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Sample records for childhood illness findings

  1. Sex and Socioeconomic Differentials in Child Health in Rural Bangladesh: Findings from a Baseline Survey for Evaluating Integrated Management of Childhood Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifeen, Shams El; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Victora, Cesar G.; Black, Robert E.; Bryce, Jennifer; Hoque, D.M.E.; Chowdhury, E.K.; Begum, N.; Akter, T.; Siddik, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a population-based sample survey of 2,289 children aged less than five years (under-five children) conducted in 2000 as a baseline for the Bangladesh component of the Multi-country Evaluation (MCE) of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy. Of interest were rates and differentials by sex and socioeconomic status for three aspects of child health in rural Bangladesh: morbidity and hospitalizations, including severity of illness; care-seeking for childhood illness; and home-care for illness. The survey was carried out among a population of about 380,000 in Matlab upazila (subdistrict). Generic MCE Household Survey tools were adapted, translated, and pretested. Trained interviewers conducted the survey in the study areas. In total, 2,289 under-five children were included in the survey. Results showed a very high prevalence of illness among Bangladeshi children, with over two-thirds reported to have had at least one illness during the two weeks preceding the survey. Most sick children in this population had multiple symptoms, suggesting that the use of the IMCI clinical guidelines will lead to improved quality of care. Contrary to expectations, there were no significant differences in the prevalence of illness either by sex or by socioeconomic status. About one-third of the children with a reported illness did not receive any care outside the home. Of those for whom outside care was sought, 42% were taken to a village doctor. Only 8% were taken to an appropriate provider, i.e. a health facility, a hospital, a doctor, a paramedic, or a community-based health worker. Poorer children than less-poor children were less likely to be taken to an appropriate healthcare provider. The findings indicated that children with severe illness in the least poor households were three times more likely to seek care from a trained provider than children in the poorest households. Any evidence of gender inequities in child healthcare, either in terms

  2. Enhancing parents' confidence to care in acute childhood illness: triangulation of findings from a mixed methods study of Community Children's Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callery, Peter; Kyle, Richard G; Banks, Michele; Ewing, Carol; Kirk, Susan

    2013-11-01

    Children's emergency hospital use is of concern internationally, but there has been little examination of home care by nurses. To examine the care provided by community children's nurses during acute illness. Triangulation of findings from case studies of three Community Children's Nursing Teams. Parents or carers (n = 763) completed questionnaires between 2008-2010 about their contacts with nurses and satisfaction with aspects and overall assessment of nursing care provided. Eighty-one individuals participated in semi-structured interviews: 29 parents/carers described their experiences and explained their questionnaire responses in more detail; 13 children talked about their care both in hospital and at home; and 39 nurses and other healthcare providers explained how nurses supported care of children at home. Questionnaire data were analysed descriptively and interview data qualitatively. The findings were integrated by triangulation of methods (questionnaires and interviews) and of data from different informants (children, parents, healthcare providers). Nursing care most frequently took the form of advice and education by either home visits or telephone contact. Parents and children were reassured by access to nurses and it gave them confidence to care at home. Most respondents thought that it reduced the time their children spent in hospital. Nurses can make an important contribution to supporting parents to care confidently for their children at home to reduce or even to avoid hospitalization for acute conditions and give them confidence to manage future episodes of illness. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Beliefs regarding diet during childhood illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha D Benakappa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fifty percent to 70% of the burden of childhood diarrhea and respiratory infections is attributable to undernutrition. It is compounded by food restriction during illness due to false beliefs, leading to a vicious cycle of malnutrition and infection. In the long run, it decreases the child′s productivity, which is an obstacle to sustainable socioeconomic development. Objectives: To assess the dietary practices during different illnesses, to study the role of education, culture and religion in feeding an ill child and to create awareness against detrimental practices. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 126 caregivers of ill children using an open-ended pretested questionnaire. Statistical package for social sciences software was used for data analysis. Simple proportions, percentages and Chi-square were used. Results: Caregivers believed that a child must be fed less during illness. Educational status did not play a role in maintaining beliefs, but elders and religion did. Doctors too were responsible for unwanted dietary restrictions. Media did not have an impact in spreading nutrition messages. Decreased breast feeds, initiating bottle feeds, feeding diluted milk and reducing complementary feeds during illness was widely practiced. Calorie intake during illness was very less and statistically significant. Firmly rooted beliefs about "hot" and "cold" foods lead to restriction of food available at home. Conclusions: Healthy feeding practices were few, and inappropriate ones predominant. Dietary education was overlooked. While planning community-based nutrition programs, firmly rooted beliefs should be kept in mind. Involving the elderly caregivers and mothers actively along with the health workers is the need of the hour.

  4. Impact of childhood chronic illnesses on siblings: a literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O' Brien, Irene

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood illness can have a significant impact on families, particularly on the ill child\\'s siblings. There is a dearth of published literature focusing on the needs of siblings of ill children. AIM: This literature review aims to provide an overview of the current healthcare literature in relation to the impact of childhood chronic illness or disability on siblings. METHOD: A literature review was undertaken by searching the databases CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest and Cochrane Library for relevant articles in English using the search terms: \\'siblings\\

  5. Evaluation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nurses were trained in implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy in. 2005 .... support IMCI priority indicators, and caretaker reasons for .... not reported by the caretaker.9 Data from a descriptive hospital-.

  6. Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States -- Burden of Foodborne Illness: Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illness Trends Foodborne Outbreaks Foodsafety.gov Burden of Foodborne Illness: Findings Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... CDC provides estimates for two major groups of foodborne illnesses Known foodborne pathogens — 31 pathogens known ...

  7. Systematic review of character development and childhood chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Hill, Sherika N

    2016-05-08

    To review empirical evidence on character development among youth with chronic illnesses. A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and PSYCHINFO from inception until November 2013 to find quantitative studies that measured character strengths among youth with chronic illnesses. Inclusion criteria were limited to English language studies examining constructs of character development among adolescents or young adults aged 13-24 years with a childhood-onset chronic medical condition. A librarian at Duke University Medical Center Library assisted with the development of the mesh search term. Two researchers independently reviewed relevant titles (n = 549), then abstracts (n = 45), and finally manuscripts (n = 3). There is a lack of empirical research on character development and childhood-onset chronic medical conditions. Three studies were identified that used different measures of character based on moral themes. One study examined moral reasoning among deaf adolescents using Kohlberg's Moral Judgement Instrument; another, investigated moral values of adolescent cancer survivors with the Values In Action Classification of Strengths. A third study evaluated moral behavior among young adult survivors of burn injury utilizing the Tennessee Self-Concept, 2(nd) edition. The studies observed that youth with chronic conditions reasoned at less advanced stages and had a lower moral self-concept compared to referent populations, but that they did differ on character virtues and strengths when matched with healthy peers for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Yet, generalizations could not be drawn regarding character development of youth with chronic medical conditions because the studies were too divergent from each other and biased from study design limitations. Future empirical studies should learn from the strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature on character development among youth with chronic medical conditions.

  8. Systematic review of character development and childhood chronic illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Hill, Sherika N

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review empirical evidence on character development among youth with chronic illnesses. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and PSYCHINFO from inception until November 2013 to find quantitative studies that measured character strengths among youth with chronic illnesses. Inclusion criteria were limited to English language studies examining constructs of character development among adolescents or young adults aged 13-24 years with a childhood-onset chronic medical condition. A librarian at Duke University Medical Center Library assisted with the development of the mesh search term. Two researchers independently reviewed relevant titles (n = 549), then abstracts (n = 45), and finally manuscripts (n = 3). RESULTS: There is a lack of empirical research on character development and childhood-onset chronic medical conditions. Three studies were identified that used different measures of character based on moral themes. One study examined moral reasoning among deaf adolescents using Kohlberg’s Moral Judgement Instrument; another, investigated moral values of adolescent cancer survivors with the Values In Action Classification of Strengths. A third study evaluated moral behavior among young adult survivors of burn injury utilizing the Tennessee Self-Concept, 2nd edition. The studies observed that youth with chronic conditions reasoned at less advanced stages and had a lower moral self-concept compared to referent populations, but that they did differ on character virtues and strengths when matched with healthy peers for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Yet, generalizations could not be drawn regarding character development of youth with chronic medical conditions because the studies were too divergent from each other and biased from study design limitations. CONCLUSION: Future empirical studies should learn from the strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature on character development among youth with chronic medical conditions

  9. Understanding the impact of chronic childhood illness on families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbeth, B

    1984-02-01

    A great deal has been written about mothers and their relationships with their ill children. Fathers, however, have been relatively excluded from the research, as they have been from many pediatrician-mother-child interactions. Although it has been noted that some fathers tend to withdraw from the family, in fact very little is known about the impact of childhood illness on their lives. In general, studies of mothers, fathers, siblings, marriage, and families emphasize psychopathology and other psychosocial problems. Yet, there is a growing awareness in the social sciences that we have much to learn from the capacity to adjust. How is it that some families of chronically ill children survive so well? This question has not been addressed. Most studies focus on individual constituents of the family. Minuchin and others have taught us about aberrant family systems that sometimes develop around chronically ill children. Such systems are characterized by high cohesion and conformity, and the absence of apparent friction. How frequently do such systems develop? How can they be prevented? Finally, understanding the impact of chronic childhood illness on families is a difficult task. Parents have reasons for obscuring the impact, and particularly their distress, from the view of their pediatrician. Physicians are often uncertain how much understanding they ought to offer. Careful attention to the parent-pediatrician relationship is essential to a thorough understanding of the impact of childhood illness on the family.

  10. Parents' help-seeking behaviours during acute childhood illness at home: A contribution to explanatory theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Sarah J; Jones, Caroline H D; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Roland, Damian T; Thompson, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Uncertainty and anxiety surround parents' decisions to seek medical help for an acutely ill child. Consultation rates for children are rising, yet little is known about factors that influence parents' help-seeking behaviours. We used focus groups and interviews to examine how 27 parents of children under five years, from a range of socioeconomic groups in the East Midlands of England, use information to make decisions during acute childhood illness at home. This article reports findings elucidating factors that influence help-seeking behaviours. Parents reported that decision-making during acute childhood illness was influenced by a range of personal, social and health service factors. Principal among these was parents' concern to do the right thing for their child. Their ability to assess the severity of the illness was influenced by knowledge and experience of childhood illness. When parents were unable to access their general practitioner (GP), feared criticism from or had lost trust in their GP, some parents reported using services elsewhere such as Accident and Emergency. These findings contribute to explanatory theory concerning parents' help-seeking behaviours. Professional and political solutions have not reduced demand; therefore, collaborative approaches involving the public and professionals are now needed to improve parents' access to information.

  11. Childhood illnesses and the use of paracetamol (acetaminophen): a qualitative study of parents' management of common childhood illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerløv, Per; Helseth, Sølvi; Holager, Tanja

    2003-12-01

    Parents frequently give over-the-counter paracetamol (acetaminophen) during childhood illness. This study aims at exploring parents' use of this medicine in relation to their management of common childhood illnesses and the impact on the family. Parents of pre-school aged children were asked open-ended questions about their perceptions of illness, its impact on the family, the use of paracetamol and sources of medical information. The interviews were audiotaped. The transcribed text was condensed and different views and opinions were identified for each question. The parents were recruited from six Norwegian public health centres during a questionnaire study on the use of paracetamol among their children. Volunteering parents supplied their name and telephone number for further contact. A strategic sample of 24 parents was selected for interviews according to their responses to the questionnaire and family characteristics. Parents recognized illness among their children either intuitively or by taking notice of specific signs or symptoms. Fever was considered a definite sign of illness, almost congruent with the disease itself. Some parents acknowledged that low or moderate fever reflected a battle between the body and the disease-causing organism. High or rapidly increasing fever, however, was frequently looked upon as dangerous. Mothers preferred to stay close to their child during illness and postponed other duties. Inexperienced parents felt particularly anxious and helpless since they often found the severity of the illness difficult to judge. Administration of paracetamol gave parents the feeling of mastery. The medicine was also used to calm down the child enabling sleep and rest for the whole family. Some parents were generally interested in information about child diseases, others were only eager to know more about it during periods of illness, and some parents were not interested as they felt information only caused more anxiety. Fever was often judged to

  12. Childhood- versus adolescent-onset antisocial youth with conduct disorder: psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki A Johnson

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt's dual taxonomy model.Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12-21 with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23 with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20 with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples.The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired.Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process.

  13. Childhood- versus adolescent-onset antisocial youth with conduct disorder: psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vicki A; Kemp, Andrew H; Heard, Robert; Lennings, Christopher J; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt's dual taxonomy model. Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12-21) with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23) with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20) with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples. The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired). Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process.

  14. Pediatric Acute Q Fever Mimics Other Common Childhood Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Ingeborg Y.; Schabos, Yvonne; van Hout, Roeland W. N. M.; Leenders, Alexander C. A. P.; de Vries, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of Q fever has increased over the last decades, but research has mainly focused on adults. Data in children are scarce, and current knowledge is mostly based on case reports. The aim of this study was to determine predictors for acute Q fever in children in the general population. We retrospectively studied all children tested for Coxiella burnetii by serology and/or PCR upon request of their general practitioner in the regional laboratory for Medical Microbiology of the Jeroen Bosch during the Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands between 2007 and 2011. A total of 1061 patients was analyzed. Influenza-like illness and respiratory tract infection were the most common presentations of acute Q fever, mimicking other common childhood illnesses. None of the reported symptoms was significantly related to a positive test outcome and therefore presenting signs or symptoms have no predictive value in diagnosing Q-fever in children. Only diagnostic tests are reliable. As the infection generally follows a mild and uncomplicated course, we question if the difficulty of recognizing pediatric Q fever is a problem worth solving. PMID:24520412

  15. ‘Better medicines for children’ within the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nsabagasani, Xavier; Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses is the main approach for treating children in more than 100 low income countries worldwide. In 2007, the World Health Assembly urged countries to integrate ‘better medicines for children’ into their essential medicines lists and treatment...... guidelines. WHO regularly provides generic algorithms for IMCI and publishes the Model Essential Medicines List with child-friendly medicines based on new evidence for member countries to adopt. However, the status of ‘better medicines for children’ within the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses......: Child-appropriate dosage formulations were not included in the package for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses and ministry officials attributed this to resource constraints and lack of initial guidance from the World Health Organization. Underfunding reportedly undercut efforts to: orient...

  16. Cotrimoxazole for childhood febrile illness in Malaria-endemic regions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Plasmodium falcipanlm parasitaemia in child- ren younger than 5 ... an effective single treatment for febrile illness in young children in ... highly endemic areas all young children with fever should be treated ... parental consent. Children who ...

  17. Experiences of primary health care nurses in implementing integrated management of childhood illnesses strategy at selected clinics of Limpopo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vhuromu, E N; Davhana-Maselesele, M

    2009-09-01

    Treatment of the under five years is a national priority as an attempt in curbing deaths and deformities affecting children. Primary health care was implemented in the clinics in order to help in the treatment of illnesses affecting the community, including children. As a result of childhood illnesses; the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nation Children's Fund (UNICEF) came up with Integrated Management of Childhood illnesses (IMCI) strategy to enhance treatment of such illnesses in developing countries. Primary health care nurses (PHCNS) in Limpopo Province were also trained to implement the strategy. This study is intended to explore and describe the experiences of PHCNS in implementing the IMCI strategy at selected clinics in Vhembe District in the Limpopo Province. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with PHCNS who are IMCI trained and have implemented the strategy for a period of not less than two years. Data analysis was done through using Tesch 's method of open coding for qualitative analysis. Findings revealed that PHCNS had difficulty in rendering IMCI services due to lack of resources and poor working conditions. Recommendations address the difficulties experienced by PHCNS when implementing the IMCI strategy.

  18. Experiences of primary health care nurses in implementing integrated management of childhood illnesses strategy at selected clinics of Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Vhuromu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of the under five years is a national priority as an attempt in curbing deaths and deformities affecting children. Primary health care was implemented in the clinics in order to help in the treatment of illnesses affecting the community, including children. As a result of childhood illnesses; the World Health Organization (WHO and United Nation Children's Fund (UNICEF came up with Integrated Management of Childhood illnesses (IMCI strategy to enhance treatment of such illnesses in developing countries. Primary health care nurses (PHCNS in Limpopo province were also trained to implement the strategy. This study is intended to explore and describe the experiences of PHCNS in implementing the IMCI strategy at selected clinics in Vhembe District in the Limpopo Province. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with PHCNS who are IMCI trained and have implemented the strategy for a period of not less than two years. Data analysis was done through using Tesch’s method of open coding for qualitative analysis. Findings revealed that PHCNS had difficulty in rendering IMCI services due to lack of resources and poor working conditions. Recommendations address the difficulties experienced by PHCNS when implementing the IMCI strategy.

  19. Factors affecting health seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webair, Hana Hasan; Bin-Gouth, Abdulla Salim

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Appropriate medical care seeking could prevent a significant number of child deaths and complications due to ill health. This study aims to determine factors affecting health seeking behavior (HSB) for childhood illnesses, thereby improving child survival. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out from January 11 to April 2, 2012. A total of 212 caretakers of children under the age of 5 years participated. Caretakers who visited the vaccination unit in the Shehair Health Center during the study period and had a child with a history of diarrhea, fever, cough, and/or difficulty of breathing during the last 14 days were included. The data were collected by interviewing caretakers and the answers were reported in pretested structured questionnaires. Results Medical care was sought for about half of the sick children (n=109, 51.42%). Seeking medical care was frequently initiated for illnesses that did not improve or worsened. The major reasons for not seeking medical care were “illness was mild” (n=40, 38.83%) and “illness is not for medical treatment” (n=32, 31.07%). The caretakers sought medical care significantly more when they had a higher level of school education (POR [prevalence odds ratio] 5.85, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 2.34–14.61), when the illness was perceived as severe (POR 5.39, 95% CI: 2.81–10.33), and when the child had difficulty of breathing (POR 2.93, 95% CI: 1.10–7.80). Conclusion For the preventable childhood illnesses with existing interventions, appropriate HSB prevalence is low. Symptom type, caretakers’ education, and perception of illness severity are the predictors of HSB. Educational improvement of the mothers, introduction of community based integrated management of childhood illness, and in-depth research are imperative to improve mothers’ HSB. PMID:24187490

  20. Evaluation of pre-service training on integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haileamlak, Abraham; Hailu, Sirak; Nida, Hailu; Desta, Teshome; Tesema, Tesfaye

    2010-03-01

    The Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness strategy equips health workers with essential knowledge and skills to effectively manage sick children with common neonatal and childhood diseases. Since in-service training is very demanding to achieve the desired coverage of training of health workers, pre-service training is taken as a solution. At the time of the survey, most public and some private health professionals' training institutions were conducting pre-service training. However, several concerns have been expressed on the training. Therefore, this survey was conducted to assess the status of pre-service Integrated Management of New-born and Childhood Illness training. A cross sectional survey on health professional training institutes/schools to evaluate pre-service Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness training was conducted in November 2007. Data was collected using pre-tested questionnaires, focused group interviews with teachers and students, observation of students while managing sick children using Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness guidelines, and reviews of pediatric course outlines and other teaching/learning materials. Data was entered in computer and analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 12.0.1. Twenty nine health professionals' training institutions (34 academic programs) which have started pre-service training were included in the survey. Of the 34 programs 22 were diploma nursing, 6 Bachelor of Sciences nursing, 4 health officer and the remaining two medicine. Thirty (88.2%) programs have integrated it in their curriculum. All academic programs had at least one fulltime staff for Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness classroom instruction. Twenty nine (85.3%) programs had staff trained in case management skills. All the 34 academic programs taught health workers skills, 28(82.3%) used mixed approach. Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness was either

  1. Childhood atypical meningioma with perineural spread: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Feng-Yu.; Wong, Alex Mun-Ching; Wong, Ho-Fai; Ng, Shu-Hang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan (Taiwan); Wu, Chieh-Tsai [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan (Taiwan); Lin, Kuang-Lin [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan (Taiwan)

    2005-09-01

    Meningiomas are uncommon in children. When they occur, they are frequently associated with neurofibromatosis type 2. Childhood meningiomas are generally large and commonly associated with cyst formation and an unusual location. Perineural tumor spread, occasionally associated with head and neck malignancies, is very rare in meningiomas. We present the MR findings of an atypical meningioma with perineural spread in a 4.5-year-old girl. (orig.)

  2. Does Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predict Risk-Taking and Medical Illnesses in Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Olazagasti, Maria A.; Klein, Rachel G.; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Belsky, Erica Roizen; Hutchison, Jesse A.; Lashua-Shriftman, Erin C.; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test whether children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), free of conduct disorder (CD) in childhood (mean = 8 years), have elevated risk-taking, accidents, and medical illnesses in adulthood (mean = 41 years); whether development of CD influences risk-taking during adulthood; and whether exposure to…

  3. Drinking water systems, hydrology, and childhood gastrointestinal illness in Central and Northern Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uejio, Christopher K; Yale, Steven H; Malecki, Kristen; Borchardt, Mark A; Anderson, Henry A; Patz, Jonathan A

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated if the type of drinking water source (treated municipal, untreated municipal, and private well water) modifies the effect of hydrology on childhood (aged hydrologic and weather conditions with childhood gastrointestinal illness from 1991 to 2010. The Central and Northern Wisconsin study area includes households using all 3 types of drinking water systems. Separate time series models were created for each system and half-year period (winter/spring, summer/fall). More precipitation (summer/fall) systematically increased childhood gastrointestinal illness in municipalities accessing untreated water. The relative risk of contracting gastrointestinal illness was 1.4 in weeks with 3 centimeters of precipitation and 2.4 in very wet weeks with 12 centimeters of precipitation. By contrast, gastrointestinal illness in private well and treated municipal areas was not influenced by hydrologic conditions, although warmer winter temperatures slightly increased incidence. Our study suggests that improved drinking water protection, treatment, and delivery infrastructure may improve public health by specifically identifying municipal water systems lacking water treatment that may transmit waterborne disease.

  4. Factors affecting health seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webair HH

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hana Hasan Webair, Abdulla Salim Bin-Gouth Department of Family Medicine, Hadhramout University of Science and Technology, Almukalla, Hadhramout, Yemen Introduction: Appropriate medical care seeking could prevent a significant number of child deaths and complications due to ill health. This study aims to determine factors affecting health seeking behavior (HSB for childhood illnesses, thereby improving child survival. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out from January 11 to April 2, 2012. A total of 212 caretakers of children under the age of 5 years participated. Caretakers who visited the vaccination unit in the Shehair Health Center during the study period and had a child with a history of diarrhea, fever, cough, and/or difficulty of breathing during the last 14 days were included. The data were collected by interviewing caretakers and the answers were reported in pretested structured questionnaires. Results: Medical care was sought for about half of the sick children (n=109, 51.42%. Seeking medical care was frequently initiated for illnesses that did not improve or worsened. The major reasons for not seeking medical care were "illness was mild" (n=40, 38.83% and "illness is not for medical treatment" (n=32, 31.07%. The caretakers sought medical care significantly more when they had a higher level of school education (POR [prevalence odds ratio] 5.85, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 2.34–14.61, when the illness was perceived as severe (POR 5.39, 95% CI: 2.81–10.33, and when the child had difficulty of breathing (POR 2.93, 95% CI: 1.10–7.80. Conclusion: For the preventable childhood illnesses with existing interventions, appropriate HSB prevalence is low. Symptom type, caretakers' education, and perception of illness severity are the predictors of HSB. Educational improvement of the mothers, introduction of community based integrated management of childhood illness, and in-depth research are imperative to improve mothers' HSB

  5. PREVALENCE OF CHILDHOOD ILLNESS IN DRAUGHT PRONE VILLAGES OF SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. JAGADEESH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition contributes to 60% of the 10 million deaths globally that occur every year among children less than five years of age. The Anganwadi (AW is literally a courtyard play centre. It is a childcare centre, located within the village areas. It is the focal point for the delivery of services at the community level. The Anganwadi Centre (AWC is the District Head office. The data was collected from the AWC and processed for the prevalence of childhood illnesses up to 5 years of age in 2013. Objectives: The retrospective cross-sectional survey study; was conducted to estimate the prevalence of childhood illnesses in study site, to assess the distribution of nutritional deficiency disorders and to assess the breast feeding status as the prime objectives.

  6. Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) strategy for children under five

    OpenAIRE

    Gera, Tarun; Shah, Dheeraj; Garner, Paul; Richardson, Marty; Sachdev, Harshpal S

    2016-01-01

    Background More than 7.5 million children younger than age five living in low- and middle-income countries die every year. The World Health Organization (WHO) developed the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) strategy to reduce mortality and morbidity and to improve quality of care by improving the delivery of a variety of curative and preventive medical and behavioral interventions at health facilities, at home, and in the community. Objectives To evaluate the effects of progra...

  7. BELIEFS AND PRACTICES AMONG MOTHERS REGARDING DIET DURING CHILDHOOD ILLNESS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, VISAKHAPATNAM

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavi; Kiran; Devi Madhavi

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : Malnutrition is the most widespread condition affecting the health of the children. Scarcity of suitable foods, lack of purchasing power of the family as well as traditional beliefs and taboos about what the baby should eat, often lead to an insufficient balanced diet, resulting in malnutrition. Culturally related food restriction and reduction in feeding frequency during common childhood illnesses further contributes to the b...

  8. Allergies and Disease Severity in Childhood Narcolepsy: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinoz, Secil; Huang, Yu-Shu; Gozal, David; Inocente, Clara O; Franco, Patricia; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    2015-12-01

    Narcolepsy frequently begins in childhood, and is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, with the presence of cataplexy reflecting a more severe phenotype. Narcolepsy may result from genetic predisposition involving deregulation of immune pathways, particularly involving T helper 2 cells (Th2). Increased activation of Th2 cells is usually manifested as allergic conditions such as rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma. We hypothesized that the presence of allergic conditions indicative of increased Th2 balance may dampen the severity of the phenotype in children with narcolepsy. A retrospective chart review of childhood narcolepsy patients was conducted at three major pediatric sleep centers. Patients were divided into those with narcolepsy without cataplexy (NC-) and narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC+). Demographics, polysomnographic and multiple sleep latency test data, and extraction of information on the presence of allergic diseases such allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma was performed. There were 468 children identified, with 193 children in NC- group and 275 patients in the NC+ group. Overall, NC+ children were significantly younger, had higher body mass index, and had shorter mean sleep latencies and increased sleep onset rapid eye movement events. The frequency of allergic conditions, particularly asthma and allergic rhinitis, was markedly lower in NC+ (58/275) compared to NC- patients (94/193; P narcolepsy. Current findings further suggest that an increased shift toward T helper 2 cells, as indicated by the presence of allergic conditions, may modulate the severity of the phenotype in childhood narcolepsy, and reduce the prevalence of cataplexy in these patients. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Exploring cross-sectional associations between common childhood illness, housing and social conditions in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewster David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited epidemiological research that provides insight into the complex web of causative and moderating factors that links housing conditions to a variety of poor health outcomes. This study explores the relationship between housing conditions (with a primary focus on the functional state of infrastructure and common childhood illness in remote Australian Aboriginal communities for the purpose of informing development of housing interventions to improve child health. Methods Hierarchical multi-level analysis of association between carer report of common childhood illnesses and functional and hygienic state of housing infrastructure, socio-economic, psychosocial and health related behaviours using baseline survey data from a housing intervention study. Results Multivariate analysis showed a strong independent association between report of respiratory infection and overall functional condition of the house (Odds Ratio (OR 3.00; 95%CI 1.36-6.63, but no significant association between report of other illnesses and the overall functional condition or the functional condition of infrastructure required for specific healthy living practices. Associations between report of child illness and secondary explanatory variables which showed an OR of 2 or more included: for skin infection - evidence of poor temperature control in the house (OR 3.25; 95%CI 1.06-9.94, evidence of pests and vermin in the house (OR 2.88; 95%CI 1.25-6.60; for respiratory infection - breastfeeding in infancy (OR 0.27; 95%CI 0.14-0.49; for diarrhoea/vomiting - hygienic state of food preparation and storage areas (OR 2.10; 95%CI 1.10-4.00; for ear infection - child care attendance (OR 2.25; 95%CI 1.26-3.99. Conclusion These findings add to other evidence that building programs need to be supported by a range of other social and behavioural interventions for potential health gains to be more fully realised.

  10. National survey of childhood febrile illness cases with fever of unknown origin in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Kazuko; Mori, Masaaki; Hara, Ryoki; Miyamae, Takako; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Yokota, Shumpei

    2011-08-01

    In Japan, an actual condition survey on childhood febrile diseases with fever of unknown origin has never been performed. We carried out a national survey on childhood febrile illnesses in order to collect useful information for the differential diagnosis. A nationwide survey using questionnaires was performed on febrile illness cases with fever of unknown origin (FUO) experienced by 2843 pediatrics institutions with sick beds during a 5-year period before 2007. FUO was defined as a febrile illness of at least 2 weeks' duration with a temperature ≥ 38°C, and failure to establish a diagnosis in spite of intensive evaluation during seven days' hospitalization. Two hundred fifty-five of 2843 questionnaire-surveyed institutions had 960 FUO cases, of which 132 could not be diagnosed, and 828 could be diagnosed after detailed medical examinations. The diagnoses they clarified included infectious diseases in 190 cases (23%), rheumatic diseases in 448 cases (54%), neoplasms in 67 cases (8%), and others in 123 cases (15%). Clarification of illnesses that ought to be differentiated in the diagnostic approach to an FUO case is essential for arriving at its definitive diagnosis by exclusion. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  11. Childhood Illness and the Gender Gap in Adolescent Education in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsan, Marcella; Xing, Anlu; Wise, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L; Bendavid, Eran

    2017-07-01

    Achieving gender equality in education is an important development goal. We tested the hypothesis that the gender gap in adolescent education is accentuated by illnesses among young children in the household. Using Demographic and Health Surveys on 41 821 households in 38 low- and middle-income countries, we used linear regression to estimate the difference in the probability adolescent girls and boys were in school, and how this gap responded to illness episodes among children education, we assessed the relationship between the gender gap and national immunization coverage. In our sample of 120 708 adolescent boys and girls residing in 38 countries, girls were 5.08% less likely to attend school than boys in the absence of a recent illness among young children within the same household (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.50%-4.65%). This gap increased to 7.77% (95% CI, 8.24%-7.30%) and 8.53% (95% CI, 9.32%-7.74%) if the household reported 1 and 2 or more illness episodes, respectively. The gender gap in schooling in response to illness was larger in households with a working mother. Increases in child vaccination rates were associated with a closing of the gender gap in schooling (correlation coefficient = 0.34, P = .02). Illnesses among children strongly predict a widening of the gender gap in education. Investments in early childhood health may have important effects on schooling attainment for adolescent girls. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Health Care Seeking Behavior for Common Childhood Illnesses in Jeldu District, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolola, Tufa; Gezahegn, Takele; Addisie, Mesfin

    2016-01-01

    Even though health care seeking interventions potentially reduce child mortality from easily treatable diseases, significant numbers of children die without ever reaching a health facility or due to delays in seeking care in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess health care seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses and associated factors. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeldu District from January to February 2011. A systematic sampling method was used for sample selection. Data were collected from 422 caregivers with under-five children who experienced diseases within six weeks before the survey. Interviewer administered structured and pre-tested questionnaire which were used to collect data. Data entry and cleaning were carried out using Epi Info version 3.5.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Descriptive analysis was done to determine the magnitude of health care seeking behavior. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify associated factors. A total of 422 caregivers of under-five children were participated in the study giving an overall response rate of 97.5%. Three hundred fifteen (74.6%) children sought care from health facilities for all conditions. However, only 55.4% of them were taken to health facilities as first source treatment during their illness and prompt care was also very low (13.7%). Marital status of the caregivers (AOR = 2.84; 95%CI: 1.62-4.98), number of symptoms experienced by the child (AOR = 2.04; 95%CI: 1.24-3.36) and perceived severity of the illness (AOR = 3.20; 95%CI: 1.96-5.22) were predictors of health care seeking behavior. Health care seeking behavior for childhood illnesses was delayed and decision to seek care from health facilities was influenced by worsening of the illnesses. Thus, community level promotion of prompt health care seeking is essential to enhance the health care seeking behavior for child hood illnesses in the locality.

  13. SYNOVIAL SARCOMA IN CHILDHOOD: CLINICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL FINDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Deyong; Zhan Alai; Luan Hongmei; Feng Weihua; Sun Xihe; Yang Zuwen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical characteristics and radiological features of synovial sarcoma in childhood and its relation to the diagnosis and treatment. Methods:The clinical radiological features of 15 children with synovial sarcoma proved surgically and pathologically were analyzed. Results: In children, the tumor boundaries are poorly defined due to paucity of fat, and metastasis usually occurs early. Eight patients in this series had bone involvement, including: direct erosion by tumor causing cortical destruction, indirect pressure defect with sharp margin and reactive bone sclerosis and bone destruction of the primary intraosseous synovial sarcoma.Conclusion: The tumor is often misdiagnosed, the final confirmed diagnosis must be made by histological examination with imaging findings. It is emphasized that the patients should be treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy preoperatively and postoperatively.

  14. Independent Evaluation of the integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness Strategy in Malawi Using a National Evaluation Platform Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouzou, Agbessi; Kanyuka, Mercy; Hazel, Elizabeth; Heidkamp, Rebecca; Marsh, Andrew; Mleme, Tiope; Munthali, Spy; Park, Lois; Banda, Benjamin; Moulton, Lawrence H; Black, Robert E; Hill, Kenneth; Perin, Jamie; Victora, Cesar G; Bryce, Jennifer

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the impact of integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) on careseeking for childhood illness and child mortality in Malawi, using a National Evaluation Platform dose-response design with 27 districts as units of analysis. "Dose" variables included density of iCCM providers, drug availability, and supervision, measured through a cross-sectional cellular telephone survey of all iCCM-trained providers. "Response" variables were changes between 2010 and 2014 in careseeking and mortality in children aged 2-59 months, measured through household surveys. iCCM implementation strength was not associated with changes in careseeking or mortality. There were fewer than one iCCM-ready provider per 1,000 under-five children per district. About 70% of sick children were taken outside the home for care in both 2010 and 2014. Careseeking from iCCM providers increased over time from about 2% to 10%; careseeking from other providers fell by a similar amount. Likely contributors to the failure to find impact include low density of iCCM providers, geographic targeting of iCCM to "hard-to-reach" areas although women did not identify distance from a provider as a barrier to health care, and displacement of facility careseeking by iCCM careseeking. This suggests that targeting iCCM solely based on geographic barriers may need to be reconsidered.

  15. Fibroadenomas of the breast showing an ill-defined margin on ultrasonogram: Correlation with histopathologic findings

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    Hwang, Ji Young; Choi, Hye Young; Shim, Sung Shine; Rhee, Chung Sik; Sung, Soon Hee [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    To correlate the sonographic finding of ill-defined fibroadenoma with the histopathologic findings. Sonographic finding of forty nine surgically proven fibroadenomas were retrospectively correlated with histopathologic findings. We evaluated sonographic findings including the margin, shape, size and the echotexture of fibroadenoma. The histopathologic glandular structure, stromal type of fibroadenoma, type of the surrounding breast tissue and presence of interdigitation between fibroadenoma and the surrounding breast tissue were pathologically reviewed and analyzed statistically. Breast sonography of fibroadenomas demonstrated well-defined margin in 28 (57%) and ill-defined margin in 21 (43%) among 49 lesions. Histopathologically, the glandular structure and type of the surrounding breast tissue were not significantly different between well-defined and ill-defined fibroadenomas. The stromal type of fibroadenoma was sclerotic in 8 (29%) well-defined fibroadenomas while sclerotic in 15 (72%) of 21 ill-defined fibroadenomas,showing difference with a statistical significance between well-defined and ill-defined fibroadenomas (p<0.05). Twenty (71%) of 28 fibroadenomas with well-defined sonographic margins showed well-defined border between mass and the surrounding breast tissue, pathologically. Meanwhile, twenty (95%) of 21 fibroadenomas with ill-defined sonographic margins demonstrated interdigitation of the surrounding breast tissue and mass, exhibiting a statistical significance (p<0.005). Ill-defined margins of fibroadenomas on sonography represent the interdigitation of the surrounding breast tissue with a mass and is seen in the sclerotic stromal type of fibroadenomas.

  16. Performance of health workers after training in integrated management of childhood illness in Gondar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, E A; Desta, T; Tessema, T; Gerbresellassie, T; Dagnew, M; Gove, S

    1997-01-01

    The performance of six primary health workers was evaluated after following a 9-day training course on integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI). The participants were selected from three primary health centres in the Gondar District, Ethiopia, and the course was focused on assessment, classification, and treatment of sick children (aged 2 months to 5 years) and on counselling of their mothers. Immediately following this training, a 3-week study was conducted in the primary health centres to determine how well these workers performed in assessing, classifying and treating the children and in counselling the mothers. A total of 449 sick children who presented at the three primary health centres during the study period were evaluated. Most of the complaints (87%) volunteered by the mothers (fever, cough, diarrhoea, and ear problems) were covered by the IMCI charts. The assessment of commonly seen signs (tachypnoea or ear pain) or easily identifiable signs (slow return after skin pinch, wasting, or pedal oedema) was good, with sensitivities of 67-91%, whereas the assessment of uncommonly seen signs (dry mouth, corneal clouding) or less easily quantifiable signs (eyelid pallor, absence of tears) had a fair or poor sensitivity of 20-45%. The classification of pneumonia, diarrhoea with signs of dehydration, and malnutrition showed sensitivities of 88%, 76%, and 85% and specificities of 87%, 98%, and 96%, respectively. However, the classification of febrile illnesses had a sensitivity of only 39% due to problems in using the draft algorithm in areas with a mixture of high, low, and no malaria risk, and due to confusion between axillary and rectal temperature thresholds. Of 39 children classified as having severe disease, 9 were misclassified, mostly by one nurse. Treatment of patients improved over the three weeks of observation, their completeness increasing from 69% to 88%. Health workers usually communicated appropriate advice to the mother. They learned to use

  17. Impact of childhood adversities on the short-term course of illness in psychotic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Fischer, Yolanda; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2015-08-30

    Accumulating evidence indicates an impact of childhood adversities on the severity and course of mental disorders, whereas this impact on psychotic disorders remains to be specified. Effects of childhood adversities on comorbidity, on symptom severity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and global functioning across four months (upon admission, 1 and 4 months after initial assessment), as well as the course of illness (measured by the remission rate, number of re-hospitalizations and dropout rate) were evaluated in 62 inpatients with psychotic spectrum disorders. Adverse experiences (of at least 1 type) were reported by 73% of patients. Patients with higher overall level of childhood adversities (n=33) exhibited more co-morbid disorders, especially alcohol/substance abuse and dependency, and higher dropout rates than patients with a lower levels of adverse experiences (n=29), together with higher levels of positive symptoms and symptoms of excitement and disorganization. Emotional and physical neglect were particularly related to symptom severity. Results suggest that psychological stress in childhood affects the symptom severity and, additionally, a more unfavorable course of disorder in patients diagnosed with psychoses. This impact calls for its consideration in diagnostic assessment and psychiatric care.

  18. BELIEFS AND PRACTICES AMONG MOTHERS REGARDING DIET DURING CHILDHOOD ILLNESS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, VISAKHAPATNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Malnutrition is the most widespread condition affecting the health of the children. Scarcity of suitable foods, lack of purchasing power of the family as well as traditional beliefs and taboos about what the baby should eat, often lead to an insufficient balanced diet, resulting in malnutrition. Culturally related food restriction and reduction in feeding frequency during common childhood illnesses further contributes to the burden of malnutrition and thus to childhood morbidity and mortality. METHODOLOGY : A hospital based, cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among 100 ill children less than 5 years age attending outpatient department of pediatrics in a tertiary care hospital, Visakhapatnam. A semi structured, pretested interview schedule was ad ministered after taking prior consent from mothers. Results were analyzed by using MS Excel. Data was represented as frequencies, percentages and p<0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTS : Among 100 study subjects, 62% were boys and 38% were g irls. Thirty percent of children in the study had Grade IV malnutrition (IAP classification. 38% of the mothers had education up to high school. Most of them were Hindu by religion (70%, and housewives by occupation (71%. Most of them belonged to grade III socio - economic status according to modified B G Prasad classification. During illness, one fourth of mothers in group A (children < 6 months and group B (7 – 24 months decreased breast feeding and in group C (2 - 5 years, 35% mothers made the consiste ncy of food thinner than usual. Belief on hot and cold foods concept was among 34% mothers. Level of education of mothers didn’t show any significant difference in keeping beliefs regarding hot and cold properties of foods. CONCLUSION : False beliefs and pr actices like food restriction during child’s ill health was observed in our study. Appropriate nutritional education to care givers, during common childhood

  19. Connecting a sociology of childhood perspective with the study of child health, illness and wellbeing: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Geraldine; Lowe, Pam; Olin Lauritzen, Sonja

    2015-02-01

    In the last decades we have seen a growing interest in research into children's own experiences and understandings of health and illness. This development, we would argue, is much stimulated by the sociology of childhood which has drawn our attention to how children as a social group are placed and perceived within the structure of society, and within inter-generational relations, as well as how children are social agents and co-constructors of their social world. Drawing on this tradition, we here address some cross-cutting themes that we think are important to further the study of child health: situating children within health policy, drawing attention to practices around children's health and well-being and a focus on children as health actors. The paper contributes to a critical analysis of child health policy and notions of child health and normality, pointing to theoretical and empirical research potential for the sociology of children's health and illness. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness in Ethiopia: Implementation Strength and Quality of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathan P.; Amouzou, Agbessi; Tafesse, Mengistu; Hazel, Elizabeth; Legesse, Hailemariam; Degefie, Tedbabe; Victora, Cesar G.; Black, Robert E.; Bryce, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Ethiopia has scaled up integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) in most regions. We assessed the strength of iCCM implementation and the quality of care provided by health extension workers (HEWs). Data collectors observed HEWs' consultations with sick children and carried out gold standard re-examinations. Nearly all HEWs received training and supervision, and essential commodities were available. HEWs provided correct case management for 64% of children. The proportions of children correctly managed for pneumonia, diarrhea, and malnutrition were 72%, 79%, and 59%, respectively. Only 34% of children with severe illness were correctly managed. Health posts saw an average of 16 sick children in the previous 1 month. These results show that iCCM can be implemented at scale and that community-based HEWs can correctly manage multiple illnesses. However, to increase the chances of impact on child mortality, management of severe illness and use of iCCM services must be improved. PMID:24799369

  1. Childhood Trauma and Chronic Illness in Adulthood: Mental Health and Socioeconomic Status as Explanatory Factors and Buffers

    OpenAIRE

    Mock, Steven E.; Susan M Arai

    2011-01-01

    Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typic...

