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Sample records for childhood illness imci

  1. The cost of quality improvements due to integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) in Uganda.

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    Bishai, David; Mirchandani, Gita; Pariyo, George; Burnham, Gilbert; Black, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to measure the marginal change in facility-level costs of medical care for children under five due to an increase in service quality achieved through the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) strategy. Since the beneficial effects of IMCI training on child health outcomes are due to IMCI's effects on service quality, costs of IMCI are regressed against measures of service quality in this paper. Our model shows that quality, as measured by a WHO-index of integrated child assessment is 44% higher in facilities with at least one health worker trained in IMCI as compared to facilities with no health workers trained in IMCI, adjusting for facility utilization as well as type of facility ownership. Our marginal analysis that tied IMCI training to quality and quality to costs shows that on the margin, investing in IMCI training at a primary facility level can yield a significant 44.3% improvement in service quality for a modest 13.5% increase in annual facility costs. PMID:17387710

  2. Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) strategy for children under five

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    Gera, Tarun; Shah, Dheeraj; Garner, Paul; Richardson, Marty; Sachdev, Harshpal S

    2016-01-01

    Background More than 7.5 million children younger than age five living in low- and middle-income countries die every year. The World Health Organization (WHO) developed the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) strategy to reduce mortality and morbidity and to improve quality of care by improving the delivery of a variety of curative and preventive medical and behavioral interventions at health facilities, at home, and in the community. Objectives To evaluate the effects of programs that implement the IMCI strategy in terms of death, nutritional status, quality of care, coverage with IMCI deliverables, and satisfaction of beneficiaries. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 3), including the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register; MEDLINE; EMBASE, Ovid; the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EbscoHost; the Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Virtual Health Library (VHL); the WHO Library & Information Networks for Knowledge Database (WHOLIS); the Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science; Population Information Online (POPLINE); the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP); and the Global Health, Ovid and Health Management, ProQuest database. We performed searches until 30 June 2015 and supplemented these by searching revised bibliographies and by contacting experts to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria We sought to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled before-after (CBA) studies with at least two intervention and two control sites evaluating the generic IMCI strategy or its adaptation in children younger than age five, and including at minimum efforts to improve health care worker skills for case management. We excluded studies in which IMCI was

  3. Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) strategy for children under five

    OpenAIRE

    Gera, Tarun; Shah, Dheeraj; Garner, Paul; Richardson, Marty; Sachdev, Harshpal S.

    2016-01-01

    Background More than 7.5 million children younger than age five living in low- and middle-income countries die every year. The World Health Organization (WHO) developed the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) strategy to reduce mortality and morbidity and to improve quality of care by improving the delivery of a variety of curative and preventive medical and behavioral interventions at health facilities, at home, and in the community. Objectives To evaluate the effects of progra...

  4. Experiences of training and implementation of integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI in South Africa: a qualitative evaluation of the IMCI case management training course

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    Rollins Nigel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI is a strategy to reduce mortality and morbidity in children under-5 years by improving management of common illnesses at primary level. IMCI has been shown to improve health worker performance, but constraints have been identified in achieving sufficient coverage to improve child survival, and implementation remains sub-optimal. At the core of the IMCI strategy is a clinical guideline whereby health workers use a series of algorithms to assess and manage a sick child, and give counselling to carers. IMCI is taught using a structured 11-day training course that combines classroom work with clinical practise; a variety of training techniques are used, supported by comprehensive training materials and detailed instructions for facilitators. Methods We conducted focus group discussions with IMCI trained health workers to explore their experiences of the methodology and content of the IMCI training course, whether they thought they gained the skills required for implementation, and their experiences of follow-up visits. Results Health workers found the training interesting, informative and empowering, and there was consensus that it improved their skills in managing sick children. They appreciated the variety of learning methods employed, and felt that repetition was important to reinforce knowledge and skills. Facilitators were rated highly for their knowledge and commitment, as well as their ability to identify problems and help participants as required. However, health workers felt strongly that the training time was too short to acquire skills in all areas of IMCI. Their increased confidence in managing sick children was identified by health workers as an enabling factor for IMCI implementation in the workplace, but additional time required for IMCI consultations was expressed as a major barrier. Although follow-up visits were described as very helpful, these were often delayed

  5. Implementation of World Health Organization Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI Guidelines for the Assessment of Pneumonia in the Under 5s in Rural Malawi.

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    Ngozi Kalu

    Full Text Available The Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS is a pragmatic cluster-level randomized controlled trial of the effect of an advanced cookstove intervention on pneumonia in children under the age of 5 years (under 5s in Malawi (www.capstudy.org. The primary outcome of the trial is the incidence of pneumonia during a two-year follow-up period, as diagnosed by healthcare providers who are using the World Health Organization (WHO integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMCI pneumonia assessment protocol and who are blinded to the trial arms. We evaluated the quality of pneumonia assessment in under 5s in this setting via a cross-sectional study of provider-patient encounters at nine outpatient clinics located within the catchment area of 150 village-level clusters enrolled in the trial across the two study locations of Chikhwawa and Karonga, Malawi, between May and June 2015 using the IMCI guidelines as a benchmark. Data were collected using a key equipment checklist, an IMCI pneumonia knowledge test, and a clinical evaluation checklist. The median number of key equipment items available was 6 (range 4 to 7 out of a possible 7. The median score on the IMCI pneumonia knowledge test among 23 clinicians was 75% (range 60% to 89%. Among a total of 176 consultations performed by 15 clinicians, a median of 9 (range 3 to 13 out of 13 clinical evaluation tasks were performed. Overall, the clinicians were adequately equipped for the assessment of sick children, had good knowledge of the IMCI guidelines, and conducted largely thorough clinical evaluations. We recommend the simple pragmatic approach to quality assurance described herein for similar studies conducted in challenging research settings.

  6. Implementation of World Health Organization Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) Guidelines for the Assessment of Pneumonia in the Under 5s in Rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, Ngozi; Lufesi, Norman; Havens, Deborah; Mortimer, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS) is a pragmatic cluster-level randomized controlled trial of the effect of an advanced cookstove intervention on pneumonia in children under the age of 5 years (under 5s) in Malawi (www.capstudy.org). The primary outcome of the trial is the incidence of pneumonia during a two-year follow-up period, as diagnosed by healthcare providers who are using the World Health Organization (WHO) integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMCI) pneumonia assessment protocol and who are blinded to the trial arms. We evaluated the quality of pneumonia assessment in under 5s in this setting via a cross-sectional study of provider-patient encounters at nine outpatient clinics located within the catchment area of 150 village-level clusters enrolled in the trial across the two study locations of Chikhwawa and Karonga, Malawi, between May and June 2015 using the IMCI guidelines as a benchmark. Data were collected using a key equipment checklist, an IMCI pneumonia knowledge test, and a clinical evaluation checklist. The median number of key equipment items available was 6 (range 4 to 7) out of a possible 7. The median score on the IMCI pneumonia knowledge test among 23 clinicians was 75% (range 60% to 89%). Among a total of 176 consultations performed by 15 clinicians, a median of 9 (range 3 to 13) out of 13 clinical evaluation tasks were performed. Overall, the clinicians were adequately equipped for the assessment of sick children, had good knowledge of the IMCI guidelines, and conducted largely thorough clinical evaluations. We recommend the simple pragmatic approach to quality assurance described herein for similar studies conducted in challenging research settings. PMID:27187773

  7. Does integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI training improve the skills of health workers? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Duyen Thi Kim Nguyen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An estimated 6.9 million children die annually in low and middle-income countries because of treatable illneses including pneumonia, diarrhea, and malaria. To reduce morbidity and mortality, the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy was developed, which included a component to strengthen the skills of health workers in identifying and managing these conditions. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to determine whether IMCI training actually improves performance. METHODS: Database searches of CIHAHL, CENTRAL, EMBASE, Global Health, Medline, Ovid Healthstar, and PubMed were performed from 1990 to February 2013, and supplemented with grey literature searches and reviews of bibliographies. Studies were included if they compared the performance of IMCI and non-IMCI health workers in illness classification, prescription of medications, vaccinations, and counseling on nutrition and admistration of oral therapies. Dersminion-Laird random effect models were used to summarize the effect estimates. RESULTS: The systematic review and meta-analysis included 46 and 26 studies, respectively. Four cluster-randomized controlled trials, seven pre-post studies, and 15 cross-sectional studies were included. Findings were heterogeneous across performance domains with evidence of effect modification by health worker performance at baseline. Overall, IMCI-trained workers were more likely to correctly classify illnesses (RR = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.66-2.24. Studies of workers with lower baseline performance showed greater improvements in prescribing medications (RR = 3.08, 95% CI: 2.04-4.66, vaccinating children (RR = 3.45, 95% CI: 1.49-8.01, and counseling families on adequate nutrition (RR = 10.12, 95% CI: 6.03-16.99 and administering oral therapies (RR = 3.76, 95% CI: 2.30-6.13. Trends toward greater training benefits were observed in studies that were conducted in lower resource settings and reported greater

  8. Health care for under-fives in Ile-Ife, South-West Nigeria: Effect of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI strategy on growth and development of under-fives

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    Olufunke M. Ebuehi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study obtained information on key growth promotion and developmental household and community health practices in Community-Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (C-IMCI and non-C-IMCI in local government areas (LGAs in Osun State, Nigeria, to determine the differences that existed, between these LGAs.Method: A cross-sectional comparative study to compare Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI key growth promotion and development health practices in two LGAs in Osun State was conducted using quantitative and qualitative techniques. Data analysis was done using Epi Info version 6.0 for the quantitative survey and a content analysis method for the qualitative survey. The subjects were mothers or caregivers of children 0–59 months of age, and their index children.Results: Findings revealed that the IMCI key growth and development health practices were generally better rated in the CIMCI-compliant LGA than in the non-CIMCI compliant LGA. Breastfeeding practice was widespread in both LGAs. However, the exclusive breastfeeding (EBF rate among children under six months was higher in the compliant LGA (66.7% than in the non-compliant LGA (25%. More caregivers (59.7% from the non-compliant LGA introduced complementary feeds earlier than six months. Growth monitoring activities revealed that there were more underweight children (19.1% in the non-compliant LGA. Community Resource Persons (CORPs and health workers were the most popular sources of information on IMCI key practices in the compliant LGA, while in the non-compliant LGA the traditional healers, elders and, to a lesser extent, health workers provided information on these key practices.Conclusion: The IMCI strategy, if well implemented, is an effective and low-cost intervention that is useful in achieving optimal growth, development and survival of Nigerian children.

  9. Malaria diagnosis and treatment under the strategy of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI): relevance of laboratory support from the rapid immunochromatographic tests of ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2001-01-01

    The algorithm developed for the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) provides guidelines for the treatment of paediatric malaria. In areas where malaria is endemic, for example, the IMCI strategy may indicate that children who present with fever, a recent history of fever and/or pallor...... and by using two rapid immunochromatographic tests (RIT) for the diagnosis of malaria (ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal. At the time they were tested, each of these children had been targeted for antimalarial treatment (following the IMCI strategy) because of fever and/or pallor. Only 70% of the 395...... sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 15.5% whereas pallor had a sensitivity of 72.2% and a specificity of 50.8%. The RIT both had very high corresponding sensitivities (of 100.0% for the ICT and 94.0% for OptiMal) but the specificity of the ICT (74.0%) was significantly lower than that for OptiMal (100...

  10. Malaria diagnosis and treatment under the strategy of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI): relevance of laboratory support from the rapid immunochromatographic tests of ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2001-07-01

    The algorithm developed for the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) provides guidelines for the treatment of paediatric malaria. In areas where malaria is endemic, for example, the IMCI strategy may indicate that children who present with fever, a recent history of fever and/or pallor should receive antimalarial chemotherapy. In many holo-endemic areas, it is unclear whether laboratory tests to confirm that such signs are the result of malaria would be very relevant or useful. Children from a holo-endemic region of Tanzania were therefore checked for malarial parasites by microscopy and by using two rapid immunochromatographic tests (RIT) for the diagnosis of malaria (ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal. At the time they were tested, each of these children had been targeted for antimalarial treatment (following the IMCI strategy) because of fever and/or pallor. Only 70% of the 395 children classified to receive antimalarial drugs by the IMCI algorithm had malarial parasitaemias (68.4% had Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites, 1.3% only P. falciparum gametocytes, 0.3% P. ovale and 0.3% P. malariae). As indicators of P. falciparum trophozoites in the peripheral blood, fever had a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 15.5% whereas pallor had a sensitivity of 72.2% and a specificity of 50.8%. The RIT both had very high corresponding sensitivities (of 100.0% for the ICT and 94.0% for OptiMal) but the specificity of the ICT (74.0%) was significantly lower than that for OptiMal (100.0%). Fever and pallor were significantly associated with the P. falciparum asexual parasitaemias that equalled or exceeded the threshold intensity (2000/microl) that has the optimum sensitivity and specificity for the definition of a malarial episode. Diagnostic likelihood ratios (DLR) showed that a positive result in the OptiMal test (DLR = infinity) was a better indication of malaria than a positive result in the ICT (DLR = 3.85). In fact, OptiMal had diagnostic reliability (0

  11. Global challenges with scale-up of the integrated management of childhood illness strategy: results of a multi-country survey

    OpenAIRE

    Muhe Lulu M; Goga Ameena E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Strategy (IMCI), developed by WHO/UNICEF, aims to contribute to reducing childhood morbidity and mortality (MDG4) in resource-limited settings. Since 1996 more than 100 countries have adopted IMCI. IMCI case management training (ICMT) is one of three IMCI components and training is usually residential over 11 consecutive days. Follow-up after ICMT is an essential part of training. We describe the barriers to rapid acceleration...

  12. Effect of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI on health worker performance in Northeast-Brazil O efeito da Atenção Integrada às Doenças Prevalentes na Infância (AIDPI sobre o desempenho de profissionais de saúde no Nordeste do Brasil

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    João Amaral

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-country evaluation is being carried out in Brazil and four other countries to determine the effectiveness, cost, and impact of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI. We examine the effect of IMCI on the quality of health care provided to children under five visiting health facilities. A health facility survey was conducted at 24 facilities (12 with IMCI in each of four States in the Northeast. We assessed the quality of care provided to children between 2 months and 5 years attending the facilities. Health workers trained in IMCI provided significantly better care than those not trained. Significant differences between health workers who were trained or not trained in IMCI were found in the assessment of the child, disease classification, treatment, and caretaker communication. Nurses trained in IMCI performed as well as, and sometimes better than, medical officers trained in IMCI. We conclude that while there is room for further improvement, IMCI case management training significantly improves health worker performance, and that parts of Brazil that have not yet introduced IMCI should be encouraged to do so.Uma avaliação está sendo realizada entre cinco países, inclusive o Brasil, para determinar a efetividade, custo e impacto da Atenção Integrada às Doenças Prevalentes na Infância (AIDPI. Os autores examinam o efeito da AIDPI sobre a qualidade da assistência prestada a crianças abaixo de cinco anos em consultas realizadas em serviços de saúde. Foi feito um inquérito em 24 serviços de saúde (12 com AIDPI em cada um de quatro estados do nordeste. Avaliou-se a qualidade da assistência prestada às crianças entre 2 meses e 5 anos de idade que freqüentavam os serviços. Profissionais de saúde treinados em AIDPI prestavam assistência significativamente melhor, comparada com aqueles sem treinamento em AIDPI. Foram observadas diferenças significativas entre profissionais com e sem treinamento em AIDPI, na

  13. The Challenges Of Achieving High Training Coverage for IMCI: Case Studies From Kenya and Tanzania.

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    Mushi, Hildegalda P; Mullei, Kethi; Macha, Janet; Wafula, Frank; Borghi, Josephine; Goodman, Catherine; Gilson, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    Health worker training is a key component of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI). However, training coverage remains low in many countries. We conducted in-depth case studies in two East African countries to examine the factors underlying low training coverage 10 years after IMCI had been adopted as policy. A document review and in-depth semi-structured interviews with stakeholders at facility, district, regional/provincial and national levels in two districts in Kenya (Homa...

  14. Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI: an innovative vision for child health care Atenção integrada às doenças prevalentes da infância (AIDPI: uma visão inovadora para os cuidados da saúde da criança

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    Yehuda Benguigui

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI strategy developed by the World Health Organization (WHO, Panamerican Health Organization (PAHO and the United Nation Children's Fund (UNICEF, joint experiences of previous frequent diseases programs in children, with prevention and health promotion activities. In this new approach the family, the community and health workers have a leading role in health condition of the child. The strategy aims a reduction in Infant Mortality Rate, specially in those regions and countries in which it is high. Pneumonia, diarrhea, malnutrition and other preventable diseases are the main causes of deaths in this settings. Health workers can early recognized danger signs of severe diseases, as well as they can evaluate and treat the most frequent health problems. By enhancing prevention and health promotion activities, as better conditions of life, giving an holistic vision of the child and his family, and not only looking for the symptom that motivate the consultation.A estratégia de Atenção Integrada às Doenças Prevalentes da Infância (AIDPI, desenvolvida pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS, Organização Panamericana da Saúde (OPAS e Fundo das Nações Unidas para à Infância (UNICEF, incorpora as experiências prévias de programas para tratar as principais doenças infantis, acrescentando aspectos preventivos e de promoção à saúde. Nesta nova visão, outorga papéis fundamentais à família, à comunidade e ao trabalhador de saúde que desenvolve o seu trabalho no primeiro nível de atenção. A estratégia visa principalmente diminuir as taxas de mortalidade infantil em países e regiões onde elas ainda são muito elevadas, com cifras acima de 40 por 1.000 nascidos vivos, situações em que as pneumonias, diarréias, desnutrição e outras doenças evitáveis são as principais causas de óbito. Pretende também mudar o perfil da demanda ambulatorial dando ênfase a atividades

  15. Predictors of health worker performance after Integrated Management of Childhood Illness training in Benin: a cohort study

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    Steinhardt, Laura C.; Onikpo, Faustin; Kouamé, Julien; Piercefield, Emily; Lama, Marcel; Deming, Michael S.; Rowe, Alexander K

    2015-01-01

    Background Correct treatment of potentially life-threatening illnesses (PLTIs) in children under 5 years, such as malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea, can substantially reduce mortality. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy has been shown to improve treatment of child illnesses, but multiple studies have shown that gaps in health worker performance remain after training. To better understand factors related to health worker performance, we analyzed 9,330 patient consult...

  16. Global challenges with scale-up of the integrated management of childhood illness strategy: results of a multi-country survey

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    Muhe Lulu M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Strategy (IMCI, developed by WHO/UNICEF, aims to contribute to reducing childhood morbidity and mortality (MDG4 in resource-limited settings. Since 1996 more than 100 countries have adopted IMCI. IMCI case management training (ICMT is one of three IMCI components and training is usually residential over 11 consecutive days. Follow-up after ICMT is an essential part of training. We describe the barriers to rapid acceleration of ICMT and review country perspectives on how to address these barriers. Methods A multi-country exploratory cross-sectional questionnaire survey of in-service ICMT approaches, using quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 2006-7: 27 countries were purposively selected from all six WHO regions. Data for this paper are from three questionnaires (QA, QB and QC, distributed to selected national focal IMCI persons/programme officers, course directors/facilitators and IMCI trainees respectively. QC only gathered data on experiences with IMCI follow-up. Results 33 QA, 163 QB and 272 QC were received. The commonest challenges to ICMT scale-up relate to funding (high cost and long duration of the residential ICMT, poor literacy of health workers, differing opinions about the role of IMCI in improving child health, lack of political support, frequent changes in staff or rules at Ministries of Health and lack of skilled facilitators. Countries addressed these challenges in several ways including increased advocacy, developing strategic linkages with other priorities, intensifying pre-service training, re-distribution of funds and shortening course duration. The commonest challenges to follow-up after ICMT were lack of funding (93.1% of respondents, inadequate funds for travelling or planning (75.9% and 44.8% respectively, lack of gas for travelling (41.4%, inadequately trained or few supervisors (41.4% and inadequate job aids for follow-up (27

  17. Integrated management of childhood illness with the focus on caregivers: an integrative literature review La atención integrada de las enfermedades prevalentes en la infancia y el enfoque en los cuidadores: revisión integradora de la literatura Atenção integrada às doenças prevalentes na infância e o enfoque nos cuidadores: revisão integrativa da literatura

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    Vania Daniele Paranhos; Juliana Coelho Pina; Débora Falleiros de Mello

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy addresses the diseases most prevalent in infancy, the reception of the child and family, and the comprehension the problem and effective procedures. The aim was to identify, between 1998 and 2008, publications relating to the IMCI strategy focusing on the caregiver. This study is an Integrative literature review in the Pubmed, Lilacs and Scielo databases. The caregivers knew one or more warning signs for acute respiratory infectio...

  18. Insight into implementation of facility-based integrated management of childhood illness strategy in a rural district of Sindh, Pakistan

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    Nousheen Akber Pradhan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMCI strategy has been proven to improve health outcomes in children under 5 years of age. Pakistan, despite being in the late implementation phase of the strategy, continues to report high under-five mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, measles, and malnutrition – the main targets of the strategy. Objective: The study determines the factors influencing IMCI implementation at public-sector primary health care (PHC facilities in Matiari district, Sindh, Pakistan. Design: An exploratory qualitative study with an embedded quantitative strand was conducted. The qualitative part included 16 in-depth interviews (IDIs with stakeholders which included planners and policy makers at a provincial level (n=5, implementers and managers at a district level (n=3, and IMCI-trained physicians posted at PHC facilities (n=8. Quantitative part included PHC facility survey (n=16 utilizing WHO health facility assessment tool to assess availability of IMCI essential drugs, supplies, and equipments. Qualitative content analysis was used to interpret the textual information, whereas descriptive frequencies were calculated for health facility survey data. Results: The major factors reported to enhance IMCI implementation were knowledge and perception about the strategy and need for separate clinic for children aged under 5 years as potential support factors. The latter can facilitate in strategy implementation through allocated workforce and required equipments and supplies. Constraint factors mainly included lack of clear understanding of the strategy, poor planning for IMCI implementation, ambiguity in defined roles and responsibilities among stakeholders, and insufficient essential supplies and drugs at PHC centers. The latter was further substantiated through health facilities’ survey findings, which indicated that none of the facilities had 100% stock of essential supplies and drugs. Only one out of all

  19. Improving antimicrobial use among health workers in first-level facilities: results from the multi-country evaluation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy.

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    Gouws, Eleanor; Bryce, Jennifer; Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Amaral, João; Pariyo, George; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Fontaine, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) case management training on the use of antimicrobial drugs among health-care workers treating young children at first-level facilities. Antimicrobial drugs are an essential child-survival intervention. Ensuring that children younger than five who need these drugs receive them promptly and correctly can save their lives. Prescribing these drugs only when necessary and ensuring that those who receive them complete the full course can slow the development of antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: Data collected through observation-based surveys in randomly selected first-level health facilities in Brazil, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania were statistically analysed. The surveys were carried out as part of the multi-country evaluation of IMCI effectiveness, cost and impact (MCE). FINDINGS: Results from three MCE sites show that children receiving care from health workers trained in IMCI are significantly more likely to receive correct prescriptions for antimicrobial drugs than those receiving care from workers not trained in IMCI.They are also more likely to receive the first dose of the drug before leaving the health facility, to have their caregiver advised how to administer the drug, and to have caregivers who are able to describe correctly how to give the drug at home as they leave the health facility. CONCLUSIONS: IMCI case management training is an effective intervention to improve the rational use of antimicrobial drugs for sick children visiting first-level health facilities in low-income and middle-income countries. PMID:15508195

  20. Effect of shortened Integrated Management of Childhood Illness training on classification and treatment of under-five children seeking care in Rwanda

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    Harerimana JM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Modeste Harerimana,1 Laetitia Nyirazinyoye,1 Jean-Bosco Ahoranayezu,2 Ferdinand Bikorimana,3 Bethany L Hedt-Gauthier,1,4 Katherine A Muldoon,5 Edward J Mills,6,7 Joseph Ntaganira1 1University of Rwanda College of Medicine and Health Sciences School of Public Health, Kigali, Rwanda; 2Community Vision Initiative, Kigali, Rwanda; 3Maternal and Child Health, Child Unit, Rwandan Ministry of Health, Kigali, Rwanda; 4Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 5University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 6University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 7Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Background: Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI is an effective 11-day standard training; however, due to budgetary expenses and human resource constraints, many health professionals cannot take 11 days off work. As a result, shortened training curriculums (6-day have been proposed. We used a cross-sectional study to evaluate the effect of this shortened training on appropriate IMCI classification and treatment of under-five childhood illness management in Rwanda. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 22 health centers in Rwanda, comparing data from 121 nurses, where 55 nurses completed the 11-day and 66 nurses completed the 6-day training. Among 768 children, we evaluated clinical outcomes from May 2011 to April 2012. Descriptive statistics were used to display the sociodemographic characteristics of health providers; including level of education, sex, age, and professional experiences. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were used to test for differences between nurses in the 6-day versus 11-day training on the appropriate classification and treatment of childhood illness. Results: Our findings show that at the bivariable level and after controlling for confounders in the multivariable analysis, the only significant differences detected between nurses in the long and short training was the classification of fever (adjusted odds

  1. Beliefs Regarding Diet During Childhood Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Benakappa, Asha D; Poojita Shivamurthy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fifty percent to 70% of the burden of childhood diarrhea and respiratory infections is attributable to undernutrition. It is compounded by food restriction during illness due to false beliefs, leading to a vicious cycle of malnutrition and infection. In the long run, it decreases the child′s productivity, which is an obstacle to sustainable socioeconomic development. Objectives: To assess the dietary practices during different illnesses, to study the role of education, culture and...

  2. Beliefs regarding diet during childhood illness

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    Asha D Benakappa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fifty percent to 70% of the burden of childhood diarrhea and respiratory infections is attributable to undernutrition. It is compounded by food restriction during illness due to false beliefs, leading to a vicious cycle of malnutrition and infection. In the long run, it decreases the child′s productivity, which is an obstacle to sustainable socioeconomic development. Objectives: To assess the dietary practices during different illnesses, to study the role of education, culture and religion in feeding an ill child and to create awareness against detrimental practices. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 126 caregivers of ill children using an open-ended pretested questionnaire. Statistical package for social sciences software was used for data analysis. Simple proportions, percentages and Chi-square were used. Results: Caregivers believed that a child must be fed less during illness. Educational status did not play a role in maintaining beliefs, but elders and religion did. Doctors too were responsible for unwanted dietary restrictions. Media did not have an impact in spreading nutrition messages. Decreased breast feeds, initiating bottle feeds, feeding diluted milk and reducing complementary feeds during illness was widely practiced. Calorie intake during illness was very less and statistically significant. Firmly rooted beliefs about "hot" and "cold" foods lead to restriction of food available at home. Conclusions: Healthy feeding practices were few, and inappropriate ones predominant. Dietary education was overlooked. While planning community-based nutrition programs, firmly rooted beliefs should be kept in mind. Involving the elderly caregivers and mothers actively along with the health workers is the need of the hour.

  3. Impact of childhood chronic illnesses on siblings: a literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O' Brien, Irene

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood illness can have a significant impact on families, particularly on the ill child\\'s siblings. There is a dearth of published literature focusing on the needs of siblings of ill children. AIM: This literature review aims to provide an overview of the current healthcare literature in relation to the impact of childhood chronic illness or disability on siblings. METHOD: A literature review was undertaken by searching the databases CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest and Cochrane Library for relevant articles in English using the search terms: \\'siblings\\

  4. Merging the person and the illness: the lived experience of emerging adults with childhood onset chronic illness

    OpenAIRE

    MacDermott , Siobhan J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic illness is emerging as major health problem in the developing and developed world. The increased prevalence of childhood chronic conditions such as asthma and diabetes coupled with the successful management of childhood onset disease has altered the landscape of chronic illness among young people. The purpose of this study is to explore the lived experiences of emerging adults who have grown up and live with chronic illness since childhood. The health of emerging adults (18 to 25 year...

  5. Comparison of severe acute respiratory illness (sari) and clinical pneumonia case definitions for the detection of influenza virus infections among hospitalized patients, western Kenya, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makokha, Caroline; Mott, Joshua; Njuguna, Henry N; Khagayi, Sammy; Verani, Jennifer R; Nyawanda, Bryan; Otieno, Nancy; Katz, Mark A

    2016-07-01

    Although the severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) case definition is increasingly used for inpatient influenza surveillance, pneumonia is a more familiar term to clinicians and policymakers. We evaluated WHO case definitions for severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and pneumonia (Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) for children aged <5 years and Integrated Management of Adolescent and Adult Illnesses (IMAI) for patients aged ≥13 years) for detecting laboratory-confirmed influenza among hospitalized ARI patients. Sensitivities were 84% for SARI and 69% for IMCI pneumonia in children aged <5 years and 60% for SARI and 57% for IMAI pneumonia in patients aged ≥13 years. Clinical pneumonia case definitions may be a useful complement to SARI for inpatient influenza surveillance. PMID:27219455

  6. Maternal beliefs regarding diet during common childhood illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, U; Sood, A K; Gaur, D R

    1990-06-01

    Maternal beliefs regarding diet during common childhood illnesses--diarrhea, fever, measles, cough and marasmus were determined in 143 rural mothers by using the interview technique. Some foods were preferred while others were restricted during episode of each illness, depending upon their 'hot' and 'cold', 'light' and 'heavy' and other characteristics, as determined by locally prevalent traditional dietary beliefs. 'Cold' foods like curd, butter milk were restricted during an episode of cough while 'hot' foods like tea, ginger with honey, were preferred. During diarrhea, 'light' foods like khichri, diluted milk and 'easy to digest' were preferred while 'heavy' foods like undiluted milk, roti and 'difficult to digest' were restricted. The study revealed that for a successful health education, it is important to identify local cultural practices and beliefs. The useful practices should be encouraged and reinforced while the harmful ones should be discouraged. PMID:2253996

  7. Constraints, synergies and avenues for scaling up breastfeeding, antibiotics for pneumonia and IMCI interventions in the Cusco region, Peru [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/Vk0ueY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Sarganas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this qualitative case study was to assess the feasibility of scaling up exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, antibiotics for pneumonia and integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI child interventions in three districts of the Cusco region, Peru. Methods: During field visits, constraints, synergies and solutions to the implementation of the selected interventions were collected through observational recording and interviews of mothers, health workers, and health managers/decision makers. Results are presented for each intervention according to the health system level where they occurred: mother/community, health worker, health centre, and political/managerial levels. Findings: This case study demonstrates that it is feasible to scale up exclusive breastfeeding, antibiotics for pneumonia and IMCI interventions in poverty-stricken rural areas of a low-income country. Factors that helped and hindered the implementation were identified for each intervention. Conclusions: The need for a coherent multi-sector approach that includes regulation, implementation and monitoring of health policies and education of all involved stakeholders was apparent. This study also demonstrates that global health interventions need to undergo local adaptation. Identifying local constraints and facilitating factors in a systematic way as proposed in this study is a useful step to increase their effectiveness and reach at the local level and to identify areas for improvement in the original intervention policies.

  8. Long-term psychosocial impact reported by childhood critical illness survivors: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Joseph C; Hemingway, Pippa; Redsell, Sarah A

    2013-01-01

    Aim To undertake a qualitative systematic review that explores psychological and social impact, reported directly from children and adolescents at least 6 months after their critical illness. Background Significant advances in critical care have reduced mortality from childhood critical illness, with the majority of patients being discharged alive. However, it is widely reported that surviving critical illness can be traumatic for both children and their family. Despite a growing body of lite...

  9. Rhinovirus Wheezing Illness and Genetic Risk of Childhood-Onset Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calışkan, Minal; Bochkov, Yury A; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Stein, Michelle M; Du, Gaixin; Bisgaard, Hans; Jackson, Daniel J; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F; Nicolae, Dan L; Ober, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Background Both genetic variation at the 17q21 locus and virus-induced respiratory wheezing illnesses are associated with the development of asthma. Our aim was to determine the effects of these two factors on the risk of asthma in the Childhood Origins of Asthma (COAST) and the Copenhagen...... Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) birth cohorts. Methods We tested genotypes at the 17q21 locus for associations with asthma and with human rhinovirus (HRV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) wheezing illnesses and tested for interactions between 17q21 genotypes and HRV and RSV wheezing...... illnesses with respect to the risk of asthma. Finally, we examined genotype-specific expression of 17q21 genes in unstimulated and HRV-stimulated peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Results The 17q21 variants were associated with HRV wheezing illnesses in early life, but not with RSV wheezing...

  10. Coping with Chronic Illness in Childhood and Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Compas, Bruce E.; Jaser, Sarah S.; Dunn, Madeleine J.; Rodriguez, Erin M.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic illnesses and medical conditions present millions of children and adolescents with significant stress that is associated with risk for emotional and behavioral problems and interferes with adherence to treatment regimens. We review research on the role of child and adolescent coping with stress as an important feature of the process of adaptation to illness. Recent findings support a control-based model of coping that includes primary control or active coping (efforts to act on the so...

  11. ‘Better medicines for children’ within the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nsabagasani, Xavier; Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper; Hansen, Ebba Holme;

    2016-01-01

    health workers; do support supervision and update treatment guidelines to reflect ‘better medicines for children’. Health workers reported difficulties in administering tablets and capsules to under-five children and that’s why they preferred liquid oral dosage formulations, suppositories and injections....... Keywords: IMCI, Better medicines for children, Dosage formulations and Uganda...

  12. Relative moldiness index as predictor of childhood respiratory illness

    OpenAIRE

    Vesper, Stephen J.; McKinstry, Craig; Haugland, Richard A.; Iossifova, Yulia; LeMasters, Grace; Levin, Linda; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.; Villareal, Manuel; Bernstein, David I.; Lockey, James; Reponen, Tiina

    2006-01-01

    The results of a traditional visual mold inspection were compared to a mold evaluation based on the Relative Moldiness Index (RMI). The RMI is calculated from mold-specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) measurements of the concentration of 36 species of molds in floor dust samples. These two prospective mold evaluations were used to classify the mold condition in 271 homes of infants. Later, the development of respiratory illness was measured in the infants living in these homes and the predictiv...

  13. Relative Moldiness Index as Predictor of Childhood Respiratory Illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesper, Sephen J.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Haugland, Richard A.; Iossifova, Yulia; Lemasters, Grace; Levin, Linda; Hershey, Gurjit K.; Villareal, Manuel; Bernstein, David I.; Lockey, James; Reponen, Tina

    2007-01-01

    This study compared two classification methods to evaluate the mold condition in 271 homes of infants, 144 of which later developed symptoms of respiratory illness. A method using on-site visual mold inspection was compared to another method using a quantitative index of moldiness, calculated from mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) measurements on the concentration of 36 species of molds in floor dust samples called the EPA relative moldiness index© (ERMI©). The binary classification of homes as either moldy or non-moldy by on-site visual home inspection was not predictive of the development of wheeze and/or rhinitis. The odds-ratio of moldy vs. non-moldy homes to experience respiratory illness was estimated at 1.33 (p=0.27, Fisher’s exact test). Further, this method offers little flexibility in how it may be applied in support of decisions on mold remediation. On the other hand, a method developed and validated in this paper using the ERMI© index fit to a logistic function, can be used to predict the occurrence of illness in homes and allows stake holders to choose among various levels of risk. An example is given where an ERMI© value of -4.29 is used as a threshold for binary classification of homes producing an odds ratio of 2.53 (p=0.003, Fisher’s exact test). The ERMI© based methods presented here provide a new and more flexible platform to support mold remediation decisions.

