal lead exposure may be implicated in enhancing sensitization to common aeroallergens in early childhood. PMID:21094490

  10. Lead Poisoning and Anemia Associated with Use of Ayurvedic Medications Purchased on the Internet--Wisconsin, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiman, Jon; Thiboldeaux, Robert; Anderson, Henry

    2015-08-21

    On April 30, 2015, the Wisconsin Division of Public Health (WDPH) was notified by a local health department of an elevated blood lead level (BLL) in a female patient aged 64 years. All Wisconsin laboratories are required to provide BLL testing results performed on any state resident to WDPH, and WDPH and local health departments are statutorily mandated to investigate any single BLL ≥20 µg/dL or BLLs that are persistently ≥15 µg/dL. Review of medical records revealed that the patient had developed progressive fatigue and shortness of breath during a period of multiple weeks that prompted inpatient medical evaluation. Hemoglobin level was 8.3 g/dL (normal range for age and sex of patient = 12.5-15.0 g/dL), and peripheral blood smear showed normochromic, normocytic red blood cells with basophilic stippling. A BLL was obtained and found to be 85.8 µg/dL. Urine toxic metals tests revealed mercury and aluminum levels in the normal range. Combined methylated and inorganic urine arsenic levels were slightly elevated at 53.3 µg/L (normal = lead chelation therapy with oral meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid.

  11. EFFECTS OF PUERARIN ON BONE TISSUE IN OVARIECTOMIZED RATS AND LEAD POI-SONING IN RATS%葛根素对去卵巢大鼠和铅中毒大鼠骨组织的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海; 王金花; 黄海玲; 黎飚

    2011-01-01

    [目的]通过观察葛根素对去卵巢大鼠和铅中毒大鼠所致的骨质疏松症的治疗效果,为绝经后妇女的骨质疏松症和铅中毒所引起的骨质疏松症的防治提供实验依据.[方法]取5月龄健康雌性大白鼠100只,分成5个实验组(每组20只):(1)正常对照组(Normal);(2)去卵巢模型组(OVX);(3)铅中毒模型组(LPD);(4)葛根素+去卵巢(P+OVX)组;(5)葛根素+铅中毒(P+LPD)组.用葛根素治疗骨质疏松大鼠8周后麻醉取血,处死取其骨.骨组织切片形态观察,对骨和血的钙、磷、铅及血中碱性磷酸酶进行测定.数据进行统计学分析.[结果]在OVX组和LPD组中骨钙、骨磷、血钙及血磷均出现降低(P0.05)和骨组织形态正常,而P+LPD组的骨代谢生化指标(P<0.01)和骨组织形态呈现骨质疏松特征的改变.LPD组和P+LPD组的骨铅和血铅明显高于Nomml组(P<0.01).[结论]葛根素对去卵巢大鼠的骨质疏松症有良好治疗效果,而对铅中毒所致的骨质疏松症无效;铅中毒可引起骨质疏松症.%[Objective] To provide experimental basis for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausai women and lead poisoning caused by osteoporosis population, we were observed by puerarin in ovariectomized rats and rats with lead poisoning treatment of osteoporosis. By puerarin in ovariectomized rats and rats with lead poisoning caused by the treatment of two osteoporosis were observed to prevention and treatment in postmenopausai women with osteoporosis and lead poisoning of osteoporosis to provide experimental basis. [Methods] 100 female rats at 5 months old were divided into five experimental groups (n=20): (1) Normal control group; (2) to ovariectomy group (OVX); (3) lead poisoning model group (LPD); (4) OVX+puerarin (P+0VX) group; (5) puerarin+lead poisoning (P+LPD) group. After 8 weeks treatment of osteoporosis with puerarin in rats, blood samples were obtained after the rats were anesthetized, the rats were

  12. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hill; 2006. Hall AH, Shannon MW. Other heavy metals. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ,eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA. Elsevier ...

  13. Shellac poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in shellac that can be harmful are: Ethanol Isopropanol Methanol Methyl isobutyl ketone ... Isopropanol and methanol are extremely poisonous. As little as 2 tablespoons (14.8 mL) of methanol can ...

  14. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1974-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. The gastrointestinal tract appears to suffer the greatest though there may also be injury to the liver and kidneys. The treatments discussed were in relation to very early poisoning in which the owner had observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning were evident. Early observation treatment included emptying the stomach before the arsenic passed in quantity into the intestine. If the signs of toxicity were already advanced, then the treatment consisted of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. l reference.

  15. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1971-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. Treatment was discussed in relation to two circumstances: very early poisoning in which the owner has observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning are evident. Treatment for early ingestion involves emptying the stomach before the arsenic can pass in quantity into the intestine. This is followed with a 1% solution of sodium bicarbonate, with the administering of 3 to 6 mg of apomorphine. When signs of arsenic toxicity are already advanced, there is little advantage to be gained by either gastric lavage or administration of an emetic. The treatment then consists of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. This is the specific antidote for arsenic. 1 reference.

  16. Food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and toxins may cause food poisoning, including: Campylobacter enteritis Cholera E. coli enteritis Toxins in spoiled or tainted fish or shellfish ... Read More Botulism Campylobacter infection Cholera E. coli enteritis Fish tapeworm infection Pericarditis Salmonella enterocolitis Shigellosis Patient ...

  17. Menthol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menthol is used to add peppermint flavor to candy and other products. It is also used in certain skin lotions and ointments. This article discusses menthol poisoning from swallowing pure menthol. This article is ...

  18. Naphthalene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  19. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  20. Studying Practices of Leading--Qualitative Shadowing in Early Childhood Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hognestad, Karin; Bøe, Marit

    2016-01-01

    This article considers qualitative shadowing as a fruitful method to investigate leadership practices. We propose that an approach to practice that takes into account the activities of "sayings, doings and relatings" offers a fresh perspective on how to obtain rich data on practices of leading. The value of this idea is illustrated from…

  1. Tissue Doppler Imaging Combined with Advanced 12-Lead ECG Analysis Might Improve Early Diagnosis of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femlund, E.; Schlegel, T.; Liuba, P.

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of early diagnosis of childhood hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is essential in lowering the risk of HCM complications. Standard echocardiography (ECHO) has shown to be less sensitive in this regard. In this study, we sought to assess whether spatial QRS-T angle deviation, which has shown to predict HCM in adults with high sensitivity, and myocardial Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) could be additional tools in early diagnosis of HCM in childhood. Methods: Children and adolescents with familial HCM (n=10, median age 16, range 5-27 years), and without obvious hypertrophy but with heredity for HCM (n=12, median age 16, range 4-25 years, HCM or sudden death with autopsy-verified HCM in greater than or equal to 1 first-degree relative, HCM-risk) were additionally investigated with TDI and advanced 12-lead ECG analysis using Cardiax(Registered trademark) (IMED Co Ltd, Budapest, Hungary and Houston). Spatial QRS-T angle (SA) was derived from Kors regression-related transformation. Healthy age-matched controls (n=21) were also studied. All participants underwent thorough clinical examination. Results: Spatial QRS-T angle (Figure/ Panel A) and septal E/Ea ratio (Figure/Panel B) were most increased in HCM group as compared to the HCM-risk and control groups (p less than 0.05). Of note, these 2 variables showed a trend toward higher levels in HCM-risk group than in control group (p=0.05 for E/Ea and 0.06 for QRS/T by ANOVA). In a logistic regression model, increased SA and septal E/Ea ratio appeared to significantly predict both the disease (Chi-square in HCM group: 9 and 5, respectively, p less than 0.05 for both) and the risk for HCM (Chi-square in HCM-risk group: 5 and 4 respectively, p less than 0.05 for both), with further increased predictability level when these 2 variables were combined (Chi-square 10 in HCM group, and 7 in HCM-risk group, p less than 0.01 for both). Conclusions: In this small material, Tissue Doppler Imaging and spatial mean QRS-T angle

  2. Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found? Who is at risk? What are the health effects of lead? Get educational material about lead Get certified as a Lead Abatement Worker, or other abatement discipline Lead in drinking water Lead air pollution Test your child Check and maintain your home ...

  3. Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Cahide; Okur, Mesut; Geylani, Hadi; Caksen, Hüseyin; Tuncer, Oğuz; Ataş, Bülent

    2010-01-01

    Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl) are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood.

  4. Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Cahide

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood.

  5. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoolmeester, W.L.; White, D.R.

    1980-02-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to require awareness of its diverse clinical manifestations. Industry is the major source of arsenic exposure. Although epidemiologic studies strongly contend that arsenic is carcinogenic, there are little supportive research data. Arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic, is often overlooked initially in the evaluation of the patient with multisystem disease, but once it is suspected, many accurate methods are available to quantitate the amount and duration of exposure. Treatment with dimercaprol remains the mainstay of therapy, and early treatment is necessary to prevent irreversible complications.

  6. 百色市0~6岁儿童铅中毒调查分析%Investigation and analysis on lead poisoning in 0-6-year-old children in Baise city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建平; 邓仕华; 王功僚; 黄金林; 陈碧艳

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解百色市0~6岁儿童血铅水平及铅中毒流行情况,为儿童的铅防治提供科学指导.方法:自2008年1月~2010年12月对百色市妇幼保健院儿童保健科及百色市城区幼儿园1 544例0~6岁儿童采用原子吸收光谱仪进行末梢血铅测定,观察儿童血铅水平及铅中毒检出率,同时对不同性别及不同年龄组儿童的血铅水平进行比较.结果:1544例儿童末梢血铅浓度呈正态分布,血铅水平0 μg/L~ 304 μg/L,平均(59.3 ±23.5) μg/L;其中1 433例儿童血铅在正常范围内,其余111例血铅均超过正常范围.男童组与女童组血铅水平无统计学差异,983例男童中,62例铅中毒,561例女童中,49例铅中毒.0~1岁,1~2岁,2~3岁,血铅水平及铅中毒检出率呈逐渐增高趋势,3~4岁,4~5岁血铅水平有所下降,5~6岁血铅水平又再次回升.结论:百色市0~6岁儿童铅中毒发生率较高,应引起儿童家长、老师及社区的高度重视,并结合多方面的力量,尽量避免铅中毒的各种危险因素,为儿童铅中毒的防治提供保障,促进儿童健康成长.%Objective; To understand the blood lead levels of 0 - 6 - year - old children and the prevalence of lead poisoning in Baise city, and provide a scientific guidance for prevention and treatment of lead poisoning in children. Methods: The blood lead levels in peripheral blood of 1 544 children aged 0-6 years old from child health care department of the hospital and kindergartens in rural areas and urban areas of Baise city from January 2008 to December 2010 were measured by atomic absorption spectrometer, the blood lead levels and detection rate of lead poisoning in children were observed, the blood lead levels in children with different genders and in different age groups were compared. Results; The blood lead concentrations of 1 544 children showed a normal distribution, the range of blood levels was 0 - 304 μg/L, (59. 3 ±23. 5) μg/L on average; the

  7. Pot-Laced Goodies Can Poison a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_164157.html Pot-Laced Goodies Can Poison a Child These pastries and candies pose serious ... to kids -- but eating even one treat might poison them, a leading group of U.S. pediatricians warns. ...

  8. Recognizing the Toxicodendrons (poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, J D; Gillis, W T; Beaman, J H

    1981-01-01

    Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are now classified in the genus Toxicodendron which is readily distinguished from Rhus. In the United States, there are two species of poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (western poison oak) and Toxicodendron toxicarium (eastern poison oak). There are also two species of poison ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, a nonclimbing subshrub, and Toxicodendron radicans, which may be either a shrub or a climbing vine. There are nine subspecies of T. radicans, six of which are found in the United States. One species of poison sumac, Toxicodendron vernix, occurs in the United States. Distinguishing features of these plants and characteristics that separate Toxicodendron from Rhus are outlined in the text and illustrated in color plates.

  9. Pick your poison: what's new in poison control for the preschooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Accidental childhood poisonings are a major public health concern despite many efforts to alleviate this problem. While the rate of pediatric fatalities due to poisonings have decreased over the last two decades, poison control centers around the US have collectively fielded over one million calls with regard to toxic exposures in the preschool age group. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers nearly half of all human exposures reported last year involved children under six. By focusing poison prevention efforts on the preschooler, we can attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality in the most vulnerable age group affected. Although the subject is still prevalent, current discussion on this topic is limited. Newer literature discusses past initiatives such as child resistant packaging and sticker deterrent programs and addresses their efficacy. This article revisits older mechanisms of prevention as well as the science behind the human motivation to change one's own practice and behavior.

  10. Mercuric oxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of mercury salt. There are different types of mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric oxide. ... Disinfectants Fungicides There have been reports of inorganic mercury poisoning from the use of skin-lightening creams. Note: ...

  11. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002886.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac To use the sharing features ... the plant, if known Amount swallowed (if swallowed) Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  12. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Nail polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The time it was swallowed The amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  16. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  17. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  18. [Mercury poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  19. 党参多糖对铅中毒小鼠记忆障碍的影响及其作用机制%Effects of polysaccharides from Radix codonopsis on memory disorder of lead poisoning mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立; 李丹; 刘积平; 陈亚丹; 马海明

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察党参多糖对铅中毒小鼠学习记忆的影响及其作用机制.方法 利用Morris水迷宫及跳台试验观察铅中毒小鼠学习记忆能力,亚硝酸盐法测定脑组织超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)活力,硫代巴比妥酸比色法测定丙二醛(monochrome display adapter,MDA)含量,双硝基苯甲酸法测定小鼠脑组织乙酰胆碱酯酶(acetylcholine acetylhydrolase,AChE)含量.结果 Morris水迷宫试验结果表明,到达平台时间党参多糖中、高剂量组较模型组显著缩短(P<0.05),穿越平台次数较模型组显著增加(P<0.05).跳台试验结果表明,与模型组比较,党参多糖中、高剂量组在学习训练及记忆测试中跳下平台的触电潜伏期显著延长(P<0.05),错误次数显著降低(P<0.05),触电时间明显下降(P<0.01).党参多糖中、高剂量组与模型组比较,脑组织SOD活性升高,MDA含量降低,AchE含量无统计学差异.结论 党参多糖能改善铅中毒小鼠的学习记忆能力,其机制可能与改善脑内脂质过氧化,清除自由基有关.%Objective To study the effect of polysaccharides from Radix codonopsis ( PRC ) on memory disorder of lead poisoning mice and to explore its mechanism. Methods The learning ability of lead poisoning mice were detected by Morris water maze and step - down test, the activity of super oxide dismutases ( SOD ) in brain was determined by the nitrite formation and the content of malondialdehyde ( MDA ) in brain was determined by thiobarbituric acid colorimetric method, nitrobenzoic acid method was used to detect the content of acetylcholine esterase ( AchE ) . Results During Morris water maze test , compared with model group, in the middle and high dose of PRC groups mice, the latent period to reach the platform was significantly reduced ( P < 0. 05 ) and the time to across the plat was significantly increased (P <0. 05) . In step - down test, compared with model group , the learning training and

  20. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  1. Mania following organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyakam Mohapatra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  2. Mania following organophosphate poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Satyakam Mohapatra; Neelmadhav Rath

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  3. Mania following organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  4. Research on cause of lead poisoning in children with a portable X - Ray fluorescence analyzer%便携式X线荧光分析仪用于儿童铅中毒溯源的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林国桢; 李科; 刘翔翊

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the feasibility of a .portable X - Ray Fluorescence Analyzer (XRF) in searching the cause of pediatric lead poisoning. Methods:In a family with two children confirmed as lead poisoning, all articles that the children could reach or may be affected (including wall, furniture, foodstuff, dishware, water and toys) were detected for lead contents with a XRF to find out the latent exposure. Results:Among the sampled articles, sofa, paint of the balcony bars and baby powder had higher lead concentrations with 1741 mg/kg, 8700 mg/kg and more than 100000 mg/kg, respectively. But the two children had not yet bitten or licked the sofa and the bar painting was not peeling. But the children had been being rubbed baby powder by their parent since birth. Farther investigation revealed the lead in the powder came from red lead which was mixed intentionally. The blood lead levels of two children decreased rapidly after disuse of this baby powder. Conclusion:The portable XRF is an effective tool for searching the exposure source of pediatric lead poisoning in scene and can find out real cause for poisoning when integrated with questionnaire.%目的:掌握便携式X线荧光分析仪(XRF)用于铅中毒溯源调查的可行性.方法:在1家庭2幼儿铅中毒调查个案中,用XRF对其家庭内环境、食品、餐具、饮用水和儿童用品进行检测,寻找可疑铅暴露.结果:在抽查的27种物品中,铅含量较高的是皮沙发表面(1741 mg/kg)、阳台护栏油漆(8700 mg/kg)和散装无牌爽身粉(>100000 mg/kg),但两幼儿没有啃咬皮沙发的习惯,护栏油漆也没有破损脱落,两幼儿都有经常使用这种无牌散装爽身粉的习惯,经进一步调查爽身粉中的铅来自于配制中人为加入的红丹.病人脱离接触红丹爽身粉后血铅水平下降.结论:XRF是现场调查儿童铅中毒来源行之有效方法,结合问卷可快速找出暴露的原因.

  5. Transient loss of the Y-chromosome in an elderly man with anemia and lead poisoning: chance occurrence or a clonal marker of the underlying hematological abnormality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantadakis, Elpis; Boula, Anna M; Girakis, George; Xilouri, Irini M; Foudoulakis, Andreas M; Samonis, George

    2006-08-01

    One of the most important environmental and occupational pollutants is lead. Cytogenetic damage is known to occur to many individuals exposed to lead, e.g., outdoor and car painters, traffic policemen, gasoline station attendants, etc.1 Chronic lead exposure affects many organ systems leading to a gradual decline in the so-called safe blood lead levels over time.

  6. Ciguatera poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaibar, Kira C; Moore, Simon; Bain, Peter G

    2007-10-01

    Ciguatera is a form of poisoning that occurs after eating tropical and subtropical ciguatoxic fish. The ciguatoxins are a family of heat stable, lipid soluble cyclic polyether compounds that bind to and open voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels at resting membrane potential, resulting in neural hyperexcitability, as well as swelling of the nodes of Ranvier. The authors describe a 45-year-old man who developed acute gastrointestinal symptoms in Antigua soon after eating red snapper and grouper, potentially "ciguatoxic fish". This was followed by neurological symptoms 24-48 hours later, including temperature reversal (paradoxical dysaesthesia), intense pruritus and increased nociception as a result of a small fibre peripheral neuropathy. The patient's symptoms and small fibre neuropathy improved over a period of 10 months.

  7. Mercury poisoning: a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezer, Hasan; Kaya, Aysenur; Kalkan, Gokhan; Erkocoglu, Mustafa; Ozturk, Kubra; Buyuktasli, Muge

    2012-11-01

    Clinical features of mercury poisoning are nonspecific, and a detailed history is very valuable. The silvery, shiny appearance of mercury makes it very exciting and attractive for children. The overall half-life of elemental mercury in the body averages approximately 2 months. Chelation therapy with dimercaptosuccinic acid is the treatment of choice if the urine or blood level of mercury is high or the symptoms are profound. Here, we describe a 14-year-old boy with fever, respiratory distress, and body rash. Investigation leading to a diagnosis of mercury poisoning was made only after his mother presented with the similar symptoms a few days later.

  8. Intoxicação por chumbo e cádmio em trabalhadores de oficinas para reforma de baterias em Salvador, Brasil Lead and cadmium poisoning among workers in small establishments for repairing batteries in Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martins Carvalho

    1985-10-01

    cadmium poisoning among workers from the sector engaged in repairing batteries for motor vehicles was carried out. Thirty-nine workers from 19 small establishments, existent in the urban area of Salvador City, State of Bahia, Brazil, were studied. Conditions of hygiene at work place, biological characterization of the workforce and workers' perception of occupational hazards were evaluated and related to blood levels of cadmium, lead, erythroprotoporphyrin and hematocrit. Concentrations of cadmium and lead in blood were determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry techniques. Thirty-six (92.3% out of the 39 workers mentioned that their job could be hazardous to their health. Brazilian legislation on safety, hygiene and occupational medicine considers lead and cadmium poisoning as being professional diseases when occurring among people working on repairing batteries. However, only 7 (17.9% out the 39 workers knew that they were potentially eligible for benefits from present legislation. None of the 39 workers knew that they had been exposed to cadmium nor about the occupational risks arising from this exposure. Geometric mean and standard deviation of cadmium in blood levels was extremely high (0.074; 2.3 µmol/1, with 97.4% of the working population exceeding the reference limit of 0.009 µmol/1. Mean level of lead in blood was 2.06; 1.4 µmol/l. Only one worker presented blood lead level higher than 3.36 mmol/1, which placed him at a higher risk of presenting clinical lead poisoning. Mean level of erythroprotoporphyrin was 0.86; 3.1 µmol/l. Two workers had low hematocrit levels : 37 and 38%, respectively. In the whole group, hematocrit levels were poorly correlated with lead or with cadmium levels in blood. A brief, oriented clinical examination did not reveal any clear cases of lead or cadmium poisoning. Higher levels of cadmium and lead in blood were associated with workers' ages above 19 years of age, with amount of time spent in the

  9. Estradiol does not affect bone tissue and bone metabolism indices in rat models of lead poisoning%雌二醇对铅中毒模型大鼠骨组织及骨代谢指标不能产生影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秉朴; 李海; 陈建海; 黎飚; 张树球

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There ha s been no consensus regarding whether lead poisoning can cause osteoporosis and whether estradiol exhibits curative effects on osteoporosis.OBJECTIVE: To observe the curative effects of estradiol on osteoporosisinduced by ovariectomy and lead poisoning in rats.METHODS: A total of 100 female rats were randomly and evenly divided into five g roups: normal control, ovariectomized, lead poisoning, estradiol+ovariectomized and estradiol+lead poisoning. At 1 week after ovariectomy, estradiol (100 μg/kg) was subcutaneously injected into the rats in the estradiol+ovariectomized and estradiol+lead poisoning groups, twice a week, for successive 12 weeks.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the ovariectomized group and lead poisoning group, calcium and phosphoruslevelsin the bone and serum were significantly decreased (P < 0.01), serum level of alkaline phosphatase was significantly increased (P<0.01), and bone tissue showed the pathological change of osteoporosis. In the estradiol+ovariectomized group, serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase and bone tissue morphology returned to normal, while in the estradiol+lead poisoning group, no obvious changes in bone metabolism indices and bone tissue morphology above-mentioned did not recover obviously. The lead level in the bone and serum was significantly higher in the lead poisoning group, estradiol+lead poisoning group than in the normal control group (P < 0.01). These results showed that lead poisoning can cause osteoporosis, and estradiol exhibits good curative effects on osteoporosiscaused by ovariectomy in rats, but it does not produce obvious curative effects on osteoporosiscaused by lead poisoning.%背景:关于铅中毒能否引起骨质疏松症及雌激素对其治疗是否有效尚无共识.目的:观察雌二醇对去卵巢大鼠和铅中毒大鼠所致骨质疏松症的治疗效果.方法:雌性大白鼠100 只等分成正常对照组、去卵巢模型组、染铅模型组、

  10. Transdermal carbamate poisoning – a case of misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Kumar Rajbanshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pesticide poisoning is a common mode of intentional self harm. Oral ingestion is the usual mode of poisoning. However, inhalation, accidental or occupational transdermal exposure leading to acute or chronic poisoning can be the other route of poisoning. It has been seen that the purpose of poising is suicidal intensity in most of the cases. We report an unusual case where the victim had acute pesticide poisoning through transdermal route that was intended for non suicidal purpose. The patient was managed successfully with immediate decontamination and adequate antidote.