  2. mPneumonia: Development of an Innovative mHealth Application for Diagnosing and Treating Childhood Pneumonia and Other Childhood Illnesses in Low-Resource Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Sarah Ginsburg

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death in children worldwide. Each year, pneumonia kills an estimated 935,000 children under five years of age, with most of these deaths occurring in developing countries. The current approach for pneumonia diagnosis in low-resource settings--using the World Health Organization Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI paper-based protocols and relying on a health care provider's ability to manually count respiratory rate--has proven inadequate. Furthermore, hypoxemia--a diagnostic indicator of the presence and severity of pneumonia often associated with an increased risk of death--is not assessed because pulse oximetry is frequently not available in low-resource settings. In an effort to address childhood pneumonia mortality and improve frontline health care providers' ability to diagnose, classify, and manage pneumonia and other childhood illnesses, PATH collaborated with the University of Washington to develop "mPneumonia," an innovative mobile health application using an Android tablet. mPneumonia integrates a digital version of the IMCI algorithm with a software-based breath counter and a pediatric pulse oximeter. We conducted a design-stage usability field test of mPneumonia in Ghana, with the goal of creating a user-friendly diagnostic and management tool for childhood pneumonia and other childhood illnesses that would improve diagnostic accuracy and facilitate adherence by health care providers to established guidelines in low-resource settings. The results of the field test provided valuable information for understanding the usability and acceptability of mPneumonia among health care providers, and identifying approaches to iterate and improve. This critical feedback helped ascertain the common failure modes related to the user interface design, navigation, and accessibility of mPneumonia and the modifications required to improve user experience and create a tool aimed at decreasing

  3. Childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood: mental health and socioeconomic status as explanatory factors and buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E Mock

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typically adverse consequences of childhood trauma. The results suggest mental health and socioeconomic status partially explain the association of childhood trauma with chronic illness in adulthood, with mental health showing a stronger effect. In addition, an analysis of the interactions suggested higher socioeconomic status is a potential protective factor for those with a history of trauma. Results also suggest cumulative disadvantage following trauma may lead to chronic illness and suggest the need for public health expenditures on resources such as counseling and income supports to prevent or reduce psychological harm and chronic illness resulting from traumatic events.

  4. Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) strategy for children under five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Tarun; Shah, Dheeraj; Garner, Paul; Richardson, Marty; Sachdev, Harshpal S

    2016-01-01

    Background More than 7.5 million children younger than age five living in low- and middle-income countries die every year. The World Health Organization (WHO) developed the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) strategy to reduce mortality and morbidity and to improve quality of care by improving the delivery of a variety of curative and preventive medical and behavioral interventions at health facilities, at home, and in the community. Objectives To evaluate the effects of programs that implement the IMCI strategy in terms of death, nutritional status, quality of care, coverage with IMCI deliverables, and satisfaction of beneficiaries. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 3), including the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register; MEDLINE; EMBASE, Ovid; the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EbscoHost; the Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Virtual Health Library (VHL); the WHO Library & Information Networks for Knowledge Database (WHOLIS); the Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science; Population Information Online (POPLINE); the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP); and the Global Health, Ovid and Health Management, ProQuest database. We performed searches until 30 June 2015 and supplemented these by searching revised bibliographies and by contacting experts to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria We sought to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled before-after (CBA) studies with at least two intervention and two control sites evaluating the generic IMCI strategy or its adaptation in children younger than age five, and including at minimum efforts to improve health care worker skills for case management. We excluded studies in which IMCI was

  5. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition in under five children in drought affected desert area of western Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhu B; Lakshminarayana, J; Fotedar, R; Anand, P K

    2006-03-01

    The study was undertaken to asses the impact of drought on childhood illnesses and nutrition in under five children of rural population using three stage sampling design. The study has been carried out in 24 villages belonging to 6 tehsils of Jodhpur district which was a drought affected desert district of Western Rajasthan in 2003. A total of 914 under five children (0-5 years) could be examined for their childhood illnesses, malnutrition, dietary intake and clinical signs of nutritional deficiency. Childhood illnesses observed at the time of drought were respiratory (7.5 %), gastroentrological (7.5%), and 5.6% fever (viral, malaria and jaundice), higher in males than females. Children suffered from recent and long term malnutrition were 39% and 26% respectively as per National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) standards. The extent of malnutrition was significantly higher in females than in males (pmalnutrition (PEM) was observed in 44.4%. Overall mean calorie and protein intake deficit was observed to be very high (76.0 & 54.0 %). The comparison of present drought results with earlier studies in normal and drought conditions showed higher prevalence of PEM and deficiencies of calories & proteins in their diet. Respiratory, gastroentrological and fever were main childhood illnesses observed and were higher in males at the time of drought. PEM, vitamin A & B- complex deficiencies, anemia along with deficit in calories and proteins in their diet was observed higher in present study as compared to non desert areas, which may be due to the harsh environmental conditions in desert areas and paucity in the consumption of daily food intake. Due to inadequate consumption of daily food, the children were suffering from PEM resulting in several childhood illnesses. Effective measures making availability of adequate calories and proteins to all age groups especially to under five children through the ongoing nutrition programs needs to be ensured.

  6. Prevalence of psychiatric illness in primary caretakers of childhood-onset schizophrenia subjects

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    Randal G. Ross

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS refers to schizophrenia with onset of psychotic symptoms prior to a child’s 13th birthday. Optimal treatment likely includes family-based services supplementing antipsychotic pharmacotherapy. However, family-based services can require adjustment based on parental psychopathology; there has been little literature exploring the frequency or type of psychopathology seen in parents of COS cases. This report includes the results of a structured psychiatric evaluation on 80 parents of a COS case with comparison to a sample of 304 parents. Having a child with psychosis and being of minority racial/ethnicity status increased risk for psychiatric illness. Psychotic disorders (15% vs. 5%, mood disorders (54% vs. 27%, anxiety disorders (30% vs. 18%, and substance use disorders (49% vs. 31% were all increased in the parents with a psychotic child. Psychiatric illness is common in parents of a child with COS and will need to be consid- ered as family-based services for COS are developed.

  7. Psychotic and borderline psychotic adolescents: frequency of psychiatric illness and treatment in childhood in 100 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarkrog, T

    1975-07-01

    The first results covering the assessment period phase of a systematic study of 50 borderline psychotic and 50 psychotic adolescents are described. These 100 adolescents comprised one-third of the total number of admissions to an adolescent department during the years from 1968 to 1975. There were 58 boys and 42 girls; 53 of the 100 cases had been psychiatrically ill in childhood with evident symptoms. In 22 cases, there was positive information supporting the fact that the patients had been healthy in childhood. The rest (25 cases) were classified under "unclarified picture", showing non specific symptoms. It is concluded that in this material more than half of the adolescents had shown some instability before puberty. The illnesses described in childhood are categorised as infantile borderline psychosis, borderline psychosis probable, and other psychiatric illnesses. A shift in diagnosis is often seen in the individual case, but the symptoms in childhood and in adolescence have many similarities. The necessary treatment in childhood has not been given in one-third of the cases. The possible reasons for this are discussed. In spite of much effort in some cases and because of resistance to therapy or the proposal of inadequate therapy in others, the therapeutic possibilities in childhood have not been fully realised. It is recommended that more emphasis be placed on the emotional development in the evaluation of the children. In the treatment, development of interpersonal relationships through individual, family and/or milieu therapy should be stressed. A follow-up of children with symptoms in childhood left untreated and a teamwork between child psychiatrist and adult psychiatrist with longitudinal studies is suggested.

  8. Ethnic differentials in parental health seeking for childhood illness in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawichitchainan, Bussarawan; Phillips, James F

    2008-03-01

    Vietnam's sustained investment in primary healthcare since the onset of socialism has lowered infant and childhood mortality rates and improved life expectancy, exceeding progress achieved in other poor countries with comparable levels of income per capita. The recent introduction of user fees for primary healthcare services has generated concern that economic policies may have adversely affected health-seeking behavior and health outcomes of the poor, particularly among impoverished families who are members of socially marginalized minority groups. This paper examines this debate by analyzing parental recall of illness and care-seeking for sick children under the age of 5 years recorded by the 2001-2002 Vietnam National Health Survey. We estimate statistical models of the determinants of parental recall of incidence and response to illness among their children. Ethnic minority parents less frequently reported their children to have been sick than Kinh and Chinese parents. When they recognize an illness episode, minority parents are less likely to seek care -- whether professional consultation or self-prescribed care -- than non-minority parents. Ethnic differentials are evident in all geographic and income levels, although adverse effects of minority status are most pronounced among poor households in remote areas. Regression estimates of the effects of ethnicity and maternal education on health decisions are pronounced even when poverty effects are controlled, suggesting that social equity may have been under-emphasized in Vietnam's early health policy deliberations. Policies extending free healthcare to poor communes affect parental decisions to seek professional care or self-prescribed care among better-off parents without affecting parental decision making among the poor. Early health initiatives for the poor may therefore have failed to offset equity problems confronting impoverished ethnic minority families.

  9. Cognitive Findings in Benign Childhood Epilepsy with Occipital Paroxysms

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    Ebru Kolsal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cognitive and visual perceptive functions in children with childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms (CEOP. Material and Method: Hospital charts of children ages 1 to 18 years who admitted to pediatric neurology out-patient clinic between 2009 and 2010 were reviewed. Twenty one children with a diagnosis of CEOP were identified. Sixteen of these children who accepted to include the study were evaluated with neuropsychological tests. Results: Two of five patients who were evaluated with Denver developmental screening test were found to have lower scores than their reference standards. Remaining 11 patients were evaluated with Wechsler Scales of Intelligence tests, 4 were mildly mental retarded and 1 had null intelligence. Eleven patients were also evaluated with Bender Gestalt Visual Motor Test and 7of them had disturbances in visual perception. Reading speed and writing norm tests were applied to 9 literate patients and 7 of them showed slower reading ability and writing ability was found worse in 6 patients. Discussion: The absence of neurological and neuropsylogical deficits has long been considered as a prerequisite for diagnosis of benign childhood partial epilepsies. However, only a few studies describing the cognitive profile of patients with CEOP have been published. The present study has demonstrated that the patients with CEOP had varying degree of cognitive dysfunction and disturbance in visual perception. In order to provide appropriate intervention, cognitive functions should be assessed in children with CEOP.

  10. AIDS-related illness trajectories in Mexico: findings from a qualitative study in two marginalized communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R; Orozco, E; Eroza, E; Manca, M C; Hernández, J J; Aggleton, P

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes findings from a recent study examining how people affected directly and indirectly by the HIV/AIDS epidemic cope with HIV-related illness in Mexico. One-hundred-and-thirteen in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants in two contrasting communities: Ciudad Netzahualcóyotl (an economically marginalized community) and the gay community in Mexico City (a sexually marginalized community). This paper describes the AIDS-related wellness/illness careers or trajectories followed by individuals in both communities, and identifies critical points for material and emotional intervention. This career comprises four stages: (1) life before infection; (2) life surrounding the discovery of seropositivity; (3) living as an HIV-positive person; and (4) facing death. Comparisons are drawn between the processes of adjustment and coping found in both communities. In Ciudad Netzahualcóyotl, wellness/illness careers are closely linked to prevailing poverty and oppression, as well as the sense of urgency in which local people live their lives. In the case of the gay community, wellness/illness careers are associated with the intolerance and social repression faced by homosexual men. The paper concludes by suggesting possible interventions to improve the lives of people with HIV/AIDS in Mexico today.

  11. Home pesticide exposures and risk of childhood leukemia: Findings from the childhood leukemia international consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Helen D; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Metayer, Catherine; Clavel, Jacqueline; Lightfoot, Tracy; Kaatsch, Peter; Roman, Eve; Magnani, Corrado; Spector, Logan G; Th Petridou, Eleni; Milne, Elizabeth; Dockerty, John D; Miligi, Lucia; Armstrong, Bruce K; Rudant, Jérémie; Fritschi, Lin; Simpson, Jill; Zhang, Luoping; Rondelli, Roberto; Baka, Margarita; Orsi, Laurent; Moschovi, Maria; Kang, Alice Y; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Some previous studies have suggested that home pesticide exposure before birth and during a child's early years may increase the risk of childhood leukemia. To further investigate this, we pooled individual level data from 12 case-control studies in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. Exposure data were harmonized into compatible formats. Pooled analyses were undertaken using multivariable unconditional logistic regression. The odds ratio (ORs) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) associated with any pesticide exposure shortly before conception, during pregnancy and after birth were 1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25, 1.55) (using 2,785 cases and 3,635 controls), 1.43 (95% CI: 1.32, 1.54) (5,055 cases and 7,370 controls) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.23, 1.51) (4,162 cases and 5,179 controls), respectively. Corresponding ORs for risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were 1.49 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.16) (173 cases and 1,789 controls), 1.55 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.99) (344 cases and 4,666 controls) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.76, 1.53) (198 cases and 2,655 controls), respectively. There was little difference by type of pesticide used. The relative similarity in ORs between leukemia types, time periods and pesticide types may be explained by similar exposure patterns and effects across the time periods in ALL and AML, participants' exposure to multiple pesticides, or recall bias. Although some recall bias is likely, until a better study design can be found to investigate the associations between home pesticide use and childhood leukemia in an equally large sample, it would appear prudent to limit the use of home pesticides before and during pregnancy, and during childhood.

  12. Skill of frontline workers implementing integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness: experience from a district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Akhil B; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta K; Mandal, Nirmal K; Panja, Tanamy K; Sinha, Nirmalya; Mitra, Kaninika

    2011-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Purulia district, West Bengal, India, to assess the skill of 155 frontline workers implementing Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) and the logistic support thereof. The skills of counting respiratory rate, assessing immunization status in both age groups, assessment of breastfeeding in young infants and plotting of weight in a growth chart in case of children aged 2-59 months were acquired by majority of workers. Around two-thirds workers synthesized correct classification and nearly 60% gave appropriate management of at least one subgroup. In 30-40% cases, carers received feeding advices. Around 50% casesheets were complete and timely report submission rate was nearly 70%. Necessary equipments were available with majority of workers except the utensils for preparation of ORS. The supply of essential drugs varied from 33.5 to 71.6%. These findings suggest that IMNCI program offered a scope for capacity-building and infrastructure strengthening of the health system.

  13. Impact of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness on inequalities in child health in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanja, Honorati; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; de Savigny, Don; Mshinda, Hassan; Victora, Cesar G

    2005-12-01

    We examined the impact of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy on the equality of health outcomes and access across socioeconomic gradients in rural Tanzania, by comparing changes in inequities between 1999 and 2002 in two districts with IMCI (Morogoro Rural and Rufiji) and two without (Kilombero and Ulanga). Equity differentials for six child health indicators (underweight, stunting, measles immunization, access to treated and untreated nets, treatment of fever with antimalarial) improved significantly in IMCI districts compared with comparison districts (pstunting among children between 24-59 months of age. The concentration index improved from -0.102 in 1999 to -0.032 in 2002 for IMCI, while it remained almost unchanged -0.122 to -0.133 in comparison districts. IMCI was associated with improved equity for measles vaccine coverage, whereas the opposite was observed for DPT antigens. This study has shown how equity assessments can be incorporated in impact evaluation at relatively little additional cost, and how this may point to specific interventions that need to be reinforced. The introduction of IMCI led to improvements in child health that did not occur at the expense of equity.

  14. Protective connections and educational attainment among young adults with childhood-onset chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary; Haydon, Abigail A; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Halpern, Carolyn T

    2012-08-01

    Youth with childhood-onset chronic illness (COCI) are at risk of poor educational attainment. Specific protective factors that promote college graduation in this population have not been studied previously. In this study, we examine the role protective factors during adolescence play in promoting college graduation among young adults with COCI. Data were collected from 10,925 participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Protective factors present before 18 years of age included mentoring, parent relationship quality, school connectedness, and religious attendance. College graduation was the outcome of interest assessed when participants had a mean age of 28 years. Analysis was stratified by presence of COCI. About 2% of participants (N = 230) had 1 of 4 COCIs (cancer, diabetes, epilepsy, or heart disease). All 4 protective factors were associated with college graduation for youth without COCI. In the final multivariate model, only school connectedness was associated with college graduation for youth with COCI. School connectedness is of particular importance in promoting educational attainment for youth with COCI. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  15. [Evaluation of integrated management of childhood illness against malnutrition in urban areas of Nayarit, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Flores, Fernando; Barquera-Cervera, Simón; Kageyama-Escobar, Maria de la Luz

    2004-01-01

    To assess the association between coverage of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy and the prevalence of stunting in children 6 to 36 months of age. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two urban areas of Nayarit, Mexico, in August 2002. Anthropometry, health care for mothers and their children, morbidity and socioeconomic data were collected by means of household interviews. Statistical analyses were performed with chi-squared tests, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression. IMCI coverage rates were as follows: immunization 97%, vitamin A supplementation 66.9%, deworming with albendazole 91.5%, nutritional surveillance 50%, maternal health education 25.5%, maternal health care 24.4%, and 2.5% overall. The prevalence of stunting was 4.9%, and was statistically associated with incomplete courses of vitamin A supplementation and albendazole deworming. Coverage of IMCI components varied according to their feasibility and time of implementation. The associations between IMCI and failure to thrive highlight the importance of obtaining more information about its effects on the nutritional status of children. This will help to improve prevention strategies against child malnutrition.

  16. [Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) for iron deficiency in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Diana F; Benjumea, María V

    2011-02-01

    Evaluating implementing the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) strategy in the prevention, detection and treatment of iron deficiency in children aged less than 5 who were treated at ASSBASALUD's Clinica La Asunción in Manizales, Colombia, during 2007. This was a cross-sectional study of 310 children aged 6 to 71 months who attended the first-level Clinica La Asunción in Manizales. Iron deficiency prevalence was evaluated in the children, as was IMCI implementation for prevention, diagnosis and treatment by health professionals responsible for child-care at that centre. Most children were aged less than 24 months, came within category 2 in the Identification and Classification System for Potential Beneficiaries for Social Programmes (SISBEN) and had been treated by Growth and Development section nurses. Children suffering from iron deficiency without anaemia accounted for most of those affected by iron deficiency. In half the population suffering anaemia this was due to iron deficiency; anaemia prevalence was higher than other types of infection-associated anaemia. For every child suffering iron deficiency-related anaemia, almost three had iron deficiency. Only six people accompanying the children being studied said that they had received indications for the dietary prevention of anaemia and this was wrong in half of the cases. These results showed that when caring for children aged less than five, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anaemia did not follow the guidelines provided by the IMCI strategy.

  17. Illness-related practices for the management of childhood malaria among the Bwatiye people of north-eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kauna K

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide range of childhood illnesses are accompanied by fever,, including malaria. Child mortality due to malaria has been attributed to poor health service delivery system and ignorance. An assessment of a mother's ability to recognize malaria in children under-five was carried out among the Bwatiye, a poorly-served minority ethnic group in north-eastern Nigeria. Methods A three-stage research design involving interviews, participatory observation and laboratory tests was used to seek information from 186 Bwatiye mothers about their illness-related experiences with childhood fevers. Results Mothers classified malaria into male (fever that persists for longer than three days and female (fever that goes away within three days and had a system of determining when febrile illness would not be regarded as malaria. Most often, malaria would be ignored in the first 2 days before seeking active treatment. Self-medication was the preferred option. Treatment practices and sources of help were influenced by local beliefs, the parity of the mother and previous experience with child mortality. Conclusion The need to educate mothers to suspect malaria in every case of febrile illness and take appropriate action in order to expose the underlying "evil" will be more acceptable than an insistence on replacing local knowledge with biological epidemiology of malaria. The challenge facing health workers is to identify and exploit local beliefs about aetiology in effecting management procedures among culturally different peoples, who may not accept the concept of biological epidemiology.

  18. Effect of shortened Integrated Management of Childhood Illness training on classification and treatment of under-five children seeking care in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harerimana JM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Modeste Harerimana,1 Laetitia Nyirazinyoye,1 Jean-Bosco Ahoranayezu,2 Ferdinand Bikorimana,3 Bethany L Hedt-Gauthier,1,4 Katherine A Muldoon,5 Edward J Mills,6,7 Joseph Ntaganira1 1University of Rwanda College of Medicine and Health Sciences School of Public Health, Kigali, Rwanda; 2Community Vision Initiative, Kigali, Rwanda; 3Maternal and Child Health, Child Unit, Rwandan Ministry of Health, Kigali, Rwanda; 4Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 5University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 6University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 7Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Background: Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI is an effective 11-day standard training; however, due to budgetary expenses and human resource constraints, many health professionals cannot take 11 days off work. As a result, shortened training curriculums (6-day have been proposed. We used a cross-sectional study to evaluate the effect of this shortened training on appropriate IMCI classification and treatment of under-five childhood illness management in Rwanda. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 22 health centers in Rwanda, comparing data from 121 nurses, where 55 nurses completed the 11-day and 66 nurses completed the 6-day training. Among 768 children, we evaluated clinical outcomes from May 2011 to April 2012. Descriptive statistics were used to display the sociodemographic characteristics of health providers; including level of education, sex, age, and professional experiences. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were used to test for differences between nurses in the 6-day versus 11-day training on the appropriate classification and treatment of childhood illness. Results: Our findings show that at the bivariable level and after controlling for confounders in the multivariable analysis, the only significant differences detected between nurses in the long and short training was the classification of fever (adjusted odds

  19. Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) strategy for children under five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Tarun; Shah, Dheeraj; Garner, Paul; Richardson, Marty; Sachdev, Harshpal S

    2016-06-22

    More than 7.5 million children younger than age five living in low- and middle-income countries die every year. The World Health Organization (WHO) developed the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) strategy to reduce mortality and morbidity and to improve quality of care by improving the delivery of a variety of curative and preventive medical and behavioral interventions at health facilities, at home, and in the community. To evaluate the effects of programs that implement the IMCI strategy in terms of death, nutritional status, quality of care, coverage with IMCI deliverables, and satisfaction of beneficiaries. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 3), including the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register; MEDLINE; EMBASE, Ovid; the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EbscoHost; the Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Virtual Health Library (VHL); the WHO Library & Information Networks for Knowledge Database (WHOLIS); the Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science; Population Information Online (POPLINE); the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP); and the Global Health, Ovid and Health Management, ProQuest database. We performed searches until 30 June 2015 and supplemented these by searching revised bibliographies and by contacting experts to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. We sought to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled before-after (CBA) studies with at least two intervention and two control sites evaluating the generic IMCI strategy or its adaptation in children younger than age five, and including at minimum efforts to improve health care worker skills for case management. We excluded studies in which IMCI was accompanied by other interventions including conditional

  20. For better or worse? Long-term outcome of critical illness in childhood : Long-term outcome of critical illness in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Zellem (Lennart)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The aim of this thesis was to investigate the long-term outcome of critically ill children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of the Erasmus MC – Sophia Children’s’ Hospital in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Our main focus was to investigate the long-term

  1. For better or worse? Long-term outcome of critical illness in childhood : Long-term outcome of critical illness in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Zellem (Lennart)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The aim of this thesis was to investigate the long-term outcome of critically ill children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of the Erasmus MC – Sophia Children’s’ Hospital in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Our main focus was to investigate the long-term

  2. Epidemiology of trauma: Childhood adversities, neighborhood problems, discrimination, chronic strains, life events, and daily hassles among people with a severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard E; Ritter, Christian; Bonfine, Natalie

    2015-12-15

    Trauma during childhood and adolescence is a common event among people with a serious psychological disorder. Few studies assess a wide range of stressors for this population. This is surprising given that these stressful events are implicated in poorer outcomes related to course and treatment of mental health problems. This study of 214 people with serious mental illness examines the prevalence of childhood traumas, perceived neighborhood problems, discrimination, chronic strains, negative life events, and daily hassles. We use regression analyses to determine if these stressors are associated with quality of life. Results show that 95% of the sample report at least one childhood adversity. Perceived neighborhood problems, experiences of discrimination, chronic strains, life events, and daily hassles were also common. Examining the relationship between demographic factors and stressors suggests that older respondents, Whites, those who have never been married, and people diagnosed with Schizophrenia reported fewer stressors compared to those who are older, non-White, ever married, or suffering from other types of mental health problems. Finally, three of the six types of stressors were related to lower quality of life and depression. We discuss the implications of these findings for the treatment of severe psychological problems.

  3. Less Than One-Third of Caretakers Sought Formal Health Care Facilities for Common Childhood Illnesses in Ethiopia: Evidence from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achamyelesh Gebretsadik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Most of the childhood illnesses can be proven with effective interventions. However, countless children die needlessly in developing countries due to the failure of their guardians to seek care timely. The aim of this study was to assess health care seeking behavior of caretakers of children under the age of five years for treatment of common childhood illnesses. Methods. Further analysis of the Ethiopian 2011 demographic and health survey was done. All children under the age of five reported to have been ill from the three common childhood illnesses and their caretakers were included in the analysis. A complex sample logistic regression model was employed to determine factors associated with the health care seeking behavior of caretakers. Result. A total of 2,842 caregivers who reported that their index child had at least one of the three common childhood illnesses in the two weeks preceding the survey were captured, of which 849 (29.87%; 95% CI: 28, 32% sought formal health care facilities. Conclusion and Recommendation. In Ethiopia health care seeking behavior of caretakers for common childhood illnesses is low. Increasing mass media exposure can possibly improve the health seeking behavior of caretakers.

  4. Examining Perpetration of Physical Violence by Women: The Influence of Childhood Adversity, Victimization, Mental Illness, Substance Abuse, and Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl; Fedock, Gina; Kim, Woo Jong; Bybee, Deborah

    2017-02-01

    Research on women's perpetration of physical violence has focused primarily on partners, often neglecting perpetration against nonpartners. This study proposes a conceptual model with direct and indirect relationships between childhood adversity and different targets of violence (partners and nonpartners), mediated by victimization experiences (by partner and nonpartners), mental illness, substance abuse, and anger. Using survey data from a random sample of incarcerated women (N = 574), structural equation modeling resulted in significant, albeit different, indirect paths from childhood adversity, through victimization, to perpetration of violence against partners (β = .20) and nonpartners (β = .19). The results indicate that prevention of women's violence requires attention to specific forms of victimization, anger expression, and targets of her aggression.

  5. Childhood Household Dysfunction, Social Inequality and Alcohol Related Illness in Young Adulthood. A Swedish National Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Gauffin

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate the cumulative effect of childhood household dysfunction (CHD on alcohol related illness and death later in life and to test the interaction between CHD and socioeconomic background. The study utilised Swedish national registers including data of a Swedish national cohort born 1973-82 (n = 872,912, which was followed from age 18 to 29-40 years. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR for alcohol related illness or death in young adulthood. The CHD measure consisted of seven indicators: parental alcohol/drug misuse, mental health problems, criminality, death, divorce, social assistance, and child welfare interventions. Childhood socioeconomic position (SEP was indicated by parental occupational status. Outcomes were alcohol related inpatient hospital care, specialised outpatient care or deaths. Using the highest socioeconomic group without CHD experience as a reference, those in the same socioeconomic group with one indicator of CHD had HRs of 2.1 [95% CI: 1.7-2.5], two CHD indicators 5.6 [4.4-7.1], three or more indicators 9.4 [7.1-12.4] for retrieving inpatient care. Socioeconomic disadvantage further increased the risks-those with low socioeconomic background and three CHD indicators or more had a HR of 12.5 [10.9-14.3]. Testing for interaction suggests that the combined HRs deviates from additivity [Synergy index: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4-1.9]. The results for outpatient care were similar, but not as pronounced. In conclusion, this Swedish national cohort study shows that childhood household dysfunction is strongly and cumulatively associated to alcohol related illness later in life and that it interacts with socioeconomic disadvantage.

  6. Childhood Household Dysfunction, Social Inequality and Alcohol Related Illness in Young Adulthood. A Swedish National Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauffin, Karl; Hjern, Anders; Vinnerljung, Bo; Björkenstam, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to estimate the cumulative effect of childhood household dysfunction (CHD) on alcohol related illness and death later in life and to test the interaction between CHD and socioeconomic background. The study utilised Swedish national registers including data of a Swedish national cohort born 1973-82 (n = 872,912), which was followed from age 18 to 29-40 years. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for alcohol related illness or death in young adulthood. The CHD measure consisted of seven indicators: parental alcohol/drug misuse, mental health problems, criminality, death, divorce, social assistance, and child welfare interventions. Childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was indicated by parental occupational status. Outcomes were alcohol related inpatient hospital care, specialised outpatient care or deaths. Using the highest socioeconomic group without CHD experience as a reference, those in the same socioeconomic group with one indicator of CHD had HRs of 2.1 [95% CI: 1.7-2.5], two CHD indicators 5.6 [4.4-7.1], three or more indicators 9.4 [7.1-12.4] for retrieving inpatient care. Socioeconomic disadvantage further increased the risks-those with low socioeconomic background and three CHD indicators or more had a HR of 12.5 [10.9-14.3]. Testing for interaction suggests that the combined HRs deviates from additivity [Synergy index: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4-1.9]. The results for outpatient care were similar, but not as pronounced. In conclusion, this Swedish national cohort study shows that childhood household dysfunction is strongly and cumulatively associated to alcohol related illness later in life and that it interacts with socioeconomic disadvantage.

  7. Integrated community case management for childhood illnesses: explaining policy resistance in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Pamela A; Owuor, Karen; Bennett, Sara

    2015-12-01

    There has been a re-emphasis recently on community health workers to provide child health care services including integrated community case management for childhood illness (iCCM). This research analysed iCCM policy development in Kenya and in particular the types of decision-making criteria used by Kenyan policy-makers in considering whether to advance iCCM policy. Data were collected through document reviews (n = 41) and semi-structured interviews (n = 19) with key stakeholders in iCCM policy including government officials, development partners, bilateral donors, and civil society organizations. Initial analysis was guided by the policy triangle with further analysis of factors affecting policy decision-making drawing upon a simple framework developed by Grindle and Thomas (Policy makers, policy choices and policy outcomes: the political economy of reform in developing countries. 1989; Policy Sci 22: :213-48.). Policy development for iCCM has been slow in Kenya, compared with other Sub-Saharan African countries. At the time of the study, the Government had just completed the Community Health Training Manual which incorporated iCCM as a module, but this was the only formal expression of iCCM in Kenya. We found technical considerations, notably concerns about community health workers dispensing antibiotics to be a key factor slowing iCCM policy development, but this also overlapped with bureaucratic considerations, such as how the development of community health worker cadres may affect clinicians, as well as initial concerns about how an integrated approach might affect vertically oriented programs. International actors through agreements such as the Millennium Development Goals helped to get child survival onto the national policy agenda and such actors were active promoters of iCCM policy change. However international funders had not committed funding to scale-up iCCM policy, and this probably constrained their influence over iCCM policy debate. Kenyan actors

  8. Psychosis or temporal lobotomy: SPECT findings in a paraplegic patient with chronic mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, W; Thurber, S

    2006-08-01

    To ascertain if single proton emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging involving a patient with a history of head trauma, paraplegia, and chronic mental illness, would provide useful information regarding diagnosis and treatment. A case report. SPECT data indicated a convexity of the temporal lobe; it was significantly crumpled inward in the location of the traumatic blow suffered 18 years earlier. The center of hypoperfusion suggested a complete disruption of connections between the temporal lobe and Broca's area, and a practically ablated left temporal area. The patient was reclassified with an organic psychosis and as an individual who might benefit more from medications to treat temporal lobe irritability rather than antipsychotic medications. Despite these findings and recommendations, psychiatric personnel discharged the patient without implementation. He is currently in critical condition following a suicide attempt.

  9. The importance of childhood and adulthood aspects of gendered life for adult mental ill-health symptoms--a 27-year follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Nordenmark, Mikael; Hammarström, Anne

    2012-07-02

    The increasing gender equality during the 20th century, mainly in the Nordic countries, represents a major social change. A well-established theory is that this may affect the mental health patterns of women and men. This study aimed at examining associations between childhood and adulthood gendered life on mental ill-health symptoms. A follow-up study of a cohort of all school leavers in a medium-sized industrial town in northern Sweden was performed from age 16 to age 42. Of those still alive of the original cohort, 94% (n = 1007) participated during the whole period. Gendered life was divided into three stages according to whether they were traditional or non-traditional (the latter includes equal): childhood (mother's paid work position), adulthood at age 30 (ideology and childcare), and adulthood at age 42 (partnership and childcare). Mental ill-health was measured by self-reported anxious symptoms ("frequent nervousness") and depressive symptoms ("frequent sadness") at age 42. The statistical method was logistic regression analysis, finally adjusted for earlier mental ill-health symptoms and social confounding factors. Generally, parents' gendered life was not decisive for a person's own gendered life, and adulthood gender position ruled out the impact of childhood gender experience on self-reported mental ill-health. For women, non-traditional gender ideology at age 30 was associated with decreased risk of anxious symptoms (76% for traditional childhood, 78% for non-traditional childhood). For men, non-traditional childcare at age 42 was associated with decreased risk of depressive symptoms (84% for traditional childhood, 78% for non-traditional childhood). A contradictory indication was that non-traditional women in childcare at age 30 had a threefold increased risk of anxious symptoms at age 42, but only when having experienced a traditional childhood. Adulthood gender equality is generally good for self-reported mental health regardless of whether one

  10. The importance of childhood and adulthood aspects of gendered life for adult mental ill-health symptoms – a 27-year follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Månsdotter Anna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing gender equality during the 20th century, mainly in the Nordic countries, represents a major social change. A well-established theory is that this may affect the mental health patterns of women and men. This study aimed at examining associations between childhood and adulthood gendered life on mental ill-health symptoms. Methods A follow-up study of a cohort of all school leavers in a medium-sized industrial town in northern Sweden was performed from age 16 to age 42. Of those still alive of the original cohort, 94% (n = 1007 participated during the whole period. Gendered life was divided into three stages according to whether they were traditional or non-traditional (the latter includes equal: childhood (mother’s paid work position, adulthood at age 30 (ideology and childcare, and adulthood at age 42 (partnership and childcare. Mental ill-health was measured by self-reported anxious symptoms (“frequent nervousness” and depressive symptoms (“frequent sadness” at age 42. The statistical method was logistic regression analysis, finally adjusted for earlier mental ill-health symptoms and social confounding factors. Results Generally, parents’ gendered life was not decisive for a person’s own gendered life, and adulthood gender position ruled out the impact of childhood gender experience on self-reported mental ill-health. For women, non-traditional gender ideology at age 30 was associated with decreased risk of anxious symptoms (76% for traditional childhood, 78% for non-traditional childhood. For men, non-traditional childcare at age 42 was associated with decreased risk of depressive symptoms (84% for traditional childhood, 78% for non-traditional childhood. A contradictory indication was that non-traditional women in childcare at age 30 had a threefold increased risk of anxious symptoms at age 42, but only when having experienced a traditional childhood. Conclusion Adulthood gender equality is

  11. Rhinovirus Wheezing Illness and Genetic Risk of Childhood-Onset Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calışkan, Minal; Bochkov, Yury A; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2013-01-01

    illnesses. The associations of 17q21 variants with asthma were restricted to children who had had HRV wheezing illnesses, resulting in a significant interaction effect with respect to the risk of asthma. Moreover, the expression levels of ORMDL3 and of GSDMB were significantly increased in HRV...

  12. Effects of the integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness Strategy on Child Mortality in Ethiopia: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouzou, Agbessi; Hazel, Elizabeth; Shaw, Bryan; Miller, Nathan P; Tafesse, Mengistu; Mekonnen, Yared; Moulton, Lawrence H; Bryce, Jennifer; Black, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a cluster randomized trial of the effects of the integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) strategy on careseeking for and coverage of correct treatment of suspected pneumonia, diarrhea, and malaria, and mortality among children aged 2-59 months in 31 districts of the Oromia region of Ethiopia. We conducted baseline and endline coverage and mortality surveys approximately 2 years apart, and assessed program strength after about 1 year of implementation. Results showed strong iCCM implementation, with iCCM-trained workers providing generally good quality of care. However, few sick children were taken to iCCM providers (average 16 per month). Difference in differences analyses revealed that careseeking for childhood illness was low and similar in both study arms at baseline and endline, and increased only marginally in intervention (22.9-25.7%) and comparison (23.3-29.3%) areas over the study period (P = 0.77). Mortality declined at similar rates in both study arms. Ethiopia's iCCM program did not generate levels of demand and utilization sufficient to achieve significant increases in intervention coverage and a resulting acceleration in reductions in child mortality. This evaluation has allowed Ethiopia to strengthen its strategic approaches to increasing population demand and use of iCCM services.

  13. Childhood leukaemia risks: from unexplained findings near nuclear installations to recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurier, D; Grosche, B; Auvinen, A; Clavel, J; Cobaleda, C; Dehos, A; Hornhardt, S; Jacob, S; Kaatsch, P; Kosti, O; Kuehni, C; Lightfoot, T; Spycher, B; Van Nieuwenhuyse, A; Wakeford, R; Ziegelberger, G

    2014-09-01

    Recent findings related to childhood leukaemia incidence near nuclear installations have raised questions which can be answered neither by current knowledge on radiation risk nor by other established risk factors. In 2012, a workshop was organised on this topic with two objectives: (a) review of results and discussion of methodological limitations of studies near nuclear installations; (b) identification of directions for future research into the causes and pathogenesis of childhood leukaemia. The workshop gathered 42 participants from different disciplines, extending widely outside of the radiation protection field. Regarding the proximity of nuclear installations, the need for continuous surveillance of childhood leukaemia incidence was highlighted, including a better characterisation of the local population. The creation of collaborative working groups was recommended for consistency in methodologies and the possibility of combining data for future analyses. Regarding the causes of childhood leukaemia, major fields of research were discussed (environmental risk factors, genetics, infections, immunity, stem cells, experimental research). The need for multidisciplinary collaboration in developing research activities was underlined, including the prevalence of potential predisposition markers and investigating further the infectious aetiology hypothesis. Animal studies and genetic/epigenetic approaches appear of great interest. Routes for future research were pointed out.

  14. Occurrence of mental illness following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

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    Aschengrau Ann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While many studies of adults with solvent exposure have shown increased risks of anxiety and depressive disorders, there is little information on the impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the subsequent risk of mental illness. This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods A total of 1,512 subjects born between 1969 and 1983 were studied, including 831 subjects with both prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on mental illnesses, demographic and medical characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure originating from the vinyl-liner of water distribution pipes was assessed using water distribution system modeling software that incorporated a leaching and transport algorithm. Results No meaningful increases in risk ratios (RR for depression were observed among subjects with prenatal and early childhood exposure (RR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.9-1.4. However, subjects with prenatal and early childhood exposure had a 1.8-fold increased risk of bipolar disorder (N = 36 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.9-1.4, a 1.5-fold increased risk post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 47 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.9-2.5, and a 2.1-fold increased risk of schizophrenia (N = 3 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.2-20.0. Further increases in the risk ratio were observed for bipolar disorder (N = 18 exposed cases, RR; 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3-5.6 and post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 18 exposed cases, RR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2 among subjects with the highest exposure levels. Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence against an impact of early life exposure to PCE on the risk of

  15. Do Childhood Adversities Predict Suicidality? Findings from the General Population of the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Bruno Mendonça Coêlho

    Full Text Available Childhood adversities have been associated with a number of medical and psychiatric outcomes. However, the reported effects that specific childhood adversities have on suicidality vary across studies.This was a cross-sectional, stratified, multistage area probability investigation of a general population in Brazil, designated the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey. The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied in 5037 individuals ≥ 18 years of age, in order to assess 12 different adversities occurring during childhood and/or adolescence, as well as to look for associations between those adversities and subsequent suicidality in different age strata.Over half of the respondents reported at least one childhood adversity. Only physical abuse was consistently associated with suicide attempts in all subsequent life stages (OR = 2.1. Among adults 20-29 years of age, the likelihood of a suicide attempt was correlated with parental divorce, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with prior sexual abuse. Among adults over 30 years of age, physical illness and economic adversity emerged as relevant childhood adversities associated with suicide attempts, whereas sexual abuse, family violence, and economic adversity were associated with suicidal ideation.Childhood adversities, especially physical abuse, are likely associated with unfavorable consequences in subsequent years. For suicidality across a lifespan, the role of different childhood adversities must be examined independently.