  14. The diagnosis and management of acute childhood illness: is there a role for health visitors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, D; Young, A; Futers, D

    2000-12-01

    Much of the published literature on nurse practitioners relates to nurses with backgrounds, training and nursing experience other than health visiting. Health visitors however may be ideally placed to develop their role in the identification and management of acute childhood illness, and such a development may benefit patients, the health service and health visitors themselves. This study examines the current practice and attitudes of heath visitors in identifying and managing acute childhood illness using a postal questionnaire survey in one community National Health Service (NHS) Trust. The majority of responding health visitors reported that they were already identifying and advising on a range of acute childhood illnesses. Their confidence in undertaking these activities varied by condition. They were less confident in identifying and advising on conditions requiring the use of diagnostic equipment, viral illnesses which are becoming increasingly rare, and those with potentially serious outcomes. More knowledge and more training were seen as methods for increasing confidence. Most health visitors could see advantages in taking on this role; almost two thirds felt it would become part of the role of the health visitor in the future and a high level of interest was expressed in developing such a role. PMID:11136418

  15. Young adults' childhood experiences of support when living with a parent with a mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Stefan; Gustafsson, Lisa; Nolbris, Margaretha Jenholt

    2015-12-01

    There are several concerns in relation to children living with a parent suffering from a mental illness. In such circumstances, the health-care professionals need to involve the whole family, offering help to the parents on parenting as well as support for their children. These children are often helped by participating in meetings that provide them with contact with others with similar experiences. The aim of this study was to investigate young adults' childhood experiences of support groups when living with a mentally ill parent. Seven young women were chosen to participate in this study. A qualitative descriptive method was chosen. The main category emerged as 'the influence of life outside the home because of a parent's mental illness' from the two generic categories: 'a different world' and 'an emotion-filled life'. The participants' friends did not know that their parent was ill and they 'always had to…take responsibility for what happened at home'. These young adults appreciated the support group activities they participated in during their childhood, stating that the meetings had influenced their everyday life as young adults. Despite this, they associated their everyday life with feelings of being different. This study highlights the need for support groups for children whose parents suffer from mental illness. PMID:24486816

  16. Childhood- versus adolescent-onset antisocial youth with conduct disorder: psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki A Johnson

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt's dual taxonomy model.Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12-21 with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23 with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20 with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples.The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired.Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process.

  17. Childhood- versus Adolescent-Onset Antisocial Youth with Conduct Disorder: Psychiatric Illness, Neuropsychological and Psychosocial Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vicki A.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Heard, Robert; Lennings, Christopher J.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt’s dual taxonomy model. Method Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12–21) with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23) with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20) with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples. Results The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired). Conclusions Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process. PMID:25835393

  18. Setting the Stage for Chronic Health Problems: Cumulative Childhood Adversity among Homeless Adults with Mental Illness in Vancouver, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Michelle; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Somers, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well documented that childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction are disproportionately present in the backgrounds of homeless adults, and that these experiences adversely impact child development and a wide range of adult outcomes. However, few studies have examined the cumulative impact of adverse childhood experiences on homeless adults with mental illness. This study examines adverse events in childhood as predictors of duration of homelessness, psychiatric and ...

  19. Evaluación de una atención integrada contra la desnutrición infantil en áreas urbanas de Nayarit, México Evaluation of integrated management of childhood illness against malnutrition in urban areas of Nayarit, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando López-Flores

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la cobertura de la Atención Integrada a las Enfermedades Prevalentes de la Infancia y estimar la prevalencia de desmedro en niños de 6 a 36 meses de edad en dos localidades urbanas de Nayarit, México, para analizar su asociación. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, descriptivo y analítico, realizado en agosto de 2002 en dos áreas urbanas de Nayarit, México. Se aplicó en el domicilio un cuestionario estructurado para recabar datos socioeconómicos y sobre antropometría, atención a la salud del niño y la madre, y morbilidad. Se compararon grupos con pruebas de Ji² o exacta de Fisher. Las asociaciones fueron analizadas utilizando modelos de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: La cobertura de la Atención Integrada a las Enfermedades Prevalentes de la Infancia fue de 97% en vacunación, 66.9% en suplementación con vitamina A, 91.5% en desparasitación intestinal con albendazol, 50% en vigilancia nutricia, 25.5% en capacitación materna, 24.4% en atención a la salud de la madre y 2.5% global. Se encontró una prevalencia de desmedro de 4.9%, la cual estuvo asociada significativamente a esquemas incompletos, tanto de vitamina A como de albendazol. CONCLUSIONES: Los componentes de la Atención Integrada a las Enfermedades Prevalentes de la Infancia muestran coberturas acordes con su factibilidad y tiempo de implantación. Los hallazgos de la asociación de la atención integrada de la salud infantil con el desmedro destacan la importancia de reunir mayor evidencia sobre su efecto en el estado nutricio, con el fin de contribuir en el mejoramiento y prevención de la desnutrición infantil.OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between coverage of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI strategy and the prevalence of stunting in children 6 to 36 months of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two urban areas of Nayarit, Mexico, in August 2002. Anthropometry, health care for

  20. Adaptação e aplicabilidade do componente "maus-tratos" à estratégia da Atenção Integrada às Doenças Prevalentes na Infância no Brasil Adaptation and applicability of the "mistreatment" component in Integrated Management of Childhood Illness in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Reis dos Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever o processo de adaptação ao contexto brasileiro e da aplicabilidade do conteúdo do módulo de maus-tratos no âmbito da estratégia Atenção Integrada às Doenças Prevalentes na Infância (AIDPI, a partir do original proposto pela Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde. MÉTODOS: O protocolo original foi traduzido para o português, retro-traduzido e revisado de forma independente. Foram incorporados aspectos relativos à legislação, contexto de saúde e organização dos serviços brasileiros. O material foi discutido por especialistas de diferentes áreas até obter consenso a respeito de compreensão e correspondência sobre os conceitos e os instrumentos propostos. A versão preliminar foi testada com grupo de monitores da estratégia AIDPI. Sugestões foram incorporadas ao texto. O módulo final foi aplicado com sucesso em treinamento para monitores em AIDPI na Região Nordeste. RESULTADOS: o material mostrou-se útil, claro e coerente. A classificação de gravidade para maus tratos psicológicos e negligência, além de textos com orientações aos profissionais e pais sobre o desenvolvimento psicomotor e emocional normais da criança foram incluídos. CONCLUSÕES: A incorporação desse módulo de maus-tratos em treinamentos formais na estratégia AIDPI pode preencher uma lacuna na educação do profissional de saúde na atenção primária, onde problemas relacionados à violência contra a criança são frequentes.OBJECTIVES: to describe the process of adaptation to the Brazilian context and the applicability of the "mistreatment" module in the Integrated Mana-gement of Childhood Illness (IMCI strategy, based on the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO proposal. METHODS: the original protocol was translated into Portuguese, back-translated and reviewed by an independent observer. Features relating to legislation, the health context and the way Brazilian services are organized were incorporated. The materials

  1. Teaching of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy in undergraduate nursing programs Enseñanza de la estrategia Atención Integrada a las Enfermedades Prevalentes de la Infancia en enfermería Ensino da estratégia Atenção Integrada às Doenças Prevalentes na Infância na graduação em enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fujimori

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyze the teaching of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI strategy on Brazilian undergraduate nursing programs. METHOD: Integrating an international multicentric study, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted between May and October 2010 with 571 undergraduate nursing programs in Brazil RESULTS: Responses were received from 142 programs, 75% private and 25% public. 64% of them included the IMCI strategy in the theoretical content, and 50% of the programs included IMCI as part of the students' practical experience. The locations most used for practical teaching were primary health care units. The 'treatment' module was taught by the fewest number of programs, and few programs had access to the IMCI instructional manuals. All programs used exams for evaluation, and private institutions were more likely to include class participation as part of the evaluation. Teaching staff in public institutions were more likely to have received training in teaching IMCI. CONCLUSION: In spite of the relevance of the IMCI strategy in care of the child, its content is not addressed in all undergraduate programs in Brazil, and many programs do not have access to the IMCI teaching manuals and have not provide training in IMCI to their teaching staff. OBJETIVO: se describió y analizó la enseñanza de la estrategia Atención Integrada a las Enfermedades Prevalentes de la Infancia en la formación de licenciados en enfermería en Brasil. MÉTODO: estudio transversal que integró una investigación internacional multicéntrica. Fueron invitados a acceder al cuestionario electrónico, 571 cursos identificados en el país. La recolección de datos fue realizada de mayo a octubre de 2010. RESULTADOS: 142 cursos respondieron al cuestionario, siendo tres cuartos privados. La estrategia Atención Integrada a las Enfermedades Prevalentes de la Infancia integraba el contenido teórico de 64% y práctico de 50% de los cursos

  2. Impact of childhood adversities on the short-term course of illness in psychotic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Fischer, Yolanda; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2015-08-30

    Accumulating evidence indicates an impact of childhood adversities on the severity and course of mental disorders, whereas this impact on psychotic disorders remains to be specified. Effects of childhood adversities on comorbidity, on symptom severity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and global functioning across four months (upon admission, 1 and 4 months after initial assessment), as well as the course of illness (measured by the remission rate, number of re-hospitalizations and dropout rate) were evaluated in 62 inpatients with psychotic spectrum disorders. Adverse experiences (of at least 1 type) were reported by 73% of patients. Patients with higher overall level of childhood adversities (n=33) exhibited more co-morbid disorders, especially alcohol/substance abuse and dependency, and higher dropout rates than patients with a lower levels of adverse experiences (n=29), together with higher levels of positive symptoms and symptoms of excitement and disorganization. Emotional and physical neglect were particularly related to symptom severity. Results suggest that psychological stress in childhood affects the symptom severity and, additionally, a more unfavorable course of disorder in patients diagnosed with psychoses. This impact calls for its consideration in diagnostic assessment and psychiatric care. PMID:26099657

  3. Childhood febrile illness and the risk of myopia in UK Biobank participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Williams, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Historical reports suggest febrile illness during childhood is a risk factor for myopia. The establishment of the UK Biobank provided a unique opportunity to investigate this relationship. Methods We studied a sample of UK Biobank participants of White ethnicity aged 40-69 years-old who underwent autorefraction (N=91,592) and were classified as myopic ( −0.75 D). Self-reported age-at-diagnosis of past medical conditions was ascertained during an interview with a nurse at a Biobank assessment centre. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for myopia or high myopia associated with a diagnosis prior to age 17 years of each of nine febrile illnesses, after adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, highest educational qualification, and birth order). Results Rubella, mumps and pertussis were associated with myopia: rubella, OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.85, P=0.030; mumps, OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.64, P=0.010; pertussis, OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.87, P=0.029. Measles, rubella and pertussis were associated with high myopia: Measles, OR=1.48, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.07, P=0.019; rubella, OR=1.94, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.35, P=0.017; pertussis, OR=2.15, 95% CI 1.24 to 3.71, P=0.006. The evidence did not support an interaction between education and febrile illness in explaining the above risks. Conclusion A history of childhood measles, rubella or pertussis was associated with high myopia, while a history of childhood rubella, mumps or pertussis was associated with any myopia. The reason for these associations are unclear. PMID:26846593

  4. Childhood febrile illness and the risk of myopia in UK Biobank participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, J A; Williams, C

    2016-04-01

    PurposeHistorical reports suggest febrile illness during childhood is a risk factor for myopia. The establishment of the UK Biobank provided a unique opportunity to investigate this relationship.Patients and methodsWe studied a sample of UK Biobank participants of White ethnicity aged 40-69 years old who underwent autorefraction (N=91 592) and were classified as myopic (≤-0.75 Dioptres (D)), highly myopic (≤-6.00 D), or non-myopic (>-0.75 D). Self-reported age at diagnosis of past medical conditions was ascertained during an interview with a nurse at a Biobank assessment centre. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for myopia or high myopia associated with a diagnosis before age 17 years of each of nine febrile illnesses, after adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, highest educational qualification, and birth order).ResultsRubella, mumps, and pertussis were associated with myopia: rubella, OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.03-1.85, P=0.030; mumps, OR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.07-1.64, P=0.010; and pertussis, OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.03-1.87, P=0.029. Measles, rubella, and pertussis were associated with high myopia: measles, OR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.07-2.07, P=0.019; rubella, OR=1.94, 95% CI: 1.12-3.35, P=0.017; and pertussis, OR=2.15, 95% CI: 1.24-3.71, P=0.006. The evidence did not support an interaction between education and febrile illness in explaining the above risks.ConclusionA history of childhood measles, rubella, or pertussis was associated with high myopia, whereas a history of childhood rubella, mumps, or pertussis was associated with any myopia. The reasons for these associations are unclear. PMID:26846593

  5. BELIEFS AND PRACTICES AMONG MOTHERS REGARDING DIET DURING CHILDHOOD ILLNESS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, VISAKHAPATNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Malnutrition is the most widespread condition affecting the health of the children. Scarcity of suitable foods, lack of purchasing power of the family as well as traditional beliefs and taboos about what the baby should eat, often lead to an insufficient balanced diet, resulting in malnutrition. Culturally related food restriction and reduction in feeding frequency during common childhood illnesses further contributes to the burden of malnutrition and thus to childhood morbidity and mortality. METHODOLOGY : A hospital based, cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among 100 ill children less than 5 years age attending outpatient department of pediatrics in a tertiary care hospital, Visakhapatnam. A semi structured, pretested interview schedule was ad ministered after taking prior consent from mothers. Results were analyzed by using MS Excel. Data was represented as frequencies, percentages and p<0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTS : Among 100 study subjects, 62% were boys and 38% were g irls. Thirty percent of children in the study had Grade IV malnutrition (IAP classification. 38% of the mothers had education up to high school. Most of them were Hindu by religion (70%, and housewives by occupation (71%. Most of them belonged to grade III socio - economic status according to modified B G Prasad classification. During illness, one fourth of mothers in group A (children < 6 months and group B (7 – 24 months decreased breast feeding and in group C (2 - 5 years, 35% mothers made the consiste ncy of food thinner than usual. Belief on hot and cold foods concept was among 34% mothers. Level of education of mothers didn’t show any significant difference in keeping beliefs regarding hot and cold properties of foods. CONCLUSION : False beliefs and pr actices like food restriction during child’s ill health was observed in our study. Appropriate nutritional education to care givers, during common childhood

  6. Integrated management of childhood illness with the focus on caregivers: an integrative literature review La atención integrada de las enfermedades prevalentes en la infancia y el enfoque en los cuidadores: revisión integradora de la literatura Atenção integrada às doenças prevalentes na infância e o enfoque nos cuidadores: revisão integrativa da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Daniele Paranhos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI strategy addresses the diseases most prevalent in infancy, the reception of the child and family, and the comprehension the problem and effective procedures. The aim was to identify, between 1998 and 2008, publications relating to the IMCI strategy focusing on the caregiver. This study is an Integrative literature review in the Pubmed, Lilacs and Scielo databases. The caregivers knew one or more warning signs for acute respiratory infection, but not for diarrhea. Pneumonia was perceived as a serious childhood disease. Communication skills among health professionals trained in the IMCI strategy were different to those in untrained professionals. The follow-up of the health of the child is higher according to the education level of the caregiver, and according to the medications supplied in the consultation and in the follow-up. Regarding the health of the child it is relevant to focus on the IMCI strategy, favoring experiences that include the family in the care.La estrategia Atención Integrada a las Enfermedades Prevalentes en la Infancia (AIEPI aborda las enfermedades de mayor prevalencia en la infancia, el acogimiento del niño y de la familia, la comprensión del problema y los procedimientos eficaces. El objetivo fue identificar, entre 1998 y 2008, publicaciones relacionadas a la estrategia AIEPI con enfoque en el cuidador. Revisión integradora con evidencias en la literatura, en las bases de datos Pubmed, Lilacs y Scielo. Los cuidadores conocen una o más señales de alarma para infección respiratoria aguda, pero no para diarrea. La neumonía es percibida como una grave enfermedad infantil. Las habilidades comunicativas entre los profesionales de la salud capacitados en la estrategia AIEPI y los no capacitados son diferentes. El seguimiento de la salud del niño es mayor de acuerdo con la escolaridad del cuidador, los medicamentos ofrecidos en la consulta y el retorno. En la salud del

  7. Childhood Trauma and Chronic Illness in Adulthood: Mental Health and Socioeconomic Status as Explanatory Factors and Buffers

    OpenAIRE

    Mock, Steven E.; Arai, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typic...

  8. Illness-related practices for the management of childhood malaria among the Bwatiye people of north-eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kauna K

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide range of childhood illnesses are accompanied by fever,, including malaria. Child mortality due to malaria has been attributed to poor health service delivery system and ignorance. An assessment of a mother's ability to recognize malaria in children under-five was carried out among the Bwatiye, a poorly-served minority ethnic group in north-eastern Nigeria. Methods A three-stage research design involving interviews, participatory observation and laboratory tests was used to seek information from 186 Bwatiye mothers about their illness-related experiences with childhood fevers. Results Mothers classified malaria into male (fever that persists for longer than three days and female (fever that goes away within three days and had a system of determining when febrile illness would not be regarded as malaria. Most often, malaria would be ignored in the first 2 days before seeking active treatment. Self-medication was the preferred option. Treatment practices and sources of help were influenced by local beliefs, the parity of the mother and previous experience with child mortality. Conclusion The need to educate mothers to suspect malaria in every case of febrile illness and take appropriate action in order to expose the underlying "evil" will be more acceptable than an insistence on replacing local knowledge with biological epidemiology of malaria. The challenge facing health workers is to identify and exploit local beliefs about aetiology in effecting management procedures among culturally different peoples, who may not accept the concept of biological epidemiology.

  9. For better or worse? Long-term outcome of critical illness in childhood : Long-term outcome of critical illness in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Zellem (Lennart)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The aim of this thesis was to investigate the long-term outcome of critically ill children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of the Erasmus MC – Sophia Children’s’ Hospital in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Our main focus was to investigate the long-term

  10. Childhood Household Dysfunction, Social Inequality and Alcohol Related Illness in Young Adulthood. A Swedish National Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauffin, Karl; Hjern, Anders; Vinnerljung, Bo; Björkenstam, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to estimate the cumulative effect of childhood household dysfunction (CHD) on alcohol related illness and death later in life and to test the interaction between CHD and socioeconomic background. The study utilised Swedish national registers including data of a Swedish national cohort born 1973-82 (n = 872,912), which was followed from age 18 to 29-40 years. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for alcohol related illness or death in young adulthood. The CHD measure consisted of seven indicators: parental alcohol/drug misuse, mental health problems, criminality, death, divorce, social assistance, and child welfare interventions. Childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was indicated by parental occupational status. Outcomes were alcohol related inpatient hospital care, specialised outpatient care or deaths. Using the highest socioeconomic group without CHD experience as a reference, those in the same socioeconomic group with one indicator of CHD had HRs of 2.1 [95% CI: 1.7-2.5], two CHD indicators 5.6 [4.4-7.1], three or more indicators 9.4 [7.1-12.4] for retrieving inpatient care. Socioeconomic disadvantage further increased the risks-those with low socioeconomic background and three CHD indicators or more had a HR of 12.5 [10.9-14.3]. Testing for interaction suggests that the combined HRs deviates from additivity [Synergy index: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4-1.9]. The results for outpatient care were similar, but not as pronounced. In conclusion, this Swedish national cohort study shows that childhood household dysfunction is strongly and cumulatively associated to alcohol related illness later in life and that it interacts with socioeconomic disadvantage. PMID:26991657

  11. Childhood Household Dysfunction, Social Inequality and Alcohol Related Illness in Young Adulthood. A Swedish National Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Gauffin

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate the cumulative effect of childhood household dysfunction (CHD on alcohol related illness and death later in life and to test the interaction between CHD and socioeconomic background. The study utilised Swedish national registers including data of a Swedish national cohort born 1973-82 (n = 872,912, which was followed from age 18 to 29-40 years. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR for alcohol related illness or death in young adulthood. The CHD measure consisted of seven indicators: parental alcohol/drug misuse, mental health problems, criminality, death, divorce, social assistance, and child welfare interventions. Childhood socioeconomic position (SEP was indicated by parental occupational status. Outcomes were alcohol related inpatient hospital care, specialised outpatient care or deaths. Using the highest socioeconomic group without CHD experience as a reference, those in the same socioeconomic group with one indicator of CHD had HRs of 2.1 [95% CI: 1.7-2.5], two CHD indicators 5.6 [4.4-7.1], three or more indicators 9.4 [7.1-12.4] for retrieving inpatient care. Socioeconomic disadvantage further increased the risks-those with low socioeconomic background and three CHD indicators or more had a HR of 12.5 [10.9-14.3]. Testing for interaction suggests that the combined HRs deviates from additivity [Synergy index: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4-1.9]. The results for outpatient care were similar, but not as pronounced. In conclusion, this Swedish national cohort study shows that childhood household dysfunction is strongly and cumulatively associated to alcohol related illness later in life and that it interacts with socioeconomic disadvantage.

  12. Exploring cross-sectional associations between common childhood illness, housing and social conditions in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewster David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited epidemiological research that provides insight into the complex web of causative and moderating factors that links housing conditions to a variety of poor health outcomes. This study explores the relationship between housing conditions (with a primary focus on the functional state of infrastructure and common childhood illness in remote Australian Aboriginal communities for the purpose of informing development of housing interventions to improve child health. Methods Hierarchical multi-level analysis of association between carer report of common childhood illnesses and functional and hygienic state of housing infrastructure, socio-economic, psychosocial and health related behaviours using baseline survey data from a housing intervention study. Results Multivariate analysis showed a strong independent association between report of respiratory infection and overall functional condition of the house (Odds Ratio (OR 3.00; 95%CI 1.36-6.63, but no significant association between report of other illnesses and the overall functional condition or the functional condition of infrastructure required for specific healthy living practices. Associations between report of child illness and secondary explanatory variables which showed an OR of 2 or more included: for skin infection - evidence of poor temperature control in the house (OR 3.25; 95%CI 1.06-9.94, evidence of pests and vermin in the house (OR 2.88; 95%CI 1.25-6.60; for respiratory infection - breastfeeding in infancy (OR 0.27; 95%CI 0.14-0.49; for diarrhoea/vomiting - hygienic state of food preparation and storage areas (OR 2.10; 95%CI 1.10-4.00; for ear infection - child care attendance (OR 2.25; 95%CI 1.26-3.99. Conclusion These findings add to other evidence that building programs need to be supported by a range of other social and behavioural interventions for potential health gains to be more fully realised.

  13. New Algorithm for Managing Childhood Illness Using Mobile Technology (ALMANACH): A Controlled Non-Inferiority Study on Clinical Outcome and Antibiotic Use in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Amani Flexson; Rambaud-Althaus, Clotilde; Samaka, Josephine; Faustine, Allen Festo; Perri-Moore, Seneca; Swai, Ndeniria; Mitchell, Marc; Genton, Blaise; D’Acremont, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The decline of malaria and scale-up of rapid diagnostic tests calls for a revision of IMCI. A new algorithm (ALMANACH) running on mobile technology was developed based on the latest evidence. The objective was to ensure that ALMANACH was safe, while keeping a low rate of antibiotic prescription. Methods Consecutive children aged 2–59 months with acute illness were managed using ALMANACH (2 intervention facilities), or standard practice (2 control facilities) in Tanzania. Primary outcomes were proportion of children cured at day 7 and who received antibiotics on day 0. Results 130/842 (15∙4%) in ALMANACH and 241/623 (38∙7%) in control arm were diagnosed with an infection in need for antibiotic, while 3∙8% and 9∙6% had malaria. 815/838 (97∙3%;96∙1–98.4%) were cured at D7 using ALMANACH versus 573/623 (92∙0%;89∙8–94∙1%) using standard practice (pantibiotics were prescribed to 15∙4% (12∙9–17∙9%) using ALMANACH versus 84∙3% (81∙4–87∙1%) using standard practice (pantibiotic secondarily. Conclusion Management of children using ALMANACH improve clinical outcome and reduce antibiotic prescription by 80%. This was achieved through more accurate diagnoses and hence better identification of children in need of antibiotic treatment or not. The building on mobile technology allows easy access and rapid update of the decision chart. Trial Registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201011000262218 PMID:26161535

  14. Long-term correlates of childhood abuse among adults with severe mental illness: Adult victimization, substance abuse, and HIV sexual risk behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Meade, Christina S.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Sevent...

  15. The effects of childhood abuse on self-reported psychotic symptoms in severe mental illness: Mediating effects of posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Choi, Young Min; Kim, Bongseog; Lee, Dong Woo; Gim, Min Sook; Park, Soo Hyun

    2015-09-30

    The present study examined the role of posttraumatic stress symptoms in the relationship between childhood abuse and self-reported psychotic symptoms in severe mental illness. A total of 126 patients diagnosed with major psychiatric conditions with comorbid symptoms of psychosis participated in the present study. The representative psychiatric diagnoses included schizophrenia, bipolar disorder with psychotic features, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, and delusional disorder. The Korean Child Trauma Questionnaire measured the type and degree of childhood abuse including emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. Korean version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessed posttraumatic stress symptoms, and PSYC subscale of the PSY-5 Factor Scale of the MMPI-2 was used as a measure of self-reported psychotic symptoms. There was a significant relationship between childhood physical, emotional, sexual abuse and psychotic symptoms. Posttraumatic stress symptoms partially mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and psychotic symptoms. This implies that childhood abuse is significantly associated with the experience of chronic posttraumatic stress symptoms, and that such symptoms in turn increases the likelihood of experiencing psychotic symptoms. The results highlight the need for appropriate assessment and intervention concerning childhood abuse and posttraumatic stress symptoms in severe mental illness. PMID:26144585

  16. The Recognition of and Care Seeking Behaviour for Childhood Illness in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Geldsetzer, Pascal; Williams, Thomas; Kirolos, Amir; Mitchell, Sarah; Ratcliffe, Louise Alison; Kohli-lynch, Maya Kate; Bischoff, Esther Jill Laura; Cameron, Sophie; Campbell, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Pneumonia, diarrhoea, and malaria are among the leading causes of death in children. These deaths are largely preventable if appropriate care is sought early. This review aimed to determine the percentage of caregivers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with a child less than 5 years who were able to recognise illness in their child and subsequently sought care from different types of healthcare providers.Methods and Findings: We conducted a systematic literature review of studies th...

  17. Management of childhood febrile illness prior to clinic attendance in urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, B M; Brieger, W R; Salako, L A

    2004-03-01

    Parents and caregivers often try various treatment modalities for their sick children before bringing them to clinic. Many community-based studies have documented home and self-treatment practices, often with the aid of patent medicine vendors, but less is known about prior treatment behaviour of caregivers who actually reach a government clinic. This study, therefore, aimed at documenting the treatment provided by caregivers prior to their attendance at a public hospital. Beginning in April 1996, a year-long study was conducted among 1,943 sick children and their caregivers who attended the largest government-owned paediatric hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. The major complaints mentioned by the caregivers included fever, cough, and diarrhoea. Most (89%) caregivers had administered some form of medicine to the child prior to the clinic visit, and on average, 2.5 medications had been given. Associations were found between major complaint and type of medicine given: fevers were associated with antimalarial drugs and analgesics (antipyretics), cough was associated with cough syrup and analgesics, while diarrhoea was associated with antidiarrhoeal drugs. Although one-fifth of the children had received an antibiotic, provision of antibiotics was not associated with a particular complaint/illness. Since caregivers appeared to use perceived complaints/illnesses as a treatment guide, this can form the basis of safer and more appropriate recognition of illness and home management. In addition, the information obtained in this study can be used for training clinicians to inquire about home management and, thus, for making more informed decisions about their own treatment and prescribing practices. PMID:15190811

  18. Hodgkin Illness in the childhood. Results with combined treatment of OPPA with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective revision was made (not randomized) among the years 1988 and 1997, of patients histories that had entered the INC for treatment for the Hodgkin illness. All the cases, patient smaller than 16 years were studied, that had not been treated in other centers neither it had received another oncospecific treatment. The sheets or the anatomy-pathology study were revised, being remarkable that for but of 10 years the histology study is in charge of oneself pathologists' group. In total 144 patients were recruited; 29 were excluded: 2 for treatments in other centers, 17 to only have received radiotherapy, 9 to receive other outlines of treatment chemo therapeutic and a patient to reject the treatment; finally 115 patients were studied. To all they were made complete analysis of hematology with erythro sedimentation and serology for hepatitis study B and C. Biopsy of bony marrow was not made in the I and II states; echography and thorax X rays, was made to all patients but the TAC it could not be carried out to all for logistical difficulties; in some patients the corporal journey was made with gammagraphy, using gallium. The final results showed a complete answer in 100 patients (87%). There were 7 deaths: 2 for causes different to the illness, one for sepsis for klebsiella, one for cardio toxicity for anthracycline, 2 for abandonment of the treatment and 3 patients got lost. 13 patients were presented with neutropenia, 3 patients with pneumonia, 1 with chicken pox and 2 with sepsis. The global survival is of 90%

  19. The recognition of and care seeking behaviour for childhood illness in developing countries: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Geldsetzer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumonia, diarrhoea, and malaria are among the leading causes of death in children. These deaths are largely preventable if appropriate care is sought early. This review aimed to determine the percentage of caregivers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs with a child less than 5 years who were able to recognise illness in their child and subsequently sought care from different types of healthcare providers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic literature review of studies that reported recognition of, and/or care seeking for episodes of diarrhoea, pneumonia or malaria in LMICs. The review is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42011001654. Ninety-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Eighteen studies reported data on caregiver recognition of disease and seventy-seven studies on care seeking. The median sensitivity of recognition of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia was low (36.0%, 37.4%, and 45.8%, respectively. A median of 73.0% of caregivers sought care outside the home. Care seeking from community health workers (median: 5.4% for diarrhoea, 4.2% for pneumonia, and 1.3% for malaria and the use of oral rehydration therapy (median: 34% was low. CONCLUSIONS: Given the importance of this topic to child survival programmes there are few published studies. Recognition of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia by caregivers is generally poor and represents a key factor to address in attempts to improve health care utilisation. In addition, considering that oral rehydration therapy has been widely recommended for over forty years, its use remains disappointingly low. Similarly, the reported levels of care seeking from community health workers in the included studies are low even though global action plans to address these illnesses promote community case management. Giving greater priority to research on care seeking could provide crucial evidence to inform child mortality programmes.

  20. Changing poor mothers' care-seeking behaviors in response to childhood illness: findings from a cross-sectional study in Granada, Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Jimba Masamine; Sakisaka Kayako; Hanada Kyo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2008, approximately 8.8 million children under 5 years of age died worldwide. Most of these deaths occurred in developing countries, but little is known about poor mothers' care-seeking behaviors for their children. We examined poor mothers' care-seeking behaviors in response to childhood illness, and identified factors affecting their choices. We also assessed mothers' perception of the medical services and their confidence in the health care available for their childr...

  1. Effect of residence on mothers’ health care seeking behavior for common childhood illness in Northwest Ethiopia: a community based comparative cross – sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Alene, Kefyalew Addis

    2014-01-01

    Background Children are at higher risk of acquiring infections and developing severe disease. This study assessed the health care seeking behavior and associated factors of urban and rural mothers for common childhood illness in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A comparative community based cross-sectional study was conducted among urban and rural mothers living in the district. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. A pre-tested and structured questioner via in...

  2. The impact of simulation practice on student nurses’ skills: the case of integrated newborn and childhood illness management at the university of Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermine Iita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if guided simulation practice could enhance practical skills of student nurses in management of childhood illnesses, based on the Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness (IMNCI approach. The objective was to determine the level at which guided classroom simulation practice enhances the skills of student nurses regarding assessment and classification of sick children aged two months to five years for treatment. A quantitative research approach using a pre-test and post- test strategy was used. Descriptive statistics were done and a t-test was also performed to determine the difference in the means. Findings demonstrate that there is an improvement in the performance of student nurses as a result of the guided classroom simulation practice. Recommendations include that student nurses be exposed to guided simulation practice before they are deployed in the clinical area for the actual assessment and classification of sick children based on the Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness.

  3. Improving pneumonia case-management in Benin: a randomized trial of a multi-faceted intervention to support health worker adherence to Integrated Management of Childhood Illness guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lama Marcel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumonia is a leading cause of death among children under five years of age. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy can improve the quality of care for pneumonia and other common illnesses in developing countries, but adherence to these guidelines could be improved. We evaluated an intervention in Benin to support health worker adherence to the guidelines after training, focusing on pneumonia case management. Methods We conducted a randomized trial. After a health facility survey in 1999 to assess health care quality before Integrated Management of Childhood Illness training, health workers received training plus either study supports (job aids, non-financial incentives and supervision of workers and supervisors or "usual" supports. Follow-up surveys were conducted in 2001, 2002 and 2004. Outcomes were indicators of health care quality for Integrated Management-defined pneumonia. Further analyses included a graphical pathway analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling to identify factors influencing case-management quality. Results We observed 301 consultations of children with non-severe pneumonia that were performed by 128 health workers in 88 public and private health facilities. Although outcomes improved in both intervention and control groups, we found no statistically significant difference between groups. However, training proceeded slowly, and low-quality care from untrained health workers diluted intervention effects. Per-protocol analyses suggested that health workers with training plus study supports performed better than those with training plus usual supports (20.4 and 19.2 percentage-point improvements for recommended treatment [p = 0.08] and "recommended or adequate" treatment [p = 0.01], respectively. Both groups tended to perform better than untrained health workers. Analyses of treatment errors revealed that incomplete assessment and difficulties processing clinical findings

  4. The experience of childhood trauma and its influence on the course of illness in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Trauelsen, Anne Marie;

    2016-01-01

    Persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders often report high levels of childhood trauma, which often exacerbates symptoms and impede the process of recovery. However, little is known about how these traumas are experienced by service users and how they are integrated in their life stories...... and in semistructured interviews, and many of the traumas did not seem integrated in their personal narratives. The analyses further revealed that although participants often described complicated and traumatic childhood environments, they still felt supported by their families; they reported a range of ways in which...

  5. Inherent illnesses and attacks: an ethnographic study of interpretations of childhood Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs in Manhiça, southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pell Christopher

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood hospitalisation and child mortality in Africa. This study explores local interpretations of Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs, focusing on caretakers of children under five in the context of hospital care seeking. Methods The study took place in Manhiça, southern Mozambique and used Focused Ethnographic Study tools (FES including field exercises and interviews. Results Understandings of terms used to describe ARIs differed between caretakers and hospital staff. Children's sicknesses that hospital staff diagnosed as ARIs were interpreted by caretakers as intermittent "attacks" of xifuva, a permanent, inherent and incurable chest illness. Caretakers thought that it was possible to manage and treat the attacks, which were caused by immediate natural factors such as food or the weather, but not the underlying illness, which was seen as having more indirect and social causes. Explanations of illness could not be neatly separated into pluralistic categories, but were characterised by syncretism, with "lay" and "biomedical" terms and concepts intermingling in practical care-seeking interactions between caretakers and health staff. Conclusions Health promotion should take into account the syncretism involved in explanations of ARIs in the context of practical care seeking for children. In doing so, it should draw upon lay interpretations and terminologies in order to stress the importance of seeking hospital care for all xifuva-type illnesses as well as seeking care for any subsequent attacks of an already diagnosed xifuva. However, this should be undertaken with awareness that the meanings of the terms used in practical care-seeking interactions may change over time. Health communication about ARIs should therefore be ongoing and evidence-based, even if ARIs appear to be well understood.

  6. Acute Childhood Illnesses and Health Seeking Behaviour among under five children in a village of Hooghly district, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Dey (Pal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: – Acute respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases are important causes of morbidity in children worldwide. IMNCI component is addressing these two illnesses in a major way and is concentrating on health care practices of community. Objective: – to find out their health seeking behaviour. Methodology: – A community based , cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mollasimla village of Hooghly district of West Bengal using 2 weeks recall for acute illnesses. Results – It was found that 56.8%, 23.8% and 18.9% children suffered from ARI, fever and diarrhea respectively. Overall treatment rate was above 93% and most of the children were treated in hospitals and health centre. Conclusion: – Acute illnesses are still largely prevalent in the rural community. As mothers are the first care givers, they should be made aware of the preventive measures and the need for seeking treatment.