  11. Metal Poisoning: Threat and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJS Flora

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to toxic metals remains a wide spread occupational and environmental problems in world. Due to their widespread use in human activities such as industry, agriculture and even as medicine numerous health risks may be associated with exposure to these substances. Lead, arsenic and cadmium generally interferes with a number of body functions such as the haematopoietic system, central nervous system (CNS, liver and kidneys. Over the past few decades there have been growing awareness and concern that the toxic biochemical and functional effects are occurring at lower level of metal exposure than those that produce overt clinical and pathological signs and symptoms. Despite many years of research we are still far from an effective treatment of chronic heavy metal poisoning. The main therapeutic option for chronic metal poisoning relies in chelation therapy. Chelating agents are capable of linking together metal ions to form complex structures which can be easily excreted from the body. They have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic poisoning. 2, 3-dimercaprol (BAL has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy of lead or arsenic poisoning. Meso 2, 3, -dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA has been tried successfully in animals as well as in few cases of human lead or arsenic poisoning. However, one of the major disadvantages of chelation with DMSA has been its inability to remove heavy metal from the intracellular sites because of its lipophobic nature. Further, it does not provide protection in terms of clinical/ biochemical recovery. A new trend in chelation therapy has emerged to use combined treatment. This includes use of structurally different chelating agents or a combination of an antioxidant and a chelator to provide better clinical/biochemical recovery in addition to mobilization of heavy metal form intracellular sites. The present review article attempts to provide update information about the current strategies being

  12. Study on intelligent change and brain evoked potential among the children with lead poisoning%铅中毒儿童的智力改变与脑诱发电位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦; 徐雅娜; 李永利; 陈伟燕; 廖建湘

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To study the relationship between intelligent change and brain evoked potential among the children with lead poisoning, explore the electrophysiological basis of neurotoxicity and psychological and behavioral changes among the children with lead poisoning. Methods: According to the blood lead levels, social and family investigation with a questionnaire, after excluding several important effect factors of intelligence, forty-five children aged 6-12 years meeting the criterion were divided into high lead group (blood lead level ≥10μg/dl) and normal group (blood lead level < 10 μg/dl) . The children were detected by WISC, sensory evoked potential (SEP) detection, and event - related potentials (ERP) detection, respectively. The degrees of injuries of lead poisoning to intelligence, sensory system, and advance mental function were entirely evaluated. Results; The full scale intelligence quotient and verbal intelligence quotient of high lead group were significantly lower than those of normal group. The performance intelligence quotient decreased, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was no significant difference in P15, N20, P25 of early cortical potential of SEP between the two groups, but there was significant difference in late cortical potential, the elongation of N35, P45, and N60 was the main manifestation. Among P300 waves, there was no significant difference in N100 and P200 between the two groups, but the amplitudes of P300 and N200 decreased significantly , and the latent period extended obviously. Conclusion: The study provides an objective and electrophysiological basis for neurotoxicity and abnormality of cognitive and psychological behaviors of children with lead poisoning, observing prevention, which also provides electrophysiological basis for diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning among children.%目的:研究儿童铅中毒的智力改变与脑诱发电位的关系,探索儿童铅中毒的神经毒

  13. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it ... has a longer stem than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical ...

  14. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  15. Evaluation Of Methadone Poisoning in Hospitalized Children: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Maamouri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Upload poisoning is one of the most dangerous and common poisoning in Iranian children. Depression of the respiratory and central nervous systems may lead to significant toxicity. Even low doses of uploads are dangerous in pediatrics under 6 years old. Methadone is the most toxic of the uploads; small doses as low as a single tablet can lead to death. According to this information we decided to evaluate methadone poisoning in Hospitalized Children

  16. Benchmark dose approach for low-level lead induced haematogenesis inhibition and associations of childhood intelligences with ALAD activity and ALA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Ye, L X; Zhao, H H; Chen, J W; Zhou, Y K

    2011-04-15

    Lead (Pb) levels, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activities, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in blood, and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and coproporphyrin (CP) concentrations were measured for 318 environmental Pb exposed children recruited from an area of southeast China. The mean of blood lead (PbB) levels was 75.0μg/L among all subjects. Benchmark dose (BMD) method was conducted to present a lower PbB BMD (lower bound of BMD) of 32.4μg/L (22.7) based on ALAD activity than those based on the other three haematological indices, corresponding to a benchmark response of 1%. Childhood intelligence degrees were not associated significantly with ALAD activities or ALA levels. It was concluded that blood ALAD activity is a sensitive indicator of early haematological damage due to low-level Pb exposures for children.

  17. Pesticide Poisoning of Honeybees: A Review of Symptoms, Incident Classification, and Causes of Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiljanek Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2000s, the problem of pesticide poisoning of honeybees seemed to be almost solved. The number of cases has decreased in comparison to the 1970s. The problem of acute honeybee poisoning, however, has not disappeared, but instead has transformed into a problem of poisoning from ‘traditional’ pesticides like organophosphorus pesticides or pyrethroids, to poisoning from additional sources of ‘modern’ systemic neonicotinoids and fipronil. In this article, the biological activity of pesticides was reviewed. The poisoning symptoms, incident definitions, and monitoring systems, as well as the interpretation of the analytical results, were also reviewed. The range of pesticides, and the detected concentrations of pesticides in poisoned honeybee samples, were reviewed. And, for the first time, cases of poisoning related to neonicotinoids were reviewed. The latter especially is of practical importance and could be helpful to analysts and investigators of honeybee poisoning incidents. It is assumed that secondary poisoning induced by plant collected materials contaminated with systemic pesticides occurs. Food stored in a hive and contaminated with systemic pesticides consumed continuously by the same generation of winter bees, may result in sub-lethal intoxication. This leads to abnormal behaviour identified during acute intoxication. The final result is that the bees discontinue their social role in the honeybee colony super organism, and colony collapse disorder (CCD takes place. The process described above refers primarily to robust and strong colonies that were able to collect plenty of food due to effective plant protection.

  18. Environmental lead contamination in the Rudnaya Pristan--Dalnegorsk mining and smelter district, Russian far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Braun, Margrit C; von Lindern, Ian H; Khristoforova, Nadezhda K; Kachur, Anatoli H; Yelpatyevsky, Pavel V; Elpatyevskaya, Vera P; Spalinger, Susan M

    2002-03-01

    A preliminary survey of a remote mining and smelting region of the Russian Far East (RFE) indicates significant soil lead contamination and a high probability of childhood lead poisoning. Lead concentrations in residential gardens (476-4310 mg/kg, Gmean=1626 mg/kg) and in roadside soils (2020-22900 mg/kg, Gmean=4420 mg/kg) exceed USEPA guidance for remediation. Preliminary biokinetic estimates of mean blood levels suggest that preschool children are at significant risk of lead poisoning from soil/dust ingestion with levels predicted to average 13-27 microg/dl. Samples of other pathways, such as air, water, paint, interior dust, and garden produce, and pediatric and occupational blood lead levels are needed. An assessment of the industry's ability to improve emissions controls and materials handling should also be undertaken. Global lessons in remediating contamination problems and preventing childhood lead poisoning must be applied in innovative ways to meet the logistical, social, and economic challenges in the RFE.

  19. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  20. Blood Lead Levels in Children and Environmental Lead Contamination in Miami Inner City, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophile Niyonsenga

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that the environmental conditions of the home are important predictors of health, especially in low-income communities. Understanding the relationship between the environment and health is crucial in the management of certain diseases. One health outcome related to the home environment among urban, minority, and low-income children is childhood lead poisoning. The most common sources of lead exposure for children are lead paint in older, dilapidated housing and contaminated dust and soil produced by accumulated residue of leaded gasoline. Blood lead levels (BLL as low as 10 μg/dL in children are associated with impaired cognitive function, behavior difficulties, and reduced intelligence. Recently, it is suggested that the standard for intervention be lowered to BLL of 5 μg /dl. The objectives of our report were to assess the prevalence of lead poisoning among children under six years of age and to quantify and test the correlations between BLL in children and lead exposure levels in their environment. This cross-sectional analysis was restricted to 75 children under six years of age who lived in 6 zip code areas of inner city Miami. These locations exhibited unacceptably high levels of lead dust and soil in areas where children live and play. Using the 5 μg/dL as the cutoff point, the prevalence of lead poisoning among the study sample was 13.33%. The study revealed that lead levels in floor dust and window sill samples were positively and significantly correlated with BLL among children (p < 0.05. However, the correlations between BLL and the soil, air, and water samples were not significant. Based on this pilot study, a more comprehensive environmental study in surrounding inner city areas is warranted. Parental education on proper housecleaning techniques may also benefit those living in the high lead-exposed communities of inner city Miami.

  1. Blood lead levels in children and environmental lead contamination in Miami inner city, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasana, Janvier; Hlaing, WayWay M; Siegel, Kristy A; Chamorro, Armando; Niyonsenga, Theophile

    2006-09-01

    Studies have shown that the environmental conditions of the home are important predictors of health, especially in low-income communities. Understanding the relationship between the environment and health is crucial in the management of certain diseases. One health outcome related to the home environment among urban, minority, and low-income children is childhood lead poisoning. The most common sources of lead exposure for children are lead paint in older, dilapidated housing and contaminated dust and soil produced by accumulated residue of leaded gasoline. Blood lead levels (BLL) as low as 10 microg/dL in children are associated with impaired cognitive function, behavior difficulties, and reduced intelligence. Recently, it is suggested that the standard for intervention be lowered to BLL of 5 microg/dl. The objectives of our report were to assess the prevalence of lead poisoning among children under six years of age and to quantify and test the correlations between BLL in children and lead exposure levels in their environment. This cross-sectional analysis was restricted to 75 children under six years of age who lived in 6 zip code areas of inner city Miami. These locations exhibited unacceptably high levels of lead dust and soil in areas where children live and play. Using the 5 microg/dL as the cutoff point, the prevalence of lead poisoning among the study sample was 13.33%. The study revealed that lead levels in floor dust and window sill samples were positively and significantly correlated with BLL among children (p air, and water samples were not significant. Based on this pilot study, a more comprehensive environmental study in surrounding inner city areas is warranted. Parental education on proper housecleaning techniques may also benefit those living in the high lead-exposed communities of inner city Miami.

  2. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms.

  3. Childhood trauma, country report (Thailand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junnanond, C; Ruangkanchanasetr, S; Chunharas, A

    1993-10-01

    In Thailand, each year approximately 15,000 people die from accidents, a figure exceeded only by cardiovascular diseases. Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) is the principal cause of death and injuries in children of all ages except preschool group. In 1988 there were 554,452 cases of injuries out of which 10,031 died from MVA. In Bangkok alone MVA accounts for an average of 300 childhood and teenage death and 1,900 cases of injuries each year. Falls, burns and poisonings are relatively high in children less than 4 years old while MVA and injuries from sharp and blunt objects of both accidental and non-accidental cases increase with age and become the two leading causes of injury in older children. The sex ratio (F:M) in preschool ages are 1:1.4 and 1:2 in preteen. Poisonings, though less common, are considered to be very important because of their severity. Drugs, hydrocarbon, insecticides, lead and corrosive substances are leading agents. As for injuries caused by animals, 150 cases of rabies were reported each year while around 5,000 cases of snake bites were found in 1987 and 20 per cent of the victims were children. The study from Ramathibodi Hospital revealed that the majority of accidents (65-72%) occur at home and 20 per cent in the street in children younger than 12 years. Peak incidence were found between 5-9 pm. During weekend and holidays the incidence is higher. Ninety-five per cent of the accidents reported were mild cases, 15 per cent moderate, 3 per cent severe and less than 1 per cent caused death.

  4. 姬松茸多糖对铅中毒大鼠铅代谢及体内铜、钙、锌、铁、锰含量的影响%EFFECTS OF AGARICUS BLAZEI MUILL POLYSACCHARIDES ON LEAD METABOLISM AND THE CONTENTS OF COPPER, CALCIUM, ZINC, IRON AND MANGANESE IN LEAD-POISONING RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程红艳; 冯翠萍; 王伟娟; 常明昌; 孟俊龙; 冯两蕊

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解姬松茸多糖(Agaricus blazei Murrill polysaccharides,ABP)对Pb中毒大鼠体内Pb、Cu、Ca、Zn、Fe、Mn含量的影响.方法 选择健康45日龄SD大鼠48只,随机分为6组,每组8只,雌雄各半,分别为正常对照组、Pb中毒组、多糖组、Pb中毒+低剂量多糖干预组、Pb中毒+中剂量多糖干预组和Pb中毒+高剂量多糖干预组.Pb中毒组和Pb中毒+多糖干预组都给予0.2%醋酸铅溶液,自由饮用,其它组给予蒸馏水.多糖、低剂量、中剂量及高剂量组分别按每天每只100、50、100、200mg/kg体重灌服姬松茸多糖液,各组灌服液体积相等,为1ml.正常对照组和Pb中毒组每天每只灌胃2ml的生理盐水.饲养60d后,取大鼠肝脏、肾脏、心脏和血,分别测定Pb、Cu、Ca、Zn、Fe、Mn含量.结果 (1)与正常对照组比较,Pb中毒组各组织和三个多糖干预组中肝脏、肾脏和血中Pb含量升高,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01),Pb中毒组心脏中的Ca、血中的Fe含量升高(P<0.05或P<0.01),其余均下降(P<0.05或P<0.01),多糖组中肾脏和心脏中的Ca,血中的Fe略有下降,其余均略有升高,差异无统计学意义.(2)与Pb中毒组比较,低剂量多糖显著降低血铅含量(P<0.01),中剂量多糖显著降低心脏中铅含量(P<0.01),其他组织铅含量差异无统计学意义,随着ABP剂量的升高,三个多糖干预组中心脏中的Ca和血中的Fe的含量逐渐降低,而其他指标均逐渐升高,当ABP剂量达到200mg/kg时,显著下降或升高(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 姬松茸多糖促进Pb的排出,对Pb致大鼠微量元素失衡具有调节作用.%Objective To investigate the effects of Agaricus blazei Murrill polysaccharides (ABP) on Pb metabolism and the contents of Pb, Cu, Ca, Zn, Fe and Mn in lead-poisoning rats. Method Forty eight healthy 45 d SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (female ; male=1:1): control group, ABP group, lead-poisoning group, lead+low-dose ABP group

  5. Calcium carbide poisoning via food in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per, Hüseyin; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Yağmur, Fatih; Gümüş, Hakan; Kumandaş, Sefer; Poyrazoğlu, M Hakan

    2007-02-01

    The fast ripening of fruits means they may contain various harmful properties. A commonly used agent in the ripening process is calcium carbide, a material most commonly used for welding purposes. Calcium carbide treatment of food is extremely hazardous because it contains traces of arsenic and phosphorous. Once dissolved in water, the carbide produces acetylene gas. Acetylene gas may affect the neurological system by inducing prolonged hypoxia. The findings are headache, dizziness, mood disturbances, sleepiness, mental confusion, memory loss, cerebral edema and seizures. We report the case of a previously healthy 5 year-old girl with no chronic disease history who was transferred to our Emergency Department with an 8-h history of coma and delirium. A careful history from her father revealed that the patient ate unripe dates treated with calcium carbide.

  6. [The prevalence of accidental poisoning in a hospital pediatric unit of Latium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraoni, F; Protano, C; Bini, V; Lizzi, R

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the trend of accidental poisoning among children, over a period of fifteen years, from 1990 to 2004, in the pediatric wards of a hospital in Latium (Italy). The prevalence of childhood poisoning was calculated based on the medical records of the pediatric unit of the hospital. The derived data was divided into different categories according to age, gender and types of poisoning. The results of this study show a decrease in accidental pediatric poisoning; according to the literature the frequency of poisoning was higher in males, under the age of 2 years, than females. Trends show an increase in pharmaceutical poisonings. The present study underlines the need for continuous information on prevention and educational programs organized by the Institutions, territorial sanitary services and GP with the aim of increasing the awareness of parents regarding the risk factors of poisoning.

  7. 二巯基丁二酸治疗慢性中度铅中毒的实验研究%Effects of chelation therapy with succimer in young rabbits of moderate lead poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余高妍; 颜崇淮; 余晓刚; 左勇; 邹向宇; 徐健; 吴胜虎; 沈晓明

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨二巯基丁二酸(又名二巯琥珀酸,DMSA)治疗慢性中度铅中毒幼兔的驱铅效果.方法 24 只离乳(45 d)雄性健康新西兰幼兔,数字表法随机分为治疗组、阳性对照组和阴性对照组,每组8只,经消化道染铅(醋酸铅,每天5 mg/kg) 6周复制中度铅中毒动物模型,然后给予DMSA 驱铅治疗,第1周每天给DMSA 1050 mg/m2 体表面积,然后改为每天700 mg/m2 体表面积连续2周,停药3周,每周采集血液和尿液,12周后杀死并取海马、睾丸、心脏、肝脏、肾脏和脾脏.用原子吸收分光光谱仪测定血铅,电感耦合等离子体质谱仪测尿铅和组织脏器铅,光学显微镜(简称光镜)下观察组织脏器的组织结构.结果 与阳性对照组(PG)相比,DMSA 治疗组(TG)的幼兔展尿铅浓度增加显著,从治疗前的(40.97±1.77)μg/L 显著增加至达到峰值 (1246.96±157.91)μg/L,然后逐步减少,第1周两组相比差异有统计学意义(F=2934.35,P<0.01),三组间相比较差异均具有统计学意义(P值均<0.01);同时血铅水平(blood lead levels,BLLs)在用药后由治疗前的(429.63±10.82)μg/L,锐减到第3周停药时的(238.50±11.82)μg/L,停药后出现一过性反弹,然后再次降低;而PG的BLLs在同时期中呈现缓慢下降过程,到停药3周后为(149.88 4±11.39)μg/L,基本接近于TG的(135.50±7.09)μg/L.TG新西兰兔的组织脏器铅含量显著降低,体重增长明显加快,光镜下观察睾丸和肝脏的病理损伤有一定程度的改善.结论 DMSA 治疗慢性中度铅中毒幼兔,可以快速有效降低血铅和软组织铅,在短时间内减轻铅对组织脏器的毒性作用,使组织脏器的损伤随着机体铅负荷的降低而有所减轻,对铅毒性作用导致的生长发育落后有一定的改善作用.%Objective To explore the effect of chelation therapy with suceimer (DMSA) in male rabbits of moderate lead poisoning during iuvenile stage.Methotis Twenty-four 45-day-old male New Zealand

  8. What Do We Know of Childhood Exposures to Metals (Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury) in Emerging Market Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey M. Horton; Mortensen, Mary E.; Yulia Iossifova; Wald, Marlena M.; Paula Burgess

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countr...

  9. Effects of chronic lead exposure on functions of nervous system in Chinese children and developmental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenjing; Ruan, Diyun; Yan, Chonghuai; Yin, Shuting; Chen, Jingyuan

    2012-08-01

    Lead pollution is a very serious problem in China with the rapid economic development. A large amount of lead has been released into the environment due to mineral processing activities and has impacted water resources, soils, vegetables, and crops. The gasoline with lead has been banned in China since July 1, 2000. Though a noticeable decrease of lead poisoning rates has been evidenced, the children's blood lead levels are still significantly higher than those in developed countries. Therefore, lowering the lead exposure in childhood continues to be an important public health objective in China. There is also a lot that remains to be done to reduce children's exposure to lead. In this section, five scientists from China presented latest research results regarding the current situation of lead poisoning in China, the mechanisms involved in lead-induced neurotoxicity, and the new advances related to the potential therapy methods. Their researches may pave new way not only for the prevention of lead poisoning but also for the treatment of affected children in China and other countries.

  10. Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mouaffak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are responsible for 5% poisoning recorded by Poison Control Centers. Among all known toxic plants, some present a real danger if ingested. We report the case of a five years old child, who presented, after ten bitter almonds ingestion, consciousness disorders progressing to coma with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, miosis and metabolic acidosis. Bitter almonds and nuclei of stone fruits or other rosaceae (apricot, peach, plum contain cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin, that yields hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. Swallowing six to ten bitter almonds may cause serious poisoning, while the ingestion of fifty could kill a man. The binding of cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase lead to a non hypoxemic hypoxia by blocking the cellular respiratory chain. Therapeutic measures include, oxygen support, correction of acidosis and cyanide antidote by hydroxocobalamin in case of serious poisoning.

  11. Intoxicação por chumbo e saúde infantil: ações intersetoriais para o enfrentamento da questão Lead poisoning and child health: integrated efforts to combat this problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niura Aparecida de Moura Ribeiro Padula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Inquérito epidemiológico realizado pela Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo e Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de Bauru visou à realização de exames de plumbemia em 853 crianças de 0 a 12 anos, em Bauru, São Paulo, Brasil (2002, a partir de indícios de chumbo oriundo de resíduos industriais nas proximidades de uma fábrica de baterias. Os níveis sangüíneos de chumbo no grupo controle foram inferiores aos apresentados pelo grupo exposto (p An epidemiological survey was carried out by technicians of the State Health Secretary and the Municipal Health Secretary of Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil, due to excessive atmospheric lead emissions caused by a battery manufacturer. This survey included 853 children from 0 to 12 years old, in a 1,000-meter area from the polluting source, in Bauru (2002. The blood lead levels of children in the exposed group were higher than those in the control group (p < 0.05. 314 children were found to have dosages equal or superior to 10µg/dl, the limit stipulated by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Public services, universities, and volunteers developed some activities aiming at child diagnosis and treatment. The Municipal Health Secretary coordinated remediation initiatives such as: scraping the superficial surface of streets, internal aspiration of houses with professional equipment, and washing and sealing tanks. Through this work, the Lead Poisoning Study and Research Group (GEPICCB shares an integrated, interdisciplinary, and interinstitutional action proposal.