  16. Systematic review and meta-analysis investigating breast feeding and childhood wheezing illness.

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    Brew, Bronwyn K; Allen, C Wendy; Toelle, Brett G; Marks, Guy B

    2011-11-01

    There is conflicting evidence concerning the relationship between breast feeding and wheezing illness. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is any association between breast feeding and wheezing in children aged over 5 years and to discover possible sources of heterogeneity. An electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was conducted from January 2000 to June 2010. In addition, reference lists from relevant publications were searched. Birth cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies were included if they measured any breast feeding or exclusive breast feeding for 3 or 4 months. Wheezing illness, including asthma, was identified based on symptoms, reported diagnosis or objective criteria. Thirty-one publications were identified for meta-analysis. There was no association found between any or exclusive breast feeding and wheezing illness, although there was a high level of heterogeneity between the studies. Subgroup analysis revealed that any breast feeding slightly lowers the odds of wheeze (pooled odds ratio 0.92 [0.86, 0.98]) but slightly increases the odds of asthma defined by specific criteria (pooled odds ratio 1.10 [1.00, 1.22]). This meta-analysis does not provide evidence that breast feeding is protective against wheezing illness in children aged 5 years and over. The difference in the effects of breast feeding according to the nature of the wheezing illness highlights the importance of the heterogeneity of illness phenotypes.

  17. Long-term correlates of childhood abuse among adults with severe mental illness: adult victimization, substance abuse, and HIV sexual risk behavior.

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    Meade, Christina S; Kershaw, Trace S; Hansen, Nathan B; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2009-04-01

    The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population.

  18. Acceptability – a neglected dimension of access to health care: findings from a study on childhood convulsions in rural Tanzania

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    Dillip Angel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acceptability is a poorly conceptualized dimension of access to health care. Using a study on childhood convulsion in rural Tanzania, we examined social acceptability from a user perspective. The study design is based on the premise that a match between health providers’ and clients’ understanding of disease is an important dimension of social acceptability, especially in trans-cultural communication, for example if childhood convulsions are not linked with malaria and local treatment practices are mostly preferred. The study was linked to health interventions with the objective of bridging the gap between local and biomedical understanding of convulsions. Methods The study combined classical ethnography with the cultural epidemiology approach using EMIC (Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue tool. EMIC interviews were conducted in a 2007/08 convulsion study (n = 88 and results were compared with those of an earlier 2004/06 convulsion study (n = 135. Earlier studies on convulsion in the area were also examined to explore longer-term changes in treatment practices. Results The match between local and biomedical understanding of convulsions was already high in the 2004/06 study. Specific improvements were noted in form of (1 46% point increase among those who reported use of mosquito nets to prevent convulsion (2 13% point decrease among caregivers who associated convulsion with ‘evil eye and sorcery’, 3 14% point increase in prompt use of health facility and 416% point decrease among those who did not use health facility at all. Such changes can be partly attributed to interventions which explicitly aimed at increasing the match between local and biomedical understanding of malaria. Caregivers, mostly mothers, did not seek advice on where to take an ill child. This indicates that treatment at health facility has become socially acceptable for severe febrile with convulsion. Conclusion As an important dimension

  19. Acceptability--a neglected dimension of access to health care: findings from a study on childhood convulsions in rural Tanzania.

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    Dillip, Angel; Alba, Sandra; Mshana, Christopher; Hetzel, Manuel W; Lengeler, Christian; Mayumana, Iddy; Schulze, Alexander; Mshinda, Hassan; Weiss, Mitchell G; Obrist, Brigit

    2012-05-09

    Acceptability is a poorly conceptualized dimension of access to health care. Using a study on childhood convulsion in rural Tanzania, we examined social acceptability from a user perspective. The study design is based on the premise that a match between health providers' and clients' understanding of disease is an important dimension of social acceptability, especially in trans-cultural communication, for example if childhood convulsions are not linked with malaria and local treatment practices are mostly preferred. The study was linked to health interventions with the objective of bridging the gap between local and biomedical understanding of convulsions. The study combined classical ethnography with the cultural epidemiology approach using EMIC (Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue) tool. EMIC interviews were conducted in a 2007/08 convulsion study (n = 88) and results were compared with those of an earlier 2004/06 convulsion study (n = 135). Earlier studies on convulsion in the area were also examined to explore longer-term changes in treatment practices. The match between local and biomedical understanding of convulsions was already high in the 2004/06 study. Specific improvements were noted in form of (1) 46% point increase among those who reported use of mosquito nets to prevent convulsion (2) 13% point decrease among caregivers who associated convulsion with 'evil eye and sorcery', 3) 14% point increase in prompt use of health facility and 4)16% point decrease among those who did not use health facility at all. Such changes can be partly attributed to interventions which explicitly aimed at increasing the match between local and biomedical understanding of malaria. Caregivers, mostly mothers, did not seek advice on where to take an ill child. This indicates that treatment at health facility has become socially acceptable for severe febrile with convulsion. As an important dimension of access to health care 'social acceptability' seems relevant in studying

  20. Separation Anxiety Disorder in Childhood as a Risk Factor for Future Mental Illness

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    Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Holm-Denoma, Jill M.; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the association between childhood separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and the risk of the development of psychopathology during young adulthood was conducted. Results showed that SAD contributed to the risk for the development of internalizing disorders, which are panic and depression, but decreased the risk for externalizing…

  1. Causes of delay in the adequate treatment of childhood illness in India.

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    Primhak, R; Coates, S; Hosking, G; Benakappa, D G; Benakappa, D B

    1987-12-01

    A retrospective study of children attending a government hospital in Bangalore was performed to assess the causes of delay in providing appropriate treatment. Delay had occurred in 59% of children with significant illness, and in over half the cases the primary cause of delay was inappropriate treatment or delayed referral by a doctor trained in Western-style medicine. It is concluded that there are a large number of ill children in Bangalore whose parents are seeking the help of such doctors but where management is at fault.

  2. Acute Childhood Illnesses and Health Seeking Behaviour among under five children in a village of Hooghly district, West Bengal

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    Indira Dey (Pal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: – Acute respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases are important causes of morbidity in children worldwide. IMNCI component is addressing these two illnesses in a major way and is concentrating on health care practices of community. Objective: – to find out their health seeking behaviour. Methodology: – A community based , cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mollasimla village of Hooghly district of West Bengal using 2 weeks recall for acute illnesses. Results – It was found that 56.8%, 23.8% and 18.9% children suffered from ARI, fever and diarrhea respectively. Overall treatment rate was above 93% and most of the children were treated in hospitals and health centre. Conclusion: – Acute illnesses are still largely prevalent in the rural community. As mothers are the first care givers, they should be made aware of the preventive measures and the need for seeking treatment.

  3. Family Stress with Chronic Childhood Illness: Cystic Fibrosis, Neuromuscular Disease, and Renal Disease.

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    Holroyd, Jean; Guthrie, Donald

    1986-01-01

    Parents of children with neuromuscular disease, cystic fibrosis, and renal disease were compared with parents of control subjects matched by age to the clinical cases. The three clinical groups exhibited different patterns of stressful response, consistent with the nature of their illnesses and the requirements for care imposed on the families.…

  4. Insight into implementation of facility-based integrated management of childhood illness strategy in a rural district of Sindh, Pakistan

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    Nousheen Akber Pradhan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMCI strategy has been proven to improve health outcomes in children under 5 years of age. Pakistan, despite being in the late implementation phase of the strategy, continues to report high under-five mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, measles, and malnutrition – the main targets of the strategy. Objective: The study determines the factors influencing IMCI implementation at public-sector primary health care (PHC facilities in Matiari district, Sindh, Pakistan. Design: An exploratory qualitative study with an embedded quantitative strand was conducted. The qualitative part included 16 in-depth interviews (IDIs with stakeholders which included planners and policy makers at a provincial level (n=5, implementers and managers at a district level (n=3, and IMCI-trained physicians posted at PHC facilities (n=8. Quantitative part included PHC facility survey (n=16 utilizing WHO health facility assessment tool to assess availability of IMCI essential drugs, supplies, and equipments. Qualitative content analysis was used to interpret the textual information, whereas descriptive frequencies were calculated for health facility survey data. Results: The major factors reported to enhance IMCI implementation were knowledge and perception about the strategy and need for separate clinic for children aged under 5 years as potential support factors. The latter can facilitate in strategy implementation through allocated workforce and required equipments and supplies. Constraint factors mainly included lack of clear understanding of the strategy, poor planning for IMCI implementation, ambiguity in defined roles and responsibilities among stakeholders, and insufficient essential supplies and drugs at PHC centers. The latter was further substantiated through health facilities’ survey findings, which indicated that none of the facilities had 100% stock of essential supplies and drugs. Only one out of all

  5. Parental illness perceptions and medication perceptions in childhood asthma, a focus group study.

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    Klok, Ted; Brand, Paul L; Bomhof-Roordink, Hanna; Duiverman, Eric J; Kaptein, Adrian A

    2011-02-01

    Asthma treatment according to guidelines fails frequently, through patients' nonadherence to doctors' advice. This study aimed to explore how differences in asthma care influence parents' perceptions to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). We conducted six semistructured focus groups, including 44 parents of asthmatic children (2-12 years of age, treated in primary or specialist care). Verbatim transcripts were analysed with standard qualitative research methods. Parents decided deliberately whether ongoing ICS use was useful for their child. This decision was based on their perceptions about illness and medication. In primary care, this issue was hardly ever discussed with the health care provider because regular scheduled follow-up was unusual. In specialist care, regular scheduled follow-up was usual, and parental perceptions about illness and medication were discussed and modified when needed. Parent-reported adherence was lower in primary care than in specialist care. This focus group study illustrates how strongly parental perceptions of illness and medication influence adherence to health care providers' advice and that such perceptions can be modified within a strong doctor-patient partnership, improving adherence. © 2010 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  6. Association between rhinovirus wheezing illness and the development of childhood asthma: a meta-analysis

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    Liu, Lu; Pan, Yilin; Zhu, Yanting; Song, Yang; Su, Xiaofan; Yang, Lan; Li, Manxiang

    2017-01-01

    Objective The relation between early-life rhinovirus (RV) wheezing illness and later onset of wheezing/asthma remains a subject of debate. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the association between RV wheezing illness in the first 3 years of life and the subsequent development of wheezing/asthma. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods The PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang databases were systematically searched for studies published between 1988 and February 2017, and additional studies were found by searching reference lists of relevant articles. 2 reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the quality of each study. Results were pooled using fixed-effect models or random-effects models as appropriate. Results The meta-analysis included 15 original articles which met the criteria, while 10 articles reported the results of 4 longitudinal cohort studies with different follow-up periods. RV wheezing illness in the first 3 years of life was associated with an increased risk of wheezing/asthma in later life (relative risk (RR)=2.00, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.49, panalysis by age at follow-up, the association still remained significant in analysis suggests an association between RV-induced wheezing in the first 3 years of life and the subsequent development of wheezing/asthma. Large-scale and well-designed studies that adequately address concerns for potential confounding factors are required to validate the risk identified in the current meta-analysis. PMID:28373249

  7. Management of childhood febrile illness prior to clinic attendance in urban Nigeria.

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    Afolabi, B M; Brieger, W R; Salako, L A

    2004-03-01

    Parents and caregivers often try various treatment modalities for their sick children before bringing them to clinic. Many community-based studies have documented home and self-treatment practices, often with the aid of patent medicine vendors, but less is known about prior treatment behaviour of caregivers who actually reach a government clinic. This study, therefore, aimed at documenting the treatment provided by caregivers prior to their attendance at a public hospital. Beginning in April 1996, a year-long study was conducted among 1,943 sick children and their caregivers who attended the largest government-owned paediatric hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. The major complaints mentioned by the caregivers included fever, cough, and diarrhoea. Most (89%) caregivers had administered some form of medicine to the child prior to the clinic visit, and on average, 2.5 medications had been given. Associations were found between major complaint and type of medicine given: fevers were associated with antimalarial drugs and analgesics (antipyretics), cough was associated with cough syrup and analgesics, while diarrhoea was associated with antidiarrhoeal drugs. Although one-fifth of the children had received an antibiotic, provision of antibiotics was not associated with a particular complaint/illness. Since caregivers appeared to use perceived complaints/illnesses as a treatment guide, this can form the basis of safer and more appropriate recognition of illness and home management. In addition, the information obtained in this study can be used for training clinicians to inquire about home management and, thus, for making more informed decisions about their own treatment and prescribing practices.

  8. Parental occupational pesticide exposure and the risk of childhood leukemia in the offspring: findings from the childhood leukemia international consortium.

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    Bailey, Helen D; Fritschi, Lin; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Glass, Deborah C; Miligi, Lucia; Dockerty, John D; Lightfoot, Tracy; Clavel, Jacqueline; Roman, Eve; Spector, Logan G; Kaatsch, Peter; Metayer, Catherine; Magnani, Corrado; Milne, Elizabeth; Polychronopoulou, Sophia; Simpson, Jill; Rudant, Jérémie; Sidi, Vasiliki; Rondelli, Roberto; Orsi, Laurent; Kang, Alice Y; Petridou, Eleni; Schüz, Joachim

    2014-11-01

    Maternal occupational pesticide exposure during pregnancy and/or paternal occupational pesticide exposure around conception have been suggested to increase risk of leukemia in the offspring. With a view to providing insight in this area we pooled individual level data from 13 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC). Occupational data were harmonized to a compatible format. Pooled individual analyses were undertaken using unconditional logistic regression. Using exposure data from mothers of 8,236 cases, and 14,850 controls, and from fathers of 8,169 cases and 14,201 controls the odds ratio (OR) for maternal exposure during pregnancy and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was 1.01 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78, 1.30] and for paternal exposure around conception 1.20 (95% 1.06, 1.38). For acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the OR for maternal exposure during pregnancy was 1.94 (CI 1.19, 3.18) and for paternal exposure around conception 0.91 (CI 0.66, 1.24.) based on data from 1,329 case and 12,141 control mothers, and 1,231 case and 11,383 control fathers. Our finding of a significantly increased risk of AML in the offspring with maternal exposure to pesticides during pregnancy is consistent with previous reports. We also found a slight increase in risk of ALL with paternal exposure around conception which appeared to be more evident in children diagnosed at the age of 5 years or more and those with T cell ALL which raises interesting questions on possible mechanisms.

  9. "I thought it was only ordinary fever!" cultural knowledge and the micropolitics of therapy seeking for childhood febrile illness in Tanzania.

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    Kamat, Vinay R

    2006-06-01

    Economic considerations are often cited as important determinants of health-seeking behavior. This paper describes a situation in peri-urban Tanzania where user fees do not constitute the primary reason why mothers delay seeking prompt treatment at a public health facility for their young, febrile children. Mothers commonly believe that they are dealing with an ordinary fever and not malaria or any other serious illness complicated by fever. Hence, they engage in extended home-based treatment. Drawing upon an ethnographic study, this paper illustrates how cultural knowledge about disease symptomatology, cultural meanings associated with febrile illness, gender relations, and patterns of communication between health care providers and mothers significantly influence outcomes for childhood febrile illnesses. It is argued that an overemphasis on the correlation between user fees and treatment delays with regard to childhood illnesses tends to divert attention from other significant cultural factors and existing structural constraints that influence the dynamics of health care seeking and health outcomes. At a time when calls to implement artemisinine-based combination therapy as one of the front-line strategies in Tanzania are increasingly frequent, there is a need to pay closer attention to the contextual factors and socio-cultural dynamics that influence patterns of treatment-seeking for childhood malaria.

  10. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in Brazilian Samples of Different Age Groups: Findings from Confirmatory Factor Analysis

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    Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Brietzke, Elisa; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Kristensen, Christian Haag; Arteche, Adriane Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is internationally accepted as a key tool for the assessment of childhood abuse and neglect experiences. However, there are relative few psychometric studies available and some authors have proposed two different factor solutions. We examined the dimensional structure and internal consistency of the Brazilian version of the CTQ. A total of 1,925 participants from eight different clinical and non-clinical samples including adolescents, adults and elders were considered in this study. First, we performed Confirmatory Factor Analysis to investigate the goodness of fit of the two proposed competitive factor structure models for the CTQ. We also investigated the internal consistency of all factors. Second, multi-group analyses were used to investigate measurement invariance and population heterogeneity across age groups and sex. Our findings revealed that the alternative factor structure as opposed to the original factor structure was the most appropriate model within adolescents and adults Brazilian samples. We provide further evidence for the validity and reliability of the CTQ within the Brazilian samples and report that the alternative model showed an improvement in fit indexes and may be a better alternative over the original model. PMID:24475237

  11. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

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    Giallo, Rebecca; Bahreinian, Salma; Brown, Stephanie; Cooklin, Amanda; Kingston, Dawn; Kozyrskyj, Anita

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%), sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%), and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45), p.001). Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting.

  12. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

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    Rebecca Giallo

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%, sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%, and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45, p.001. Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting.

  13. Analyses of the angiographic findings in cases of childhood moyamoya disease

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    Satoh, S.; Shibuya, H.; Suzuki, S.; Matsushima, Y.

    1988-04-01

    Cerebral angiograms of 34 patients with childhood moyamoya disease have been analysed, this analysis having revealed the following findings. The blood flow to abnormal net-like vessels (ANV) in the base of the brain is mainly supplied from the internal carotid artery (ICA) in the early stage of this disease. In a later stage, however the blood supply is mainly from the posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Though, no remarkable change was found in the volumes of ANV from the early to later stages of the disease, the leptomeningeal collaterals, the most prominent anastomoses in moyamoya disease, had a tendency to decrease during the later stage with the development of PCA stenosis. Eighteen occlusive PCA lesions were found in the proximal portion of the PCA in eight cases (44%), and in the distal in nine cases (50%). The incidence of aneurysm (1.5%) and intracranial bleeding was low as compared to cases of adult moyamoya disease.

  14. Vietnamese mother's conceptions of childhood overweight: findings from a qualitative study

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    Loan Minh Do

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood overweight and obesity is a new and emerging problem in Vietnam. The so far observed prevalence increases have pointed to the need for public health intervention strategies with parents as crucial resources for change. Objective: The aim of this study was to understand mothers’ conceptions of childhood overweight. Design: Four focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 33 mothers of preschool children, 4–6 years old, living in urban and rural districts of Hanoi, Vietnam. The discussions were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The obtained data were analyzed using the principles of phenomenography. Results: Four main categories with 13 subcategories emerged in the process of analysis. The first category, called ‘Concept of overweight’, contained mothers’ views on childhood overweight. A major concern was the negative aspects of overweight such as impaired social interaction and health problems. The second category, ‘Identification of overweight’, described the ways mothers use to recognize overweight in children: own experience, growth chart, and public or health care system's information. The third category, ‘Causes of overweight’, showed mothers’ understanding of factors possibly contributing to overweight development: unhealthy food and lifestyle, genetic susceptibility, parent's lack of knowledge, and limited time to take care of children as well as economic improvement. The fourth category, ‘Management of overweight’, described the ways mothers use to manage a child's weight problem: control of their food intake, increasing their physical activity, and encouraging their child self-control. However, they find such strategies difficult to implement and their intentions are sometimes challenged by the child's grandparents. Conclusions: The study gives an understanding of the mothers’ conceptions of four important and practically useful aspects of overweight in children. The findings

  15. Does integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI training improve the skills of health workers? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Duyen Thi Kim Nguyen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An estimated 6.9 million children die annually in low and middle-income countries because of treatable illneses including pneumonia, diarrhea, and malaria. To reduce morbidity and mortality, the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy was developed, which included a component to strengthen the skills of health workers in identifying and managing these conditions. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to determine whether IMCI training actually improves performance. METHODS: Database searches of CIHAHL, CENTRAL, EMBASE, Global Health, Medline, Ovid Healthstar, and PubMed were performed from 1990 to February 2013, and supplemented with grey literature searches and reviews of bibliographies. Studies were included if they compared the performance of IMCI and non-IMCI health workers in illness classification, prescription of medications, vaccinations, and counseling on nutrition and admistration of oral therapies. Dersminion-Laird random effect models were used to summarize the effect estimates. RESULTS: The systematic review and meta-analysis included 46 and 26 studies, respectively. Four cluster-randomized controlled trials, seven pre-post studies, and 15 cross-sectional studies were included. Findings were heterogeneous across performance domains with evidence of effect modification by health worker performance at baseline. Overall, IMCI-trained workers were more likely to correctly classify illnesses (RR = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.66-2.24. Studies of workers with lower baseline performance showed greater improvements in prescribing medications (RR = 3.08, 95% CI: 2.04-4.66, vaccinating children (RR = 3.45, 95% CI: 1.49-8.01, and counseling families on adequate nutrition (RR = 10.12, 95% CI: 6.03-16.99 and administering oral therapies (RR = 3.76, 95% CI: 2.30-6.13. Trends toward greater training benefits were observed in studies that were conducted in lower resource settings and reported greater

  16. A course on the transition to adult care of patients with childhood-onset chronic illnesses.

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    Hagood, James S; Lenker, Claire V; Thrasher, Staci

    2005-04-01

    Children with special health care needs born today have a 90% chance of surviving into adulthood, making their transition to adult systems of care an issue that will affect almost all physicians. However, many adult generalists and specialists are not familiar with the management of chronic diseases that begin in childhood. While the public health system has made transition to appropriate adult care a priority, and many specialty organizations have endorsed this concept, there are no published studies addressing how the concept of transition can be taught to medical students or residents. The authors describe a one-week course for medical students, begun in 2001 at their institution, that addresses the transition for youth with special health care needs, emphasizing patient and family-centered care, cultural competence, and decision making in end-of-life issues. Cystic fibrosis, a common genetic disease with increasing life expectancy, is used as the model for the course. Involvement of interdisciplinary faculty, interviews with youth with special health care needs and family caregivers, readings from academic and nonacademic literature, and group discussions are presented as teaching methods. Key insights based on experience with the course are the need to include the voices of patients and families, the use of faculty from various professions and specialties to model interdisciplinary care, and the insight that problems specific to transition offer into contemporary health care financing. Future studies should measure the impact of such courses on students' knowledge of transition issues, and determine essential information required for physicians in practice.

  17. Syndromic diagnosis of malaria in rural Sierra Leone and proposed additions to the national integrated management of childhood illness guidelines for fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnedu, Obinna N; Rimel, Bryan; Terry, Carey; Jalloh-Vos, Heidi; Baryon, Brima; Bausch, Daniel G

    2010-04-01

    Many countries in Africa, including Sierra Leone, have adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy as first-line therapy for treatment of patients with malaria. Because laboratory testing is often unavailable in rural areas, the cost-benefit and viability of this approach may depend on accurately diagnosing malaria by using clinical criteria. We assessed the accuracy of syndromic diagnosis for malaria in three peripheral health units in rural Sierra Leone and determined factors that were associated with an accurate malaria diagnosis. Of 175 children diagnosed with malaria on syndromic grounds, 143 (82%) were confirmed by the Paracheck-Pf test. In a multivariate analysis, splenomegaly (P = 0.04) was the only clinical sign significantly associated with laboratory-confirmed malaria, and sleeping under a bed net was protective (P = 0.05). Our findings show that clinical malaria is diagnosed relatively accurately in rural Sierra Leone. Incorporating bed net use and splenomegaly into the national Integrated Management of Childhood Illness guidelines for evaluation of fever may further enhance diagnostic accuracy for malaria.

  18. Effect of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy on childhood mortality and nutrition in a rural area in Bangladesh: a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifeen, Shams E; Hoque, D M Emdadul; Akter, Tasnima; Rahman, Muntasirur; Hoque, Mohammad Enamul; Begum, Khadija; Chowdhury, Enayet K; Khan, Rasheda; Blum, Lauren S; Ahmed, Shakil; Hossain, M Altaf; Siddik, Ashraf; Begum, Nazma; Sadeq-ur Rahman, Qazi; Haque, Twaha M; Billah, Sk Masum; Islam, Mainul; Rumi, Reza Ali; Law, Erin; Al-Helal, Z A Motin; Baqui, Abdullah H; Schellenberg, Joanna; Adam, Taghreed; Moulton, Lawrence H; Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Scherpbier, Robert W; Victora, Cesar G; Bryce, Jennifer; Black, Robert E

    2009-08-01

    WHO and UNICEF launched the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy in the mid-1990s to reduce deaths from diarrhoea, pneumonia, malaria, measles, and malnutrition in children younger than 5 years. We assessed the effect of IMCI on health and nutrition of children younger than 5 years in Bangladesh. In this cluster randomised trial, 20 first-level government health facilities in the Matlab subdistrict of Bangladesh and their catchment areas (total population about 350 000) were paired and randomly assigned to either IMCI (intervention; ten clusters) or usual services (comparison; ten clusters). All three components of IMCI-health-worker training, health-systems improvements, and family and community activities-were implemented beginning in February, 2002. Assessment included household and health facility surveys tracking intermediate outputs and outcomes, and nutrition and mortality changes in intervention and comparison areas. Primary endpoint was mortality in children aged between 7 days and 59 months. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN52793850. The yearly rate of mortality reduction in children younger than 5 years (excluding deaths in first week of life) was similar in IMCI and comparison areas (8.6%vs 7.8%). In the last 2 years of the study, the mortality rate was 13.4% lower in IMCI than in comparison areas (95% CI -14.2 to 34.3), corresponding to 4.2 fewer deaths per 1000 livebirths (95% CI -4.1 to 12.4; p=0.30). Implementation of IMCI led to improved health-worker skills, health-system support, and family and community practices, translating into increased care-seeking for illnesses. In IMCI areas, more children younger than 6 months were exclusively breastfed (76%vs 65%, difference of differences 10.1%, 95% CI 2.65-17.62), and prevalence of stunting in children aged 24-59 months decreased more rapidly (difference of differences -7.33, 95% CI -13.83 to -0.83) than in comparison areas. IMCI was

  19. Capacity constraints to the adoption of new interventions: consultation time and the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Taghreed; Amorim, Débora G; Edwards, Sally J; Amaral, João; Evans, David B

    2005-12-01

    Information on how health workers spend their time can help programme managers determine whether it is possible to add new services or activities to their schedules and at what cost. One set of interventions with the potential to reduce under-five mortality is training of facility-based health workers according to the guidelines for Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), along with improvements to supervision, procurement and information systems that are part of the IMCI strategy. Although it has been shown that IMCI is associated with improved quality of care, it is important to determine if it also requires additional consultation time. To investigate the amount of time required to provide clinical care to children under 5 years based on IMCI compared with routine care, a time and motion study was conducted in Northeast Brazil. IMCI-trained providers spent 1 minute and 26 seconds longer per consultation with under-fives than untrained providers, holding confounding factors constant at the mean levels observed in the sample. The difference was greater when patient load was low, and decreased as the number of patients a provider saw per day increased. This has three implications. First, the ability of the system to absorb new technologies depends on current capacity utilization. Secondly, the cost of treating a child also depends on the level of capacity utilization, at least in terms of provider time. Thirdly, where patient loads are high it is important to determine if the quality of care required for IMCI can be maintained.

  20. Effect of residence on mothers' health care seeking behavior for common childhood illness in Northwest Ethiopia: a community based comparative cross--sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Alene, Kefyalew Addis

    2014-10-08

    Children are at higher risk of acquiring infections and developing severe disease. This study assessed the health care seeking behavior and associated factors of urban and rural mothers for common childhood illness in Northwest Ethiopia. A comparative community based cross-sectional study was conducted among urban and rural mothers living in the district. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. A pre-tested and structured questioner via interview was used to collect the data. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors. Odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of the associations. A total of 827 (274 urban and 553 rural) mothers were interviewed. Among these, 79.3% (95% CI: (76.5%, 82.06%)) of the mothers were sought health care in the district. Health care seeking behavior was higher among urban mothers (84.6%) than rural mothers (76.7%). Marital status, completion health extension package, and sex of child were significantly associated with health care seeking behavior of urban mothers. Whereas age of child, age and occupation of mothers, educational level of fathers, wealth quintile, and type of reported illness were significantly associated with rural mothers. Perceived severity of illness was significantly associated with both urban and rural mothers for health care seeking behavior. The overall health seeking behaviors of mothers for common childhood illness was high. However, urban mothers seek health care more than rural. Socio Economic position and types of reported illness has an effect for health seeking behavior of rural mothers. Whereas child sex preference and graduation status for health extension package has an effect for health care seeking behavior of urban mothers. Work on strengthen accessibility of health care services in the rural mothers and increase awareness of mothers about the disadvantage of sex preferences will improve the health care seek behavior of

  1. Challenges in finding and measuring behavioural determinants of childhood obesity in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, D; Rigby, MJ; Di Mattia, P; Zscheppang, A.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Childhood obesity is an important concern for child health. However, despite widespread concern about the increase in childhood obesity, its causes are not monitored systematically in Europe. In 2007, the Scientific Platform Project on Lifestyle Determinants of Obesity identified routine data sources nationally available in European countries to measure childhood obesity. This work was revisited in 2014 to monitor any progress made. SUBJECT AND METHODS: In 2007, a literature review and p...

  2. Carrying the Pain of Abuse: Gender-Specific Findings on the Relationship between Childhood Physical Abuse and Obesity in Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esme Fuller-Thomson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood abuse has been associated with negative adult health outcomes, including obesity. This study sought to investigate the association between childhood physical abuse and adult obesity, while controlling for five clusters of potentially confounding factors: childhood stressors, socioeconomic indicators, marital status, health behaviors, and mental health. Methods: Representative data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey were selected. The response rate was approximately 84%. Gender-specific logistic regression analyses determined the association between abuse and obesity, while controlling for age and race and five clusters of potentially confounding factors. Of the 12,590 respondents with complete data, 2,787 were obese and 976 reported physical abuse as a child or adolescent by someone close to them. Results: Among women with childhood physical abuse compared to no abuse, the odds of obesity were 35% higher, even when controlling for age, race, and the five clusters of factors (odds ratio (OR = 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.09, 1.67. Childhood physical abuse was not associated with adult obesity among men (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 0.82, 1.53. Conclusions: This study provides one of the first population-based, gender-specific analyses of the association between childhood physical abuse and obesity controlling for a wide range of factors. The gender-specific findings require further exploration.

  3. Childhood family income and life outcomes in adulthood: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Sheree J; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were to use data gathered over the course of a 30-year longitudinal study to examine the linkages between economic circumstances in childhood and subsequent developmental outcomes spanning educational achievement; economic circumstances; crime; mental health; and teenage pregnancy. All of these outcomes have been linked with childhood economic conditions and it is frequently argued that reducing income inequalities will mitigate psychosocial risks of children reared in families facing economic hardship. Alternatively it may be suggested that the associations between childhood family economic circumstances and later outcomes are mediated by individual, family and social factors that are correlated with low family income and contribute to later outcomes. To examine these issues, data were drawn from a birth cohort of New Zealand children born in 1977 and followed to age 30. Declining childhood family income was associated with a range of negative outcomes in adulthood, including: lower educational achievement; poorer economic circumstances; higher rates of criminal offending; higher rates of mental health problems; and higher rates of teenage pregnancy. After covariate adjustment, childhood family income remained significantly associated with educational achievement and economic circumstances, but was no longer significantly associated with the mental health, offending and teenage pregnancy outcomes. These findings suggest that, after due allowance has been made for social, family and individual contextual factors, low family income during childhood is associated with a range of educational and economic disadvantages in adulthood but is not directly related to increased risks of crime, mental health problems or teen pregnancy.

  4. The Association Between Childhood Seizures and Later Childhood Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Findings From a Nationally Representative Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Kariuki, Symon; Newton, Charles; PRINCE, Martin James; Das-Munshi, Jayati

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Emotional/behavioral disorders are often comorbid with childhood epilepsy, but both may be predicted by social disadvantage and fetal risk indicators (FRIs). We used data from a British birth cohort, to assess the association of epilepsy, single unprovoked seizures, and febrile seizures with the later development of emotional/behavioral problems.Methods: A total of 17,416 children in the 1958 British birth cohort were followed up until age 16 years. Logistic and modified Poisson r...

  5. The Association Between Childhood Seizures and Later Childhood Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Findings From a Nationally Representative Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Symon M; Newton, Charles R J C; Prince, Martin J; Das-Munshi, Jayati

    2016-06-01

    Emotional/behavioral disorders are often comorbid with childhood epilepsy, but both may be predicted by social disadvantage and fetal risk indicators (FRIs). We used data from a British birth cohort, to assess the association of epilepsy, single unprovoked seizures, and febrile seizures with the later development of emotional/behavioral problems. A total of 17,416 children in the 1958 British birth cohort were followed up until age 16 years. Logistic and modified Poisson regression models were used to determine a) the association of social disadvantage at birth and FRI with epilepsy, single unprovoked seizures, and febrile seizures at 7 years, and emotional/behavioral disorders in later childhood, and (ii) the association of childhood seizures by age 7 years with emotional/behavioral disorders in later childhood, after accounting for social disadvantage and FRI. Higher scores on FRI and social disadvantage were associated with emotional/behavioral problems at 7, 11, and 16 years, but not with seizure disorders at age 7 years. Epilepsy was associated with emotional/behavioral problems at 7 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29-4.84), 11 years (OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.04-3.81), and 16 years (OR = 5.47, 95% CI = 1.65-18.08), whereas single unprovoked seizures were associated with emotional/behavioral problems at 16 years (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.02-2.01), after adjustment for FRI and social disadvantage. Febrile convulsions were not associated with increased risk for emotional/behavioral problems. Emotional/behavioral problems in children are related to an earlier diagnosis of epilepsy and single unprovoked seizures after accounting for social disadvantage and FRI, whereas febrile convulsions are not associated with emotional/behavioral problems.

  6. The Association Between Childhood Seizures and Later Childhood Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Findings From a Nationally Representative Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Symon M.; Newton, Charles R.J.C.; Prince, Martin J.; Das-Munshi, Jayati

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Emotional/behavioral disorders are often comorbid with childhood epilepsy, but both may be predicted by social disadvantage and fetal risk indicators (FRIs). We used data from a British birth cohort, to assess the association of epilepsy, single unprovoked seizures, and febrile seizures with the later development of emotional/behavioral problems. Methods A total of 17,416 children in the 1958 British birth cohort were followed up until age 16 years. Logistic and modified Poisson regression models were used to determine a) the association of social disadvantage at birth and FRI with epilepsy, single unprovoked seizures, and febrile seizures at 7 years, and emotional/behavioral disorders in later childhood, and (ii) the association of childhood seizures by age 7 years with emotional/behavioral disorders in later childhood, after accounting for social disadvantage and FRI. Results Higher scores on FRI and social disadvantage were associated with emotional/behavioral problems at 7, 11, and 16 years, but not with seizure disorders at age 7 years. Epilepsy was associated with emotional/behavioral problems at 7 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29–4.84), 11 years (OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.04–3.81), and 16 years (OR = 5.47, 95% CI = 1.65–18.08), whereas single unprovoked seizures were associated with emotional/behavioral problems at 16 years (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.02–2.01), after adjustment for FRI and social disadvantage. Febrile convulsions were not associated with increased risk for emotional/behavioral problems. Conclusions Emotional/behavioral problems in children are related to an earlier diagnosis of epilepsy and single unprovoked seizures after accounting for social disadvantage and FRI, whereas febrile convulsions are not associated with emotional/behavioral problems. PMID:26894324

  7. Is Childhood Physical Abuse Associated with Peptic Ulcer Disease? Findings from a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bottoms, Jennifer; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Hurd, Marion

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated childhood physical abuse and ulcers in a regionally representative community sample. Age, race and sex were controlled for in addition to five clusters of potentially confounding factors: adverse childhood conditions, adult socioeconomic status, current health behaviors, current stress and marital status, and history of…

  8. Outcomes of childhood conduct problem trajectories in early adulthood: findings from the ALSPAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Hickman, Matthew; Doerner, Rita; Emond, Alan; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Maughan, Barbara; Munafò, Marcus R; Heron, Jon

    2014-07-01

    Although conduct problems in childhood are stably associated with problem outcomes, not every child who presents with conduct problems is at risk. This study extends previous studies by testing whether childhood conduct problem trajectories are predictive of a wide range of other health and behavior problems in early adulthood using a general population sample. Based on 7,218 individuals from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, a three-step approach was used to model childhood conduct problem development and identify differences in early adult health and behavior problems. Childhood conduct problems were assessed on six occasions between age 4 and 13 and health and behavior outcomes were measured at age 18. Individuals who displayed early-onset persistent conduct problems throughout childhood were at greater risk for almost all forms of later problems. Individuals on the adolescent-onset conduct problem path consumed more tobacco and illegal drugs and engaged more often in risky sexual behavior than individuals without childhood conduct problems. Levels of health and behavior problems for individuals on the childhood-limited path were in between those for stable low and stable high trajectories. Childhood conduct problems are pervasive and substantially affect adjustment in early adulthood both in at-risk samples as shown in previous studies, but also in a general population sample. Knowing a child's developmental course can help to evaluate the risk for later maladjustment and be indicative of the need for early intervention.

  9. Outcomes of childhood conduct problem trajectories in early adulthood : findings from the ALSPAC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Hickman, Matthew; Doerner, Rita; Emond, Alan; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Maughan, Barbara; Munafo, Marcus R.; Heron, Jon

    Although conduct problems in childhood are stably associated with problem outcomes, not every child who presents with conduct problems is at risk. This study extends previous studies by testing whether childhood conduct problem trajectories are predictive of a wide range of other health and behavior

  10. Molecular abnormalities of the hippocampus in severe psychiatric illness: postmortem findings from the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knable, Michael B; Barci, Beata M; Webster, Maree J; Meador-Woodruff, James; Torrey, E Fuller

    2004-06-01

    Between 1997 and 2002, 48 data sets from the hippocampus were produced on samples from the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium. From these data sets, 224 total measures were available from the various subdivisions of the hippocampus. An integrative analysis of these measures was performed using a multivariate, nonparametric analysis of variance (ANOVA). ANOVA with correction for multiple comparisons indicated that parvalbumin-containing cells in CA2 were reduced in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In addition, reelin protein in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus was decreased in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression at the trend level of statistical significance (P=0.065). These results strongly suggest a dysfunction of inhibitory GABA-ergic interneurons in severe mental illness. Without correction for multiple comparisons, 31 measures were abnormal in at least one disease, whereas 11 measures would be expected to appear abnormal by chance. Abnormal molecules included measures of synaptic density or neuronal plasticity (reelin, SNAP-25, BDNF, Complexin I and II), as well as parvalbumin, tyrosine receptor kinase A, glucocorticoid receptors, glutamate NR1 receptor subunits, serotonin 5HT2(A) and 5HT1(B) receptors, and dopamine D(5) receptors.

  11. Infantile fibromatosis in childhood: Findings on MR imaging and pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Joong Mo; Yoon, Hye-Kyung; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Kim, Eung Yeop; Han, Bokyung K.; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Kim, Seung Hoon; Cho Jae Min; Kim, Sung; Moon; Kang, Heung Sik

    2000-01-01

    AIM: The objective of this study was to analyse the MR imaging findings of infantile fibromatosis of childhood and to correlate them with histopathological features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients with histologically proven infantile fibromatosis were included in this study. The findings on MR images were retrospectively evaluated and then correlated with the pathological features. Findings on MR imaging evaluated included signal intensity, extent of hyperintense area on T2-weighted images, margins of the lesion, the degree and pattern of enhancement and the presence of fatty tissue. Pathological features evaluated included cellularity, collagenization, and myxoid change. A five point scale was used for the evaluation of the extent of hyperintense area on MR imaging, and each of pathological features. RESULTS: On T1-weighted images, the lesions were iso-intense in two patients; iso- and hypointense in three; and iso-, hypo- and hyperintense in two. On T2-weighted images, iso-, hypo- and hyperintense areas were mixed in all patients, the hyperintense area being the largest portion of the lesion. The margins of the lesions were infiltrative in four patients (57%), smooth in two (29%) and mixed in one (14%). Enhancement was marked in five patients (72%) and diffuse in five (71%). Regardless of the hyperintense signal intensity on T2-weighted images, the grades of each pathologic feature were variable. CONCLUSION: Infantile fibromatosis on MR imaging causes an enhancing mass, that is largely hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Areas of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images corresponded to variable grades of cellularity, collagenization, or myxoid change. Ahn, J.M. (2000)

  12. Finding Help When You're in Trouble with the Law: A Handbook for Persons with Mental Illness and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This handbook presents information and answers questions for persons with mental illness who are in trouble with the law and need legal representation. Topics addressed include finding and hiring a lawyer, the lawyers role and responsibilities, how a mental illness may affect court proceedings, and the legal process. A second section contains…

  13. Renal sonographic findings of type I glycogen storage disease in infancy and early childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Chen; Lin, Shuan-Pei [Mackay Memorial Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Taipei (Taiwan); Tsai, Jeng-Daw; Lee, Hung-Chang [Mackay Memorial Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Taipei (Taiwan); Taipei Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2005-08-01

    Type I glycogen storage disease (GSD-I) is an inherited disorder affecting glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. The characteristic manifestations are hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, hyperlacticacidemia, hyperuricemia, and hyperlipidemia. Renal disease is regarded as a long-term complication and is reported mainly in older patients. We report the renal manifestations and renal ultrasonographic findings of GSD-I in infancy and early childhood in order to assess the role of renal sonography in the diagnosis of GSD-I. We retrospectively reviewed our hospital's database for patients with GSD-I from January 1993 to September 2004. The records of five patients were reviewed for this study. These five patients were diagnosed when they were younger than 3 years old. Data extracted from the charts included the initial extrarenal and renal manifestations, laboratory data, and imaging studies. We analyzed the indications for, and results of, renal sonography. In addition to the clinical presentations and laboratory abnormalities, all five children had nephromegaly and increased echogenicity on ultrasonography on their first visit, although only a minor degree of tubular dysfunction was noted clinically. Three of these five patients had nephrocalcinosis or renal stones or both. Hyperechoic large kidneys, nephrocalcinosis, and renal stones are common in GSD-I. They can be present in early infancy. Abnormalities on renal sonography might suggest GSD-I in a patient with suspected inborn errors of metabolism. (orig.)