  7. Divorce and Childhood Chronic Illness: A Grounded Theory of Trust, Gender, and Third-Party Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Luke T; Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H; Gayer, Debra

    2016-05-01

    Divorced parents face distinct challenges in providing care for chronically ill children. Children's residence in two households necessitates the development of family-specific strategies to ensure coparents' supervision of regimen adherence and the management of children's health care. Utilizing a risk and resilience perspective, a grounded theory study was conducted with 14 divorced parents of children with chronic illnesses. The importance of trust, gender, and relationships with third-party care providers emerged as key themes related to the development of effective coparenting relationships for maintaining children's health. Divorced parents were best able to support the management of their children's chronic conditions when care providers operated as neutral third parties and intermediaries. Collaborative family care may require health care practitioners to avoid being drawn into contentious inter-parental conflicts. PMID:27021310

  8. Evaluation of knowledge about Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI) approach among the internee doctors

    OpenAIRE

    Vaibhavkumar Ramanuj; Bala, D. V.

    2011-01-01

    IMNCI is an important strategy being implemented across our country with the aim of reducing infant as well as children under-5 mortality. It has also been incorporated in the undergraduate curriculum for M.B.B.S. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 100 internee doctors of Smt. NHL Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad. The results showed that 32% internee doctors were not able to classify child’s illness for possible infection based on sympt...

  9. Evaluation of knowledge about Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI approach among the internee doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhavkumar Ramanuj

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available IMNCI is an important strategy being implemented across our country with the aim of reducing infant as well as children under-5 mortality. It has also been incorporated in the undergraduate curriculum for M.B.B.S. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 100 internee doctors of Smt. NHL Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad. The results showed that 32% internee doctors were not able to classify child’s illness for possible infection based on symptoms given. Also only 50% correctly knew the National Immunization Schedule. The only descriptive question related to treatment of malaria as per the IMNCI guidelines was not attempted by 21%.

  10. Changing poor mothers' care-seeking behaviors in response to childhood illness: findings from a cross-sectional study in Granada, Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimba Masamine

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2008, approximately 8.8 million children under 5 years of age died worldwide. Most of these deaths occurred in developing countries, but little is known about poor mothers' care-seeking behaviors for their children. We examined poor mothers' care-seeking behaviors in response to childhood illness, and identified factors affecting their choices. We also assessed mothers' perception of the medical services and their confidence in the health care available for their children. Methods We carried out a community-based cross-sectional study with structured questionnaires. Participants were 756 mothers and their young children (0-23 months in Nandaime municipality, Granada province, Nicaragua. We took the children's anthropometric measurements and we assessed the mothers according to their income. We divided them into 3 global absolute poverty categories (income: 2 USD/day, and 4 quintile. Results When a child showed symptoms of illness, most mothers (>75% selected public health facilities as their first choice. More than half (>58% were satisfied with the medical services, but the poorest mothers expressed more dissatisfaction (p = 0.003, when we divided the participants into 4 quintiles groups according to their income. In the poorest group, the main reasons for dissatisfaction were cost (46.6%, and distance to the facilities (25.8%. Almost half (41.3% of mothers lacked confidence in the health care offered to their child, while most of the wealthiest mothers (75.7% did have confidence in it (p = 0.001. The poorest mothers showed greater interest in health education than the wealthiest (86.2% vs. 77.8% (p = 0.015. We found that poor mothers (≤2 USD/day changed their second choice for care in a positive direction. Factors affecting the change in second choice were the child having symptoms of respiratory disease (AOR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.28-4.90, p = 0.007, visiting health post as the first choice (AOR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.26-3.53, p

  11. Integrated management of childhood illness: field test of the WHO/UNICEF training course in Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania. WHO Division of Child Health and Development & WHO Regional Office for Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The 11-day training course on integrated management of childhood illness was field tested with three types of first-level facility health workers: medical assistants, rural medical aides, and MCH (maternal and child health) aides. The objective of the field test was to determine whether the materials were effective in preparing participants to manage correctly sick children and to suggest improvements in the course materials and teaching procedures. The course combined classroom work and dail...

  12. Assessing risk factors for adverse birth outcomes and early childhood respiratory illness: an examination of supplement initiation and participation in Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, rate of preterm birth peaked in 2006 and little progress has been made to date despite ambitious Healthy People 2020 goals. Infants born premature are at higher risk of death and disability, including psychological conditions, learning difficulties and medical disabilities, than term newborns. Additionally, adverse birth outcomes are associated with asthma, the leading cause of chronic childhood illness and disability. According to the ‘Barker hypothesis’, intrauterin...

  13. Contributing Factors for Acute Illness/Injury from Childhood Pesticide Exposure in North Carolina, USA, 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalla Barros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Between 2007 and 2013, there were 685 events with evidence of a relationship between pesticide exposure and acute illness/injury among persons less than 18 years old in North Carolina (United States. Median age of children affected was 4.3 years (range: 0.2–17.9. Distribution by gender was similar across all age groups. One fatality and four high severity events were observed. The greatest proportion (42% of events had ocular exposures, followed by dermal (25% and inhalation (18% exposures. When more than one route of exposure occurred, dermal and ocular routes were the most common (46%. Almost all events took place indoors and 32 events involved contact with pets. Insecticides (53% and insect repellants (31% were the most frequent agents contributing to these events. Manual application of pesticides contributed to the greatest number of events (25%, while application through a pressurized can and use of a trigger pump were involved in 21% and 15% of events, respectively. Additional contributors were due to inappropriate storage of pesticides and improper use of the pesticide. These contributing factors can be removed or minimized if pesticides are stored outside the residence or out of the reach of children and pets, and adequate ventilation is ensured whenever pesticides are applied.

  14. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  15. Knowledge and skills of primary health care workers trained on integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness: Follow-up assessment 3 years after the training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Venkatachalam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary health care workers of a district in northern India were trained in the year 2006 for Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI using two different training methods: conventional 8-day training and new interrupted 5-day training. Knowledge and skills may decline over a period of time. Rate of decline may be associated with the type of training. A study was thus conducted to see the retention of knowledge and skills in the two training groups, 3 years after the initial training. Materials and Methods: This study was done in the Panchkula district of Haryana state in northern India. In the year 2006, 50 primary health care workers were given new interrupted 5-day training and another 35 workers were given conventional 8-day training on IMNCI. Knowledge and skills of the same workers were evaluated in the year 2009, using the same methodology and tools as were used in the year 2006. Data analysis was done to see the extent of decline in knowledge and skills in these 3 years and whether decline was more in any particular training group. Results: Compared to post-training score in the year 2006, composite knowledge and skill scores for Auxilliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs and Anganwari workers (AWWs together declined significantly in the year 2009 from 74.6 to 58.0 in 8-day training group and from 73.2 to 57.0 in 5-day training group (P < 0.001. Follow-up composite scores in the two training groups were similar. Whereas the decline was more for knowledge scores in 8-day training group and for skill score in 5-day training group, the pattern of decline was inconsistent for different health conditions and among ANMs and AWWs. Conclusion: Long-term retention of knowledge and skills in 5-day group was equivalent to that in 8-day training group. Refresher trainings may boost up the decline in the knowledge and skills.

  16. Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This childhood illness can result in long-term heart complications. Learn the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for Kawasaki disease. Rheumatic Fever This inflammatory infection can occur after strep ...

  17. Prevalence and impact of childhood abuse in people with a psychotic illness. Data from the second Australian National Survey of Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sonal; Mackinnon, Andrew; Galletly, Cherrie; Carr, Vaughan; McGrath, John J; Stain, Helen J; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Sweeney, Shaun; Morgan, Vera A

    2014-10-01

    Child abuse has been associated with risk of mental illness, including schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and, among those with mental illness, with a more severe clinical profile. Using an extensively characterised and epidemiologically representative sample of 1825 Australians with a psychotic illness aged 18-64 years and in contact with mental health services, we estimated the proportion of individuals with psychotic disorders who self-reported child abuse and examined its relationship with clinical and other characteristics. The prevalence of child abuse in this nationally representative sample of people with psychotic illness was 30.6%. Women were almost three times more likely to report child abuse compared to males (OR, 2.8, 95% CI 2.3-3.4). When adjusted for age at interview and socio-economic status, there was no significant relationship between self-reported child abuse and type of psychosis or course of illness. Participants with child abuse were significantly more likely to have subjective thought disorder, lifetime suicide attempt and premorbid personality disorder (females only) and anxiety (males only). Our findings demonstrate that child abuse is relatively common across the range of psychotic disorders, with an elevated risk for women in particular, compounding the already high burden associated with psychotic illness. Clinicians need to inquire routinely about child abuse in order to develop appropriate treatment plans tailored to individual needs. PMID:25107848

  18. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, S; Gallagher, P.; Dougall, D.; R Porter; Moncrieff, J.; Ferrier, I. N.; Young, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Methods: Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipo...

  19. The Magnitude of Under-five Emergencies in a Resource-poor Environment of a Rural Hospital in Eastern Nigeria: Implication for Strengthening the House-hold and Community-integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel UP Iloh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Under-five in Nigeria are the most vulnerable group that are often challenged by emergency health conditions. Aim: The study was to describe the magnitude of under-five emergencies in a resource-poor environment of a rural hospital in eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based study of 282 under-five patients with emergency health conditions at a rural Hospital in Imo state, eastern Nigeria. Data extracted included bio-data and diagnosis. Results: A total of 282 under-five emergencies were studied. The ages of the patients ranged from 12 days to 58 months with mean age of 34 ± 9.4 months. There were 153 (54.3% males and 129 (45.7% females with male to female ratio of 1.2: 1. The three most common causes of under-five emergencies were acute uncomplicated malaria (29.1%, severe malaria anemia (24.5%, and acute respiratory infections (22.7%. The predominant outcome of emergency admission was discharged home (83.0%. The preeminent cause of death was severe malaria anemia (81.8%. All deaths occurred within 24 hours of hospitalization. Conclusion: The three most common under-five emergencies were infectious medical emergencies and the preeminent cause of death was malaria-related. Strengthening the quality of the Roll Back Malaria Initiative, household and community-integrated management of childhood illnesses will help to reduce these preventable medical emergencies and deaths.

  20. Afectación oral de las enfermedades comunes en la infancia con carácter exantemático Oral implications of the common exanthematic illnesses in the childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bascones Martínez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinadas enfermedades exantemáticas de la infancia pueden cursar con manifestaciones en la región oral, siendo en ocasiones pioneras al resto de las lesiones. Para evitar complicaciones que puedan retrasar la correcta evolución y recuperación de los pacientes, y dada la morbilidad con la que cursan algunas entidades a nivel oral, se presenta una revisión en la cual se insiste en la necesidad de hacer un adecuada exploración oral ante cualquier enfermedad infecciosa o exantemática, aún cuando no consulten por síntomas a dicho nivel, para poder diagnosticar y tratar de forma precoz las lesiones orales asociadas a estas entidades.Some exanthematic diseases in the childhood affect in more or less importance to the oral region and highly important to know the degree of affectation to set out the guidelines for a suitable treatment at a proper level, and to avoid further complications which may delay the good evolution and soon recovery that those patients use to show. It is stressed the importance of an acute exploration of the mouth in case of any infectious or exanthematic illness, even though the consultation is not made for oral symptoms.

  1. Diarrheal Illness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-30

    Dr. Steve Monroe, director of CDC’s Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, discusses diarrheal illness, its causes, and prevention.  Created: 8/30/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/31/2011.

  2. Foodborne Illness

    OpenAIRE

    He, Zhan; Liu, Xuan; Li, Renjie

    2008-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses are a significant public health challenge in the world. Preventing foodborne disease in meat processing is an essential point to insure food safety and quality. HACCP systems currently are used for food processor to identify food safety hazards and prevent food is contaminated. By the introducing HACCP system into China in 1990s, Chinese government and enterprises have took more attention to control and monitoring the flow of food to insure food quality in processors. Meat...

  3. A Tewo Tibetan Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rdo rje tshe brtan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rdo rje tshe brtan (b. 1986 describes his childhood in Dredze Village, Yiwa Township, Tewo County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province, China, as well as being a student in Xining City, Qinghai Province. Topics covered include his family, childhood injuries and illnesses, education, Terang (malicious household deities, mountain deities and associated rituals and sacrifices, death, conflict with other locals, collecting local plants, a birth in the village, stealing fruit, a wedding, plowing, a visit to a hot spring, a lost yak, slaughtering pigs, government confiscation of fields, and slaughtering pigs. Photos provide additional detail.

  4. What Is Mental Illness: Mental Illness Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. Mental illness usually strike individuals in the prime of their lives, often during adolescence and young ... Illness page. Get more Mental Illness: Facts and Numbers from NAMI's Fact Sheet . Back

  5. Mothers' perceptions and knowledge on childhood malaria in the holendemic Kibaha district, Tanzania: implications for malaria control and the IMCI strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarimo, D S; Lwihula, G K; Minjas, J N;

    2000-01-01

    Prior to an intervention on improving the quality of malaria case management, we assessed mothers' abilities to recognize nonsevere and severe/complicated malaria in children when a child has fever with other physiological and behavioural symptoms associated with malaria. Malaria was mentioned as...... diagnosis and treatment (89.4%). Poor outcome of treatment was ascribed to incorrect diagnosis and prescription, noncompliance at home and ineffective drugs (62.1%). Most mothers (86.6%) would take antipyretic measures first when a child has fever, and subsequently the majority (92.9%) would seek care at a...

  6. Pallor as a sign of anaemia in small Tanzanian children at different health care levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Christian B; Sørensen, Jeff E; Bjorkman, Anders;

    2006-01-01

    Anaemia is a major complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among small children in sub-Saharan Africa. We studied the performance of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) recommended assessment of no/some/severe pallor as predictor of anaemia in health surveys at community...

  7. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. Your blood cells form in your bone ... in the bones or joints Risk factors for childhood leukemia include having a brother or sister with ...

  8. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Stress KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Stress Print A A ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  9. Recreational Water Illness (RWI): MRSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin, Ear, & Eye Illness Respiratory Illness Neurologic Illness Wound Infections Other Illnesses Swimming Pool Operation & Disinfection Microbial Testing & Disinfection Swimming Pool Chemicals Injuries & Outdoor ...

  10. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  11. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A Text Size What's ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...

  12. Childhood adversity, mental ill-health and aggressive behavior in an African orphanage: Changes in response to trauma-focused therapy and the implementation of a new instructional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schauer Elisabeth

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of orphans in Sub-Saharan Africa is constantly rising. While it is known that family or community care is preferable over institutional care of African orphans, little is known about the quality of care in orphanages and possibilities of improvement. Study 1 Methods Exposure to traumatic stress, experiences of violence in the home, school and orphanage, as well as mental ill-health and aggression of 38 children (mean age of M = 8.64 years living in an orphanage in rural Tanzania were assessed at two time points. The severity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD, depressive symptoms, and internalizing and externalizing problems were used as indicators of mental ill-health. Results Violence experienced in the orphanage correlated more strongly with all indicators of mental ill-health than violence in the former home, school or neighborhood at time point 1. Additionally, violence experienced in the orphanage had a positive relationship with the aggressive behavior of the children at time point 2. Study 2 Methods With the help of the pre-post assessment of Study 1, the implementation of a new instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment (KIDNET for trauma-related illness were evaluated. Results In response to both, a change in the instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment of PTSD, a massive decline in experienced violence and in the severity of PTSD-symptoms was found, whereas depressive symptoms and internalizing and externalizing problems exhibited little change. Conclusions These studies show that violence, especially in the orphanage, can severely contribute to mental ill-health in orphans and that mental health can be improved by implementing a new instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment in an orphanage. Moreover, the results indicate that the experience of violence in an orphanage also plays a crucial role in aggressive behavior of the orphans.

  13. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Ahmet; Koca, Fahrettin; Fıçıcıoğlu, Can; Çam, Halit; Mıkla, Şerare

    1995-01-01

    Management of childhood obesity and its early and late complications are among the most difficult problems confronted by pediatricians and practitioners The purpose of this review is to provide information for the evaluation and treatment of childhood obesity Key nbsp;words: nbsp;Child Obesity Etiology Management Complications

  14. Nuclear power and childhood leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimston, M. (AEA Technology, London (UK))

    1991-06-19

    The possibility of illness caused by exposure to emissions from nuclear power plants continues to raise enormous public concern. Nowhere is this more evident than in the debate over the aetiology of childhood leukaemias. This review explores the evidence in relation to this and other diseases which are linked in the public's mind to nuclear power. The scientific evidence presented suggests that these links are more tenuous than is commonly believed. (author).

  15. The Depiction of Mental Illnesses in Children's Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Otto; Hanrahan, Erin; Karl, Kelly; Lasher, Erin; Swaye, Janel

    2007-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that negative attitudes toward people with mental illnesses begin to develop early in childhood. This study examines one of the possible sources of learning of such negative attitudes--children's television programs. Two hundred sixty-nine (269) hours of children's television programming were videotaped, viewed, and…

  16. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  17. Childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debate on whether there is any link between leukaemia clusters and nuclear installations has been raging since the early eighties. A Government Inquiry found no link between childhood leukaemia and residence near Seascale, an area near British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield plant. Research in the 1980s linked childhood leukaemia to fathers' occupations prior to conception in the Seascale plant but also to workers in the iron, steel, farming and chemical industries. This article reviews research findings to date. (UK)

  18. Five dramas of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Arthur W

    2007-01-01

    First-person narratives of illness experience are dramatic: the narrator, who is also the sufferer, is caught in conflicts of forces that permit understanding more than control. Among the dramas of illness, five occur frequently in autobiographical accounts of illness. These dramas overlap and have varying emphases in different people's stories. They are the drama of genesis (what instigated the illness); the drama of emotion work (what emotional displays are required or prohibited); the drama of fear and loss; the drama of meaning; and finally, the drama of self. This five-drama framework can focus critical and clinical attention on which conflicting forces the ill person is working to reconcile, what makes that work difficult, and how conceiving of one's illness as a drama can be a source of meaning and value. PMID:17660632

  19. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors include a personal or family history of depression or loss of family members to suicide. However, there are some risk factors directly related to having another illness. For example, conditions ... role in depression. Illness-related anxiety and stress can also trigger ...

  20. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... So Long? Admission to the Hospital Heroes on Medicine's Front Line Observation Emergency Care Fact Sheet ... Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be ...

  1. MRI in decompression illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of decompression illness in which the patient developed paraparesis during scuba diving after rapid ascent. MRI of the spine revealed a focal intramedullary lesion consistent with the symptoms. The pathophysiological and radiological aspects of spinal decompression illness are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 911 What To Do In A Medical Emergency Childhood Emergencies Careers in Emergency Medicine Seconds Save Lives ... or exhaustion. Heat Stroke and Exhaustion Symptoms of early heat exhaustion symptoms include cool, moist, pale or ...

  3. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A Medical Emergency Childhood Emergencies Careers in Emergency Medicine Seconds Save Lives Be Prepared Organize Important Medical ... So Long? Admission to the Hospital Heroes on Medicine's Front Line Observation Emergency Care Fact Sheet Health & ...

  4. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Call 911 What To Do In A Medical Emergency Childhood Emergencies Careers in Emergency Medicine Seconds Save Lives Be Prepared Organize Important Medical Information ER Checklists Preparing for Emergencies Learn How ...

  5. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar...

  6. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  7. Mass Psychogenic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been exposed to something harmful. An outbreak of mass psychogenic illness is a time of anxiety and worry. During an outbreak, a lot of media coverage and the presence of ambulances or emergency ...

  8. Chronic Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... everyday activities than they needed before this illness. Doctors, nurses, and other members of the health care team ... pain. Some have difficulty sleeping. Some are depressed. Doctors, nurses, and other members of the health care team ...

  9. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Disasters Communication With Your Family And Your Doctor About Your Wishes Visiting the ER Who Takes ... 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat- ...

  10. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of heat stroke or exhaustion. Heat Stroke and Exhaustion Symptoms of early heat exhaustion symptoms ... heavy sweating; nausea; and giddiness. Symptoms of heat stroke (late stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, ...

  11. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  12. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  13. Serious Illnesses and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Serious Illnesses ...

  14. Coping with Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the management of the illness little by little as she gets older. Some children avoid accepting more independence and self-management of their condition. Families may not mean to but foster dependency because they find it ...

  15. Parasites and Foodborne Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Parasites and Foodborne Illness Introduction Giardia duodenalis or intestinalis ... gondii Trichinella spiralis Taenia saginata/Taenia solium (Tapeworms) Parasites may be present in food or in water ...

  16. Mental Illness Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cost Global More Prevalence Disability Suicide Cost Global Statistics Understanding the scope of mental illnesses and their ... those affected receive treatment. The information on these statistics pages includes the best statistics currently available on ...

  17. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  18. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... if we take away the protection given by vaccination, more and more people will be infected and ...

  19. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exhaustion symptoms include cool, moist, pale or flushed skin; headache; dizziness; weakness; feeling exhausted; heavy sweating; nausea; ... stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, dry skin; fainting; a rapid, weak pulse; rapid, shallow breathing; ...

  20. Sculpting the Illness Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Bathje MS, OTR/L

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Otto Kamensek provided the cover art for the Fall 2014 issue of the Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. “Glimmer of Hope” is part of Otto’s collection “Shard’s, Bone Deep,” which includes hand-built ceramic sculptures that portray his experiences with a lifelong chronic illness. Engaging in ceramic sculpture helps him process the experiences associated with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis and provides a means to support others experiencing chronic illness.

  1. Violence and Mental Illness

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, includi...

  2. Sculpting the Illness Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Molly Bathje MS, OTR/L

    2014-01-01

    Otto Kamensek provided the cover art for the Fall 2014 issue of the Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. “Glimmer of Hope” is part of Otto’s collection “Shard’s, Bone Deep,” which includes hand-built ceramic sculptures that portray his experiences with a lifelong chronic illness. Engaging in ceramic sculpture helps him process the experiences associated with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis and provides a means to support others experiencing chronic illness.

  3. Risk of developmental delay of children aged between two and 24 months and its association with the quality of family stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Alessandro Fernandes; de Carvalho, Davi Vilela; Machado, Nathália Ádila A.; Baptista, Regiane Aparecida N.; Lemos, Stela Maris A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between neurodevelopment and the family environment resources of children from the coverage area of a Basic Health Unit (BHU) of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, using a tool based on the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a non-probabilistic sample involving 298 children aged between 2-24 months old, who attended a BHU in 2010. The assessment of child development and family resources made at the BHU lasted, in average, 45 minutes and included two tests - an adaptation of the Handbook for Monitoring Child Development in the Context of IMCI and an adapted version of the Family Environment Resource (FER) inventary. The nonparametric tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: The sample included 291 assessments, with 18.2% of children between 18 and 24 months old, 53.6% male gender, and 91.4% who did not attend day care centers. According to IMCI, 31.7% of the children were in the risk group for developmental delay. The total average score in FER was 38.0 points. Although it has been found an association between the IMCI outcome and the total FER score, all groups had low scores in the family environment assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate the need for childhood development screening in the primary health care and for early intervention programs aimed at this age group. PMID:24473949

  4. KOBİ’ler için girişimci pazarlamanın anahtarı: pazarlama ilişki ağları

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıçer, Tuğba

    2013-01-01

    KOBİ’ler büyük işletmeler ile karşılaştırıldığında farklı özellikleri bünyesinde barındıran işletmelerdir. Bu nedenle büyük işletmelerin özellikleri göz önünde bulundurularak geliştirilmiş olan geleneksel pazarlama anlayışı genellikle KOBİ’lerin yapısına uygun bulunmamakta ve eleştirilmektedir. KOBİ’lerin başarısı açısından geleneksel pazarlama ilkelerinin sınırlı düzeyde uygulandığı bir pazarlama yaklaşımı yerine girişimci bakış açısının pazarlama uygulamalarına yansı...

  5. Okul müdürlerinin etkileşimci liderlik stilleri ile öğretmenlerin okula bağlılık düzeyleri arasındaki ilişki

    OpenAIRE

    Yeşilyurt, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Amaç: Bu araştırmada öğretmenlerin görüşlerine dayalı olarak okul müdürlerinin etkileşimci liderlik stilleri ile öğretmenlerin okula bağlılık düzeyleri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Yöntem: Araştırma, nicel araştırma yöntemlerinden ilişkisel model kullanılarak yapılandırılmıştır. Çalışmanın örneklem grubu 2013-2014 eğitim öğretim yılında Afyonkarahisar il merkezinde görev yapan 506 öğretmenden oluşmaktadır. Araştırmada Çok Faktörlü Liderlik Ölçeği ve Örgüts...

  6. Türkiye’deki Koro Şeflerinin Dönüşümcü ve Etkileşimci Liderlik Davranışlarının İncelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Ersoydan, Yiğit M.; Sibel Karakelle

    2014-01-01

    ÖZ Bu araştırmanın amacı, “Türkiye’deki Koro Şeflerinin Dönüşümcü ve Etkileşimci Liderlik Davranışları”nı incelemek ve hangi tür liderlik davranışlarını benimsediklerini belirlemeye çalışmaktır. Araştırmada betimsel tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Verilerin toplanması amacıyla koro şeflerine “Çok Faktörlü Liderlik Anketi (5x-Kısa) – Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5x-short (MLQ)” (Bass ve Avolio, 1995) uygulanmıştır. Araştırmaya 118 Kadın ve 97 Erkek olmak üzere toplam 215 koro şefi ...

  7. Childhood vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Palit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo is often encountered in dermatological practice. When present in infancy or early childhood, various nevoid and hereditary disorders are to be differentiated. In many cases, familial aggregation of the disease is seen and other autoimmune disorders may be associated. Segmental presentation is more common, and limited body surface area involvement is usual in this age group. Children with vitiligo often suffer from anxiety and depression because of their unusual appearance. Management of vitiligo in children is difficult as therapeutic options are restricted when compared to that in adult patients. Selection of treatment should be careful in these patients with the aim to achieve best results with minimal side effects as well as relieving patients′ and parents′ anxiety.

  8. Childhood psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Dogra Sunil; Kaur Inderjeet

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexu...

  9. Childhood Traumatic Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Resources for Kids and Teens Childhood Traumatic Grief What is Childhood Traumatic Grief? Children grieve in their own way following the ... child may have a condition called Childhood Traumatic Grief (CTG). Thinking about the person who died—even ...

  10. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shop With CureSearch Blog Donate Now Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Understanding Children’s Cancer > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses ...

  11. Parental stress and the onset and course of childhood asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Noriko; Nagano, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The influence of a caregiver’s stress on the development of childhood asthma is an important aspect of the treatment and prevention of illness. Many cross-sectional studies have investigated the association between parenting attitude and/or caregiver’s stress and childhood asthma morbidity, but prospective studies are more advantageous than cross-sectional studies in interpreting a causal relationship from the results. We here present an overview of prospective studies that have reported a re...

  12. The Effect of Childhood Sexual Victimization on Women's Income

    OpenAIRE

    John Robst; Stacy Smith

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies show that survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) suffer as adults from depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol and drug abuse, and other mental illnesses. As such, the effect of experiencing traumatic events during childhood including sexual abuse can be long lasting. The lasting effects of CSA may also have economic implications. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether a history of CSA affects women's wages and to examine whether such effects are a fun...

  13. On being Credibly Ill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2011-01-01

    unexplained symptoms. The study is conducted in Denmark using qualitative interviews with welfare officers and clients. The paper's focus is on how issues of gender and class intersect in the negotiation of illness among welfare officers and clients. The particular client group in question consists...... of individuals that are defined by their lack of a bio-medical diagnosis. Their ‘lack’ of identity accentuates how gender and class become central in the categorisation practices, constructing the ill person as either bio-medically sick or as a person who may be suffering but only from diffuse...... psychological problems. The paper shows that it is predominantly poorly educated women without a bio-medical diagnosis that welfare officers describe as suffering from psychological problems despite the fact that the women themselves focus on physical ailments in their illness stories. Men and better...

  14. Relation of antecedent illness to development of diabetes in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Gamble, D R

    1980-01-01

    Information was obtained by postal questionnaire in 1663 cases of childhood diabetes of recent onset about other illnesses for which the family doctor was consulted in the six months before onset. Consultation rates in each of these six months were compared with each other and with rates reported in a concurrent study of morbidity in general practices. There was a significant excess of consultations for mumps in the six months before onset of diabetes (p < 0.001), the greatest excess being in...

  15. Pertussis immunisation and serious acute neurological illness in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Shah

    1981-01-01

    The first 1000 cases notified to the National Childhood Encephalopathy Study were analysed. The diagnoses included encephalitis/encephalopathy, prolonged convulsions, infantile spasms, and Reye's syndrome. Eighty-eight of the children had had a recent infectious disease, including 19 with pertussis. Only 35 of the notified children (3.5%) had received pertussis antigen within seven days before becoming ill. Of 1955 control children matched for age, sex, and area of residence, 34 (1.7%) had be...

  16. Childhood psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexural involvement is common and guttate type is the characteristic presentation. Whether onset in childhood predicts a more severe form of psoriasis is a matter of controversy, it may cause significant morbidity particularly if it keeps relapsing. Most children have mild form of psoriasis which can be generally treated effectively with topical agents such as emollients, coal tar, corticosteroids, dithranol, calcipotriol etc. according to age and the sites affected. Narrow band UVB is the preferred form of phototherapy in children for moderate to severe disease or in patients not responding to topical therapy alone. Systemic therapies are reserved for more severe and extensive cases that cannot be controlled with topical treatment and/or phototherapy such as severe plaque type, unstable forms like erythrodermic and generalized pustular psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. There are no controlled trials of systemic therapies in this age group, most experience being with retinoids and methotrexate with favorable results. Cyclosporine can be used as a short-term intermittent crisis management drug. There is an early promising experience with the use of biologics (etanercept and infliximab in childhood psoriasis. Systemic treatments as well as phototherapy have limited use in children due to cumulative dose effects of drugs, low acceptance, and risk of gonadal toxicity. More evidence-based data is needed about the effectiveness and long-term safety of topical

  17. USING VIDEOGAMES TO TREAT CHILDHOOD OBESITY

    OpenAIRE

    Druzhinenko, Daria; Podolskiy, Andrey; Podolskiy, Oleg; Schmoll, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most dangerous pathologies; it can lead to serious illness in the absence of medical support. In this article we give an overview of the use of videogames for reducing and normalizing the weight of overweight and obese children. We discuss the categorization of the existing games and their limits, and we outline the perspectives of psychopedagogical research in the domain of game design for treating obese and overweight children. The role of long-term motivatio...

  18. Using videogames to treat childhood obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Druzhinenko D.A.; Podolskiy A.I.; Podolskiy O.A.; Schmoll P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most dangerous pathologies; it can lead to serious illness in the absence of medical support. In this article we give an overview of the use of videogames for reducing and normalizing the weight of overweight and obese children. We discuss the categorization of the existing games and their limits, and we outline the perspectives of psychopedagogical research in the domain of game design for treating obese and overweight children. The role of long-term motivatio...

  19. Conceptualizing Health and Illness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouba, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2008), s. 59-80. ISSN 0047-2662 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA900090603; GA ČR(CZ) GP401/07/P293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : health * illness * existence * finitude Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  20. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fact Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses ... if the person becomes unconscious. READ IN EMERGENCIES A-Z Your Blood Pressure Score is as Important as ...

  1. Foodborne Illness Retrospective

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-07

    Dr. Paul Mead and Dr. Peter Drotman discuss the historic October 1999 article, Food-related Illness and Death in the United States.  Created: 5/7/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/7/2015.

  2. Influenza virus types and subtypes among pediatric patients having influenza like illness in summer season

    OpenAIRE

    Bishwanath Acharya; Bishnu Prasad Upadhyay; Shailaja Adhikari; Ajit Rayamajhi; Kanchan Thapa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) represent one of the major causes of childhood mortality and morbidity in Nepal. The Influenza virus is one of the common causes of viral ARIs and bacterial infection secondary to influenza contributes to majority of childhood death worldwide. However, the diagnosis of influenza virus infection is not routinely suggested in Nepal even for children clinically presenting with influenza like illness (ILI). Methods: With an aim to describe the statu...

  3. Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeling, Cara B; Pawlak, Dorota B; Ludwig, David S

    2002-08-10

    During the past two decades, the prevalence of obesity in children has risen greatly worldwide. Obesity in childhood causes a wide range of serious complications, and increases the risk of premature illness and death later in life, raising public-health concerns. Results of research have provided new insights into the physiological basis of bodyweight regulation. However, treatment for childhood obesity remains largely ineffective. In view of its rapid development in genetically stable populations, the childhood obesity epidemic can be primarily attributed to adverse environmental factors for which straightforward, if politically difficult, solutions exist. PMID:12241736

  4. Ambient nitrogen oxides exposure and early childhood respiratory illnesses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ghosh, R.; Joad, J.; Beneš, I.; Dostál, Miroslav; Šrám, Radim; Hertz-Picciotto, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2012), s. 96-102. ISSN 0160-4120 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/50/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : air pollution * bronchitis * croup Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 6.248, year: 2012

  5. Early childhood lower respiratory illness and air pollution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Baker, R. J.; Yap, P.S.; Dostál, Miroslav; Joad, J.P.; Lipsett, M.; Greenfield, T.; Herr, C.E.W.; Beneš, I.; Shumway, R.H.; Pinkerton, K.E.; Šrám, Radim

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 10 (2007), s. 1510-1518. ISSN 0091-6765 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * particulate matter Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 5.636, year: 2007

  6. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joan C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Kimm, Sue Y S

    2010-05-15

    Worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly during the past three decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders such as type 2 diabetes is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Much progress has been made in understanding of the genetics and physiology of appetite control and from these advances, elucidation of the causes of some rare obesity syndromes. However, these rare disorders have so far taught us few lessons about prevention or reversal of obesity in most children. Calorie intake and activity recommendations need reassessment and improved quantification at a population level because of sedentary lifestyles of children nowadays. For individual treatment, currently recommended calorie prescriptions might be too conservative in view of evolving insight into the so-called energy gap. Although quality of research into both prevention and treatment has improved, high-quality multicentre trials with long-term follow-up are needed. Meanwhile, prevention and treatment approaches to increase energy expenditure and decrease intake should continue. Recent data suggest that the spiralling increase in childhood obesity prevalence might be abating; increased efforts should be made on all fronts to continue this potentially exciting trend. PMID:20451244

  7. Glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and psychotic illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijender Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mr. T, a 28-year-old unmarried male, a diagnosed case of Glucose-6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency since childhood, presented with 13 years of psychotic illness and disturbed biological functions. He showed poor response to antipsychotics and mood stabilizers and had three prior admissions to Psychiatry. There was a family history of psychotic illness. The General Physical Examination and Systemic Examination were unremarkable. Mental Status Examination revealed increased psychomotor activity, pressure of speech, euphoric affect, prolixity, delusion of persecution, delusion of grandiosity, delusion of control, thought withdrawal and thought insertion, and second and third person auditory hallucinations, with impaired judgment and insight. A diagnosis of schizophrenia paranoid type, with a differential diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder manic subtype, was made. This case is being reported for its rarity and atypicality of clinical presentation, as well as a course of psychotic illness in the G6PD Deficiency state,with its implications on management.

  8. Parent-Child Collaborative Decision Making for the Management of Chronic Illness: A Qualitative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Victoria A.

    2009-01-01

    Parent-child collaborative decision making (CDM) is a potentially important precursor to full decision making independence and may be particularly significant for the management of childhood chronic illnesses. The primary aim of this qualitative study was to explore the concept of CDM from the perspective of children and parents. Children (ages 8-19 years) with asthma, type 1 diabetes, or cystic fibrosis and parents of children with these illnesses participated in focus groups and individual ...