  12. Lead and the Romans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Aravind; Braun, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been a problem since early history and continues into modern times. An appealing characteristic of lead is that many lead salts are sweet. In the absence of cane and beet sugars, early Romans used "sugar of lead" (lead acetate) to sweeten desserts, fruits, and sour wine. People most at risk would have been those who consumed the…

  13. Lead and the Romans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Aravind; Braun, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been a problem since early history and continues into modern times. An appealing characteristic of lead is that many lead salts are sweet. In the absence of cane and beet sugars, early Romans used "sugar of lead" (lead acetate) to sweeten desserts, fruits, and sour wine. People most at risk would have been those who…

  14. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  15. [Metal poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, A

    2003-01-01

    Metals are amongst the oldest toxic substances known to man. In today's industrialized world the sources of exposure to metals are ubiquitous both in the field of work and from polluted water, foodstuffs and the environment. Their toxicity is characterized by the metallic element in question, but this is modified by the type of compound, whether organic or inorganic, and its characteristics of hydrosolubility and liposolubility, which determines its toxicokinetics and thus the possibilities of it reaching its targets. The biomolecules most affected by metals are the proteins with enzymatic activity, which is why their pathology is multisystemic. The principal systems affected are the gastrointestinal, central and peripheral neurological, haematic and renal. Some metallic compounds are carcinogenic. Metals's treatment is conditioned by their chemical reactivity. They can be deactivated and eliminated by the administering of chelating agents that produce complex molecules, which are non-toxic and can be excreted. The principal chelating agents are: BAL (British Anti-Lewisite or dimercaprol) DMPS (2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic Acid) and DMSA (meso-2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic or Succimer), EDTA, Penicilamine (b,b-dimethylcysteine) and Deferoxamine. Toxicokinetic characteristics, mechanism of action, clinical picture and treatment of some of the most relevant metals and metalloids: lead, mercury and arsenic, are considered.

  16. Coordination chemistry of two heavy metals: I, Ligand preferences in lead(II) complexation, toward the development of therapeutic agents for lead poisoning: II, Plutonium solubility and speciation relevant to the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neu, Mary Patricia [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The coordination chemistry and solution behavior of the toxic ions lead(II) and plutonium(IV, V, VI) have been investigated. The ligand pKas and ligand-lead(II) stability constants of one hydroxamic acid and four thiohydroaxamic acids were determined. Solution thermodynamic results indicate that thiohydroxamic acids are more acidic and slightly better lead chelators than hydroxamates, e.g., N-methylthioaceto-hydroxamic acid, pKa = 5.94, logβ120 = 10.92; acetohydroxamic acid, pKa = 9.34, logβ120 = 9.52. The syntheses of lead complexes of two bulky hydroxamate ligands are presented. The X-ray crystal structures show the lead hydroxamates are di-bridged dimers with irregular five-coordinate geometry about the metal atom and a stereochemically active lone pair of electrons. Molecular orbital calculations of a lead hydroxamate and a highly symmetric pseudo octahedral lead complex were performed. The thermodynamic stability of plutonium(IV) complexes of the siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFO), and two octadentate derivatives of DFO were investigated using competition spectrophotometric titrations. The stability constant measured for the plutonium(IV) complex of DFO-methylterephthalamide is logβ120 = 41.7. The solubility limited speciation of 242Pu as a function of time in near neutral carbonate solution was measured. Individual solutions of plutonium in a single oxidation state were added to individual solutions at pH = 6.0, T = 30.0, 1.93 mM dissolved carbonate, and sampled over intervals up to 150 days. Plutonium solubility was measured, and speciation was investigated using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemical methods.

  17. Coordination chemistry of two heavy metals: I, Ligand preferences in lead(II) complexation, toward the development of therapeutic agents for lead poisoning: II, Plutonium solubility and speciation relevant to the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neu, M.P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The coordination chemistry and solution behavior of the toxic ions lead(II) and plutonium(IV, V, VI) have been investigated. The ligand pK{sub a}s and ligand-lead(II) stability constants of one hydroxamic acid and four thiohydroaxamic acids were determined. Solution thermodynamic results indicate that thiohydroxamic acids are more acidic and slightly better lead chelators than hydroxamates, e.g., N-methylthioaceto-hydroxamic acid, pK{sub a} = 5.94, log{beta}{sub 120} = 10.92; acetohydroxamic acid, pK{sub a} = 9.34, log{beta}{sub l20} = 9.52. The syntheses of lead complexes of two bulky hydroxamate ligands are presented. The X-ray crystal structures show the lead hydroxamates are di-bridged dimers with irregular five-coordinate geometry about the metal atom and a stereochemically active lone pair of electrons. Molecular orbital calculations of a lead hydroxamate and a highly symmetric pseudo octahedral lead complex were performed. The thermodynamic stability of plutonium(IV) complexes of the siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFO), and two octadentate derivatives of DFO were investigated using competition spectrophotometric titrations. The stability constant measured for the plutonium(IV) complex of DFO-methylterephthalamide is log{beta}{sub 110} = 41.7. The solubility limited speciation of {sup 242}Pu as a function of time in near neutral carbonate solution was measured. Individual solutions of plutonium in a single oxidation state were added to individual solutions at pH = 6.0, T = 30.0, 1.93 mM dissolved carbonate, and sampled over intervals up to 150 days. Plutonium solubility was measured, and speciation was investigated using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemical methods.

  18. What do we know of childhood exposures to metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) in emerging market countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Lindsey M; Mortensen, Mary E; Iossifova, Yulia; Wald, Marlena M; Burgess, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets.

  19. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  20. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning.

  1. Aluminum phosphide poisoning: an unsolved riddle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, R; Binukumar, B K; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2011-08-01

    Aluminum phosphide (ALP), a widely used insecticide and rodenticide, is also infamous for the mortality and morbidity it causes in ALP-poisoned individuals. The toxicity of metal phosphides is due to phosphine liberated when ingested phosphides come into contact with gut fluids. ALP poisoning is lethal, having a mortality rate in excess of 70%. Circulatory failure and severe hypotension are common features of ALP poisoning and frequent cause of death. Severe poisoning also has the potential to induce multi-organ failure. The exact site or mechanism of its action has not been proved in humans. Rather than targeting a single organ to cause gross damage, ALP seems to work at the cellular level, resulting in widespread damage leading to multiorgan dysfunction (MOD) and death. There has been proof in vitro that phosphine inhibits cytochrome c oxidase. However, it is unlikely that this interaction is the primary cause of its toxicity. Mitochondria could be the possible site of maximum damage in ALP poisoning, resulting in low ATP production followed by metabolic shutdown and MOD; also, owing to impairment in electron flow, there could be free radical generation and damage, again producing MOD. Evidence of reactive oxygen species-induced toxicity owing to ALP has been observed in insects and rats. A similar mechanism could also play a role in humans and contribute to the missing link in the pathogenesis of ALP toxicity. There is no specific antidote for ALP poisoning and supportive measures are all that are currently available.

  2. Licenced to pollute but not to poison: The ineffectiveness of regulatory authorities at protecting public health from atmospheric arsenic, lead and other contaminants resulting from mining and smelting operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Davies, Peter J.; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Csavina, Janae Lynn

    2014-09-01

    This article details and examines the impact of significant inconsistencies in pollution licencing, monitoring and reporting from Australia’s leading mining and smelting communities of Mount Isa in Queensland and Port Pirie in South Australia. Although emissions to the environment are regulated according to Australia’s national air quality standards, significant atmospheric point source toxic emissions of arsenic, lead and sulfur dioxide continue to contaminate Mount Isa and Port Pirie communities. Short-term atmospheric contaminant emissions across residential areas from the Mount Isa Mines operations are significant: in 2011, 24-h maximum suspended particulate (TSP) values for lead-in-air and arsenic-in-air were 12.8 μg/m3 and 2973 ng/m3, respectively. The relevant Queensland air quality objectives for lead and arsenic are 0.5 μg/m3 (TSP) and 6 ng/m3 (PM10), respectively, averaged over a year. Mount Isa is also blanketed by elevated sulfur dioxide concentrations, with the Australian and Queensland 1-h air quality standard (0.2 ppm) being exceeded on 27 occasions in 2011. At Port Pirie, contamination of the urban environment is arguably worse with 24-h maximum TSP values for lead-in-air and arsenic-in-air of 22.57 μg/m3 (2011) and 250 ng/m3 (2009), respectively. Port Pirie has an annual average lead-in-air standard of 0.5 μg/m3 (TSP) but there are no set values for arsenic. In 2012, the national 1-h standard for sulfur dioxide was exceeded 50 times in Port Pirie. Despite chronic childhood blood lead exposures in both communities, there is a history of denial and downplaying of the source and impact of the contamination. A contributory factor to this pattern of behaviour is the fragmented and inconsistent delivery of data as well as its interpretation in relation to environmental and health impacts from exposures. This study reviews available data sources and makes inference to the impacts from contamination and in doing so, explains why the current

  3. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  4. Poison Center Data for Public Health Surveillance: Poison Center and Public Health Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Royal K.; Schier, Josh; Schauben, Jay; Wheeler, Katherine; Mulay, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the use of poison center data for public health surveillance from the poison center, local, state, and federal public health perspectives and to generate meaningful discussion on how to address the challenges to collaboration. Introduction Since 2008, poisoning has become the leading cause of injury-related death in the United States (US); since 1980, the poisoning-related fatality rate in the US has almost tripled.1 Many poison-related injuries and deaths are reported to regional poison centers (PCs) which receive about 2.4 million reports of human chemical and poison exposures annually.2 Federal, state, and local public health (PH) agencies often collaborate with poison centers and use PC data for public health surveillance of poisoning-related health issues. Many state and local PH agencies have partnerships with regional PCs for direct access to local PC data which help them perform this function. At the national level, CDC conducts public health surveillance for exposures and illnesses of public health significance using the National Poison Data System (NPDS), the national PC reporting database. Though most PC and PH officials agree that PC data play an important role in PH practice and surveillance, collaboration between PH agencies and PCs has been hindered by numerous challenges. To address these challenges and bolster collaboration, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations Community of Practice (CoP) was created in 2010 by CDC as a means to share experiences, identify best practices, and facilitate relationships among federal, state and local public health agencies and PCs. To date, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP includes over 200 members from state and local public health, regional PCs, CDC, the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A leadership team was created with representatives of the many stakeholders of the community to drive its

  5. A 50-year follow up of the long-term consequences of childhood plumbism. 1. Neurobehavior among survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.; Gendzler, R.D.; Hu, H.; Potter, N.

    The long-term health effects of childhood lead poisoning are incompletely explored. The authors identified a group of subjects for whom it was documented during 1930-1942 that they had lead poisoning. With the assistance of public records, survivors who reside in Massachusetts were traced. Thirty-three were successfully recruited to participate in this portion of the study. Twenty age-, sex-, and town-of-residence matched control subjects were recruited and studied simultaneously. All subjects were given a battery of neuropsychological tests, including tasks known to be sensitive to lead or robust in the face of lead exposure from prior occupational and environmental studies. The battery assessed a wide range of psychological functions, including visuospatial abilities, attention and executive function, reasoning, short-term memory, and mood. All tests known to be sensitive to brain damage and/or effects of lead were performed less effectively by the group of plumbism subjects than by controls. The equivalence of the two groups on tests known to be insensitive to lead and on the mood scales argues against subject performance bias. These results support the hypothesis that a history of childhood plumbism is associated with longstanding cognitive deficits. The pattern of test findings is consistent with the hypothesis that lead affects limbic and frontal system function in the brain.

  6. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  7. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  8. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  9. Hand lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lotion or cream can be harmful if swallowed: Dimethicone Mineral oil Paraffins (waxes) Petrolatum Various alcohols Where ... Hand cream poisoning References Caraccio TR, McFee RB. Cosmetics and toilet articles. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, ...

  10. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  11. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  12. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidneys. The poisoning causes disturbances in the body's chemistry, including metabolic acidosis . The disturbances may be severe enough to cause profound shock , organ failure, and death. As little as 120 milliliters (approximately 4 fluid ...

  13. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and smokers. Carbon monoxide can harm a fetus (unborn baby still in the womb). Symptoms of carbon ... symptoms Outlook (Prognosis) Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause death. For those who survive, recovery is slow. How ...

  14. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... debilitating (Miller, 1991). To date there is no antidote or effectivc treatment, so supportive care and medications ... Diagnosis, Management and Treatment, Chemical Structure, and Molecular Mechanism of Action. Additional Resources Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, ...

  15. Poison plants (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by poor circulation, even stress. An example of contact dermatitis is the reaction of a sensitive person's skin to poison ivy, oak or sumac. Contact with these plants, which contain a chemical called ...

  16. Oximes in organophosphorus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organic insecticide poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the developing countries, where organophosphates (OPs are the most common suicidal poisons with high morbidity and mortality and account for a large proportion of patients admitted to intensive care units. Other insecticides less commonly used are organocarbamates, organochlorides, and pyrethroids, which are less toxic and are associated with less morbidity and mortality. Patients with poisoning present with a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal, neurological, and cardiac manifestations. A strong clinical suspicion is necessary to make an early diagnosis and to start appropriate therapy. Treatment is primarily supportive and includes decontamination, anticholinergics, protection of the airway, and cardiac and respiratory support. The use of oximes has been controversial and may be associated with higher mortality owing to a higher incidence of type-II paralysis. They may have other toxic side effects. This paper reviews the literature on OP poisoning.

  17. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  18. Bracken fern poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...

  19. Pine oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... Mosby; 2013:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  20. Protect the Ones You Love From Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from poisoning, one of the leading causes of child injury.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 12/10/2008.

  1. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson; Mateo, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  2. Accidental dapsone poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P M; Philip, E

    1984-12-01

    Accidental poisoning in children shows a trend towards poisoning with various newer drugs and chemicals used in the household. Sixty-one cases of accidental poisoning in children were seen in Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, (S.A.T.H.), Trivandrum, South India during the year 1982, constituting 0.61% of the total pediatric admissions. Dapsone poisoning constituted 9.8% of the total accidental poisonings, emphasising the need for safe storage of drugs out of the reach of young children. Dapsone poisoning with resultant methaemoglobinaemia responded well to intravenous ascorbic acid and other supportive measures.

  3. XRCC3基因多态性与铅作业男工铅毒性易感性的关联研究%Relationship between XRCC3 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to lead poisoning in male lead-exposed workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祥铨; 张忠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between genetic polymorphism of X-ray repair cross-complementing gene 3 (XRCC3) and susceptibility to lead poisoning in male lead-exposed workers.Methods Peripheral venous blood and morning urine samples were collected from 326 male lead-exposed workers in a storage battery factory in Fuzhou.Blood lead,urine lead,blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP),blood calcium,and blood iron were measured.The genotype of XRCC3 was determined by polymerase chain reactionrestriction fragment length polymorphism method.The relationship between XRCC3 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to lead poisoning in male lead-exposed workers was analyzed.Results Genetic polymorphism of XRCC3 was seen in the 326 subjects.The frequency distribution of XRCC3 genotypes,XRCC3-241CC (wild type),XRCC3-241CT (heterozygous mutation),and XRCC3-241TT (homozygous mutation),was in accordance with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05).There were no significant differences in urine lead,blood ZPP,blood calcium,and blood iron between the lead-exposed workers with different XRCC3 genotypes (P>0.05).The workers with XRCC3-241CT/TT had a significantly higher mean blood lead level than those with XRCC3-241CC (P<0.05).With a blood lead level of 1.90 μmol/L as the cutoff value,the chi-square test and logistic regression analysis showed that the proportion of workers with XRCC3-241CT/TT was significantly higher than that of workers with XRCC3-241CC in the subjects with high blood leads (P<0.05) and that the risk of high blood lead was significantly higher in the workers with XRCC3-241CT/TT than in those with XRCC3-241CC (OR =2.34,95% CI =1.61~5.13); the multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the workers with XRCC3-241CT/TT had high blood lead levels (β=0.116,P<0.05),the workers with smoking habit demonstrated marked lead absorption (β=0.188,P<0.05),good individual protection could reduce lead absorption (β=-0.247,P<0.05),and the individuals

  4. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  5. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  6. 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets Anyone who takes medication prescribed ... of all phone calls to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) are about human medications. Your ...

  7. SPECTRUM OF POISONING IN CHILDREN: STUDY FROM TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallesh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To understand pattern of poisoning in different age group in tertiary child care center and quantify burden of poisoning in pediatric admissions and mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective observation study. SETTING: Tertiary care center for children. METHODS: All the children admitted with diagnosis of acute poisoning between January 2013 and June 2015 was studied. RESULTS: There were 332 admissions due to poisoning during the study period (5.4% of total admissions. Mortality due to poisoning was 7, i.e. , 1.97% of all - cause mortality. 2.1% of poisonings died during the study period where a s overall mortality from all causes was 5.71%. House hold Products topped the list with 112 cases, followed by agricultural products (88 cases, animal bites and stings (69 cases, drugs (48 cases and industrial compounds (7 cases. Majority of admissions were in summer seasons 31% of all poisoning followed by rainy season. CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of acute poisoning in childhood has not changed significantly over time. Organophosphorus compounds, phosphides and drugs poisoning peak during adolescence and is particularly alarming. Conditions such as free availability of these compounds, co morbid conditions of adolescents, adolescent stressors have to be addressed

  8. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  9. Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac Print A A A The oil in poison ivy /oak/sumac plants (called urushiol ) can cause ...

  10. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  11. Cow dung powder poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  12. "Cater to the children": the role of the lead industry in a public health tragedy, 1900-1955.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, G; Rosner, D

    2000-01-01

    A major source of childhood lead poisoning, still a serious problem in the United States, is paint. The dangers of lead were known even in the 19th century, and the particular dangers to children were documented in the English-language literature as early as 1904. During the first decades of the 20th century, many other countries banned or restricted the use of lead paint for interior painting. Despite this knowledge, the lead industry in the United States did nothing to discourage the use of lead paint on interior walls and woodwork. In fact, beginning in the 1920s, the Lead Industries Association and its members conducted an intensive campaign to promote the use of paint containing white lead, even targeting children in their advertising. It was not until the 1950s that the industry, under increasing pressure, adopted a voluntary standard limiting the amount of lead in interior paints.

  13. Anxious Solitude/Withdrawal and Anxiety Disorders: Conceptualization, Co-Occurrence, and Peer Processes Leading toward and Away from Disorder in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazelle, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    This chapter contains (1) an analysis of commonalities and differences in anxious solitude and social anxiety disorder, and a review of empirical investigations examining (2) correspondence among childhood anxious solitude and anxiety and mood diagnoses and (3) the relation between peer difficulties and temporal stability of anxious solitude and…

  14. Paraquat poisoning: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondle Raghu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (1, r-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridium dichloride, a brown syrupy liquid is an effective herbicide that has low chronic toxicity because of its rapid deactivation on contact with soil. A high dose of paraquat or severe poisoning has a poor prognosis. At present there is no specific antidote to paraquat poisoning, hence the need to focus on prevention and in case of exposure or ingestion, aggressive decontamination to prevent further absorption. Although uncommon, paraquat ingestion can lead to severe and often fatal toxicity. However, despite its widespread availability, reports of this herbicide poisoning in India are uncommon.

  15. Arsenic – Poison or medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kulik-Kupka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. Med Pr 2016;67(1:89–96

  16. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  17. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  18. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  19. Causes of Acute Poisoning Hospital admission in Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Yasuj, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammad Hosseini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: About 7% of patient referred to hospital are various forms of poisoning. This study was performed to determine the major causes of acute poisoning leading to Hospitalization at Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Yasuj, Iran. Methods: This descriptive study was performed from August 2007 to July 2008 on 470 cases of poisonings referred to Shahid Beheshti hospital of Yasuj. Demographic characteristics, time of poisoning, poisoning factor, history of previous poisoning, history of psychiatric disease, medication and other therapeutic intervention based on questionnaires and interviews with patients or companions of patients were recorded. Data were analyzed by Chi-Square Test. Results: Majority of poisoned patients were single females, in the age range of 21-30 years, unemployed, lived in urban areas, and had at least a diploma. The majority of cases were intentional poisoning with a history of depression, previous poisoning and attempted suicide. Significant relationship were seen between poisoning, age, sex, and job, (p0.05. Conclusion: With respect to the results of this study, the majority of these poisonings occurred among young, single and unemployed females due to suicide and drug intoxication. Necessary actions should be done in drug usage and maintenance, taking action against non-prescription drugs and giving proper public education to families.

  20. XRCC3、XPD 基因多态性与职业性慢性铅中毒易感性关系病例-对照研究%Matched case-control study on relationship between polymorphisms of gene XRCC3, XPD and the susceptibility of occupational chronic lead poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祥铨; 吴小南; 吴京颖; 刘合焜

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨X射线交错互补修复基因3(XRCC3) Thr241Met和人类着色性干皮病基因D (XPD) Asp312Asn及Lys751Gln与职业性慢性铅中毒的关系。方法选择103名蓄电池厂确诊为职业性慢性铅中毒的男性工人为病例组,按照工种和年龄1∶1匹配选择同厂无诊断为铅中毒的铅作业男性工人为对照组。采集2组人群周围静脉血,采用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性技术检测XRCC3 Thr241Met、XPD Asp312Asn和XPD Lys751Gln位点的多态性,采用条件Logistic回归分析分析不同基因型与职业性慢性铅中毒的关系。结果2组人群中XRCC3 Thr241Met、XPD Asp312Asn和XPD Lys751Gln多态位点的基因型分布均符合遗传学Hardy-Weinberg平衡定律( P>0.05)。2组人群XRCC3 Thr241Met 3种基因型总体分布比较,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。2 组人群XPD Asp312Asn和XPD Lys751Gln 3种基因型总体分布分别比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。 XRCC3 Thr241Met的CT和TT基因型均增加铅中毒易感性[校正比值比分别为2.44和3.37,95%可信区间为(1.17~5.09)和(1.09~11.14)],而XPD Asp312Asn 和 XPD Lys751Gln 不同基因型与铅中毒易感性无关( P >0.05)。结论 XRCC3 Thr241Met的CT或TT基因型与职业性慢性铅中毒相关;而XPD Asp312Asn和XPD Lys751Gln多态性与职业性慢性铅中毒易感性无关。%Objective To explore the relationship between polymorphisms of gene XRCC3 Thr241Met and XPD Asp312Asn, Lys751Gln and occupational chronic lead poisoning .Methods Based on 1∶1 matched case-control study, 103 couple lead-exposed male workers were selected as the case group ( occupational chronic lead poisoning patients ) and the control group ( workers without poisoning manifestations ) from storage battery factories , and their peripheral venous blood was collected .Single nucleotide polymorphisms of XRCC3 Thr241Met, XPD Asp312

  1. Childhood Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood schizophrenia Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Childhood schizophrenia is an uncommon but severe mental disorder in which children interpret reality abnormally. Schizophrenia involves a range of problems with thinking (cognitive), ...