  14. Why don't clinicians adhere more consistently to guidelines for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Siri; Mwisongo, Aziza; Mæstad, Ottar

    2014-03-01

    The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) has been introduced to reduce child morbidity and mortality in countries with a poor health infrastructure. Previous studies have documented a poor adherence to clinical guidelines, but little is known about the reasons for non-adherence. This mixed-method study measures adherence to IMCI case-assessment guidelines and identifies the reasons for weak adherence. In 2007, adherence was measured through direct observation of 933 outpatient consultations performed by 103 trained clinicians in 82 health facilities in nine districts in rural Tanzania, while clinicians' knowledge of the guidelines was assessed through clinical vignettes. Other potential reasons for a weak adherence were assessed through both a health worker- and health facility survey, as well as by a qualitative follow-up study in 2009 in which in-depth interviews were conducted with 40 clinicians in 30 health facilities located in two of the same districts. Clinicians performed 28.4% of the relevant IMCI assessment tasks. The level of knowledge was considerably higher than actual performance, suggesting that lack of knowledge is not the only constraint for improved performance. Other important reasons for weak performance seem to be 1) lack of motivation to adhere to IMCI guidelines, stemming partly from a weak belief in the importance of following the guidelines and partly from weak intrinsic motivation, and 2) a physical and/or cognitive "overload", resulting in lack of capacity to concentrate fully on each and every case and a resort to simpler rules of thumb. Poor remunerations contribute to several of these factors.

  15. Prevention of caries with probiotic bacteria during early childhood. Promising but inconsistent findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Rose; pqd956, pqd956; Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This review summarized the available literature on the prevention of childhood caries through biofilm engineering with probiotic bacteria in early childhood. METHODS: Three databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library and Trip) were searched through January, 2016 for randomized controlled trials...... the caries prevalence and expressed as prevented fraction and number needed to treat. RESULTS: Probiotic supplements were better than placebo in preventing early childhood caries in all seven studies although the difference was statistically significant in only four of them. The prevented fraction ranged...

  16. Childhood maltreatment as a risk factor for COPD: findings from a population-based survey of Canadian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shields ME

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Margot E Shields, Wendy E Hovdestad, Charles P Gilbert, Lil E Tonmyr Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between childhood maltreatment (CM and COPD in adulthood.Methods: Data were from 15,902 respondents to the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey – Mental Health. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine associations between CM and COPD and the role of smoking and mental and substance use variables as mediators in associations.Results: COPD in adulthood was related to CM, with associations differing by sex. Among females, COPD was related to childhood physical abuse (CPA, childhood sexual abuse, and childhood exposure to intimate partner violence, but in the fully adjusted models, the association with CPA did not persist. Among males, COPD was related to childhood exposure to intimate partner violence and severe and frequent CPA, but these associations did not persist in the fully adjusted models.Conclusion: Results from this study establish CM as a risk factor for COPD in adulthood. A large part of the association is attributable to cigarette smoking, particularly for males. These findings underscore the importance of interventions to prevent CM as well as programs to assist victims of CM in dealing with tobacco addiction. Keywords: child abuse, cigarette, smoking, physical abuse, sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, domestic violence, family violence

  17. Environmental factors associated with childhood eczema: Findings from a national web-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Sasaki

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Duration of breastfeeding, season of birth, pet ownership, household income, and the number of siblings were associated with the prevalence of childhood eczema in a nationwide web survey.

  18. Maternal employment and early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, S. S.; Cole, T J; Law, C; Millennium Cohort Study Child Hlth

    2008-01-01

    Background: In most developed countries, maternal employment has increased rapidly. Changing patterns of family life have been suggested to be contributing to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity. Objectives: Our primary objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and partner employment and overweight in children aged 3 years. Our secondary objective was to investigate factors related to early childhood overweight only among mothers in employment. Design: Cohort study. Su...

  19. The ‘community’ in community case management of childhood illnesses in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanga Z. Zembe-Mkabile

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malawi has achieved a remarkable feat in reducing its under-5 mortality in time to meet its MDG 4 target despite high levels of poverty, low female literacy rates, recurrent economic crises, a severe shortage of human resources for health, and poor health infrastructure. The country's community-based delivery platform (largely headed by Health Surveillance Assistants, or HSAs has been well established since the 1960s, although their tasks and responsibilities have evolved from surveillance to health promotion and prevention, and more recently to include curative services. However, the role of and the form that community involvement takes in community-based service delivery in Malawi is unclear. Design: A qualitative rapid appraisal approach was utilised to explore the role of community involvement in the HSA programme in Malawi to better understand how the various community providers intersect to support the delivery of integrated community case management by HSAs. Twelve focus group discussions and 10 individual interviews were conducted with HSAs, HSA supervisors, mothers, members of village health committees (VHCs, senior Ministry of Health officials, district health teams, and implementing partners. Results: Our findings reveal that HSAs are often deployed to areas outside of their village of residence as communities are not involved in selecting their own HSAs in Malawi. Despite this lack of involvement in selection, the high acceptance of the HSAs by community members and community accountability structures such as VHCs provide the programme with legitimacy and credibility. Conclusions: This study provides insight into how community involvement plays out in the context of a government-managed professionalised community service delivery platform. It points to the need for further research to look at the impact of removing the role of HSA selection and deployment from the community and placing it at the central level.

  20. Differences in MRI findings between subgroups of recent-onset childhood arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkhus, Eva [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Flatoe, Berit; Smith, Hans-Joergen [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet and University of Oslo, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Riise, Oeystein [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Pediatrics, Oslo (Norway); Reiseter, Tor [Oslo University Hospital, Ullevaal, Department of Radiology, Oslo (Norway)

    2011-04-15

    MRI is sensitive for joint inflammation, but its ability to separate subgroups of arthritis in children has been questioned. Infectious arthritis (IA), postinfectious arthritis (PA), transient arthritis (TA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are subgroups that may need early, different treatment. To determine whether MRI findings differ in IA, PA/TA and JIA in recent-onset childhood arthritis. Fifty-nine children from a prospective study of incidence of arthritis (n = 216) were, based on clinical and biochemical criteria, examined by MRI. Joint fluid, synovium, bone marrow, soft tissue and cartilage were scored retrospectively and analysed by Pearson chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. Fifty-nine children had MRI of one station. IA was suggested by bone marrow oedema (OR 7.46, P = 0.011) and absence of T1-weighted and T2-weighted low signal intensity synovial tissue (OR 0.06, P = 0.015). Furthermore, soft-tissue oedema and reduced contrast enhancement in the epiphyses were more frequent in children with IA. JIA correlated positively with low signal intensity synovial tissue (OR 13.30, P < 0.001) and negatively with soft-tissue oedema (OR 0.20, P = 0.018). No significant positive determinants were found for PA/TA, but bone marrow oedema, soft-tissue oedema, irregular thickened synovium and low signal intensity synovial tissue was less frequent than in IA/JIA. In children with high clinical suspicion of recent onset arthritis, there was a significant difference in the distribution of specific MRI features among the diagnostic groups. (orig.)

  1. Physical activity and blood pressure in childhood: findings from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Sam D; Ness, Andy R; Smith, George Davey; Mattocks, Calum; Deere, Kevin; Blair, Steven N; Riddoch, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The pathological processes associated with development of cardiovascular disease begin early in life. For example, elevated blood pressure (BP) can be seen in childhood and tracks into adulthood. The relationship between physical activity (PA) and BP in adults is well-established, but findings in children have been inconsistent, with few studies measuring PA mechanically. Children aged 11 to 12 years were recruited from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. 5505 had systolic and diastolic BP measurements, plus valid (at least 10 hours for at least 3 days) accelerometer measures of PA; total PA recorded as average counts per minute (cpm) over the period of valid recording, and minutes per day spent in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). Data on a number of possible confounders were also available. Small inverse associations were observed; for systolic BP, beta=-0.44 (95% confidence interval -0.59, -0.28) mm Hg per 100 cpm, and beta=-0.66 (95% CI -0.92, -0.39) mm Hg per 15 minutes/d MVPA, adjusting for child's age and gender. After adjustment for potential confounders, associations were weakened but remained. When PA variables were modeled together, associations with total PA were only a little weaker, whereas those with MVPA were substantially reduced; for systolic BP, beta=-0.42 (95% CI -0.71, -0.13) mm Hg per 100 cpm, and beta=-0.03 (95% CI -0.54, 0.48) mm Hg per 15 minutes/d MVPA. In conclusion, higher levels of PA were associated with lower BP, and results suggested that the volume of activity may be more important than the intensity.

  2. Comparison of MRI and renal cortical scintigraphy findings in childhood acute pyelonephritis: preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Okkay, Nese; Cakmakci, Handan E-mail: cakmakh@egenet.com.tr; Oezdogan, Oezhan; Degirmenci, Berna; Kavukcu, Salih

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in children remains a clinical challenge. It may cause permanent renal scar formation and results in the chronic renal failure if prompt diagnosis and treatment are delayed. The purpose of this study is to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and renal cortical scintigraphy (RCS) findings in childhood acute pyelonephritis and to determine pyelonephritic foci in the acute phase. Materials and method: Twenty children (15 females and five males) with symptoms dysuria, enuresis, costovertebral pain, fever of 37.5 degree sign C or more and/or positive urine culture were imaged by unenhanced turbo spin echo T2, spin echo T1-weighted, pre- and post-gadolinium inversion recovery MRI and RCS. Both imaging techniques were read independently by two radiologists and nuclear medicine specialists. Sensitivity and specificity of MRI in detecting acute pyelonephritic foci and scar lesions were calculated. Furthermore, in order to calculate the reliability of MRI over RCS in differentiating scar tissue and acute pyelonephritic foci, follow-up MRI studies were done in six patients after treatment of acute pyelonephritis. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of MRI in the detection of pyelonephritic lesions were found to be 90.9 and 88.8%, respectively. There is no statistically significant difference in lesion detection between the two diagnostic modalities (P>0.05). Conclusion: Post-gadolinium MR images show significant correlation with RCS in the determination of renal pathology. Moreover, the ability of discriminating acute pyelonephritic foci and renal scar in early stages of disease is the superiority of MRI.

  3. Discrimination against people with severe mental illness and their access to social capital: findings from the Viewpoint survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, M; Corker, E; Hamilton, S; Weeks, C; Pinfold, V; Rose, D; Thornicroft, G; Henderson, C

    2014-06-01

    Aims. Discrimination against people with severe mental illness is an international problem. It is associated with reduced social contact and hinders recovery. This paper aims to evaluate if experienced or anticipated discrimination is associated with social capital, a known correlate of mental health. Methods. Data from the annual viewpoint cross-sectional survey of people with severe mental illness (n = 1016) were analysed. Exploratory univariate analysis was used to identify correlates of social capital in the sample, which were then evaluated in linear regression models. Additional hypotheses were tested using t tests. Results. Experienced discrimination made a modest contribution to the explained variance of social capital. Experienced discrimination from friends and immediate family was associated with reduced access to social capital from these groups, but this was not found for wider family, neighbours or mental health staff. Experience of discrimination in finding or keeping a job was also associated with reduced access to social capital. Conclusions. Further longitudinal research is needed to determine how resources within people's networks can help to build resilience, which reduces the harmful effect of discrimination on mental health.

  4. Histopathological findings in a critically ill patient with avian influenza A (H7N9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin-Bao; Li, Hong-Yan; Liu, Jia-Fu; Lan, Chang-Qing; Lin, Qing-Hua; Chen, Shu-Xing; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Wang, Xin-Hang; Lin, Xu; Pan, Jian-Guang

    2015-01-01

    To date, data regarding the pulmonary histopathology of human H7N9 disease are scarce. We herein describe a patient with a severe case of avian influenza A (H7N9). A chest computerized tomography (CT) scan showed diffuse ground-glass opacities and consolidation throughout the lungs. A resection of pulmonary bullae in the right middle lobe was performed by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) based on the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supportive technique on the 23rd day after the onset of symptoms because of a right pneumothorax persistent air leak. The histopathological findings of the resected lung tissue revealed pneumocyte hyperplasia and fibroproliferative changes along with diffuse alveolar damage. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) specimens for influenza A (H7N9) virus were continuously positive for more than three weeks, despite oseltamivir treatment, and continuous viral replication significantly prolonged the course of the disease. The patient’s clinical status continuously deteriorated, with the development of refractory hypoxemia due to progressive and rapid lung fibrosis, which was confirmed by the final histological changes observed from a limited post-mortem biopsy of lung tissue. Pre-terminally, he developed multi-organ failure and died on the 39th day after symptom onset, despite corticosteroid treatment. PMID:26793388

  5. Can smartphones and tablets improve the management of childhood illness in Tanzania? A qualitative study from a primary health care worker's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Amani Flexson; Rambaud-Althaus, Clotilde; Swai, Ndeniria; Kahama-Maro, Judith; Genton, Blaise; D'Acremont, Valerie; Pfeiffer, Constanze

    2015-04-02

    The impact of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy has been less than anticipated because of poor uptake. Electronic algorithms have the potential to improve quality of health care in children. However, feasibility studies about the use of electronic protocols on mobile devices over time are limited. This study investigated constraining as well as facilitating factors that influence the uptake of a new electronic Algorithm for Management of Childhood Illness (ALMANACH) among primary health workers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A qualitative approach was applied using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with altogether 40 primary health care workers from 6 public primary health facilities in the three municipalities of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Health worker's perceptions related to factors facilitating or constraining the uptake of the electronic ALMANACH were identified. In general, the ALMANACH was assessed positively. The majority of the respondents felt comfortable to use the devices and stated that patient's trust was not affected. Most health workers said that the ALMANACH simplified their work, reduced antibiotic prescription and gave correct classification and treatment for common causes of childhood illnesses. Few HWs reported technical challenges using the devices and complained about having had difficulties in typing. Majority of the respondents stated that the devices increased the consultation duration compared to routine practice. In addition, health system barriers such as lack of staff, lack of medicine and lack of financial motivation were identified as key reasons for the low uptake of the devices. The ALMANACH built on electronic devices was perceived to be a powerful and useful tool. However, health system challenges influenced the uptake of the devices in the selected health facilities.

  6. Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings from a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Ale, Chelsea; Prezeworski, Amy; Himle, Michael; Compton, Scott; Leonard, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the relative usefulness of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) against family-based relaxation treatment for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed that children with early childhood-onset OCD benefited from the CBT program as it effectively decreased OCD symptoms and helped…

  7. Study Finds Small Increase in Cancer Risk after Childhood CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study published in the June 6, 2012, issue of The Lancet shows that radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) scans in childhood results in very small but increased risks of leukemia and brain tumors in the first decade after exposure.

  8. Progress Developing the Kansas Early Childhood Special Education Accountability System: Initial Findings Using ECO and COSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Walker, Dale; Hornbeck, Marguerite; Hebbeler, Kathleen; Spiker, Donna

    2007-01-01

    Policy decision makers, early educators, and early interventionists face numerous challenges as they develop and implement statewide accountability systems to evaluate and improve children's early intervention and early childhood special education outcomes. Kansas was an early adopter of the Child Outcomes Summary Form (COSF) developed by the…

  9. "Helping Us Find Our Own Selves": Exploring Father-Role Construction and Early Childhood Programme Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S.; Aller, T. B.; Piercy, K. W.; Roggman, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood programmes (ECPs) serving children from low-income families are becoming increasingly interested in engaging fathers. The purpose of this study was to examine perspectives of diverse fathers with low incomes to more fully understand how their experiences within an ECP influenced father-role construction and facilitated their…

  10. Maternal employment and early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, S S; Cole, T J; Law, C

    2008-01-01

    In most developed countries, maternal employment has increased rapidly. Changing patterns of family life have been suggested to be contributing to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity. Our primary objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and partner employment and overweight in children aged 3 years. Our secondary objective was to investigate factors related to early childhood overweight only among mothers in employment. Cohort study. A total of 13 113 singleton children aged 3 years in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between 2000 and 2002 in the United Kingdom, who had complete height/weight data and parental employment histories. Parents were interviewed when the child was aged 9 months and 3 years, and the child's height and weight were measured at 3 years. Overweight (including obesity) was defined by the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. A total of 23% (3085) of children were overweight at 3 years. Any maternal employment after the child's birth was associated with early childhood overweight (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)]; 1.14 [1.00, 1.29]), after adjustment for potential confounding and mediating factors. Children were more likely to be overweight for every 10 h a mother worked per week (OR [95% CI]; 1.10 [1.04, 1.17]), after adjustment. An interaction with household income revealed that this relationship was only significant for children from households with an annual income of pound33 000 ($57 750) or higher. There was no evidence for an association between early childhood overweight and whether or for how many hours the partner worked, or with mothers' or partners' duration of employment. These relationships were also evident among mothers in employment. Independent risk factors for early childhood overweight were consistent with the published literature. Long hours of maternal employment, rather than lack of money may impede young children's access to healthy foods and physical activity. Policies

  11. Perceived improvement in integrated management of childhood illness implementation through use of mobile technology: qualitative evidence from a pilot study in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Marc; Getchell, Maya; Nkaka, Melania; Msellemu, Daniel; Van Esch, Jan; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany

    2012-01-01

    This study examined health care provider and caretaker perceptions of electronic Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (eIMCI) in diagnosing and treating childhood illnesses. The authors conducted semi-structured interviews among caretakers (n = 20) and health care providers (n = 11) in the Pwani region of Tanzania. This qualitative study was nested within a larger quantitative study measuring impact of eIMCI on provider adherence to IMCI protocols. Caretakers and health care workers involved in the larger study provided their perceptions of eIMCI in comparison with the conventional paper forms. One health care provider from each participating health center participated in qualitative interviews; 20 caretakers were selected from 1 health center involved in the quantitative study. Interviews were conducted in Swahili and lasted 5-10 min each. Providers expressed positive opinions of eIMCI, noting that the personal digital assistants were faster and easier to use than were the paper forms and encouraged adherence to IMCI procedures. Caretakers also held a positive view of eIMCI, noting improved service from providers, more thorough examination of their child, and a perception that providers who used the personal digital assistants were more knowledgeable. Research indicates widespread nonadherence to IMCI guidelines, suggesting improved methods for implementing IMCI are necessary. The authors conclude that eIMCI represents a promising method for improving health care delivery because it improves health care provider and caretaker perception of the clinical encounter. Further investigation into this technology is warranted.

  12. Childhood institutional care and personality disorder traits in adulthood: findings from the British national surveys of psychiatric morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Ullrich, Simone; Roberts, Amanda; Coid, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Long-term institutional care in childhood is linked with behavioral and emotional problems and can negatively affect personality development. This study tested the hypotheses that institutional care constitutes a risk factor for adult personality psychopathology and that conduct disorder acts as a mediator to the institutional care effects, based on 544 community individuals and 470 prisoners aged 18-64 years. Childhood institutional care was associated with elevated dependent, histrionic, and narcissistic traits in the community sample and with schizoid traits in prisoners. Initial findings of associations of institutional care with cluster B personality traits in the two populations disappeared after adjusting for conduct disorder symptoms. Identification and treatment of conduct/behavior problems in children before or during care may help to reduce the risk of developing certain personality disorder traits.

  13. Benign nocturnal alternating hemiplegia of childhood: a new case with unusual findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Salvatore; Fontana, Antonina; Spitaleri, Chiara; Mangano, Giuseppa Renata

    2014-05-01

    It has been described a neuro developmental disorder labelled "Benign nocturnal alternating hemiplegia of childhood" (BNAHC) characterized by recurrent attacks of nocturnal hemiplegia without progression to neurological or intellectual impairment. We report a female patient who at 11months revealed a motionless left arm, unusual crying without impairment of consciousness and obvious precipitating factors. The attacks occur during sleep in the early morning with lack of ictal and interictal electroencephalographic abnormalities, progressive neurological deficit, and cognitive impairment. Unlike previous reports of BNAHC our patient come from a family with a history of both migraine, hemiplegic migraine, and sleep disorders. Our study remarks on the typical features described in previous studies and stresses the uncommon aspects that could help to identify the disorder which is likely to have been underestimated. Despite some clinical similarities between BNAHC and familiar hemiplegic migraine and alternating hemiplegia of childhood, the genetic analyses of our patient did not reveal genetic mutations found in both disorders.

  14. Findings of Visual Arts Research in Early Childhood and Primary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Županić Benić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Arts research was introduced in the field of education during the 1990s by Barone and Eisner, but their methodology is rarely used because it is not considered to be consistent with traditional paradigms of the scientific method. This review identified only seven visual arts research studies in early childhood education and primary education. Four studies were conducted in early childhood education settings, and two of those studies used quantitative methods to investigate the effects of art on early childhood development. The three studies that were conducted in primary education used a case study approach to examine art projects in the community or the classroom. Participation in visual arts was associated with enhanced learning outcomes in other areas and the development of individual and social competences, but it was not found to facilitate the development of age-dependent abilities, such as visual or grapho-motor abilities. Visual arts also proved to be an effective method of communication for children in preschool and primary education institutions because it is easier for them to express their opinions and beliefs to adults with visual media than with words.

  15. Childhood Conscientiousness and Leukocyte Telomere Length 40 Years Later in Adult Women--Preliminary Findings of a Prospective Association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant W Edmonds

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length (LTL shortens with age, and is a prospective marker of mortality related to cardiovascular disease. Many health behaviors and social environmental factors have been found to be associated with LTL. Several of these are also associated with conscientiousness, a dispositional personality trait. Conscientiousness is a propensity to be planful, adhere to social norms, and inhibit pre-potent responses. Like LTL, conscientiousness is prospectively related to mortality, possibly through cumulative effects on health over the life course via multiple pathways. As a result, we hypothesized that childhood levels of conscientiousness would predict LTL prospectively in adulthood. We selected a sample of 60 women in the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort; 30 described by their teachers as high on conscientiousness in childhood and 30 described as low on the trait. Dried blood spot samples collected in adulthood 40 years later were used as sources of DNA for the LTL assay. Conscientiousness was associated with longer LTL (p = .02. Controlling for age did not account for this association. Controlling for education and physiological dysregulation partially attenuated the association, and the effect remained significant when accounting for differences in LTL across cultural groups. These results represent the first evidence that childhood personality prospectively predicts LTL 40 years later in adulthood. Our findings would be consistent with a mediation hypothesis whereby conscientiousness predicts life paths and trajectories of health that are reflected in rates of LTL erosion across the lifespan.

  16. Childhood Conscientiousness and Leukocyte Telomere Length 40 Years Later in Adult Women--Preliminary Findings of a Prospective Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Grant W; Côté, Hélène C F; Hampson, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortens with age, and is a prospective marker of mortality related to cardiovascular disease. Many health behaviors and social environmental factors have been found to be associated with LTL. Several of these are also associated with conscientiousness, a dispositional personality trait. Conscientiousness is a propensity to be planful, adhere to social norms, and inhibit pre-potent responses. Like LTL, conscientiousness is prospectively related to mortality, possibly through cumulative effects on health over the life course via multiple pathways. As a result, we hypothesized that childhood levels of conscientiousness would predict LTL prospectively in adulthood. We selected a sample of 60 women in the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort; 30 described by their teachers as high on conscientiousness in childhood and 30 described as low on the trait. Dried blood spot samples collected in adulthood 40 years later were used as sources of DNA for the LTL assay. Conscientiousness was associated with longer LTL (p = .02). Controlling for age did not account for this association. Controlling for education and physiological dysregulation partially attenuated the association, and the effect remained significant when accounting for differences in LTL across cultural groups. These results represent the first evidence that childhood personality prospectively predicts LTL 40 years later in adulthood. Our findings would be consistent with a mediation hypothesis whereby conscientiousness predicts life paths and trajectories of health that are reflected in rates of LTL erosion across the lifespan.

  17. Health care for under-fives in Ile-Ife, South-West Nigeria: Effect of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI strategy on growth and development of under-fives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunke M. Ebuehi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study obtained information on key growth promotion and developmental household and community health practices in Community-Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (C-IMCI and non-C-IMCI in local government areas (LGAs in Osun State, Nigeria, to determine the differences that existed, between these LGAs.Method: A cross-sectional comparative study to compare Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI key growth promotion and development health practices in two LGAs in Osun State was conducted using quantitative and qualitative techniques. Data analysis was done using Epi Info version 6.0 for the quantitative survey and a content analysis method for the qualitative survey. The subjects were mothers or caregivers of children 0–59 months of age, and their index children.Results: Findings revealed that the IMCI key growth and development health practices were generally better rated in the CIMCI-compliant LGA than in the non-CIMCI compliant LGA. Breastfeeding practice was widespread in both LGAs. However, the exclusive breastfeeding (EBF rate among children under six months was higher in the compliant LGA (66.7% than in the non-compliant LGA (25%. More caregivers (59.7% from the non-compliant LGA introduced complementary feeds earlier than six months. Growth monitoring activities revealed that there were more underweight children (19.1% in the non-compliant LGA. Community Resource Persons (CORPs and health workers were the most popular sources of information on IMCI key practices in the compliant LGA, while in the non-compliant LGA the traditional healers, elders and, to a lesser extent, health workers provided information on these key practices.Conclusion: The IMCI strategy, if well implemented, is an effective and low-cost intervention that is useful in achieving optimal growth, development and survival of Nigerian children.

  18. Health care for under-fives in Ile-Ife, South-West Nigeria: Effect of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI strategy on growth and development of under-fives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunke M. Ebuehi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study obtained information on key growth promotion and developmental household and community health practices in Community-Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (C-IMCI and non-C-IMCI in local government areas (LGAs in Osun State, Nigeria, to determine the differences that existed, between these LGAs.Method: A cross-sectional comparative study to compare Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI key growth promotion and development health practices in two LGAs in Osun State was conducted using quantitative and qualitative techniques. Data analysis was done using Epi Info version 6.0 for the quantitative survey and a content analysis method for the qualitative survey. The subjects were mothers or caregivers of children 0–59 months of age, and their index children.Results: Findings revealed that the IMCI key growth and development health practices were generally better rated in the CIMCI-compliant LGA than in the non-CIMCI compliant LGA. Breastfeeding practice was widespread in both LGAs. However, the exclusive breastfeeding (EBF rate among children under six months was higher in the compliant LGA (66.7% than in the non-compliant LGA (25%. More caregivers (59.7% from the non-compliant LGA introduced complementary feeds earlier than six months. Growth monitoring activities revealed that there were more underweight children (19.1% in the non-compliant LGA. Community Resource Persons (CORPs and health workers were the most popular sources of information on IMCI key practices in the compliant LGA, while in the non-compliant LGA the traditional healers, elders and, to a lesser extent, health workers provided information on these key practices.Conclusion: The IMCI strategy, if well implemented, is an effective and low-cost intervention that is useful in achieving optimal growth, development and survival of Nigerian children.

  19. Use of preventive measures of childhood injuries at household level: Community-based findings from Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, P. R.; Towner, E.; Ellis, M; Pilkington, P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Child injuries are a major public health problem in low- and middle- income countries but they are\\ud not recognised at policy or community level. Prevention of injuries is neglected due to lack of awareness. Only a\\ud few community-based studies have been conducted to explore this problem.\\ud Objectives: To explore the practice of safety measures applied by the household after childhood injury among the\\ud survey households of Makwanpur.\\ud Methods: A community-based household ...

  20. Personality characteristics in childhood and outcomes in adulthood: findings from a 30 year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Howes, Giles; Horwood, John; Mulder, Roger

    2015-04-01

    Personality has been associated with a variety of outcomes in adulthood. Most of the literature related to mental state disorder and personality is cross sectional. Data from more than 900 participants of the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) were examined. Extroversion and neuroticism were measured at 14 years old and social outcomes at age 30. The presence of mental state disorder between 18-30 years old was identified. Multiple potential confounders in childhood were included in the analysis. Neuroticism at fourteen was significantly correlated with multiple environmental exposures whereas extroversion had relatively few associations. Regression analysis found that neuroticism at 14 predicted depression, anxiety, suicidality and overall mental health problems at 30 as well as poor self-esteem but not relationship quality or wellbeing. Extroversion at 14 predicted alcohol and drug dependence and overall mental health problems, but also predicted improved social wellbeing, self-esteem and relationship quality at 30. In this analysis extroversion interacts with significantly fewer environmental factors than neuroticism in predicting adult outcomes. Neuroticism at 14 years predicts poorer mental health outcomes in adulthood. Extroversion in childhood may be a protective factor in the development of mental disorder other than alcohol use disorders. Extroverted adolescents have more positive social outcomes at 30 years. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  1. Molecular and epidemiologic findings of childhood acute leukemia in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría-Quesada, Carlos; Vargas, Mario; Venegas, Patricia; Calvo, Melvin; Obando, Catalina; Valverde, Berta; Cartín, Walter; Carrillo, Juan Manuel; Jimenez, Rafael; González, Marcos

    2009-02-01

    In Central America, nearly 70% of pediatric cancer is related to hemato-oncologic disorders, especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Preliminary studies have described a high incidence of childhood leukemia in these countries; however, no molecular analyses of these malignancies have yet been carried out. We studied diagnostic samples from 84 patients from the National Children's Hospital in San Jose, Costa Rica (65 precursor B-ALL, 5 T-cell ALL, and 14 acute myeloblastic leukemia). Our methodology included cytogenetic, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and polymerase chain reaction approaches. The observed rate of leukemia was 52.2 cases per million children per year. Twelve out of 65 (18.4%) precursor B-ALL tested positive for TEL-AML1 and 3 cases for BCR-ABL (4.6%). In addition, we detected 2 patients carrying an E2A-PBX1 transcript (3.1%) and 1 patient with an MLL-AF4 fusion gene (1.5%). None of the T-cell ALL cases were positive for either SIL-TAL1 or HOX11L2. Within 14 acute myeloblastic leukemia patients, we confirmed 2 cases with FLT3-internal tandem duplication+, 1 patient with AML1-ETO, and only 1 case carrying a PML-RARalpha rearrangement. The present study confirms the relatively high incidence of pediatric leukemia in Costa Rica and constitutes the first report regarding the incidence of the main molecular alterations of childhood leukemia in our region.

  2. Household illness, poverty and physical and emotional child abuse victimisation: findings from South Africa's first prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E

    2015-05-01

    Physical and emotional abuse of children is a large scale problem in South Africa, with severe negative outcomes for survivors. Although chronic household illness has shown to be a predictor for physical and emotional abuse, no research has thus far investigated the different pathways from household chronic illness to child abuse victimisation in South Africa. Confidential self-report questionnaires using internationally utilised measures were completed by children aged 10-17 (n = 3515, 56.7% female) using door-to-door sampling in randomly selected areas in rural and urban locations of South Africa. Follow-up surveys were conducted a year later (96.7% retention rate). Using multiple mediation analyses, this study investigated direct and indirect effects of chronic household illness (AIDS or other illness) on frequent (monthly) physical and emotional abuse victimisation with poverty and extent of the ill person's disability as hypothesised mediators. For children in AIDS-ill families, a positive direct effect on physical abuse was obtained. In addition, positive indirect effects through poverty and disability were established. For boys, a positive direct and indirect effect of AIDS-illness on emotional abuse through poverty were detected. For girls, a positive indirect effect through poverty was observed. For children in households with other chronic illness, a negative indirect effect on physical abuse was obtained. In addition, a negative indirect effect through poverty and positive indirect effect through disability was established. For boys, positive and negative indirect effects through poverty and disability were found respectively. For girls, a negative indirect effect through poverty was observed. These results indicate that children in families affected by AIDS-illness are at higher risk of child abuse victimisation, and this risk is mediated by higher levels of poverty and disability. Children affected by other chronic illness are at lower risk for

  3. Drinking-water treatment, climate change, and childhood gastrointestinal illness projections for northern Wisconsin (USA) communities drinking untreated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uejio, Christopher K.; Christenson, Megan; Moran, Colleen; Gorelick, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relative importance of climate change and drinking-water treatment for gastrointestinal illness incidence in children (age climate change and drinking-water treatment installation may alter gastrointestinal illness incidence. Future precipitation values were modeled by 13 global climate models and three greenhouse-gas emissions levels. The second analysis was rerun using three pathways: (1) only climate change, (2) climate change and the same slow pace of treatment installation observed over 1991-2010, and (3) climate change and the rapid rate of installation observed over 2011-2016. The results illustrate the risks that climate change presents to small rural groundwater municipalities without drinking water treatment. Climate-change-related seasonal precipitation changes will marginally increase the gastrointestinal illness incidence rate (mean: ˜1.5%, range: -3.6-4.3%). A slow pace of treatment installation somewhat decreased precipitation-associated gastrointestinal illness incidence (mean: ˜3.0%, range: 0.2-7.8%) in spite of climate change. The rapid treatment installation rate largely decreases the gastrointestinal illness incidence (mean: ˜82.0%, range: 82.0-83.0%).

  4. Another Breed of “Service” Animals: STARS Study Findings about Pet Ownership and Recovery from Serious Mental Illness

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This study elucidates the role of pets in recovery processes among adults with serious mental illness. Data derive from interviews with 177 HMO members with serious mental illness (52.2% women, average age 48.8). Interviews and questionnaires addressed factors affecting recovery processes and included questions about pet ownership. Data were analyzed using a modified grounded theory method to identify the roles pets play in the recovery process. Primary themes indicate pets assist individuals...

  5. The experience of childhood trauma and its influence on the course of illness in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Trauelsen, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders often report high levels of childhood trauma, which often exacerbates symptoms and impede the process of recovery. However, little is known about how these traumas are experienced by service users and how they are integrated in their life stories. To ...

  6. Public stigma against family members of people with mental illness: findings from the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center (GGFRC), Southwest Ethiopia.

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    Girma, Eshetu; Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Müller, Norbert; Dehning, Sandra; Froeschl, Guenter; Tesfaye, Markos

    2014-02-21

    Public stigma against family members of people with mental illness is a negative attitude by the public which blame family members for the mental illness of their relatives. Family stigma can result in self social restrictions, delay in treatment seeking and poor quality of life. This study aimed at investigating the degree and correlates of family stigma. A quantitative cross-sectional house to house survey was conducted among 845 randomly selected urban and rural community members in the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, Southwest Ethiopia. An interviewer administered and pre-tested questionnaire adapted from other studies was used to measure the degree of family stigma and to determine its correlates. Data entry was done by using EPI-DATA and the analysis was performed using STATA software. Unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analysis was done to identify the correlates of family stigma. Among the total 845 respondents, 81.18% were female. On a range of 1 to 5 score, the mean family stigma score was 2.16 (± 0.49). In a multivariate analysis, rural residents had significantly higher stigma scores (std. β = 0.43, P mental illness increased, the stigma scores decreased significantly. High supernatural explanation of mental illness was significantly correlated with lower stigma among individuals with lower level of exposure to people with mental illness (PWMI). On the other hand, high exposure to PWMI was significantly associated with lower stigma among respondents who had high education. Stigma scores increased with increasing income among respondents who had lower educational status. Our findings revealed moderate level of family stigma. Place of residence, perceived signs and explanations of mental illness were independent correlates of public stigma against family members of people with mental illness. Therefore, mental health communication programs to inform explanations and signs of mental illness need to be implemented.

  7. Maternal smoking, breastfeeding, and risk of childhood overweight: findings from a national cohort.

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    Wen, Xiaozhong; Shenassa, Edmond D; Paradis, Angela D

    2013-05-01

    To examine the association between exposure to tobacco compounds in breast milk and risk of childhood overweight, we used historical data for a subset of 21,063 mother-child pairs in the US Collaborative Perinatal Project. Based on self-reports, mothers were classified as non-smokers, light (1-9 cigarettes/day), moderate (10-19), or heavy (20+) smokers. Feeding type (exclusive breastfeeding or bottle-feeding) was observed during nursery stay after birth. We stratified children by maternal smoking and feeding type, and then fit interaction terms to isolate exposure to tobacco compounds via breast milk from exposure in uterus and in ambient air after birth. Using measured weight and height, overweight at age 7 was defined as a body mass index ≥85th percentile by sex and age. Among exclusively bottle-fed children, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of overweight at age 7 were 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.38; vs. non-smoking) for light maternal smoking, 1.43 (95% CI, 1.25-1.63) for moderate maternal smoking, and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.28-1.66) for heavy maternal smoking. Among exclusively breastfed children, the corresponding ORs were 1.33 (95% CI, 0.96-1.84) for light, 1.86 (95% CI, 1.27-2.73) for moderate, and 2.22 (95% CI, 1.53-3.20) for heavy maternal smoking. There was a modest positive interaction between breastfeeding and heavy maternal smoking on overweight risk at age 7. Tobacco compounds via breast milk of smoking mothers (significantly for heavy smokers) appear to be associated with a modest elevation in childhood overweight risk at 7 years of age. More aggressive intervention is needed to help pregnant and breastfeeding women to quit smoking.

  8. Revisiting current “barefoot doctors” in border areas of China: system of services, financial issue and clinical practice prior to introducing integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI

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    Li Xiuyun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under-5-years child mortality remains high in rural China. Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI was introduced to China in 1998, but only a few rural areas have been included. This study aimed at assessing the current situation of the health system of rural health care and evaluating the clinical competency of village doctors in management of childhood illnesses prior to implementing IMCI programme in remote border rural areas. Methods The study was carried out in the border areas of Puer prefecture of Yunnan province. There were 182 village doctors in the list of the health bureau in these border areas. Of these, 154 (84.6% were recruited into the study. The local health system components were investigated using a qualitative approach and analyzed with triangulation of information from different sources. The clinical component was assessed objectively and quantitatively presented using descriptive statistics. Results The study found that the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS coordinated the health insurance system and the provider service through 3 tiers: village doctor, township and county hospitals. The 30 RMB per person per year premium did not cover the referral cost, and thereby decreased the number of referrals. In contrast to available treatment facilities and drug supply, the level of basic medical education of village doctors and township doctors was low. Discontent among village doctors was common, especially concerning low rates of return from the service, exceptions being procedures such as injections, which in fact may create moral hazards to the patients. Direct observation on the assessment and management of paediatric patients by village doctors revealed inadequate history taking and physical examination, inability to detect potentially serious complications, overprescription of injection and antibiotics, and underprescription of oral rehydration salts and poor quality of counseling

  9. Information needs of parents for acute childhood illness: determining ‘what, how, where and when’ of safety netting using a qualitative exploration with parents and clinicians

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    Jones, Caroline H D; Neill, Sarah; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Roland, Damian; Singlehurst-Mooney, Hayley; Thompson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the views of parents and clinicians regarding the optimal content, format and delivery of safety netting information for acute childhood illness. Design Qualitative study including semistructured focus groups and interviews. Setting First contact care settings, community centres, children's centres and nurseries in the Midlands, UK. Participants 27 parents from a travelling community, Asian British community and white British community. Sixteen clinicians including 10 doctors and 6 nurses from a general practice surgery, an out-of-hours service and two emergency departments (paediatric and combined adult and paediatric). Results Participants described a need for safety netting to contain information on signs and symptoms of serious and common illnesses, illness management and where and when to seek help. Resources should be basic, simple to use and contain simple symbols. A key criterion was professional endorsement of resources. Internet-based information was desired which is reliable, consistent and up-to-date. Participants described a need for different types of information: that which could be delivered during consultations, as well as more general information for parents to access before consulting a healthcare professional. Face-to-face education, written materials and digital media were suggested delivery mechanisms. Audiovisual material was preferred by families with low literacy. Participants commonly suggested internet-based and phone-based resources, but the travelling community was less comfortable with these approaches. Conclusions A multifaceted and tailored approach to safety netting is needed so that effective resources are available for parents with varying information needs, literacy levels and ability to use information technology. We have identified key aspects of content, quality criteria, format and delivery mechanisms for safety netting information from the perspectives of clinicians and parents. Resources should be

  10. Divorce and Childhood Chronic Illness: A Grounded Theory of Trust, Gender, and Third-Party Care Providers.

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    Russell, Luke T; Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H; Gayer, Debra

    2016-05-01

    Divorced parents face distinct challenges in providing care for chronically ill children. Children's residence in two households necessitates the development of family-specific strategies to ensure coparents' supervision of regimen adherence and the management of children's health care. Utilizing a risk and resilience perspective, a grounded theory study was conducted with 14 divorced parents of children with chronic illnesses. The importance of trust, gender, and relationships with third-party care providers emerged as key themes related to the development of effective coparenting relationships for maintaining children's health. Divorced parents were best able to support the management of their children's chronic conditions when care providers operated as neutral third parties and intermediaries. Collaborative family care may require health care practitioners to avoid being drawn into contentious inter-parental conflicts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Have health inequalities changed during childhood in the New Labour generation? Findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

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    Rougeaux, Emeline; Hope, Steven; Law, Catherine; Pearce, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine how population-level socioeconomic health inequalities developed during childhood, for children born at the turn of the 21st century and who grew up with major initiatives to tackle health inequalities (under the New Labour Government). Setting The UK. Participants Singleton children in the Millennium Cohort Study at ages 3 (n=15 381), 5 (n=15 041), 7 (n=13 681) and 11 (n=13 112) years. Primary outcomes Relative (prevalence ratios (PR)) and absolute health inequalities (prevalence differences (PD)) were estimated in longitudinal models by socioeconomic circumstances (SEC; using highest maternal academic attainment, ranging from ‘no academic qualifications’ to ‘degree’ (baseline)). Three health outcomes were examined: overweight (including obesity), limiting long-standing illness (LLSI), and socio-emotional difficulties (SED). Results Relative and absolute inequalities in overweight, across the social gradient, emerged by age 5 and increased with age. By age 11, children with mothers who had no academic qualifications were considerably more likely to be overweight as compared with those with degree-educated mothers (PR=1.6 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.8), PD=12.9% (9.1% to 16.8%)). For LLSI, inequalities emerged by age 7 and remained at 11, but only for children whose mothers had no academic qualifications (PR=1.7 (1.3 to 2.3), PD=4.8% (2% to 7.5%)). Inequalities in SED (observed across the social gradient and at all ages) declined between 3 and 11, although remained large at 11 (eg, PR=2.4 (1.9 to 2.9), PD=13.4% (10.2% to 16.7%) comparing children whose mothers had no academic qualifications with those of degree-educated mothers). Conclusions Although health inequalities have been well documented in cross-sectional and trend data in the UK, it is less clear how they develop during childhood. We found that relative and absolute health inequalities persisted, and in some cases widened, for a cohort of children born at the turn of the century

  12. Tobacco smoke and risk of childhood acute non-lymphocytic leukemia: findings from the SETIL study.

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    Stefano Mattioli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parental smoking and exposure of the mother or the child to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS as risk factors for Acute non-Lymphocytic Leukemia (AnLL were investigated. METHODS: Incident cases of childhood AnLL were enrolled in 14 Italian Regions during 1998-2001. We estimated odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI conducting logistic regression models including 82 cases of AnLL and 1,044 controls. Inverse probability weighting was applied adjusting for: age; sex; provenience; birth order; birth weight; breastfeeding; parental educational level age, birth year, and occupational exposure to benzene. RESULTS: Paternal smoke in the conception period was associated with AnLL (OR for ≥ 11 cigarettes/day  = 1.79, 95% CI 1.01-3.15; P trend 0.05. An apparent effect modification by maternal age was identified: only children of mothers aged below 30 presented increased risks. We found weak statistical evidence of an association of AnLL with maternal exposure to ETS (OR for exposure>3 hours/day  = 1.85, 95%CI 0.97-3.52; P trend 0.07. No association was observed between AnLL and either maternal smoking during pregnancy or child exposure to ETS. CONCLUSIONS: This study is consistent with the hypothesis that paternal smoke is associated with AnLL. We observed statistical evidence of an association between maternal exposure to ETS and AnLL, but believe bias might have inflated our estimates.