  9. HIGH-ALTITUDE ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitya Elvira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHigh-altitude illness (HAI merupakan sekumpulan gejala paru dan otak yang terjadi pada orang yang baru pertama kali mendaki ke ketinggian. HAI terdiri dari acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE dan high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Tujuan tinjauan pustaka ini adalah agar dokter dan wisatawan memahami risiko, tanda, gejala, dan pengobatan high-altitude illness. Perhatian banyak diberikan terhadap penyakit ini seiring dengan meningkatnya popularitas olahraga ekstrim (mendaki gunung tinggi, ski dan snowboarding dan adanya kemudahan serta ketersediaan perjalanan sehingga jutaan orang dapat terpapar bahaya HAI. Di Pherice, Nepal (ketinggian 4343 m, 43% pendaki mengalami gejala AMS. Pada studi yang dilakukan pada tempat wisata di resort ski Colorado, Honigman menggambarkan kejadian AMS 22% pada ketinggian 1850 m sampai 2750 m, sementara Dean menunjukkan 42% memiliki gejala pada ketinggian 3000 m. Aklimatisasi merupakan salah satu tindakan pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan sebelum pendakian, selain beberapa pengobatan seperti asetazolamid, dexamethasone, phosopodiestrase inhibitor, dan ginko biloba.Kata kunci: high-altitude illness, acute mountain sickness, edema cerebral, pulmonary edema AbstractHigh-altitude illness (HAI is symptoms of lung and brain that occurs in people who first climb to altitude. HAI includes acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. The objective of this review was to understand the risks, signs, symptoms, and treatment of high-altitude illness. The attention was given to this disease due to the rising popularity of extreme sports (high mountain climbing, skiing and snowboarding and the ease and availability of the current travelling, almost each year, millions of people could be exposed to the danger of HAI. In Pherice, Nepal (altitude 4343 m, 43% of climbers have symptoms of AMS. Furthermore, in a study conducted at sites in

  10. Warning Signs of Mental Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illness What Is Psychiatry? What Is Mental Illness? Suicide Prevention What is ECT? Ask An Expert Share Your Story Become an APA Member Learn More Explore APA Psychiatrists Residents & Medical Students Patients & Families About APA Newsroom News Releases Psychiatric ...

  11. Critical illness neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuromuscular syndrome of acute limb and respiratory weakness that commonly accompanies patients with multi-organ failure and sepsis constitutes critical illness polyneuropathy. It is a major cause of difficulty in weaning off the patient from the ventilator after respiratory and cardiac causes have been excluded. It is usually an axonal motor-sensory polyneuropathy, and is usually associated with or accompanied with a coma producing septic encephalopathy. The neuropathy is usually not apparent until the patient′s encephalopathy has peaked, and may be noted only when the brain dysfunction is resolving. Patients usually have a protracted hospital course complicated by multi-organ failure and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Elevated serum glucose levels and reduced albumin are risk factors for nerve dysfunction, as is prolonged intensive care unit stay. Polyneuropathy may develop after only one week of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome, but the frequency tends to correlate with the duration of the severe illness.

  12. ILL. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1976 the three major functions of ILL continued to be generally satisfactorily performed (provision of neutron beams at the high flux reactor, development of advanced instrumentation, establishment of a forum). The implementation of the programme of measurements approved by the Scientific Council was again given absolute priority. This report gives a survey of the state of the experimental facilities at ILL and the scientific work carried out in 1976, and of the main technical and administrative activities of the Institute Chapters correspond to the various colleges (theory, fundamental and nuclear physics, excitations, structures liquid, gases and amorphous materials, impurities, structural biology and chemistry), reactor operation and instrument support services, computing services... A second volume of this report contains more detailed descriptions of the individual experiments

  13. Psychosocial reactions to physical illness.

    OpenAIRE

    Lipowski, Z J

    1983-01-01

    Recently medical educators have emphasized the need for physicians to acquire the skills to deal with psychologic aspects of patient care. To facilitate this task a descriptive schema is presented for use in evaluating patients' psychosocial reactions to physical illness. Three core components of such reactions are: the personal meaning of illness, emotional responses to illness and modes of coping with illness. Clinical application of this schema may help with patient management and prevent ...

  14. ILL. Annual report 1979. Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This second volume, entitled 'Annex to the Annual Report' deals in more detail with the scientific work of the I.L.L. The scientific activity of theoreticians at the I.L.L. for 1979 is described. The experimental reports giving details on the experiments performed at the I.L.L. up to October 1, 1979 have been compiled. They are published here under their proposal number within the classification cheme in use at the I.L.L

  15. Mental Illness And Brain Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bedrick Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abn...

  16. ILL Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report provides a general view of the activities of the different sections of the ILL. In 1974, twenty-two different neutron spectrometers with different characteristics were available on a regular basis. Moreover, a number of special neutron sources were employed for on-line experiments. The major effort was devoted to an increase in experimental systems and to the development of new measurement techniques

  17. Explanatory style and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C; Seligman, M E

    1987-06-01

    Explanatory style is an individual difference that influences people's response to bad events. The present article discusses the possibility that a pessimistic explanatory style makes illness more likely. Several studies suggest that people who offer internal, stable, and global explanations for bad events are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality. We tentatively conclude that passivity, pessimism, and low morale foreshadow disease and death, although the process by which this occurs is unclear. PMID:3612470

  18. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  19. Determinants of incidence and treatment of diarrhea and illness with cough among under five children in Vietnam: a repeated cross-sectional study between 2000 and 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Huy, Nguyen; Choi, Sugy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite significant achievements in health indicators during previous decades, Vietnam lags behind other developing countries in reducing common early childhood illnesses, such as diarrhea and respiratory infections. To date, there has been little research into factors that contribute to the prevalence and treatment of childhood morbidity in Vietnam.Objective: This study examines the determinants of diarrhea and ‘illness with a cough’ and treatments for each of the conditions amon...

  20. Staging of bipolar affective illness [Etapy przebiegu choroby afektywnej dwubiegunowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferensztajn, Ewa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of staging as a description of clinical advancement of illness is prevalent and commonly used in medicine. Regarding bipolar mood disorder (BD a staging model assumes a progression from prodromal (at-risk to more severe and treatment-refractory conditions. Four different staging models of BD have been proposed. The concept of Robert Post’s is based on the phenomenon of kindling and neurosensitization, assuming a role of stressors in triggering the first episode of illness, with subsequent persistent changes in the activity of neurones, greater vulnerability to relapse and worse response to treatment. The concept of Anne Duffy’s is based on the research of high risk bipolar offspring and describes the early development of the illness as successive stages, i.e. non-mood disorders, minor mood disorders and acute episodes of illness, starting in childhood, with an attempt to distinguish subtypes of the disease depending on the parent’s response to prophylactic lithium treatment. The model of Michael Berk’s has been constructed in parallel to the therapeutic algorithms and classifies the stages of illness based on clinical features, prognosis, and response to treatment. It also identifies high risk individuals, highlights need of early intervention and is proposed as a course specifier for BD. The model of Flavio Kapczinski’s is based on a phenomenon of allostatic load and evaluation of the changes of biomarkers and cognitive functions during the episode and between episodes. A significant consequence of introducing the staging model is employing treatment which is adequate to a stage of the illness. The model underlines a necessity of early intervention and defines the first episode of the illness as a critical target of it, in a hope to a possibility of prevention against neuroanatomical, neuropsychological, clinical and functional consequence of the illness.

  1. Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia: Insights from Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogtay, Nitin; Rapoport, Judith L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of longitudinal neuroimaging to study the developmental perspectives of brain pathology in children with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is described. Structural neuroimaging is capable of providing evidence of neurobiological specificity of COS to distinguish it from other brain abnormalities seen in neuropsychiatric illnesses like…

  2. Sensitive Situations. The DLM Early Childhood Program Professional Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Pam

    Teachers know how to educate young children, but many feel ill-prepared when faced with students' emotional issues in the classroom. This book is intended as a resource for early childhood teachers who find themselves in the middle of such "sensitive situations." The information is presented by using a fictional, but typical, scenario that might…

  3. How Are Childhood Cancers Found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic How are childhood cancers treated? How are childhood cancers found? Screening for childhood cancers Screening is testing for a disease such ... in people who don’t have any symptoms. Childhood cancers are rare, and there are no widely ...

  4. Children's conceptions of mental illness: a naïve theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn

    2010-09-01

    This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naïve theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing and card selection tasks to assess 6- to 11-year-old children's conceptions of the causes and consequences (Study 1) and the curability and timeline (Study 2) of different mental and physical illnesses/ailments. The studies revealed that, at all ages, the children held coherent causal-explanatory ideas about the causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of both mental and physical illnesses/ailments. However, while younger children tended to rely on their knowledge of common physical illnesses when thinking about mental illnesses, providing contagion and contamination explanations of cause, older children demonstrated differences in their thinking about mental and physical illnesses. No substantial gender differences were found in the children's thinking. It is argued that children hold coherent conceptions of mental illness at all ages, but that mental illness only emerges as an ontologically distinct conceptual domain by the end of middle childhood. PMID:20849036

  5. Mental Illness And Brain Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrick, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals. PMID:26444362

  6. Mental Illness And Brain Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedrick Jeffrey D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals.

  7. Oral zinc and common childhood infections--An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Sudha; Mathisen, Maria; Strand, Tor A

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient important for growth and for normal function of the immune system. Many children in developing countries have inadequate zinc nutrition. Routine zinc supplementation reduces the risk of respiratory infections and diarrhea, the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in young children worldwide. In childhood diarrhea oral zinc also reduces illness duration and risk of persistent episodes. Oral zinc is therefore recommended for the treatment of acute diarrhea in young children. The results from the studies that have measured the therapeutic effect of zinc on acute respiratory infections, however, are conflicting. Moreover, the results of therapeutic zinc for childhood malaria also are so far not promising.This paper gives a brief outline of the current evidence from clinical trials on therapeutic effect of oral zinc on childhood respiratory infections, pneumonia and malaria and also of new evidence of the effect on serious bacterial illness in young infants. PMID:24906347

  8. Sexuality and chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Elaine E

    2013-11-01

    Sexual function is often affected in individuals living with chronic illness and their partners, and multiple comorbidities increase the likelihood of sexual dysfunction. This review focuses on the areas of cardiovascular disease, respiratory conditions, and cancer, all areas for which there are practical, evidence-based strategies to guide sexual counseling. Although nurses have been reluctant to address the topic of sexuality in practice, a growing number of studies suggest that patients want nurses to address their concerns and provide resources to them. Thus, nurses must be proactive in initiating conversations on sexual issues to fill this gap in practice. PMID:24066783

  9. Childhood medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimino, Maura; Biassoni, Veronica; Gandola, Lorenza; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Gatta, Gemma; Giangaspero, Felice; Poggi, Geraldina; Rutkowski, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Medulloblastoma accounts for 15-20% of childhood nervous system tumours. The risk of dying was reduced by 30% in the last twenty years. Patients are divided in risk strata according to post-surgical disease, dissemination, histology and some molecular features such as WNT subgroup and MYC status. Sixty to 70% of patients older than 3 years are assigned to the average-risk group. High-risk patients include those with disseminated and/or residual disease, large cell and/or anaplastic histotypes, MYC genes amplification. Current and currently planned clinical trials will: (1) evaluate the feasibility of reducing both the dose of craniospinal irradiation and the volume of the posterior fossa radiotherapy (RT) for those patients at low biologic risk, commonly identified as those having a medulloblastoma of the WNT subgroup; (2) determine whether intensification of chemotherapy (CT) or irradiation can improve outcome in patients with high-risk disease; (3) find target therapies allowing tailored therapies especially for relapsing patients and those with higher biological risk. PMID:27375228

  10. Locating legacy in illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froude, Cameron Kiely

    2016-06-01

    The author, a licensed marriage and family therapist, describes her work with Sofia, an eight-year-old Puerto Rican female with chronic and persistent abdominal pain and leg paralysis with no known organic cause. Sofia's mother, Ana, was also seen by the author. Over the course of several weeks, the family shared stories of painful medical procedures and extreme dietary plans prescribed to them by doctors to identify the etiology of Sofia's illness. Ana described her simultaneous relief and frustration when each test result indicated that there was no organic cause for Sofia's debilitating pain. They talked about the push and pull Ana's family experienced as they prayed simultaneously for abnormal and normal test results. The author told Sofia's pediatrician that she would begin to create a community genogram with the family in their next meeting. She explained that the purpose of the community genogram was to illustrate the social and historical contexts of families' lives. They learned that a seminal narrative in Sofia's family legacy connected deep understanding of others with embodiment of their immediate experience. Sofia's illness became one part of her and her family's legacy and cultural tapestry. Ana described the renewed connections that she and Sofia shared with their family members. As Sofia and Ana spoke with their family members more often, Sofia's leg paralysis and stomach pains decreased. Sofia began attending school regularly and visiting less with her pediatrician. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27270250

  11. ILL. Annual report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1977 the three major functions of ILL continued to be performed (provision of neutron beams at the high flux reactor, development of advanced instrumentation, workshop organization). An integrated programme of improvement to the existing instruments and of new instrument construction, was carried out. A high priority was given to finishing instruments in the course of construction and both the ultra cold neutron source, PN5, and spin echo spectrometer, IN11, came into operation. No new instrument construction was started; even so, the completion of D18 (the interferometer) and IN12 (the cold three-axis machine) was delayed until 1978. Some advantage was taken of the delay to implement a new system of three-axis drive mechanics and interfacing electronics. This report gives a survey of the state of the experimental facilities at ILL and the scientific work carried out in 1977, and of the main technical and administrative activites of the Institute. Chapters correspond to the various colleges (theory, fundamental and nuclear physics, excitations, structures, liquid, gases and amorphous materials, impurities, structural biology and chemistry), reactor operation and instrument support services, computing services... A second volume of this report contains more detailed descriptions of the individual experiments

  12. ILL Annual report 97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    In 1997 the reactor operated for the planned 225 days and more than 750 experiments were carried out. Among the experimental highlights are 2 contrasting examples of the new types of experiments now possible using the new high-intensity diffractometer D2O: stroboscopic measurements of kinetic processes and rapid texture measurements of structural materials. Some early results from the new high-resolution gamma spectrometer in the study of nuclear structure are also presented. Another new facility is just coming into service: the 2{pi} image-plate detector LADI, optimised for Laue measurements on biological crystals. The contrast between biological experiments and for example those on superconductivity or neutron {beta}-decay, illustrates very well the range of scientific questions addressed through the use of ILL`s neutron beams. 30 brief accounts of research work achieved during this year are given, they are classified under 9 topics: polymers and colloids, chemistry and structure, biology, materials science, liquids and glasses, magnetism, strongly correlated electron systems, quantum systems, nuclear and fundamental physics. The scheduled new developments are described and a list of the publications is also given

  13. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... They are among the most common types of childhood cancers. Some are benign tumors, which aren't ... can still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches ...

  14. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  15. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Obesity Facts The prevalence of obesity among low-income children aged 2 through 4 years, by state ... Obesity now affects 1 in 6 children and adolescents in the United States. Childhood Obesity Facts How ...

  16. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... page please turn Javascript on. The We Can! childhood obesity-prevention program involves parents, caregivers, and community leaders ...

  17. Integrated Management of Childhood Illness: efficiency of primary health in Northeast Brazil Atenção integrada às doenças prevalentes da infância: eficiência na atenção primária de saúde no Nordeste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora G Amorim

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness is a strategy designed to address major causes of child mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the strategy on the quality of child health care provided at primary facilities. METHODS: Child health quality of care and costs were compared in four states in Northeastern Brazil, in 2001. There were studied 48 health facilities considered to have had stable strategy implementation at least two years before the start of study, with 48 matched comparison facilities in the same states. A single measure of correct management of sick children was used to assess care provided to all sick children. Costs included all resources at the national, state, local and facility levels associated with child health care. RESULTS: Facilities providing strategy-based care had significantly better management of sick children at no additional cost to municipalities relative to the comparison municipalities. At strategy facilities 72% of children were correctly managed compared with 56% in comparison facilities (p=0.001. The cost per child managed correctly was US$13.20 versus US$21.05 in the strategy and comparison municipalities, respectively, after standardization for population size. CONCLUSIONS: The strategy improves the efficiency of primary facilities in Northeastern Brazil. It leads to better health outcomes at no extra cost.OBJETIVO: A atenção integrada às doenças prevalentes da infância é uma estratégia desenvolvida para contribuir na redução das principais causas de mortalidade infantil. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o impacto da estratégia sobre a saúde infantil. MÉTODOS: Compararam-se a qualidade do atendimento à saúde infantil e os custos associados em quatro estados da região Nordeste do Brasil, em 2001. Foram estudadas 48 unidades de saúde onde havia implementação estável da estratégia por pelo menos dois anos antes do início do estudo e 48 unidades sem

  18. Students’ perception about mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    R K Mahto; Verma, P. K.; Verma, A.N.; Singh, A. R.; Chaudhury, S.; Shantna, K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In developing countries like India, there are evidences that stigma associated with mental illness is increasing. As in parts of the developing world, with advancement of urbanization and rapid industrialization, people tend to react in a very peculiar and biased way when they confront a mentally ill person. Materials and Methods: The present study aimed to find out students′ opinion about mental illness. A total of 100 students (50 male and 50 female) from Ranchi University were...

  19. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    OpenAIRE

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of pat...

  20. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  1. Protein requirement in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2016-05-01

    How much protein do critically ill patients require? For the many decades that nutritional support has been used there was a broad consensus that critically ill patients need much more protein than required for normal health. Now, however, some clinical investigators recommend limiting all macronutrient provision during the early phase of critical illness. How did these conflicting recommendations emerge? Which of them is correct? This review explains the longstanding recommendation for generous protein provision in critical illness, analyzes the clinical trials now being claimed to refute it, and concludes with suggestions for clinical investigation and practice. PMID:26914090

  2. Attributing illness to food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.; Morris, J. G.;

    2005-01-01

    the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical......Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other...... source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored...

  3. Childhood proptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proptosis in children is a hallmark of orbital diseases which can present a diagnostic challenge requiring thoughtful investigation. The aim of this review is to provide the reader an overview of the subject of childhood proptosis with an emphasis on the systematic and practical approach for the work-up of proptosis in children. Use of proper imaging studies is essential for the correct diagnosis. Computed tomography is a good screening test for any space occupying lesion of the orbit. Proptosis describes eye prominence due to space occupying orbital lesions. Congenital lesions usually present in the first decade of life. Acquired orbital lesions such as lymphangiomas, orbital varix, rhabdomyosarcoma and neural tumors may present at the end of the first decade of life. Metastatic tumors to the orbit, adenocarcinoma of lacrimal gland and rapidly growing masses may present with proptosis associated with pain. Visual loss can be the presenting symptoms in the patients with optic nerve (ON) gliomas, orbital meningiomas and posteriorly located tumors. Cystic lesions of the orbit may be congenital or acquired, dermoid cysts being the most common congenital orbital lesions. Some of the vascular lesions of the orbit include capillary hemangiomas, lymphangiomas, orbital varix, and arteriovenous malformations. Inflammatory process of the orbit in children include cellulitis and pseudotumor. Neural tumors such as neurofibromas, ON gilomas and meningiomas are less common causes of proptosis in children. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common primary orbital malignancy in children which can present with acute proptosis and is one of the few life-threatening diseases seen initially by an ophthalmologist. Secondary orbital tumors invade the orbit from adjacent sinuses, cranium or extended from the eye itself. The most common distant metastases in children include neuroblastoma and Ewing's sarcoma. Although many orbital processes can be diagnosed based on history, clinical

  4. Childhood Ataxia with Cerebral Hypomyelination Syndrome: a Variant of Patient with Early Childhood Onset Related to EIF2B3 Mutation. A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetto, F; Stoppino, L P; Calì, A; Milillo, P; Grilli, G; Vinci, R; Macarini, L

    2012-03-01

    Childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination (CACH) syndrome is an autosomal recessive transmitted leukodystrophy characterised by early childhood onset and acute deterioration following febrile illnesses or head trauma. We describe the case of a child with early onset of CACH syndrome. He presented with cerebellar ataxia beginning around two years of age with mild mental retardation. MRI showed diffuse white matter signal changes with thinning of the corpus callosum. PMID:24028880

  5. Quality of care for under-fives in first-level health facilities in one district of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifeen, S. E.; Bryce, J.; Gouws, E.; Baqui, A. H.; Black, R. E.; Hoque, D. M. E.; Chowdhury, E. K.; Yunus, M.; Begum, N.; Akter, T.; Siddique, A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The multi-country evaluation of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) effectiveness, cost and impact (MCE) is a global evaluation to determine the impact of IMCI on health outcomes and its cost-effectiveness. MCE studies are under way in Bangladesh, Brazil, Peru, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. The objective of this analysis from the Bangladesh MCE study was to describe the quality of care delivered to sick children under 5 years old in first-level government health facilities, to inform government planning of child health programmes. METHODS: Generic MCE Health Facility Survey tools were adapted, translated and pre-tested. Medical doctors trained in IMCI and these tools conducted the survey in all 19 health facilities in the study areas. The data were collected using observations, exit interviews, inventories and interviews with facility providers. FINDINGS: Few of the sick children seeking care at these facilities were fully assessed or correctly treated, and almost none of their caregivers were advised on how to continue the care of the child at home. Over one-third of the sick children whose care was observed were managed by lower-level workers who were significantly more likely than higher-level workers to classify the sick child correctly and to provide correct information on home care to the caregiver. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate an urgent need for interventions to improve the quality of care provided for sick children in first-level facilities in Bangladesh, and suggest that including lower-level workers as targets for IMCI case-management training may be beneficial. The findings suggest that the IMCI strategy offers a promising set of interventions to address the child health service problems in Bangladesh. PMID:15868016

  6. Influence of interactions between genes and childhood trauma on refractoriness in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders are excellent disease models in which gene-environmental interaction play a significant role in the pathogenesis. Childhood trauma has been known as a significant environmental factor in the progress of, and prognosis for psychiatric illness. Patients with refractory illness usually have more severe symptoms, greater disability, lower quality of life and are at greater risk of suicide than other psychiatric patients. Our literature review uncovered some important clinical factors which modulate response to treatment in psychiatric patients who have experienced childhood trauma. Childhood trauma seems to be a critical determinant of treatment refractoriness in psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. In patients with psychotic disorders, the relationship between childhood trauma and treatment-refractoriness appears to be mediated by cognitive impairment. In the case of bipolar disorder, the relationship appears to be mediated by greater affective disturbance and earlier onset, while in major depressive disorder the mediating factors are persistent, severe symptoms and frequent recurrence. In suicidal individuals, childhood maltreatment was associated with violent suicidal attempts. In the case of PTSD patients, it appears that childhood trauma makes the brain more vulnerable to subsequent trauma, thus resulting in more severe, refractory symptoms. Given that several studies have suggested that there are distinct subtypes of genetic vulnerability to childhood trauma, it is important to understand how gene-environment interactions influence the course of psychiatric illnesses in order to improve therapeutic strategies. PMID:26827636

  7. Staging of unipolar affective illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Ferensztajn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a concept of staging of unipolar affective illness (recurrent depression is presented. In respective subchapters, three most important aspects of this issue have been discussed: 1 staging of unipolar affective illness; 2 staging of treatment-resistant depression; and 3 conversion of unipolar into bipolar affective illness. The evidence for so called neuroprogression of the illness, accumulated in recent years, has allowed for a classification of staging based on a concept of allostasis and allostatic load. In the course of illness, changes in neuroendocrine system (mainly hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, immunological system, mechanisms of oxidative stress, neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors as well as structural and functional changes of the brain occur. In their paper of 2007, Fava and Tossani elaborated a concept of staging of unipolar affective illness presenting a continuum model of five consecutive stages with specific clinical features. In the present paper, a concept of treatment-resistant depression and staging of treatment resistance is presented in the context of several models. An important determinant of treatment-resistant depression is so called subthreshold bipolarity which is connected with worse efficacy of antidepressant drugs. In the course of illness, there is a possibility of changing diagnosis from recurrent depression into bipolar affective illness. The studies on this issue show that frequency of such diagnostic conversion is 1,5% of depressed patients per year.

  8. Aspects of spirituality concerning illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Rene; Tiesinga, Lucas J.; Jochemasen, Henk; Post, Doeke

    2007-01-01

    The spiritual dimension of illness, health and care may be seen as a unique aspect in addition to the physical, mental and social dimension. This contribution describes experiences of patients, nurses and hospital chaplains in relation to the spiritual aspects of being ill. Qualitative research was

  9. Childhood trauma exposure and toxic stress: what the PNP needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Trauma exposure in childhood is a major public health problem that can result in lifelong mental and physical health consequences. Pediatric nurse practitioners must improve their skills in the identification of trauma exposure in children and their interventions with these children. This continuing education article will describe childhood trauma exposure (adverse childhood experiences) and toxic stress and their effects on the developing brain and body. Adverse childhood experiences include a unique set of trauma exposures. The adverse childhood experiences or trauma discussed in this continuing education offering will include childhood exposure to emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, domestic violence, household substance abuse, household mental illness, parental separation or divorce, and a criminal household member. Thorough and efficient methods of screening for trauma exposure will be discussed. Appropriate intervention after identification of trauma exposure will be explored. PMID:25697767

  10. ILL Annual report 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997 the reactor operated for the planned 225 days and more than 750 experiments were carried out. Among the experimental highlights are 2 contrasting examples of the new types of experiments now possible using the new high-intensity diffractometer D2O: stroboscopic measurements of kinetic processes and rapid texture measurements of structural materials. Some early results from the new high-resolution gamma spectrometer in the study of nuclear structure are also presented. Another new facility is just coming into service: the 2π image-plate detector LADI, optimised for Laue measurements on biological crystals. The contrast between biological experiments and for example those on superconductivity or neutron β-decay, illustrates very well the range of scientific questions addressed through the use of ILL's neutron beams. 30 brief accounts of research work achieved during this year are given, they are classified under 9 topics: polymers and colloids, chemistry and structure, biology, materials science, liquids and glasses, magnetism, strongly correlated electron systems, quantum systems, nuclear and fundamental physics. The scheduled new developments are described and a list of the publications is also given

  11. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  12. Treatment of suspected heat illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, E R

    1998-06-01

    1. Despite advances in the art and science of fluid balance, exertional heat illness -- even life-threatening heat stroke -- remains a threat for some athletes today. 2. Risk factors for heat illness include: being unacclimatized, unfit, or hypohydrated; certain illnesses or drugs; not drinking in long events; and a fast finishing pace. 3. Heat cramps typically occur in conditioned athletes who compete for hours in the sun. They can be prevented by increasing dietary salt and staying hydrated. 4. Early diagnosis of heat exhaustion can be vital. Early warning signs include: flushed face, hyperventilation, headache, dizziness, nausea, tingling arms, piloerection, chilliness, incoordination, and confusion. 5. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of heat illness include: confusion preventing self-diagnosis; the lack of trained spotters; rectal temperature not taken promptly; the problem of "seek not, find not;" and the mimicry of heat illness. 6. Heat stroke is a medical emergency. Mainstays of therapy include: emergency on-site cooling; intravenous fluids; treating hypoglycemia as needed; intravenous diazepam for seizures or severe cramping or shivering; and hospitalizing if response is slow or atypical. 7. The best treatment is prevention. Tips to avoiding heat illness include: rely not on thirst; drink on schedule; favor sports drinks; monitor weight; watch urine; shun caffeine and alcohol; key on meals for fluids and salt; stay cool when you can; and know the early warning signs of heat illness. PMID:9694424

  13. Criminal law and mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of criminal law reaction to behavior of mentally ill, insane offenders who violate or threaten the criminal law protected values. To the preliminary question of whether the criminal reaction is generally justified in regard to quasi-criminal acts of mentally ill persons (which are not criminal in the true sense because they lack mens rea which is a constituent element of each offense, the answer is still yes. There are no other, more appropriate forms of social control, or other legal mechanisms that could more effectively than the criminal law, while respecting the safeguards that have become indispensable in criminal law, protect important goods of the individual or society from the harmful behavior of mentally ill persons. Although the entire criminal law is based on guilt and the subjective attitude of the offender towards the criminal offense for which he is exposed to the social-ethical reprimand, it is excluded in case of mentally ill, insane offenders and implementation of appropriate security measures. Capabilities of criminal law in performing a protective function relative to mentally ill offenders are certainly more modest than in case of perpetrators who can be held accountable. The entire general prevention (whether positive or negative underlying protective function of criminal law, is almost inconceivable in relation to potential offenders who are mentally ill. Available options are reduced to detention and psychiatric treatment of the mentally ill offender. The application of security measures to insane, mentally ill persons is limited, therefore, mainly to certain aspects of special prevention. Even exercising social control through criminal law differs, significantly, depending on whether we talk about incompetent, mentally ill persons or those who have normal mental abilities.

  14. Disaster related heat illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explained and discussed are the outline of heat illness (HI), its raised risk and measures taken at the disaster of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (FNPPA; Mar. 2011). High temperature and humid environment induce HI through the fervescence and dehydration resulting in the intestinal ischemia/hypoxia and organ failure. Epidemiologic data of the heatstroke in Japan suggest its seemingly parallel incidence to seasonal hotness of the summer. HI is classified in either classical (non-exertional) or exertional heatstroke, both with severity of I (slight), II (slight symptom of the central nervous system (CNS); necessary for consultation) and III (most serious; having dysfunction of CNS, organ or coagulation). Therapy depends on the severity: I for the first aid on site, II necessary for carrying to hospital and III for hospitalization. Protection is possible by personal, neighbors' and managers' carefulness, and supply of sufficient water and minerals. Risk of HI was suddenly raised at taking measures to meet with the FNPPA. Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) promptly organized JAAM-FNPPA Working Group to treat the emergent multiple incidents including the radiation exposure and HI as well. Exertional HI was mainly in labors wearing rather sealed closes to protect radiation to work for steps of the Accident, and which was similar to evacuees temporarily entering the evacuation area for visit to their own vacant houses. In the summer, classical HI was also a problem mainly in elderly living in the evacuation dwellings. Document of HI incidents and patients at FNPPA should be recorded for the reference to possible disaster in future. (T.T.)

  15. Implementação da estratégia Atenção Integrada às Doenças Prevalentes na Infância no Nordeste, Brasil Investigación sobre uso de medicamentos por ancianos jubilados, Belo Horizonte,MG Implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses strategy in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Joaquim Freitas do Amaral

    2008-08-01

    ás, residentes en Belo Horizonte (sudeste de Brasil, en 2003. Los ancianos fueron entrevistados por farmacéuticos, utilizando cuestionario padronizado. Fueron estimadas la prevalencia de uso y la media de medicamentos usados en los últimos 15 días anteriores a la entrevista, las cuales fueron estratificadas de acuerdo con el género según variables sociodemográficas y de salud. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de uso de medicamentos fue de 90,1%, significativamente más alto entre las mujeres (93,4% de que entre los hombres (84,3%. Mujeres utilizaron en media 4,6±3,2 productos y hombres 3,3±2,6 (pOBJECTIVE: The majority of child deaths are avoidable. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses strategy, developed by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund, aims to reduce child mortality by means of actions to improve performance of health professionals, the health system organization, and family and community practices. The article aimed to describe factors associated with the implementation of this strategy in three states of Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Ecological study conducted in 443 municipalities in the states of Northeastern Brazil Ceará, Paraíba and Pernambuco, in 2006. The distribution of economic, geographic, environmental, nutritional, health service organization, and child mortality independent variables were compared between municipalities with and without the strategy. These factors were assessed by means of a hierarchical model, where Poisson regression was used to calculate the prevalence ratios, after adjustment of confounding factors. RESULTS: A total of 54% of the municipalities studied had the strategy: in the state of Ceará, 65 had it and 43 did not have it; in the state of Paraíba, 27 had it and 21 did not have it; and in the state of Pernambuco, 147 had it and 140 did not have it. After controlling for confounding factors, the following variables were found to be significantly associated with the absence of the

  16. Childhood as a value

    OpenAIRE

    EWELINA PIECUCH

    2011-01-01

    The article encompasses the problems of childhood and its influence on the rest of one's life. I have concentrated on this crucial and specific time in life. It is demonstrated by biology, medicine, psychology, and psychoanalysis that human habits are formed in childhood. Health, hygiene and aesthetic behaviour determine one's further fate and influence life in its entirety. It is that phase of human life that determines the rest of it. In childhood children manifest their cogn...

  17. Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... disease is the most common illness caused by parvovirus B19 infection. Learn More Parvovirus B19 infection can cause ...

  18. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Research Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview In 2016, it ... Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer .) The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study ( CCSS ), funded by the National ...

  19. Steps of Healthy Swimming: Protection against Recreational Water Illnesses (RWIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin, Ear, & Eye Illness Respiratory Illness Neurologic Illness Wound Infections Other Illnesses Swimming Pool Operation & Disinfection Microbial Testing & Disinfection Swimming Pool Chemicals Injuries & Outdoor ...

  20. Determinants of early childhood morbidity and proper treatment responses in Vietnam: results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Hwa-Young Lee; Nguyen Huy; Sugy Choi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite significant achievements in health indicators during previous decades, Vietnam lags behind other developing countries in reducing common early childhood illnesses, such as diarrhea and respiratory infections. To date, there has been little research into factors that contribute to the prevalence and treatment of childhood morbidity in Vietnam. Objective: This study examines the determinants of diarrhea and ‘illness with a cough’ and treatments for each of the conditions amo...

  1. Transfusion in critically ill children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, E L; Stensballe, J; Afshari, A

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of blood products is a cornerstone in managing many critically ill children. Major improvements in blood product safety have not diminished the need for caution in transfusion practice. In this review, we aim to discuss the interplay between benefits and potential adverse effects of...... transfusion in critically ill children by including 65 papers, which were evaluated based on previously agreed selection criteria. Current practice on transfusing critically ill children is mainly founded on the basis of adult studies, common practices with cut-off values, and expert opinions, rather than...... evidence-based medicine. Paediatric patients have explicit physiological challenges and requirements to be addressed. Critically ill children often suffer from anaemia, have substantial iatrogenic blood loss with subsequent transfusions, and are at a higher risk of complications, often due to human errors...

  2. Improving Communication About Serious Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Critical Illness; Chronic Disease; Terminal Care; Palliative Care; Communication; Advance Care Planning; Neoplasm Metastasis; Lung Neoplasms; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive; Heart Failure; End Stage Liver Disease; Kidney Failure, Chronic

  3. Cronobacter Illness and Infant Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most at risk. Illnesses Linked to Powdered Infant Formula In some outbreak investigations, Cronobacter was found in ... other sources of this rare sickness. Powdered Infant Formula is Not Sterile Manufacturers report that, using current ...

  4. Living with Mentally Ill Parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Buldukoglu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review seeks to identify and analyze qualitative studies that examined experiences of children whose parents have a mental illness. This study reported that children whose parents have a mental illness had some common experiences. These experiences may have negative effects on children’s coping skills, resilience to tough living conditions and ability to maintain their mental health. In spite of these negative conditions, some of these children have much more self-confidence, resilience and independence because of inner development and early maturation. Some effective intervention programs are needed to promote information to children and other family members about mental illness, coping behaviors. Availability of such psychiatric services and nation-wide programs with professionals to deal with these problems should be organized properly to increase quality of life of these children. Furthermore, qualitative researches that explore the experiences of children whose parents with mental illness should also be conducted in our country.

  5. Childhood brain tumours : Health and function in adult survivors and parental fears

    OpenAIRE

    Anclair, Malin

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of the present research was to investigate health and functional ability of patients treated for childhood brain tumour and systematically examine parental fears after a child s brain tumour. The aims were realised through two part-studies. Childhood cancer once regarded as an acute fatal illness has become a life threatening disease. Previous studies of the long-term sequelae in survivors of children treated for a brain tumour reflect the fact that most ...