  2. Childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  3. 运用灰色模型预测未来5年深圳市售畜肉中铅含量并评估人群暴露水平%A gray forecasting model for lead poisoning in meat in Shenzhen, Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王舟; 黄薇; 潘柳波; 谭唯

    2011-01-01

    Objective To construct a gray forecasting model for lead contamination in meat in Shenzhen, Guangdong, and to predict the risk of lead poisoning in next 5 years. Methods The forecasting model of lead contamination in meat was constructed with gray systems theories and the data of lead contents in meat for the years between 2001 and 2010.The forecasting model of lead contamination was used to predict the lead content of meat for the next 5 years. Results The model of gray forecasting predicts that lead content of meat is between 0.031 mgs/kg and 0.017 mgs/kg for the next 5 years. The predicted trend of lead content in meat is decreasing. Lead exposure from meat source is predicted as 3. 258-1. 787 jug/day/person for residents for the years between 2011 and 2015, which equals 0.834 %-l. 52% of provisional tolerable daily intake (PTD1). Conclusion The forecasting model of lead content in meat suggests the low risk of lead poisoning in meat in the near future.%目的 建立未来5年深圳市售畜肉中铅含量的预测数学模型,评估人群暴露水平,以了解其可能风险.方法 根据2001-2010年深圳市畜肉类食品中铅检测数据,应用灰色预测模型对未来5年深圳市售畜肉中铅含量进行预测,并结合深圳市膳食调查人群畜肉消费量数据,评估人群的暴露水平.结果 灰色预测结果显,2011-2015年深圳市畜肉铅含量呈下降趋势,为0.031~0.017 mg/kg;人群畜肉铅暴露量也呈下降趋势,为3.258~1.787 μg/(d·人),占PTDI的1.52%~0.83%.结论 目前认为深圳市居民通过畜肉摄入铅的风险较小.

  4. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, M.W.; Dodson, M.E.

    1972-06-01

    A case of acute arsenic poisoning in cattle was reported. The losses occurred on a property in the south east of South Australia. The weather had been hot for two or three days before the death occurred. The tank supplying the water trough had almost run dry. The cattle then attempted to meet their water requirements by drinking from the sheep dipping vat. A sample of rumen contents and a sample of water from the dipping vat were checked for arsenic. The rumen sample contained 45 ppM As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and the sample of dipping fluid contained 200 ppM As. The lesions observed were similar to earlier reported arsenic poisoning. 5 references.

  5. Arsenic poisoning in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Bahri, L; Ben Romdane, S

    1991-06-01

    Arsenic is an important heavy metal intoxicant to livestock. Arsenical pesticides present significant hazards to animal health. The toxicity of arsenic varies with several factors--its chemical form, oxidation states, solubility. The phenylarsonic compounds are the least toxic and are used as feed additives in swine and poultry rations. However, roxarsone has a higher absolute toxicity than arsanilic acid. The mechanism of action is related to its reaction with sulfhydryl groups values to enzyme function and to its ability to uncouple oxydative phosphorylation. Most animals excrete arsenic quite readily. Toxicoses caused by inorganic and aliphatic organic arsenicals result in a different clinical syndrome than that from the phenylarsonic compounds. Arsenic poisoning may be confused with other types of intoxication. The specific antidote for inorganic arsenical poisoning is dimercaprol (BAL).

  6. Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Williams, Thomas N; Maitland, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55-75)/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI = 19-43)/100,000 population on the island of Ambae. Hospital admission was more common in males 20-29 years old. Death was a rare complication. In the face of increases in both tourism and in the global trade in tropical and exotic fish, physicians in both endemic and non-endemic areas should be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical features of this important condition.

  7. nsect poisons in museums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eirik Granqvist

    2015-01-01

    Since natural history museums existed, there have been problems concerning how to protect the collections from damages caused by insects. In 1740s', French Chemist Becoeur started to use arsenic-soap to protect his taxidermy specimens against insects. But in the years of 1770s', it was discovered the terrible strong arsenic poison which was dangerous to human beings. Finally taxidermy specimens leave the use of ar- senic and borax to history and use Eulan in their place.

  8. Methaemoglobinemia in nitrobenzene poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongtham D

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A young girl with nitrobenzene induced methaemoglobinaemia was saved by the timely use of mechanical ventilator, administration of oral methylene blue and parenteral ascorbic acid. Though parenteral methylene blue is the antidote of choice, due to its non-availability, the laboratory preparation of methylene blue have been utilized orally. The rare occurrence of such cases, and the efficacy of oral methylene blue and other supportive measures in evading death due to Nitrobenzene poisoning have been highlighted.

  9. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations.

  10. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous

    CERN Document Server

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present practical poisoning and name-server block- ing attacks on standard DNS resolvers, by off-path, spoofing adversaries. Our attacks exploit large DNS responses that cause IP fragmentation; such long re- sponses are increasingly common, mainly due to the use of DNSSEC. In common scenarios, where DNSSEC is partially or incorrectly deployed, our poisoning attacks allow 'com- plete' domain hijacking. When DNSSEC is fully de- ployed, attacker can force use of fake name server; we show exploits of this allowing off-path traffic analy- sis and covert channel. When using NSEC3 opt-out, attacker can also create fake subdomains, circumvent- ing same origin restrictions. Our attacks circumvent resolver-side defenses, e.g., port randomisation, IP ran- domisation and query randomisation. The (new) name server (NS) blocking attacks force re- solver to use specific name server. This attack allows Degradation of Service, traffic-analysis and covert chan- nel, and also facilitates DNS poisoning. We validated the attac...

  11. Organophosphate poisoning : A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmod K. Sinha

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate pesticides are used extensively worldwide, and poisoning by these agents, particularly in developing nations is a public health problem. Organophosphorous nerve agents are still considered as potential threat in both military or terrorism situations. The mechanism of toxicity is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, resulting in accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and continued stimulation of acetylcholine receptors both in central and peripheral nervous systems. Beside acute cholinergic crisis, organophosphates are capable of producing several subacute or chronic neurological syndromes. The well described intermediate syndrome (IMS emerges 1-4 days after an apparently well treated cholinergic crisis. The standard treatment consists of reactivation of inhibited acetylcholinesterase with an oxime antidote (pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6 and Hlo7 and reversal of the biochemical effects of acetylcholine with atropine. The newer oximes HI-6 and Hlo& are much more suitable and efficacious acetylcholinesterase reactivator for severe acute nerve agent induced poisoning than currently used pralidoxime or obidoxime. Patients who receive treatment promptly usually recover from acute toxicity but may suffer from neurologic sequelae. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 120-6 Keywords: poisoning, insecticide, organophosphate (OP, carbamates, acetylcholinesterase, oxime, pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6, HLo7

  12. Chronic arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan H

    2002-03-10

    Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS).

  13. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  14. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Poison Data System Our Work Alerts Keep Up-to-Date on the Latest Poison News The AAPCC works ... the latest poison safety and prevention news! Sign Up! Save the Date! Medication Safety 101 Twitter Chat Medication Safety 101: ...

  15. Childhood Victimization and Lifetime Revictimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J.; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the fundamental hypothesis that childhood victimization leads to increased vulnerability for subsequent (re)victimization in adolescence and adulthood and, if so, whether there are differences in rates of experiencing traumas and victimizations by gender, race/ethnicity, and type of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Methods:…

  16. Poisoning of domestic animals with heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velev Romel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term heavy metal refers to a metal that has a relatively high density and is toxic for animal and human organism at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter animal organism via food, drinking water and air. Some heavy metals (e.g cooper, iron, chromium, zinc are essential in very low concentrations for the survival of all forms of life. These are described as essential trace elements. However, when they are present in greater quantities, like the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury which are already toxic in very low concentrations, they can cause metabolic anomalies or poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning of domestic animals could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination, high ambient air concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in a biological organism over time. Manifestation of toxicity of individual heavy metals varies considerably, depending on dose and time of exposure, species, gender and environmental and nutritional factors. Large differences exist between the effects of a single exposure to a high concentration, and chronic exposures to lower doses. The aim of this work is to present the source of poisoning and toxicity of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, thallium, arsenic, as well as new data about effects of those heavy metals on the health of domestic animals. .

  17. Detoxification of Organophosphate Poisoning Using Nanoparticle Bioscavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhiqing; Hu, Che-Ming J; Fang, Ronnie H; Luk, Brian T; Gao, Weiwei; Wang, Fei; Chuluun, Erdembileg; Angsantikul, Pavimol; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Lu, Weiyue; Jiang, Xinguo; Zhang, Liangfang

    2015-06-23

    Organophosphate poisoning is highly lethal as organophosphates, which are commonly found in insecticides and nerve agents, cause irreversible phosphorylation and inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), leading to neuromuscular disorders via accumulation of acetylcholine in the body. Direct interception of organophosphates in the systemic circulation thus provides a desirable strategy in treatment of the condition. Inspired by the presence of AChE on red blood cell (RBC) membranes, we explored a biomimetic nanoparticle consisting of a polymeric core surrounded by RBC membranes to serve as an anti-organophosphate agent. Through in vitro studies, we demonstrated that the biomimetic nanoparticles retain the enzymatic activity of membrane-bound AChE and are able to bind to a model organophosphate, dichlorvos, precluding its inhibitory effect on other enzymatic substrates. In a mouse model of organophosphate poisoning, the nanoparticles were shown to improve the AChE activity in the blood and markedly improved the survival of dichlorvos-challenged mice.

  18. Extracorporeal treatment for valproic acid poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Laliberté, Martin; Nolin, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in valproic acid (VPA) poisoning. METHODS: The lead authors reviewed all of the articles from a systematic literature....... Anonymous votes were compiled, returned, and discussed in person. A second vote was conducted to determine the final workgroup recommendations. RESULTS: The latest literature search conducted in November 2014 retrieved a total of 79 articles for final qualitative analysis, including one observational study......); suggestions for ECTR include a VPA concentration > 900 mg/L (6250 μmol/L)(2D), coma or respiratory depression requiring mechanical ventilation (2D), acute hyperammonemia (2D), or pH ≤ 7.10 (2D). Cessation of ECTR is indicated when clinical improvement is apparent (1D) or the serum VPA concentration is between...

  19. Treatment of toxicodendron dermatitis (poison ivy and poison oak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, J D

    2001-04-01

    Toxicodendron dermatitis results from a reaction to an oil soluble oleoresin that is present in many parts of the poison ivy and poison oak plants. Prophylactic measures include avoidance, protective clothing, barrier creams and hyposensitization. Treatments include washing the area immediately with a solvent suitable for lipids and the use of anti-inflammatory agents, especially corticosteroids.

  20. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers.

  1. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  2. Model study on the clinical signs and residue concentrations of sublethal carbofuran poisoning in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehel, J; Laczay, P; Déri, J; Darin, E G; Budai, P

    2010-10-01

    The incidence of fatal poisoning of birds of prey caused by carbofuran has increased markedly in Hungary since 2007. An experimental model with broiler chickens was used to study clinical signs of sublethal carbofuran poisoning in birds and to measure the residue concentrations of carbamate in tissues after exposure. Eight chickens were treated with a carbofuran-containing insecticide orally by gastric tube at a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight, and clinical signs of poisoning were observed. Gas chromatography was used to determine carbofuran concentrations in the blood, muscle, and liver samples, and in stomach contents. Poisoning was characterized by typical muscarinic and nicotinic clinical signs without mortality. Carbofuran in the stomach and edible tissues of acutely poisoned birds may lead to secondary poisoning of predators and may also present risks to human health.

  3. [Resuscitation in acute poisonings based on 2005 and 2010 Resuscitation Guideline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheta, Alicja; Pach, Janusz; Andres, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Acute poisonings in USA are a leading cause of cardiac arrest, especially in youngsters. Primary survey and cardiopulmonary resuscitation for poisoning is based on ABCDE procedure. One of the most common manifestation of acute poisoning is coma. An open airway should be ensured. Endotracheal intubation should be performed by an experienced person. The mouth-to mouth method of artificial respiration can be applied ultimately. In case of cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, organophosphates and corrosives poisonings a special caution is needed and pocket mask or self-inflating bag with a face mask should be rather used. A quick poison identification and a contact with regional poison information centre regarding patient management are crucial. Different procedures include prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  4. 大蒜素对铅染毒小鼠学习记忆能力和脑组织抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of Allicin on learning memory ability and anti-oxydation potential of brain tissue by lead poisoned mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱红; 周鸣鸣; 张洁

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the memory disorders and anti-oxydation potential of brain tissue treating efficacy and the relations of Allicin for treating lead poisoning in mice. Methods 50 mice were divided in 5 groups :3 Allicin curing, signal lead poisoned and control groups. Besides control group,lead actate solution was applied to inject the mouse in belly for 30 days,2 g/L,per day. After the 15 days,the mice were treated with Allicin in Allicin curing groups for 15 days. The ability of leaning and memory of the mice was measured by Y maze, malondialdehyde ( MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of brain tissue were measured. Results Allicin could enhance the memory capability of lead poisoned mice, increase the contents of SOD of brain tissue and decrease the contents of MDA of brain tissue ( P < 0. 05, P < 0. 01 ). Conclusions There is a significant efficacy of Allicin on clearing free radical and anti-oxydation injury. Allicin can improve the spatial learning and memory ability injury of lead poisoned mice.%目的 观察大蒜素对铅染毒小鼠学习记忆能力和脑组织抗氧化能力的影响.方法 采用浓度为2 g/L醋酸铅水溶液给予小鼠腹腔注射,每天一次,连续30 d,建立铅中毒动物模型.染毒15 d后大蒜素治疗组在造模的同时按10 ml/kg进行腹腔注射大蒜素肠溶胶囊提取物高、中、低剂量;铅染毒组和阴性对照组给予相同剂量的生理盐水,连续15d.通过Y迷宫实验观察大蒜素对铅染毒小鼠学习记忆能力的影响;测定各组脑组织中丙二醛(MDA)含量和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的活性.结果 模型组与阴性对照组、大蒜素治疗组比较,小鼠记忆功能明显减退;大蒜素高、中治疗组和阴性对照组的丙二醛( MDA)含量较模型组显著降低(P<0.05,P<0.01),SOD活性明显高于模型组(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 大蒜素在清除自由基和抗氧化损伤方面有显著功效,可以有效改善铅染毒小鼠空间学习记忆能力损害.

  5. Study of trends of poisoning in the cases reported to government hospital, Yavatmal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuganti Prabhakar Vaidya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: India is a developing country in south Asia. Rural population of this country is mostly dependant on agriculture. Pesticides, mainly the organophosphorus compounds are the most frequently used substances in agriculture and thus are easily accessible. Animal bites such as snake bite, scorpion bites are also common, as people here are mainly involved in the field work. Aims: This includes, knowing the pattern of poisoning in India along with various parameters, such as mode of poisoning, type of poison, outcome of the poisoning, the most vulnerable age group involved in poisoning, so that the study will help in rapid clinical diagnosis and immediate treatment of the cases leading to decreased mortality and morbidity. Setting and design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Govt. Hospital, Yavatmal. Poisoning cases reported to casualty and post-mortem cases of poisoning brought to the hospital from 01/06/2003 to 30/05/2004 were included in the study. Result: Total 1003 patients studied; acute poisoning in the age group of 21-30 years was the most common with higher frequency in males. Most common mode was suicidal. Most common agent responsible for poisoning was organophosphorus compounds followed by snake bite. Overall mortality due to poisoning was 12%. It was highest in insecticidal poisoning. Conclusion: It was seen that adults between 21 and 30 years of age were more prone to suicidal poisoning with organophosphorous compounds followed by accidental poisoning due to snake bite. Steps are needed to be taken to educate the people, to improve their socioeconomic status and also to provide better treatment facilities at grass root level.

  6. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO; CSR

    1999-01-01

    This review reports information on the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) syndrome and the ASP toxins causing this poisoning, of which domoic acid is the major component. Data includes chemical structures and detection methods of ASP toxins, sources of ASP toxins, marine organisms associated with ASP

  7. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in emergency medicine and toxicological practice in some of the less-developed nations in South Asia. Traditionally, OP poisoning comes under the domain of emergency physicians, internists, intensivists, and toxicologists. However, some of the complications following OP poisoning are neurological and involve neurologists. The pathophysiological basis for the clinical manifestations of OP poisoning is inactivation of the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase at the peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic and central nervous system (CNS nerve terminals and junctions. Nicotinic manifestations occur in severe cases and late in the course; these comprise of fasciculations and neuromuscular paralysis. There is a good correlation between the electrophysiological abnormalities and the severity of the clinical manifestations. Neurophysiological abnormalities characteristic of nicotinic junctions (mainly neuromuscular junction dysfunction include: (1 single, supramaximal electrical-stimulus-induced repetitive response/s, (2 decrement-increment response to high frequency (30 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS, and (3 decremental response to high frequency (30 Hz RNS. Atropine ameliorates muscarinic manifestations. Therapeutic agents that can ameliorate nicotinic manifestations, mainly neuromuscular, are oximes. However, the evidence for this effect is inconclusive. This may be due to the fact that there are several factors that determine the therapeutic effect of oximes. These factors include: The OP compound responsible for poisoning, duration of poisoning, severity of poisoning, and route of exposure. There is also a need to study the effect of oximes on the neurophysiological abnormalities.

  8. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxico......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li...... treatment (1D), but continuous RRT is an acceptable alternative (1D). The workgroup supported the use of extracorporeal treatment in severe lithium poisoning. Clinical decisions on when to use extracorporeal treatment should take into account the [Li(+)], kidney function, pattern of lithium toxicity...

  9. Suicide and the 'Poison Complex': Toxic Relationalities, Child Development, and the Sri Lankan Self-Harm Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widger, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Suicide prevention efforts in Asia have increasingly turned to 'quick win' means restriction, while more complicated cognitive restriction and psychosocial programs are limited. This article argues the development of cognitive restriction programs requires greater consideration of suicide methods as social practices, and of how suicide cognitive schemata form. To illustrate this, the article contributes an ethnographically grounded study of how self-poisoning becomes cognitively available in Sri Lanka. I argue the overwhelming preference for poison as a method of self-harm in the country is not simply reflective of its widespread availability, but rather how cognitive schemata of poison-a 'poison complex'-develops from early childhood and is a precondition for suicide schemata. Limiting cognitive availability thus requires an entirely novel approach to suicide prevention that draws back from its immediate object (methods and causes of self-harm) to engage the wider poison complex of which suicide is just one aspect.

  10. [Accidental oral mercurochrome poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala Curiel J; Nieto Conde C; Santana Rodríguez C; Urbón Artero A; Gracia Remiro R

    2000-11-01

    Neonatal mercury poisoning, especially that due to merbromin ingestion, is uncommon. We describe the case of a 10 day old newborn infant who was given mercurochrome orally for 7 days due to misunderstanding of medical instructions. Initial symptoms included loss of appetite and low weight increase. Elevated blood mercury concentrations were found. Chelating therapy with dimercaprol was initiated and the patient's evolution was good. We discuss the potential toxicity of mercury and emphasise the importance of the transmission of information by physicians, especially to the immigrant population.

  11. Juniper tar poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruk, Suda Tekin; Ozyilkan, Esin; Kaya, Pinar; Colak, Dilsen; Donderici, Omer; Cesaretli, Yildirim

    2005-01-01

    Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, and is used for many purposes in folk medicine. A case is reported of a previously healthy man who ingested a spoonful of home-made extract of Juniperus oxycedrus. The poisoning caused fever, severe hypotension, renal failure, hepatotoxicity, and severe cutaneous burns on the face. After supportive and symptomatic treatment, the patient improved and was discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day.

  12. Cow dung powder poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen; Senthil Kumar Kaliannan; Pavan Kumar Dammalapati

    2015-01-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as “saani powder” in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of ...

  13. Suicide through doxylamine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockholdt, B; Klug, E; Schneider, V

    2001-06-01

    Doxylamine is an antihistamine of the ethanolamine class. It is used primarily as a sleep-inducing agent. Only a few reports can be found in the literature about lethal intoxications with doxylamine, but many with combined intoxications. Doxylamine is, aside from diphenhydramine, the only chemically defined active ingredient in some sleeping medications which is available without a prescription in the Federal Republic of Germany. Two cases of doxylamine poisoning are presented, in which high doxylamine concentrations were found in the blood and organs.

  14. Medical treatment of acute poisoning with organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokanović, Milan

    2009-10-28

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are used as pesticides and developed as warfare nerve agents such as tabun, soman, sarin, VX and others. Exposure to even small amounts of an OP can be fatal and death is usually caused by respiratory failure. The mechanism of OP poisoning involves inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) leading to inactivation of the enzyme which has an important role in neurotransmission. AChE inhibition results in the accumulation of acetylcholine at cholinergic receptor sites, producing continuous stimulation of cholinergic fibers throughout the nervous systems. During more than five decades, pyridinium oximes have been developed as therapeutic agents used in the medical treatment of poisoning with OP. They act by reactivation of AChE inhibited by OP. However, they differ in their activity in poisoning with pesticides and warfare nerve agents and there is still no universal broad-spectrum oxime capable of protecting against all known OP. In spite of enormous efforts devoted to development of new pyridinium oximes as potential antidotes against poisoning with OP only four compounds so far have found its application in human medicine. Presently, a combination of an antimuscarinic agent, e.g. atropine, AChE reactivator such as one of the recommended pyridinium oximes (pralidoxime, trimedoxime, obidoxime and HI-6) and diazepam are used for the treatment of OP poisoning in humans. In this article the available data related to medical treatment of poisoning with OP pesticides are reviewed and the current recommendations are presented.