  13. Psychological complications of childhood chronic physical illness in Nigerian children and their mothers: the implication for developing pediatric liaison services

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    Meremikwu Martin M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric liaison services attending to the psychological health needs of children with chronic physical illness are limited or virtually non-existent in Nigeria and most sub-Saharan African countries, and psychological problems complicate chronic physical illness in these children and their mothers. There exist needs to bring into focus the public health importance of developing liaison services to meet the psychological health needs of children who suffer from chronic physical illness in this environment. Sickle cell disease (SCD and juvenile diabetes mellitus (JDM are among the most common chronic physical health conditions in Nigerian children. This study compared the prevalence and pattern of emotional disorders and suicidal behavior among Nigerian children with SCD, JDM and a group of healthy children. Psychological distress in the mothers of these children that suffer chronic physical illness was also compared with psychological distress in mothers of healthy control children. Methods Forty-five children aged 9 to 17 years were selected for each group of SCD, JDM and controls. The SCD and JDM groups were selected by consecutive clinic attendance and the healthy children who met the inclusion criteria were selected from neighboring schools. The Youth version of the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, version IV (C- DISC- IV was used to assess for diagnosis of emotional disorders in these children. Twelve-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ – 12 was used to assess for psychological distress in mothers of these children and healthy control children. Results Children with JDM were significantly more likely to experience DSM – IV emotional disorders than children with SCD and the healthy group (p = 0.005, while children with JDM and SCD were more likely to have 'intermediate diagnoses' of emotional disorders (p = 0.0024. Children with SCD and JDM had higher rates of suicidal ideation when

  14. Correlation of clinical observation and CT findings in patients with childhood hemiplegia

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    Fujita, Masaaki; Eda, Isematsu; Takashima, Sachio; Yamaguchi, Tomomasa (Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). School of Medicine); Sugitani, Akitoshi

    1984-02-01

    Of 64 cases of hemiplegia, 33 were congenital and 31 acquired. CT revealed abnormality at a high incidence, 29 cases of congenital hemiplegia (87.8%) and 29 of acquired hemiplegia (93.5%). The side with abnormal CT findings and clinical hemiplegic side were identical in 25 cases of congenital hemiplegia (86.2%) and 24 of acquired hemiplegia (82.8%), the both rates being high. With respect to the correlation between CT and clinical findings, the low density area in the cortex, rather than lateral ventricular dilatation, was more closely related to clinical findings, indicating the tendency that the more extensive the low density area, the more severe were both hemiplegia and intellectual disturbance.

  15. A comparison of neuroimaging findings in childhood onset schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder: a review of the literature

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    Danielle Andrea Baribeau

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD and childhood onset schizophrenia (COS are pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders associated with significant morbidity. Both conditions are thought to share an underlying genetic architecture. A comparison of neuroimaging findings across ASD and COS with a focus on altered neurodevelopmental trajectories can shed light on potential clinical biomarkers and may highlight an underlying etiopathogenesis. Methods: A comprehensive review of the medical literature was conducted to summarize neuroimaging data with respect to both conditions in terms of structural imaging (including volumetric analysis, cortical thickness and morphology, and region of interest studies, white matter analysis (include volumetric analysis and diffusion tensor imaging and functional connectivity. Results: In ASD, a pattern of early brain overgrowth in the first few years of life is followed by dysmaturation in adolescence. Functional analyses have suggested impaired long-range connectivity as well as increased local and/or subcortical connectivity in this condition. In COS, deficits in cerebral volume, cortical thickness, and white matter maturation seem most pronounced in childhood and adolescence, and may level off in adulthood. Deficits in local connectivity, with increased long-range connectivity have been proposed, in keeping with exaggerated cortical thinning.Conclusions: The neuroimaging literature supports a neurodevelopmental origin of both ASD and COS and provides evidence for dynamic changes in both conditions that vary across space and time in the developing brain. Looking forward, imaging studies which capture the early post natal period, which are longitudinal and prospective, and which maximize the signal to noise ratio across heterogeneous conditions will be required to translate research findings into a clinical environment.

  16. Effect of adopting integrated management of childhood illness guidelines on drug use at a primary health care center: A case study from Egypt

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    Azza A El Mahalli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI is a cost- effective strategy that improves the quality of care through the use of evidence- based management protocols for the most common causes of childhood death and illness. Evidence- based clinical guidelines are critical to promoting rational use of medicines. Despite the large number of studies that assessed process and outcome of care delivered to children utilizing IMCI protocol, there is a scarcity of studies that assessed the effect of adopting IMCI on the drug use. Aims: To examine the impact of adopting IMCI guidelines on drug use at one of the primary health care (PHC centers, Alexandria, Egypt. Settings and Design: Retrospective cohort study, conducted in clinic "A" not adopting IMCI guidelines and clinic "B" adopting IMCI guidelines at one of the PHC centers in Alexandria, Egypt for the period from January-- end of June 2010. Materials and Methods: A data collection sheet was designed to collect the required variables (based on WHO/ INRUD selected drug use indicators from the medical records of children under five years. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 16 was used. Percentages, means, and standard deviations were measured. Chi square, t, and Fisher′s exact tests were applied. Results: Correct drug choice, dose, dosage form, route of administration were significantly higher in the clinic adopting IMCI {clinic B} (89.3%, 87.3%, 91.3%, and 91.3%, respectively than in the clinic not adopting it {clinic A} (78% each. Non pharmacological remedies prescribed were significantly higher in clinic B than A (64.7% vs 4.6%. Average no of drugs/ encounter was lower in clinic B than A (0.93± 0.2 vs 1.37 ± 0.6 and the difference between clinics was statistically significant. Difference between clinics regarding percentages of drugs prescribed by generic name, antibiotics prescribed, drugs prescribed from essential drug list, and drugs prescribed out of stock was

  17. Facial fluctuating asymmetry is not associated with childhood ill-health in a large British cohort study.

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    Pound, Nicholas; Lawson, David W; Toma, Arshed M; Richmond, Stephen; Zhurov, Alexei I; Penton-Voak, Ian S

    2014-10-07

    The idea that symmetry in facial traits is associated with attractiveness because it reliably indicates good physiological health, particularly to potential sexual partners, has generated an extensive literature on the evolution of human mate choice. However, large-scale tests of this hypothesis using direct or longitudinal assessments of physiological health are lacking. Here, we investigate relationships between facial fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and detailed individual health histories in a sample (n = 4732) derived from a large longitudinal study (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) in South West England. Facial FA was assessed using geometric morphometric analysis of facial landmark configurations derived from three-dimensional facial scans taken at 15 years of age. Facial FA was not associated with longitudinal measures of childhood health. However, there was a very small negative association between facial FA and IQ that remained significant after correcting for a positive allometric relationship between FA and face size. Overall, this study does not support the idea that facial symmetry acts as a reliable cue to physiological health. Consequently, if preferences for facial symmetry do represent an evolved adaptation, then they probably function not to provide marginal fitness benefits by choosing between relatively healthy individuals on the basis of small differences in FA, but rather evolved to motivate avoidance of markers of substantial developmental disturbance and significant pathology.

  18. Developing an Active Play Resource for a Range of Australian Early Childhood Settings: Formative Findings and Recommendations

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    Riethmuller, Annaleise; McKeen, Kim; Okely, Anthony D.; Bell, Colin; de Silva Sanigorski, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity habits are established in early childhood. Increasing a child's fundamental movement skill confidence and competence may result in a trajectory of increased physical activity and a lower risk of becoming overweight. The evidence upon which the promotion of physical activity in early childhood settings is based is tenuous. This…

  19. Finding the right balance : An evaluation of the adequacy of energy and protein intake in childhood cancer patients

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    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F; Sulkers, Esther; de Bont, Eveline S J M; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Tamminga, Rienk Y J; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Tissing, Wim J E

    2015-01-01

    Background & aims: Despite a widespread belief that adequate dietary intake is needed to maintain weight during childhood cancer treatment, conclusive data about adequacy of intake are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to assess the adequacy of energy and protein intake in a heterogeneous childhood cance

  20. Finding the right balance: an evaluation of the adequacy of energy and protein intake in childhood cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Sulkers, Esther; Bont, Eveline S.J.M. de; Burgerhof, Johannes G.M.; Tamminga, Rienk Y.J.; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet; Tissing, Wim J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims: Despite a widespread belief that adequate dietary intake is needed to maintain weight during childhood cancer treatment, conclusive data about adequacy of intake are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to assess the adequacy of energy and protein intake in a heterogeneous childhood cance

  1. Contributing Factors for Acute Illness/Injury from Childhood Pesticide Exposure in North Carolina, USA, 2007–2013

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    Nirmalla Barros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Between 2007 and 2013, there were 685 events with evidence of a relationship between pesticide exposure and acute illness/injury among persons less than 18 years old in North Carolina (United States. Median age of children affected was 4.3 years (range: 0.2–17.9. Distribution by gender was similar across all age groups. One fatality and four high severity events were observed. The greatest proportion (42% of events had ocular exposures, followed by dermal (25% and inhalation (18% exposures. When more than one route of exposure occurred, dermal and ocular routes were the most common (46%. Almost all events took place indoors and 32 events involved contact with pets. Insecticides (53% and insect repellants (31% were the most frequent agents contributing to these events. Manual application of pesticides contributed to the greatest number of events (25%, while application through a pressurized can and use of a trigger pump were involved in 21% and 15% of events, respectively. Additional contributors were due to inappropriate storage of pesticides and improper use of the pesticide. These contributing factors can be removed or minimized if pesticides are stored outside the residence or out of the reach of children and pets, and adequate ventilation is ensured whenever pesticides are applied.

  2. Childhood Obesity

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    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  3. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  4. Global challenges with scale-up of the integrated management of childhood illness strategy: results of a multi-country survey

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    Muhe Lulu M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Strategy (IMCI, developed by WHO/UNICEF, aims to contribute to reducing childhood morbidity and mortality (MDG4 in resource-limited settings. Since 1996 more than 100 countries have adopted IMCI. IMCI case management training (ICMT is one of three IMCI components and training is usually residential over 11 consecutive days. Follow-up after ICMT is an essential part of training. We describe the barriers to rapid acceleration of ICMT and review country perspectives on how to address these barriers. Methods A multi-country exploratory cross-sectional questionnaire survey of in-service ICMT approaches, using quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 2006-7: 27 countries were purposively selected from all six WHO regions. Data for this paper are from three questionnaires (QA, QB and QC, distributed to selected national focal IMCI persons/programme officers, course directors/facilitators and IMCI trainees respectively. QC only gathered data on experiences with IMCI follow-up. Results 33 QA, 163 QB and 272 QC were received. The commonest challenges to ICMT scale-up relate to funding (high cost and long duration of the residential ICMT, poor literacy of health workers, differing opinions about the role of IMCI in improving child health, lack of political support, frequent changes in staff or rules at Ministries of Health and lack of skilled facilitators. Countries addressed these challenges in several ways including increased advocacy, developing strategic linkages with other priorities, intensifying pre-service training, re-distribution of funds and shortening course duration. The commonest challenges to follow-up after ICMT were lack of funding (93.1% of respondents, inadequate funds for travelling or planning (75.9% and 44.8% respectively, lack of gas for travelling (41.4%, inadequately trained or few supervisors (41.4% and inadequate job aids for follow-up (27

  5. Global challenges with scale-up of the integrated management of childhood illness strategy: results of a multi-country survey.

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    Goga, Ameena E; Muhe, Lulu M

    2011-06-27

    The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Strategy (IMCI), developed by WHO/UNICEF, aims to contribute to reducing childhood morbidity and mortality (MDG4) in resource-limited settings. Since 1996 more than 100 countries have adopted IMCI. IMCI case management training (ICMT) is one of three IMCI components and training is usually residential over 11 consecutive days. Follow-up after ICMT is an essential part of training. We describe the barriers to rapid acceleration of ICMT and review country perspectives on how to address these barriers. A multi-country exploratory cross-sectional questionnaire survey of in-service ICMT approaches, using quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 2006-7: 27 countries were purposively selected from all six WHO regions. Data for this paper are from three questionnaires (QA, QB and QC), distributed to selected national focal IMCI persons/programme officers, course directors/facilitators and IMCI trainees respectively. QC only gathered data on experiences with IMCI follow-up. 33 QA, 163 QB and 272 QC were received. The commonest challenges to ICMT scale-up relate to funding (high cost and long duration of the residential ICMT), poor literacy of health workers, differing opinions about the role of IMCI in improving child health, lack of political support, frequent changes in staff or rules at Ministries of Health and lack of skilled facilitators. Countries addressed these challenges in several ways including increased advocacy, developing strategic linkages with other priorities, intensifying pre-service training, re-distribution of funds and shortening course duration. The commonest challenges to follow-up after ICMT were lack of funding (93.1% of respondents), inadequate funds for travelling or planning (75.9% and 44.8% respectively), lack of gas for travelling (41.4%), inadequately trained or few supervisors (41.4%) and inadequate job aids for follow-up (27.6%). Countries addressed these by piggy backing IMCI

  6. Childhood Anxiety Trajectories and Adolescent Disordered Eating: Findings from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

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    Zerwas, Stephanie; Von Holle, Ann; Watson, Hunna; Gottfredson, Nisha; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present paper was to examine whether childhood anxiety trajectories predict eating psychopathology. We predicted that girls with trajectories of increasing anxiety across childhood would have significantly greater risk of disordered eating in adolescence in comparison to girls with stable or decreasing trajectories of anxiety over childhood. Method Data were collected as part of the prospective longitudinal NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N=450 girls). Childhood anxiety was assessed yearly (54 months through 6th grade) via maternal report on the Child Behavior Checklist. Disordered eating behaviors were assessed at age 15 via adolescent self-report on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). We conducted latent growth mixture modeling to define girls’ childhood anxiety trajectories. Maternal sensitivity, maternal postpartum depression, maternal anxiety, and child temperament were included as predictors of trajectory membership. Results The best fitting model included three trajectories of childhood anxiety, the low-decreasing class (22.9% of girls), the high-increasing class (35.4%), and the high-decreasing class (41.6%). Mothers with more symptoms of depression and separation anxiety had girls who were significantly more likely to belong to the high-increasing anxiety trajectory. There were no significant differences in adolescent disordered eating for girls across the three childhood anxiety trajectories. Conclusions Childhood anxiety, as captured by maternal report, may not be the most robust predictor of adolescent disordered eating and may be of limited utility for prevention programs that aim to identify children in the community at greatest risk for disordered eating. PMID:24938214

  7. Experiences of training and implementation of integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI in South Africa: a qualitative evaluation of the IMCI case management training course

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    Rollins Nigel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI is a strategy to reduce mortality and morbidity in children under-5 years by improving management of common illnesses at primary level. IMCI has been shown to improve health worker performance, but constraints have been identified in achieving sufficient coverage to improve child survival, and implementation remains sub-optimal. At the core of the IMCI strategy is a clinical guideline whereby health workers use a series of algorithms to assess and manage a sick child, and give counselling to carers. IMCI is taught using a structured 11-day training course that combines classroom work with clinical practise; a variety of training techniques are used, supported by comprehensive training materials and detailed instructions for facilitators. Methods We conducted focus group discussions with IMCI trained health workers to explore their experiences of the methodology and content of the IMCI training course, whether they thought they gained the skills required for implementation, and their experiences of follow-up visits. Results Health workers found the training interesting, informative and empowering, and there was consensus that it improved their skills in managing sick children. They appreciated the variety of learning methods employed, and felt that repetition was important to reinforce knowledge and skills. Facilitators were rated highly for their knowledge and commitment, as well as their ability to identify problems and help participants as required. However, health workers felt strongly that the training time was too short to acquire skills in all areas of IMCI. Their increased confidence in managing sick children was identified by health workers as an enabling factor for IMCI implementation in the workplace, but additional time required for IMCI consultations was expressed as a major barrier. Although follow-up visits were described as very helpful, these were often delayed

  8. Challenges to the implementation of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) at community health centres in West Java province, Indonesia.

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    Titaley, C R; Jusril, H; Ariawan, I; Soeharno, N; Setiawan, T; Weber, M W

    2014-01-01

    The integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) is a comprehensive approach to child health, which has been adopted in Indonesia since 1997. This study aims to provide an overview of IMCI implementation at community health centres (puskesmas) in West Java province, Indonesia. Data were derived from a cross-sectional study conducted in 10 districts of West Java province, from November to December 2012. Semi-structured interviews were used to obtain information from staff at 80 puskesmas, including the heads (80 informants), pharmacy staff (79 informants) and midwives/nurses trained in IMCI (148 informants), using semi-structured interviews. Quantitative data were analysed using frequency tabulations and qualitative data were analysed by identifying themes that emerged in informants' responses. Almost all (N = 79) puskesmas implemented the IMCI strategy; however, only 64% applied it to all visiting children. Several barriers to IMCI implementation were identified, including shortage of health workers trained in IMCI (only 43% of puskesmas had all health workers in the child care unit trained in IMCI and 40% of puskesmas conducted on-the-job training). Only 19% of puskesmas had all the essential drugs and equipment for IMCI. Nearly all health workers acknowledged the importance of IMCI in their routine services and very few did not perceive its benefits. Lack of supervision from district health office staff and low community awareness regarding the importance of IMCI were reported. Complaints received from patients'families were generally related to the long duration of treatment and no administration of medication after physical examination. Interventions aiming to create local regulations endorsing IMCI implementation; promoting monitoring and supervision; encouraging on-the-job training for health workers; and strengthening training programmes, counselling and other promotional activities are important for promoting IMCI implementation in West Java province

  9. The health benefits of social mobilization: experiences with community-based Integrated Management of Childhood Illness in Chao, Peru and San Luis, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkins, Thomas; Drasbek, Christopher; Arroyo, Juan; McQuestion, Michael

    2008-06-01

    This article reviews the implementation of the community component of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy in Chao, Peru (2001 to 2004) and San Luis, Honduras (2003 to 2005). An evaluation was conducted in 2005 and included a project documentation review, key-informant interviews, and a household level baseline and follow-up survey of the WHO/UNICEF key family practices in each intervention site. The promotion of the key family practices in Chao and San Luís demonstrated measurable success. In comparison with the initial survey in 2002, the percentage of participant mothers ( N = 78) in Chao in 2004 who knew that they should breastfeed exclusively for at least six months increased from 33% to 94%; the presentation of complete vaccination records for one-year-old children increased by 19%; the recognition of danger signs for pneumonia increased 18% and for diarrhea by 8%; and the percentage of mothers who received four or more prenatal check-ups increased by 25%. A dramatic reduction in malaria cases was also attributed to the intervention in Chao. In San Luis, a quasi-experimental, random household sample ( N = 300) showed that the incidence of diarrheal disease among children under five years old declined by 18% between survey rounds (from 44% in August 2004 to 26% in December 2005). Social mobilization has promoted inter-sector consensus-building around community health issues, especially those related to maternal and child health. The promotion of the participation of representatives from various organizations via the community IMCI social-actor methodology has led to increased civic cooperation. Positive changes in health behaviors have been documented through an increase in preventive health practices, greater demand for primary health care services, and concrete community actions to improve public health.

  10. Implementation of World Health Organization Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI Guidelines for the Assessment of Pneumonia in the Under 5s in Rural Malawi.

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    Ngozi Kalu

    Full Text Available The Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS is a pragmatic cluster-level randomized controlled trial of the effect of an advanced cookstove intervention on pneumonia in children under the age of 5 years (under 5s in Malawi (www.capstudy.org. The primary outcome of the trial is the incidence of pneumonia during a two-year follow-up period, as diagnosed by healthcare providers who are using the World Health Organization (WHO integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMCI pneumonia assessment protocol and who are blinded to the trial arms. We evaluated the quality of pneumonia assessment in under 5s in this setting via a cross-sectional study of provider-patient encounters at nine outpatient clinics located within the catchment area of 150 village-level clusters enrolled in the trial across the two study locations of Chikhwawa and Karonga, Malawi, between May and June 2015 using the IMCI guidelines as a benchmark. Data were collected using a key equipment checklist, an IMCI pneumonia knowledge test, and a clinical evaluation checklist. The median number of key equipment items available was 6 (range 4 to 7 out of a possible 7. The median score on the IMCI pneumonia knowledge test among 23 clinicians was 75% (range 60% to 89%. Among a total of 176 consultations performed by 15 clinicians, a median of 9 (range 3 to 13 out of 13 clinical evaluation tasks were performed. Overall, the clinicians were adequately equipped for the assessment of sick children, had good knowledge of the IMCI guidelines, and conducted largely thorough clinical evaluations. We recommend the simple pragmatic approach to quality assurance described herein for similar studies conducted in challenging research settings.

  11. Understanding potential uptake of a proposed mHealth program to support caregiver home management of childhood illness in a resource-poor setting: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Tirza Areli; Martin, Holly; Volpicelli, Kathryn; Frasso, Rosemary; Díaz Arroyo, Elsa Cecilia; Gozzer, Ernesto; Buttenheim, Alison M

    2017-01-01

    Extensive uptake of mobile phones offers an unprecedented opportunity to improve global healthcare delivery, especially among underserved populations. Mobile health (mHealth) has been increasingly recognized as a promising approach to addressing challenges in global maternal-child health and may play an important role in accelerating progress towards improved outcomes. However, more evidence guiding development of mHealth interventions is needed. The current study explores factors that may support or hinder adoption and use of a proposed mHealth intervention to improve caregiver home management of common childhood illnesses in order to shape program development. Elicitation interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 25 mothers recruited from a larger cluster-randomized survey sample in the Cono Norte region of Arequipa, Peru. Interview data were analyzed in Spanish to preserve important cultural nuances. Thematic analysis revealed potential facilitators of and barriers to uptake of the proposed mHealth program. Potential facilitators of caregiver participation include opportunity to engage in two-way communication with healthcare providers, development of instrumental and support knowledge to care for sick children, and healthcare challenges faced in a resource-poor community. Potential barriers include preference for in-person healthcare visits, program cost, text messaging abilities, and concern around program legitimacy. This study underscores the potential for mHealth to improve global healthcare delivery in the area of maternal-child health. It demonstrates that mHealth interventions can meet the needs of vulnerable populations by offering novel approaches to promoting evidence-based care. This in-depth understanding of factors that may influence participation and use of this proposed mHealth program will help shape development of the intervention in this community.

  12. Does moderate iron deficiency protect against childhood illness? A test of the optimal iron hypothesis in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Craig; DeCaro, Jason A

    2015-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that moderate iron deficiency among children is associated with lower likelihood of infection. We use data from a population representative cross sectional study of 1164 Tanzanian children aged 6-59 months from the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. Respondents' iron levels were assessed through serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) and anemia was assessed using hemoglobin. C-reactive protein (CRP) was used as a marker of infection. Nearly 25% of the children were categorized as normal (iron replete, non-anemic); 45% were IDE (low iron, non-anemic), 24% were classified as IDA (low iron, anemic), and 69 children (5.9%) were anemic but had no evidence of iron deficiency. IDE was not associated with a lower likelihood of elevated CRP compared to iron replete, non-anemic children; 45% of normal children had elevated CRP compared to 51% of IDE children (P = 0.10). IDA, by contrast, was associated with a higher likelihood of elevated CRP (68%, P iron hypothesis as conventionally formulated. The fact that we did not find an effect where some other studies have may be due to differences in study design, sample (e.g., age), or the baseline pathogenic ecology. Alternatively, it may be more fruitful to investigate iron regulation as an allostatic system that responds to infections adaptively, rather than to expect an optimal pre-infection value. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The neural diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia revisited: An update on recent findings considering illness stage and neurobiological and methodological complexities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruessner, Marita; Cullen, Alexis E; Aas, Monica; Walker, Elaine F

    2017-02-01

    Over the past decade, our understanding of the role of stress in serious mental illness has become more sophisticated. In this paper, we revisit the neural diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia that was initially proposed in 1997 and updated in 2008. In light of cumulative research findings, we must now encompass evidence on the premorbid periods of psychosis, and our more nuanced understanding of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and its association with neurodevelopmental, epigenetic, neurotransmitter, and inflammatory processes, as well as brain structure and function. Giving consideration to the methodological complexities that have become more apparent as research in this area has burgeoned, the various indices of HPA axis function, and the different stages of illness, we review relevant research published since the 2008 update of the model. We conclude by proposing an extended neural diathesis-stress model that addresses the broader neurobiological context of stress psychobiology in psychosis progression. Implications of this model for best practice, with regards to both future research and treatment strategies, are discussed.

  14. Additive Contributions of Childhood Adversity and Recent Stressors to Inflammation at Midlife: Findings from the MIDUS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Lachman, Margie E.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Miller, Gregory E.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the joint contributions of self-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recent life events (RLEs) to inflammation at midlife, by testing 3 competing theoretical models: stress generation, stress accumulation, and early life stress sensitization. We aimed to identify potential mediators between adversity and inflammation.…

  15. Toward a unified theory of childhood trauma and psychosis: A comprehensive review of epidemiological, clinical, neuropsychological and biological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiak, Błażej; Krefft, Maja; Bielawski, Tomasz; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Sąsiadek, Maria M; Frydecka, Dorota

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing body of research focused on the relationship between childhood trauma and the risk of developing psychosis. Numerous studies, including many large-scale population-based studies, controlling for possible mediating variables, provide persuasive evidence of a dose-response association and are indicative of a causal relationship. Existing evidence supports the specificity model, showing differential associations between particular adversities and clinical symptoms, with cumulative adversity causing less favorable clinical and functional outcomes in psychotic patients. To date, several psychological and biological models have been proposed to search for underlying developmental trajectories leading to the onset of psychosis, influencing psychopathological manifestation and negative functional outcomes due to a history of childhood trauma. In this article, we provide a unified review on the relationship between childhood trauma and psychosis by integrating results of epidemiological, clinical, neuropsychological and biological studies. The question whether psychosis with a positive history of childhood trauma should be considered as a new psychotic phenotype, requiring specific therapeutic interventions, warrants further investigation.

  16. The Social Validity of Bug-in-Ear Coaching: Findings from Two Studies Implemented in Inclusive Early Childhood Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottley, Jennifer Riggie; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Rahn, Naomi L.

    2015-01-01

    Coaching is a promising method for providing professional development, which takes many forms. One such form is real-time coaching through bug-in-ear technology. This study explored the social validity of bug-in-ear coaching when provided as a form of professional development with pre-service and in-service early childhood educators. Data from two…

  17. Long and Short Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI Training Courses in Afghanistan: A Cross-sectional Cohort Comparison of Post-Course Knowledge and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Mayhew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background In 2003 the Afghan Ministry of Public Health (MoPH adopted the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI for delivering child health services in primary care facilities. Key problems were subsequently identified: high cost of training, frequent health worker turnover and poor quality of IMCI implementation by those trained – specifically in the use of job aids and protocols for assessment, classification, treatment and counselling. The high financial, human resources and opportunity costs of implementing IMCI spurred the MoPH to prioritize developing a shortened IMCI course of comparable quality to the 11-Day training. Methods This cross-sectional evaluation compared knowledge before and after training, and health worker performance in assessment, classification and treatment of sick children in two similar cohorts, eight months post-training. Results The mean increase in knowledge scores of the thirty 7-Day course trainees was 29 [95% Confidence Interval (CI: 24, 34] compared to 23 (95% CI: 18, 28 in the 31 trained in the 11-Day course. During assessment visits, mean scores in the 7-Day course trainees and the 11-Day course trainees were 93% (95% CI: 91, 95 versus 94% (95% CI: 91, 96 in assessment; 95% (95% CI: 89, 100 versus 96% (95% CI: 91, 100 in classification; 95% (95% CI: 92, 100 versus 97% (95% CI: 95, 100 in treatment; and 81% (95% CI: 76, 86 versus 80% (95% CI: 75, 85 in counselling. The 7-Day course was 36% less expensive than the 11-Day course. For each course opportunity costs, measured as numbers of children who potentially received poorer care than usual during trainee absence, were 3,160 for the 11-Day course and 2,016 for the 7-Day course. This measure was chosen because trainee absence commonly resulted in higher patient volumes per remaining provider or complete closure of a health facility with one single health worker. Conclusion Given similar performance and knowledge of health workers trained in both

  18. Knowledge and skills of primary health care workers trained on integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness: Follow-up assessment 3 years after the training

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    J Venkatachalam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary health care workers of a district in northern India were trained in the year 2006 for Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI using two different training methods: conventional 8-day training and new interrupted 5-day training. Knowledge and skills may decline over a period of time. Rate of decline may be associated with the type of training. A study was thus conducted to see the retention of knowledge and skills in the two training groups, 3 years after the initial training. Materials and Methods: This study was done in the Panchkula district of Haryana state in northern India. In the year 2006, 50 primary health care workers were given new interrupted 5-day training and another 35 workers were given conventional 8-day training on IMNCI. Knowledge and skills of the same workers were evaluated in the year 2009, using the same methodology and tools as were used in the year 2006. Data analysis was done to see the extent of decline in knowledge and skills in these 3 years and whether decline was more in any particular training group. Results: Compared to post-training score in the year 2006, composite knowledge and skill scores for Auxilliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs and Anganwari workers (AWWs together declined significantly in the year 2009 from 74.6 to 58.0 in 8-day training group and from 73.2 to 57.0 in 5-day training group (P < 0.001. Follow-up composite scores in the two training groups were similar. Whereas the decline was more for knowledge scores in 8-day training group and for skill score in 5-day training group, the pattern of decline was inconsistent for different health conditions and among ANMs and AWWs. Conclusion: Long-term retention of knowledge and skills in 5-day group was equivalent to that in 8-day training group. Refresher trainings may boost up the decline in the knowledge and skills.

  19. Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosed, treated and even cured in younger children. Kawasaki Disease This childhood illness can result in long-term ... complications. Learn the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for Kawasaki disease. Cholesterol Raised cholesterol levels early in life may ...

  20. Sensitive Situations. The DLM Early Childhood Program Professional Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Pam

    Teachers know how to educate young children, but many feel ill-prepared when faced with students' emotional issues in the classroom. This book is intended as a resource for early childhood teachers who find themselves in the middle of such "sensitive situations." The information is presented by using a fictional, but typical, scenario…

  1. Sensitive Situations. The DLM Early Childhood Program Professional Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Pam

    Teachers know how to educate young children, but many feel ill-prepared when faced with students' emotional issues in the classroom. This book is intended as a resource for early childhood teachers who find themselves in the middle of such "sensitive situations." The information is presented by using a fictional, but typical, scenario…

  2. Childhood maltreatment as a risk factor for diabetes: findings from a population-based survey of Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Margot E; Hovdestad, Wendy E; Pelletier, Catherine; Dykxhoorn, Jennifer L; O'Donnell, Siobhan C; Tonmyr, Lil

    2016-08-25

    It is well established that childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for various mental and substance use disorders. To date, however, little research has focused on the possible long-term physical consequences of CM. Diabetes is a chronic disease, for which an association with CM has been postulated. Based on data from a sample of 21,878 men and women from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS - MH), this study examines associations between three types of CM (childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (CEIPV)) and diabetes in adulthood. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine associations between CM and diabetes controlling for the effects of socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for type 2 diabetes. When controlling socio-demographic characteristics, diabetes was significantly associated with reports of severe and frequent CPA (OR = 1.8) and severe and frequent CSA (OR = 2.2). A dose-response relationship was observed when co-occurrence of CSA and CPA was considered with the strongest association with diabetes being observed when both severe and frequent CSA and CPA were reported (OR = 2.6). Controlling for type 2 diabetes risk factors attenuated associations particularly for CPA. CEIPV was not significantly associated with having diabetes in adulthood. CPA and CSA are risk factors for diabetes. For the most part, associations between CPA and diabetes are mediated via risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Failure to consider severity and frequency of abuse may limit our understanding of the importance of CM as a risk factor for diabetes.

  3. Whole-genome sequencing for identification of Mendelian disorders in critically ill infants: a retrospective analysis of diagnostic and clinical findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willig, Laurel K; Petrikin, Josh E; Smith, Laurie D; Saunders, Carol J; Thiffault, Isabelle; Miller, Neil A; Soden, Sarah E; Cakici, Julie A; Herd, Suzanne M; Twist, Greyson; Noll, Aaron; Creed, Mitchell; Alba, Patria M; Carpenter, Shannon L; Clements, Mark A; Fischer, Ryan T; Hays, J Allyson; Kilbride, Howard; McDonough, Ryan J; Rosterman, Jamie L; Tsai, Sarah L; Zellmer, Lee; Farrow, Emily G; Kingsmore, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Genetic disorders and congenital anomalies are the leading causes of infant mortality. Diagnosis of most genetic diseases in neonatal and paediatric intensive care units (NICU and PICU) is not sufficiently timely to guide acute clinical management. We used rapid whole-genome sequencing (STATseq) in a level 4 NICU and PICU to assess the rate and types of molecular diagnoses, and the prevalence, types, and effect of diagnoses that are likely to change medical management in critically ill infants. Methods We did a retrospective comparison of STATseq and standard genetic testing in a case series from the NICU and PICU of a large children's hospital between Nov 11, 2011, and Oct 1, 2014. The participants were families with an infant younger than 4 months with an acute illness of suspected genetic cause. The intervention was STATseq of trios (both parents and their affected infant). The main measures were the diagnostic rate, time to diagnosis, and rate of change in management after standard genetic testing and STATseq. Findings 20 (57%) of 35 infants were diagnosed with a genetic disease by use of STATseq and three (9%) of 32 by use of standard genetic testing (p=0·0002). Median time to genome analysis was 5 days (range 3–153) and median time to STATseq report was 23 days (5–912). 13 (65%) of 20 STATseq diagnoses were associated with de-novo mutations. Acute clinical usefulness was noted in 13 (65%) of 20 infants with a STATseq diagnosis, four (20%) had diagnoses with strongly favourable effects on management, and six (30%) were started on palliative care. 120-day mortality was 57% (12 of 21) in infants with a genetic diagnosis. Interpretation In selected acutely ill infants, STATseq had a high rate of diagnosis of genetic disorders. Most diagnoses altered the management of infants in the NICU or PICU. The very high infant mortality rate indicates a substantial need for rapid genomic diagnoses to be allied with a novel framework for precision

  4. Childhood fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, C Y; Allen, D M

    1996-02-01

    Childhood fever is a common symptom, reflective of multiple causes. As the child is often unable to express himself, the physician must rely on parents' observations and the physical examination. The majority of febrile children have non-bacterial upper respiratory tract infection and indiscriminate use of antibiotics is inappropriate, ineffective and leads to drug-resistance such as the emergence of Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this article, we attempt to identify the possible causes of fever by a simple approach using the presence or absence of associated or localising symptoms. Infants less than 3 months constitute a unique group as the fever may be related to perinatal events and as serious bacterial infections can still occur despite unremarkable physical findings. Management of fever needs to take into account the toxicity, immune status and age of the patients as well as the source of the infection. Zealous overprescription of antipyretics needs to be avoided with attention directed to the cause of the fever, the child's capacity to cope with the illness and parental education.

  5. Family pet ownership during childhood: findings from a UK birth cohort and implications for public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Heron, Jon; Ness, Andy R; Bundred, Peter; Gaskell, Rosalind M; Coyne, Karen P; German, Alexander J; McCune, Sandra; Dawson, Susan

    2010-10-01

    In developed nations, approximately half of household environments contain pets. Studies of Human-Animal Interaction (HAI) have proposed that there are health benefits and risks associated with pet ownership. However, accurately demonstrating and understanding these relationships first requires a better knowledge of factors associated with ownership of different pet types. A UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were used to collect pet ownership data from the mothers, from gestation to child age 10 years old. 14,663 children were included in the study, of which mothers of 13,557 reported pet information at gestation, and 7,800 by age 10. Pet types recorded include cat, dog, rabbit, rodent, bird, fish and tortoise/turtle. The dataset also contains a number of demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural variables relevant to human health behaviour. Logistic regression was used to build multivariable models for ownership of each pet type at age 7 years. Family pet ownership increased during childhood, in particular rabbits, rodents and fish. A number of socioeconomic and demographic factors were associated with ownership of different pet types and the effects differed depending on the pet type studied. Variables which require consideration by researchers include gender, presence of older siblings, ethnicity, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal social class, maternal age, number of people in the household, house type, and concurrent ownership of other pets. Whether the mother had pets during her childhood was a strong predictor of pet ownership in all models. In HAI studies, care should be taken to control for confounding factors, and to treat each pet type individually. ALSPAC and other similar birth cohorts can be considered a potential resource for research into the effects of pet ownership during childhood.

  6. Family Pet Ownership during Childhood: Findings from a UK Birth Cohort and Implications for Public Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Heron

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In developed nations, approximately half of household environments contain pets. Studies of Human-Animal Interaction (HAI have proposed that there are health benefits and risks associated with pet ownership. However, accurately demonstrating and understanding these relationships first requires a better knowledge of factors associated with ownership of different pet types. A UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, were used to collect pet ownership data from the mothers, from gestation to child age 10 years old. 14,663 children were included in the study, of which mothers of 13,557 reported pet information at gestation, and 7,800 by age 10. Pet types recorded include cat, dog, rabbit, rodent, bird, fish and tortoise/turtle. The dataset also contains a number of demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural variables relevant to human health behaviour. Logistic regression was used to build multivariable models for ownership of each pet type at age 7 years. Family pet ownership increased during childhood, in particular rabbits, rodents and fish. A number of socioeconomic and demographic factors were associated with ownership of different pet types and the effects differed depending on the pet type studied. Variables which require consideration by researchers include gender, presence of older siblings, ethnicity, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal social class, maternal age, number of people in the household, house type, and concurrent ownership of other pets. Whether the mother had pets during her childhood was a strong predictor of pet ownership in all models. In HAI studies, care should be taken to control for confounding factors, and to treat each pet type individually. ALSPAC and other similar birth cohorts can be considered a potential resource for research into the effects of pet ownership during childhood.

  7. Superior oblique tendon (Brown’s syndrome as the presenting finding in childhood onset HLA-B27-related enthesitis and juvenile idiopathic oligoarticular arthritis

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    C. Pham

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We report two patients who presented with Brown’s syndrome. The first is a 7-year-old boy who at the time of his diagnosis was also found to have enthesitis and HLA-B27 positivity. The second patient was diagnosed with bilateral Brown’s syndrome at 13 months of age. At age 7 she developed a persistent oligoarticular arthritis and unilateral anterior iritis consistent with the oligoarticular Juvenile Idiopatic Arthritis (JIA phenotype. These cases highlight ophthalmologic findings and diagnostic considerations with respect to Brown’s syndrome and associated childhood onset rheumatologic disease.

  8. Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Karen T; Harris, William W; Putnam, Frank W

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies find a cumulative effect of different types of childhood adversities on increasing risk for serious adult mental and medical outcomes. This study uses the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication sample to investigate the cumulative impact of 8 childhood adversities on complex adult psychopathology as indexed by (a) number of lifetime diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994); (b) number of 4 DSM-IV disorder categories (mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance abuse disorders); and (c) coexistence of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Seven of the 8 childhood adversities were significantly associated with complex adult psychopathology. Individuals with 4 or more childhood adversities had an odds ratio of 7.3, 95% confidence interval [4.7, 11.7] for 4 disorder categories. Additive and multiplicative synergistic effects increasing adult psychopathology were found for specific pairwise combinations of childhood adversities. Synergistic patterns differed by gender suggesting that women are more impacted by sexual abuse and men by economic hardship. The absence of childhood adversities was protective, in that it significantly decreased an individual's risk for subsequent adult mental illness. The results support the clinical impression that increased childhood adversity is associated with more complex adult psychopathology.