  6. The Liver in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Tessa W; Kramer, David J

    2016-07-01

    Caring for critically ill patients with acute and/or chronic liver dysfunction poses a unique challenge. Proper resuscitation and early consideration for transfer to liver transplant centers have resulted in improved outcomes. Liver support devices and cellular models have not yet shown mortality benefit, but they hold promise in the critical care of patients with liver disease. This article reviews pertinent anatomic and physiologic considerations of the liver in critical illness, followed by a selective review of associated organ dysfunction. PMID:27339681

  7. Life Event, Stress and Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Salleh, Mohd. Razali

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between stress and illness is complex. The susceptibility to stress varies from person to person. Among the factors that influenced the susceptibility to stress are genetic vulnerability, coping style, type of personality and social support. Not all stress has negative effect. Studies have shown that short-term stress boosted the immune system, but chronic stress has a significant effect on the immune system that ultimately manifest an illness. It raises catecholamine and sup...

  8. Criminal law and mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović Zoran

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of criminal law reaction to behavior of mentally ill, insane offenders who violate or threaten the criminal law protected values. To the preliminary question of whether the criminal reaction is generally justified in regard to quasi-criminal acts of mentally ill persons (which are not criminal in the true sense because they lack mens rea which is a constituent element of each offense), the answer is still yes. There are no o...

  9. Childhood sarcoidosis: Louisiana experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedalia, Abraham; Khan, Tahir A; Shetty, Avinash K; Dimitriades, Victoria R; Espinoza, Luis R

    2016-07-01

    A retrospective chart review was conducted to detect patients with sarcoidosis seen by pediatric rheumatology service from the period of 1992 to 2013 at Children's hospital of New Orleans. Twenty-seven patients were identified. The average duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 5 (range 1-120) months. Five patients had onset before the age of 5 years and were diagnosed with early-onset sarcoidosis. The most common manifestations at presentation were constitutional symptoms (62 %) followed by ocular (38 %). During the course of illness, 19/27 (70 %) had multiorgan involvement. Common manifestations included uveitis/iritis (77 %), fever (50 %), hilar adenopathy (42 %), arthritis (31 %), peripheral lympadenopathy (31 %), hepatosplenomegaly (31 %), parenchymal lung disease (27 %), and skin rash (19 %). Unusual manifestations included granulomatous bone marrow disease (3 cases), hypertension (2), abdominal aortic aneurysm (large vessel vasculitis; 1), granulomatous hepatitis (1), nephrocalcinosis (1), membranous nephropathy (1), refractory granulomatous interstitial nephritis with recurrence in transplanted kidney (1), CNS involvement (2), parotid gland enlargement (1), and sensorineural hearing loss (1). Biopsy specimen was obtained in 21/27 (77 %) patients, and demonstration of noncaseating granuloma associated with negative stains for mycobacteria and fungi was seen in 18 patients. Elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme level was seen in 74 % of patients. Treatment with oral prednisone was initiated in symptomatic patients with significant clinical improvement. Low-dose methotrexate (MTX) 10-15 mg/m(2)/week orally, as steroid-sparing agent, was administered in 14 patients. Other immunomodulators included cyclophosphamide (2 patients), etanercept (2), infliximab (2), mycophenolate mofetil (1), and tacrolimus (1). Childhood sarcoidosis is prevalent in Louisiana. Most of the affected children present with a multisystem disease associated with

  10. [Gustave Flaubert's illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaut, H; Gastaut, Y

    1982-01-01

    All those interested in Gustave Flaubert's illness, during his lifetime as well as after his death, have agreed that he had epilepsy. The one important exception is Jean-Paul Sartre, who, in the 2800 pages of his "Idiot de la famille" claimed that Flaubert was a hysteric with very moderate intelligence who somatized his neurosis in the form of seizures. These, in Sartre's views, were moreover probably hysterical, but possibly epileptic resulting from the existence of a psychogenic epilepsy bred from the neurosis. The basis for this neurosis could have originated at the time of Gustave's birth, as this occurred between those of two brothers who both died young, and as his mother had wished for a daughter. Further development of the neurosis might have taken place during a temporary phase of learning difficulties, exaggerated and exploited by his father to make his youngest son the idiot of a family in which the eldest son was the dauphin. Destroyed in this way, Gustave would have sought refuge in passivity and could have developed a hatred for his father and for his elder brother, who he would have liked to kill before killing himself. But, unable to carry out his wishes and desiring both to die and to survive, Gustave, adolescent, might have chosen the pathway of "false deaths", as exemplified by the seizures. Modern epileptology data enables not only to confirm the epileptic etiology and to discount the hysterical nature of the fits, but also: 1. to establish precise details of the site and nature of the cerebral lesions responsible for the attacks: neonatal atrophy or vascular malformation of the occipitotemporal cortex of the left hemisphere, the only lesion capable of provoking: a) the phosphenes marking the onset of the seizures; b) the intellectual manifestations (forced thoughts or flight of ideas), affective features (panic terror), and psychosensory (ecmnesic hallucinations) or psychomotor (confusional automatism) symptoms accompanying some attacks; c) the

  11. Childhood Obesity. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    In this discussion of childhood obesity, the medical and psychological problems associated with the condition are noted. Childhood obesity most likely results from an interaction of nutritional, psychological, familial, and physiological factors. Three factors--the family, low-energy expenditure, and heredity--are briefly examined. Early…

  12. Reframing Early Childhood Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamopoulos, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Rapid changes in Australian education have intensified the role of early childhood leaders and led to unprecedented challenges. The Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2011), mandated Australian "National Quality Framework" (NQF) for Early Childhood Education & Care (DEEWR, 2010b) and the "National Early Years Learning Framework" (EYLF) (DEEWR, 2009)…

  13. Playing with Moon Sand: A Narrative Inquiry into a Teacher's Experiences Teaching Alongside a Student with a Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Beth; Murphy, M. Shaun

    2016-01-01

    This paper inquires into the experiences of an early childhood educator named Claire who taught a young girl with a chronic illness at East Willows Elementary School, a western Canadian elementary school. Using narrative inquiry as the methodology, Claire's experiences in her curriculum making alongside Madeline a young girl with Turner syndrome…

  14. The stigma of mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordosi A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The stigma of mental illness is not a modern phenomenon, but it can now be approached scientifically. The stigma, because of the mental illness which characterizes a person, can be explained by the natural propensity of man to deliver biased and stereotyped estimates to phenomena he cannot explain, accept or face. Methodology:This study is an attempt to describe the concept of stigma and the impact of the stigma of mental illness in the personal and social life of the individual. The search for sources of this review was made through books on the topic and articles of the last twenty years, from online internet sources (pubmed, scopus, google scholar. Literature Review:Stigma brought about by illness from mental illness, is a complex process and concept, located in social interaction and the dynamics of social relations. The social stigma borne by mental illness in general, as well as the lack of information, ignorance, stereotypes, myths and prejudices, are the main reasons that characterize, even today, depression as a taboo subject. The stigma of mental illness is indeliblyimprinted in the identity of human suffering. In any case, the impact of stigma is critical for people who are sick. The psychological stress and difficult conditions that shape their daily lives aggravate their already compromised mental health, having a significant impact on the course and outcome of the disease itself. Key strategies to address stigma are protest, education and contact. Conclusions:A significant step in combating the stigma is to raise public awareness on the issues of mental health and their inclusion in society.

  15. Facial nerve involvement in critical illness polyneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Gurjar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although ICU-acquired neuromuscular weakness is a well-known problem, critical illness neuropathy is an under-diagnosed entity in critically ill patients. Facial musculature is typically not involved in critical illness neuropathy. This report highlights an unusual presentation of critical illness polyneuropathy in a patient with involvement of facial musculature.

  16. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; [...

    2015-01-01

    Background Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim of...

  17. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim o...

  18. Students′ perception about mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Mahto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developing countries like India, there are evidences that stigma associated with mental illness is increasing. As in parts of the developing world, with advancement of urbanization and rapid industrialization, people tend to react in a very peculiar and biased way when they confront a mentally ill person. Materials and Methods: The present study aimed to find out students′ opinion about mental illness. A total of 100 students (50 male and 50 female from Ranchi University were purposively recruited for the study, and the 51-item Opinion about Mental Illness (OMI Scale was administered. Results: Majority of the students were from Hindu families, of whom 42 (84% were males and 38 (68% were females. With regard to OMI scale, the item, viz., ′The law should allow a woman to divorce her husband as soon as he has been confined in mental hospital with a severe mental illness′, both male (46% and female (56% students were neutral (significant at 0.014, P < 0.05. Conclusion: Overall no significant level of difference emerged between male and female students with regard to opinion about mental illness.

  19. Childhood Trauma and Coping through the Science of Physics: An Attachment Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucabeche, Viviana; Haney, Jolynn; Quinn, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Trauma can be defined as stressful life events that disrupt and/or delay successful transition during childhood developmental stages (Roberts, 2000). In this exploratory study, transitional stressors are defined as: childhood physical, sexual, or emotional abuse; loss of a caregiver or significant relative due to death or abandonment; exposure to physical violence by non-family members (e.g., bullying); or illness resulting in permanent physical disability. Trauma may produce disorganized attachments in childhood, which may lead to emotional and to social impairment in adulthood (Siegel, 1999). Consequently, traumatized individuals, who suffer from disorganized attachments, may seek to engage in activities which are emotionally predictable. An examination of the personal childhood histories from a sample of Nobel Prize winners in the field of physics provides support for the hypothesis that the study of physics may serve as an effective coping method for individuals who have experienced childhood trauma.

  20. Frederic Chopin--the man, his music and his illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Hans; Wikman, Bertil; Strandvik, Birgitta

    2005-01-01

    Frédéric Chopin's unique position in the history of music relies on a surprisingly limited and special production. However, the artistic level is invariably high and the musical language is both universal and unmistakably personal. A nearly life-long suffering from illness marked his life and influenced his artistry, as composer and pianist. Chopin's struggle with a fateful disease, and his instinctive understanding that he would loose, made imprints on some of his works that carry a sombre intensity, bordering on desperation. The emotional tension of these compositions, that appear already from youth and henceforward, goes far beyond the musical conventions of the time. The nature of Chopin's disease has been subject to numerous speculations. This is not surprising, considering the wide spectrum of symptoms and the dynamics of his illness--or illnesses. Taking into account all reported symptoms and signs since childhood and henceforth, it is postulated that Chopin suffered from cystic fibrosis by heriditariness, possibly superimposed by tuberculosis or atypical mycobacteria. This would explain all his symptoms, and to some extent also the ambivalence of contemporary physicians. By available gene technology it would be possible to investigate, for proof or dismissal, if this hypothesis is true. PMID:16225061

  1. Parental Ease in Asking Others Not to Smoke and Respiratory Symptoms and Illness among Children

    OpenAIRE

    John Spangler; Zsuzsanna Csákányi; Todd Rogers; Gábor Katona

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) increases a child’s burden of respiratory conditions, but parental smoking bans may reduce such morbidity. This study evaluated household smoking bans and their relationship to respiratory illness in an outpatient otolaryngology clinic. Methods: The study was performed at the Heim Pal National Children’s Hospital, Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Department (Budapest, Hungary) from July to November, 2010. A consecutive series of childr...

  2. Management of paediatric illnesses by patent and proprietary medicine vendors in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Treleaven, Emily; Liu, Jenny; Prach, Lisa M; Isiguzo, Chinwoke

    2015-01-01

    Background In Nigeria and elsewhere, informal drug sellers, or patent and proprietary medicine vendors (PPMVs), are a common source of care for children with malaria, diarrhoea, and pneumonia. However, their knowledge and stocking of recommended treatments for these common childhood illnesses are not well understood. Methods A census of PPMV shops was conducted in Kogi and Kwara states. A shop survey was conducted on a subset of 250 shops. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess a...

  3. Childhood cancer in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Mariana; Hendricks, Marc; Davidson, Alan; Stefan, Cristina D; van Eyssen, Ann L; Uys, Ronelle; van Zyl, Anel; Hesseling, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The majority of children with cancer live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with little or no access to cancer treatment. The purpose of the paper is to describe the current status of childhood cancer treatment in Africa, as documented in publications, dedicated websites and information collected through surveys. Successful twinning programmes, like those in Malawi and Cameroon, as well as the collaborative clinical trial approach of the Franco-African Childhood Cancer Group (GFAOP), provide good models for childhood cancer treatment. The overview will hopefully influence health-care policies to facilitate access to cancer care for all children in Africa. PMID:24214130

  4. Assessing illness- and non-illness-based motivations for violence in persons with major mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Stephanie R; Morgan, Andrew; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2016-02-01

    Research on violence perpetrated by individuals with major mental illness (MMI) typically focuses on the presence of specific psychotic symptoms near the time of the violent act. This approach does not distinguish whether symptoms actually motivate the violence or were merely present at the material time. It also does not consider the possibility that non-illness-related factors (e.g., anger, substance use), or multiple motivations, may have been operative in driving violence. The failure to make these distinctions clouds our ability to understand the origins of violence in people with MMI, to accurately assess risk and criminal responsibility, and to appropriately target interventions to reduce and manage risk. This study describes the development of a new coding instrument designed to assess motivations for violence and offending among individuals with MMI, and reports on the scheme's interrater reliability. Using 72 psychiatric reports which had been submitted to the court to assist in determining criminal responsibility, we found that independent raters were able to assess different motivational influences for violence with a satisfactory degree of consistency. More than three-quarters (79.2%) of the sample were judged to have committed an act of violence as a primary result of illness, whereas 20.8% were deemed to have offended as a result of illness in conjunction with other non-illness-based motivating influences. Current findings have relevance for clarifying the rate of illness-driven violence among psychiatric patients, as well as legal and clinical issues related to violence risk and criminal responsibility more broadly. PMID:26322953

  5. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  6. Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get the ... See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of age ...

  7. Childhood vitiligo: Treatment paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrinder Jit Kanwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo differs from the adults by showing a higher incidence in females, segmental vitiligo being more common and less frequent association with other systemic autoimmune and endocrine disorders.Childhood vitiligo is often associated with a marked psychosocial and long lasting effect on the self-esteem of the affected children and their parents, hence an adequate treatment is very essential. Treatment of vitiligo is indeed a tough challenge for the dermatologists′ more so in the background of childhood vitiligo. Although multiple therapeutic modalities are available in the therapeutic armamentarium, not all can be used in children. This brief report updates regarding various therapies available in the treatment of childhood vitiligo.

  8. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  9. Tooth decay - early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribeiro NM, Ribeiro MA. Breastfeeding and early childhood caries: a critical review. J Pediatr (Rio J) . 2004;80:S199-S210. Sexton S, Natale R. Risks and benefits of pacifiers. Am Fam Physician . 2009; ...

  10. Psychiatric illness and sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segraves, R T

    1998-05-01

    Impaired sexual function has been noted to occur in various psychiatric illnesses. In affective disorders, disturbances of libido, erection and orgasm have been reported. Disordered sexual behavior has also been noted in patients with schizophrenia and anorexia nervosa. Clinical speculation suggests that anxiety disorders may also be associated with a higher prevalence of sexual problems. PMID:9647976

  11. Multiculturalism, chronic illness, and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, N E; Zola, I K

    1993-05-01

    To gain at least an initial understanding of the underlying beliefs and attitudes in a cross-cultural situation, we believe that the three key points discussed in this paper should prove a significant point of departure: 1. Traditional beliefs about the cause of chronic illness or disability will play a significant role in determining family and community attitudes toward individuals with a disability and will influence when, how, and why medical input is sought. 2. The expectation of survival on the part of parents and community will have an effect on the amount of time, energy, and cooperation shown by family and community for the individual who has an impairment. 3. The expectations by family and community for the social role(s) and individual with a chronic illness or disability will hold will affect a broad range of issues, including education, social integration, and independence. Furthermore, although chronic illness and disability are often considered as issues distinct from the full range of problems encountered in society for immigrant and minority groups, in fact, these issues could not be more closely tied. The frequently discussed concerns within the ethnic and minority community about the role of the family, integration and acculturation, social articulation with the greater American society, stress, cross-cultural misunderstanding, and outright prejudice can all compound the problems encountered for the chronically ill or disabled individual in a multicultural society. PMID:8479830

  12. Program for the Chronically Ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenherr, Arline; Schnarr, Barbara

    The program for chronically ill students in the Detroit public schools is described. Forms are presented listing needed information and implications for teachers of the following conditions: diabetes, sickle cell anemia, chronic renal failure, congenital heart disease, hemophilia, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, leukemia, and cystic fibrosis. The…

  13. Mental illness in inner London.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    From the perspective of general practice, hospital data indicating that the prevalence of mental illness is much higher in inner London than elsewhere in Britain may be misleading. A study in five inner London practices found morbidity patterns for mental disorder similar to those recorded in a national survey.

  14. Foodborne illness and microbial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne illnesses result from the consumption of food containing microbial agents such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or food contaminated by poisonous chemicals or bio-toxins. Pathogen proliferation is due to nutrient composition of foods, which are capable of supporting the growth of microorgan...

  15. Looking after chronically ill dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Stine B.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Sandøe, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    Studies in human medicine show that care of chronically ill family members can affect the caregiver's life in several ways and cause "caregiver burden." Companion animals are offered increasingly advanced veterinary treatments, sometimes involving home care. Owners choosing such treatments could ...

  16. New chopper control at ILL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descamps, F. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Proper phasing is an essential characteristic of the chopper systems used at ILL. A wide variety of choppers and selectors differing in weight, speed and bearing types are controlled by a unique electronic card performing digital adaptative filtering. The chopper regulation system is described. (author).

  17. Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashita, Yumiko; Kitamura, Masayasu; Saito, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional ...

  18. Endobronchial tumours in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endobronchial tumours are rare in childhood and are not often considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent pneumonitis and atelectasis. We present the clinical and radiological features of seven cases of childhood bronchial 'adenoma' seen at our hospital over a 16-year period. Because they are relatively slow growing, prompt diagnosis and early surgical treatment offer the best chance of cure in these patients. A review of the literature is given

  19. Abdominal MRI in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI provides diagnostic information in multiple abdominal diseases in childhood. Additional information to sonographic findings can be achieved in the diagnosis of abdominal malformation as well as in several inflammatory processes. In childhood cancer imaging MRI is essential at the beginning as well as during therapy to assess response to therapy. Because of radiation protection MRI has to replace CT in abdominal imaging in children. Some technical details have to be considered when children are examined. (orig.)

  20. Meningeal hemangiopericytoma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meningeal hemangiopericytoma (MHP) is extremely rare in childhood. Mean age at diagnosis is between 38 and 43 years. We present an 8-year-old boy with MHP of the middle cranial fossa. Imaging findings were indistinguishable from an aggressive bone tumor such as Ewing's sarcoma. Imaging findings are presented and discussed. Our case indicates that MHP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skull-base tumors despite the fact that MHP is extremely rare in childhood. (orig.)

  1. Endobronchial tumours in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endobronchial tumours are rare in childhood and are not often considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent pneumonitis and atelectasis. We present the clinical and radiological features of seven cases of childhood bronchial 'adenoma' seen at our hospital over a 16-year period. Because they are relatively slow growing, prompt diagnosis and early surgical treatment offer the best chance of cure in these patients. A review of the literature is given. (Copyright (c) Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Fractures in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical diagnosis of fractures in childhood can be very difficult. Therefore imaging, not only x-rays but also ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are of special importance. There are typical pediatric types of fractures due to epiphyseal plates and high flexibility of the bone. Fractures heal faster and dislocations can be spontaneously corrected better but also growth disturbance can occur. The second part of the article describes the special types of fractures with special attention to the characteristics in childhood.

  3. Stress and childhood epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Campen, J.S. van

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, characterized by the enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Children with epilepsy and their parents often report seizures precipitated by stress. In order to increase our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of stress on seizures in childhood epilepsy, we performed a variety of studies, which are described in this thesis. In part I we evaluate the extent of stress sensitivi...

  4. Early childhood aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

  5. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, J L; Olshan, A.F.; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. ...

  6. Childhood Ovarian Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadik, Kalpana; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2014-01-01

    Objective of this article is to appraise diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities in childhood ovarian tumor in background of available evidence. Literature search on Pubmed revealed various aspects of epidemiology, histopathological diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric ovarian tumor. 85 % of childhood tumors are germ cell tumors. The varied histopathological picture in germ cell tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and newer genetic markers like SALL4...

  7. Gene-Environment Interactions in Severe Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf eUher

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Severe mental illness is a broad category that includes schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and severe depression. Both genetic disposition and environmental exposures play important roles in the development of severe mental illness. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the roles of genetic and environmental depend on each other. Gene-environment interactions may underlie the paradox of strong environmental factors for highly heritable disorders, the low estimates of shared environmental influences in twin studies of severe mental illness and the heritability gap between twin and molecular heritability estimates. Sons and daughters of parents with severe mental illness are more vulnerable to the effects of prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures, suggesting that the expression of genetic liability depends on environment. In the last decade, gene-environment interactions involving specific molecular variants in candidate genes have been identified. Replicated findings include an interaction between a polymorphism in the AKT1 gene and cannabis use in the development of psychosis and an interaction between the length polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene and childhood maltreatment in the development of persistent depressive disorder. Bipolar disorder has been underinvestigated, with only a single study showing an interaction between a functional polymorphism in BDNF and stressful life events triggering bipolar depressive episodes. The first systematic search for gene-environment interactions has found that a polymorphism in CTNNA3 may sensitise the developing brain to the pathogenic effect of cytomegalovirus in utero, leading to schizophrenia in adulthood. Strategies for genome-wide investigations will likely include coordination between epidemiological and genetic research efforts, systematic assessment of multiple environmental factors in large samples, and prioritization of genetic variants.

  8. Invited Commentary: Childhood and Adolescent Obesity--Psychological and Behavioral Issues in Weight Loss Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B.; Dilks, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has tripled in the past three decades. This increase has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in obesity-related health complications among American youth. Thus, many obese youth are now experiencing illnesses that will threaten their life expectancy in the absence of significant weight loss.…

  9. Treating the Sleep Disorders of Childhood: Current Practice in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlet, L. B.

    2006-01-01

    Sleep disorders are common in childhood. Their prevalence is especially high in the presence of disability or chronic illness. They cause considerable stress to the children themselves and to their parents. Sleep deprivation leads to daytime behavioral problems and educational difficulties. In assessing sleep problems thorough history taking is…

  10. Evaluating illness representations in heart transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janelle, Caroline; O'Connor, Kieron; Dupuis, Gilles

    2016-09-01

    The aim was to see whether qualitative analysis improved quantitative measurement of illness perception after heart transplant. Two methods of evaluating illness representations were compared: one quantitative (administration of the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised) and one qualitative (phenomenological reduction). The qualitative analysis provided greater insight into the idiosyncratic and dynamic nature of the concept of illness representations. Adjustments to the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised are suggested to improve the evaluation of illness perception in terms of dispersion of scores, emotional impact, coping strategies and treatment, and social support, and ultimately to enhance interventions designed to promote treatment compliance. PMID:25626700

  11. Extreme Dysbiosis of the Microbiome in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Daniel; Ackermann, Gail; Khailova, Ludmila; Baird, Christine; Heyland, Daren; Kozar, Rosemary; Lemieux, Margot; Derenski, Karrie; King, Judy; Vis-Kampen, Christine; Knight, Rob; Wischmeyer, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Critical illness is hypothesized to associate with loss of "health-promoting" commensal microbes and overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria (dysbiosis). This dysbiosis is believed to increase susceptibility to nosocomial infections, sepsis, and organ failure. A trial with prospective monitoring of the intensive care unit (ICU) patient microbiome using culture-independent techniques to confirm and characterize this dysbiosis is thus urgently needed. Characterizing ICU patient microbiome changes may provide first steps toward the development of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions using microbiome signatures. To characterize the ICU patient microbiome, we collected fecal, oral, and skin samples from 115 mixed ICU patients across four centers in the United States and Canada. Samples were collected at two time points: within 48 h of ICU admission, and at ICU discharge or on ICU day 10. Sample collection and processing were performed according to Earth Microbiome Project protocols. We applied SourceTracker to assess the source composition of ICU patient samples by using Qiita, including samples from the American Gut Project (AGP), mammalian corpse decomposition samples, childhood (Global Gut study), and house surfaces. Our results demonstrate that critical illness leads to significant and rapid dysbiosis. Many taxons significantly depleted from ICU patients versus AGP healthy controls are key "health-promoting" organisms, and overgrowth of known pathogens was frequent. Source compositions of ICU patient samples are largely uncharacteristic of the expected community type. Between time points and within a patient, the source composition changed dramatically. Our initial results show great promise for microbiome signatures as diagnostic markers and guides to therapeutic interventions in the ICU to repopulate the normal, "health-promoting" microbiome and thereby improve patient outcomes. IMPORTANCE Critical illness may be associated with the loss of normal, "health

  12. Childhood adversity and adult health: Evaluating intervening mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R Jay; Thomas, Courtney S; Brown, Tyson H

    2016-05-01

    Substantial evidence has accumulated supporting a causal link between childhood adversity and risk for poor health years and even decades later. One interpretation of this evidence is that this linkage arises largely or exclusively from a process of biological embedding that is not modifiable by subsequent social context or experience - implying childhood as perhaps the only point at which intervention efforts are likely to be effective. This paper considers the extent to which this long-term association arises from intervening differences in social context and/or environmental experiences - a finding that would suggest that post-childhood prevention efforts may also be effective. Based on the argument that the selected research definition of adult health status may have implications for the early adversity-adult health linkage, we use a representative community sample of black and white adults (N = 1252) to evaluate this relationship across three health indices: doctor diagnosed illnesses, self-rated health, and allostatic load. Results generally indicate that observed relationships between childhood adversity and dimensions of adult health status were totally or almost totally accounted for by variations in adult socioeconomic position (SEP) and adult stress exposure. One exception is the childhood SEP-allostatic load association, for which a statistically significant relationship remained in the context of adult stress and SEP. This lone finding supports a conclusion that the impact of childhood adversity is not always redeemable by subsequent experience. However, in general, analyses suggest the likely utility of interventions beyond childhood aimed at reducing exposure to social stress and improving social and economic standing. Whatever the effects on adult health that derive from biological embedding, they appear to be primarily indirect effects through adult social context and exposure. PMID:27030896

  13. Caring for a Seriously Ill Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Serious Illness When Your Child's in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Caring for Siblings of Seriously Ill Children Preparing Your Child for Surgery Managing Home Health Care Marriage Advice for Parents of Children ...

  14. How to Report a Foodborne Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local health department helps them identify potential foodborne disease outbreaks. Public health officials learn about possible problems in ... that may cause illness during investigations of foodborne disease outbreaks. Contact CDC about a Foodborne Illness: Please call ...

  15. Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160011.html Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness Feeling they have control over their ... News) -- Children and teens who feel confident handling a chronic illness on their own appear better able ...

  16. Influences of Childhood Experiences on Early Childhood Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    Strekalova-Hughes, Ekaterina; Maarouf, Saoussan; Keskin, Burhanettin

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined whether or not childhood experiences of the early childhood education students affected their present personal beliefs and pedagogies. A digital survey was filled out by 58 students majoring in Early Childhood Education program. The participants were asked to identify and reflect on their impactful early experiences. The follow-up interviews with two participants were conducted to deepen the reflections on childhood experiences and explore their effects on the ...

  17. Adverse childhood experiences and associations with health-harming behaviours in young adults: surveys in eight eastern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Leckenby, Nicola; Jones, Lisa; Baban, Adriana; Kachaeva, Margarita; Povilaitis, Robertas; Pudule, Iveta; Qirjako, Gentiana; ULUKOL, Betül; Raleva, Marija; Terzic, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the association between adverse childhood experiences – e.g. abuse, neglect, domestic violence and parental separation, substance use, mental illness or incarceration – and the health of young adults in eight eastern European countries. Methods Between 2010 and 2013, adverse childhood experience surveys were undertaken in Albania, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Romania, the Russian Federation, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey. There were 10 6...

  18. The association between childhood trauma and facial emotion recognition in adults with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Manuela; Mahon, Katie; Shanahan, Megan; Solon, Carly; Ramjas, Elizabeth; Turpin, Justin; E Burdick, Katherine

    2015-10-30

    Many patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have difficulties in facial emotion recognition, which may also be impaired in maltreated children and in subjects who have a positive history of childhood traumatic experiences. Childhood trauma is reported with a high prevalence in BD and it is considered a risk factor for the disorder. As the relationship between facial emotion recognition and childhood trauma in BD has not yet been directly investigated, in this study we examined whether the presence of a childhood trauma in affectively stable BD patients was associated with poorer performance in emotion recognition. Seventy-five BD I and II participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire retrospectively assessing five types of childhood trauma (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, and emotional and physical neglect) and the Emotion Recognition Task evaluating the ability to correctly identify six basic facial emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, fear and surprise). Our results suggest that the presence of childhood trauma in participants with BD is associated with a more severe clinical presentation (earlier onset, longer duration of illness, and higher depressive symptom ratings) and that BD patients with a positive childhood history of emotional neglect perform worse than those without such a history in recognizing anger. PMID:26272021

  19. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  20. 'Chronic' identities in mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Peter, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The term 'chronicity' is still widely used in psychiatric discourse and practice. A category employed in political, administrative and therapeutic contexts, it guides practitioners' beliefs and actions. This paper attempts a review of the attitudes and procedures that result as a consequence of identifying 'chronically' disturbed identities in clinical practice. An essentially social, relational and materialist understanding of mental illness is used to highlight the kind of thinking underlying the notion of 'chronic' identities in day-to-day psychiatric routines. Problematising the notions of singularity and expressiveness, as well as mind/body- and self/other-distinctions, it claims the category itself is responsible for creating a 'chronic' kind of being. A spatial metaphor is presented in the conclusion, illustrating a mental strategy by which we can re-shape our thinking about 'chronic' identities. It attempts to describe how the shift from an epistemological to a praxeographic approach could build a more complete understanding of mental illness. PMID:23528064

  1. Media and mental illness: Relevance to India

    OpenAIRE

    S K Padhy; S Khatana; Sarkar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal o...

  2. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruite...

  3. Probiotics in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Sunit C; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics, optimum dosage regimens

  4. Nutritional interventions in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Tuck, Jeremy

    2007-02-01

    The metabolism of critical illness is characterised by a combination of starvation and stress. There is increased production of cortisol, catecholamines, glucagon and growth hormone and increased insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1. Phagocytic, epithelial and endothelial cells elaborate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, chemokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators, and antioxidant depletion ensues. There is hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlactataemia, increased gluconeogenesis and decreased glycogen production. Insulin resistance, particularly in relation to the liver, is marked. The purpose of nutritional support is primarily to save life and secondarily to speed recovery by reducing neuropathy and maintaining muscle mass and function. There is debate about the optimal timing of nutritional support for the patient in the intensive care unit. It is generally agreed that the enteral route is preferable if possible, but the dangers of the parenteral route, a route of feeding that remains important in the context of critical illness, may have been over-emphasised. Control of hyperglycaemia is beneficial, and avoidance of overfeeding is emphasised. Growth hormone is harmful. The refeeding syndrome needs to be considered, although it has been little studied in the context of critical illness. Achieving energy balance may not be necessary in the early stages of critical illness, particularly in patients who are overweight or obese. Protein turnover is increased and N balance is often negative in the face of normal nutrient intake; optimal N intakes are the subject of some debate. Supplementation of particular amino acids able to support or regulate the immune response, such as glutamine, may have a role not only for their potential metabolic effect but also for their potential antioxidant role. Doubt remains in relation to arginine supplementation. High-dose mineral and vitamin antioxidant therapy may have a place. PMID:17343768

  5. Probiotics in critically ill children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Sunit C.; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics, optimum dosage regimens

  6. Stereotactic lesioning for mental illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report stereotactically created lesioning by radiofrequency or Cyberknife radiosurgery for patients with mental illness. Since 1993, thirty-eight patients have undergone stereotactic psychosurgery for medically intractable mental illnesses. Two patients had aggressive behavior. Twenty-five patients suffered from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and ten patients had depression. Another patient suffered from atypical psychosis. Bilateral amygdalotomy and subcaudate tractotomy were done for aggressive behavior. Limbic leucotomy or anterior cingulotomy was done for CCD and subcaudate tractotomy with or without cingulotomy was done for depression. In twenty-three patients, the lesions were made by a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator. In fifteen cases, the lesions were made with Cyberknife Radiosurgery (CKRS). The Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) declined from 8 to 2 with clinical improvement during follow up period. With long-term follow up (meaning 57 months) in 25 OCDs, the mean Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Score (YBOCS) declined from 34 to 13 (n = 25). The Hamilton Depression scale (HAMD) for ten patients with depression declined from 38.5 to 10.5 (n = 10). There was no operative mortality and no significant morbidity except one case with transient urinary incontinence. Authors suggest that stereotactic psychosurgery by RF and CKRS could be a safe and effective means of treating some medically intractable mental illnesses. (author)

  7. Meditation's impact on chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, Ramita

    2003-01-01

    Meditation is becoming widely popular as an adjunct to conventional medical therapies. This article reviews the literature regarding the experience of chronic illness, theories about meditation, and clinical effects of this self-care practice. Eastern theories of meditation include Buddhist psychology. The word Buddha means the awakened one, and Buddhist meditators have been called the first scientists, alluding to more than 2500 years of precise, detailed observation of inner experience. The knowledge that comprises Buddhist psychology was derived inductively from the historical figure's (Prince Siddhartha Gautama) diligent self-inquiry. Western theories of meditation include Jungian, Benson's relaxation response, and transpersonal psychology. Clinical effects of meditation impact a broad spectrum of physical and psychological symptoms and syndromes, including reduced anxiety, pain, and depression, enhanced mood and self-esteem, and decreased stress. Meditation has been studied in populations with fibromyalgia, cancer, hypertension, and psoriasis. While earlier studies were small and lacked experimental controls, the quality and quantity of valid research is growing. Meditation practice can positively influence the experience of chronic illness and can serve as a primary, secondary, and/or tertiary prevention strategy. Health professionals demonstrate commitment to holistic practice by asking patients about use of meditation, and can encourage this self-care activity. Simple techniques for mindfulness can be taught in the clinical setting. Living mindfully with chronic illness is a fruitful area for research, and it can be predicted that evidence will grow to support the role of consciousness in the human experience of disease. PMID:14650573

  8. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things College Students Should Do For Their Eyes Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions Nov. 01, 2013 The ... cataract or eye disorder that needs treatment. Common Childhood Eye Diseases & Conditions When the following diseases are ...

  9. General Information about Childhood Ependymoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... without radiation therapy . Childhood ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma Treatment of newly diagnosed childhood ... Grade II), anaplastic ependymoma (WHO Grade III), or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma is: Surgery . After surgery, the ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Ependymoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... without radiation therapy . Childhood ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma Treatment of newly diagnosed childhood ... Grade II), anaplastic ependymoma (WHO Grade III), or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma is: Surgery . After surgery, the ...

  11. Hodgkin's disease in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actually, the majority of the children that suffer from Hodgkin illness can have long period of survive. The cures are related with the continuous achievements in biology molecular; techniques of different state, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, imagenology, proceedings and to the multidisciplinary handling. This article summarizes those aspects related with the illness and its treatment, taking in count the biggest impact of the secondary effects on children and adolescents that are in growth and active development. (Au)

  12. New predictions for Chernobyl childhood thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New, firmer predictions are presented for the number of childhood thyroid cancers caused by Chernobyl: between 3300 and 7600 over all time, with a central estimate of 4400. The high efficacy of medical treatment suggests that at least 70% of the sufferers should survive the illness, with 95% or better survival a realistic target given early and skilled surgery and treatment. In view of the reported lack of evidence for other long-term health effects and the comparatively small number of early deaths, the total figure for deaths attributable to the Chernobyl accident may currently be estimated as from a few hundreds to a few thousands, with one thousand as a reasonable central estimate. (author)

  13. Using videogames to treat childhood obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinenko D.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is one of the most dangerous pathologies; it can lead to serious illness in the absence of medical support. In this article we give an overview of the use of videogames for reducing and normalizing the weight of overweight and obese children. We discuss the categorization of the existing games and their limits, and we outline the perspectives of psychopedagogical research in the domain of game design for treating obese and overweight children. The role of long-term motivation in the treatment of obesity is one of the crucial questions we discuss. We try to understand how videogames can help children and parents maintain motivation during weight-loss treatment. The role of parents is undeniable in ensuring the success of weight-loss programs for overweight or obese children. Perhaps videogames can be the instrument for families’ lifestyle changes.