  15. [Heavy metal poisoning and renal injury in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Li-Ping; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Xiao-Yun

    2014-04-01

    Along with global environmental pollution resulting from economic development, heavy metal poisoning in children has become an increasingly serious health problem in the world. It can lead to renal injury, which tends to be misdiagnosed due to the lack of obvious or specific early clinical manifestations in children. Early prevention, diagnosis and intervention are valuable for the recovery of renal function and children's good health and growth. This paper reviews the mechanism of renal injury caused by heavy metal poisoning in children, as well as the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and prevention and treatment of renal injury caused by lead, mercury, cadmium, and chromium.

  16. Environmental lead exposure among preschool children in Shanghai, China: blood lead levels and risk factors.

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    Jia Cao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine blood lead levels and to identify related risk factors among children in Shanghai; to explore the lead change trend of children after industrial transformation and to provide data for policy development to control environmental lead pollution in Shanghai. METHODS: A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used. A tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer was employed to determine blood lead levels. RESULTS: The arithmetic mean, geometric mean and median of blood lead levels of 0- to 6-year-old children from Shanghai were 22.49 µg/L, 19.65 µg/L and 19.5 µg/L, including 0.26% (6/2291 with concentrations ≥100 µg/L and 2.7% (61/2291 with concentrations ≥50 µg/L. Boys' levels (23.57 µg/L were greater than those of girls (21.2 µg/L. The blood lead levels increased with age. This survey showed that the Chongming district was the highest and Yangpu district was the lowest, this result is completely opposite with the earlier survey in Shanghai. Risk factors for lead contamination included housing environment, parents' education levels, social status, hobbies, and children's nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: The blood lead levels of children in Shanghai were lower than the earlier data of Shanghai and those of published studies in China, but higher than the blood lead levels of developed countries. The blood lead levels of urban districts are higher than the central districts with the industrial transformation. Society and the government should take an active interest in childhood lead poisoning of urban areas.

  17. CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUTE POISONING

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    Panduranga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute poisoning is an important medical emergency. Studies of this nature will be useful tool in planning, early diagnosis and management of acute poisoning cases. The objective of the study are to study the clinical features, diagnosis and management, morbidity and mortality of various acute poisoning. METHODOLOGY: This study comprises of 350 patients of acute poisoning admitted to Chigateri General Hospital and Bapuji Hospital attached to J. J. M. Medical College, Davangere, between 1st March 2011 to 31st October 2011. REUSLTS: Out of 350 cases of acute poisoning studied, there were 268 males and 82 females. Males comprised 76.57%and females 23.42% of the total, in this series, Organophosphorous compounds were the commonest (30%, majority of the patients hailed from rural area 70%. Mortality is 10.57%.

  18. Cleistanthus collinus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anugrah Chrispal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms "Cleistanthus collinus," "Euphorbiaceae," "Diphyllin," "Cleistanthin A," Cleistanthin B" and "Oduvanthalai." Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones - Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality.

  19. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  20. Study on the relationship between polymorphism of vitamin D receptor gene and susceptibility of lead poisoning of children%维生素D受体基因(VDR)多态性与儿童铅中毒易感性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞英; 王宏; 周璐; 雷雨; 王虹; 龙峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the distributions of vitamin D receptor gene (rs731236, rsl544410, and rs7975232) in case group (the children with blood lead level≥60 μg/L) and control group (the children with low blood lead level) in Shenzhen city, reveal the correlation between polymorphism of vitamin D receptor gene and susceptibility of lead poisoning of children. Methods: Among the children aged six months - six years old in Shenzhen city, 75 children in case group (blood lead level≥60μg/L, the mean value = 82.24 μg/L) and 80 children in control group (the mean value of blood lead = 19. 90 μg/L) were selected, PCR was used to amplify vitamin D receptor gene (rs731236, rsl544410, and rs7975232) , the genotypes were determined by MALDI -TOF - MS assay, the distributions of different genotypes in the two groups were compared, and the relationship between polymorphism of vitamin D receptor gene and blood lead levels of children was analyzed. Results: There was statistically significant difference in the distribution frequency of TT genotype in vitamin D receptor gene rs7975232 between case group and control group (P 0. 05) . Conclusion: Both TT genotype in vitamin D receptor gene rs7975232 and GG genotype in vitamin D receptor gene rsl544410 may increase the risk of lead poisoning of children, which are worthy to be further analyzed as the susceptive gene of lead poisoning.%目的:观察维生素D受体(VDR)基因rs731236、rs1544410及rs7975232在深圳市儿童血铅≥60μg/L样本组和低铅对照组之间的分布,揭示VDR基因多态性与儿童铅中毒易感的相关性.方法:在6个月~6岁儿童中筛选出75例样本组(血铅≥60μg/L均值((X)=82.24μg/L)和80例对照组(血铅均值(X)=19.90μg/L)的样本,用PCR方法对VDR基因rs731236、rs1544410及rs7975232进行扩增,采用基质辅助激光解吸电离飞行时间质谱分析法(MALDI-TOF-MS)鉴定其基因型,比较各基因型在两组间的分布,寻找其与儿童血

  1. Childhood microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah G Al Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Children with suspected microbial keratitis require comprehensive evaluation and management. Early recognition, identifying the predisposing factors and etiological microbial organisms, and instituting appropriate treatment measures have a crucial role in outcome. Ocular trauma was the leading cause of childhood microbial keratitis in our study.

  2. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Tom

    2005-06-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine.

  3. Occupational poison ivy and oak dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, W L

    1994-07-01

    Among the growing and diverse groups of outdoor and environmental workers, poison ivy and poison oak continue to be the major cause of occupational contact dermatitis. This article reviews the practical and theoretic means to prevent poison ivy and poison oak dermatitis in workers occupationally exposed to these weeds.

  4. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  5. STUDY OF ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS POISONING CASES AT MAHARAJAH INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, A.P.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswini Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Organophosphorus pesticide self-poisoning is a major clinical and public-health problem across much of rural Asia. The aim of this study was to analyze the patterns, the social factors and the clinical outcomes of OP poisoning at the Maharajah Institute Of Medical Sciences, Vizianagaram. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty organophosphorous poisoning cases who were admitted to the MIMS, during the period of 1year (May 2013to June 2014, were studied. RESULTS: Fifty cases of OP poisoning were studied. In the present study, 56% cases were males, with the highest number of cases in the age group of 21 to 30 years (44%. Sixty four % belonged to married category. Sixty % of organophosphorous poisoning victims belonged to the farming community. Chlorpyrifos was consumed by 58% of the victims. 64 % of the OP poisoning victims were having family problems. Muscarinic and nicotinic symptoms were prevalent in majority of victims. 64 % people had recovery and Intermediate syndrome was observed in 36% cases of organophosphorous poisoning. CONCLUSION: There was a high incidence of OP poisoning related mortality in this region. The OP compounds were readily available at low costs in the market. A time of stress and frustration can lead to their use as a common poison to commit suicide with.

  6. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

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    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  7. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future.

  8. Neurological syndromes following organophosphate poisoning.

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    Singh S

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorous compounds, the anticholinesterases, produce significant morbidity and mortality in India. Although exact estimates are not available, hospital based statistics suggest that nearly half of the admissions to emergency with acute poisoning are due to organophosphates. Following accidental or suicidal exposure, these anticholinesterases lead to three well defined neurological syndromes i.e. initial life threatening acute cholinergic crisis which often requires management in intensive care unit, intermediate syndrome in which cranial nerve palsies, proximal muscle weakness and respiratory muscle weakness are common and patients often require respiratory support and delayed organophosphate induced polyneuropathy. In addition to these three classical neurological syndromes following acute exposure and in some following low dose chronic exposure, several neurobehavioural changes have been observed and these have been termed together as ′chronic organophosphate induced neuropsychiatric disorders′ (COPIND. Organo-phosphate compounds produce significant pesticide related illness in developing countries. There is, thus, a need to determine exact extent of the problem and to develop appropriate strategies to manage these cases with available resources in these countries.

  9. Unintentional Childhood Injury Patterns, Odds, and Outcomes in Kampala City: an analysis of surveillance data from the National Pediatric Emergency Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ovuga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unintentional Childhood Injuries pose a major public health challenge in Africa and Uganda. Previous estimates of the problem may have underestimated the childhood problem. We set to determine unintentional childhood injury pattern, odds, and outcomes at the National Paediatric Emergency unit in Kampala city using surveillance data. METHODS: Incident proportions, odds and proportional rates were calculated and used to determine unintentional injury patterns across childhood (1-12 years. RESULTS: A total of 556 cases recorded between January and May 2008 were analyzed: majority had been transported to hospital by mothers using mini-buses, private cars, and motorcycles. Median distance from injury location to hospital was 5 km. Homes, roads, and schools were leading injury locations. Males constituted 60% of the cases. Play and daily living activities were commonest injury time activities. Falls, burns and traffic accounted for 70.5% of unintentional childhood injuries. Burns, open wounds, fractures were commonest injury types. Motorcycles, buses and passenger-cars caused most crashes. Play grounds, furniture, stairs and trees were commonest source of falls. Most burn injuries were caused by liquids, fires and hot objects. 43.8% of cases were admitted. 30% were discharged without disability; 10%, were disabled; 1%, died. Injury odds and proportional incidence rates varied with age, place and cause. Poisoning and drowning were rare. Local pediatric injury priorities should include home, road and school safety. CONCLUSIONS: Unintentional injuries are common causes of hospital visit by children under 13 years especially boys. Homes, roads and educational facilities are commonest unintentional injury sites. Significant age and gender differences exist in intentional injury causation, characteristics and outcomes. In its current form, our surveillance system seems inefficient in capturing poisoning and drowning. The local prevention

  10. Unintentional childhood injury patterns, odds, and outcomes in Kampala City: an analysis of surveillance data from the National Pediatric Emergency Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutto, Milton; Lawoko, Stephen; Nansamba, Catherine; Ovuga, Emilio; Svanstrom, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Unintentional Childhood Injuries pose a major public health challenge in Africa and Uganda. Previous estimates of the problem may have underestimated the childhood problem. We set to determine unintentional childhood injury pattern, odds, and outcomes at the National Paediatric Emergency unit in Kampala city using surveillance data. Methods: Incident proportions, odds and proportional rates were calculated and used to determine unintentional injury patterns across childhood (1-12 years). Results: A total of 556 cases recorded between January and May 2008 were analyzed: majority had been transported to hospital by mothers using mini-buses, private cars, and motorcycles. Median distance from injury location to hospital was 5 km. Homes, roads, and schools were leading injury locations. Males constituted 60% of the cases. Play and daily living activities were commonest injury time activities. Falls, burns and traffic accounted for 70.5% of unintentional childhood injuries. Burns, open wounds, fractures were commonest injury types. Motorcycles, buses and passenger-cars caused most crashes. Play grounds, furniture, stairs and trees were commonest source of falls. Most burn injuries were caused by liquids, fires and hot objects. 43.8% of cases were admitted. 30% were discharged without disability; 10%, were disabled; 1%, died. Injury odds and proportional incidence rates varied with age, place and cause. Poisoning and drowning were rare. Local pediatric injury priorities should include home, road and school safety. Conclusions: Unintentional injuries are common causes of hospital visit by children under 13 years especially boys. Homes, roads and educational facilities are commonest unintentional injury sites. Significant age and gender differences exist in intentional injury causation, characteristics and outcomes. In its current form, our surveillance system seems inefficient in capturing poisoning and drowning. The local prevention priorities could

  11. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    This review contains information on the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) syndrome and the provoking toxins called brevetoxins, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. Data on chemical structures and detection methods for brevetoxins, sources for brevetoxins, marine organisms associated

  12. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  13. Organophosphate Poisoning and Intermediate Syndrome

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    Mustafa Yilmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects that occur after acute organophosphate poisoning (OP can manifest three phases, namely, acute cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome and delayed-type polyneuropathy. Clinical signs and symptoms of organophosphate poisoning depend on the accumulation of acetylcholine at the nerve junction. Organophosphate poisoning causes three main clinical findings; acute cholinergic crisis consisting of muscarinic, nicotinic and central nervous system symptoms, intermediate syndrome with recurrence of cholinergic symptoms or muscle weakness without fasciculation 24-96 hours after poisoning and delayed-type polyneuropathy that can usually occur several days or weeks after acute exposure to organic phosphorus compounds. In this article, intermediate syndrome, which is a late complication, has been reviewed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(1.000: 70-83

  14. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  15. Histopathology of fish. II. The salmon-poisoning fluk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-01-01

    THE SALMON-POISONING FLUKE is misnamed as far as the fish culturist is concerned, for the disease affects dogs, not fish. There is considerable evidence, however, that fish may also suffer from the complex chain of events leading from snail to dying dog. Histological studies indicate that young salmon and trout may be severely damaged by the encysted stage of the fluke.

  16. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  17. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room Employment Feedback Contact Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Cancer Resources > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses Incidence Rates ...

  18. Methanol poisoning. VI. Role of folic acid in the production of methanol poisoning in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makar, A.B. (Alexandria Univ., Egypt); Tephly, T.R.

    1977-05-01

    Methanol poisoning is well known to occur in humans but does not develop in common laboratory animals such as the rat. Rodents display neither metabolic acidosis nor ocular toxicity after methanol treatment, findings that commonly result in humans and that have recently been described in the monkey. Since methanol administration in the monkey leads to marked accumulation of formic acid and metabolic acidosis, experiments were devised to reduce formate metabolism in the rat and thereby study whether methanol administration would lead to the accumulation of formic acid and acidosis in that species. Several methods were employed to induce a state of folate deficiency in the rat, a prerequisite to producing a decrease in formate oxidation to CO/sub 2/ in that species. Rats placed on a folate-deficient diet for 10-12 wk showed a marked decrease in formate oxidation and a marked sensitivity to methanol poisoning, as evidenced by high blood formate levels and marked decreases in blood pH. Treatment of rats with methotrexate was relatively ineffective in inducing decreases in formate oxidation, but in rats fed a folate-deficient diet for 9 days and injected once daily for 9 days with 1 mg/kg methotrexate, a significant elevation of blood formate and decrease in blood pH was observed. In rats that were acidotic following methanol administration no accumulation of formaldehyde was observed. These results indicate that it is possible to sensitize the rat to methanol poisoning by reducing its capacity to oxidize formate. They also show that once the rat is susceptible to methanol poisoning, metabolic acidosis and formate accumulation occur without the accumulation of formaldehyde.

  19. Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergency physicians. They receive comprehensive training in treating childhood emergencies and have more training in pediatric emergencies than other physicians, including pediatricians. Does Your Child's School Know About Food Allergies? - 8/10/2015 The nation's emergency physician ...

  20. Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has any of the following: Headaches, including morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Vision changes. Nausea ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  1. Acute formic acid poisoning in a rubber plantation worker

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    Dattatrai Kashinath More

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the workers in a rubber plantation in South India, ingestion of formic acid either accidentally or with suicidal intention is a common problem. Formic acid is diluted and used for coagulation of rubber latex. Easy availability makes formic acid a common poison. The aim of this article is to study the case of formic acid poisoning, its complications and management. Patient was managed symptomatically. Antidote was not used and no nasogastric aspiration was done. Patient had dysphagia; nutrition was maintained with open gastrostomy done on day 5 and subsequent enteral feeding. Measures to prevent anticipated complications were undertaken. Stricture of the esophagus is a common complication leading to long-term morbidity. After initial management, all patients should be on follow-up for prevention and management of strictures. Workers should be educated on complications of formic acid poisoning and easy availability should be curtailed by enforcing remedial measures.

  2. Topoisomerase II poisoning by indazole and imidazole complexes of ruthenium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y N Vashisht Gopal; Anand K Kondapi

    2001-06-01

    Trans-imidazolium (bis imidazole) tetrachloro ruthenate (RuIm) and trans-indazolium (bis indazole) tetrachloro ruthenate (RuInd) are ruthenium coordination complexes, which were first synthesized and exploited for their anticancer activity. These molecules constitute two of the few most effective anticancer ruthenium compounds. The clinical use of these compounds however was hindered due to toxic side effects on the human body. Our present study on topoisomerase II poisoning by these compounds shows that they effectively poison the activity of topoisomerase II by forming a ternary cleavage complex of DNA, drug and topoisomerase II. The thymidine incorporation assays show that the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation correlates with topoisomerase II poisoning. The present study on topoisomerase II poisoning by these two compounds opens a new avenue for renewing further research on these compounds. This is because they could be effective lead candidates for the development of more potent and less toxic ruthenium containing topoisomerase II poisons. Specificity of action on this molecular target may reduce the toxic effects of these ruthenium-containing molecules and thus improve their therapeutic index.

  3. Antidotes for poisoning by alcohols that form toxic metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, Kenneth; Jacobsen, Dag; Hovda, Knut Erik

    2016-03-01

    The alcohols, methanol, ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol, have many features in common, the most important of which is the fact that the compounds themselves are relatively non-toxic but are metabolized, initially by alcohol dehydrogenase, to various toxic intermediates. These compounds are readily available worldwide in commercial products as well as in homemade alcoholic beverages, both of which lead to most of the poisoning cases, from either unintentional or intentional ingestion. Although relatively infrequent in overall occurrence, poisonings by metabolically-toxic alcohols do unfortunately occur in outbreaks and can result in severe morbidity and mortality. These poisonings have traditionally been treated with ethanol since it competes for the active site of alcohol dehydrogenase and decreases the formation of toxic metabolites. Although ethanol can be effective in these poisonings, there are substantial practical problems with its use and so fomepizole, a potent competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, was developed for a hopefully better treatment for metabolically-toxic alcohol poisonings. Fomepizole has few side effects and is easy to use in practice and it may obviate the need for haemodialysis in some, but not all, patients. Hence, fomepizole has largely replaced ethanol as the toxic alcohol antidote in many countries. Nevertheless, ethanol remains an important alternative because access to fomepizole can be limited, the cost may appear excessive, or the physician may prefer ethanol due to experience.

  4. Acute Pancreatitis in the Course of Meprobamate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Fathallah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Context We report a case of massive poisoning with meprobamate leading to acute pancreatitis. Case report A 43-year-old patient with a history of schizophrenia and multiple suicide attempts was admitted to the intensive care unit for severe poisoning with meprobamate (voluntary ingestion of 60 g. On admission, the patient was deeply comatose with low blood pressure and hypothermia. Laboratory analysis revealed leukocytosis and high lipase and amylase serum levels. There was no eosinophilia. Abdominal computed tomography showed pancreatitis grade A. The patient was intubated and ventilated, and intravenous dopamine was infused. The patient regained consciousness and was extubated five days later. Improvement in pancreatic tests was noted several days later. The outcome was favorable. Discussion According to the Naranjo probability scale, meprobamate-induced acute pancreatitis was probable. Acute pancreatitis in meprobamate poisoning is exceptional. The pathogenesis of pancreatitis-induced meprobamate poisoning may be explained by two mechanisms: stimulation of pancreatic secretion secondary to cholinergic activation and pancreatic ductal hypertension. Conclusions The signs of severe meprobamate toxicity are numerous including cardiovascular and central nervous symptoms. Acute pancreatitis should also be added as a possible manifestation of meprobamate poisoning.

  5. Identification and treatment of poison ivy dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briant, D; Brouder, G

    1983-01-01

    Poison ivy dermatitis is an acute self-limiting problem of two or three weeks' duration that can cause significant discomfort. Poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac cause more cases of allergic contact dermatitis than all the other contact allergens combined. Treatment of poison ivy dermatitis depends on the severity of the reaction. The nurse practitioner can manage the majority of poison ivy cases. However, if there is systemic involvement, a physician consultation is necessary. The patient can best be assisted by assessing the severity of the dermatitis, prescribing an appropriate supportive therapy and teaching preventive measures.

  6. Late morbidity leading to hospitalization among 5-year survivors of young adult cancer: a report of the childhood, adolescent and young adult cancer survivors research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Lorenzi, Maria F; Goddard, Karen; Spinelli, John J; Gotay, Carolyn; McBride, Mary L

    2014-03-01

    To estimate the risk of late morbidity leading to hospitalization among young adult cancer 5-year survivors compared to the general population and to examine the long-term effects of demographic and disease-related factors on late morbidity, a retrospective cohort of 902 five-year survivors of young adult cancer diagnosed between 1981 and 1999 was identified from British Columbia (BC) Cancer Registry. A matched comparison group (N = 9020) was randomly selected from the provincial health insurance plan. All hospitalizations until the end of 2006 were determined from the BC health insurance plan hospitalization records. The Poisson regression model was used to estimate the rate ratios for late morbidity leading to hospitalization except pregnancy after adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical risk factors. Overall, 455 (50.4%) survivors and 3,419 (37.9%) individuals in the comparison group had at least one type of late morbidity leading to hospitalization. The adjusted risk of this morbidity for survivors was 1.4 times higher than for the comparison group (95% CI = 1.22-1.54). The highest risks were found for hospitalization due to blood disease (RR = 4.2; 95% CI = 1.98-8.78) and neoplasm (RR = 4.3; 95% CI = 3.41-5.33). Survivors with three treatment modalities had three-fold higher risk of having any type of late morbidity (RR = 3.22; 95% CI = 2.09-4.94) than the comparators. These findings emphasize that young adult cancer survivors still have high risks of a wide range of late morbidities.

  7. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Hammond

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented.

  8. Lead-induced peripheral neuropathy following ayurvedic medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Surjit

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning following intake of Ayurvedic medication is one of the recent areas of concern. We report a case of a 58-year-old type II diabetic man who was stable with diet control and 30 mg pioglitazone per day. He took Ayurvedic medication for generalized weakness and developed peripheral neuropathy following its intake. He was found to have high blood and urinary lead levels and was diagnosed to have subacute lead poisoning. He was treated with d-Penicillamine for 8 weeks, following which his lead levels became normal. The use of d-Penicillamine was proved highly effective in treating a case of lead poisoning.

  9. The Pittsburgh Poison Center profile of an American poison information center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzelok, Edward P

    2005-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Poison Center (PPC), a department of Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, was established in 1971 to provide emergency poison information to the residents of western Pennsylvania, especially the children. The PPC provides comprehensive poison information center services to the lay public and to medical professionals, poison prevention education, professional education and specialized services to the business and industry sector and governmental agencies.

  10. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  11. Poison ivy on the leg (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a typical early appearance of a poison ivy rash, located on the leg. These early lesions ... line where the skin has brushed against the poison ivy plant. The rash is caused by skin contact ...