  9. Associations of Pet Ownership with Wheezing and Lung Function in Childhood: Findings from a UK Birth Cohort.

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    Simon M Collin

    Full Text Available Asthma is a heterogeneous condition and differential effects of pet ownership on non-atopic versus atopic asthma have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pet ownership during pregnancy and early childhood was associated with wheezing from birth to age 7 years and with lung function at age 8 years in a UK population-based birth cohort.Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC were used to investigate associations of pet ownership at six time-points from pregnancy to age 7 years with concurrent episodes of wheezing, wheezing trajectories (phenotypes and lung function at age 8 years using logistic regression models adjusted for child's sex, maternal history of asthma/atopy, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and family adversity.4,706 children had complete data on pet ownership and wheezing. From birth to age 7 years, cat ownership was associated with an overall 6% lower odds of wheezing (OR=0.94 (0.89-0.99. Rabbit and rodent ownership was associated with 21% (OR=1.21 (1.12-1.31 and 11% (OR=1.11 (1.02-1.21 higher odds of wheezing, respectively, with strongest effects evident during infancy. Rabbit and rodent ownership was positively associated with a 'persistent wheeze' phenotype. Pet ownership was not associated with lung function at age 8 years, with the exception of positive associations of rodent and bird ownership with better lung function.Cat ownership was associated with reduced risk, and rabbit and rodent ownership with increased risk, of wheezing during childhood. The mechanisms behind these differential effects warrant further investigation.

  10. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Stuart; Gallagher, Peter; Dougall, Dominic; Porter, Richard; Moncrieff, Joanna; Ferrier, I Nicol; Young, Allan H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Methods: Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipo...

  11. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, S; Gallagher, P.; Dougall, D.; Porter, R.; Moncrieff, J; Ferrier, I N; Young, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective:There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder.Methods:Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipolar...

  12. Intellectual and language findings and their relationship to EEG characteristics in benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Daria; Vago, Chiara; Franceschetti, Silvana; Pantaleoni, Chiara; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Granata, Tiziana; Bulgheroni, Sara

    2007-03-01

    Recent research has revealed that benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) causes deficient performance in various neuropsychological areas, without arriving at a definition of a uniform profile. The purpose of this study was to examine intelligence and certain language functions in 24 children with an active centrotemporal focus, comparing them with a group of 16 controls matched for age and schooling. Test results were correlated with several EEG characteristics, including focal versus multifocal presentation of interictal epileptiform activity, lateralization, spike maximum on midtemporal or extratemporal electrodes, and rate of interictal activity when awake and during non-REM sleep. Our study demonstrated that children with BECTS have mild language defects, revealed by tests measuring phonemic fluency, verbal re-elaboration of semantic knowledge, and lexical comprehension. Interictal EEG discharges demonstrated that a high rate of occurrence while awake, multifocal location, and temporal prominence seem to impair the efficiency of some of the neuropsychological functions investigated. However, because the last EEG was obtained within the last 2 months (on average) before the assessment, and because BECTS is a form of epilepsy with signs of cortical hyperexcitability that vary over time in terms of rate, side, and location, the pattern of neuropsychological deficiencies could have changed (at least to some degree) by the time of the test, with respect to the EEG variables considered.

  13. Childhood sexual abuse and adult developmental outcomes: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; McLeod, Geraldine F H; Horwood, L John

    2013-09-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with many adverse medical, psychological, behavioral and socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood. This study aims to examine the linkages between CSA and a wide range of developmental outcomes over a protracted time period to age 30. Data from over 900 members of the New Zealand birth cohort the Christchurch Health and Development Study were examined. CSA prior to age 16 was assessed at ages 18 and 21 years, in addition to: mental health, psychological wellbeing, sexual risk-taking behaviors, physical health and socioeconomic outcomes to age 30. After statistical adjustment for confounding by 10 covariates spanning socio-demographic, family functioning and child factors, extent of exposure to CSA was associated with increased rates of (B, SE, p): major depression (0.426, 0.094, sexual abuse was also associated with decreased age of onset of sexual activity (-0.381, 0.091, sexual partners (0.175, 0.035, abuse. CSA adversely influences a number of adult developmental outcomes that span: mental disorders, psychological wellbeing, sexual risk-taking, physical health and socioeconomic wellbeing. While the individual effect sizes for CSA typically range from small to moderate, it is clear that accumulative adverse effects on adult developmental outcomes are substantial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Revisiting Nonresidential Environmental Exposures and Childhood Lead Poisoning in the US: Findings from Kansas, 2000–2005

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    Lu Ann Brink

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although blood lead levels (BLLs in US children have dramatically declined over the past 40 years, there remain pockets of children living in areas with elevated BLLs. While some increases (≥10 μg/dL may be associated with legacy lead paint, ambient air lead may be contributing to the problem. A deidentified dataset of information on over 60,000 Kansas children under 3 years of age who were tested for BLL was provided through the Kansas Environmental Public Health Tracking Network for the period 2000–2005. Using ArcGIS, we calculated distance (in miles from a lead-emitting industry referred to as a toxic release inventory (TRI site. The USEPA TRI database tracks the management of certain toxic chemicals that may pose a threat to human health. US facilities in different industry sectors must report annually amount of substances like lead into the environment including their exact location. Distance from a TRI site was inversely related to BLL after controlling for area-level poverty and pre-1950 housing. The results of our evaluation indicate there is a significant relationship between proximity to lead industry and childhood BLLs. Proximity to sources of lead emissions should be evaluated as a possible factor when identifying children for targeted BLL testing.

  15. Malaria diagnosis and treatment under the strategy of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI): relevance of laboratory support from the rapid immunochromatographic tests of ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2001-01-01

    The algorithm developed for the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) provides guidelines for the treatment of paediatric malaria. In areas where malaria is endemic, for example, the IMCI strategy may indicate that children who present with fever, a recent history of fever and/or pallor...... and by using two rapid immunochromatographic tests (RIT) for the diagnosis of malaria (ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal. At the time they were tested, each of these children had been targeted for antimalarial treatment (following the IMCI strategy) because of fever and/or pallor. Only 70% of the 395 children...... significantly associated with the P. falciparum asexual parasitaemias that equalled or exceeded the threshold intensity (2000/microl) that has the optimum sensitivity and specificity for the definition of a malarial episode. Diagnostic likelihood ratios (DLR) showed that a positive result in the OptiMal test...

  16. Age at introduction of solid foods and feeding difficulties in childhood: findings from the Southampton Women's Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, J L; Crozier, S R; Inskip, H M; Cooper, C; Godfrey, K M; Robinson, S M

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to determine whether age at introduction of solid foods was associated with feeding difficulties at 3 years of age. The present study was carried out using data from the Southampton Women's Survey (SWS). Women enrolled in the SWS who subsequently became pregnant were followed-up during pregnancy and postpartum, and the offspring have been studied through childhood. Maternal socio-demographic and anthropometric data and child anthropometric and feeding data were collected through interviews and self-administered questionnaires. When the children were 3 years of age, mothers/carers rated six potential child feeding difficulty questions on a four-point Likert scale, including one general question and five specific feeding difficulty questions. Age at introduction of solids as a predictor of feeding difficulties was examined in 2389 mother-child pairs, adjusting for child (age last breast fed, sex, gestation) and maternal characteristics (parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, age, education, employment, parenting difficulties, diet quality). The majority of mothers/carers (61 %) reported some feeding difficulties (general feeding difficulty question) at 3 years of age, specifically with their child eating enough food (61 %), eating the right food (66 %) and being choosy with food (74 %). Children who were introduced to solids ≥6 months had a lower risk of feeding difficulties (RR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·91, P=0·004) than children who were introduced to solids between 4 and 6 months. No other significant associations were found. There were few associations between feeding difficulties in relation to age at introduction of solid foods. However, general feeding difficulties were less common among infants introduced to solid foods ≥6 months of age.

  17. The Mother and Infant Home Visiting Program Evaluation: Early Findings on the Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program. A Report to Congress. OPRE Report 2015-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Charles; Lee, Helen; Duggan, Anne; Lundquist, Erika; Tso, Ada; Crowne, Sarah Shea; Burrell, Lori; Somers, Jennifer; Filene, Jill H.; Knox, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    "The Mother and Infant Home Visiting Program Evaluation: Early Findings on the Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program--A Report to Congress" presents the first findings from the Mother and Infant Home Visiting Program Evaluation (MIHOPE), the legislatively mandated national evaluation of the Maternal, Infant, and…

  18. The association between expressed emotion, illness severity and subjective burden of care in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. Findings from an Italian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrà Giuseppe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An appropriate understanding of the association between high-Expressed Emotion (EE in family members of people with schizophrenia, patients’ and relatives’ correlates is needed to improve adaptation of psychoeducational interventions in diverse cultures. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that relatives designated as high EE would report higher subjective burden of care, and would be associated with objective variables that indicate greater illness severity i.e. number of previous hospitalizations and duration of illness. Methods We performed secondary analyses of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial conducted in Italy. Results High-EE relatives reported more subjective burden of care in disturbed behaviours and adverse effects areas, but did not perceive more deficits in social role performances. As regards illness severity characteristics, neither the number of previous hospital admissions nor the duration of illness was associated with high-EE. However, patients’ previous psychosocial functioning, as measured by educational attainments, seems to protect the relative from high-EE status. Conclusion There is a need for cross-cultural comparisons of the subjective experience of distress and burden among high EE carers as a target for intervention, aimed at reducing family stress as much as improving patient outcomes.

  19. Imaging findings of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of infancy and childhood in CNS: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung; Park, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Roh; Hahm, Chang Kok; Hong, Eun Kyung [Hanyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor rarely occurs in the CNS, though is most common in infants under two years of age. It is characterized by unique histologic features, has an extremely aggressive natural course, and is located mainly in the infratentorial region. Radiologically, it is difficult to distinguish from primitive neuroectodermal tumor or medulloblastoma. We report the radiologic findings of two cases of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.

  20. Born at the right time? Childhood health and the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Viola; Mierau, Jochen O

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the relationship between the state of the business cycle at birth and childhood health. We use a retrospective survey on self-reported childhood health for ten Western European countries and combine it with historically and internationally comparable data on the Gross Domestic Product. We validate the self-reported data by comparing them to realized illness spells. We find a positive relationship between being born in a recession and childhood health. This relationship is not driven by selection effects due to heightened infant mortality during recessions. Placebo regressions indicate that the observed effect is not spurious.

  1. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be caused by overexposure to the sun or ... the elderly are most at risk, but anyone can be affected. Here you will find information about ...

  2. Nonthyroidal Illness (NTIs)

    OpenAIRE

    Nanny Natalia Mulyani Soetedjo

    2009-01-01

    Nonthyroidal illness (NTIs) can be described as abnormal findings on thyroid function tests that occur in the setting of a nonthyroidal illness (NTI) without preexisting hypothalamic-pituitary and thyroid gland dysfunction. After recovery from an NTI, these thyroid function test result abnormalities should be completely reversible. Multiple alterations in serum thyroid function test findings have been recognized in patients with a wide variety of NTI without evidence of preexisting thyroid or...

  3. Evaluation of Early Childhood Coaching Implementation in Nebraska. Technical Report Vol. 1: Key Findings from Participant Follow Up Survey. CYFS Working Paper 2014-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Gayatri; Knoche, Lisa; Marvin, Christine; Bainter, Sue

    2014-01-01

    The Nebraska Early Childhood Coach (ECC) training was a 3 day (8 hours) professional development event sponsored by the Nebraska Department of Education, Office of Child Development in 2009-2010. Sixty-five early childhood teachers and related service providers participated for the purpose of learning the basic principles and behaviors associated…

  4. Evaluation of Early Childhood Coaching Implementation in Nebraska. Technical Report Vol. 2: Key Findings from Participant Observational and Self-Reported Data. CYFS Working Paper 2014-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Gayatri; Knoche, Lisa; Marvin, Christine; Bainter, Sue

    2014-01-01

    The Nebraska Early Childhood Coach (ECC) training was a 3 day (8 hours) professional development event sponsored by the Nebraska Department of Education, Office of Child Development in 2009-2010. Sixty-five early childhood teachers and related service providers participated for the purpose of learning the basic principles and behaviors associated…

  5. Childhood Predictors of Use and Costs of Antidepressant Medication by Age 24 Years: Findings from the Finnish Nationwide 1981 Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenberg, David; Sourander, Andre; Niemela, Solja; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Ristkari, Terja; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prior studies on antidepressant use in late adolescence and young adulthood have been cross-sectional, and prospective associations with childhood psychiatric problems have not been examined. The objective was to study the association between childhood problems and lifetime prevalence and costs of antidepressant medication by age 24…

  6. Early Life Stress and Child Temperament Style as Predictors of Childhood Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms: Findings from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Lewis

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. Both infant temperament and stress exposures are independent and notable predictors of later anxiety and depressive problems in childhood. The risk relationship between stress exposure in infancy and childhood emotion problems did not vary as a function of infant temperament. Implications for preventive intervention and future research directions are discussed.

  7. Exposure to Childhood Poverty and Mental Health Symptomatology in Adolescence: A Role of Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Neuendorf, Cynthia; Bianco, Hannah; Evans, Gary W

    2016-12-01

    Childhood poverty is associated with stress dysregulation which contributes to psychological illness in later ages. The adverse effects of childhood poverty on stress regulation may be mediated in part by the use of disengaging strategies to cope with stress. However, the relations among childhood poverty, coping strategies and psychopathology throughout childhood to adolescence have not been explored. This prospective, longitudinal study included 185 low- and middle-income adolescents at age 17. Chronic exposure to poverty from birth to early adolescence (age 13) was prospectively associated with increases in the use of disengagement versus engagement coping four years later. Increased use of disengagement coping between the ages of 13 and 17 explained the indirect link between poverty exposure since birth and both externalizing and internalizing symptoms at age 17. The findings provide evidence for a coping pathway underlying the link between prolonged exposure to childhood poverty and mental health sequelae. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Rovira, S M; Inarejos Clemente, E J

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children; it can appear in any part of the body. Its biological behavior varies widely, and despite the absence of specific clinical or radiological characteristics, rhabdomyosarcoma should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of solid tumors in children. This review focuses primarily on the imaging findings and anatomical distribution of the histological subtypes of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and secondarily on the differential findings in histological studies.

  9. Afectación oral de las enfermedades comunes en la infancia con carácter exantemático Oral implications of the common exanthematic illnesses in the childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bascones Martínez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinadas enfermedades exantemáticas de la infancia pueden cursar con manifestaciones en la región oral, siendo en ocasiones pioneras al resto de las lesiones. Para evitar complicaciones que puedan retrasar la correcta evolución y recuperación de los pacientes, y dada la morbilidad con la que cursan algunas entidades a nivel oral, se presenta una revisión en la cual se insiste en la necesidad de hacer un adecuada exploración oral ante cualquier enfermedad infecciosa o exantemática, aún cuando no consulten por síntomas a dicho nivel, para poder diagnosticar y tratar de forma precoz las lesiones orales asociadas a estas entidades.Some exanthematic diseases in the childhood affect in more or less importance to the oral region and highly important to know the degree of affectation to set out the guidelines for a suitable treatment at a proper level, and to avoid further complications which may delay the good evolution and soon recovery that those patients use to show. It is stressed the importance of an acute exploration of the mouth in case of any infectious or exanthematic illness, even though the consultation is not made for oral symptoms.

  10. Advances in understanding illness anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Kelli J; Skritskaya, Natalia; Doherty, Emily; Fallon, Brian A

    2008-08-01

    Illness anxiety, also known in its more severe form as hypochondriasis, is a debilitating and chronic condition in which normal bodily symptoms are misinterpreted as signs of serious medical illness. Patients suffer with the fear that they are ill despite reassurance to the contrary and often overuse medical services in the process. This article critically evaluates the recent literature on illness anxiety and related, medically unexplained symptoms, highlighting new and interesting findings in the areas of prevalence, classification/diagnosis, management, and evidence-based treatment and new frontiers in understanding illness anxiety, such as brain imaging, neuroimmunology, and cyberchondria.

  11. Follow-up findings in regional cerebral blood flow (r-CBF)-SPECT in a case of idiopathic childhood hemidystonia. Functional neuroimaging and pathophysiological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, A.; Aderbauer, J.; Segerer, H. [St. Hedwig Hospital, Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Pediatrics; Marienhagen, J.; Bock, E.; Eilles, C. [Univ. Hospital, Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    1999-05-01

    A 9 1/2-year-old girl suffered from intermitting tremor and jitteriness of her left hand and oral muscles every 4 to 6 weeks with long lasting episodes. Clinically myoclonias and dystonic positioning of the left arm, hand and facial muscles were seen. No evidence of trauma, infection or inborn errors of metabolism was found. Successful therapy with carbamazepine was initiated while L-DOPA failed. An ictal 99m-Tc-HMPAO-SPECT showed severe asymmetry with focal hyperperfusion of the contralateral right thalamus and basal ganglia as well as of the bifrontal cortex, whereas no anatomical lesions were found by MRI. In contrast, an interictally performed 99m-Tc-HMPAO SPECT showed hypoperfusion or the right thalamus and normalisation of the frontal perfusion under medical treatment. These 99m-Tc-HMPAO-SPECT findings may provide new insights into the localisation and pathophysiological pathways of idiopathic childhood dystonia. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein 9 1/2jaehriges Maedchen litt an rezidivierenden, langdauernden Schueben von Tremor und Zittern der linken Hand und der perioralen Muskulatur links. Klinisch fanden sich eine dystone Haltung des linken Armes und unerschoepfliche Myoklonien des Armes, der Hand und der Gesichtsmuskulatur links. Trauma, Infektion oder ein Stoffwechseldefekt als Ursache lagen nicht vor. Ein Therapieversuch mit L-DOPA war erfolglos. Unter Gabe von Carbamazepin wurde Beschwerdefreiheit bleibend erreicht. Ein iktuales 99m-Tc-HMPAO-SPECT zeigte eine fokale Hyperperfusion des rechtsseitigen Thalamus und der Basalganglien, sowie des bifrontalen Kortex. Ein interiktuales 99m-Tc-HMPAOSPECT ergab dann eine deutliche Hypoperfusion des rechtseitigen Thalamus bei normalisierter Perfusion des bifrontalen Kortex. Eine kranielle Magnetresonanztomographie (MRI) ergab einen unauffaelligen Befund. Der Vergleich der iktualen und interiktualen Perfusionsverhaeltnisse weist auf neue pathophysiologische Zusammenhaenge bei idiopathischer kindlicher Dystonie hin. (orig.)

  12. New Algorithm for Managing Childhood Illness Using Mobile Technology (ALMANACH: A Controlled Non-Inferiority Study on Clinical Outcome and Antibiotic Use in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani Flexson Shao

    Full Text Available The decline of malaria and scale-up of rapid diagnostic tests calls for a revision of IMCI. A new algorithm (ALMANACH running on mobile technology was developed based on the latest evidence. The objective was to ensure that ALMANACH was safe, while keeping a low rate of antibiotic prescription.Consecutive children aged 2-59 months with acute illness were managed using ALMANACH (2 intervention facilities, or standard practice (2 control facilities in Tanzania. Primary outcomes were proportion of children cured at day 7 and who received antibiotics on day 0.130/842 (15∙4% in ALMANACH and 241/623 (38∙7% in control arm were diagnosed with an infection in need for antibiotic, while 3∙8% and 9∙6% had malaria. 815/838 (97∙3%;96∙1-98.4% were cured at D7 using ALMANACH versus 573/623 (92∙0%;89∙8-94∙1% using standard practice (p<0∙001. Of 23 children not cured at D7 using ALMANACH, 44% had skin problems, 30% pneumonia, 26% upper respiratory infection and 13% likely viral infection at D0. Secondary hospitalization occurred for one child using ALMANACH and one who eventually died using standard practice. At D0, antibiotics were prescribed to 15∙4% (12∙9-17∙9% using ALMANACH versus 84∙3% (81∙4-87∙1% using standard practice (p<0∙001. 2∙3% (1∙3-3.3 versus 3∙2% (1∙8-4∙6% received an antibiotic secondarily.Management of children using ALMANACH improve clinical outcome and reduce antibiotic prescription by 80%. This was achieved through more accurate diagnoses and hence better identification of children in need of antibiotic treatment or not. The building on mobile technology allows easy access and rapid update of the decision chart.Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201011000262218.

  13. New Algorithm for Managing Childhood Illness Using Mobile Technology (ALMANACH): A Controlled Non-Inferiority Study on Clinical Outcome and Antibiotic Use in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Amani Flexson; Rambaud-Althaus, Clotilde; Samaka, Josephine; Faustine, Allen Festo; Perri-Moore, Seneca; Swai, Ndeniria; Mitchell, Marc; Genton, Blaise; D’Acremont, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The decline of malaria and scale-up of rapid diagnostic tests calls for a revision of IMCI. A new algorithm (ALMANACH) running on mobile technology was developed based on the latest evidence. The objective was to ensure that ALMANACH was safe, while keeping a low rate of antibiotic prescription. Methods Consecutive children aged 2–59 months with acute illness were managed using ALMANACH (2 intervention facilities), or standard practice (2 control facilities) in Tanzania. Primary outcomes were proportion of children cured at day 7 and who received antibiotics on day 0. Results 130/842 (15∙4%) in ALMANACH and 241/623 (38∙7%) in control arm were diagnosed with an infection in need for antibiotic, while 3∙8% and 9∙6% had malaria. 815/838 (97∙3%;96∙1–98.4%) were cured at D7 using ALMANACH versus 573/623 (92∙0%;89∙8–94∙1%) using standard practice (p<0∙001). Of 23 children not cured at D7 using ALMANACH, 44% had skin problems, 30% pneumonia, 26% upper respiratory infection and 13% likely viral infection at D0. Secondary hospitalization occurred for one child using ALMANACH and one who eventually died using standard practice. At D0, antibiotics were prescribed to 15∙4% (12∙9–17∙9%) using ALMANACH versus 84∙3% (81∙4–87∙1%) using standard practice (p<0∙001). 2∙3% (1∙3–3.3) versus 3∙2% (1∙8–4∙6%) received an antibiotic secondarily. Conclusion Management of children using ALMANACH improve clinical outcome and reduce antibiotic prescription by 80%. This was achieved through more accurate diagnoses and hence better identification of children in need of antibiotic treatment or not. The building on mobile technology allows easy access and rapid update of the decision chart. Trial Registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201011000262218 PMID:26161535

  14. Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... financial problems, a loved one's death or a divorce An ongoing (chronic) medical condition, such as diabetes ... years, but most begin earlier in life. The effects of mental illness can be temporary or long ...

  15. Childhood pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uretsky, G; Goldschmiedt, M; James, K

    1999-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare finding in childhood but probably more common than is generally realized. This condition should be considered in the evaluation of children with vomiting and abdominal pain, because it can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis, especially when the serum amylase concentration is normal. Recurrent pancreatitis may be familial as a result of inherited biochemical or anatomic abnormalities. Patients with hereditary pancreatitis are at high risk for pancreatic cancer.

  16. Methodology and early findings of the fifth survey of childhood and adolescence surveillance and prevention of adult noncommunicable disease: The caspian-v study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the methodology and early findings of the fifth survey of a school-based surveillance program in Iran. Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2015 as the fifth survey of a surveillance program entitled "Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and PreventIon of Adult Non- communicable disease" (CASPIAN-V study. The protocol was mainly based on the World Health Organization-Global School student Health Survey. We studied 14400 students, aged 7-18 years, and their parents living in 30 provinces in Iran. Fasting blood was obtained from a sub-sample of 4200 randomly selected students. Results: The participation rate for the whole study and for blood sampling were 99% and 91.5%, respectively. The mean (SD age of participants was 12.3 (3.2 years, consisting of 49.4% girls and 71.4% urban residents. Overall, 16.1% were underweight (17.4% of boys and 14.8% of girls, and 20.8% had excess weight consisting of 9.4% (8.7% of boys and 10.2% of girls of overweight and 11.4% (12.5% of boys and 10.3% of girls of obesity. Abdominal obesity was documented in 21.1% of students (21.6% of boys and 20.5% of girls. Low HDL-C was the most prevalent abnormality of the lipid profile (29.5% followed by high serum triglycerides (27.7%. Of students, 59.9% consumed whole wheat bread; and 57% reported that they never or rarely added salt to table. The reported daily consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, and milk was about 60%, 32% and 40%, respectively. 13.7% of participants had at least 30-min daily leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions: The current findings provide an overview of the current health status and lifestyle habits of children and adolescents. This surveillance program would help planning preventive programs at individual and community levels.

  17. Methodology and Early Findings of the Fifth Survey of Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Noncommunicable Disease: The CASPIAN-V Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ziaodini, Hasan; Qorbani, Mostafa; Taheri, Majzoubeh; Aminaei, Tahereh; Goodarzi, Azam; Ataie-Jafari, Asal; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Ahadi, Zeinab; Shafiee, Gita; Shahsavari, Ali; Heshmat, Ramin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Background: This paper presents the methodology and early findings of the fifth survey of a school-based surveillance program in Iran. Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2015 as the fifth survey of a surveillance program entitled “Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and PreventIon of Adult Non- communicable disease” (CASPIAN-V) study. The protocol was mainly based on the World Health Organization-Global School student Health Survey. We studied 14400 students, aged 7-18 years, and their parents living in 30 provinces in Iran. Fasting blood was obtained from a sub-sample of 4200 randomly selected students. Results: The participation rate for the whole study and for blood sampling were 99% and 91.5%, respectively. The mean (SD) age of participants was 12.3 (3.2) years, consisting of 49.4% girls and 71.4% urban residents. Overall, 16.1% were underweight (17.4% of boys and 14.8% of girls), and 20.8% had excess weight consisting of 9.4% (8.7% of boys and 10.2% of girls) of overweight and 11.4% (12.5% of boys and 10.3% of girls) of obesity. Abdominal obesity was documented in 21.1% of students (21.6% of boys and 20.5% of girls). Low HDL-C was the most prevalent abnormality of the lipid profile (29.5%) followed by high serum triglycerides (27.7%). Of students, 59.9% consumed whole wheat bread; and 57% reported that they never or rarely added salt to table. The reported daily consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, and milk was about 60%, 32% and 40%, respectively. 13.7% of participants had at least 30-min daily leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions: The current findings provide an overview of the current health status and lifestyle habits of children and adolescents. This surveillance program would help planning preventive programs at individual and community levels. PMID:28217266

  18. Are the differences in adulthood ill-health across the north-south divide and between Scotland and England also evident in early childhood health indicators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruise, Sharon Mary; O'Reilly, Dermot

    2015-04-01

    Regional differences in adult morbidity and mortality within England (i.e., north-south divide or gradient) and between England and Scotland (i.e., Scottish effect) are only partly explained by adult levels of socioeconomic status or risk factors. This suggests variation in early life, and is supported by the foetal origins and life-course literature which posits that birth outcomes and subsequent, cumulative exposures influence adult health. However, no studies have examined the north-south gradient or Scottish effect in health in the earliest years of life. The aims of the study were: i) to examine health indicators in English and Scottish children at birth and age three to establish whether regional differences exist; and ii) to establish whether observed changes in child health at age three were attributable to birth and/or early life environmental exposures. Respondents included 10,639 biological Caucasian mothers of singleton children recruited to the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) in the year 2000. Outcome variables were: gestational age and birth weight, and height, body mass index (BMI), and externalising behavioural problems at age three. Region/country was categorised as: South (reference), Midlands, North (England), and Scotland. Respondents provided information on child, maternal, household, and socioeconomic characteristics. Results indicated no significant regional variations for gestational age or birth weight. At age three there was a north-south gradient for externalising behaviour and a north-south divide in BMI which attenuated on adjustment. However, a north-south divide in height was not fully explained by adjustment. There was also evidence of a 'Midlands effect', with increased likelihood of shorter stature and behaviour problems. Results showed a Scottish effect for height and BMI in the unadjusted models, and height in the adjusted model, but a decreased likelihood of behaviour problems. Findings indicated no regional differences in health

  19. A Tewo Tibetan Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rdo rje tshe brtan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rdo rje tshe brtan (b. 1986 describes his childhood in Dredze Village, Yiwa Township, Tewo County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province, China, as well as being a student in Xining City, Qinghai Province. Topics covered include his family, childhood injuries and illnesses, education, Terang (malicious household deities, mountain deities and associated rituals and sacrifices, death, conflict with other locals, collecting local plants, a birth in the village, stealing fruit, a wedding, plowing, a visit to a hot spring, a lost yak, slaughtering pigs, government confiscation of fields, and slaughtering pigs. Photos provide additional detail.

  20. Troubled Childhood May Boost Bipolar Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of childhood adversity in the development of the mental illness. Although the study doesn't establish a cause- ... published in the October issue of the British Journal of Psychiatry . SOURCE: University of Manchester, news release, ...

  1. Diarrheal Illness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-30

    Dr. Steve Monroe, director of CDC’s Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, discusses diarrheal illness, its causes, and prevention.  Created: 8/30/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/31/2011.

  2. Childhood Mental Ability and Lifetime Psychiatric Contact: A 66-Year Follow-Up Study of the 1932 Scottish Mental Ability Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Nicholas P.; McConville, Pauline M; Hunter, David; Deary, Ian J.; Whalley, Lawrence J.

    2002-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that intelligence is related to the risk of mental illness by linking childhood mental ability data to registers of psychiatric contact in a stable population of 4,199 adults in Scotland. Findings show intelligence to be an independent predictor of psychiatric contact, with each standard deviation decrease in IQ resulting in…

  3. Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) - traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-04-11

    Apr 11, 2007 ... Throughout South Africa, medical students, nurses, family practitioners and experienced ... Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF, IMCI is currently ... practitioners' management strategies may vary widely. Fortunately, ... and educators, who must teach parents how ... communication skills, and involves up.

  4. An illness-focused interactive booklet to optimise management and medication for childhood fever and infections in out-of-hours primary care: study protocol for a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bont, Eefje G P M; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Elshout, Gijs; van Well, Gijs; Francis, Nick A; Winkens, Bjorn; Cals, Jochen W L

    2016-11-17

    Fever is the most common reason for a child to be taken to a general practitioner (GP), especially during out-of-hours care. It is mostly caused by self-limiting infections. However, antibiotic prescription rates remain high, especially during out-of-hours care. Anxiety and lack of knowledge among parents, and perceived pressure to prescribe antibiotics amongst GPs, are important determinants of excessive antibiotic prescriptions. An illness-focused interactive booklet has the potential to improve this by providing parents with information about fever self-management strategies. The aim of this study is to develop and determine the effectiveness of an interactive booklet on management of children presenting with fever at Dutch GP out-of-hours cooperatives. We are conducting a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) with 20 GP out-of-hours cooperatives randomised to 1 of 2 arms: GP access to the illness-focused interactive booklet or care as usual. GPs working at intervention sites will have access to the booklet, which was developed in a multistage process. It consists of a traffic light system for parents on how to respond to fever-related symptoms, as well as information on natural course of infections, benefits and harms of (antibiotic) medications, self-management strategies and 'safety net' instructions. Children parent-reported or physician-measured fever are eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome is antibiotic prescribing during the initial consultation. Secondary outcomes are (intention to) (re)consult, antibiotic prescriptions during re-consultations, referrals, parental satisfaction and reassurance. In 6 months, 20,000 children will be recruited to find a difference in antibiotic prescribing rates of 25% in the control group and 19% in the intervention group. Statistical analysis will be performed using descriptive statistics and by fitting two-level (GP out-of-hours cooperative and patient) random intercept logistic regression models. This will

  5. Low income/socio-economic status in early childhood and physical health in later childhood/adolescence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Nick; Thanh, Tu Mai; Louise, Séguin

    2013-04-01

    To systematically review the literature on the relationship between early childhood low income/socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health in later childhood/adolescence, to identify gaps in the literature and to suggest new avenues for research. A systematic search of electronic databases from their start date to November 2011 was conducted to identify prospective longitudinal studies in industrialized countries with a measure of low income/SES in the first 5 years of life and physical health outcomes in later childhood or adolescence. STROBE criteria were used to assess study quality. Risk estimates were expressed as odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals where possible. Heterogeneity of studies precluded meta-analysis. Nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Significant associations of early childhood low income/SES with activity-limiting illness, parent-reported poor health status, acute and recurrent infections, increasing BMI percentile and hospitalization were reported. Results for parent-reported asthma were less consistent: there was a significant association with low income/SES in early childhood in 2 studies but null findings in 3 others. This systematic review of the association of early childhood low income/SES with physical health status in later childhood and adolescence shows that, in contrast to the extensive literature on the impact of poor childhood social circumstances on adult health, the evidence base is limited. The literature points to some associations of early low income/SES with later poor health status, but many key research questions remain unanswered. Implications for further research are considered.

  6. Exploring the Impact of Childhood Abuse on HIV Social and Attitudinal Factors Among Adults With and Without this History in Sub-Saharan Africa: Findings from NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda; Makusha, Tawanda; Komárek, Arnošt; Daniels, Joseph; Coates, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Using data from four sites in three African countries, this community randomized study examined the association between childhood sexual and/or physical abuse (CSA and/or CPA) and HIV disclosure, HIV-related stigma, stress, and social support among adults with and without a history of abuse. A history of abuse among men was associated with higher levels of adult-reported stress and HIV-related stigma, and with significantly lower rates of HIV test result disclosure to current partners. Women with a history of CSA and/or CPA had significantly higher perceived stigma, discrimination and stress. Although childhood abuse was significantly associated with adult stress and stigmatization, participants with histories of CSA and/or CPA also reported significantly higher perceived social support compared to people without such experiences. These findings may reflect support received in response to disclosure of CSA or CPA or emotional ambivalence in relationships that have been found to be associated with child abuse. We conclude that it is critical for HIV prevention interventions to advocate for the primary prevention of child abuse, for early identification of adolescents and adults who report experiencing childhood abuse, and to address stigma and stress-related attitudinal, behavioral and relationship difficulties experiences as an aftermath of early abuse that increase their risk of HIV.

  7. Associations of Infant Feeding and Timing of Weight Gain and Linear Growth during Early Life with Childhood Blood Pressure: Findings from a Prospective Population Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Marieke; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Fall, Caroline H D; van Eijsden, Manon; Osmond, Clive; Gemke, Reinoud J B J

    2016-01-01

    Small birth size and rapid postnatal growth have been associated with higher future blood pressure. The timing of these effects, the relative importance of weight gain and linear growth and the role of infant feeding need to be clarified. We assessed how blood pressure relates to birth weight, infant and childhood growth and infant feeding (duration of exclusive breastfeeding and timing of introduction of complementary feeding) in 2227 children aged 5 years from a prospective cohort study (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development). Postnatal growth was represented by statistically independent measures of relative weight gain (weight gain independent of height) and linear growth in four age periods during infancy (0-1 month; 1-3 months; 3-6 months; 6-12 months) and from 12 months to 5 years. Lower birth weight was associated with higher childhood diastolic blood pressure (-0.38 mm Hg.SD-1; P = 0.007). Faster relative weight gain and linear growth after 1 month were positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Associations of linear growth with systolic blood pressure ranged from 0.47 to 1.49 mm Hg.SD-1; Pgrowth. Compared to breastfeeding 1 month was associated with lower blood pressure (e.g. >6 months -1.56 mm Hg systolic blood pressure; P6 months, introduction of complementary feeding pressure (e.g. 4-6 months 0.91 mm Hg systolic blood pressure; P = 0.004). After the age of one month faster growth in either weight or height is associated with higher childhood blood pressure. It is unknown whether faster weight gain and linear growth carry the same risk for adult hypertension and cardiovascular morbidity. Longer breastfeeding and delayed introduction of complementary feeding may be associated with lower adult blood pressure.

  8. Macrosomic Neonates Carry Increased Risk of Dental Caries in Early Childhood: Findings from a Cohort Study, the Okinawa Child Health Study, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yokomichi

    Full Text Available Although many studies have discussed health risks in neonates with a low birth weight, few studies have focused on the risks in neonates with a high birth weight. The objective of this study was to determine whether differences in the incidence of dental caries in early childhood are associated with birth weight status.A total of 117,175 children born in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan from 1997 to 2007 were included in this study. Medical professionals collected information about birth records, growth and development, parental child-rearing practices and dental health at 3 months, 18 months and 3 years of age. The risk of dental caries among neonates with macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 g was compared with that among neonates with normal weight (2500-3999 g. Sensitivity analyses included 'large for gestational age' (LGA, birth weight above the 90th percentile for gestational age, which was relative to 'appropriate for gestational age' (birth weight between 10th and 90th percentiles. Relative risks and relative risk increases were estimated by multivariate Poisson regression.At 3 years of age, the relative risk increases for dental caries after adjusting for confounding factors were 19% [95% confidence interval (CI, 11%-28%, P < 0.001] for macrosomic neonates and 12% (95% CI, 9%-16%, P < 0.001 for LGA neonates.Macrosomia and LGA were associated with an increased risk of dental caries in early childhood. Particular attention should be paid to abnormally large neonates.

  9. Impact of Different Childhood Adversities on 1-Year Outcomes of Psychotic Disorder in the Genetics and Psychosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Antonella; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S; Kolliakou, Anna; O'Connor, Jennifer; Di Forti, Marta; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Morgan, Craig; Fisher, Helen L

    2016-03-01

    While the role of childhood adversity in increasing the risk of psychosis has been extensively investigated, it is not clear what the impact of early adverse experiences is on the outcomes of psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated associations between childhood adversity and 1-year outcomes in 285 first-presentation psychosis patients. Exposure to childhood adversity prior to 17 years of age was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Data on illness course, symptom remission, length of psychiatric hospitalization, compliance with medication, employment, and relationship status were extracted from clinical records for the year following first contact with mental health services for psychosis. Seventy-one percent of patients reported exposure to at least 1 type of childhood adversity (physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental separation, parental death, disrupted family arrangements, or being taken into care). No robust associations were found between childhood adversity and illness course or remission. However, childhood physical abuse was associated with almost 3-fold increased odds of not being in a relationship at 1-year follow-up compared to patients who did not report such adverse experiences. There was also evidence of a significant association between parental separation in childhood and longer admissions to psychiatric wards during 1-year follow-up and 2-fold increased odds of noncompliance with medication compared to those not separated from their parents. Therefore, our findings suggest that there may be some specificity in the impact of childhood adversity on service use and social functioning among psychosis patients over the first year following presentation to mental health services.

  10. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Childhood Stress KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Stress Print A A ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  11. Childhood Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood schizophrenia Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Childhood schizophrenia is an uncommon but severe mental disorder in which children interpret reality abnormally. Schizophrenia involves a range of problems with thinking (cognitive), ...

  12. Childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  13. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood: a Turkish case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Unver

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood (ANEC is a rare form of acute encephalopathy of unknown etiology characterized by typical symmetrical lesions in the thalami, with variable involvement of the white matter, brainstem and cerebellum. Clinically there is a rapid neurologic deterioration after a short period of a nonspecific viral-like illness associated with gastrointestinal or respiratory signs. Asian children are especially affected. Here we present a 3-year-old boy admitted to our hospital with fever and deterioration of consciousness. The diagnosis of ANEC was made by radiologic findings [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 641-645

  14. The effects of childhood ADHD on adult labor market outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2014-02-01

    Although several types of mental illness, including substance abuse disorders, have been linked with poor labor market outcomes, no current research has been able to examine the effects of childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Because ADHD has become one of the most prevalent childhood mental conditions, it is useful to understand the full set of consequences of the illness. This article uses a longitudinal national sample, including sibling pairs, to show the important labor market outcome consequences of ADHD. The employment reduction is between 10 and 14 percentage points, the earnings reduction is approximately 33%, and the increase in social assistance is 15 points, figures that are larger than many estimates of the Black people/White people earnings gap and the gender earnings gap. A small share of the link is explained by educational attainments and co-morbid health conditions and behaviors. The results also show important differences in labor market consequences by family background and age of onset. These findings, along with similar research showing that ADHD is linked with poor education outcomes and adult crime, suggest the importance of treating childhood ADHD to foster human capital. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A Low-intensity Approach for Early Intervention and Detection of Childhood Disability in Central Java: Long-term Findings and Implications for “Inclusive Development”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Maratmo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper describes a qualitative follow-up study, conducted eight years after completion of a low-intensity early intervention and detection of childhood disability project in Central Java, Indonesia. The original project sought to increase the level of skills and engagement of existing community health volunteers, for the support of children with disabilities. This followup study explored long-term outcomes and implications for the inclusive development approach.Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 of the original volunteers. Interview notes were translated and thematically categorised.Results: While the study was qualitative and descriptive, results indicate that despite the low intensity of the project, some early detection and prevention activities were still going on eight years later.Conclusions: The study suggests that a low-intensity initiative such as this, which is closely aligned with the goals of a government department, may indeed achieve some ongoing change by extending the focus of the department towards disability-related concerns.Implications: Implications are drawn for the emerging area of “inclusive development”, which similarly seeks to promote change in mainstream services for the benefit of people with disabilities.DOI: 10.5463/dcid.v22i3.48

  16. Nonthyroidal Illness (NTIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanny Natalia Mulyani Soetedjo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nonthyroidal illness (NTIs can be described as abnormal findings on thyroid function tests that occur in the setting of a nonthyroidal illness (NTI without preexisting hypothalamic-pituitary and thyroid gland dysfunction. After recovery from an NTI, these thyroid function test result abnormalities should be completely reversible. Multiple alterations in serum thyroid function test findings have been recognized in patients with a wide variety of NTI without evidence of preexisting thyroid or hypothalamic-pituitary disease. The most prominent alterations are low serum triiodothyronine (T3 and elevated reverse T3 (rT3, leading to the general term low T3 syndrome. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyroxine (T4, and free T4 also are affected in variable degrees based on the severity and duration of the NTI. It cannot diagnosed NTIs only by measure one thyroid hormone. As the severity of the NTI increases, both serum T3 and T4 levels drop and gradually normalize as the patient recovers. It's still be an argument for administration of replacement T3 and T4 hormone in patients with NTIS. However, it is impossible to be certain at this time that it is beneficial to replace hormone, or whether this could be harmful. Only a prospective study will be adequate to prove this point, and probably this would need to involve hundreds of patients. Ongoing studies document the beneficial effects of replacement of other hormones in these acutely and severely ill patients.