  14. Reconceptualizing the "Nature" of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Affrica

    2011-01-01

    This interdisciplinary article draws upon human geography to bring fresh new perspectives to the relationship between two commonly conflated concepts: "childhood" and "nature". Childhood studies scholars have gone a long way towards retheorizing childhood beyond the "natural" and the "universal" by pointing to its historical and cultural…

  15. Discovering the Culture of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We often filter our interactions with children through the lens of adulthood. View the culture of childhood through a whole new lens. Identify age-based bias and expand your outlook on and understanding of early childhood as a culture. Examine various elements of childhood culture: language, the power of believing, artistic expressions, and social…

  16. Birthweight and Childhood Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltiel, Ora; Tikellis, Gabriella; Linet, Martha; Golding, Jean; Lemeshow, Stanley; Phillips, Gary; Lamb, Karen; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Håberg, Siri E; Strøm, Marin; Granstrøm, Charlotta; Northstone, Kate; Klebanoff, Mark; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Milne, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Marie; Kogevinas, Manolis; Ha, Eunhee; Dwyer, Terence

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence relating childhood cancer to high birthweight is derived primarily from registry and case-control studies. We aimed to investigate this association, exploring the potential modifying roles of age at diagnosis and maternal anthropometrics, using prospectively collected data from...... the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium. METHODS: We pooled data on infant and parental characteristics and cancer incidence from six geographically and temporally diverse member cohorts [the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (UK), the Collaborative Perinatal Project (USA......). Childhood cancer (377 cases diagnosed prior to age 15 years) risk was analysed by type (all sites, leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and non-leukaemia) and age at diagnosis. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from Cox proportional hazards models stratified by cohort...

  17. The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Yanos, Philip T.; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We pro...

  18. Atopic endotype in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt;

    2016-01-01

    with asthma through early childhood (0-6 years) when analyzed as any sensitization (odds ratio [OR] range, 0.78-1.29; P ≥ .48). However, at 13 years of age, any sensitization was associated with asthma (OR range, 4.02-5.94; all P contrast, any sensitization was associated with eczema at ½, 1...

  19. Malignant tumors of childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children

  20. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Yang, Jun J; Hunger, Stephen P;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the impact of collaborative studies on advances in the biology and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. METHODS: A review of English literature on childhood ALL focusing on collaborative studies was performed. The resulting article was...

  1. Managing childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has steadily increased over the last decades, with approximately 35% of children aged 6-19 classified as overweight or obese. Recently, a plateau in the increasing rates of obesity has been observed. Despite this leveling off, overweight and obese children are hea...

  2. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  3. Childhood environment and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  4. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  5. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show

  6. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2003-01-01

    sometimes associated with this disorder, but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Interest in childhood disintegrative disorder has increased markedly in recent years and in this review attention is given to more recently published cases based on ICD-9, ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic systems...

  7. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on…

  8. Early Childhood Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Edgar, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Focused on early childhood development, this "UNICEF Intercom" asserts that developmental programs should aim to give children a fair chance at growth beyond survival. First presented are moral, scientific, social equity, economic, population, and programatic arguments for looking beyond the fundamental objective of saving young lives.…

  9. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hari Charan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a case of a 10-year-old female child who presented with normal development till 5 years of age followed by deterioration in previously acquired language and social skills with stereotypic hand movements suggestive of childhood disintegrative disorder. This case is reported as this condition is very rare.

  10. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  11. Tanzania : Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs and policies that affect young children in Tanzania. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER)-ECD framework and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition and social and child protection policies and inte...

  12. Uganda : Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs and policies that affect young children in Uganda and recommendations to move forward. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER)-ECD framework1 and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition and social and ...

  13. Childhood microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah G Al Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Children with suspected microbial keratitis require comprehensive evaluation and management. Early recognition, identifying the predisposing factors and etiological microbial organisms, and instituting appropriate treatment measures have a crucial role in outcome. Ocular trauma was the leading cause of childhood microbial keratitis in our study.

  14. Survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradwell, Moira

    2009-05-01

    Treatment of childhood cancer aims to cure with minimum risk to the patient's subsequent health. Monitoring the long-term effects of treatment on children and young adults is now an essential part of the continued care of survivors. Late effects include: impact on growth, development and intellectual function; organ system impairment; the development of second malignancies; and psychosocial problems. These can adversely affect long-term survival and the quality of life. In the UK, models of long-term follow up for survivors of childhood cancer vary from centre to centre but nurses have a significant role to play. Combining the nurse specialist role with that of the advanced practitioner ensures that the goals of improving the quality of nursing care to the survivors of childhood cancer are achieved and maximises the nursing contribution to their follow up. With the number of childhood cancer survivors increasing, providing holistic, health promotional care, tailored to the specific needs of survivors will be crucial for their future. PMID:19505060

  15. More stressors prior to and during the course of bipolar illness in patients from the United States compared with the Netherlands and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori; Leverich, Gabriele; Nolen, Willem; Kupka, Ralph; Grunze, Heinz; Frye, Mark; Suppes, Trisha; McElroy, Sue; Keck, Paul; Rowe, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Considerable data suggest that compared to some European countries, in the U.S. there are more childhood onset bipolar disorders, more adverse courses of illness, and greater treatment resistance. Psychosocial variables related to these findings have not been adequately explored. Therefore we analyz

  16. Severe childhood malaria syndromes defined by plasma proteome profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Burté

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM and severe malarial anemia (SMA are the most serious life-threatening clinical syndromes of Plasmodium falciparum infection in childhood. Therefore it is important to understand the pathology underlying the development of CM and SMA, as opposed to uncomplicated malaria (UM. Different host responses to infection are likely to be reflected in plasma proteome-patterns that associate with clinical status and therefore provide indicators of the pathogenesis of these syndromes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Plasma and comprehensive clinical data for discovery and validation cohorts were obtained as part of a prospective case-control study of severe childhood malaria at the main tertiary hospital of the city of Ibadan, an urban and densely populated holoendemic malaria area in Nigeria. A total of 946 children participated in this study. Plasma was subjected to high-throughput proteomic profiling. Statistical pattern-recognition methods were used to find proteome-patterns that defined disease groups. Plasma proteome-patterns accurately distinguished children with CM and with SMA from those with UM, and from healthy or severely ill malaria-negative children. CONCLUSIONS: We report that an accurate definition of the major childhood malaria syndromes can be achieved using plasma proteome-patterns. Our proteomic data can be exploited to understand the pathogenesis of the different childhood severe malaria syndromes.

  17. Childhood poverty and recruitment of adult emotion regulatory neurocircuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberzon, Israel; Ma, Sean T; Okada, Go; Ho, S Shaun; Swain, James E; Evans, Gary W

    2015-11-01

    One in five American children grows up in poverty. Childhood poverty has far-reaching adverse impacts on cognitive, social and emotional development. Altered development of neurocircuits, subserving emotion regulation, is one possible pathway for childhood poverty's ill effects. Children exposed to poverty were followed into young adulthood and then studied using functional brain imaging with an implicit emotion regulation task focused. Implicit emotion regulation involved attention shifting and appraisal components. Early poverty reduced left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex recruitment in the context of emotional regulation. Furthermore, this emotion regulation associated brain activation mediated the effects of poverty on adult task performance. Moreover, childhood poverty also predicted enhanced insula and reduced hippocampal activation, following exposure to acute stress. These results demonstrate that childhood poverty can alter adult emotion regulation neurocircuitry, revealing specific brain mechanisms that may underlie long-term effects of social inequalities on health. The role of poverty-related emotion regulatory neurocircuitry appears to be particularly salient during stressful conditions. PMID:25939653

  18. Indian Childhood Cirrhosis: Case Report and Pediatric Diagnostic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaivinder Yadav

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indian childhood cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease usually seen in paediatric age group and is unique to the Indian subcontinent. The definitive causative factor for the disease is not found till now but excess copper ingestion has been associated with it.Case presentation: An Indian origin one and half year old premorbidly normal male child presented with history of gradual distension of abdomen for 6 months and jaundice, generalized body swelling, high colour urine for 20 days. There was no history of any bleeding or feature suggestive of hepatic encephalopathy. On physical examination child was icteric, pale and had anasarca, massive hepatosplenomegaly and ascites. The child was evaluated for various causes of hepatic failure in pediatric age group including infective, metabolic and autoimmune etiologies. Unfortunately the child succumbed to the illness. The post-mortem liver biopsy and copper estimation cleared the air, revealing Indian childhood cirrhosis as the underlying etiology.Conclusion: Though Indian childhood cirrhosis is a rare entity and reported less frequently in literature, the treating pediatrician should keep this as a differential in case of pediatric hepatic failure. The liver biopsy and hepatic copper estimation are the gold standard diagnostic tests for diagnosing Indian Childhood cirrhosis.

  19. Sex differences in the effect of childhood trauma on the clinical expression of early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Myriam; Montalvo, Itziar; Creus, Marta; Cabezas, Ángel; Solé, Montse; Algora, Maria José; Moreno, Irene; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Labad, Javier

    2016-07-01

    Childhood trauma, a risk factor of psychosis, is associated the clinical expression of the illness (greater severity of psychotic symptoms; poorer cognitive performance). We aimed to explore whether there are sex differences in this relationship. We studied 79 individuals with a psychotic disorder (PD) with Cognitive Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) to assess cognition. Depressive, positive and negative psychotic symptoms, and global functioning were also assessed. History of childhood trauma was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Patients reported a greater history of childhood trauma on all CTQ domains (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, and physical and emotional neglect). A poorer cognitive performance was also observed in PD when compared to HS. No sex differences were found in the CTQ scores. In the relationship between childhood trauma and psychopathological symptoms, significant correlations were found between CTQ scores and positive and negative psychotic symptoms, depressive symptoms and poorer functionality, but only in women. Childhood trauma was associated with poorer social cognition in both men and women. Of all CTQ dimensions, emotional neglect and physical neglect were more clearly associated with a more severe psychopathological and cognitive profile. Our results suggest that childhood trauma, particularly emotional and physical neglect, is associated with the clinical expression of psychosis and that there are sex differences in this relationship. PMID:27234188

  20. Childhood motor coordination and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Maeda, Justin;

    2009-01-01

    -13 years old. Adult diagnostic information was available for 244 members of the sample. Participants fell into three groups: children whose mothers or fathers had a psychiatric hospital diagnosis of schizophrenia (N=94); children who had at least one parent with a psychiatric record of hospitalization for......OBJECTIVE: The authors examined whether motor coordination difficulties assessed in childhood predict later adult schizophrenia spectrum outcomes. METHOD: A standardized childhood neurological examination was administered to a sample of 265 Danish children in 1972, when participants were 10...... registers completed in May 2007. RESULTS: Children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (N=32) displayed significantly higher scores on a scale of coordination deficits compared with those who did not develop a mental illness in this category (N=133). CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study...

  1. Rediscovering Morality through the Concept of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Shepherd, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This chapter looks at John Dewey's consideration of childhood as a platform which to view the significance of childhood in moral life. It argues that the concept of childhood is integral to our thinking in the teaching and learning relationship. When we consider childhood from Dewey's platform, we see that childhood is relevant to…

  2. Evolving Definitions of Mental Illness and Wellness

    OpenAIRE

    Tara W. Strine, MPH; Satvinder Dhingra, MPH; Lela R. McKnight-Eily, PhD; Carol D. Ryff, PhD; Elsie J. Freeman, MD, MPH; Ronald W. Manderscheid, PhD

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused definition of mental illnesses, and from an “absence of disease” model to one that stresses positive psychological function for mental health. Currently, wellness refers to the degree to which one feels positive and enthusiastic about oneself and life, whereas illness refers to the presence of disease. These definitions apply to ph...

  3. Heat Illness in Hawai‘i

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Heat illness is a commonly encountered health problem in the Hawaiian Islands. Year round warm temperatures, proximity to the equator, and high humidity combined with a plethora of opportunities for outdoor activities put many individuals at risk. This paper will focus on the physiology, identification, and treatment of varying forms of heat illness. Severe heat illness can be life threatening. All outdoor enthusiasts should have a basic understanding of how to recognize this potentially life...

  4. The Fight against Stigma toward Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Cam

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In many health conditions, stigma is receiving increasing attention. Public stigmatization toward mental illness can affect particularly the patients and family memberships to help seeking behavior and treatment. These stigmatized persons in the society are deprived of rights and benefits. In this paper, reasons and consequences of stigma associated with mental illness are reviewed and combat against mental illnesses originated stigma are discussed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1.000: 71-78

  5. Vitamin D deficiency in pediatric critical illness

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran B. Hebbar, MD, FCCM; Michael Wittkamp, MD, FAAP; Jessica A. Alvarez, PhD, RD; Courtney E. McCracken, PhD; Vin Tangpricha, MD, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The potential role for vitamin D in infection has been well described in adults. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D status and markers of innate immunity and infection in critically ill children. Hypothesis: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in children with critical illness and correlates with the severity of illness and dysfunction in innate immunity. Methods: We ...

  6. Illness in a redeployed soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dana R

    2007-05-01

    Overseas deployments place military personnel at risk for tropical diseases not typically observed on the U.S. mainland. This case describes the first reported case of brucellosis returning from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. A 31-year-old infantry soldier complained of a 6-week history of headaches, relapsing fever, and constitutional symptoms since returning from Iraq. This soldier was determined to have the only reported case of brucellosis, but was one of many soldiers at risk from eating unpasteurized cheese on the local economy. Although malaria and leishmaniasis continue to be the most common deployment-related illnesses, brucellosis must also be considered in the differential of any redeployed soldier with headache, fever, and body aches. Public health as well as command elements must reinforce their role in preventing exposure to this pathogen. PMID:17521107

  7. Wounded, Ill, and Injured Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    The Washington Post articles of February 2007 led to a close examination of the care provided Wounded Warriors at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Subsequent reports by the President's Commission, Independent Review Group, and Defense Health Board all recommended ways to improve care. Joint Task Force National Capital Region Medical was established to implement the recommended improvements in Warrior care, and the recommendations of the Base Realignment and Closure Commission to close Walter Reed and realign the staff into a new Walter Reed National Military Medical Center and Fort Belvoir Community Hospital. It accomplished these tasks, maintained existing wounded, ill, and injured care, and safely transferred patients during the height of the fighting season in Afghanistan. It successfully accomplished its mission through engaged leadership, establishing an appropriate environment for Warrior care, careful management of casualty flow, and robust communication with all parties affected by the changes. The lessons learned in Warrior care should be considered when planning future military medical operations. PMID:27215871

  8. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lee A; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-02-01

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213

  9. Overcoming the Odds: Long-term psychosocial outcomes in survivors of meningococcal septic shock in childhood, and in their parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C.A.C. Vermunt (Lindy)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSeptic shock, caused by Neisseria meningitidis with petechiae and/or purpura, also called Meningococcal Septic Shock (MSS), is the most serious form of meningococcal infection in early childhood. MSS is a life-threatening illness in mostly previously healthy children, with an unexpected

  10. Subsidizing Early Childhood Education and Care for Parents on Low Income: Moving beyond the Individualized Economic Rationale of Neoliberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Donald; Envy, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Neoliberalism and an associated "new politics of parenting" adopts a predominantly economic rationale which discursively positions early childhood education and care (ECEC) as essential to tackling several social ills by allowing individual parents (particularly young mothers) to improve their labour force participation, thus boosting…

  11. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  12. Genetics of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.

  13. Tibetan Nomad Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karma Dondrub

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A Tibetan Nomad Childhood by Kar+ma don 'grub. Kar+ma's life begins on the boundless Tibetan grassland in 1983 in Yushu (Yul shul Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sgnon (Qinghai Province. Living in a black yak hair tent, Kar+ma begins tending his family's yak calves as soon as he can walk, in a grassland so barren that he is startled upon first seeing a tree at the age of eight. Charlatan livestock-stealing monks, anthrax, death, birth, happiness, and encounters with modern education create a powerful, unparalleled account of Tibetan nomad childhood in the late twentieth century - a way of life that will soon be forever gone.

  14. Childhood obesity: highlights of AMA Expert Committee recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Goutham

    2008-07-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasingly serious problem; 13.9 percent of children two to five years of age, 18.8 percent of children six to 11 years of age, and 17.4 percent of adolescents 12 to 19 years of age in America are obese. Practical strategies that primary care physicians can use to tackle the problem are scarce. The American Medical Association recently convened an expert panel to address this need. Evidence about how best to manage and prevent obesity was reviewed and incorporated into a series of reports. The Expert Committee on the Assessment, Prevention, and Treatment of Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity recommends addressing the issue of weight with all children at least once a year. Family physicians are urged to assess key dietary habits (e.g., consumption of sweetened beverages), physical activity habits, readiness to change lifestyle habits, and family history of obesity and obesity-related illnesses. Laboratory testing recommendations depend on the degree of obesity and associated illnesses. For children with a body mass index between the 85th and 94th percentiles but who have no obesity-related illnesses, a fasting lipid profile should be done. Those with the same body mass index and obesity-related illnesses should also have tests for alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and fasting blood glucose levels. Measurement of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels should be added in children with a body mass index above the 95th percentile. A four-stage approach to treatment of childhood obesity is recommended. Many of these recommendations can be carried out by family physicians for treatment and prevention. These include advising families to limit consumption of sweetened beverages and fast food, limit screen time, engage in physical activity for at least 60 minutes per day, and encourage family meals on most, and preferably all, days of the week. PMID:18649611

  15. Brain Development in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Although human brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, it is a non-linear process both structurally and functionally. Here we review studies of brain development in healthy children from the viewpoint of structure and the perfusion of gray and white matter. Gray matter volume increases and then decreases with age, with the developmental time of the peak volume differing among brain regions in the first and second decades of life. On the other hand, white matter volum...

  16. Epidemiology of childhood cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Terracini Benedetto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract At least in economically developed countries, in the last decades, the incidence of childhood cancer has increased and the increase is unlikely to be an artefact. Causes of the increase have not been identified: a role of preventable environmental exposures is possible. Changes have also occurred in the age distribution of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Currently, children with cancer can be successfully treated and cured. However, access to the best therapy differs widely among coun...

  17. Cultivating childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Greene-Martin, DeCleasha

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the levels of obesity in the United States has risen greatly especially amongst children. Doctors, psychologists, and other scientists have been studying the growing problem for years. Implications for childhood obesity not only have enormous physical consequences but emotional repercussions which can affect the child’s academic and social development. A number of factors have been identified as having an effect on these children; family life reveals the grocery store habits o...

  18. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining if the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on self-regulation, academic motivation, and internalized compliance/internalization of standards. Based on the accumulated body of evidence, we conclude that self...

  19. Childhood lymphoma in Yorkshire.

    OpenAIRE

    Davison, A. M.; McKinney, P A; Bailey, C C; Lewis, I.; Cartwright, R A; O'Brien, C.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: A histopathological review of 43 cases of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in an attempt to identify histological variables of prognostic importance. METHOD: Each case was reclassified according to the Working Formulation and an attempt made to allocate an immunophenotype using a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Results were correlated with clinical data on site and survival. RESULTS: Of the 43 cases, 30 were males and 13 females. There were 17 cases of lymphoblastic lymphoma, 15 c...

  20. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice UYSAL; Çağlayan DİNÇER

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  1. Stress and Obesity in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Felix-Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious health problem and prevalence increases dramatically around the world, including Sweden. The aim of the current thesis was to examine parents’ and children’s stress in relation to childhood obesity. Parenting stress, social support, parental worries, and serious life events, as well as children’s temperament, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, saliva cortisol, weight and height were measured to estimate stress and the relation between stress and childhood obesit...

  2. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Sagar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  3. Investigation of Childhood Abuse Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    AYDIN, Oktay

    2013-01-01

    In this study childhood abuse experiences between 18-25 years old males wasinvestigated according to some variables. The sample consist of 308 male. ChildhoodTrauma Questionnaire was applied to sample group to determine their childhood abuseexperiences. In addition to this, to determine some of demographical characteristics of thesubjects, a questionnaire was used. ANOVA and Pearson Moment Correlation CoefficentTechniques were used on the obtained results.At the and of the research;- People u...

  4. Childhood obesity and prevention approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Yildiz; Berna Eren Fidanci; Derya Suluhan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short and long term health problems associated with obesity. Being overweight or obese may increase the rate of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It may contribute to shortening life expectancy and adversely affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to prevent childhood obe...

  5. Childhood ovarian malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadik, Kalpana; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2014-04-01

    Objective of this article is to appraise diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities in childhood ovarian tumor in background of available evidence. Literature search on Pubmed revealed various aspects of epidemiology, histopathological diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric ovarian tumor. 85 % of childhood tumors are germ cell tumors. The varied histopathological picture in germ cell tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and newer genetic markers like SALL4 and karyopherin-2 (KPNA2) have been helpful in differentiating ovarian yolk sac tumor from dysgerminoma, teratomas, and other pictures of hepatoid, endometrioid, clear cell carcinomatous, and adenocarcinomatous tissues with varied malignant potential. Before platinum therapy, these tumors were almost fatal in children. Fertility-conserving surgery with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin has dramatically changed the survival rates in these patients. This modality gives cancer cure with healthy offspring to female patients with childhood ovarian tumor. Evidence also supports this protocol resulting in successful pregnancy rates and safety of cytotoxic drugs in children born to these patients. PMID:24757335

  6. Random Assignment to Illness: Teaching Illness and Disease in the Introductory Health Communication Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jennifer B.; Riley, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A key concept in health communication is the difference between disease and illness: disease refers to the physical manifestations of a condition, while illness encompasses the physical, emotional, social, communicative, and psychological experience of living with a condition. The individual illness experience takes into account the full story of…

  7. Illness representations in patients with hand injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2009-07-01

    Differences in illness perception about hand injury may partly explain the variation in health behaviours such as adherence to post-operative therapy, coping strategy, emotional response and eventual clinical outcome. This study examined the illness perception of patients with hand injuries in the acute trauma setting.

  8. Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…

  9. Impact of Different Childhood Adversities on 1-Year Outcomes of Psychotic Disorder in the Genetics and Psychosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Antonella; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S; Kolliakou, Anna; O'Connor, Jennifer; Di Forti, Marta; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Morgan, Craig; Fisher, Helen L

    2016-03-01

    While the role of childhood adversity in increasing the risk of psychosis has been extensively investigated, it is not clear what the impact of early adverse experiences is on the outcomes of psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated associations between childhood adversity and 1-year outcomes in 285 first-presentation psychosis patients. Exposure to childhood adversity prior to 17 years of age was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Data on illness course, symptom remission, length of psychiatric hospitalization, compliance with medication, employment, and relationship status were extracted from clinical records for the year following first contact with mental health services for psychosis. Seventy-one percent of patients reported exposure to at least 1 type of childhood adversity (physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental separation, parental death, disrupted family arrangements, or being taken into care). No robust associations were found between childhood adversity and illness course or remission. However, childhood physical abuse was associated with almost 3-fold increased odds of not being in a relationship at 1-year follow-up compared to patients who did not report such adverse experiences. There was also evidence of a significant association between parental separation in childhood and longer admissions to psychiatric wards during 1-year follow-up and 2-fold increased odds of noncompliance with medication compared to those not separated from their parents. Therefore, our findings suggest that there may be some specificity in the impact of childhood adversity on service use and social functioning among psychosis patients over the first year following presentation to mental health services. PMID:26373540

  10. Disparities in Adverse Childhood Experiences among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adults: Results from a Multi-State Probability-Based Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Judith P Andersen; John Blosnich

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (e.g., physical, sexual and emotional abuse, neglect, exposure to domestic violence, parental discord, familial mental illness, incarceration and substance abuse) constitute a major public health problem in the United States. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale is a standardized measure that captures multiple developmental risk factors beyond sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) individuals...

  11. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Childhood Autobiographical Memory Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W.; Anda, Robert F.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between childhood autobiographical memory disturbance (CAMD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) which are defined as common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors. Methods: We use the ACE score (an integer count of eight different categories of ACEs) as a measure of cumulative exposure…

  12. Musicians' illness perceptions of musculoskeletal complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Laura M; Vliet Vlieland, Theodora P M; Fiocco, Marta; Kaptein, Ad A; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to know the views of people about their illness, i.e., illness perceptions, determine coping strategies, and outcome. Previous research suggests a higher prevalence and a different perception of musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and nonmusicians. The aim of this study is to compare illness perceptions related to musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and nonmusicians. In this cross-sectional study, students from three music academies (n = 345) and one university medical center (n = 2,870) in the Netherlands received an electronic questionnaire concerning questions on sociodemographic characteristics, use of musical instruments, occurrence and characteristics of musculoskeletal complaints in the past year, and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Baseline and B-IPQ scores were compared between the samples by means of t tests, chi-square tests, and regression models to adjust for differences in sociodemographic characteristics. Eighty-three music academy students and 494 medical students completed the questionnaire (response rates, 25.5 and 17.6 %, respectively). Seventy-four (89 %) persons in the musician group and 382 (78 %) persons in the nonmusician group reported occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints during the last 12 months. Adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, the B-IPQ scores of the domains consequences (my illness is a serious condition), concern (I am extremely concerned about my illness), and emotions (my illness makes me scared) were significantly higher among musicians, whereas personal control (there is little I can do to improve my illness), identity (number of symptoms patient sees as part of illness) were not significantly different. Music academy students had a significant more positive score on treatment control. Music academy students report more negative perceptions of their musculoskeletal complaints compared to medical students. Although some selection bias is

  13. The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanos, Philip T; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H

    2010-04-01

    The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We propose that accepting a definition of oneself as mentally ill and assuming that mental illness means incompetence and inadequacy impact hope and self-esteem, which further impact suicide risk, coping, social interaction, vocational functioning, and symptom severity. Evidence supports most of the predictions made by the model. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation services are discussed. PMID:20802840

  14. Teachers in Early Childhood Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilderry, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…

  15. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  16. Markets and Childhood Obesity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John

    2006-01-01

    In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of food fell. In…

  17. Childhood emotional problems and self-perceptions predict weight gain in a longitudinal regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collier David

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and weight gain are correlated with psychological ill health. We predicted that childhood emotional problems and self-perceptions predict weight gain into adulthood. Methods Data on around 6,500 individuals was taken from the 1970 Birth Cohort Study. This sample was a representative sample of individuals born in the UK in one week in 1970. Body mass index was measured by a trained nurse at the age of 10 years, and self-reported at age 30 years. Childhood emotional problems were indexed using the Rutter B scale and self-report. Self-esteem was measured using the LAWSEQ questionnaire, whilst the CARALOC scale was used to measure locus of control. Results Controlling for childhood body mass index, parental body mass index, and social class, childhood emotional problems as measured by the Rutter scale predicted weight gain in women only (least squares regression N = 3,359; coefficient 0.004; P = 0.032. Using the same methods, childhood self-esteem predicted weight gain in both men and women (N = 6,526; coefficient 0.023; P N = 6,522; coefficient 0.022; P Conclusion Emotional problems, low self-esteem and an external locus of control in childhood predict weight gain into adulthood. This has important clinical implications as it highlights a direction for early intervention strategies that may contribute to efforts to combat the current obesity epidemic.

  18. Combined dyslipidemia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavey, Rae-Ellen W

    2015-01-01

    Combined dyslipidemia (CD) is now the predominant dyslipidemic pattern in childhood, characterized by moderate-to-severe elevation in triglycerides and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), minimal elevation in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and reduced HDL-C. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that the CD pattern is represented at the lipid subpopulation level as an increase in small, dense LDL and in overall LDL particle number plus a reduction in total HDL-C and large HDL particles, a highly atherogenic pattern. In youth, CD occurs almost exclusively with obesity and is highly prevalent, seen in more than 40% of obese adolescents. CD in childhood predicts pathologic evidence of atherosclerosis and vascular dysfunction in adolescence and young adulthood, and early clinical cardiovascular events in adult life. There is a tight connection between CD, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the metabolic syndrome, suggesting an integrated pathophysiological response to excessive weight gain. Weight loss, changes in dietary composition, and increases in physical activity have all been shown to improve CD significantly in children and adolescents in short-term studies. Most importantly, even small amounts of weight loss are associated with significant decreases in triglyceride levels and increases in HDL-C levels with improvement in lipid subpopulations. Diet change focused on limitation of simple carbohydrate intake with specific elimination of all sugar-sweetened beverages is very effective. Evidence-based recommendations for initiating diet and activity change are provided. Rarely, drug therapy is needed, and the evidence for drug treatment of CD in childhood is reviewed. PMID:26343211

  19. Pessimistic explanatory style and response to illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, E H; Peterson, C

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a pessimistic explanatory style is a risk factor for illness, but the factors linking explanatory style and illness are unknown. One's characteristic response to poor health may mediate this relationship. Perhaps pessimistic individuals act helplessly in the face of their symptoms, thereby exacerbating disease. In the present study, we investigated this possibility by asking 96 young adults to complete measures of explanatory style, habitual response to illness, and ways of coping during their most recent episode of illness. Subjects who explain bad events pessimistically (with internal, stable, and global causes) reported more frequent illnesses during the past year and rated their overall health more poorly than those who habitually favor external, unstable, and specific explanations. When ill, the pessimistic subjects were less likely than their optimistic counterparts to take active steps to combat their illness. Our results suggest that one pathway leading from pessimistic explanatory style to poor health is mundane: passivity in the face of disease. PMID:2369407

  20. Migraine and lifestyle in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casucci, Gerardo; Villani, Veronica; d'Onofrio, Florindo; Russo, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Migraine is one of the most frequently reported somatic complaints in childhood, with a negative impact on health-related quality of life. The incidence of migraine in childhood has substantially increased over the past 30 years, probably due to both increased awareness of the disease and lifestyle changes in this age group. Indeed, several conditions have been identified as risk factors for migraine in childhood. Amongst these, dysfunctional family situation, the regular consumption of alcohol, caffeine ingestion, low level of physical activity, physical or emotional abuse, bullying by peers, unfair treatment in school and insufficient leisure time seem to play a critical role. Nevertheless, there are only few studies about the association between migraine and lifestyle in childhood, due to previous observations specifically focused on "headache" in children. In this brief review, we will concentrate upon recent studies aimed to explore migraine and lifestyle risk factors in childhood. PMID:26017522

  1. Stroke in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Serap Teber; Gülhis Deda

    2011-01-01

    Stroke in childhood is one of the most common causes of death or severe impairment worldwide, with annual incidence estimated from 1,3 to 13 cases/100.000 population. The definition of stroke consists both of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) and hemorrhagic stroke. The incidence of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in children is approximately the same, in contrast to adults, while the incidence is higher in boys than it is in girls. Risks factors for pediatric stroke differ from those for adults...

  2. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  3. Nonfatal suicidal behavior among women prisoners: the predictive roles of childhood victimization, childhood neglect, and childhood positive support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, Stephen J; Onifade, Eyitayo; Pettus-Davis, Carrie

    2014-04-01

    Women entering prison report high rates of childhood victimization. Women in prison also report higher rates of nonfatal suicidal behavior (self-reported suicide attempts) than women in the general population and similar rates to their male counterparts despite having significantly lower suicide rates than males in the general population. Yet, there is a dearth of research that addresses the relationship between childhood victimization and suicidality for women prisoners in the United States. The purpose of this study is (a) to assess the relationship between childhood victimization and nonfatal suicidal behavior for a random sample of women prisoners; (b) to investigate predictive differences between childhood physical victimization, childhood sexual victimization, childhood neglect, and childhood support; and (c) to determine whether women prisoners with higher frequencies of childhood victimization and neglect are more likely to have attempted suicide than women prisoners with lower frequencies. Results indicate that childhood victimization, neglect, and lack of support are all significantly associated with nonfatal suicidal behavior among women prisoners. Frequency of childhood neglect had a larger effect size than frequency of childhood physical victimization, childhood sexual victimization, and lack of support. The results of this study add to the growing body of literature on childhood victimization and suicidality in general, and nonfatal suicidal behavior for prisoner populations in particular. The article ends with a discussion on clinical implications; particularly the finding that frequency of childhood victimization, childhood neglect, and lack of childhood support matters when determining the risk of suicidality. PMID:23315427

  4. Perceptions of childhood undernutrition among rural households on the Kenyan coast – a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Berkley, JA; Jones, C.; Molyneux, CS; Muraya, KW

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nutrition plays an important role in child survival and development. Treatment action in the management of child health and nutrition is influenced by perceptions of illness, and gender plays an important role. However, little is known about if and how moderate malnutrition is recognised among lay populations, or how local social norms and intra-household dynamics affect decisions to seek biomedical assistance for nutritional concerns. In this paper we describe how childhood nutri...

  5. Asthma in adolescents and young adults: relationship with early childhood respiratory morbidity.

    OpenAIRE

    Kolnaar, B G; Lier, A. van; van den Bosch, W J; Folgering, H; Herwaarden, C. van; van den Hoogen, H J; van Weel, C

    1994-01-01

    AIM. This study was undertaken to examine the relationship between respiratory illness in early childhood and asthma in adolescence and young adulthood (age group 10-23 years). METHOD. The study population comprised 277 boys and 274 girls, born between 1967 and 1978 and registered from their birth to the year of study (1989) on the practice lists of the four general practices taking part in the continuous morbidity registration project (CMR) at the University of Nijmegen in the Netherlands. D...

  6. The evolution of headache from childhood to adulthood: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Antonaci, F; C. Voiticovschi-Iosob; A.L. Di Stefano; Galli, F.; A. Ozge; Balottin, U

    2014-01-01

    Headache is one of the most common disorders in childhood, with an estimated 75% of children reporting significant headache by the age of 15 years. Pediatric migraine is the most frequent recurrent headache disorder, occurring in up to 28% of older teenagers. Headaches rank third among the illness-related causes of school absenteeism and result in substantial psychosocial impairment among pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to clarify the evolution of the clinical features of primar...

  7. ILL experimental reports and theory college activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is the collection of reports describing experimental work performed at the I.L.L. They have been arranged by subject (from the I.L.L. classification scheme) and are published under their proposal number. (Only those reports received up to Jan. 19, 1987 have been included). In order to have connection between the theory group and the experimental activities of the I.L.L., scientific activity of theoreticians has been included in the form of a personal review of activity. For any further details, readers should contact directly individual scientists

  8. Illness theodicies in the New Testament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, R M

    1986-12-01

    The New Testament writers advocate or at least mention six different religious explanations for the origin of sickness. First, Satan may thus victimize the innocent. Second, God may send sickness as a punishment for the sufferer's sins. Third, God may send sickness to punish one's parents' sins. Fourth, God may so punish one's own sins committed in a previous life. Fifth, God may inflict illness in order to show his power by subsequent healing. Sixth, God may inflict illness in order to show his power by sustaining the sufferer through the illness instead of healing it. PMID:24301694

  9. Glucose metabolism in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Møller, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    compared to normoglycemia. Insulin is used for treating hyperglycemia in the critically ill patients but may be complicated by hypoglycemia, which is difficult to detect in these patients and which may lead to serious neurological sequelae and death. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1...... glucose (BG). This is taken advantage of in the treatment of patients with T2DM, for whom GLP-1 analogs have been introduced during the recent years. Infusion of GLP-1 also lowers the BG level in critically ill patients without causing severe hypoglycemia. The T2DM and critical illness share similar...