  12. [Sodium azide--clinical course of the poisoning and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łopaciński, Bogdan; Kołacinski, Zbigniew; Winnicka, Renata

    2007-01-01

    Sodium azide poisonings occur very rarely. The mechanism of sodium azide toxic effect has not yet been fully explained. Despite the lack of an explicit procedure for the cases of sodium azide poisonings, in vitro tests and rare case reports suggest that treatment with antidotes for cyanide poisoning victims can be effective. This study describes two cases of suicidal sodium azide ingestion. Case 1. 30-year-old male ingested ca. 180 mg of sodium azide. On admission to hospital, within 4 hours from poisoning, the man complained of dizziness and anxiety. Physical examination revealed horizontal nystagmus, flapping tremor, HR 135/min. In laboratory tests, higher blood concentration of lactates (3 mmol/l) was detected, as well as lower potassium concentration (3.4 mmol/L) and increased transaminase activity (ALT 74 U/l, AST 90 U/l). Electrocardiographic tests showed a negative T wave in limb lead III. Other results were within normal. As the patient ingested a toxic dose of sodium azide, he was treated according to the therapy prescription for cyanide poisoning (amyl nitrite inhalation followed by intravenous administration of sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulphate). ECG record of the last day of hospitalization (7th day of treatment) showed negative T waves in lead III, V4-V6. He was discharged from hospital in good condition. Case 2.23-year-old male ingested 10 g of sodium azide 1.5 hours prior to admission to hospital. At the beginning, the patient's condition was good, but it changed to critical state within the first hours of hospitalization. He developed a deep coma, respiratory and circulatory insufficiency, metabolic acidosis, cardiac dysrrhythmias and anuria. Cardiac activity monitoring showed alternating tachycardia (140 beats per minute) and bradycardia (48 beats per minute), numerous additional supraventricular and ventricular extrasystoles and sinus dysrrhythmia. Cardiac arrest (asystolia) occurred twice, the second incident with fatal outcome. The patient

  13. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  14. Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calello, Diane P; Liu, Kathleen D; Wiegand, Timothy J;

    2015-01-01

    diverse professions, presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations for extracorporeal treatment in metformin poisoning. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, data extracted, findings summarized, and structured voting statements developed. A two-round modified Delphi method......BACKGROUND: Metformin toxicity, a challenging clinical entity, is associated with a mortality of 30%. The role of extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis is poorly defined at present. Here, the Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning workgroup, comprising international experts representing......) and made the following recommendations: extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe metformin poisoning (1D). Indications for extracorporeal treatment include lactate concentration greater than 20 mmol/L (1D), pH less than or equal to 7.0 (1D), shock (1D), failure of standard supportive measures (1D...

  15. Extracorporeal treatment for barbiturate poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle;

    2014-01-01

    The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed all...... articles, extracted data, summarized key findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A 2-round modified Delphi method was used to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. 617 articles met...... depression necessitating mechanical ventilation, shock, persistent toxicity, or increasing or persistently elevated serum barbiturate concentrations despite treatment with multiple-dose activated charcoal. (3) Intermittent hemodialysis is the preferred mode of ECTR, and multiple-dose activated charcoal...

  16. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function.

  17. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni

    2013-04-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective.

  18. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  19. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar Wittner Bynner...... (1881-1968) wrote, "The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small"....

  20. Extracorporeal Treatment in Phenytoin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A;

    2016-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup conducted a systematic literature review using a standardized process to develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with phenytoin poisoning. The authors reviewed all articles......, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A 2-round modified Delphi method was used to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. 51 articles met the inclusion...

  1. Extracorporeal treatment for digoxin poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Anseeuw, Kurt;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, we present our results for digoxin. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxicokinetic data were...... extracted and summarized following a predetermined format. The entire workgroup voted through a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements. A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement, and anonymous votes were compiled and discussed in person...

  2. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. METHODS: After a systematic...... review of the literature, a subgroup reviewed articles, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a pre-determined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method...

  3. Hospitalizations for Suicide-Related Drug Poisonings and Co-Occurring Alcohol Overdoses in Adolescents (Ages 12-17) and Young Adults (Ages 18-24) in the United States, 1999-2008: Results from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Aaron M.; MacInnes, Erin; Hingson, Ralph W.; Pan, I-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Drug poisoning is the leading method of suicide-related deaths among females and third among males in the United States. Alcohol can increase the severity of drug poisonings, yet the prevalence of alcohol overdoses in suicide-related drug poisonings (SRDP) remains unclear. Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample was examined to determine rates…

  4. Organophosphate poisoning: Diagnosis of intermediate syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poojara L

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate compound (OPC poisoning with suicidal intent is common in Indian ICUs. The effect of OPCs is to produce a persistent depolarization of the neuromuscular junction leading to muscle weakness. After initial recovery from cholinergic crisis, some patients have resurgence of respiratory muscle paralysis requiring continued ventilatory support. This is termed intermediate syndrome (IMS. This could be due to a change in the type of neuromuscular block to a non depolarisation block characterized by a fade on tetanic stimulation. However peripheral nerve stimulation using train-of-four ratio (TOF and/tetanus have failed to consistently show such a change. We elected to study whether electro physiological monitoring using repetitive nerve stimulation might show a decremental response during IMS. Material & Methods: This was a prospective blinded study done from April 2002 to March 2003 in our ICU. 45 consecutive patients of OPC poisoning admitted during this period were included in this study. Repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS using a train of ten at 3Hz 10Hz and 30Hz (slow , intermediate and fast speeds respectively at the median nerve was done on all patients on day 1, 4, 7 and every 4th day thereafter until discharge. Patients were ventilated until ready to wean as per our usual protocol. The results of the RNS study were not revealed to the intensivist. Results: 9 out of 45 patients required ventilation for more than 6 days and showed overt signs of intermediate syndrome - proximal muscle weakness, twitching and respiratory weakness. Only 2 patients out of the 9 had a decremental response on RNS at 3Hz indicating a post-junctional dysfunction at the motor end-plate, Both patients had consumed a very large quantity of OPC and were deeply comatose for >4 days and required ventilation for >12 days. All other patients with IMS showed no changes on RNS. The exact type of poison consumed varied with each individual patient. Conclusion: RNS

  5. Oral hyposensitization to poison ivy and poison oak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, J G; Trautlein, J J; Epstein, W L; Laws, D M; Sicard, G R

    1987-04-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a 1:1 mixture of pentadecylcatechol (PDC) and heptadecylcatechol (HDC) diacetate in reducing hypersensitivity to poison ivy and poison oak. The study was double-blind, parallel, randomized, and placebo controlled. The 44 subjects receiving the active drug ingested a cumulative dose of 306.5 mg over a five-week period. Subsequently, 14 patients were continued on a maintenance phase, ingesting an additional 960 mg of drug. The PDC-HDC diacetate was well tolerated, with no significant side effects. Evaluation of efficacy compared poststudy and prestudy reactions to patch tests using urushiol in doses of 0.025, 0.05, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 micrograms applied to the forearm. The results indicated that the induction phase as well as the maintenance phase did not induce a statistically significant hyposensitivity to urushiol, and we were thus unable to decrease sensitivity to poison ivy and poison oak in humans using orally ingested PDC-HDC diacetate.

  6. Coma in the course of severe poisoning after consumption of red fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaszewska-Sokolewicz, Małgorzata A; Pankowska, Sylwestra; Janiak, Marek; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Łazowski, Tomasz; Jankowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Red fly agaric poisoning is rare. It can be consumed for suicidal purposes or its psychedelic effect. The paper describes the case of a young men, who fell into a coma after ingestion of the red toadstools. Quick identification of the poison, early use of gastric lavage and symptomatic treatment resulted in regression of symptoms and lead to the patient's discharge from the hospital on the third day after intoxication. Authors discussing the poisonous alkaloids contained in the red toadtools: ibotenic acid, muscimol, muscasone and muscarine and theirs properties, responsible for the symptoms of intoxication.

  7. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NNR

    2013-09-01

    concerning childhood depression are not always taken into consideration. In this context, this review demonstrated that childhood-onset depression commonly leads to other psychiatric disorders and co-morbidities. Many of the retrieved studies also confirmed the hypothesis that human resources (eg, health care team in general are not yet adequately trained to address childhood depression. Thus, further research on the development of programs to prepare health care professionals to deal with childhood depression is needed, as well as complementary studies, with larger and more homogeneous samples, centered on prevention and treatment of childhood depression. Keywords: child, depression, depressive disorder, mental health, mental disorders

  8. Occupational Metallic Mercury Poisoning in Gilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabzadeh, M; Balali-Mood, M

    2016-04-01

    Occupational exposure to elemental mercury vapor usually occurs through inhalation during its utilizations. This leads to a variety of adverse health effects. In some Islamic cities, this type of poisoning may occur during gilding of shrines using elemental mercury with gold. Herein, we report on three male patients aged 20-53 years, who were diagnosed with occupational metallic mercury poisoning due to gilding of a shrine. All patients presented with neuro-psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, loss of memory and concentration, and sleep disorders with high urinary mercury concentrations of 326-760 μg/L upon referring, 3-10 days after cessation of elemental mercury exposure. Following chelating therapy, the patients recovered clinically and their mercury concentrations declined to non-toxic level (<25 μg/L). Health, environmental and labor authorities, as well as the gilders should be aware of the toxicity risk of exposure to metalic mercury during gilding in closed environments and act accordingly.

  9. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Karahan Research Fellow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactarius volemus, an edible type of mushroom. The patients reported that they had been collecting this mushroom from the mountains and eating them for several years but had never developed any clinicopathology to date. Further examination of the patients revealed a very rare case of acute pancreatitis due to mushroom intoxication. The male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit while his wife was followed in the internal medicine service, because of her relative mild clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered without sequelae and were discharged. In this article, we aimed to emphasize that gastrointestinal symptoms are often observed in mushroom intoxications and can be confused with acute pancreatitis, thus leading to misdiagnosis of patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve patients’ prognosis and prevent the development of complications.

  10. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  11. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  12. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.

  13. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis.

  14. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T

    2014-01-01

    and an APAP concentration over 900 mg/L (5960 mmol/L) if NAC is administered (1D). Intermittent hemodialysis (HD) is the preferred ECTR modality in APAP poisoning (1D). CONCLUSION: APAP is amenable to extracorporeal removal. Due to the efficacy of NAC, ECTR is reserved for rare situations when the efficacy...... of NAC has not been definitively demonstrated....

  15. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T

    2015-01-01

    that salicylates are dialyzable by hemodialysis and hemoperfusion (level of evidence=B) and recommended extracorporeal treatment in patients with severe salicylate poisoning (1D), including any patient with altered mental status (1D), with acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring supplemental oxygen (1D...

  16. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months.

  17. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO; CSR

    1999-01-01

    Deze literatuurstudie bevat informatie betreffende het 'amnesic shellfish poisoning' (ASP) syndroom en de veroorzakende ASP toxines, van welke "domoic acid" de belangrijkste component is. Chemische structuren en detectie-methodes van ASP toxines, de bronnen voor ASP toxines,

  18. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) wordt veroorzaakt door consumptie van schelpdieren die PSP toxinen bevatten. Er zijn 18 verschillende PSP toxinen, waarvan saxitoxine de meest bekende en de meest toxische is. PSP toxinen kunnen worden aangetoond met de muis bioassay, waarbij de dood van het d

  19. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by ingestion of shellfish containing PSP toxins. The PSP toxins are a group of 18 closely related tetrahydropurines. The first PSP toxin chemically characterised was saxitoxin. The various PSP toxins significantly differ in toxicity, with saxitoxin being

  20. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  1. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning.

  2. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graville, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…

  3. Pulmonary Complications of Childhood Cancer Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluijs, AB; Bresters, Dorine

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary complications of childhood cancer treatment are frequently seen. These can lead to adverse sequelae many years after treatment, with important impact on morbidity, quality of life and mortality in childhood cancer survivors. This review addresses the effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy,

  4. Persistent threat of lead: medical and sociological issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needleman, H.L.

    1988-12-01

    Lead exposure is an ancient malady. Its history serves as a useful paradigm through which to understand many other pollutants that our technological society has inserted into the human environment and may guide preventive steps for other agents. Lead poisoning was first recognized in workers exposed to high doses. The discovery of childhood toxicity occurred a century ago in Australia, when children with striking symptoms of paralysis, ophthalmoplegia, or meningitis were found to be highly lead exposed. Encephalopathy generally occurs at blood lead levels of 80 micrograms/dL or more, but unequivocal brain damage has been demonstrated at doses well below this level. At lower doses, the neurocognitive effects of lead are expressed as diminished psychometric intelligence, attention deficits, conduct problems, alterations in the electroencephalogram, school failure, and increased referral rates for special needs. Careful epidemiologic studies, which have controlled for the important confounders, have set the effect level at 10-15 micrograms/dL. Elegant animal studies in which confounding is not an issue have confirmed these findings. Although blood lead levels in the population have dropped over time for a number of reasons, there are some 3-4 million American children with blood lead levels of more than 15 micrograms/dL. Biochemical and functional changes have been demonstrated in the heme biosynthetic pathway and in the renal, cardiovascular, endocrine, immune, and nervous systems. The threshold for effect depends on the sensitivity of the methods used. A no-effect level has not been found. Further, this is not a disease of the poor alone. But the poor are exposed to much more lead than are the more economically favored. Deficiencies in body calcium, zinc, iron, and protein stores are associated with increased uptake. Optimizing nutrition enhances the resistance to lead. 110 references.

  5. Amitraz: a mimicker of organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-10-01

    Amitraz is used as an ectoparasiticide for dogs and cattle. Human poisoning due to amitraz may be misdiagnosed as organophosphate/carbamate (OPC) toxicity, since amitraz poisoning shares several clinical features (miosis, bradycardia and hypotension) encountered with OPC poisoning. A 19-year-old man with an alleged history of suicidal ingestion of a pesticide presented with drowsiness and was found to have constricted pupils, hypotension and bradycardia. He was diagnosed as a case of OPC poisoning and was treated with atropine and pralidoxime prior to presentation to our centre. Absence of a hypersecretory state, and the presence of hyperglycaemia and hypothermia along with a normal serum cholinesterase level suggested an alternate possibility. Retrieval of the poison container confirmed the diagnosis of amitraz poisoning. The patient made a rapid recovery with supportive management. Clinician awareness is key to successful management of this poisoning, which carries a good prognosis.

  6. Site-specific lead exposure from lead pellet ingestion in sentinel mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Brand, C.J.; Mensik, John G.

    1997-01-01

    We monitored lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead pellets in sentinel mallards (Anas platyhrynchos) at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), Willows, California for 4 years (1986-89) after the conversion to steel shot for waterfowl hunting on refuges in 1986. Sentinel mallards were held in 1.6-ha enclosures in 1 hunted (P8) and 2 non-hunted (T19 and TF) wetlands. We compared site-specific rates of lead exposure, as determined by periodic measurement of blood lead concentrations, and lead poisoning mortality between wetlands with different lead pellet densities, between seasons, and between male and female sentinels. In 1986, the estimated 2-week rate of lead exposure was significantly higher (P 2,000,000 pellets/ha), than in those with lower densities of lead pellets, T19 (18.1%; 173,200 pellets/ha) and TF (0.9%; 15,750 pellets/ha). The probability of mortality from lead poisoning was also significantly higher (P < 0.01) in sentinel mallards enclosed in P8 (0.25) than T19 (0) and TF (0) in 1986 and remained significantly higher (P < 0.001) during the 4-year study. Both lead exposure and the probability of lead poisoning mortality in P8 were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the fall of 1986 (43.8%; 0.25), before hunting season, than in the spring of 1987 (21.6%; 0.04), after hunting season. We found no significant differences in the rates of lead exposure or lead poisoning mortality between male and female sentinel mallards. The results of this study demonstrate that in some locations, lead exposure and lead poisoning in waterfowl will continue to occur despite the conversion to steel shot for waterfowl hunting.

  7. [Poisoning with selected mushrooms with neurotropic and hallucinogenic effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Beata; Ferenc, Tomasz; Kusowska, Joanna; Ciećwierz, Julita; Kowalczyk, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Picking mushrooms, especially in summer and autumn, is still very popular in Poland. Despite raising awareness of poisonous mushrooms in the Polish society, year after year hospitals treat many patients diagnosed with poisoning with the most common toxic species of mushroom found in our country. Furthermore, growing interest in hallucinogenic mushrooms among young people has become a serious medical problem of our time. Websites make it incredibly easy for people to obtain information on the morphology and appearance of mushrooms with psychoactive properties, which leads inexperienced pickers to misidentification, resulting frequently in a fatal outcome. The article explores the subject of poisoning with the most common mushrooms with neurotropic effects, these are: Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina, Inocybe rubescens, Clitocybe dealbata, Clitocybe rivulosa and Psilocybe semilanceata. Toxins found in these species show symptoms that affect the central nervous system, parasympathetic system as well as the gastro-intestinal system. The effects of poisoning in the mushroom species mentioned above are mild in general, liver and kidney damage occur rarely, but the symptoms depend on both the dosage of the consumed toxins and individual susceptibility. In most cases the treatment is of symptomatic nature. There is no specific treatment. Medical procedures mainly involve induced gastrolavage--stomach pumping (providing that the patient is conscious), prescription of active carbon as well as replacement of lost body fluids and electrolytes. If the muscarinic symptoms prevail it is generally advised to dose atropine. Patients showing the signs of hyperactivity receive tranquilizers or narcoleptics to eliminate psychotic symptoms.

  8. Exploring Complexity of Deliberate Self-Poisoning through Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Fein, Rebecca A.; Moftian, Nazila; Nasiry, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the complexity of circumstances that result in deliberate self-poisoning cases. For the purposes of this paper, the cases were patients that presented for care and were admitted to the specialty hospital in Northwest of Iran. The research examined the problems preceding deliberate self-poisoning and the interrelations among them by applying network analysis methods. The network was scored for degrees of centrality and betweenness centrality. Structural analysis of network also was conducted using block modelling. The results showed that family conflicts had the highest score for degree of centrality among women, while the highest score for degree of centrality among men belonged to those dealing with drug addiction. Analysis for degree of betweenness centrality revealed that drug addiction had the highest score among men, whereas the highest score for women on betweenness centrality was related to physical illness. Structural analysis of the network showed differences in role that various problems played in intentional self-poisoning. The findings from this research can be used by public health authorities to create prevention programs that address the problems leading to deliberate self-poisoning. PMID:28251146

  9. 百草枯中毒%Paraquat poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付丹; 何颜霞

    2010-01-01

    百草枯(paraquat,PQ)属联吡啶类除草剂,口服中毒是中毒的主要途径,PQ中毒病死率极高.目前PQ中毒机制尚不完全清楚,多认为PQ吸收后,产生大量的氧自由基引起组织器官细胞膜脂质过氧化,造成多器官功能障碍,其中以肺损伤最常见且最严重,常导致肺水肿及肺纤维化.PQ中毒尚无特效解毒剂,治疗包括尽早洗胃、导泻、血液净化、免疫抑制及抗氧化等综合治疗.%Paraquat is one kind of phytocide 2,2'-bipyridine. Oral administration is the most common way to be poisoned,and the mortality is high. As so far the mechanism of poison is not clear. It was believed that a lot of oxygen radical caused cell membrane lipid peroxidize, which lead to multiorgan disturbed. The most common and severe injury of lungs is pneumonedema and pulmonary fibrosis. There is no any antidote to paraquat poison. Treatment of paraquat poisoning is stomach washing, catharsis, blood purified, immune suppressed and antioxidation.

  10. Cestrum diurnum poisoning in Florida cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krook, L; Wasserman, R H; McEntee, K; Brokken, T D; Teigland, M B

    1975-10-01

    Cestrum diurnum poisoning was described in a Florida bull. Clinical signs included chronic wasting and progressive lameness. Plasma calcium was elevated for long periods of time but decreased toward low normal values. There was pronounced C-cell hyperplasia. Osteopetrosis was very severe and reflected retarded osteocytic osteolysis and chondrolysis. Further negative effects on the osteocytes eventually lead to osteonecrosis. Soft tissue calcinosis involved tendons and ligaments, major arteries and veins but kidneys and lungs were spared. Whereas the osteopetrosis could be explained by hypercalcitoninism, the osteonecrosis was believed to result from direct action by the Cestrum diurnum factor, previously shown to have an action similar to that of 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol, which is the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D3.

  11. Central respiratory failure during acute organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Jennifer L; Dunn, Courtney; Gaspari, Romolo J

    2013-11-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning is a global health problem with over 250,000 deaths per year. OPs affect neuronal signaling through acetylcholine (Ach) neurotransmission via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), leading to accumulation of Ach at the synaptic cleft and excessive stimulation at post-synaptic receptors. Mortality due to OP agents is attributed to respiratory dysfunction, including central apnea. Cholinergic circuits are integral to many aspects of the central control of respiration, however it is unclear which mechanisms predominate during acute OP intoxication. A more complete understanding of the cholinergic aspects of both respiratory control as well as neural modification of pulmonary function is needed to better understand OP-induced respiratory dysfunction. In this article, we review the physiologic mechanisms of acute OP exposure in the context of the known cholinergic contributions to the central control of respiration. We also discuss the potential central cholinergic contributions to the known peripheral physiologic effects of OP intoxication.

  12. Childhood pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uretsky, G; Goldschmiedt, M; James, K

    1999-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare finding in childhood but probably more common than is generally realized. This condition should be considered in the evaluation of children with vomiting and abdominal pain, because it can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis, especially when the serum amylase concentration is normal. Recurrent pancreatitis may be familial as a result of inherited biochemical or anatomic abnormalities. Patients with hereditary pancreatitis are at high risk for pancreatic cancer.

  13. Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Rovira, S M; Inarejos Clemente, E J

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children; it can appear in any part of the body. Its biological behavior varies widely, and despite the absence of specific clinical or radiological characteristics, rhabdomyosarcoma should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of solid tumors in children. This review focuses primarily on the imaging findings and anatomical distribution of the histological subtypes of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and secondarily on the differential findings in histological studies.

  14. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000–2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States, 2011-2014 Childhood obesity ...