  17. Romantic relationships of emerging adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L; Marsland, Anna L; Marshal, Michael P; Tersak, Jean M

    2009-07-01

    To assess whether childhood cancer survivors experience difficulties in their romantic relationships during emerging adulthood (18-25 years) and to identify who may be at risk for long-term social sequelae. Emerging adult survivors of childhood cancer (n=60) and controls without a history of chronic illness (n=60) completed an online assessment of their romantic relationships, including perceived relationship satisfaction. Severity of initial treatment was rated by healthcare providers for participants with cancer. Although survivors of childhood cancer do not differ from demographically similar controls in satisfaction with, conflict in, and duration of romantic relationships, they reported fewer romantic relationships and greater distress at relationship end. Within the survivor group, higher trait anxiety, older age at diagnosis, and more severe treatment intensity increased risk for relationship difficulties, including lower relationship satisfaction and more distress at break-up. Findings appear to support the overall social resilience of survivors of childhood cancer. Certain subsets of survivors, however, may be at greater risk for difficulties in their close relationships as adults and therefore may be appropriate targets for intervention. Healthcare providers should routinely assess developmentally salient issues like love/romance that are important markers of identity development and ultimately impact long-term quality of life for survivors. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Childhood Cerebellar Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Brent L.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood presentations of ataxia, an impairment of balance and coordination caused by damage to or dysfunction of the cerebellum, can often be challenging to diagnose. Presentations tend to be clinically heterogeneous but key considerations may vary based on the child's age at onset, the course of illness, and subtle differences in phenotype. Systematic investigation is recommended for efficient diagnosis. In this review, we outline common etiologies and describe a comprehensive approach to the evaluation of both acquired and genetic cerebellar ataxia in children. PMID:22764177

  19. Childhood adversity, mental ill-health and aggressive behavior in an African orphanage: Changes in response to trauma-focused therapy and the implementation of a new instructional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schauer Elisabeth

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of orphans in Sub-Saharan Africa is constantly rising. While it is known that family or community care is preferable over institutional care of African orphans, little is known about the quality of care in orphanages and possibilities of improvement. Study 1 Methods Exposure to traumatic stress, experiences of violence in the home, school and orphanage, as well as mental ill-health and aggression of 38 children (mean age of M = 8.64 years living in an orphanage in rural Tanzania were assessed at two time points. The severity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD, depressive symptoms, and internalizing and externalizing problems were used as indicators of mental ill-health. Results Violence experienced in the orphanage correlated more strongly with all indicators of mental ill-health than violence in the former home, school or neighborhood at time point 1. Additionally, violence experienced in the orphanage had a positive relationship with the aggressive behavior of the children at time point 2. Study 2 Methods With the help of the pre-post assessment of Study 1, the implementation of a new instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment (KIDNET for trauma-related illness were evaluated. Results In response to both, a change in the instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment of PTSD, a massive decline in experienced violence and in the severity of PTSD-symptoms was found, whereas depressive symptoms and internalizing and externalizing problems exhibited little change. Conclusions These studies show that violence, especially in the orphanage, can severely contribute to mental ill-health in orphans and that mental health can be improved by implementing a new instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment in an orphanage. Moreover, the results indicate that the experience of violence in an orphanage also plays a crucial role in aggressive behavior of the orphans.

  20. Northern Baja California Indian women's concepts of illness and healing: Implications for public health and clinical practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstreth, G F; Wilken-Robertson, M

    2010-01-01

    Lay health care workers (promotores) interviewed 313 female members of remote Indian groups in northern Baja California, Mexico regarding: (1) common childhood and adult illnesses and endorsement of 'traditional' and modern therapies; (2) illness causation beliefs and knowledge of biomedical principles; and (3) the relation of ethnic identity with concepts of effective biomedical and non-biomedical therapy. The most common illnesses/symptoms reported in adults were diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, cold/flu, diarrhoea, low/variable blood pressure and arthritis; and in children, cold/flu, diarrhoea, bronchitis, cough, fever, empacho and dehydration. Of 285 informants, more reported at least one childhood disorder than who reported at least one adult disorder was most helped by traditional therapy [83 (29.1%) versus 44 (15.4%); P<0.0001] and both therapies [81 (28.4%) versus 42 (14.7%); P<0.001]. They reported eight naturalistic and two personalistic illness causes and manifested variable biomedical knowledge. Indian or mixed Indian/Mexican ethnic self-identity predominated, and Indian identity was unrelated to endorsement of traditional therapy. The 'biocultural synthesis' is a useful theoretical framework for viewing the findings. The Indians' pluralistic concepts have important implications for public health care workers and biomedical practitioners.

  1. The Effects of Childhood ADHD on Adult Labor Market Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 18689

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason

    2013-01-01

    While several types of mental illness, including substance abuse disorders, have been linked with poor labor market outcomes, no current research has been able to examine the effects of childhood ADHD. As ADHD has become one of the most prevalent childhood mental conditions, it is useful to understand the full set of consequences of the illness.…

  2. The Effects of Childhood ADHD on Adult Labor Market Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 18689

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason

    2013-01-01

    While several types of mental illness, including substance abuse disorders, have been linked with poor labor market outcomes, no current research has been able to examine the effects of childhood ADHD. As ADHD has become one of the most prevalent childhood mental conditions, it is useful to understand the full set of consequences of the illness.…

  3. Gene-Environment Interactions in Severe Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf eUher

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Severe mental illness is a broad category that includes schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and severe depression. Both genetic disposition and environmental exposures play important roles in the development of severe mental illness. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the roles of genetic and environmental depend on each other. Gene-environment interactions may underlie the paradox of strong environmental factors for highly heritable disorders, the low estimates of shared environmental influences in twin studies of severe mental illness and the heritability gap between twin and molecular heritability estimates. Sons and daughters of parents with severe mental illness are more vulnerable to the effects of prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures, suggesting that the expression of genetic liability depends on environment. In the last decade, gene-environment interactions involving specific molecular variants in candidate genes have been identified. Replicated findings include an interaction between a polymorphism in the AKT1 gene and cannabis use in the development of psychosis and an interaction between the length polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene and childhood maltreatment in the development of persistent depressive disorder. Bipolar disorder has been underinvestigated, with only a single study showing an interaction between a functional polymorphism in BDNF and stressful life events triggering bipolar depressive episodes. The first systematic search for gene-environment interactions has found that a polymorphism in CTNNA3 may sensitise the developing brain to the pathogenic effect of cytomegalovirus in utero, leading to schizophrenia in adulthood. Strategies for genome-wide investigations will likely include coordination between epidemiological and genetic research efforts, systematic assessment of multiple environmental factors in large samples, and prioritization of genetic variants.

  4. Asthma in childhood: a complex, heterogeneous disease

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Asthma in childhood is a heterogeneous disease with different phenotypes and variable clinical manifestations, which depend on the age, gender, genetic background, and environmental influences of the patients. Several longitudinal studies have been conducted to classify the phenotypes of childhood asthma, on the basis of the symptoms, triggers of wheezing illness, or pathophysiological features of the disease. These studies have provided us with important information about the different wheez...

  5. Idea units in notes and summaries for read texts by keyboard and pencil in middle childhood students with specific learning disabilities: Cognitive and brain findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Todd; Peverly, Stephen; Wolf, Amie; Abbott, Robert; Tanimoto, Steven; Thompson, Rob; Nagy, William; Berninger, Virginia

    2016-09-01

    Seven children with dyslexia and/or dysgraphia (2 girls, 5 boys, M=11 years) completed fMRI connectivity scans before and after twelve weekly computerized lessons in strategies for reading source material, taking notes, and writing summaries by touch typing or groovy pencils. During brain scanning they completed two reading comprehension tasks-one involving single sentences and one involving multiple sentences. From before to after intervention, fMRI connectivity magnitude changed significantly during sentence level reading comprehension (from right angular gyrus→right Broca's) and during text level reading comprehension (from right angular gyrus→cingulate). Proportions of ideas units in children's writing compared to idea units in source texts did not differ across combinations of reading-writing tasks and modes. Yet, for handwriting/notes, correlations insignificant before the lessons became significant after the strategy instruction between proportion of idea units and brain connectivity at all levels of language in reading comprehension (word-, sentence-, and text) during scanning; but for handwriting/summaries, touch typing/notes, and touch typing/summaries changes in those correlations from insignificant to significant after strategy instruction occurred only at text level reading comprehension during scanning. Thus, handwriting during note-taking may benefit all levels of language during reading comprehension, whereas all other combinations of modes and writing tasks in this exploratory study appear to benefit only the text level of reading comprehension. Neurological and educational significance of the interdisciplinary research findings for integrating reading and writing and future research directions are discussed.

  6. Prenatal and childhood growth and physical performance in old age--findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study 1934-1944.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Johan G; Osmond, Clive; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B

    2015-12-01

    Health in adulthood is in part a consequence of development and growth taking place during sensitive periods in early life. It has not been explored previously whether early growth is associated with physical performance in old age from a life course perspective taking into account health-related behavior, biological risk factors, and early life experiences. At a mean age of 71 years, physical performance was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in 1078 individuals belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. We used multiple linear regression analysis to assess the association between the SFT physical fitness scores and individual life course measurements. Several adult characteristics were associated with physical performance including socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, and adult anthropometry. Higher birth weight and length were associated with better physical performance, even after adjusting for potential confounders (all p values old age was found for adult body fat percentage. However, prenatal growth was independently associated with physical performance seven decades later. These findings suggest that physical performance in old age is at least partly programmed in early life.

  7. Childhood Sexual Victimization, Educational Attainment, and the Returns to Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robst, John

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies show that survivors of childhood sexual abuse suffer as adults from depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol and drug abuse, and other mental illnesses. As such, the effect of experiencing traumatic events during childhood including sexual abuse can have lasting implications. The purpose of this paper is to examine…

  8. Childhood Sexual Victimization, Educational Attainment, and the Returns to Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robst, John

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies show that survivors of childhood sexual abuse suffer as adults from depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol and drug abuse, and other mental illnesses. As such, the effect of experiencing traumatic events during childhood including sexual abuse can have lasting implications. The purpose of this paper is to examine…

  9. Early Childhood Infections and the Risk of Islet Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Smith, Jennifer; Dong, Fran; Barón, Anna E.; Barriga, Kathy; Norris, Jill M.; Rewers, Marian

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes is a common chronic childhood disease, and the incidence is increasing globally. Childhood infections are considered a potential environmental trigger of type 1 diabetes. Alternatively, improved hygiene and reduced childhood infections could explain the increase in type 1 diabetes in developed countries. The association of reported illnesses during infancy and later development of islet autoimmunity (IA) were examined in the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young. ...

  10. Understanding childhood depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Das, Partha Pratim

    2007-02-01

    Major depressive disorder in children is a severe and a chronically disabling disorder. This population appears to be a special group in terms of consequences of poor psychosocial and academic outcome and increased risk of substance abuse, and suicide. Studies have revealed several major findings in genetic, familial, psychological, and biological aspects of such depression, some of which have explored into the issue of its relationship with adult depression. Considerable advances have been made now in the area of childhood depression providing a better understanding of its nature. We review literature available on historical aspect, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and aetiology of childhood depression.

  11. Illness as Teacher: Learning from Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    This article is a conceptual exploration into the value of illness, bodies and embodied practice in teacher education. It draws on my reflections and practitioner accounts of poor health to investigate the potential to learn from illness. I position myself in this discussion as a non-tenured academic who experiences the challenges of her uncertain…

  12. MRI findings in acute idiopathic transverse myelopathy in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Albuquerque-Jonathan, Glenda; Hewlett, Richard [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, University of Cape Town and School of Child and Adolescent Health, Klipfontein Road, Cape Town (South Africa); Wilmshurst, Jo [Department of Paediatric Neurology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, University of Cape Town and School of Child and Adolescent Health, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2003-09-01

    To describe the clinical and MRI findings in three children with acute idiopathic myelopathy (AIM). Retrospective review of the clinical presentation, MRI findings and outcome of three patients diagnosed with acute idiopathic transverse myelitis. Of note was the swift onset of symptoms in all patients, without any preceding illness or history of vaccination in two of the patients, and the rapid resolution of symptoms on steroid therapy in all the patients. MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensity and patchy enhancement with gadolinium, but the extensive cord involvement did not correlate with the severity of presentation or outcome. Our findings do not support that MRI evidence alone of diffuse myelopathy is a predictor of poor outcome in childhood AIM. (orig.)

  13. Radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun; Park, Kyeong Mee; Han, Se Hwan [Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    The describe the radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis of the breast. This study included 19 patients (age range: 22 to 56 years; mean 37 years) with 22 lesions that were pathologically confirmed as having granulomatous mastitis. All the patients underwent a breast ultrasonography and 13 patients underwent a mammography. The results of the mammography revealed focal asymmetry (n = 9), multiple ill-defined isodense nodules (n 2), ill-defined nodular density on craniocaudal view (n = 1), and unremarkable finding (n = 1). The sonographic findings included continuous or discontinuous multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions (n = 7), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion (n = 5), irregular-shaped, ill-defined low echoic mass (n = 4), fluid collection with internal floating materials suggesting the presence of an abscess (n = 4), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion and abscess (n = 1), and multiple ill-defined nodules (n = 1). In the case of granulomatous mastitis, the mammography results indicate a lack of specificity between normal findings and focal asymmetry. The sonographic findings indicate that ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesions or irregular shaped, ill-defined low echoic masses are difficult to differentiate from breast cancer. The sonographic findings of abscesses indicate a difficulty in differentiating them from cases of pyogenic mastitis. However, multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions, especially with a continuous appearance, should point to granulomatous mastitis, and is helpful in its differential diagnosis and treatment.

  14. The neurological illness of Friedrich Nietzsche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemelsoet, D; Hemelsoet, K; Devreese, D

    2008-03-01

    Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), one of the most profound and influential modern philosophers, suffered since his very childhood from severe migraine. At 44 he had a mental breakdown ending in a dementia with total physical dependence due to stroke. From the very beginning, Nietzsche's dementia was attributed to a neurosyphilitic infection. Recently, this tentative diagnosis has become controversial. To use historical accounts and original materials including correspondence, biographical data and medical papers to document the clinical characteristics of Nietzsche's illness and, by using this pathography, to discuss formerly proposed diagnoses and to provide and support a new diagnostic hypothesis. Original letters from Friedrich Nietzsche, descriptions by relatives and friends, and medical descriptions. Original German sources were investigated. Biographical papers published in medical journals were also consulted. Nietzsche suffered from migraine without aura which started in his childhood. In the second half of his life he suffered from a psychiatric illness with depression. During his last years, a progressive cognitive decline evolved and ended in a profound dementia with stroke. He died from pneumonia in 1900. The family history includes a possible vascular-related mental illness in his father who died from stroke at 36. Friedrich Nietzsche's disease consisted of migraine, psychiatric disturbances, cognitive decline with dementia, and stroke. Despite the prevalent opinion that neurosyphilis caused Nietzsche's illness, there is lack of evidence to support this diagnosis. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) accounts for all the signs and symptoms of Nietzsche's illness. This study adds new elements to the debate and controversy about Nietzsche's illness. We discuss former diagnoses, comment on the history of a diagnostic mistake, and integrate for the first time Nietzsche's medical problems.

  15. Do childhood externalizing disorders predict adult depression? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Annemarie K; Drabick, Deborah A G; Leibenluft, Ellen; Hulvershorn, Leslie A

    2014-10-01

    Childhood externalizing disorders have been linked to adult affective disorders, although some studies fail to substantiate this finding. Multiple longitudinal cohort studies identifying childhood psychopathology and their association with adult psychiatric illness have been published. To examine the association between childhood externalizing symptoms or disorders and the development of adult depression across cohorts, a meta-analysis was performed. Potential studies were identified using a PubMed search through November 2013. All published, prospective, longitudinal, community-sampled cohort studies of children (≤ 13 years) with externalizing symptoms or disorders (aggression, conduct problems, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder), reassessed in adulthood (≥ 18 years) for depressive disorders (major depressive disorder, depressive disorder NOS, or dysthymic disorder) were included. A random effects model was used to summarize the pooled effect sizes. Ancillary analyses considered covariates that could account for variance among studies. Ten studies representing eight cohorts of children initially assessed at age 13 or younger (N = 17,712) were included in the meta-analysis. Childhood externalizing behavior was associated with adult depressive disorders (OR = 1.52, 95% confidence interval = 1.27-1.80, p < 0.0001). Utilizing Orwin's Fail-safe N approach, 263 studies with a mean odds ratio of 1.0 would have to be added to the analysis before the cumulative effect would become trivial. Externalizing psychopathology in childhood is associated with the development of unipolar depressive disorders in adulthood.

  16. Hippocampal development in youth with a history of childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquola, Casey; Bennett, Maxwell R; Hatton, Sean N; Hermens, Daniel F; Groote, Inge; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2017-03-27

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) is associated with enhanced risk of psychiatric illness and reduced subcortical grey matter in adulthood. The hippocampus and amygdala, due to their involvement in stress and emotion circuitries, have been subject to extensive investigations regarding the effect of CM. However, the complex relationship between CM, subcortical grey matter and mental illness remains poorly understood partially due to a lack of longitudinal studies. Here we used segmentation and linear mixed effect modelling to examine the impact of CM on hippocampal and amygdala development in young people with emerging mental illness. A total of 215 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired from 123 individuals (age: 14-28 years, 79 female), 52 of whom were scanned twice or more. Hippocampal and amygdala volumes increased linearly with age, and their developmental trajectories were not moderated by symptom severity. However, exposure to CM was associated with significantly stunted right hippocampal growth. This finding bridges the gap between child and adult research in the field and provides novel evidence that CM is associated with disrupted hippocampal development in youth. Although CM was associated with worse symptom severity, we did not find evidence that CM-induced structural abnormalities directly underpin psychopathology. This study has important implications for the psychiatric treatment of individuals with CM since they are clinically and neurobiologically distinct from their peers who were not maltreated.

  17. Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergency physicians. They receive comprehensive training in treating childhood emergencies and have more training in pediatric emergencies than other physicians, including pediatricians. Does Your Child's School Know About Food Allergies? - 8/10/2015 The nation's emergency physician ...

  18. Burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition in a semi-urban slum in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India has seen rapid unorganized urbanization in the past few decades. However, the burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition in such populations is difficult to quantify. The morbidity experience of children living in semi-urban slums of a southern Indian city is described. Methods A total of 176 children were recruited pre-weaning from four geographically adjacent, semi-urban slums located in the western outskirts of Vellore, Tamil Nadu for a study on water safety and enteric infections and received either bottled or municipal drinking water based on their area of residence. Children were visited weekly at home and had anthropometry measured monthly until their second birthday. Results A total of 3932 episodes of illness were recorded during the follow-up period, resulting in an incidence of 12.5 illnesses/child-year, with more illness during infancy than in the second year of life. Respiratory, mostly upper respiratory infections, and gastrointestinal illnesses were most common. Approximately one-third of children were stunted at two years of age, and two-thirds had at least one episode of growth failure during the two years of follow up. No differences in morbidity were seen between children who received bottled and municipal water. Conclusions Our study found a high burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition among urban slum dwellers in southern India. Frequent illnesses may adversely impact children’s health and development, besides placing an additional burden on families who need to seek healthcare and find resources to manage illness.

  19. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine's Front Line Observation Emergency Care Fact Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergencies A-Z Share ... Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can ...

  20. Illness anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001236.htm Illness anxiety disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) is a preoccupation that physical symptoms ...

  1. Childhood trauma and compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Chang, Joy; Jewell, Bryan; Rock, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    Childhood trauma has been empirically associated with various types of self-regulatory difficulties in adulthood. However, according to the extant literature, no study has examined relationships between various types of childhood trauma and compulsive buying behavior in adulthood. Using a self-report survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of 370 obstetrics/gynecology patients, we examined five types of childhood trauma before the age of 12 years (i.e. witnessing violence, physical neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse) in relationship to compulsive buying as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS). All forms of trauma demonstrated statistically significant correlations with the CBS. Using a linear regression analysis, both witnessing violence and emotional abuse significantly contributed to CBS scores. Further analyses indicated that race did not moderate the relationship between childhood trauma and compulsive buying. Findings indicate that various forms of childhood trauma are correlated with compulsive buying behavior, particularly witnessing violence and emotional abuse.

  2. Coping with Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having a long-term, or chronic, illness can disrupt your life in many ways. You may often be tired and in pain. Your illness might affect your ... able to work, causing financial problems. For children, chronic illnesses can be frightening, because they may not ...

  3. Illness narratives in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: In this paper,we investigate Danish cancer patients’ narratives on spiritual beliefs and practices and the relationship these practices may have to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design: Narrative inquiry is used to uncover how spiritual beliefs and practices may...... be related to CAM. The analysis is based on empirical findings from a recent PhD project. During a two-year period first author followed 32 cancer patients, family, friends and alternative practitioners through interviews, telephone conversations, treatments and in focus groups. Results: As a general pattern......, religious and spiritual issues were not extensively unfolded in participants’ illness narratives. However, these issues were significantly elaborated on in narratives by four female participants. Conclusion: We propose that for some cancer patients CAM may function, not only or primarily as a treatment...

  4. Traumatic Childhood Events and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Berkowitz, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic childhood events are associated with a wide range of negative physical, psychological and adaptive outcomes over the life course and are one of the few identifiable causes of psychiatric illness. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for both encountering traumatic events and developing traumatic sequelae;…

  5. Illness narratives of people who are homeless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Håkanson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple illnesses are common in all homeless populations. While most previous studies have focused on experiences of mental illness, there is a scarcity of studies about experiences of bodily illness among people who are homeless. This study aimed to explore illness narratives of people who are homeless, and how homelessness as a social context shapes the experience of multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions. The design was a qualitative single-case study, using interpretive description. Data were generated through interviews, with nine participants who were homeless rough sleepers in Stockholm, Sweden, recruited while receiving care in a support home for homeless people with complex care needs. The findings revealed experiences of illness embedded in narratives about falling ill, being ill, and the future. The particularity of these illness narratives and the way that they are shaped by homelessness give rise to several observations: the necessity of a capable body for survival; chaos and profound solitude in illness and self-care management; ambiguous feelings about receiving care, transitioning from independence, and “freedom” in the streets to dependency and being institutionalized; and finally, the absence of hope and desire for recovery or a better future. The narratives are discussed from the perspective of Frank's four types of illness stories (restitution, chaos, quest, and testimony. The findings stress that to provide appropriate care and support to people who are homeless and have multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions, health care professionals need to be informed both about the individual's biography and about the circumstances under which illness and self-care takes place in the streets.

  6. The stigma of mental illness in the labor market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipes, Crosby; Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo C; White, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Mental illness labels are accompanied by devaluation and discrimination. We extend research on reactions to mental illness by utilizing a field experiment (N = 635) to test effects of mental illness labels on labor market discrimination. This study involved sending fictitious applications to job listings, some applications indicating a history of mental illness and some indicating a history of physical injury. In line with research indicating that mental illness leads to stigma, we predicted fewer callbacks to candidates with mental illness. We also predicted relatively fewer callbacks for applicants with mental illness when the jobs involved a greater likelihood for interpersonal contact with the employer. Results showed significant discrimination against applicants with mental illness, but did not indicate an effect of potential proximity to the employer. This contributes a valuable finding in a natural setting to research on labor market discrimination towards people with mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation and treatment of childhood physical abuse and neglect: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Marissa; Berkowitz, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    According to 2010 CDC estimates, 1 in 5 US children have experienced maltreatment. Risk factors for child maltreatment include child characteristics such as non-compliance and diagnostic conditions that increase caregiver burden. Parent characteristic risk factors include parental mental illness and low social support. New developments in radiologic evaluation of child maltreatment will be reviewed. New findings in evidence based psychotherapies for childhood maltreatment will be discussed. A review of the role of pharmacotherapy in child maltreatment cases will also be presented. New evidence from prevention models targeting young mothers and families are also reviewed.

  8. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni

    2013-04-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective.

  9. Personality and illness adaptation in adults with type 1 diabetes: the intervening role of illness coping and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassart, Jessica; Luyckx, Koen; Klimstra, Theo A; Moons, Philip; Groven, Chris; Weets, Ilse

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by the common sense model, the present cross-sectional study examined illness perceptions and coping as intervening mechanisms in the relationship between Big Five personality traits and illness adaptation in adults with Type 1 diabetes. A total of 368 individuals with Type 1 diabetes (18-35 years old) completed questionnaires on personality, diabetes-related problems, illness perceptions, and illness coping. First, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness predicted patients' illness adaptation, above and beyond the effects of sex, age, and illness duration. Second, illness coping was found to be an important mediating mechanism in the relationship between the Big Five and illness adaptation. Finally, perceived consequences and perceived personal control partially mediated the relationship between the Big Five and illness coping. These findings underscore the importance of examining patients' personality to shed light on their daily functioning and, hence, call for tailored intervention programs which take into account the personality of the individual patient.

  10. The labor market consequences of family illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Allison A.

    1999-12-01

    found to be the primary caregiver when a family member falls ill. The findings in this study indicate that men suffer reductions in their hours of work in an equivalent magnitude to females. Thus, males should not be ignored when estimating the opportunity costs of illness in families. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICIES: Current federal and state policies provide for some of the medical costs and replace some of the lost income of ill individuals, but generally do not support family members who are negatively affected by illness. This research provides evidence supporting the arguments of advocates for policy to ameliorate the financial burden borne by family members of the ill. IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH: The estimates obtained in this study show that women and men both need to be studied when determining the effects of family illness on labor supply, and should be studied separately to obtain clear results. Also, future research should include examining particular mental illnesses to see whether there is a higher cost of one over the other (e.g., schizophrenia versus major depression), as this may provide valuable information to policy makers. In addition, comparison of the costs of psychological disorders to chronic physical illnesses (such as cancer and heart disease) should be undertaken.

  11. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar Wittner Bynner...

  12. The Chronic Illness Initiative: Supporting College Students with Chronic Illness Needs at DePaul University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, Lynn; Marshall, Olena

    2008-01-01

    College students with chronic illness find it difficult to succeed in traditional degree programs due to disruptions caused by relapses and unpredictable waxing and waning symptoms. College disability offices are often unable to help, both because their standard supports are not appropriate and because students with chronic illness frequently do…

  13. Assessing illness- and non-illness-based motivations for violence in persons with major mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Stephanie R; Morgan, Andrew; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2016-02-01

    Research on violence perpetrated by individuals with major mental illness (MMI) typically focuses on the presence of specific psychotic symptoms near the time of the violent act. This approach does not distinguish whether symptoms actually motivate the violence or were merely present at the material time. It also does not consider the possibility that non-illness-related factors (e.g., anger, substance use), or multiple motivations, may have been operative in driving violence. The failure to make these distinctions clouds our ability to understand the origins of violence in people with MMI, to accurately assess risk and criminal responsibility, and to appropriately target interventions to reduce and manage risk. This study describes the development of a new coding instrument designed to assess motivations for violence and offending among individuals with MMI, and reports on the scheme's interrater reliability. Using 72 psychiatric reports which had been submitted to the court to assist in determining criminal responsibility, we found that independent raters were able to assess different motivational influences for violence with a satisfactory degree of consistency. More than three-quarters (79.2%) of the sample were judged to have committed an act of violence as a primary result of illness, whereas 20.8% were deemed to have offended as a result of illness in conjunction with other non-illness-based motivating influences. Current findings have relevance for clarifying the rate of illness-driven violence among psychiatric patients, as well as legal and clinical issues related to violence risk and criminal responsibility more broadly.

  14. Moving to place: childhood cancer treatment decision making in single-parent and repartnered family structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Katherine Patterson; Ganong, Lawrence

    2011-03-01

    Few researchers have studied how parents from diverse family structures cope with childhood chronic illness. We designed this study to discern the childhood cancer treatment decision-making (TDM) process in these families. Using grounded theory, we interviewed 15 custodial parents, nonresidential parents, and stepparents who had previously made a major treatment decision for their children with cancer. "Moving to place" was the central psychosocial process by which parents negotiated involvement in TDM. Parents moved toward or were moved away from involvement based on parent position in the family (custodial, nonresidential, and stepparent), prediagnosis family dynamics, and time since diagnosis. Parents used the actions of stepping up, stepping back, being pushed, and stepping away to respond to the need for TDM. Parents faced additional stressors because of their family situations, which affected the TDM process. Findings from this study provide important insight into diverse families and their unique parental TDM experiences.

  15. Predicting wellbeing among people with epilepsy using illness cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Kirstie A; Prior, Kirsty N; Bond, Malcolm J

    2017-06-01

    This study sought to examine the synergistic contribution of illness-related perceptions (stigma, severity, and threat) and illness behavior to wellbeing among people with epilepsy. Poorer wellbeing was expected among those who perceived greater stigma, illness severity, and threat and had more extreme illness behavior. Individuals with a diagnosis of epilepsy (N=210), recruited through local and online support groups, completed a questionnaire comprising demographic and epilepsy-specific information, and validated measures of illness perceptions and behavior, epilepsy-related quality of life, and general psychological health. Bivariate associations among illness cognition, illness behavior, and wellbeing were all as expected. Structural equation modeling highlighted the strong, direct effect of illness threat on quality of life, with other contributions from perceived stigma and an abnormal illness behavior syndrome (i.e., maladaptive illness responses). Significant variance was accounted for in both quality of life (64%) and psychological health (34%). Preliminary evidence of the contributions of illness threat and maladaptive illness responses to wellbeing highlights the need for longitudinal research to examine the dynamic nature of such findings. Clinicians are encouraged to consider the potential value of screening for both illness threat and abnormal illness behavior to facilitate interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Youth adjustment to parental illness or disability: the role of illness characteristics, caregiving, and attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Michael J; Pakenham, Kenneth I

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to (1) examine relations between youth adjustment and three sets of predictors: parental illness/disability characteristics, caregiving, and parent-child attachment, and (2) explore differences on these variables between youths of parental physical illness/disability and youths of parental mental illness. Eighty-one youths between 10 and 25 years of a parent with a physical illness/disability (35%) or a mental illness (43%) completed a series of self-report measures assessing perceived characteristics of the parent's illness/disability, caregiving experiences, and adjustment outcomes. Results revealed a set of predictors of poorer youth adjustment: gradual illness/disability onset, being male, isolation, lower perceived maturity, and less choice in caregiving. Youths of parental mental illness differed from youths of parental physical illness/disability on emotional distress (worry and discomfort) dimensions of caregiving. Youth-parent attachment security was associated with youth caregiving and there was a trend for attachment to vary according to parental illness/disability type. Findings highlight young caregiving as an important target for service and policy planning.

  17. Foodborne Germs and Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2020 and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act Foodborne Germs and Illnesses Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Foodborne Germs Botulism Campylobacter Clostridium perfringens Cyclospora E. coli ...

  18. Coping mediates the relationship between disease severity and illness intrusiveness among chronically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundt, Natalie E; Bensadon, Benjamin A; Stanley, Melinda A; Petersen, Nancy J; Kunik, Mark E; Kauth, Michael R; Cully, Jeffrey A

    2015-09-01

    Reducing perceptions of illness intrusiveness may improve quality of life and mental health among patients with cardiopulmonary disease. To better understand relationships between coping style, locus of control, perceived illness intrusiveness, and disease severity, we analyzed data from 227 older Veterans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or congestive heart failure. Regressions revealed illness intrusiveness to be associated with younger age and greater disease severity, less internal locus of control, and avoidant/emotion-focused coping. Avoidant/emotion-focused coping but not active coping mediated the relationship between illness severity and illness intrusiveness. Findings suggest that supportive psychological interventions may reduce illness intrusiveness by targeting an avoidant/emotion-focused coping style and associated behaviors. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  20. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.

  1. Attitudes of psychiatry residents toward mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Attitudes of lay people and physicians towards mentally ill patients are frequently highly biased. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in attitudes of psychiatry and internal medicine residents toward mental illness and to establish the relationship between their attitudes and their personal characteristics. Material and methods. The sample consisted of 45 psychiatry and 36 internal medicine residents. The attitudes toward mental illness were assessed using Opinions about Mental Illness Questionnaire (OMI and personality traits were examined using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ. Results. Our findings showed that in regard to internal medicine residents, psychiatry residents do not consider mentally ill patients to be inferior and dangerous. Psychiatry residents have a benevolent attitude toward the mentally ill. Personality traits of psychiatry residents were not related to their opinions about mental illness. Discussion. The results suggest that there is a need to develop strategies that would bring about changes in the curriculum of training programs for medical residents, including proper training in mental health issues. Such strategies should help in destigmatization of persons with mental disorders and increase the competence of physicians to deal with mentally ill. .

  2. Seniors' life histories and perceptions of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montbriand, Muriel J

    2004-03-01

    This life history research examined seniors' life experiences and perceived connections to illnesses. From a randomly selected sample of 190 seniors'interviews, 107 deemed to be the most expressive life stories were selected as the focus for this analysis. All seniors lived independently in a Canadian prairie city, were 60 years of age or older, Caucasian, European decent, had a chronic illness, and told of lives touched by the Great Depression and World War II. Given the paucity of research exploring seniors' life histories, these findings increase understanding of how life experiences shape seniors' identities. Four main themes emerged to describe seniors' lives: chaos, tragedy, quest, and romance. Findings reported here show that seniors with optimistic perceptions do not connect their life experiences with illnesses. Seniors with pessimistic perceptions frequently connect their life experiences with present illnesses and are most likely to remember past abuse and coping with abuse.

  3. Growing up with a chronic illness: social success, educational/vocational distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Haydon, Abigail; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Ford, Carol A; Halpern, Carolyn T

    2011-08-01

    We compared adult educational, vocational, and social outcomes among young adults with and without childhood-onset chronic illness in a nationally representative U.S. sample. We used data from Wave IV (2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We compared respondents who reported childhood-onset cancer, heart disease, diabetes, or epilepsy with young adults without these chronic illnesses in terms of marriage, having children, living with parents, romantic relationship quality, educational attainment, income, and employment. Multivariate models controlled for sociodemographic factors and adult-onset chronic illness. As compared with those without childhood chronic illness, respondents with childhood chronic illness had similar odds of marriage (odds ratios [OR] = .89, 95% CI: .65-1.24), having children (OR = .99, 95% CI: .70-1.42), and living with parents (OR = 1.49, 95% CI .94-2.33), and similar reports of romantic relationship quality. However, the chronic illness group had lower odds of graduating college (OR = .49, 95% CI: .31-.78) and being employed (OR = .56, 95% CI: .39-.80), and higher odds of receiving public assistance (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.39-3.25), and lower mean income. Young adults growing up with chronic illness succeed socially, but are at increased risk of poorer educational and vocational outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Heat Related Illnesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Carter III; Samuel N. Cheuvront; Michael N. Sawka

    2007-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS · Heat illnesses range in severity from mild (heat rash, heat syncope, cramps) to serious (heat exhaustion, heat injury, heat stroke). · Although heat illness can occur in anyone, an increased risk is associated with a variety of environmental factors, personal characteristics,health conditions, and medications.

  5. Parasites and Foodborne Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called "Crypto", is a one-celled, microscopic shelled parasite and a significant cause of waterborne and foodborne illness worldwide. It is found in the intestines of many herd animals including cows, sheep, goats, deer, and elk. The illness could be intestinal, ...

  6. Asthma in childhood: a complex, heterogeneous disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Lee Chung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma in childhood is a heterogeneous disease with different phenotypes and variable clinical manifestations, which depend on the age, gender, genetic background, and environmental influences of the patients. Several longitudinal studies have been conducted to classify the phenotypes of childhood asthma, on the basis of the symptoms, triggers of wheezing illness, or pathophysiological features of the disease. These studies have provided us with important information about the different wheezing phenotypes in young children and about potential mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic asthma. The goal of these studies was to provide a better insight into the causes and natural course of childhood asthma. It is well-known that complicated interactions between genes and environmental factors contribute to the development of asthma. Because childhood is a period of rapid growth in both the lungs and the immune system, developmental factors should be considered in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. The pulmonary system continues to grow and develop until linear growth is completed. Longitudinal studies have reported significant age-related immune development during postnatal early life. These observations suggest that the phenotypes of childhood asthma vary among children and also in an individual child over time. Improved classification of heterogeneous conditions of the disease will help determine novel strategies for primary and secondary prevention and for the development of individualized treatment for childhood asthma.

  7. The Effects of Non-Maternal Care in the First Twelve Months of Life on Children in the First Year of School: Preliminary Findings from a Two Stage Study (The Australian Early Childhood Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiltree, Gay; Edgar, Don

    This paper, which presents preliminary analysis of data from stage one of the Australian Early Childhood study, examined the effects of nonmaternal care in the first year of life on children in their first year of school. The author tested the hypothesis, proposed by John Bowlby and others, that long periods of nonmaternal care in the first 12…

  8. Findings from the Third-Grade Round of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 (ECLS-K:2011): First Look. NCES 2016-094

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Gail M.; McCarroll, Jill Carlivati; Flanagan, Kristin Denton; Potter, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 (ECLS-K:2011), is collecting information about the early educational experiences of a nationally representative sample of children who were in kindergarten or who were of kindergarten age in ungraded classrooms or schools in the 2010-11 school year. The data collection began in…

  9. The Effects of Non-Maternal Care in the First Twelve Months of Life on Children in the First Year of School: Preliminary Findings from a Two Stage Study (The Australian Early Childhood Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiltree, Gay; Edgar, Don

    This paper, which presents preliminary analysis of data from stage one of the Australian Early Childhood study, examined the effects of nonmaternal care in the first year of life on children in their first year of school. The author tested the hypothesis, proposed by John Bowlby and others, that long periods of nonmaternal care in the first 12…

  10. Violence in childhood-onset schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lurie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Violence is elevated in older adolescents and adults with schizophrenia; however, little is known about younger children. This report focuses on rates of violence in younger children with schizophrenic-spectrum illnesses. A retrospective review of structured diagnostic interviews from a case series of 81 children, ages 4-15 years of age, with childhood onset of schizophrenic-spectrum illness is reported. Seventy-two percent of children had a history of violent behavior, including 25 children (31% with a history of severe violence. Of those with a history of violence, 60% had a least one episode of violence that did not appear to be in response to an external stimulus (internally driven violence. There was no significant impact of age or gender. For many children, these internally driven violent episodes were rare and unpredictable, but severe. Similar to what is found in adolescents and adults, violence is common in children with schizophrenic-spectrum illnesses. General violence prevention strategies combined with early identification and treatment of childhood psychotic illnesses may decrease the morbidity associated with childhood psychotic violence.

  11. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Until Help Arrives What To Do In A Medical Emergency Childhood Emergencies Careers in Emergency Medicine Seconds ... Lives Be Prepared Safe Citizen Day Organize Important Medical Information ER Checklists Preparing for Emergencies Be ready ...

  12. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A Medical Emergency Childhood Emergencies Careers in Emergency Medicine Seconds Save Lives Be Prepared Safe Citizen Day ... So Long? Admission to the Hospital Heroes on Medicine's Front Line Observation Emergency Care Fact Sheet Health & ...

  13. Zinc as an adjunct for childhood pneumonia - interpreting early results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natchu, Uma Chandra Mouli; Fataki, Maulidi R; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2008-07-01

    Zinc supplementation has been consistently shown to reduce the incidence of childhood pneumonia, but its effect on the course of pneumonia when administered as an adjunct to antibiotic therapy is still unclear. Three trials published to date have shown mixed results, and a recent trial from India raises the possibility that zinc may be detrimental in some circumstances. Study sites and designs differ, particularly in the timing of zinc treatment and in determining recovery from pneumonia, which can explain the differences in study findings. Serum zinc concentrations are unreliable indicators of zinc status, particularly during acute infectious illnesses. Subgroup analyses, especially using serum zinc levels, must be cautioned against. Future studies are needed that are large enough to be sufficiently powered to accommodate larger treatment failure rates, an issue that ongoing trials will hopefully address.

  14. Disabling pansclerotic morphea of childhood with extracutaneous manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra M Kura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Disabling pansclerotic morphea (DPM of childhood is a rare generalized type of localized scleroderma (LS that is known to follow an aggressive course with pansclerotic lesions leading to severe joint contractures and consequent immobility. Mortality is due to complications of the disease such as bronchopneumonia, sepsis, or gangrene. There is no specific laboratory finding. Treatment protocols are still evolving for this severe recalcitrant disorder. Extracutaneous manifestations are rarely reported in DPM. We present the case of a 7-year-old girl with DPM with severe extracutaneous manifestations in the form of gastrointestinal and vascular disease, whose disease progressed rapidly. In spite of treatment with methotrexate, corticosteroids, and PUVA therapy, she ultimately succumbed to her illness due to sepsis.