  10. Caregiver-fabricated illness in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetting, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    In October 2004, a case of caregiver-fabricated illness in a child was identified in a children's hospital in the Midwest. This case report begins with a discussion and explanation of the various nomenclatures that have been used by the healthcare community such as Munchausen syndrome by proxy, factitious disorder by proxy, medical child abuse, and caregiver-fabricated illness in a child. A discussion of case facts is then presented, which includes key concepts that nurses should know regarding a diagnosis of caregiver-fabricated illness in a child and the interventions that should be taken. PMID:25900681

  11. A Study of the Relationship between Early Childhood Program Attributes and Early Childhood Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Novella M.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative correlational study focuses on the relationship between early childhood program attributes and early childhood reading success. Data will be gathered from early childhood sites with grades prekindergarten through second grade in which early childhood program attributes exist and early childhood reading is measured by the…

  12. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1983-04-01

    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography.

  13. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NNR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs

  14. Fatal cases of influenza a in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin F Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the northern hemisphere winter of 2003-04 antigenic variant strains (A/Fujian/411/02 -like of influenza A H3N2 emerged. Circulation of these strains in the UK was accompanied by an unusually high number of laboratory confirmed influenza associated fatalities in children. This study was carried out to better understand risk factors associated with fatal cases of influenza in children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Case histories, autopsy reports and death registration certificates for seventeen fatal cases of laboratory confirmed influenza in children were analyzed. None had a recognized pre-existing risk factor for severe influenza and none had been vaccinated. Three cases had evidence of significant bacterial co-infection. Influenza strains recovered from fatal cases were antigenically similar to those circulating in the community. A comparison of protective antibody titres in age stratified cohort sera taken before and after winter 2003-04 showed that young children had the highest attack rate during this season (21% difference, 95% confidence interval from 0.09 to 0.33, p = 0.0009. Clinical incidences of influenza-like illness (ILI in young age groups were shown to be highest only in the years when novel antigenic drift variants emerged. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work presents a rare insight into fatal influenza H3N2 in healthy children. It confirms that circulating seasonal influenza A H3N2 strains can cause severe disease and death in children in the apparent absence of associated bacterial infection or predisposing risk factors. This adds to the body of evidence demonstrating the burden of severe illness due to seasonal influenza A in childhood.

  15. Advanced Illness: Holding on and Letting Go

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order this publication Printer-friendly version Introduction Our culture tells us that we should fight hard against ... come up during chronic illness. Finally, it presents ideas on how to go about making the decisions ...

  16. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder becoming more severe when that person abuses heroin during periods of mania. Either substance abuse or mental illness can develop first. A person experiencing a mental health condition may turn to drugs and alcohol as ...

  17. Breastfeeding your ill or premature baby

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    This booklet provides information about the benefits of breastfeeding for ill or premature babies in intensive care, as well as advice on how to express milk, maintain a good supply of milk and correct storage of breast milk.

  18. Methods of Solving Ill-Posed Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasamurthy, Suresh B

    2012-01-01

    Many physical problems can be formulated as operator equations of the form Au = f. If these operator equations are ill-posed, we then resort to finding the approximate solutions numerically. Ill-posed problems can be found in the ?elds of mathematical analysis, mathematical physics, geophysics, medicine, tomography, technology and ecology. The theory of ill-posed problems was developed in the 1960's by several mathematicians, mostly Soviet and American. In this report we review the methods of solving ill-posed problems and recent developments in this ?eld. We review the variational regularization method, the method of quasi-solution, iterative regularization method and the dynamical systems method. We focus mainly on the dynamical systems method as it is found that the dynamical systems method is more effi?cient than the regularization procedure.

  19. Concept Analysis of Illness Engulfment in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Danny; Robinson, Jennifer C

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia has a significant risk of damaging an individual's self-concept. Through the process of illness engulfment an individual's self-concept becomes reorganized entirely around the experience of having schizophrenia. The purpose of this manuscript is to clarify the structure and function of the concept of illness engulfment in schizophrenia using Walker and Avant's (2011) method of concept analysis. Data came from a review of scholarly literature, as well as contemporary and historical art, literature, music, and other media forms. The analysis discussed two defining attributes of experience of illness and impact on self-concept with a total of seven indicators. The article listed antecedents, consequences, and discussed the Modified Engulfment Scale as empirical referents. Fictional cases were developed to illustrate the concept. Finally, the concept of illness engulfment was discussed within the framework of the Roy Adaptation Model. PMID:27256943

  20. Clinical review: Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, Greet; De Jonghe, Bernard; Bruyninckx, Frans; Berghe, Greet Van den

    2008-01-01

    Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) and myopathy (CIM) are major complications of severe critical illness and its management. CIP/CIM prolongs weaning from mechanical ventilation and physical rehabilitation since both limb and respiratory muscles can be affected. Among many risk factors implicated, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and multiple organ failure appear to play a crucial role in CIP/CIM. This review focuses on epidemiology, diagnostic challenges, the current under...

  1. Inequality in the social consequences of illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, B; Whitehead, M; Lindholm, C;

    2000-01-01

    more regulated labor market in Sweden, with the associated health and social policies, would provide greater opportunities for jobs and job security for workers with chronic illness. Analysis of data on men from the British General Household Survey and the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions, 1979...... that active labor market policies and employment protection may increase the opportunities for people with chronic illness to remain in work....

  2. Insomnia comorbid to severe psychiatric illness

    OpenAIRE

    Soehner, Adriane M.; Kaplan, Katherine A; Harvey, Allison G.

    2013-01-01

    In psychiatric illness, there is a growing body of evidence indicating that sleep disturbances exert a detrimental influence on the course of these disorders and contribute to impaired function. Even when psychiatric disorders are successfully treated or stabilized, insomnia and other sleep disturbances often fail to remit. The present review focuses on sleep in two severe mental illnesses, namely bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This article discusses the role of sleep disturbances and al...

  3. Adaptive Leadership Framework for Chronic Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Ruth A.; Bailey, Donald E.; Wu, Bei; Corazzini, Kirsten; Eleanor S. McConnell; Thygeson, N. Marcus; Docherty, Sharron L.

    2015-01-01

    We propose the Adaptive Leadership Framework for Chronic Illness as a novel framework for conceptualizing, studying, and providing care. This framework is an application of the Adaptive Leadership Framework developed by Heifetz and colleagues for business. Our framework views health care as a complex adaptive system and addresses the intersection at which people with chronic illness interface with the care system. We shift focus from symptoms to symptoms and the challenges they pose for patie...

  4. ILL. Annex to the annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first volume of the Annual Report gives a general survey of the activities in the various sections of the ILL, whereas this second volume, deals in more detail with the individual works carried out at the ILL from 1st October 1975 up to 1st October 1976. Main chapters correspond to theory, nuclear physics, excitations, magnetic and crystallographic structures, liquids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology and chemistry. (Only those reports received up to 1st February 1977 have been included)

  5. Insulin therapy in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ellahham, Samer

    2010-01-01

    Samer EllahhamSamer Ellahham and Associates, Falls Church, VA, USAAbstract: Hyperglycemia frequently occurs with acute medical illness, especially among patients with cardiovascular disease, and has been linked to increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Even patients who are normoglycemic can develop hyperglycemia in response to acute metabolic stress. An expanding body of literature describes the benefits of normalizing hyperglycemia with insulin therapy in hospitalized...

  6. Media and mental illness: relevance to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, S K; Khatana, S; Sarkar, S

    2014-01-01

    Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored. PMID:24823515

  7. Evolving Definitions of Mental Illness and Wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara W. Strine, MPH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused definition of mental illnesses, and from an “absence of disease” model to one that stresses positive psychological function for mental health. Currently, wellness refers to the degree to which one feels positive and enthusiastic about oneself and life, whereas illness refers to the presence of disease. These definitions apply to physical as well as mental illness and wellness. In this article, we build on the essential concepts of wellness and illness, discuss how these definitions have changed over time, and discuss their importance in the context of health reform and health care reform. Health reform refers to efforts focused on health, such as health promotion and the development of positive well-being. Health care reform refers to efforts focused on illness, such as treatment of disease and related rehabilitation efforts.

  8. Media and mental illness: Relevance to India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Padhy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored.

  9. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice UYSAL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done before and after peer bullying.

  10. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  11. Fatty liver in childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yesim; Ozturk; Ozlem; Bekem; Soylu

    2014-01-01

    Fatty liver is a growing health problem worldwide. It might evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease, which has increased because of eating habits, changes in food content and lifestyle, affects people from childhood. The most important risk factors are obesity and insulin resistance. Besides these factors, gender, ethnicity, genetic predisposition and some medical problems are also important. Cirrhosis in children is rare but is reported. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) has no specific symptoms or signs but should be considered in obese children. NAFLD does not have a proven treatment. Weight loss with family based treatments is the most acceptable management. Exercise and an applicable diet with low glycemic index and appropriate calorie intake are preferred. Drugs are promising but not sufficient in children for today.

  12. Monitoring asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C. Lødrup Carlsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. However, to date there is limited evidence on how to monitor patients with asthma. Childhood asthma introduces specific challenges in terms of deciding what, when, how often, by whom and in whom different assessments of asthma should be performed. The age of the child, the fluctuating course of asthma severity, variability in clinical presentation, exacerbations, comorbidities, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and environmental exposures may all influence disease activity and, hence, monitoring strategies. These factors will be addressed in herein. We identified large knowledge gaps in the effects of different monitoring strategies in children with asthma. Studies into monitoring strategies are urgently needed, preferably in collaborative paediatric studies across countries and healthcare systems.

  13. Pyoderma gangrenosum in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatri M

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We have treated 4 cases of pyoderma gangrenosum in infancy and childhood in past 2 years. The ages at onset were 6 months, 8 months, 6 months and 11.5 years respectively. Initial lesions were papulopustular in 3 and nodular in 1 patients but later on all of them developed ulcerative lesions with erythematous, violaceous, infiltrated or undermined edges. The lesions were numerous in 3 patients but few in 1 patient. The first patient had very high leucocyte count. In the second patient skin lesions of PG followed measles vaccinations. We could not reveal any association in the other two patients. None of the patient responded to antibiotic therapy. Three patients were treated successfully with dapsone and one with a combination of dapsone and prednisolone. We conclude that pyoderma gangrenosum is not so rare in infancy and it is more likely to occur without associated systemic diseases.

  14. Adiponectin in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Alison N; Murphy, Michael J; Metcalf, Brad S; Hosking, Joanne; Voss, Linda D; English, Patrick; Sattar, Naveed; Wilkin, Terence J

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin, a hormone produced and secreted by adipocytes, is present in circulation in high circulating concentrations, suggesting an important physiological role. An indirect regulator of glucose metabolism, adiponectin increases insulin sensitivity, improves glucose tolerance and inhibits inflammation. Plasma adiponectin relates inversely to adiposity and, importantly, reflects the sequelae of accumulation of excess adiposity. The role of adiponectin in adults has been explored in detail. Studies in children are now available and, given the increasing rates of childhood obesity, it is important to establish the role of adiponectin in mediating insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in this age group. This paper reviews the regulation of adiponectin, its effect on body mass, glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk in infants, children and adolescents. It demonstrates clear links between adiponectin and features of the metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents. However, adiponectin's role as a predictor of metabolic dysfunction in healthy, normal-weight youngsters is less clear. PMID:19086185

  15. [Food allergy in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence. PMID:27207693

  16. Childhood cancers and atmospheric carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, E

    2005-01-01

    Study objectives: To retest previous findings that childhood cancers are probably initiated by prenatal exposures to combustion process gases and to volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and to identify specific chemical hazards.

  17. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  18. MedlinePlus: Childhood Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention publishes a schedule for childhood vaccines. Although some of ... and Caregivers (08/11/2016, Food and Drug Administration) Malaria Vaccine Protection Short-Lived in Young Children ( ...

  19. [The impact of childhood caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Carlos; Abarca, Marcelo; Bouferrache, Kahina; Gehri, Mario; Bodenmann, Patrick; Pop, Sabina

    2012-04-01

    The early childhood caries affect primary dentition before the eruption of the permanent teeth. It is set to extended use of a bottle containing fermentable carbohydrates. The early childhood caries is not only a dental disease: it is a social, cultural and behavioral condition that reflects the practices and beliefs around the child. Swiss data indicate that in aged 2 children, one of for could be affected by this devastating oral disease, mainly in vulnerable populations. The primary care physician has an important role in the screening of preschool children, in determining the risk level of the child for early childhood caries. Physicians can advise families, especially pregnant women, about preventive measures and behavior, leading to a dramatic drop of early childhood caries prevalence. PMID:22545498

  20. Leydig cell tumours in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, W; Knorr, D

    1983-01-01

    Two cases of Leydig cell tumours in childhood are presented. In one case, delayed diagnosis and operation led to pubertas praecox vera whereas in the other case normal growth and development occurred after early diagnosis and operation. PMID:6878724

  1. Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases On this Page Protect Your ... American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). Descriptions of Vaccine-preventable Child Diseases The following vaccine-preventable diseases, ...

  2. Childhood Deaths from Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Mohd. Sham; and Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data presented include ethnic origins, age, causes of death, identity of perpetrators, and marital situation of parents. (DB)

  3. Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily activities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis (HD) and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering sociodemographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was carried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were analyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 + - 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%), 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear families. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 + - 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%), work (70%) finance (55%), diet (50%) sexual life (38%) and psychological status (25%). Illness had not intruded in areas of relationship with spouse (67%), friends (76%), family (79%), social (40%) and religious functions (72%). Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02). (author)

  4. Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapat Usha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily acti-vities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among pa-tients on hemodialysis (HD and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering socio-demographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was ca-rried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were ana-lyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 ± 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%, 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear fami-lies. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 ± 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%, work (70% finance (55%, diet (50% sexual life (38% and psychological status (25%. Illness had not intruded in areas of rela-tionship with spouse (67%, friends (76%, family (79%, social (40% and religious functions (72%. Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02.

  5. General Overview on Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil İnal; Nejla Canbulat

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, it has not been put much emphasis on obesity in children and the view of “obese child is healthy” is widely accepted by families. However, understanding that a close relation exists between obesity prevalence and childhood obesity, which increased in recent years both across the world and in our country, and many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases changed the opinion of both of health care professionals and the society about childhood obesity in T...

  6. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant Anwar T; Akhtar-Danesh Noori; Dehghan Mahshid

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising pre...

  7. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bridger, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Many of these children have risk factors for later disease, including cardiovascular disease. For optimal cardiovascular health, health care professionals must be able to identify children and youth at risk and provide appropriate support as needed. The present article reviews the current medical literature on obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the paediatric population, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of childhood ...

  8. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with m...

  9. Cranial nerve palsies in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, C J; Godoy, F; ALQahtani, E

    2015-01-01

    We review ocular motor cranial nerve palsies in childhood and highlight many of the features that differentiate these from their occurrence in adulthood. The clinical characteristics of cranial nerve palsies in childhood are affected by the child's impressive ability to repair and regenerate after injury. Thus, aberrant regeneration is very common after congenital III palsy; Duane syndrome, the result of early repair after congenital VI palsy, is invariably associated with retraction of the g...

  10. CHILDHOOD OBESITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMCALS

    OpenAIRE

    La Merrill, Michele; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent rates of obesity and overweight are continuing to increase in much of the world. Risk factors such as diet composition, excess caloric intake, decreased exercise, genetics, and the built environment are active areas of etiologic research. The obesogen hypothesis, which postulates that pre- and peri- natal chemical exposure can contribute to risk of childhood and adolescent obesity, remains relatively under-examined. This review surveys numerous classes of chemicals fo...

  11. Multilevel Determinants of Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yen-Jung

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among US children and adolescents has rapidly increased in the past several decades, and the epidemic of childhood obesity is currently a serious public health concern in the United States. This dissertation consists of three studies examining individual- and neighborhood-level determinants of childhood obesity. The study area was Los Angeles County in California. Our first study examined the effects of maternal employment, individual socioeconomic status (SES), and ...

  12. Perceived quality of care for common childhood illnesses: facility versus community based providers in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Nanyonjo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare caretakers' perceived quality of care (PQC for under-fives treated for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea by community health workers (CHWs and primary health facility workers (PHFWs. METHODS: Caretaker rated PQC for children aged (2-59 months treated by either CHWs or PHFWs for a bought of malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea was cross-sectionally compared in quality domains of accessibility, continuity, comprehensiveness, integration, clinical interaction, interpersonal treatment and trust. Child samples were randomly drawn from CHW (419 and clinic (399 records from eight Midwestern Uganda districts. An overall PQC score was predicted through factor analysis. PQC scores were compared for CHWs and PHFWs using Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to specify the association between categorized PQC and service providers for each quality domain. Finally, overall PQC was dichotomized into "high" and "low" based on median score and relative risks (RR for PQC-service provider association were modeled in a "modified" Poisson regression model. RESULTS: Mean (SD overall PQC was significantly higher for CHWs 0.58 (0 .66 compared to PHFWs -0.58 (0.94, p<0.0001. In "modified" Poisson regression, the proportion of caretakers reporting high PQC was higher for CHWS compared to PHFWs, RR=3.1, 95%CI(2.5-3.8. In multinomial models PQC was significantly higher for CHWs compared to PHFWs in all domains except for continuity. CONCLUSION: PQC was significantly higher for CHWs compared to PHFWs in this resource constrained setting. CHWs should be tapped human resources for universal health coverage while scaling up basic child intervention as PQC might improve intervention utilization.

  13. [Physical illness in the transference and countertransference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodewig, K

    1995-06-01

    The significance of severe physical illness in terms of the repercussions it may have on the course of psychoanalytic treatment is a topic that has received very little attention in the literature. The author approaches the problem from the point of view of transference and counter-transference on the one hand, and from a distinction between self and body-self on the other. Rodewig proceeds on the assumption that a physical ailment can have the character of an object and may thus attain the status of third object. Given the threat posed by dangerous physical illness, the ego has recourse to defence mechanisms such as splitting and separate projective identification of positive and negative object- and self-parts, projecting the omnipotent, idealizing desires onto the therapist and the negative desires onto the ailment itself. In a later stage a de-idealization of the therapist sets in and the latter is identified with the illness so that the illness is then bandied back and forth between patient and analyst. The most challenging technical problem for analysts is avoiding the projection of their own illness and death anxieties onto the patient with a view to resolving them there. Instead, they need to be worked in independently and then given back to the patient devoid of their original virulence. The author illustrates the various facets of the problem with brief reference to various case histories. PMID:7610265

  14. Diagnosis and Management of Foodborne Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switaj, Timothy L; Winter, Kelly J; Christensen, Scott R

    2015-09-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that each year, one in six Americans will experience a foodborne illness. The most common causes in the United States are viruses, such as norovirus; bacteria, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, and Listeria; and parasites, such as Toxoplasma gondii and Giardia. Resources are available to educate consumers on food recalls and proper handling, storage, and cooking of foods. Diagnosis and management of a foodborne illness are based on the history and physical examination. Common symptoms of foodborne illnesses include vomiting, diarrhea (with or without blood), fever, abdominal cramping, headache, dehydration, myalgia, and arthralgias. Definitive diagnosis can be made only through stool culture or more advanced laboratory testing. However, these results should not delay empiric treatment if a foodborne illness is suspected. Empiric treatment should focus on symptom management, rehydration if the patient is clinically dehydrated, and antibiotic therapy. Foodborne illnesses should be reported to local and state health agencies; reporting requirements vary among states. PMID:26371569

  15. Stress in adolescents with a chronically ill parent: inspiration from Rolland's Family Systems-Illness model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Sieh; A.L.C. Dikkers; J.M.A. Visser-Meily; A.M. Meijer

    2012-01-01

    This article was inspired by Rolland’s Family Systems-Illness (FSI) model, aiming to predict adolescent stress as a function of parental illness type. Ninety-nine parents with a chronic medical condition, 82 partners, and 158 adolescent children (51 % girls; mean age = 15.1 years) participated in th

  16. Illness Insight and Recovery: How Important is Illness Insight in Peoples’ Recovery Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbek, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    . Sources Used:The writing is based on research literature related to illness insight and on personal recovery experiences.Conclusions and Implications for Practice: It is helpful to consider the integration of the issue of illness insight when addressing the questions and consequences of diagnosis...

  17. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  18. Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

  19. The psychosocial experience of parents receiving care closer to home for their ill child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, Gemma; Parker, Gillian; Gridley, Kate; Atkin, Karl

    2011-11-01

    Current health policy in England regarding the management of childhood illness advocates for care to be delivered as close to home as possible. The aim of this article is to report findings from a qualitative component of a larger study evaluating models of care closer to home (CCTH) for children and young people who are ill. The focus is on parents' psychosocial experience of receiving CCTH for their ill child. A qualitative case study design was used, with four Primary Care Trusts in England as the case study sites. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 parents and one extended family caregiver of children using CCTH services within the case study sites. Interviews were conducted face-to-face and audio-recorded with permission. Data were collected in 2009. There was an overall preference for CCTH over hospital-based care where possible. The parents in this study experienced differing levels of responsibility as part of this care, and responded to this in different ways. Being supported emotionally and socially by practitioners was an important part of receiving CCTH for parents, especially when they had increased responsibility as part of this care. Developing relationships with practitioners appeared to be a medium through which parents received support. If the provision of CCTH continues to expand in line with current policy, provision of support for parents should be considered a fundamental aspect of service development. PMID:21623985

  20. Parent-child collaborative decision making for the management of chronic illness: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victoria A

    2009-09-01

    Parent-child collaborative decision making (CDM) is a potentially important precursor to full decision-making independence and may be particularly significant for the management of childhood chronic illnesses. The primary aim of this qualitative study was to explore the concept of CDM from the perspective of children and parents. Children (ages 8-19 years) with asthma, type 1 diabetes, or cystic fibrosis and parents of children with these illnesses participated in focus groups and individual interviews. Participants described various ways they collaborate with one another (e.g., asking for the other's opinion; providing information). Participants viewed collaboration as beneficial, regardless of who ultimately makes the decision. Several factors emerged as potential predictors of CDM, including parent/family factors (e.g., parental time; parent-child conflict), child factors (e.g., maturity; emotional/behavioral functioning), and decision/situation factors (e.g., seriousness of the decision; extent to which the child is experiencing symptoms). These data suggest ways to enhance collaborative decision-making interactions between children with a chronic illness and their parents, as well as several areas for future quantitative research. PMID:19803619

  1. Women’s Perception of Reproductive Illness in Manipur, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pebam Krishnakumari; Joshi, P. C.; M. C. Arun Kumar; M. Meghachandra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Perception of reproductive illness by the women themselves is important in understanding the women's reproductive health in a particular society. It also indicates the possibility of taking perception as a tool for measuring reproductive illness. Though women do not have a “germ theory” to explain their reproductive illness they have a sense of illness pathology. Reproductive illness perceived by women is related to physical symptoms and situations in a network of meanings and different meani...

  2. The detection and treatment of depression in the physically ill

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, David

    2010-01-01

    Depression and chronic physical illness are in reciprocal relationship with one another: not only do many chronic illnesses cause higher rates of depression, but depression has been shown to antedate some chronic physical illnesses. Depression associated with physical illness is less well detected than depression occurring on its own, and various ways of improving both the detection and treatment of depression accompanying physical illness are described. This paper is in fou...

  3. Pain management in critically ill obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astle, Sonia M

    2009-09-01

    Achieving pain control in critically ill patients is a challenging problem for the health care team, which becomes more challenging in morbidly obese patients. Obese patients may experience drug malabsorption and distribution, which may lead to either subtherapeutic or toxic drug levels. To manage pain effectively for the critically ill obese patient, nurses must have an understanding of how obesity alters a patient's physiologic response to injury and illness. In addition, nurses must be knowledgeable about physiologic pain mechanisms, types and manifestations of pain, differing patterns of drug absorption and distribution, pharmacokinetic properties of analgesic medications, and pain management strategies. This article explores factors affecting pharmacokinetics in obese patients, trends in pain management, and treatment strategies for the obese patient. PMID:19840712

  4. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training. PMID:24937101

  5. Outbreak of Mysterious Illness Among Hospital Staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospitals are rarely reported as settings for mass psychogenic illness (MPI). The present report scrutinizes an outbreak of probable MPI among hospital staff, with medical intervention reinforcing the course of the illness. CASE REPORT: Four of seven staff members in an emergency...... sick leave. The ward was closed for several weeks during comprehensive but negative investigations for toxic chemicals. Clinical data and lack of indication of chemical exposure, together with an attack pattern with only some individuals becoming ill in a shared environment, suggest MPI. Iatrogenic...... influence from dramatic intervention was probably a strong driving force in the outbreak. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Awareness of MPI may prevent unnecessary and potentially harmful treatment as well as improve health care resilience, particularly with respect to preparedness...

  6. Morgellons: contested illness, diagnostic compromise and medicalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The case of Morgellons illustrates how the emergence of a new medically contested illness intersected with and impacted on the diagnostic processes of an existing uncontested psychiatric condition, Delusional Parasitosis (DP). More specifically, the sociopolitical processes at play in the contested illness, Morgellons, dubiously reflect patient empowerment, as well the resilience and power of medical jurisdiction. This research offers insights into the contested illness and medicalisation literatures, and aims to bridge these two approaches towards the relationship between patient empowerment and medical authority, which I do through the notion of doctor-patient compromise. The data for this research come from a comprehensive qualitative analysis of Morgellons discourse through four key sources: the pro-Morgellons website Morgellons.org; the anti-Morgellons website Morgellonswatch.com; the popular media's portrayal of Morgellons; and the DP and Morgellons articles published in peer-reviewed medical journals, as made available on PubMed. PMID:20149149

  7. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness. PMID:26657684

  8. [Childhood and transsexualism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiland, C

    1988-01-01

    on the childhood of adult patients. Often, they have little to say about their own childhood. Interviews with parents give still another point of view. Most of the cases seen in consultation resulting from problems with gender-identity are mixed and secondary, rarely in a pure, clear-cut state.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3051066

  9. Risk factors associated with recurrent diarrheal illnesses among children in Kabul, Afghanistan: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Aluisio

    Full Text Available Childhood diarrheal illnesses are a major public health problem. In low-income settings data on disease burden and factors associated with diarrheal illnesses are poorly defined, precluding effective prevention programs. This study explores factors associated with recurrent diarrheal illnesses among children in Kabul, Afghanistan.A cohort of 1-11 month old infants was followed for 18 months from 2007-2009. Data on diarrheal episodes were gathered through active and passive surveillance. Information on child health, socioeconomics, water and sanitation, and hygiene behaviors was collected. Factors associated with recurrent diarrheal illnesses were analyzed using random effects recurrent events regression models.3,045 children were enrolled and 2,511 (82% completed 18-month follow-up. There were 14,998 episodes of diarrheal disease over 4,200 child-years (3.51 episodes/child-year, 95%CI 3.40-3.62. Risk of diarrheal illness during the winter season was 63% lower than the summer season (HR = 0.37, 95%CI 0.35-0.39, P<0.001. Soap for hand washing was available in 72% of households and 11.9% had toilets with septic/canalization. Half of all mothers reported using soap for hand washing. In multivariate analysis diarrheal illness was lower among children born to mothers with post-primary education (aHR = 0.79, 95%CI 0.69-0.91, p = 0.001, from households where maternal hand washing with soap was reported (aHR = 0.83, 95%CI 0.74-0.92, p<0.001 and with improved sanitation facilities (aHR = 0.76, 95%CI 0.63-0.93, p = 0.006. Malnourished children from impoverished households had significantly increased risks for recurrent disease [(aHR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.03-1.29, p = 0.016 and (aHR = 1.20, 95%CI 1.05-1.37, p = 0.006 respectively].Maternal hand washing and improved sanitation facilities were protective, and represent important prevention points among public health endeavors. The discrepancy between soap availability and utilization suggests barriers to access and

  10. Clinical Holistic Medicine (Mindful, Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Complemented with Bodywork) in the Treatment of Experienced Physical Illness and Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Søren Ventegodt; Suzette Thegler; Tove Andreasen; Flemming Struve; Lars Enevoldsen; Laila Bassaine; Margrethe Torp; Joav Merrick

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the treatment effect of psychodynamic short-term therapy complemented with bodywork on patients who presented with physical illness at the Research Clinic for Holistic Medicine in Copenhagen. Psychodynamic short-term therapy was complemented with bodywork (Marion Rosen) to help patients confront old emotional pain from childhood trauma(s). Patients were measured with a five-item quality of life and health questionnaire (QOL5), a one-item questionnaire of self-assessed quality ...

  11. Doing gender, doing away with illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolling, Marie

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented in biomedical literature that impotence is a common complication of diabetes. What has received much less attention is how diabetes challenges male gender identity and how the illness interferes in intimate matters. Drawing on empirical findings from an anthropological...... diabetes in the social and gendered lives of men, it is explored how diabetes challenges both the domestic and public positions of men and how they in an attempt to avoid this try to resist being ill, which leads to contradictions in their diabetes self-care with dire consequences....

  12. Stigma of Mental Illness-1: Clinical reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amresh Shrivastava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the quality and effectiveness of mental health treatments and services have improved greatly over the past 50 years, therapeutic revolutions in psychiatry have not yet been able to reduce stigma. Stigma is a risk factor leading to negative mental health outcomes. It is responsible for treatment seeking delays and reduces the likelihood that a mentally ill patient will receive adequate care. It is evident that delay due to stigma can have devastating consequences. This review will discuss the causes and consequences of stigma related to mental illness.

  13. New U.S. Foodborne Illness Estimate

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-13

    This podcast discusses CDC's report on new estimates of illnesses due to eating contaminated food in the United States. Dr. Elaine Scallan, assistant professor at the University of Colorado and former lead of the CDCs FoodNet surveillance system, shares the details from the first new comprehensive estimates of foodborne illness in the U.S. since 1999.  Created: 12/13/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 12/15/2010.

  14. Understanding childhood asthma in focus groups: perspectives from mothers of different ethnic backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie Sheila

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosing childhood asthma is dependent upon parental symptom reporting but there are problems in the use of words and terms. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare understandings of childhood 'asthma' by mothers from three different ethnic backgrounds who have no personal experience of diagnosing asthma. A better understanding of parents' perceptions of an illness by clinicians should improve communication and management of the illness. Method Sixty-six mothers living in east London describing their ethnic backgrounds as Bangladeshi, white English and black Caribbean were recruited to 9 focus groups. Discussion was semi-structured. Three sessions were conducted with each ethnic group. Mothers were shown a video clip of a boy with audible wheeze and cough and then addressed 6 questions. Sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Responses were compared within and between ethnic groups. Results Each session, and ethnic group overall, developed a particular orientation to the discussion. Some mothers described the problem using single signs, while others imitated the sound or made comparisons to other illnesses. Hereditary factors were recognised by some, although all groups were concerned with environmental triggers. Responses about what to do included 'normal illness' strategies, use of health services and calls for complementary treatment. All groups were concerned about using medication every day. Expectations about the quality of life were varied, with recognition that restrictions may be based on parental beliefs about asthma, rather than asthma itself. Conclusion Information from these focus groups suggests mothers know a great deal about childhood asthma even though they have no personal experience of it. Knowledge of how mothers from these ethnic backgrounds perceive asthma may facilitate doctor – patient communication with parents of children experiencing breathing difficulties.

  15. Malaria, environmental change, and an [corrected] historical epidemiology of childhood 'cold fevers': popular interpretations from southwestern Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Traoré, Abdoulaye; Sirima, Sodiomon B

    2011-05-01

    We examine how southwestern Burkina Faso populations interpret political ecological and social change for the past 40 years to assert a changing epidemiology of childhood "cold fevers"-malaria-like illnesses. Lay knowledge about "cold fevers" is historically produced, reflecting political economic, social, ecological and biomedical changes, and the historical consciousness of people living with these illnesses. While informants insisted that dislocations wrought by a post-colonial irrigation scheme increased cold fevers, they offered different explanations for their increased incidence and intensity. This historical epidemiology of cold fevers may influence parents' care decisions, but global public health interventions are rapidly changing therapeutic access. PMID:21507704

  16. Multi-exposure and clustering of adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic differences and psychotropic medication in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Björkenstam

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Stressful childhood experiences have negative long-term health consequences. The present study examines the association between adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic position, and risk of psychotropic medication in young adulthood. METHODS: This register-based cohort study comprises the birth cohorts between 1985 and 1988 in Sweden. We followed 362 663 individuals for use of psychotropic medication from January 2006 until December 2008. Adverse childhood experiences were severe criminality among parents, parental alcohol or drug abuse, social assistance recipiency, parental separation or single household, child welfare intervention before the age of 12, mentally ill or suicidal parents, familial death, and number of changes in place of residency. Estimates of risk of psychotropic medication were calculated as odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Adverse childhood experiences were associated with increased risks of psychotropic medication. The OR for more than three adverse childhood experiences and risk of psychotropic medication was for women 2.4 (95% CI 2.3-2.5 and for men 3.1 (95% CI 2.9-3.2. The risk of psychotropic medication increased with a higher rate of adverse childhood experiences, a relationship similar in all socioeconomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Accumulation of adverse childhood experiences increases the risk of psychotropic medication in young adults. Parental educational level is of less importance when adjusting for adverse childhood experiences. The higher risk for future mental health problems among children from lower socioeconomic groups, compared to peers from more advantaged backgrounds, seems to be linked to a higher rate of exposure to adverse childhood experiences.

  17. Brucellosis in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulku Gul

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is still an important infectious disease, being widespread as endemic and sporadic cases in Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and laboratory findings, treatment modalities and final outcomes of brucellosis in children. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective record review of all patients 0-18 years of age with brucellosis admitted during a 8-year period between January 2003 and September 2010.Results: Of the 62 patients, 39 (63% were male. The mean age and standard deviation of patients was 120±51.7 months (4 months-18 years. Most common symptoms on admission were fever (88%, arthralgia (64% and dizziness (19%. On physical examination, the findings and percentages were as follows; arthritis (29%, lymphadenopathy (25%, hepatomegaly (24% and splenomegaly (17%. Fifty-one percent of the patients had high sedimentation rate, 41% had high transaminase levels, and 40% had positivity for C-Reactive Protein. Brucella agglutination tests were positive in all cases. Brucella spp. was isolated from blood cultures in 27% of the cases. All of the cases were given combined drug therapy. Three of the cases (4.8% had relapses during the follow up period. No mortality was seen in patients with brucellosis.Conclusion: Childhood brucellosis remains an important public health problem in our country. It may cause serious complications in children, and treatment with at least two antibiotics for not less than six weeks appears to be effective.