  15. Blood and hair lead in children with different extents of iron deficiency in Karachi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ataur Rahman, Muhammad; Rahman, Bushra [Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 (Pakistan); Saeed Ahmad, Muhammad [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Blann, Andrew [Department of Medicine, City Hospital, Birmingham B18 7QH, United Kingdom. (United Kingdom); Ahmed, Nessar, E-mail: N.Ahmed@mmu.ac.uk [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Childhood iron deficiency has a high incidence in Pakistan. Some but not all studies have shown that dietary iron deficiency may cause increased absorption of lead as both compete for the same transporters in the small intestine. Therefore, children in Pakistan, residing in heavily polluted cities like Karachi may be prone to lead poisoning. This hypothesis was tested by investigating blood and hair lead concentrations in children from Karachi who were divided into four groups of iron status; normal, borderline iron deficiency, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective observational study was conducted where 269 children were categorized into four groups of iron status using the World Health Organization criteria and one based on soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood iron status was determined using a full blood count, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation and soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood lead was determined by graphite atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas hair lead was assessed using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher in children with iron deficiency anaemia (mean [95% confidence intervals] were 24.9 [22.6-27.2] {mu}g/dL) compared to those with normal iron status (19.1 [16.8-21.4] {mu}g/dL) using WHO criteria. In contrast, hair lead content was not significantly different in children of different iron status. Our findings reinforce the importance of not only reducing environmental lead pollution but also the development of national health strategies to reduce childhood iron deficiency in Pakistan.

  16. Extracorporeal treatment for carbamazepine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais F

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence and consensus-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic review and provide clinical recommendations for ECTR...... Method to quantify disagreement. Anonymous votes were compiled, returned, and discussed in person. A second vote determined the final recommendations. RESULTS: Seventy-four articles met inclusion criteria. Articles included case reports, case series, descriptive cohorts, pharmacokinetic studies, and in......-vitro studies; two poor-quality observational studies were identified, yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 173 patients, including 6 fatalities, were reviewed. The workgroup concluded that carbamazepine is moderately dialyzable and made the following recommendations: ECTR...

  17. Alsike clover poisoning: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Nation, P. Nicholas

    1989-01-01

    Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as “alsike clover poisoning” and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the b...

  18. [High-dose magnesium sulfate in the treatment of aconite poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, A; Rauch, S; Überbacher, C A; Felgenhauer, N; Drüge, G

    2015-05-01

    This article reports the case of a 62-year-old male patient who ingested the roots of Monkshood (Aconitum napellus) and white hellebore (Veratrum album) dissolved in alcohol with a suicidal intention and suffered cardiotoxic and neurotoxic symptoms. After contacting the Poison Information Centre ventricular arrhythmia was treated with high-dose magnesium sulphate as the only antiarrhythmic agent and subsequently a stable sinus rhythm could be established after approximately 3 h. Aconitum napellus is considered the most poisonous plant in Europe and it is found in gardens, the Alps and the Highlands. Poisoning is mainly caused by the alkaloid aconite that leads to persistent opening and activation of voltage-dependent sodium channels resulting in severe cardiac and neurological toxicity. As no specific antidote is known so far, poisoning is associated with a high mortality. The therapy with high-dose magnesium sulphate is based on in vitro and animal experiments as well as limited clinical case reports.

  19. EMERGENCE OF ENTIRELY NEW POISONING IN RURAL INDIA; AN UPCOMING HEALTH HAZARD TO THE COMMUNITY HEALTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute agrochemical poisoning is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in India. Pendimethalin (herbicide and Pancycuron (fungicide are frequently used worldwide and considered quite a remarkably safe one for humans. Their acute toxicity is not yet widely known. Here we are reporting cases of their acute poisoning in young. To the best of our knowledge not a single such case of their poisoning has been reported so far in india. Such poisoning by entirely new compounds is an emerging problem in the tropics. In this communication we are reporting such unusual and entirely new toxicities and trying to highlight the need of their early recognition and timely management in rural regions where health facilities are already at the stake.

  20. Dermoscopy of black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Ryan K; Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Stoecker, William V; Hinton, Kristen A

    2012-10-15

    Black-spot poison ivy is an uncommon presentation of poison ivy (Toxicodendron) allergic contact dermatitis. A 78-year-old sought evaluation of a black spot present on her right hand amid pruritic vesicles. The presentation of a black spot on the skin in a clinical context suggesting poison ivy is indicative of black-spot poison ivy. Dermoscopy revealed a jagged, centrally homogeneous, dark brown lesion with a red rim. A skin sample was obtained and compared against a poison ivy standard using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). This finding confirmed the presence of multiple urushiol congeners in the skin sample. Black-spot poison ivy may be added to the list of diagnoses that show a specific dermoscopic pattern.

  1. Predicting adult asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, JM; Boezen, HM

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There still is no cure for asthma. Early identification of patients at risk for disease progression may lead to better treatment opportunities and hopefully better disease outcomes in adulthood. Recent literature on childhood risk factors associated with the outcome of asthma in a

  2. Childhood Obesity. Special Reference Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the problem of childhood obesity and how it can lead to obesity in the adult. Eighty-four abstracts are presented of studies on the identification, prevention, and treatment of obesity in children, focusing on diet and psychological attitudes. Subjects of the studies were children ranging in age from infancy through…

  3. Extracorporeal treatment for tricyclic antidepressant poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais; Sowinski, Kevin M;

    2014-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its results for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). After an extensive literature search, using a predefined...... methodology, the subgroup responsible for this poison reviewed the articles, extracted the data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and RAND...

  4. Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12–48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case report...

  5. Unilateral Antidotes to DNS Cache Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Herzberg, Amir; Shulman, Haya

    2012-01-01

    We investigate defenses against DNS cache poisoning focusing on mechanisms that can be readily deployed unilaterally by the resolving organisation, preferably in a single gateway or a proxy. DNS poisoning is (still) a major threat to Internet security; determined spoofing attackers are often able to circumvent currently deployed antidotes such as port randomisation. The adoption of DNSSEC, which would foil DNS poisoning, remains a long-term challenge. We discuss limitations of the prominent r...

  6. The review of autopsy cases of accidental childhood deaths in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayci, Nesime; Pakis, Isil; Karapirli, Mustafa; Celik, Sefa; Uysal, Cem; Polat, Oguz

    2011-08-01

    Children are at increased risk for various causes of injury from accidents. Accidents are, by far, the leading cause of death among children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to evaluate the lethal childhood accidents in İstanbul by age groups. Reports of autopsies performed between 2001 and 2005 in the Morgue Department of the Council of Forensic. Medicine in Istanbul (n :16853) are examined retrospectively. 833 deaths from accidents in children aged 0-18 years are investigated into the study. The parameters of age, gender, types of accidents and causes of death are evaluated. The accidents account for 47.3% of the deaths among children aged 0-18 years. Of 833 cases, 601 (73%) are male and 232 (27%) are female. The female to male ratio is 1/2.6. The highest rate of death from accidents is at the group of 15-18 years. The primary causes of accidental childhood deaths are motor vehicle accidents (23.1%), followed by drowning (20,1%), poisoning (15.7%), and fall from height (15.5%). The incidence and types of trauma vary with socio-economic status and culture. İstanbul, where this study is conducted in, has approximately 3000 autopsy number annually. Therefore, it provides an important database.

  7. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew M; Aaron, Cynthia K

    2015-02-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates have a wide variety of applications, most commonly as pesticides used to eradicate agricultural pests or control populations of disease-carrying vectors. Some OP and carbamates have therapeutic indications such as physostigmine. Certain organophosphorus compounds, known as nerve agents, have been employed in chemical warfare and terrorism incidents. Both classes inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes, leading to excess acetylcholine accumulation at nerve terminals. In the setting of toxicity from either agent class, clinical syndromes result from excessive nicotinic and muscarinic neurostimulation. The toxic effects from OPs and carbamates differ with respect to reversibility, subacute, and chronic effects. Decontamination, meticulous supportive care, aggressive antimuscarinic therapy, seizure control, and administration of oximes are cornerstones of management.

  8. Exposures to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Anna C; Hinwood, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health hosted a workshop on Exposures to Lead. Speakers from Australia and the United States of America addressed current research knowledge on lead exposures and health effects in children, risk assessment and communication issues in dealing with lead exposure sources, different methods for assessing exposure, and the variety of scenarios where lead still remains a pollutant of concern. Mining continues to be a source of lead for many communities, and approaches to reducing exposures in these settings present particular challenges. A Perth Declaration for the Global Reduction of Childhood Lead Exposure was signed by participants of the meeting and is aimed at increasing attention to the need to continue to assess lead in the environment and to develop strategies to reduce lead in the environment and exposure by communities.

  9. POISONOUS PLANTS IN GARDENS AND GRAZING LANDS

    OpenAIRE

    A. AGANGA; M. NSINAMWA; K. OTENG; B. MAULE

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a review of poisonous plants, their toxic agents and the symptoms of poisoning. Poisonous plants are plants, which as a whole or part thereof under all or certain conditions and in amount likely to be taken or into contact with an organism will exert harmful effects or causes death either immediately or by reason of cumulative action of toxic property due to presence of known or unknown chemical action. There are different types of diseases caused by some poisonous plants. Poiso...

  10. Poison ivy dermatitis. Nuances in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, P M; Sheretz, E F

    1994-02-01

    Acute allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy or poison oak is a common presenting complaint in the practices of many primary care physicians. While the clinical features are well described, reported treatment regimens vary in both topical and systemic therapies. We review herein the variability of presenting morphologic features of the disease and common treatment regimens, with attention given to complications of therapy. We also comment on the correct botanical designation, incidence, and immune mechanisms of the disease state and review measures to avoid allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy and poison oak.

  11. PREDICTING OUTCOME AND SEVERITY IN ACUTE ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS POISONING WITH CLINICAL SCORING AND SERUM CHOLINESTERASE LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj R

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Organophosphorus compound poisoning is the most common medico toxic emergency in India the increase in pesticide use in agriculture has paralleled the increase in the use of these products for deliberate self-warm. Respiratory failure is the most common complication of OP poisoning leading to death. Early recognition and prompt ventilator support may improve survival. Owing to limited availability of resources, all OP poisoning patients are not managed in ICUs in Indian setup. It is therefore important that clinical features and criteria to predict the need for ventilator support be identified at initial examination. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the severity of organophosphorus compound poisoning both clinically by using Peradeniya scoring and by estimating serum choline esterase levels. METHODS: Cross sectional study was done at basaveswar teaching and general hospital attached to MR Medical College. Cases with history of exposure to organophosphorus compound within previous 24 hours were chosen after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were evaluated for Peradeniya OP poisoning scale and serum cholinesterase levels for assessment of severity of poisoning. Serum cholinesterase levels and Peradeniya OP poisoning scale were studied to predict the need for ventilator support. The results were analyzed using Chi-square test. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: It was done using pearson’s chi square test. RESULTS: In this study requirement of ventilator support was seen in 36% of patients. Mortality in our study was 18%. Only 15.6% of patients with mild grade of poisoning according to Peradeniya OP poisoning scale required ventilator support, whereas 84.4% did not require ventilator support. Most of patients with moderate (70.6% and severe poisoning (100% according to Peradeniya OP poisoning scale required ventilator support. 93.7% of patients with serum cholinesterase levels more than 50% did not require

  12. Death by unnatural causes during childhood and early adulthood in offspring of psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, Andrew R.; Appleby, Louis

    2007-01-01

    -verdict deaths by poisoning were higher than for such deaths occurring by other means. CONCLUSIONS: Almost 99% of children studied survived to their mid-20s. However, they were more vulnerable to death from unnatural causes, notably, homicide during childhood and suicide in early adulthood. Further research...... is needed to establish how parental psychopathology contributes to increased risk of premature death in these offspring...

  13. Source of lead pollution, its influence on public health and the countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a well-known toxic heavy metal, which can have serious public health hazards at very low levels, especially for young children. This report summarized the background information on lead as well as its applications, pollution sources, poisoning pathways, biomarkers of exposure and effect, toxicities, poisoning mechanisms, preventive actions, decontamination strategies, and detoxification methods. 

  14. Treatment of severe chloroquine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, B; Barriot, P; Rimailho, A; Baud, F J

    1988-01-07

    No therapy has been proved to be effective for patients with severe chloroquine poisoning, which is usually fatal. In a retrospective study of 51 cases, we found that ingestion of more than 5 g of chloroquine was an accurate predictor of a fatal outcome, and therefore chose this dose as the criterion for severe chloroquine poisoning. We selected as a control group 11 consecutive patients who had ingested more than 5 g of chloroquine between July 1983 and December 1985. We then undertook a prospective study to determine whether a better outcome could be obtained with immediate mechanical ventilation and the administration of diazepam and epinephrine. Eleven consecutive patients who ingested more than 5 g of chloroquine in 1986 received this combination therapy. Ten of these patients survived, whereas only one control had survived (P = 0.0003). There was no significant difference between the combination-therapy and control groups in age (29 +/- 3 vs. 27 +/- 2 years), amount of chloroquine ingested (7.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 8.5 +/- 0.8 g), systolic arterial pressure (74 +/- 2 vs. 74 +/- 3 mm Hg), or QRS duration (0.14 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.14 +/- 0.01 second). In our combination-therapy group, blood chloroquine levels ranged from 40 to 80 mumol per liter, whereas a literature search showed that no patient in whom blood levels were more than 25 mumol per liter had survived. These preliminary data suggest that combining early mechanical ventilation with the administration of diazepam and epinephrine may be effective in the treatment of severe chloroquine poisoning.

  15. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  16. Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

  17. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy.

  18. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  19. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  20. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer funds and duties from Winthrop University to the New York City Health & Hospitals Corporation d.b.a. the New York City...

  1. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. W.; Christoffersen, D. J.; Banner, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. Methods: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark in...

  2. Neuropsychiatric manifestations following acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyakam Mohapatra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute muscarinic and nicotinic side effects of organophosphate (OP poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 22-year-old male who developed psychotic features and motor neuropathy following acute OP poisoning.

  3. Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

  4. Neuromuscular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Pekoz

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: There is no evoked potential studies performed in organophosphate poisoning althoung electroneurography repetitive and P300 studies exist in literature. More further studies are needed to evaluate the cardiac and neuromuscular effects of organophosphate poisoning. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 795-800

  5. [Fatal poisoning due to Indigofera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, S; Berdai, M-A; Bendadi, A; Achour, S; Harandou, M

    2012-01-01

    Indigo, also known in Morocco as Nila, is a dye widely used in the coloring of Moroccan handicrafts. It is obtained from fermentation reactions on the leaves and branches of true indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, which is a widespread plant in tropical Africa and Asia. We report a case of fatal poisoning in a 3-year-old child after administration of indigo for therapeutic purposes. Death resulted from multiple organ failure. The toxicity of this compound is little known in the literature and deserves to be explored through toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies, in order to better determine the toxic constituents of the dye.

  6. [Hydrofluoric acid poisoning: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Tatiana Judith; Ferrero, Hilario Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is a highly dangerous substance with industrial and domestically appliances. Clinical manifestations of poisoning depend on exposure mechanism, acid concentration and exposed tissue penetrability. Gastrointestinal tract symptoms do not correlate with injury severity. Patients with history of hydrofluoric acid ingestion should undergo an endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Intoxication requires immediate intervention because systemic toxicity can take place. We present a 5 year old girl who accidentally swallowed 5 ml of 20% hydrofluoric acid. We performed gastrointestinal tract endoscopy post ingestion, which revealed erythematous esophagus and stomach with erosive lesions. Two months later, same study was performed and revealed esophagus and stomach normal mucous membrane.

  7. Accidental haloperidol poisoning in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona P Gajre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Haloperidol, a butyrophenone neuroleptic drug, is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of adult schizophrenia and mania. It is used in children with neurological disorders like chorea and developmental disorders such as hyperactivity. With the advent of newer selective neuroleptics use of haloperidol is now on decline. However, in adults it is still the preferred drug especially in resource challenged settings. Extrapyramidal reactions occur frequently with haloperidol predominantly as parkinsonian symptoms. There are few case reports of accidental haloperidol poisoning in children and this one of them.

  8. Influence of cell voltage and current on sulfur poisoning behavior of solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhe; Zha, Shaowu; Liu, Meilin

    The sulfur poisoning behavior of nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) cermet anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) was investigated under both potentiostatic and galvanostatic conditions. While the observed relative drop in cell power output caused by sulfur poisoning decreases as the cell-terminal voltage is lowered potentiostatically (thus more current passing through the cell), it increases as more current is drawn from the cell galvanostatically (thus leading to lower terminal voltage). The apparent contradictory trends in relative performance loss due to sulfur poisoning are explained using a simple equivalent circuit analysis, which was further validated by impedance measurements of cells before and after poisoning by trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) under different conditions. Results suggest that the relative increase in cell internal resistance caused by sulfur poisoning is smaller when more current is drawn from the cell (or the cell-terminal voltage is lowered) under either potentiostatic or galvanostatic conditions. Thus, the increase in anode polarization resistance, not the drop in cell power output, should be used to describe the degree of sulfur poisoning in order to avoid any confusion.

  9. ACUTE POISONING WITH BENZODIAZEPINES AND OTHER HYPNOTICS: ETIOLOGIC CAUSE, SEX/AGE DISTRIBUTION AND CLINICAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petko Marinov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Poisoning with drugs occupies a leading position among the causes of acute intoxications. Etiological distribution of medicated poisoning in different countries, even if they are adjacent, is different. In the most studies it was reported that the highest incidence of poisoning is with benzodiazepines or other psychoactive drugs. A retrospective analysis of acute poisoning with benzodiazepines and other hypnotic drugs in the Varna region for 25 years period – from 1991 to 2015 was carried out. Material and Methods: The number of patients who received hospital treatment after poisoning with benzodiazepines is 1741, and those with other hypnotics is 293, representing respectively 26.37% and 4.44% of all drug intoxications. Results: The share of poisoning with benzodiazepines and hypnotics compared to all acute intoxications is 11.66%. They are more common in women – 1566 (77%. Men are 468 (23%, the ratio of men to women was 3.34:1. The largest number of intoxications is in the age group up to 24 years - 1123 (55.2%, and only 4.1% of patients over 60 years. Intentional suicide attempts are 1896 (93.2%. Death is registered in 8 (0.4% patients.

  10. SUPERVASMOL POISONING: AN EMERGING ENT EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicide in India. Supervasmol poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicidal attempt in our region. The common cause for consumption of hair dye is by suicidal intent or accidental oral ingestion. There is no specific antidote for Supervasmol poisoning. Management is only symptomatic and supportive with emergency tracheostomy in majority of cases. Hence, we conducted this study to emphasize the role of ENT surgeon in Supervasmol poisoning. STUDY DESIGN Prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS We present a total of 79 cases of Supervasmol poisoning who attended the Emergency Department of Narayana Medical College and General Hospital, Nellore. RESULTS All patients were between age group 15-35 yrs. Females are more than males. More patients were in second decade; 55 cases presented in acute phase, 51 patients underwent tracheostomy and four patients were brought dead. CONCLUSION Emergency tracheostomy is a life saving measure in severe stridor

  11. Levothyroxine Poisoning - Symptoms and Clinical Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birgitte; Saedder, Eva A.; Dalhoff, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Levothyroxine (LT), T4, poisoning is rarely associated with a severe outcome. However, cases with significant complications have been reported. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with symptoms of poisoning including late-onset symptoms. All enquiries to the Danish Poison...... Information Centre (DPIC) concerning LT poisoning between March 2007 and September 2012 were reviewed and the following parameters were recorded: age, dose, time from ingestion, multiple drug intake and symptoms. To evaluate the frequency of late-onset symptoms, a subgroup of patients without initial symptoms...... patients, neither in children nor in adults (age 16-92 years) (p symptoms of poisoning at the time of enquiry; however, in 9 of 21 (43%) patients, we were able to contact, late-onset symptoms existed. In none of the cases...

  12. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead. 35... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead....

  13. The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, L.F.; Critchley, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective treatment. They showed that the metabolic activation of acetaminophen resulted in the formation of a reactive arylating intermediate, and that hepatic reduced glutathione played an essential protective role by preferential conjugation and inactivation of the metabolite. Early treatment with sulphydryl compounds and glutathione precursors has been dramatically effective in preventing liver damage, renal failure, and death following acetaminophen overdosage. It seems likely that these agents act primarily by stimulating glutathione synthesis. Inhibition of the metabolic activation of acetaminophen is another potential therapeutic approach that has not yet been put to the test clinically. The clinical management of acetaminophen poisoning has been transformed and it is particularly gratifying to have effective treatment based on a well established biochemical mechanism of toxicity. It is likely that effective treatment will be developed for toxicity caused through similar mechanisms by other agents.

  14. Congenital abnormalities in methylmercury poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, S.H.

    1975-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the teratogenic potential of methylmercury on chick embryogenesis. Methylmercuric chloride was dissolved in sodium bicarbonate (0.2%) and administered to the chick embryos at doses ranging from 0.0009 to 0.010 mg per egg. The injections were made at days 2 and 3 on incubation (Groups A and B). All the embryos including controls were examined on the 7th day of incubation. Methylmercury poisoning was observed to be both embryolethal and teratogenic. Within the two groups, embryolethality was higher in Group A. The following congenital abnormalities were observed: exencephaly, shortened and twisted limbs, microphthalmia, shortened and twisted neck, beak abnormalities, everted viscera, reduced body size and hemorrhage all over the body. Exencephaly and limb abnormalities were very common. No differences in the incidence and types of gross abnormalities within both the groups (A and B) were noted. The incidence of malformations among the controls was low. The results of present investigation show that methylmercury poisoning is both embryolethal and teratogenic to early chick embryogenesis. (auth)

  15. Leading Generation Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    ensure the success of their child, failure is not often experienced. These successes and the ease of childhood lead to not only confidence but an...Messaging, chatting on the cell phone and working on homework is a common place scene for teens and college students. “The level of multiprocessing...to Gen Yers entering the workforce with unrealistic expectations and a sense of entitlement. Barbara Dwyer, CEO of the Job Journey, states that

  16. Health care of people at work. Workers exposed to lead. I. Inorganic lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldron, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    The risks associated with exposure to inorganic lead and the means by which these risks can be minimized are outlined. Lead is used to make a variety of metal products, the grids and oxides in storage batteries, pigments, chemicals, and also for lead plating. In the United States about 70% of the total lead consumption is related to transportation. Uptake of inorganic lead is by ingestion and inhalation. About 90% of the total body burden of lead is contained within the skeletal tissues. Lead is excreted in the kidney, in sweat, and in milk. Toxic effects are directed against the blood, the nervous system, and the kidney. Symptoms of lead poisoning are abdominal pain, constipation, vomiting, asthenia, paresthesia, psychological symptoms, and diarrhea. Physical and biological monitoring can serve to protect workers. Diagnosis of lead poisoning is not easy. Treatment involves removal from exposure and/or treatment with a chelating agent.