  18. Childhood drowning in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hss, Amar-Singh; Tan, Pui San; Hashim, Lina

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to collate data on childhood drowning in Malaysia and review existing drowning prevention measures. This study used secondary data from governmental and non-governmental agencies. All reported fatal drownings from 2000 to 2007 and all reported non-fatal drownings from 2000 to 2008 were included. Data were analysed to provide understanding of the epidemiology of drowning incidents, risk factors and available preventive efforts. On average 286 (range 248-344) children died yearly due to drowning with a death rate of 3.05 per 100,000 annually. An additional average of 207 children drowned but survived annually (1.99 per 100,000). The estimated burden of drowning in children (death and non-death) is 5 per 100,000. There was no reduction in annual drowning fatalities over time. Most drowning took place in east coast regions during the annual monsoon season. It was 3.52 (2.80-4.41) times more common in boys and most prevalent among 10-14 years. Most prevalent sites of all-age drowning were seas and rivers. Limited water safety regulations are currently available in the country. This is the first comprehensive national study in Malaysia on paediatric drowning and highlights the magnitude of the problem. It calls for concerted effort to devise effective national drowning prevention measures. PMID:23651461

  19. Brain SPECT in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  20. Determinants of early childhood morbidity and proper treatment responses in Vietnam: results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Young Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite significant achievements in health indicators during previous decades, Vietnam lags behind other developing countries in reducing common early childhood illnesses, such as diarrhea and respiratory infections. To date, there has been little research into factors that contribute to the prevalence and treatment of childhood morbidity in Vietnam. Objective: This study examines the determinants of diarrhea and ‘illness with a cough’ and treatments for each of the conditions among young children in Vietnam, and describes trends over time. Design: Data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were used. Multivariable logistic regressions were undertaken to investigate factors associated with these childhood illnesses and proper treatment patterns. Results: Between 2000 and 2011, the prevalence of diarrhea among children under the age of five declined from 11 to 7%, while having illness with a cough increased to 40% in 2011 after falling from 69 to 28% between 2000 and 2006. During the same period, the prevalence of oral rehydration therapy (ORT for treating diarrhea increased from 13 to 46%, whereas the rate of seeking formal treatment for illnesses with a cough fell from 24 to 7%. Multivariable models indicated that children who were older than 2 years (odds ration [OR]: 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37–0.53, p<0.001, male (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.64–2.37, p<0.05, living in rural areas (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.00–1.64, p<0.05, or of Kinh ethnicity (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.56–0.87, p<0.01 were more likely to suffer from diarrhea. Ethnic differences and higher household wealth were factors significantly associated with having illness with a cough. In particular, the effect of level of wealth on illness with a cough varied in each wave. Mothers with higher levels of education had higher odds of seeking ORT compared with mothers with the lowest level of education. Seeking formal treatment for

  1. ABC of childhood memories [artists' book

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Philippa; MacLellan, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    The limited edition artists' book by Philippa Wood and Tamar MacLellan – ABC of Childhood Memories was a collaborative project that explored the 1960s/70s childhood memories of each artist through text based narrative and image.

  2. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Childhood Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... childhood maltreatment. In particular, for women, emotional and sexual abuse during childhood was associated with a greater risk ... risk for chronic fatigue syndrome: results from a population-based study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Nov;63( ...

  3. Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL Past Issues / Fall ... HEAL is seeking ways to reduce the nation's childhood asthma challenge. Even before Hurricane Katrina swept through ...

  4. Childhood Diseases - What Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Diseases - What Parents Need to Know Past Issues / ... centers is continuing to improve the outlook for childhood diseases every day. Photo: iStock When the Eunice ...

  5. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa A; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja G;

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  6. Remote Intimations: Performance Art and Environmental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Stephen; Laffin, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This article explores and documents the work of leading Midwestern performance artist Julie Laffin, in the years since she developed a serious form of environmental illness (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity). This condition has effectively rendered her housebound and unable to appear in public, so that her previous live performance practice--which…

  7. Patient Poets; Illness from Inside Out

    OpenAIRE

    McEntyre, Marilyn Chandler

    2012-01-01

    Patient Poets: Illness from Inside Out invites readers to consider what caregivers and medical professionals may learn from poetry by patients. It offers reflections on poetry as a particularly apt vehicle for articulating the often isolating experiences of pain, fatigue, changed life rhythms, altered self-understanding, embarrassment, resistance, and acceptance.

  8. Annex to the ILL Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume deals with the scientific work carried out at ILL during 1974 using the HFR (Grenoble), cold and hot neutron sources. Theory, nuclear physics, pure crystals, crystalline and magnetic structures, liquids gases, amorphous substances, imperfections, biochemistry and physical chemistry are subject areas covered

  9. Antithrombin III for critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Arash; Wetterslev, Jørn; Brok, Jesper Sune;

    2008-01-01

    Critical illness is associated with uncontrolled inflammation and vascular damage which can result in multiple organ failure and death. Antithrombin III (AT III) is an anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties but the efficacy and any harmful effects of AT III supplementation in critically ...

  10. Coping with Loneliness among the Terminally Ill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokach, Ami

    2007-01-01

    Loneliness is a universal phenomenon, and its pain is intensified by a diagnosis of a terminal illness. The present study is an investigation of the strategies used by patients with Multiple sclerosis (MS), by individuals diagnosed with cancer, and by the general population to cope with loneliness. Three hundred and twenty nine MS patients, 315…

  11. Murine Typhus and Febrile Illness, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Mark D.; Murdoch, David R.; Rozmajzl, Patrick J.; Basnyat, Buddha; Woods, Christopher W.; Richards, Allen L.; Belbase, Ram Hari; Hammer, David A.; Anderson, Trevor P.; Reller, L. Barth

    2008-01-01

    Murine typhus was diagnosed by PCR in 50 (7%) of 756 adults with febrile illness seeking treatment at Patan Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. Of patients with murine typhus, 64% were women, 86% were residents of Kathmandu, and 90% were unwell during the winter. No characteristics clearly distinguished typhus patients from those with blood culture–positive enteric fever.

  12. Pancreatic Involvement in Critically ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Agrawal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Elevation of pancreatic enzymes is often observed in patients admitted to intensive care units in the United States. Elevated pancreatic enzymes can occur due to acute pancreatitis or numerous non-specific reasons. Non-specific enzyme elevation can be seen in patients with head injury, acute renal failure, diabetic ketoacidosis or patients on hemodialysis. Patients with severe acute pancreatitis can be admitted to the intensive care units for intensive care or patients admitted to the intensive care units for other critical illness can develop acute pancreatitis due to a variety of reasons like ischemia, hypoperfusion, drugs or hypercalcemia. It can be a challenging task to distinguish between acute pancreatitis and non-specific enzyme elevation, especially in critically ill patients with multiple co-morbidities admitted to the intensive care units in whom historical information may not be always available. In addition, the clinical consequences of pancreatic enzyme elevation in the critically ill patients are also not very clear. This review attempts to describe the complex interplay of various factors that can lead to either pancreatic inflammation and/or pancreatic enzyme elevation in the critically ill patients along with the clinical consequences and approach to patient with pancreatic enzyme elevation in the intensive care units.

  13. Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

  14. The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

  15. Examining the Education Gradient in Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Pinka; Joo, Heesoo; Lahiri, Kajal

    2015-01-01

    We examine the education gradient in diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol. We take into account diagnosed as well as undiagnosed cases and use methods accounting for the possibility of unmeasured factors that are correlated with education and drive both the likelihood of having illness and the propensity to be diagnosed. Data come from the…

  16. Needs of people with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study reviews conceptual and methodological issues of needs for care among people with severe mental illness (SMI) and presents data on their prevalence, correlates and consequences for mental health care. Method: Focus is on the definition of the concept of need as what people can b

  17. Diagnosing Febrile Illness in a Returned Traveler

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-01

    This podcast will assist health care providers in diagnosing febrile illness in patients returning from a tropical or developing country.  Created: 3/1/2012 by National Center for Enteric, Zoonotic, and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/1/2012.

  18. Impact of Childhood Epilepsy on the Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerim Fazlıoglu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Whole family is affected when an illness appears in the family or when there is an uncertainty regarding the health of a member. Symptoms, therapy, course of the disorder, constraint of the daily activities and long term effects of childhood chronic diseases deeply impact health and structure of the families. Diagnosis of a chronic disease in children presents as a significant psychological and psychosocial risk factor to the parents and other family members. Despite these known facts, psychosocial problems of parents of epileptic children are often ignored and not even questioned. These parents frequently have to leave their jobs or ask for their elderly relatives to look after their children. This situation could lead to major financial and social problems, weakening in intrafamilial communication and disruption in family harmony. Childhood epilepsy brings a great strain on family’s resources as other chronic diseases do and alter the life of significant others. According to biopsychosocial model, schemas in family relations influence the psychological process of the family members while the biopsychosocial process of the sick individual affect the functionality of the family. In other words, epilepsy affects not only the sick individual but also the family union. The family has to face many problems after definite diagnosis of epilepsy. Majority of the studies conducted on this issue mainly focused on the quality of life and family relations of the sick child, whereas only a few studies searched for possible burden and resulting problems of family members caused by epilepsy. Physicians in charge should not only focus on physical and mental health of the sick children but also on the problems of other members in the family bearing in mind psychosocial influences of the disorder on them. Additionally, preventive methods should be administered to protect the family from developing mental health problems. A multidiscipline training program

  19. [Sleep disturbances in critically ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, B; Haase, U; Rundshagen, I

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is an essential part of life with many important roles which include immunologic, cognitive and muscular functions. Of the working population 20% report sleep disturbances and in critically ill patients an incidence of more than 50% has been shown. However, sleep disturbances in the intensive care unit (ICU) population have not been investigated in detail. Sleep disturbances in ICU patients have a variety of reasons: e.g. patient-related pathologies like sepsis, acute or chronic pulmonary diseases, cardiac insufficiency, stroke or epilepsy, surgery, therapeutical interventions like mechanical ventilation, noise of monitors, pain or medication. Numerous scales and questionnaires are used to quantify sleep and the polysomnogramm is used to objectify sleep architecture. To improve sleep in ICU patients concepts are needed which include in addition to pharmacological treatment (pain reduction and sedation) synchronization of ICU activities with daylight, noise reduction and music for relaxation. In order to establish evidence-based guidelines, research activities about sleep and critical illness should be intensified. Questions to be answered are: 1) Which part of sleep disturbances in critically ill patients is directly related to the illness or trauma? 2) Is the grade of sleep disturbance correlated with the severity of the illness or trauma? 3) Which part is related to the medical treatment and can be modified or controlled? In order to define non-pharmacological and pharmacological concepts to improve sleep quality, studies need to be randomized and to include different ICU populations. The rate of nosocomial infections, cognitive function and respiratory muscle function should be considered in these studies as well. This will help to answer the question, whether it is useful to monitor sleep in ICU patients as a parameter to indicate therapeutical success and short-term quality of life. Follow-up needs to be long enough to detect adverse effects of

  20. Parents’ communication to primary school-aged children about mental health and ill-health: a grounded theory study

    OpenAIRE

    J. Mueller; Greenwood, K.; Callanan, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Stigma around mental health problems is known to emerge in middle childhood and persist into adulthood, yet almost nothing is known about the role of parents in this process. This paper aims to develop a model of parental communication to primary school-aged children around mental health and ill-health, to increase understanding about how stigma develops. Design/methodology/approach – Semi-structured interviews were performed with ten UK-based parents of children aged 7-11 years...

  1. [Do antidepressants really increase suicide rates in childhood and adolescence?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hernán; Martínez, Juan Carlos

    2007-09-01

    The use of antidepressant in depressive illness results in a reduction of suicidal attempts and deaths due to suicide, conditions that are generally present in this disorder. Recently, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) prohibited the use of antidepressants during childhood and adolescence. This decision was based on a supposed increase in suicidal thinking in these age groups. However, the evidence came from flawed clinical studies, some of them not even published, in which no significant differences were observed when compared to placebo. It is not possible to ascribe a direct responsibility to antidepressants, because depression, by definition, has suicidal ideation. On the contrary, the reduction of suicidal rates supports the effectiveness of these medications. PMID:18064377

  2. Income in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Wengenroth, Laura; Sommer, Grit; Schindler, Matthias, 1968-; Spycher, Ben D.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Stutz-Grunder, Eveline; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on the personal income of survivors. We compared income between survivors and siblings, and determined factors associated with income. METHODS As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS), a questionnaire was sent to survivors, aged ≥18 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry (SCCR), diagnosed at age

  3. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted. PMID:25413801

  4. Psychiatric comorbidity of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalarchian, Melissa A; Marcus, Marsha D

    2012-06-01

    The onset of psychiatric symptoms and disorders is relatively common in childhood, occurring among youths across the weight spectrum. However, available research suggests that certain psychiatric comorbidities are more prevalent in obese children and adolescents than in healthy weight youths. First, we review research on disordered eating, including evidence to suggest that loss of control eating is associated with weight gain and obesity in youths, as well as poor outcome in family-based treatment of paediatric obesity. Second, we highlight evidence on the relationship between depression and obesity, especially in girls. Third, we present data on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), particularly the symptoms of impulsivity and inattention, and childhood obesity. We also consider that some medical conditions and psychotropic medications contribute to weight gain and obesity in children and adolescents. Throughout the review, we emphasize that psychiatric comorbidity may be a cause or consequence of childhood obesity, or they may share common aetiological factors. PMID:22724645

  5. Management of Overweight during Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Marie; Ledderer, Loni; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2015-01-01

    Background. Because of the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood in the Western world, focus on the management in general practice has also increased. Objective. To explore the experiences of general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses participating in a randomised...... professionals considered it their responsibility to offer a management programme to overweight children. They recognised that management of overweight during childhood was a complex task that required an evidence-based strategy with the possibility of supervision. Health professionals experienced a barrier to...... addressing overweight in children. However, increasing awareness of obesity in childhood and its consequences in society was considered helpful to reach an understanding of the articulations concerning how best to address the issue. Conclusions. Health professionals in general practice recognised that they...

  6. Psychotic spectrum disorders in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Deušić Smiljka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, there was a strong belief of existing continuity between childhood-onset psychoses and adult psychoses. Important moment in understanding psychotic presentations during infancy and childhood is Kanner's description of early infantile autism. Later studies of Rutter and Kolvin, as well as new classification systems, have delineated pervasive developmental disorders from all other psychotic disorders in childhood. But clinical experience is showing that in spite of existence of the group of pervasive developmental disorders with subgroups within it and necessary diagnostic criteria there are children with pervasive symptoms, who are not fulfilling all necessary diagnostic criteria for pervasive developmental disorder. Therefore, in this paper we are discussing and pointing at psychotic spectrum presentations in children, which have not the right place in any existing classification system (ICD-10, DSM-IV.

  7. "Primary Immunodeficiencies Inducing EBV-Associated Severe Illnesses "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Miyawaki

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a ubiquitous human -herpesvirus that infects about 95% of the adult population. The majority of primary infections occurs in early childhood and is generally subclinical; it can cause infectious mononucleosis (IM, which is usually a self-limiting lymphoproliferative disorder. However, infection of EBV occasionally results in severe, often lethal diseases, which include fatal IM, hemophagocytic syndrome, polyclonal lymphoproliferative disorders, and malignant lymphoma. These severe EBV-related illnesses occur secondary to some primary immunodeficiency diseases showing inefficient immune reaction to EBV. One example is X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP, which is caused by mutations in the SLAM-associated protein (SAP gene. The major clinical manifestations of XLP are fulminant IM, malignant lymphoma and dysgammaglobulinemia. Aplastic anemia, virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, and vasculitis have also been reported in XLP. We have developed a flow cytometric method using the anti-SAP monoclonal antibody to search for XLP. This clinically useful assay has successfully been used to identify XLP patients in Japan. In this review, clinical and mutational characteristics of XLP in Japan are mainly described. In addition, it is shown that the similar situations to XLP can occur in other primary immunodeficiencies involving T-cell killing function, such as autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome caused by Fas gene mutations or familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis caused by perforin gene mutations. Finally, the EBV-related terrible disease condition, namely chronic active EBV infection, which is common in Asian areas but its genetic background remains to be elucidated, will be toughed on.

  8. Overcoming the Odds: Long-term psychosocial outcomes in survivors of meningococcal septic shock in childhood, and in their parents

    OpenAIRE

    Vermunt, Lindy

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSeptic shock, caused by Neisseria meningitidis with petechiae and/or purpura, also called Meningococcal Septic Shock (MSS), is the most serious form of meningococcal infection in early childhood. MSS is a life-threatening illness in mostly previously healthy children, with an unexpected and sudden onset, requiring immediate admission to a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). A previously healthy child may die within 24 hours. In literature both medical and psychological problems...

  9. Outcomes in Adult Survivors of Childhood Burn Injuries as Compared with Matched Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Khan, Sazzadul; Chateau, Dan; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender; Enns, Jessica; Doupe, Malcolm; Brownell, Marni; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2016-01-01

    Limited research exists examining long-term mental and physical health outcomes in adult survivors of pediatric burns. The authors examine the postinjury lifetime prevalence of common mental and physical disorders in a large pediatric burn cohort and compare the results with matched controls. Seven hundred and forty five survivors of childhood burns identified in the Burn Registry (1% between April 1, 1988 and March 31, 2010) were matched 1:5 to the general population based on age at time of injury (index date), sex, and geographic residence. Postinjury rate ratio (RR) was used to compare burn cases and control cohorts for common mental and physical illnesses through physician billings, and hospital claims. RR was adjusted for sex, rural residence, and income. Compared with matched controls, postburn cases had significantly higher RR of all mental disorders, which remained significant (P abuse RR = 2.3 [CL: 1.7-3.2], suicide attempt RR = 4.3 [CL: 1.6-12.1], or any mental disorder RR = 1.5 [CL: 1.3-1.8]). The relative rate of some physical illnesses was also significantly increased in burn survivors: arthritis RR = 1.2 (CL: 1.1-1.4), fractures RR = 1.4 (CL: 1.2-1.6), total respiratory morbidity RR = 1.1 (CL: 1.02-1.3), and any physical illness RR = 1.2 (CL: 1.1-1.3). Adult survivors of childhood burn injury have significantly increased rates of postburn mental and physical illnesses. Screening and appropriate management of these illnesses is essential when caring for this population. PMID:26594866

  10. Prenatal irradiation and childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter addresses a technical question in connection with the recent paper by Knox et al. In particular, it concerns a correction to the estimate of childhood cancer risk following obstetric radiography, based on the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC). One of us (CRM) enquired about the centring values for variables used in the analysis and particularly about the formulae used to calculate the higher order interactions of the radiation risk with birth year and age at diagnosis. These centring values and formulae are given in Table 1. This letter arises from that enquiry. (author)

  11. An Un-American Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Flor Christine

    2014-01-01

    An Un-American Childhood is my memoir about growing up unconventionally in a religious sex cult with my parents and eleven siblings until I was a teenager. We lived in Thailand because Father David, our leader, didn't want us in the west when the world ended in 1993. When Father David died suddenly, the cult broke apart, and we found ourselves alone in the world with no money, food, very little clothing, and no direction. An Un-American Childhood takes the reader on a journey from the Childr...

  12. Children, playing and childhood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Medeiros Veiga Ramires Monteiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address the ideas of authors of Childhood Studies, who question the strict concepts society has of children as being passive and immature; and the issue of play as being an instrument for the purposes of educational learning, or simply of recreation. The aim is to bring the issue of play closer to the concept of childhood cultures, accounting for and sustaining the importance of listening to the points of view of the actual subjects of research with children about this important and complex way of creating and experiencing their cultures, which cannot be reduced to adult-centered purposes.

  13. The cost of community-managed viral respiratory illnesses in a cohort of healthy preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Kelly M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs during childhood are often caused by respiratory viruses, result in significant morbidity, and have associated costs for families and society. Despite their ubiquity, there is a lack of interdisciplinary epidemiologic and economic research that has collected primary impact data, particularly associated with indirect costs, from families during ARIs in children. Methods We conducted a 12-month cohort study in 234 preschool children with impact diary recording and PCR testing of nose-throat swabs for viruses during an ARI. We used applied values to estimate a virus-specific mean cost of ARIs. Results Impact diaries were available for 72% (523/725 of community-managed illnesses between January 2003 and January 2004. The mean cost of ARIs was AU$309 (95% confidence interval $263 to $354. Influenza illnesses had a mean cost of $904, compared with RSV, $304, the next most expensive single-virus illness, although confidence intervals overlapped. Mean carer time away from usual activity per day was two hours for influenza ARIs and between 30 and 45 minutes for all other ARI categories. Conclusion From a societal perspective, community-managed ARIs are a significant cost burden on families and society. The point estimate of the mean cost of community-managed influenza illnesses in healthy preschool aged children is three times greater than those illnesses caused by RSV and other respiratory viruses. Indirect costs, particularly carer time away from usual activity, are the key cost drivers for ARIs in children. The use of parent-collected specimens may enhance ARI surveillance and reduce any potential Hawthorne effect caused by compliance with study procedures. These findings reinforce the need for further integrated epidemiologic and economic research of ARIs in children to allow for comprehensive cost-effectiveness assessments of preventive and therapeutic options.

  14. Intra- and extra-familial adverse childhood experiences and a history of childhood psychosomatic disorders among Japanese university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munemoto Takao

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japan has been witnessing a considerable increase in the number of children with psychosomatic disorders. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the risk of psychosomatic disorder in adolescents and intra- and extra-familial adverse childhood experiences (ACEs. Methods A retrospective cohort study of 1592 Japanese university students (52% male, mean age 19.9 years who completed a survey about intra- and extra-familial ACEs and the incidence of childhood psychosomatic disorders. Intra-familial ACEs included domestic violence, physical violence, emotional abuse, illness in household, parental divorce, no parental affection, and dysfunctional family. Extra-familial ACEs included physical violence or negative recognition by teachers, being bullied in elementary or junior high school, or sexual violence. Results The frequency of psychosomatic disorders among the respondents was 14.8%. Among the 7 intra-familial ACEs, emotional abuse (relative risk, RR = 1.9 and illness in household (RR = 1.7 increased the risk of psychosomatic disorders. Estimates of the relative risk for the 5 extra-familial ACEs were statistically significant and ranged from 1.5 for being bullied in elementary school or physical violence from teachers to 2.4. Students who had 3 or more intra-familial ACEs and 2 or more extra-familial ACEs had a 3.0 relative risk for psychosomatic disorder. Conclusion These results suggest that intra- and extra-familial ACEs are associated with the development of psychosomatic disorders. Therefore, sufficient evaluation of ACEs should be performed in adolescent patients with psychosomatic disorder.

  15. Understanding Interpretations of and Responses to Childhood Fever in the Chikhwawa District of Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Ewing

    Full Text Available Universal access to, and community uptake of malaria prevention and treatment strategies are critical to achieving current targets for malaria reduction. Each step in the treatment-seeking pathway must be considered in order to establish where opportunities for successful engagement and treatment occur. We describe local classifications of childhood febrile illnesses, present an overview of treatment-seeking, beginning with recognition of illness, and suggest how interventions could be used to target the barriers experienced.Qualitative data were collected between September 2010 and February 2011. A total of 12 Focus Group Discussions and 22 Critical Incident Interviews were conducted with primary caregivers who had reported a recent febrile episode for one of their children.The phrase 'kutentha thupi', or 'hot body' was used to describe fever, the most frequently mentioned causes of which were malungo (translated as 'malaria', mauka, nyankhwa and (mtsempho. Differentiating the cause was challenging because these illnesses were described as having many similar non-specific symptoms, despite considerable differences in the perceived mechanisms of illness. Malungo was widely understood to be caused by mosquitoes. Commonly described symptoms included: fever, weakness, vomiting, diarrhoea and coughing. These symptoms matched well with the biomedical definition of malaria, although they also overlapped with symptoms of other illnesses in both the biomedical model and local illness classifications. In addition, malungo was used interchangeably to describe malaria and fever in general. Caregivers engaged in a three-phased approach to treatment seeking. Phase 1-Assessment; Phase 2-Seeking care outside the home; Phase 3-Evaluation of treatment response. Within this paper, the three-phased approach is explored to identify potential interventions to target barriers to appropriate treatment. Community engagement and health promotion, the provision of

  16. Stress load during childhood affects psychopathology in psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Tzvetan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood stress and trauma have been related to adult psychopathology in different psychiatric disorders. The present study aimed at verifying this relationship for stressful experiences during developmental periods by screening stress load across life in adult psychiatric inpatients with different diagnoses compared to healthy subjects. In addition, a relationship between the amount of adverse experiences and the severity of pathology, which has been described as a 'building block' effect in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, was explored for non-traumatic events in psychiatric disorders other than PTSD. Methods 96 patients with diagnoses of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, schizophrenia, drug addiction, or personality disorders (PD and 31 subjects without psychiatric diagnosis were screened for adverse experiences in childhood (before the age of six years, before onset of puberty, and in adulthood using the Early Trauma Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. Effects of stress load on psychopathology were examined for affective symptoms, PTSD, and severity of illness by regression analyses and comparison of subgroups with high and low stress load. Results High stress load in childhood and before puberty, but not in adulthood, was related to negative affect in all participants. In patients, high stress load was related to depressive and posttraumatic symptoms, severity of disorder, and the diagnoses of MDD and PD. Conclusion Results support the hypothesis of stress-sensitive periods during development, which may interact with genetic and other vulnerability factors in their influence on the progress of psychiatric disorders. A 'dose' effect of stress load on the severity of psychopathology is not restricted to the relationship between traumata and PTSD.

  17. Community-based care coordination: practical applications for childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findley, Sally; Rosenthal, Michael; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Damitz, Maureen; Lara, Marielena; Mansfield, Carol; Matiz, Adriana; Nourani, Vesall; Peretz, Patricia; Persky, Victoria W; Valencia, Gilberto Ramos; Uyeda, Kimberly; Viswanathan, Meera

    2011-11-01

    Care coordination programs have been used to address chronic illnesses, including childhood asthma, but primarily via practice-based models. An alternative approach employs community-based care coordinators who bridge gaps between families, health care providers, and support services. Merck Childhood Asthma Network, Inc. (MCAN) sites developed community-based care coordination approaches for childhood asthma. Using a community-based care coordination logic model, programs at each site are described along with program operational statistics. Four sites used three to four community health workers (CHWs) to provide care coordination, whereas one site used five school-based asthma nurses. This school-based site had the highest caseload (82.5 per year), but program duration was 3 months with 4 calls or visits. Other sites averaged fewer cases (35 to 61 per CHW per year), but families received more (7 to 17) calls or visits over a year. Retention was 43% to 93% at 6 months and 24% to 75% at 12 months. Pre-post cross-site data document changes in asthma management behaviors and outcomes. After program participation, 93% to 100% of caregivers had confidence in controlling their child's asthma, 85% to 92% had taken steps to reduce triggers, 69% to 100% had obtained an asthma action plan, and 46% to 100% of those with moderate to severe asthma reported appropriate use of controller medication. Emergency department visits for asthma decreased by 36% to 63%, and asthma-related hospitalizations declined by 26% to 78%. More than three fourths had fewer school absences. In conclusion, MCAN community-based care coordination programs improved management behaviors and decreased morbidity across all sites. PMID:22068360

  18. Depression Strikes, Stays with Many Caregivers of Critically Ill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158780.html Depression Strikes, Stays With Many Caregivers of Critically Ill ... News) -- Caregivers for the critically ill often suffer depression that lingers long after their loved one's hospital ...

  19. CDC 2011 Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most likely to cause—acute gastroenteritis. Table 1. Estimated annual number of domestically acquired, foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, ... agents transmitted through food, United States Foodborne Agents Estimated annual number of illnesses (90% credible interval) % Estimated ...

  20. Should we mobilise critically ill patients? A review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Enda D

    2009-12-01

    Neuromuscular weakness, a frequent complication of prolonged bed rest and critical illness, is associated with morbidity and mortality. Mobilisation physiotherapy has widespread application in patients hospitalised with non-critical illness.

  1. Depression Strikes, Stays with Many Caregivers of Critically Ill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158780.html Depression Strikes, Stays With Many Caregivers of Critically Ill ... News) -- Caregivers for the critically ill often suffer depression that lingers long after their loved one's hospital ...

  2. History of febrile illness and variation in semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Elisabeth; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of a history of febrile illness on semen quality.......The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of a history of febrile illness on semen quality....

  3. THE CONCEPT OF CHILDHOOD IN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Igorevna KRUPENINA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the nature, types, characteristics of the phenomenon of childhood as a social phenomenon of our time. The author notes the complexity of the definition of “childhood” and its different interpretations. The author also notes that social “construction” considers not childhood itself in its entirety but childhood through the "prism of adulthood". Childhood is often seen as something natural through which goes everyone and something that everybody must have as a result of education and development. At the same time, is lost the understanding of childhood as a valuable phenomenon in itself. The author draws attention to different ways of studying childhood in psychology, literature and history and correlates concepts of childhood in psychology, history and culturology. The author considers the childhood concept by Philippe Aries in correlation with the image of childhood in the novels by Charles Dickens. This choice is determined by specific periodizations of childhood in history and culture what makes the specific development of the world of childhood dependent on the evolution of the world of grown-ups and its culture. 

  4. Heat Illness in Football: Current Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Austin R; Sikka, Robby; Olson, David E

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing health and safety concerns, American football remains a vastly popular sport in the United States. Unfortunately, even with increased efforts in promoting education and hydration, the incidence of death from exertional heat stroke continues to rise. General risk factors such as hydration status, obesity, fitness level, and football-specific risk factors such as timing of training camp and equipment all contribute to the development of heat illness. At the professional level, changes have been made to effectively reduce mortality from heat stroke with no deaths since August 2001. However, there have been at least 33 total deaths at the high school and collegiate levels since this time. More efforts need to be focused at these levels to mandate exertional heat illness prevention guidelines in order to reverse this trend of mortality in our younger athletes. PMID:26561768

  5. The incretin effect in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Janum, Susanne; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke;

    2015-01-01

    increase in insulin secretion during oral versus intravenous glucose administration in six patients. The groups were compared using either Student's t test or a mixed model of repeated measurements. RESULTS: Blood glucose levels were matched between the OGTT and the IVGI in both groups. Compared with......-sectional case-control study. Eight critically ill patients without diabetes admitted to a mixed intensive care unit and eight healthy control subjects without diabetes, matched at group level by age, sex and body mass index, were included in the study. All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT...... is mediated by the incretin hormones GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), is impaired in critically ill patients. METHODS: The incretin effect (i.e., the relative difference between the insulin response to oral and intravenous glucose administration) was investigated in a cross...

  6. Intrahospital Transit Care of the Critically Ill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagappan R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An ideal patient transport system should indeed be a mobile ICU. Optimal features to be desired are light weight, unhindered access for patient evaluation and management, uncluttered environment for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in transit, low cost and, where relevant, adaptability to surface and air transportation. In appropriate situations, suitability for inter-hospital and intra-hospital transport of the critically ill with the same transit-care equipment will be an added advantage. Such systems could also be adapted for pre-hospital evacuation of the critically ill. The investment of time, intellect and technological labour in devising and maintaining a good transit care team with affordable equipment and trained medical and nursing staff is an integral part of running an intensive care service.

  7. [Awareness of illness in affective psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, M; Poprawska, I

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of analyzed clinical material several observations were attempted which were related to the patients' awareness of one's own affective psychosis. It was discovered that patients with endogenous depression considered themselves to be ill, but only in relation to depression. They usually do not perceive in themselves any psychotic illness. It was noticed that in depression past achievements appeared to be foreign to the patients. This was described in among other terms as "emotionally empty judgments". Analyzing the clinical picture of hypomanic states, stress was placed on the notion of the coexistence of logical thinking (and in some cases these thinking patterns are concerned with a feeling of heightened cognitive ability) with thinking styles based on logical errors. In all patients hypermnesia appears more important than other factors. The above mentioned phenomena are the subject of further research. PMID:1301600

  8. Ill-Posed Point Neuron Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Fredrik; Wyller, John

    2016-12-01

    We show that point-neuron models with a Heaviside firing rate function can be ill posed. More specifically, the initial-condition-to-solution map might become discontinuous in finite time. Consequently, if finite precision arithmetic is used, then it is virtually impossible to guarantee the accurate numerical solution of such models. If a smooth firing rate function is employed, then standard ODE theory implies that point-neuron models are well posed. Nevertheless, in the steep firing rate regime, the problem may become close to ill posed, and the error amplification, in finite time, can be very large. This observation is illuminated by numerical experiments. We conclude that, if a steep firing rate function is employed, then minor round-off errors can have a devastating effect on simulations, unless proper error-control schemes are used. PMID:27129667

  9. Teaching Mathematics in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Children who learn math fundamentals in preschool and kindergarten have the best chance of later achievement in school--but too often, children don't get the effective early math instruction that makes all the difference. Now there's a core early childhood textbook that helps current and future educators teach the most critical math concepts to…

  10. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  11. Promoting Health in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Children who are healthy early in life--from conception to age five--not only grow up to be healthier adults, they are also better educated, earn more, and contribute more to the economy. The United States lags behind other advanced countries in early childhood health, threatening both the health of future generations and the nation's long-term…

  12. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  13. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. PMID:25949965

  14. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

  15. Predicting adult asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, JM; Boezen, HM

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There still is no cure for asthma. Early identification of patients at risk for disease progression may lead to better treatment opportunities and hopefully better disease outcomes in adulthood. Recent literature on childhood risk factors associated with the outcome of asthma in a

  16. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Bouw; N. Dors; H. van Ommen; N.L. Ramakers-van Woerden

    2009-01-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic puripura (TTP) is a rare disease, especially in childhood, and has a high mortality rate in the absence of appropriate treatment. it is characterised by microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and consumptive thrombocytopenia. TTP may be difficult to distinguish from haemolyt

  17. Childhood Obesity Demands New Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satter, Ellyn

    1991-01-01

    Health professionals suggest creating achievable goals in childhood obesity. The article recommends correcting factors that distort normal growth and providing positive eating and exercise management to slow weight gain. Rather than trying for weight loss, children must learn positive lifelong eating and exercise patterns and attitudes toward self…

  18. Childhood Obesity and Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity is on the rise across the country and in North Carolina, with four times as many children exhibiting signs of obesity now as they did 20 years ago. The costs in terms of medical expenses are staggering, with one estimate putting the cost to North Carolina at $16 million a year. Some North Carolina legislators have expressed…

  19. Early Childhood: Child, Teacher, Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Christie

    2006-01-01

    The field of early childhood holds promising keys to unlocking many of the mysteries in learning. Educators in the field, given the right tools, have the potential to have a profound impact on the long-term success of their students. The design of this curriculum comes directly out of the incredible possibilities set in motion while exploring…

  20. Sociological Factors Affecting Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster-Scott, Latisha

    2007-01-01

    According to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, childhood obesity rates are highest among ethnic minorities. It is very helpful to consider the role of culture when attempting to analyze and explain obesity rates in ethnic minority populations. Culture influences the attitudes and beliefs toward exercise, food and nutrition, and…

  1. Indoor radon and childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the epidemiological literature on domestic exposure to radon and risk for childhood leukaemia. The results of 12 ecological studies show a consistent pattern of higher incidence and mortality rates for childhood leukaemia in areas with higher average indoor radon concentrations. Although the results of such studies are useful to generate hypotheses, they must be interpreted with caution, as the data were aggregated and analysed for geographical areas and not for individuals. The seven available case - control studies of childhood leukaemia with measurement of radon concentrations in the residences of cases and controls gave mixed results, however, with some indication of a weak (relative risk < 2) association with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The epidemiological evidence to date suggests that an association between indoor exposure to radon and childhood leukaemia might exist, but is weak. More case - control studies are needed, with sufficient statistical power to detect weak associations and based on designs and methods that minimise misclassification of exposure and provide a high participation rate and low potential selection bias. (authors)

  2. Early Childhood Education in Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Early Learning Childhood Center in Azerbaijan's capital city. Focuses on the goals of the program; its initial development; staff ratios, compensation, and teacher training; curriculum; cultural challenges and compromise; and relationships with parents. Asserts that developing a culturally sensitive program is extremely difficult,…

  3. Childhood Vestibular Disorders: A Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Zarin; Stakiw, Daria B.

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that childhood disorders affecting the vestibular system, although rare, do exist. Describing symptoms associated with the vestibular mechanism for children may be difficult, resulting in misdiagnosing or under-diagnosing these conditions. The pathophysiology, symptoms, and management options of the more common…

  4. Moral transgression and illness in the early modern north

    OpenAIRE

    Eilola, Jari

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to understand how people in the early modern age interpreted the nature of illness and the role that morality played in these interpretations. From this point of view illnesses were not only psycho-physical states or subjects for medical diagnosis but they were also subjects for narratives or stories through which people tried to understand what had caused their illness, and why it was happening to them. Illnesses were understood as strictly connected with the patient's cha...

  5. 2007 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2006 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2006 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2006 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2006 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2006 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2006 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2010 Argonne National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2007 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2007 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2010 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2010 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2010 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2010 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.