  17. Rhabdomyolysis Syndrome in Alcohol, Psychotropic Drugs, and Illicit Substance Poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Taheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhabdomyolysis is one of the major complications of poisoning causedby alcohol, narcotics, and psychotropic substances acute toxicity, which might lead toacute renal failure and even death. This study aimed to evaluate clinical and laboratoryfindings of rhabdomyolysis syndrome in poisoning patients who were admitted topoisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital of Hamadan, Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients with acute toxicity by alcohol, narcotics,or psychotropic drugs who were admitted in poisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital ofHamadan were investigated during a 6-month period in 2012. Clinical and laboratorydata were collected by a standard questionnaire and analyzed by the SPSS softwareversion 16.Results: Eighty-two patients aged between 14 to 81 years were investigated. Twentytwocases developed rhabdomyolysis and narcotics related toxicity was the mostcommon cause. The most common clinical symptom in all patients was muscle pain(51cases, Laboratory studies showed some significant differences between serumcreatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, serum creatinine, andaminotransferases (AST,ALT levels in rhabdomyolysis cases as compared to theothers (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the incidence of rhabdomyolysissyndrome in acute intoxication with alcohol and narcotics is significant and withoutproper treatment might cause serious complications such as acute renal failure andeven death. Classic clinical signs and symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are usually notpresent simultaneously, thus strong clinical suspicion and proper laboratory tests haveimportant role in early diagnosis and suitable treatment. Laboratory studies have animportant role in the diagnosis of this syndrome.

  18. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  19. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be...

  20. 75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8484 of March 15, 2010 National Poison... National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers of accidental poisonings and... million poison exposures reported each year, we must take every precaution to guard against...

  1. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

  2. Research Relating to the Learning of Children Identified as Having Experienced Malnutrition and/or Heavy Metal Poisoning. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Charles T.

    Described was research on the behavioral and learning effects of lead poisoning or malnutrition in rats. It is explained that approximately 200 rats (either weanling, adult, pregnant, or nursing) were injected with various amounts of lead. It was found that symtomatic levels of lead in weanling or adult rats produced no obvious behavioral or…

  3. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  4. Carbon monoxide: an old poison with a new way of poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2012-08-01

    We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale.

  5. Tropical fish poisoning in temperate climates: food poisoning from ciguatera toxin presenting in Avonmouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, Ruth; Eastcott, Howard; Sarangi, Joyshri

    2006-12-01

    Ciguatera toxin causes a range of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological symptoms that occur within 1-6 h of ingesting fish with the toxin and can last for days, months or years. It is a well-recognized problem in the tropics. Avon Health Protection Team investigated food poisoning on a ship at Avonmouth, which was thought by the crew to be related to a white snapper fish from the Caribbean. The symptoms were initially thought to be scombroid fish poisoning but were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. Cases of fish poisoning from fish imported from the Caribbean and Pacific or travellers returning from tropical countries may be ciguatera fish poisoning, but mistakenly diagnosed as scombroid fish poisoning.

  6. Toxicodendron dermatitis: poison ivy, oak, and sumac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladman, Aaron C

    2006-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus) species-poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac-affects millions of North Americans every year. In certain outdoor occupations, for example, agriculture and forestry, as well as among many outdoor enthusiasts, Toxicodendron dermatitis presents a significant hazard. This review considers the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of this common dermatologic problem. Recent research in prevention is emphasized, and resources to help in the identification of plants are provided in the bibliography. The literature was searched using a MEDLINE query for "Toxicodendron dermatitis", and the identified article bibliographies were searched as well.

  7. Intractable Seizures and Rehabilitation in Ciguatera Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derian, Armen; Khurana, Seema; Rothenberg, Joshua; Plumlee, Charles

    2016-08-31

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most frequently reported seafood toxin illness associated with the ingestion of contaminated tropical fish. Diagnosis relies on a history of recent tropical fish ingestion and subsequent development of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological symptoms. Ciguatera poisoning usually has a self-limited time course, and its management involves symptomatic control and supportive care. This case report presents an uncommon case of ciguatera poisoning with prolonged intractable seizures refractory to standard antiseizure medications. The patient also had significant functional decline that responded to rigorous inpatient rehabilitation not previously described in literature.

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  9. Developments in alternative treatments for organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rupa; Iken, Brian; Leon, Alex

    2015-03-04

    Organophosphosphates (OPs) are highly effective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors that are used worldwide as cheap, multi-purpose insecticides. OPs are also used as chemical weapons forming the active core of G-series and V-series chemical agents including tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin, VX, and their chemical analogs. Human exposure to any of these compounds leads to neurotoxic accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, resulting in abnormal nerve function and multiple secondary health complications. Suicide from deliberate exposure to OPs is particularly prevalent in developing countries across the world and constitutes a major global health crisis. The prevalence and accessible nature of OP compounds within modern agricultural spheres and concern over their potential use in biochemical weapon attacks have incentivized both government agencies and medical researchers to enact stricter regulatory policies over their usage and to begin developing more proactive medical treatments in cases of OP poisoning. This review will discuss the research undertaken in recent years that has investigated new supplementary drug options for OP treatment and support therapy, including progress in the development of enzymatic prophylaxis.

  10. Adverse health effects of lead exposure on children and exploration to internal lead indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.; Zhao, H.H. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Chen, J.W.; Gu, K.D.; Zhang, Y.Z.; Zhu, Y.X.; Zhou, Y.K. [Minitry of Environmental Protection Key Lab of Environment, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ye, L.X., E-mail: yelx2004@163.com [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Our research on adverse effects of lead exposures on physical and neurobehavioral health of children aged 6-12 years in 4 villages, labeled as K, M, L, and X, in rural China, was reported in this article. Lead in blood (PbB), urine (PbU), hairs (PbH), and nails (PbN) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Abbreviated Symptom Questionnaire of Conner's instruments and Revised Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were applied to evaluate childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and intelligences. Geometric means (SD) of PbB, PbU, PbH and PbN concentrations were 71.2 {mu}g/L (1.56), 11.7 {mu}g/g (1.75), 12.5 {mu}g/g (2.82), and 25.3 {mu}g/g (2.79), respectively. 54 (17.0%) children had PbB levels of {>=} 100 {mu}g/L. Boys, the 6-10 years old, and living in village K were 2.11, 2.48, and 9.16 times, respectively, more likely to be poisoned by lead than girls, aged 11-12 years, and residing in X. 18 (5.7%) and 37 (11.7%) subjects had ADHD and mental retardations, respectively. Inverse relationships between intelligences and natural log transformed PbU and PbH levels were observed with respective odds ratios (95%CI) of 1.79 (1.00-3.22) and 1.46 (1.06-2.03) or 1.28 (1.04-1.58) and 1.73 (1.18-2.52) by binary or ordinal logistic regression modeling. ADHD prevalence was different by gender and age of subjects. PbU, PbH, and PbN related to PbB positively with respective correlation coefficients of 0.530, 0.477, and 0.181. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the three measurements reveled areas under curves (AUCs) being 0.829, 0.758, and 0.687, respectively. In conclusion, children had moderate levels of lead exposures in this rural area. Intelligence declines were associated with internal lead levels among children. ROC analysis suggests PbU an internal lead indicator close to PbB.

  11. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  12. GLC analysis of poison ivy and poison oak urushiol components in vegetable oil preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsohly, M A; Turner, C E

    1980-05-01

    A procedure is described for the analysis of urushiol content of pharmaceutical preparations containing extracts of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) and poison oak (T. diversilobum) in vegetable oils. The procedure involves extraction of the urushiols from the oily solutions using 90% methanol in water followed by GLC analysis of the extracts. Recoveries of both poison ivy and poison oak urushiols from solutions in corn oil, olive oil, sesame seed oil, and cottonseed oil were calculated. Correlation coefficients (r2) ranged from 0.97 to 1.00, and the coefficients of variations ranged from 3.08 to 7.90%.

  13. Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

  14. Inorganic arsenic poisoning in pastured feeder lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, H.A.; Crane, M.R.; Tomson, K.

    1971-01-01

    Clinical signs and necropsy findings in a group of feeder lambs were suggestive of inorganic arsenic poisoning. Source of exposure was established and toxic concentrations of arsenic were detected in the tissues. 13 references, 1 table.

  15. Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahajal Dhooria

    2016-01-01

    Results: The original search yielded 239 articles, of which 52 articles described human cases. After following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 32 studies describing 310 cases (151 females, 175 children of human poisoning with amitraz were included in this systematic review. The most commonly reported clinical features of amitraz poisoning were altered sensorium, miosis, hyperglycaemia, bradycardia, vomiting, respiratory failure, hypotension and hypothermia. Amitraz poisoning carried a good prognosis with only six reported deaths (case fatality rate, 1.9%. Nearly 20 and 11.9 per cent of the patients required mechanical ventilation and inotropic support, respectively. The role of decontamination methods, namely, gastric lavage and activated charcoal was unclear. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that amitraz is an important agent for accidental or suicidal poisoning in both adults and children. It has a good prognosis with supportive management.

  16. Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Mª Jesús; Martos, Nieves; Zilberschtein, José; Ruíz, Isidro; Motas, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony is described; this condition has not previously been reported in ponies. Discussion of what factors in the pony’s history and treatment may have predisposed to the severity and ultimate death is provided.

  17. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... situations, criminal prosecution. back to top Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  18. Colchicine Poisoning in Children: 7 Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Karacan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Colchicine is a drug that has been used primarily in several diseases. Colchicine poisoning is an infrequent but potentially life-threatening problem characterized by multiorgan involvement. We present seven children with colchicine poisoning. Their ages ranged between 1 and 9 years. In six children, the amount of colchicine consumed was between 0.16 and 0.39 mg/kg; the most frequent findings were diarrhea and vomiting. In one patient, the ingested amount was unknown. One of the patients died and all others recovered without sequelae. The severity of colchicine poisoning tends to be related to the dosage of ingested drug and the time of admission to hospital. Symptomatic treatment should be started as soon as possible in colchicine poisoning. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2009; 7: 96-100

  19. Causes of rhabdomyolysis in acute poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Snežana R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Rhabdomyolysis (RM is potentially lethal syndrome, but there are no enough published data on its frequency and characteristics in acute poisonings. The aim of this study was to determine the causes and severity of RM in acute poisonings. Methods. Patients hospital charts were retrospectively screened during a one-year period in order to identify patients with RM among 656 patients treated due to acute poisonings with different agents. All the patients with RM were selected. Entrance criterion was the value of creatine kinase (CK over 250 U/L. The severity of RM was assessed according to the Poison Severity Score. The patients were divided into three groups: the first one with mild RM (CK from 250 to 1,500 U/L, the second with moderate RM (CK from 1,500 to 10,000 U/L and the third with severe RM (CK greater than 10,000 U/L. Results. RM occurred in 125 (19% of the patients with acute poisonings. It was mainly mild (61%, or moderate (36%, and only in 3% of the patients was severe RM. The incidence of RM was the highest in poisonings with opiates (41%, pesticides (38%, neuroleptics (26%, anticonvulsants (26%, ethyl alcohol (20%, and gases (19%. Psychotropic agents were the most common causes of poisoning, and consequently of RM. Fatal outcomes were registered in 32 (25.60% of all RM patients. The incidence of fatal outcomes in poisonings with mild, moderate and severe RM was 19.73%, 31.11% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion. RM syndrome occurs at a relatively high rate in acute poisonings. Although agent’s toxicity is crucial for the outcome, severe RM and its complications may significantly influence the clinical course and prognosis of poisoning. Routine analysis of CK, as a relevant marker for RM may indicate the development of RM in acute poisoning and initiate prompt therapeutic measures in preventing acute renal failure as the most frequent consequence of extensive rhabdomyolysis.

  20. The Current State of Poison Control Centers in Pakistan and the Need for Capacity Building

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    Nadeem Khan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical exposure is a major health problem globally. Poison control centers (PCCs play a leading role both in developed and developing countries in the prevention and control of poisonous chemical exposures. In this study, we aimed to assess the current state of PCCs in Pakistan and highlight capacity building needs in these centers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of the two registered PCCs was done during August – December 2011. Necessary services of the PCCs were evaluated and the data were recorded on a predesigned checklist. Results: Both PCCs are affiliated to a tertiary care hospital. Clinical services to poisoned patients were available 24 hours a day / 7 days a week. Information on common local products was available to poison center staff. Both centers were involved in undergraduate and post graduate teaching. Telephone poison information service was not available in either of centers. There was a limited capacity for qualitative and analytical toxicology. Common antidotes were available. There were limited surveillance activities to capture toxic risks existing in the community and also a deficiency was observed in chemical disaster planning. Conclusion: PCCs in Pakistan need capacity building for specialized training in toxicology, toxicovigilance, chemical disaster planning, analytical laboratory tests and telephone service for consultation in poisoning cases.   How to cite this article: Khan NU, Mir MU, Khan UR, Khan AR, Ara J, Raja K, et al. The Current State of Poison Control Centers in Pakistan and the Need for Capacity Building. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2014;3:31-5.

  1. Lead Levels in Utah Eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michelle

    2006-10-01

    Lead is a health hazard to most animals, causing adverse effects to the nervous and reproductive systems if in sufficient quantity. Found in most fishing jigs and sinkers, as well as some ammunition used in hunting, this metal can poison wildlife such as eagles. Eagles are raptors, or predatory birds, and their lead exposure would most likely comes from their food -- a fish which has swallowed a sinker or lead shot in carrion (dead animal matter). As part of an ongoing project to investigate the environment lead levels in Utah, the bone lead levels in the wing bones of eagles have been measured for eagle carcasses found throughout Utah. The noninvasive technique of x-ray fluorescence was used, consisting of a Cd-109 radioactive source to activate lead atoms and a HPGe detector with digital electronics to collect the gamma spectra. Preliminary results for the eagles measured to date will be presented.

  2. A CLINICAL PROFILE OF ACUTE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaddadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 100 patients were studied to know the common poisons, age, sex, clinical manifestations, response to treatment, motive behind the consumption and prognostic factors. Out of 100 cases, most of them committed this with suicidal intention, 21 - 30 age group, males, insecticide poison consumed were affected. 70% of them had domestic problems as the main reason to commit this extreme step. Those who reached early to the hospital had recovered well with a mortality rate of 7%.

  3. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  4. Clinical Review: Emergency management of acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. van Hoving

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this commissioned review was to establish concise guidelines for the initial management of the acutely poisoned patient in the Emergency Centre. The American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists are the international leaders in the field of toxicology and the guidelines in their position papers were generally followed. Most of the dosage regimes are according to the South African Medicines Formulary.

  5. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  6. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-06-25

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full recovery within 10 weeks.

  7. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full...

  8. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Praveen Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  9. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    A S Praveen Kumar; Deepak Amalnath; T K Dutta

    2011-01-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  10. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A S Praveen; Amalnath, Deepak; Dutta, T K

    2011-10-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  11. TRPV1 as a key determinant in ciguatera and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Eva; Yanagihara, Angel; Rainier, Jon D; Tytgat, Jan

    2007-09-14

    Ciguatera fish poisoning and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning are distinct clinical entities characterized by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances, following the consumption of certain reef fish and shellfish containing toxic polyether compounds sporadically present in certain toxic marine dinoflagellates. The biotransformation and bioaccumulation of gambierol and brevetoxin, and their congeners, are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of these "food-chain diseases", for which no effective treatments are available. Here, we describe for the first time the potent effect of gambierol and brevetoxin on TRPV1 channels, a key player in thermal and pain sensation. Our findings may lead to promising new therapeutic interventions.

  12. Toad poisoning in three dogs: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad poisoning is frequent in dogs, but has been infrequently addressed in published case reports and review articles. Dogs can be poisoned when they bite a toad or otherwise ingest the venom. The venom effects manifest soon after the accident, since the toxin is rapidly absorbed by the mucous membrane of the digestive system. Hospital records of three dogs, diagnosed with toad poisoning, were retrospectively reviewed from January 2005 to July 2007. Poisoned dogs may present only local irritation or systemic signs in the gastrointestinal, cardiac and neurological systems. All three cases presented herein had clinical signs of gastrointestinal alterations including vomiting, sialorrhea and diarrhea. Two dogs developed abnormal cardiac rhythm and two exhibited neurological signs. A poisoned animal requires emergency care and symptomatic therapy with intense monitoring of its clinical parameters. Although there have been reports on the low mortality of dogs poisoned by toads, one animal died even after appropriate therapy. The severity of clinical signs and the risk of death must be considered by the veterinarian.

  13. Lead Oxides Used in the Treatment of Empacho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Alan

    Many Mexican Americans regard "Azarcon," a lead tetroxide powder, and "Greta," a lead monoxide powder, as desired medical treatments for empacho, a perceived intestinal blockage. The folk medicines, available in Mexico but not in the United States, can cause lead poisoning, which can result in brain swelling, coma, permanent mental retardation,…

  14. Bacterial Flora in the Mouth of Venomous and Non-poisonous Snakes before and after Eating

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    Rouhullah Dehghani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Snake bite is a public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Snake problem is not only lead to poisoning but also because of the snake's mouth pathogens may be caused infection in the victims. This study was conducted to identify mouth bacteria in poisonous and non-poisonous snakes. Materials and methods: 11 non-toxic and poisonous snakes were examined before and three weeks after eating food in two stages. Bacterial samples from the oral cavity with a sterile swab were cultured on of blood agar and Mac Kanky medium. Gram staining was performed on all colonies. appropriate test methods were used for identification of gram-negative and positive bacteria. Results: Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most common bacteria by 34.5 and Pseudomonas was less by 3.1 percent. Then the order, Salmonella (18.8%, Escherichia coli, Providencia (each 12.5%, Proteus, Enterococcus, Bacillus (each 6.2% were identified in the snakes. Conclusion: Our results indicate that oral cavity is contaminated to the bacteria in non-toxic and poisonous snakes. Thus, probable infection should be considered in addition to toxicity in victims.

  15. Lead - a preanalytical/analytical variable in clinical chemistry

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    Rašić-Mišić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead is one of the most studied clinically important metals due its high toxicity and a high number of workers exposed to it. The interest toward Pb is elevated by the fact that children are especially susceptible to lead poisoning. Research regarding lead poisoning requires a complex, multi-disciplinary (clinical medical and clinical chemical approach. Monitoring human exposure to lead (intake, i.e. poisoning may be achieved by quantification of Pb in tissues and body fluids. For that reason, a number of accurate and reliable analytical methods for the determination of Pb (analytical/preanalytical variable were developed. An objective of this review paper is to provide key information necessary for proper interpretation of results of lead related clinical/laboratory tests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172061

  16. Childhood poverty and young adults' allostatic load: the mediating role of childhood cumulative risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Kim, Pilyoung

    2012-09-01

    Childhood poverty is linked to a host of physical and psychological disorders during childhood and later in life. In the study reported here, we showed that the proportion of childhood spent in poverty from birth to age 9 was linked to elevated allostatic load, a marker of chronic physiological stress, in 17-year-olds. Furthermore, this prospective longitudinal relationship was mediated by cumulative risk exposure at age 13. The greater the duration of early life spent in poverty, the greater the exposure to cumulative risk. This, in turn, leads to elevated allostatic load. Multiple psychological, biological, and neurological pathways likely account for the social patterning of psychological and physical disease.

  17. 76 FR 8942 - Poison Prevention Packaging Requirements; Proposed Exemption of Powder Formulations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1700 Poison Prevention Packaging Requirements; Proposed Exemption of Powder... 1. The Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970 and Implementing Regulations The Poison Prevention... children, Packaging and containers, Poison prevention, Toxic substances. For the reasons given above,...

  18. Analysis of Nine Cases of Acute Thallium Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiwei; HUANG Xiaojiang; LIU Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this study nine cases of thallium poisoning in a series of homicidal poisoning were analyzed in order to provide more information concerning thallium poisoning. It was found that the most common clinical feature of thallium poisoning was peripheral neuropathy and paraesthesia was more common than amyasthenia. Understanding of these clinical characteristics of thallium poisoning was helpful to early identification and differential diagnosis. Since the early administration of Prussian Blue, as a specific antidote for thallium poisoning, can substantially improve the prognosis, it is of great importance to establish a correct and early diagnosis.

  19. Dose-Response Relationship between Cumulative Occupational Lead Exposure and the Associated Health Damages: A 20-Year Cohort Study of a Smelter in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Gu, Jun-Ming; Huang, Yun; Duan, Yan-Ying; Huang, Rui-Xue; Hu, Jian-An

    2016-03-16

    Long-term airborne lead exposure, even below official occupational limits, has been found to cause lead poisoning at higher frequencies than expected, which suggests that China's existing occupational exposure limits should be reexamined. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 1832 smelting workers from 1988 to 2008 in China. These were individuals who entered the plant and came into continuous contact with lead at work for longer than 3 months. The dose-response relationship between occupational cumulative lead exposure and lead poisoning, abnormal blood lead, urinary lead and erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) were analyzed and the benchmark dose lower bound confidence limits (BMDLs) were calculated. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between cumulative lead dust and lead fumes exposures and workplace seniority, blood lead, urinary lead and ZPP values. A dose-response relationship was observed between cumulative lead dust or lead fumes exposure and lead poisoning (p lead dust and fumes doses were 0.68 mg-year/m³ and 0.30 mg-year/m³ for lead poisoning, respectively. The BMDLs of workplace airborne lead concentrations associated with lead poisoning were 0.02 mg/m³ and 0.01 mg/m³ for occupational exposure lead dust and lead fume, respectively. In conclusion, BMDLs for airborne lead were lower than occupational exposure limits, suggesting that the occupational lead exposure limits need re-examination and adjustment. Occupational cumulative exposure limits (OCELs) should be established to better prevent occupational lead poisoning.

  20. ARE THE SO-CALLED POISONOUS FOOD-COMBINATIONS REALLY POISONOUS?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin T CHENG

    2009-01-01

    @@ The idea that to eat certain two foods simultaneously is to get poisoned has been entertained by柄Chinese people for many years. There are about 184 pairs of the so-called poisonous food-combinations, and 180 of them are mentioned in Chinese Ancient Materia Medica, Ben-Tsao-Gung-Mu (本草纲目) or other books. (1a,2a) This belief was based upon some personal sketch, old-fashioned doctors' notes, stories and other false facts. Although these statements were originated without any experimental ground, yet many of the Chinese, even at present time, still believe them firmly. Whenever any poisoning outbreak occurs accidentally after having taken the so-called poisonous food-combination, they always attribute the cause of the poisoning to the two foods served simultaneously.