  15. Childhood vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Palit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo is often encountered in dermatological practice. When present in infancy or early childhood, various nevoid and hereditary disorders are to be differentiated. In many cases, familial aggregation of the disease is seen and other autoimmune disorders may be associated. Segmental presentation is more common, and limited body surface area involvement is usual in this age group. Children with vitiligo often suffer from anxiety and depression because of their unusual appearance. Management of vitiligo in children is difficult as therapeutic options are restricted when compared to that in adult patients. Selection of treatment should be careful in these patients with the aim to achieve best results with minimal side effects as well as relieving patients′ and parents′ anxiety.

  16. The social construction of illness: key insights and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Peter; Barker, Kristin K

    2010-01-01

    The social construction of illness is a major research perspective in medical sociology. This article traces the roots of this perspective and presents three overarching constructionist findings. First, some illnesses are particularly embedded with cultural meaning--which is not directly derived from the nature of the condition--that shapes how society responds to those afflicted and influences the experience of that illness. Second, all illnesses are socially constructed at the experiential level, based on how individuals come to understand and live with their illness. Third, medical knowledge about illness and disease is not necessarily given by nature but is constructed and developed by claims-makers and interested parties. We address central policy implications of each of these findings and discuss fruitful directions for policy-relevant research in a social constructionist tradition. Social constructionism provides an important counterpoint to medicine's largely deterministic approaches to disease and illness, and it can help us broaden policy deliberations and decisions.

  17. Clinical characteristics associated with illness perception in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Astrid K; Robinson, Hilde S; Langeland, Eva; Larsen, Marie H; Krogstad, Anne-Lene; Moum, Torbjørn

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of illness perception may aid the identification of groups of patients with a higher risk of coping poorly with the demands of their illness. This study aims to investigate associations between illness perception, clinical characteristics, patient knowledge, quality of life and subjective health in persons with psoriasis. The present study was based on cross-sectional data from patients awaiting climate therapy in Gran Canaria. We included 254 eligible patients (74%) who completed a questionnaire including the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Psoriasis Knowledge Questionnaire, and the Dermatological Life Quality Index. Disease severity was measured using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Several statistically significant associations between clinical characteristics, knowledge and various illness perception dimensions were found. Illness perception was also significantly related to disease-specific quality of life and subjective health. These findings contradict previous findings, which suggested that objective disease factors are not relevant to illness perception in psoriasis.

  18. Genetics of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.

  19. Quality Measurement in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.; Tout, Kathryn, Ed.; Halle, Tamara, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What constitutes quality in early childhood settings, and how can it best be measured with today's widely used tools and promising new approaches? Find authoritative answers in this book, a must-have for high-level administrators and policymakers as more and more states adopt early childhood Quality Rating and Improvement Systems. The most…

  20. Personality and Adult Perceptions of Childhood Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacka, Brian

    This study used adult recall of childhood dreams to test Cann and Donderi's (1986) findings that Jungian intuitives recall more archetypal dreams than do sensate subjects, and that introverts recall more everyday dreams than extraverts. It was hypothesized that since dreams recalled from childhood are relatively high in archetypal content, there…

  1. Childhood Participation Experiences in the Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, M.; Morata, T.; Trilla, J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the findings of a broader research project entitled "Childhood Participation and Citizenship Building," which examined the medium-term effects of intense experiences of participation in childhood within both the school environment and those of leisure-time and community education. The results presented in this…

  2. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000–2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States, 2011-2014 Childhood obesity ...

  3. Negative and positive childhood experiences across developmental periods in psychiatric patients with different diagnoses – an explorative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schauer Margarete

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high frequency of childhood abuse has often been reported in adult psychiatric patients. The present survey explores the relationship between psychiatric diagnoses and positive and negative life events during childhood and adulthood in psychiatric samples. Methods A total of 192 patients with diagnoses of alcohol-related disorders (n = 45, schizophrenic disorders (n = 52, affective disorders (n = 54, and personality disorders (n = 41 completed a 42-item self-rating scale (Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire, TAQ. The TAQ assesses personal positive experiences (competence and safety and negative experiences (neglect, separation, secrets, emotional, physical and sexual abuse, trauma witnessing, other traumas, and alcohol and drugs abuse during four developmental periods, beginning from early childhood to adulthood. Patients were recruited from four Psychiatric hospitals in Germany, Switzerland, and Romania; 63 subjects without any history of mental illness served as controls. Results The amount of positive experiences did not differ significantly among groups, except for safety scores that were lower in patients with personality disorders as compared to the other groups. On the other side, negative experiences appeared more frequently in patients than in controls. Emotional neglect and abuse were reported in patients more frequently than physical and sexual abuse, with negative experiences encountered more often in late childhood and adolescence than in early childhood. The patients with alcohol-related and personality disorders reported more negative events than the ones with schizophrenic and affective disorders. Conclusions The present findings add evidence to the relationship between retrospectively reported childhood experiences and psychiatric diagnoses, and emphasize the fact that a emotional neglect and abuse are the most prominent negative experiences, b adolescence is a more 'sensitive' period for negative

  4. Critical illness myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latronico, Nicola; Tomelleri, Giuliano; Filosto, Massimiliano

    2012-11-01

    To describe the incidence, major risk factors, and the clinical, electrophysiological, and histological features of critical illness myopathy (CIM). Major pathogenetic mechanisms and long-term consequences of CIM are also reviewed. CIM is frequently associated with critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP), and may have a relevant impact on patients' outcome. CIM has an earlier onset than CIP, and recovery is faster. Loss of myosin filaments on muscle biopsy is important to diagnose CIM, and has a good prognosis. Critical illness, use of steroids, and immobility concur in causing CIM. A rationale diagnostic approach to CIM using clinical, electrophysiological, and muscle biopsy investigations is important to plan adequate therapy and to predict recovery.

  5. Childhood fever in well-child clinics: a focus group study among doctors and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peetoom, Kirsten K B; Ploum, Luc J L; Smits, Jacqueline J M; Halbach, Nicky S J; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Cals, Jochen W L

    2016-07-08

    Fever is common in children aged 0-4 years old and often leads to parental worries and in turn, high use of healthcare services. Educating parents may have beneficial effects on their sense of coping and fever management. Most parents receive information when their child is ill but it might be more desirable to educate parents in the setting of well-child clinics prior to their child becoming ill, in order to prepare parents for future illness management. This study aims to explore experiences of well-child clinic professionals when dealing with childhood fever and current practices of fever information provision to identify starting points for future interventions. We held four focus group discussions based on naturalistic enquiry among 22 well-child clinic professionals. Data was analysed using the constant comparative technique. Well-child clinic professionals regularly received questions from parents about childhood fever and felt that parental worries were the major driving factor behind these contacts. These worries were assumed to be driven by: (1) lack of knowledge (2) experiences with fever (3) educational level and size social network (4) inconsistencies in paracetamol administration advice among healthcare professionals. Well-child clinic professionals perceive current information provision as limited and stated a need for improvement. For example, information should be consistent, easy to find and understand. Fever-related questions are common in well-child care and professionals perceive that most of the workload is driven by parental worries. The focus group discussions revealed a desire to optimise the current limited information provision for childhood fever. Future interventions aimed at improving information provision for fever in well-child clinics should consider parental level of knowledge, experience, educational level and social network and inconsistencies among healthcare providers. Future fever information provision should focus on

  6. The cost of community-managed viral respiratory illnesses in a cohort of healthy preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Kelly M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs during childhood are often caused by respiratory viruses, result in significant morbidity, and have associated costs for families and society. Despite their ubiquity, there is a lack of interdisciplinary epidemiologic and economic research that has collected primary impact data, particularly associated with indirect costs, from families during ARIs in children. Methods We conducted a 12-month cohort study in 234 preschool children with impact diary recording and PCR testing of nose-throat swabs for viruses during an ARI. We used applied values to estimate a virus-specific mean cost of ARIs. Results Impact diaries were available for 72% (523/725 of community-managed illnesses between January 2003 and January 2004. The mean cost of ARIs was AU$309 (95% confidence interval $263 to $354. Influenza illnesses had a mean cost of $904, compared with RSV, $304, the next most expensive single-virus illness, although confidence intervals overlapped. Mean carer time away from usual activity per day was two hours for influenza ARIs and between 30 and 45 minutes for all other ARI categories. Conclusion From a societal perspective, community-managed ARIs are a significant cost burden on families and society. The point estimate of the mean cost of community-managed influenza illnesses in healthy preschool aged children is three times greater than those illnesses caused by RSV and other respiratory viruses. Indirect costs, particularly carer time away from usual activity, are the key cost drivers for ARIs in children. The use of parent-collected specimens may enhance ARI surveillance and reduce any potential Hawthorne effect caused by compliance with study procedures. These findings reinforce the need for further integrated epidemiologic and economic research of ARIs in children to allow for comprehensive cost-effectiveness assessments of preventive and therapeutic options.

  7. Heat-Related Illnesses

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    Full Text Available ... in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be caused by overexposure to the sun or any situation ... pale skin, rapid pulse, elevated or lowered blood pressure, nausea, loss of consciousness, vomiting or a high ...

  8. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is present. For More Information Share Chronic Illness & Mental Health Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... For more information, see the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) booklet on Depression at http://www.nimh. ...

  9. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  10. Heat-Related Illnesses

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    Full Text Available ... for signs of heat stroke or exhaustion. Heat Stroke and Exhaustion Symptoms of early heat exhaustion symptoms ... heavy sweating; nausea; and giddiness. Symptoms of heat stroke (late stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, ...

  11. Heat-Related Illnesses

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    Full Text Available ... illness) include flushed, hot, dry skin; fainting; a rapid, weak pulse; rapid, shallow breathing; vomiting; and increased body temperature of ... for symptoms that include cool, moist, pale skin, rapid pulse, elevated or lowered blood pressure, nausea, loss ...

  12. Heat-Related Illnesses

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    Full Text Available ... for Disasters Communication With Your Family And Your Doctor About Your Wishes Visiting the ER Who Takes ... 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat- ...

  13. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exhaustion symptoms include cool, moist, pale or flushed skin; headache; dizziness; weakness; feeling exhausted; heavy sweating; nausea; ... stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, dry skin; fainting; a rapid, weak pulse; rapid, shallow breathing; ...

  14. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exhaustion symptoms include cool, moist, pale or flushed skin; headache; dizziness; weakness; feeling exhausted; heavy sweating; nausea; ... stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, dry skin; fainting; a rapid, weak pulse; rapid, shallow breathing; ...

  15. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of heat stroke or exhaustion. Heat Stroke and Exhaustion Symptoms of early heat exhaustion symptoms ... heavy sweating; nausea; and giddiness. Symptoms of heat stroke (late stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, ...

  16. Heat-Related Illnesses

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    Full Text Available ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  17. Symptoms of Tickborne Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Removing a tick Symptoms of tickborne illness Geographic distribution of ticks that bite humans How ticks spread ... varies greatly from person to person in appearance, location, and time of onset. About 10% of people ...

  18. Validity of information on atopic disease and other illness in young children reported by parents in a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vissing Nadja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The longitudinal birth cohort study is the preferred design for studies of childhood health, particularly atopic disease. Still, prospective data collection depends on recollection of the medical history since the previous visit representing a potential recall-bias. We aimed to ascertain the quality of information on atopic disease and other health symptoms reported by parental interview in a closely monitored birth cohort study. Possible bias from symptom severity and socioeconomics were sought. Methods Copenhagen study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC is a clinical birth cohort study of 411 children born of asthmatic mothers from 1999 to 2001. Child health is monitored at six-monthly visits with particular emphasis on atopic symptoms and infections. Data from the first three study years on 260 children was compared with records from their family practitioner as an external reference. Results A total of 6134 medical events were reported at the COPSAC interviews. Additional 586 medical events were recorded by family practitioners but not reported at the interview. There were no missed events related to asthma, eczema or allergy. Respiratory, infectious and skin related symptoms showed completeness above 90%, other diseases showed lower completeness around 77%. There was no meaningful influence from concurrent asthma or socioeconomics. Conclusions The COPSAC study exhibited full sensitivity to the main study objectives, atopic disease, and high sensitivity to respiratory, infectious and skin related illness. Our findings support the validity of parental interviews in longitudinal cohort studies investigating atopic disease and illness in childhood.

  19. Sculpting the Illness Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Bathje MS, OTR/L

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Otto Kamensek provided the cover art for the Fall 2014 issue of the Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. “Glimmer of Hope” is part of Otto’s collection “Shard’s, Bone Deep,” which includes hand-built ceramic sculptures that portray his experiences with a lifelong chronic illness. Engaging in ceramic sculpture helps him process the experiences associated with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis and provides a means to support others experiencing chronic illness.

  20. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    to cold stress. Despite this ability, man has been plagued by heat illness throughout recorded history. The Old Testament describes a young man’s...encounter heat illness because of the requirement to train unacclimatized men by means of forced heavy physical cxercise. The United States Army...dyspnea, dysphagia , and urinary incontinence. 2 6 Although the muscular rigidity and hyperthermia are reminiscent of malignant hyperthermia, the putative

  1. Violence and Mental Illness

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, includi...

  2. Illness as a condition of our existence in the world: on illness and pathic existence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Elin Håkonsen; Solbakk, Jan Helge

    2012-06-01

    This paper seeks to find different ways of addressing illness as an experience essential to the understanding of being a human being. As a conceptual point of departure, we suggest the notion of 'pathic existence' as developed by the German physician and philosopher Viktor von Weizsäcker (1886-1957). Through an analysis of his conceptualisation of the pathic and of pathic categories, we demonstrate how this auxiliary typology may be of help in unveiling different modes of ill-being, or Kranksein. Furthermore, we show how illness plays a paradigmatic role in this type of existence. We discuss how von Weizsäcker's claim of illness as "a way of being human" indicates how such a view of the illness existence both differs from and touches upon other streams of thought within the philosophy of medicine and medical ethics. Finally, we highlight some of the normative implications emerging from this perspective of relevance in today's medicine.

  3. Course of illness in a sample of patients diagnosed with a schizotypal disorder and treated in a specialized early intervention setting. Findings from the 3.5year follow-up of the OPUS II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Nikolai; Glenthøj, Louise Birkedal; Melau, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    of a randomized clinical trial testing the effect of prolonged specialized early intervention, we recruited 83 participants diagnosed with a schizotypal disorder. Participants were recruited 18 months into their two-year treatment program, and follow-up interviews were conducted three and a half year later....... They were randomized to either discontinuation after the standard two year treatment or continuation of the specialized treatment for totally five year. The study investigated whether prolonged treatment could affect the rate of transition to psychosis and other clinical outcomes, and what would predict...... transition to psychosis. DISCUSSION: Comparable to previous ultra-high risk studies, we found that level of functioning was the strongest predictor of transition to psychosis. Prior studies have found effect of specialized early intervention on transition rates, but we were not able to reproduce this finding...

  4. Risk factors associated with recurrent diarrheal illnesses among children in Kabul, Afghanistan: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Aluisio

    Full Text Available Childhood diarrheal illnesses are a major public health problem. In low-income settings data on disease burden and factors associated with diarrheal illnesses are poorly defined, precluding effective prevention programs. This study explores factors associated with recurrent diarrheal illnesses among children in Kabul, Afghanistan.A cohort of 1-11 month old infants was followed for 18 months from 2007-2009. Data on diarrheal episodes were gathered through active and passive surveillance. Information on child health, socioeconomics, water and sanitation, and hygiene behaviors was collected. Factors associated with recurrent diarrheal illnesses were analyzed using random effects recurrent events regression models.3,045 children were enrolled and 2,511 (82% completed 18-month follow-up. There were 14,998 episodes of diarrheal disease over 4,200 child-years (3.51 episodes/child-year, 95%CI 3.40-3.62. Risk of diarrheal illness during the winter season was 63% lower than the summer season (HR = 0.37, 95%CI 0.35-0.39, P<0.001. Soap for hand washing was available in 72% of households and 11.9% had toilets with septic/canalization. Half of all mothers reported using soap for hand washing. In multivariate analysis diarrheal illness was lower among children born to mothers with post-primary education (aHR = 0.79, 95%CI 0.69-0.91, p = 0.001, from households where maternal hand washing with soap was reported (aHR = 0.83, 95%CI 0.74-0.92, p<0.001 and with improved sanitation facilities (aHR = 0.76, 95%CI 0.63-0.93, p = 0.006. Malnourished children from impoverished households had significantly increased risks for recurrent disease [(aHR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.03-1.29, p = 0.016 and (aHR = 1.20, 95%CI 1.05-1.37, p = 0.006 respectively].Maternal hand washing and improved sanitation facilities were protective, and represent important prevention points among public health endeavors. The discrepancy between soap availability and utilization suggests barriers to access and

  5. Redefining outcome of first seizures by acute illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily T; Kerin, Tara; Christakis, Dimitri A; Blume, Heidi K; Gospe, Sidney M; Vinje, Jan; Bowen, Michael D; Gentsch, Jon; Zerr, Danielle M

    2010-12-01

    Seizures are common in children, but the causes and recurrence risk for children with a nonfebrile first seizure remain poorly understood. In a prospective longitudinal study of children who presented with a first-time seizure, we investigated the viral etiology of associated infectious illnesses and sought to determine the risk of recurrent seizures stratified by fever and type of illness. Children (aged 6 months to 6 years) were enrolled at the time of evaluation for their first seizure and followed monthly for up to 5 years. Seizure and illness data were collected through parent interviews and medical-record reviews. Stool, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid collected within 48 hours of the first seizure were evaluated for viral gastrointestinal pathogens. Of the 117 children enrolled, 78 (67%) had febrile seizures, 34 (29%) had nonfebrile-illness seizures, and 5 (4%) had unprovoked seizures. Children with nonfebrile-illness seizures were more likely than those with febrile seizures to have acute gastroenteritis (47% and 28%, respectively; P = .05). No significant differences in seizure recurrence were found between children with or without a fever at first seizure. Children with acute gastroenteritis at first seizure, regardless of fever, had a lower risk of seizure recurrence compared with children with other acute illnesses (hazard ratio: 0.28; 95% confidence interval: 0.09-0.80). Our results confirm the role of gastrointestinal illness as a distinguishing feature in childhood seizures. Children with this distinct presentation have a low rate of seizure recurrence and few neurologic complications.

  6. Childhood psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, Emmanuel

    2016-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. Recently, few data have been published on epidemiology, comorbidity, or therapy in children with psoriasis. Psoriasis affects up to 2% of children in Europe, even during the first months of life. The link between psoriasis and metabolic comorbidities has been highlighted, notably in relation to excessive weight and obesity. The clinical picture of psoriasis in childhood resembles adult disease, however, some clinical features are noteworthy: neonatal diaper rash is relatively specific, face involvement and guttate psoriasis are more common, plaques are often smaller, and scales are finer and softer than in adults. Napkin, guttate and palmoplantar psoriasis appear to have specific features in childhood and prevalence depends on the age of the child. Although benign, the effect of psoriasis on social interaction can be major, especially in children. Topical therapies are the first line of treatment for skin-limited disease. For chronic cases and more severe cases, phototherapy or traditional biologic systemic treatments must be discussed. The great challenge will be to propose international guidelines to manage these children.

  7. CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT AND THE COURSE OF DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS : THE CONTRIBUTION OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; van Hemert, Albert M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    BackgroundWe investigated the effect of childhood maltreatment on predicting the 4-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders and the possible mediating role of personality characteristics in the association between childhood maltreatment and illness course.MethodsLongitudinal data in a large

  8. CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT AND THE COURSE OF DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS : THE CONTRIBUTION OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; van Hemert, Albert M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundWe investigated the effect of childhood maltreatment on predicting the 4-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders and the possible mediating role of personality characteristics in the association between childhood maltreatment and illness course.MethodsLongitudinal data in a large s

  9. Antecedents to Prostitution: Childhood Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Susan M.; Koverola, Catherine; Schludermann, Eduard H.

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent prostitutes (n=45) and adolescent nonprostitutes (n=37) were interviewed regarding their experiences related to childhood physical and sexual abuse, leaving home, family functioning, parental alcohol and drug use, and level of self-esteem. Although results replicated previous findings, when a comparison group was considered the same…

  10. Childhood: 1892-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Sue C.

    Written to celebrate a century of childhood and to mark the centennial year of the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI), this book describes childhood and childhood education during the past century in the context of the conditions during different periods. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "The American…

  11. Health Anxiety in Preadolescence - Associated Health Problems, Healthcare Expenditure, and Continuity in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Munkholm, Anja; Clemmensen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    assessed in 1886 Danish 11-12 year old children (48 % boys) from the Copenhagen Child Cohort using the Childhood Illness Attitude Scales (CIAS) together with information on socio-demographics and the child's somatic and mental status and healthcare expenditure. Non-parametric statistics and regression......; they showed continuity from early childhood and association with emotional disorders, unspecific somatic complaints, and increased healthcare expenditure. Further research in the clinical significance of childhood HA is required....

  12. [Creativity and mental illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Gonda, Xénia; Rihmer, Annamária

    2006-01-01

    It has been known for a long time that people with salient social and artistic creativity suffer more frequently from psychiatric illnesses than the average population. In their review paper, the authors assess the Hungarian and international scientific literature regarding the association of creativity and psychopathology. They conclude that contrary to the concept prevailing in the first part of the 20th century about the strong association between schizophrenia and creativity, the results of empirical research now unambiguously suggest that prominent social and artistic creativity is associated primarily with affective, and more specifically with bipolar affective illnesses. In addition, we already know that as regards the development of creativity, it is not the given affective (depressive, manic, hypomanic) episode which is important, but the hyperthymic or cyclothymic temperament structure which also predisposes for affective illness.

  13. Stress modulates illness-course of substance use disorders: a translational review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn eLijffijt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood trauma and post-childhood chronic/repeated stress could increase the risk of a substance use disorder by affecting 5 stages of addiction illness-course: (a initial experimentation with substances; (b shifting from experimental to regular use; (c escalation from regular use to abuse or dependence; (d motivation to quit; (e risk of (re-lapse. We reviewed the human literature on relationships between stress and addiction illness-course. We explored per illness-course stage (i whether childhood trauma and post-childhood chronic/repeated stress have comparable effects, and (ii whether effects cut across classes of substances of abuse. We further discuss potential underlying mechanisms by which stressors may affect illness-course stages for which we relied on evidence from studies in animals and humans. Stress and substances of abuse both activate stress and dopaminergic motivation systems, and childhood trauma and post-childhood stressful events are more chronic and occur more frequently in people who use substances. Stressors increase risk to initiate early use potentially by affecting trait-like factors of risk-taking, decision making, and behavioral control by diminished prefrontal functioning. Stressors also accelerate transition to regular use, potentially due to prior effects of stress on cross-sensitization of dopaminergic motivation systems with substances of abuse, especially in people with high trait impulsivity who are more prone to sensitization. Finally, stressors increase risk for abuse and dependence, attenuate motivation to quit, and increase relapse risk, potentially by intensified sensitization of motivational systems, by a shift from positive to negative reinforcement due to sensitization of the amygdala by corticotropin releasing factor, and by increased sensitization of noradrenergic systems. Stress generally affects addiction illness-course across childhood stressor types, and across classes of substances of abuse.

  14. Impact of childhood cancer on emerging adult survivors' romantic relationships: a qualitative account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L; Long, Kristin A; Marsland, Anna L

    2013-02-01

    Research focusing on the long-term sequelae of diagnosis and treatment for childhood cancer suggests that although the majority of survivors are not at increased risk for psychopathology, many experience persistent problems in other domains that greatly affect quality of life (QoL). One such domain is social functioning. To date, little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on social functioning and related QoL during emerging adulthood, the developmental period that spans the late teens and early twenties and is characterized, in part, by explorations in love and romantic relationships. To document emerging adult survivors' perceptions of their romantic relationships through a descriptive qualitative study. Recurrent themes from interviews were extracted via qualitative content-based analysis. Eighteen female survivors of childhood cancer, ages 18-25, participated in a phone interview focused on past and present romantic partnerships. Themes from coded transcripts included redefined life priorities and perspective, concerns with disclosure of cancer history and emotions, negative body image as a result of illness and treatment side effects, and worries about fertility and health of future children. Survivors related these concerns to their histories of childhood cancer and discussed the impact on the development and maintenance of romantic relationships. Overall, survivors reported a number of relationship concerns that have the potential to interfere with their ability to move toward emotional and physical intimacy in relationships, a key task of emerging adulthood. These findings suggest a number of testable hypotheses for future research, have the potential to inform the construction of new measures that more accurately evaluate social functioning of childhood cancer survivors, and emphasize the importance of ongoing assessment by health care providers of developmentally salient issues like love/romance. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. Epidemiology of childhood burn: yield of largest community based injury survey in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashreky, S R; Rahman, A; Chowdhury, S M; Giashuddin, S; SvanstrOm, L; Linnan, M; Shafinaz, S; Uhaa, I J; Rahman, F

    2008-09-01

    In terms of mortality, morbidity and disability, burns are emerging as a major child health problem in Bangladesh. This trend is similar to many other developing countries. To develop effective burn prevention programmes, information on its magnitude and determinants is necessary. The purpose of this study was to document the magnitude and determinant of childhood burns in Bangladesh, based on a population-based survey which was conducted between January and December 2003. Nationally representative data was collected from 171,366 rural and urban households, comprising of a total population of 819,429. To facilitate data collection, face-to-face interviews were conducted. The rate of non-fatal burn among children under 18 years of age was calculated as 288.1 per 100,000 children-year. The highest incidence (782.1/100,000 children-year) was found among the 1-4 years age group. About 46% of non-fatal burn injuries occurred between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. The incidence of childhood burn was found to be more than four times higher in rural children than urban children. Ninety percent (90%) of the childhood burns occurred at homes and the kitchen was the most common place. The rate of disability due to burn was 5.7 per 100,000 children per year. The rate of fatal burn was 0.6 per 100,000 per year among all children. The study findings confirmed that childhood burn was a major childhood illness in Bangladesh. An urgent and appropriate prevention programme is required to prevent these unwanted morbidities, disabilities and deaths due to burn.

  16. On being Credibly Ill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2011-01-01

    problems. The paper shows that it is predominantly poorly educated women without a bio-medical diagnosis that welfare officers describe as suffering from psychological problems despite the fact that the women themselves focus on physical ailments in their illness stories. Men and better-educated women......unexplained symptoms. The study is conducted in Denmark using qualitative interviews with welfare officers and clients. The paper's focus is on how issues of gender and class intersect in the negotiation of illness among welfare officers and clients. The particular client group in question consists...... are described by the welfare officers as tired and exhausted or truly stressed after a long working life....

  17. Use Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses guidelines: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If the child does not improve on follow up then metronidazole is added with the assumption that the ... of cases of children presenting with diarrhea, a clear need for adaptation of IMCI ... increase when there is shortage of water during the.

  18. Morbidity and Mortality Pattern of Childhood Illnesses Seen at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pattern of morbidity and mortality of children seen at the children emergency room of a tertiary ... Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the demographic .... and severe anemia was found in greater than 50% (35/54) of.

  19. Probiotics in childhood: allergic illness and respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Leonardi, Salvatore; Ciprandi, Giorgio; Galdo, Francesca; Gubitosi, Adelmo; La Rosa, Mario; Salpietro, Carmelo; Marseglia, Gianluigi; Perrone, Laura

    2012-10-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the use of probiotics for allergic diseases. In the last years, some studies showed a significant improvement for atopic eczema by the administration of probiotics during pregnancy and postnatally. About food allergy, probiotics administration seems to be effective in the management of food allergy symptoms but has no effect on the prevention of sensitization. In the international literature, there are few studies that evaluated the probiotic effect on allergic rhinitis, and authors reported that probiotics might have a beneficial effect in AR by reducing symptom severity and medication use. Another major potential benefit of probiotics has been suggested in patients with asthma. On this topic, several studies have been carried out using different probiotics and the results have not been univocal. Indeed, probiotics seems to be able to offer protection about common cold and respiratory infections in healthy and hospitalized children.

  20. Moraxella Catarrhalis: A Common Cause of Childhood Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  1. Impact of childhood cancer on parents' relationships: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Fernanda Machado; Jacob, Eufemia; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira

    2010-09-01

    The diagnosis of cancer and the treatment decisions associated with it may cause uncertainty, stress, and anxiety among parents. Emotional tensions can affect parents' relationships during the trajectory of the child's cancer illness. We conducted an integrative review to examine the evidence related to the effects of childhood cancer on parents' relationships. An integrative literature search of studies published between 1997 and 2009 was conducted in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Psychology Information (PsycINFO), PubMed, Scopus, CUIDEN, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature (LILACS). The key words used were neoplasms, child, marriage, spouses, family relations, and nursing. Articles were reviewed if the (a) topic addressed parents' relationships during childhood cancer; (b) participants were mothers, fathers, or both; (c) design was either qualitative or quantitative; (d) language was English, Portuguese, or Spanish; (e) date of publication was between January 1997 and October 2009; and (f) abstract was available. Fourteen articles met the search criteria and were reviewed using Cooper's framework for integrative reviews. Four themes emerged: (a) changes in the parents' relationship during the trajectory of the child's illness; (b) difficulty in communication between couples; (c) gender differences in parental stress and coping; and (d) role changes. Findings revealed positive and negative changes in parents' relationships, communication, stress, and roles. Nurses need to assess the impact of cancer diagnosis and treatments on parent relationships, offer support and encouragement, and allow expression of feelings. Future research is needed to develop and test interventions that increase parents' potentials and strengthen relationships during the challenging trajectory of their children's cancer and treatment. The multiple sources of stress and uncertainty associated with a child's cancer diagnosis and

  2. Familial aggregation and childhood blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest progress in gene finding for childhood BP, focusing on the combined effects of multiple loci identified from the genome-wide association studies on adult BP. We further review the evidence on the contribution of the genetic components of other family risk factors to the familial aggregation of childhood BP including obesity, birth weight, sleep quality, sodium intake, parental smoking, and socioeconomic status. At the end, we emphasize the promise of using genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) analysis, a method that uses genome-wide data from unrelated individuals, in answering a number of unsolved questions in the familial aggregation of childhood BP.

  3. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1983-04-01

    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography.

  4. Mental Illness And Brain Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrick, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals.

  5. Doing gender, doing away with illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolling, Marie

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented in biomedical literature that impotence is a common complication of diabetes. What has received much less attention is how diabetes challenges male gender identity and how the illness interferes in intimate matters. Drawing on empirical findings from an anthropological field...

  6. Critical-Illness Polyneuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1993-01-01

    A review of the neurological complications of sepsis from the University of Western Ontario, London, and Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, draws attention to “critical-illness polyneuropathy” as a cause of difficulty in weaning from the ventilator.

  7. Foodborne Illness Retrospective

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-07

    Dr. Paul Mead and Dr. Peter Drotman discuss the historic October 1999 article, Food-related Illness and Death in the United States.  Created: 5/7/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/7/2015.

  8. The nonthyroidal illness syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Suzanne Myers; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2007-09-01

    This article briefly summarizes thyroid function alterations generally seen in the euthyroid sick syndrome, provides an overview of specific thyroidal adaptations during several clinical conditions and secondary to specific pharmacologic agents, and discusses the current controversy in thyroid hormone treatment of nonthyroidal illness.

  9. Glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and psychotic illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijender Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mr. T, a 28-year-old unmarried male, a diagnosed case of Glucose-6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency since childhood, presented with 13 years of psychotic illness and disturbed biological functions. He showed poor response to antipsychotics and mood stabilizers and had three prior admissions to Psychiatry. There was a family history of psychotic illness. The General Physical Examination and Systemic Examination were unremarkable. Mental Status Examination revealed increased psychomotor activity, pressure of speech, euphoric affect, prolixity, delusion of persecution, delusion of grandiosity, delusion of control, thought withdrawal and thought insertion, and second and third person auditory hallucinations, with impaired judgment and insight. A diagnosis of schizophrenia paranoid type, with a differential diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder manic subtype, was made. This case is being reported for its rarity and atypicality of clinical presentation, as well as a course of psychotic illness in the G6PD Deficiency state,with its implications on management.

  10. Early Childhood Special Educators and the Hospital Ethics Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    The paper discusses issues of concern to early childhood special educators serving on hospital ethics committees to assist families with seriously ill and handicapped infants in neonatal intensive care units. Issues include infant euthanasia and the right to life, child abuse legislation, and possible effects on families. (Author/JDD)

  11. Allergic to life: Psychological factors in environmental illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, G.E.; Katon, W.J.; Sparks, P.J. (Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Environmental illness is an increasingly frequent and medically unexplained syndrome of allergy to common environmental agents. A recent outbreak of chemical-induced illness allowed study of psychological factors in environmental illness. Thirty-seven symptomatic plastics workers completed structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures of somatization and psychopathology. The 13 subjects who developed environmental illness scored higher on all measures than those who did not. The greatest differences were in prior history of anxiety or depressive disorder (54% versus 4%) and number of medically unexplained physical symptoms before exposure (6.2 versus 2.9). These findings suggest that psychological vulnerability strongly influences chemical sensitivity following chemical exposure.

  12. Pragmatic Children's Nursing: A Theory for Children and their Childhoods Randall Duncan Pragmatic Children's Nursing: A Theory for Children and their Childhoods 148pp £95 Routledge 9781138898066 1138898066 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-07

    This book represents the first attempt to create a children's nursing theory that involves giving children with illnesses or disabilities access to childhoods as close as possible to those of their peers.

  13. Granulomatous mastitis: radiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, M.; Mavili, E.; Kahriman, G.; Akcan, A.C.; Ozturk, F. [Depts. of Radiology, Surgery, and Pathology, Erciyes Univ. Medical Faculty, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiological, ultrasonographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and Methods: Between April 2002 and June 2005, the mammography, ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, non enhanced MR, and dynamic MR findings of nine patients with the preliminary clinical diagnosis of malignancy and the final diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis were evaluated. Results: On mammography, asymmetrical focal densities with no distinct margins, ill-defined masses with spiculated contours, and bilateral multiple ill-defined nodules were seen. On ultrasound, in four patients a discrete, heterogenous hypoechoic mass, in two patients multiple abscesses, in one patient bilateral multiple central hypo peripheral hyperechoic lesions, in two patients heterogeneous hypo- and hyperechoic areas together with parenchymal distortion, and in one patient irregular hypoechoic masses with tubular extensions and abscess cavities were seen. Five of the lesions were vascular on color Doppler ultrasound. On MR mammography, the most frequent finding was focal or diffuse asymmetrical signal intensity changes that were hypointense on T1W images and hyperintense on T2W images, without significant mass effect. Nodular lesions were also seen. On dynamic contrast-enhanced mammography, mass-like enhancement, ring-like enhancement, and nodular enhancement were seen. The time-intensity curves differed from patient to patient and from lesion to lesion. Conclusion: The imaging findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis have a wide spectrum, and they are inconclusive for differentiating malignant and benign lesions.

  14. Reversal-learning deficits in childhood-onset bipolar disorder across the transition from childhood to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegbreit, Ezra; Cushman, Grace K; Weissman, Alexandra B; Bojanek, Erin; Kim, Kerri L; Leibenluft, Ellen; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2016-10-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe mental illness that can have high costs for youths (childhood to young adulthood. Tailored interventions targeting this deficit may be effective throughout this developmentally turbulent time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. HIGH-ALTITUDE ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitya Elvira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHigh-altitude illness (HAI merupakan sekumpulan gejala paru dan otak yang terjadi pada orang yang baru pertama kali mendaki ke ketinggian. HAI terdiri dari acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE dan high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Tujuan tinjauan pustaka ini adalah agar dokter dan wisatawan memahami risiko, tanda, gejala, dan pengobatan high-altitude illness. Perhatian banyak diberikan terhadap penyakit ini seiring dengan meningkatnya popularitas olahraga ekstrim (mendaki gunung tinggi, ski dan snowboarding dan adanya kemudahan serta ketersediaan perjalanan sehingga jutaan orang dapat terpapar bahaya HAI. Di Pherice, Nepal (ketinggian 4343 m, 43% pendaki mengalami gejala AMS. Pada studi yang dilakukan pada tempat wisata di resort ski Colorado, Honigman menggambarkan kejadian AMS 22% pada ketinggian 1850 m sampai 2750 m, sementara Dean menunjukkan 42% memiliki gejala pada ketinggian 3000 m. Aklimatisasi merupakan salah satu tindakan pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan sebelum pendakian, selain beberapa pengobatan seperti asetazolamid, dexamethasone, phosopodiestrase inhibitor, dan ginko biloba.Kata kunci: high-altitude illness, acute mountain sickness, edema cerebral, pulmonary edema AbstractHigh-altitude illness (HAI is symptoms of lung and brain that occurs in people who first climb to altitude. HAI includes acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. The objective of this review was to understand the risks, signs, symptoms, and treatment of high-altitude illness. The attention was given to this disease due to the rising popularity of extreme sports (high mountain climbing, skiing and snowboarding and the ease and availability of the current travelling, almost each year, millions of people could be exposed to the danger of HAI. In Pherice, Nepal (altitude 4343 m, 43% of climbers have symptoms of AMS. Furthermore, in a study conducted at sites in

  16. Oral zinc and common childhood infections--An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Sudha; Mathisen, Maria; Strand, Tor A

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient important for growth and for normal function of the immune system. Many children in developing countries have inadequate zinc nutrition. Routine zinc supplementation reduces the risk of respiratory infections and diarrhea, the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in young children worldwide. In childhood diarrhea oral zinc also reduces illness duration and risk of persistent episodes. Oral zinc is therefore recommended for the treatment of acute diarrhea in young children. The results from the studies that have measured the therapeutic effect of zinc on acute respiratory infections, however, are conflicting. Moreover, the results of therapeutic zinc for childhood malaria also are so far not promising.This paper gives a brief outline of the current evidence from clinical trials on therapeutic effect of oral zinc on childhood respiratory infections, pneumonia and malaria and also of new evidence of the effect on serious bacterial illness in young infants.

  17. Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapat Usha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily acti-vities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among pa-tients on hemodialysis (HD and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering socio-demographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was ca-rried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were ana-lyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 ± 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%, 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear fami-lies. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 ± 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%, work (70% finance (55%, diet (50% sexual life (38% and psychological status (25%. Illness had not intruded in areas of rela-tionship with spouse (67%, friends (76%, family (79%, social (40% and religious functions (72%. Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02.

  18. Diastolic dysfunction in the critically ill patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, J C; López, P; Mancebo, J; Zapata, L

    2016-11-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is a common finding in critically ill patients. It is characterized by a progressive deterioration of the relaxation and the compliance of the left ventricle. Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography is a cornerstone in its diagnosis. Acute pulmonary edema associated with hypertensive crisis is the most frequent presentation of diastolic dysfunction critically ill patients. Myocardial ischemia, sepsis and weaning failure from mechanical ventilation also may be associated with diastolic dysfunction. The treatment is based on the reduction of pulmonary congestion and left ventricular filling pressures. Some studies have found a prognostic role of diastolic dysfunction in some diseases such as sepsis. The present review aims to analyze thoroughly the echocardiographic diagnosis and the most frequent scenarios in critically ill patients in whom diastolic dysfunction plays a key role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  19. Food Away from Home and Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancino, Lisa; Todd, Jessica E; Guthrie, Joanne; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2014-12-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a number of serious health risks that can persist into adulthood. While trends in food away from home and fast-food consumption have paralleled trends in childhood obesity, it is important to identify whether this is a causal relationship. This paper reviews recent literature in this area to summarize if there is a consensus in research findings. We group the literature into two areas - consumption of and access to food away from home (FAFH). While no consensus findings have been reached in either area, the evidence of an association between FAFH consumption and childhood obesity has gained strength. Further, there is evidence that FAFH meals add calories to children's diets. The literature on the role of FAFH access and childhood obesity has continued producing mixed results.

  20. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  1. Stress Modulates Illness-Course of Substance Use Disorders: A Translational Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijffijt, Marijn; Hu, Kesong; Swann, Alan C.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood trauma and post-childhood chronic/repeated stress could increase the risk of a substance use disorder by affecting five stages of addiction illness-course: (a) initial experimentation with substances; (b) shifting from experimental to regular use; (c) escalation from regular use to abuse or dependence; (d) motivation to quit; and (e) risk of (re-)lapse. We reviewed the human literature on relationships between stress and addiction illness-course. We explored per illness-course stage: (i) whether childhood trauma and post-childhood chronic/repeated stress have comparable effects and (ii) whether effects cut across classes of substances of abuse. We further discuss potential underlying mechanisms by which stressors may affect illness-course stages for which we relied on evidence from studies in animals and humans. Stress and substances of abuse both activate stress and dopaminergic motivation systems, and childhood trauma and post-childhood stressful events are more chronic and occur more frequently in people who use substances. Stressors increase risk to initiate early use potentially by affecting trait-like factors of risk-taking, decision making, and behavioral control. Stressors also accelerate transition to regular use potentially due to prior effects of stress on sensitization of dopaminergic motivation systems, cross-sensitizing with substances of abuse, especially in people with high trait impulsivity who are more prone to sensitization. Finally, stressors increase risk for abuse and dependence, attenuate motivation to quit, and increase relapse risk potentially by intensified sensitization of motivational systems, by a shift from positive to negative reinforcement due to sensitization of the amygdala by corticotropin releasing factor, and by increased sensitization of noradrenergic systems. Stress generally affects addiction illness-course across stressor types and across classes of substances of abuse. PMID:25101007

  2. Under the influence of genetics: how transdisciplinarity leads us to rethink social pathways to illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescosolido, Bernice A; Perry, Brea L; Long, J Scott; Martin, Jack K; Nurnberger, John I; Hesselbrock, Victor

    2008-01-01

    This article describes both sociological and genetic theories of illness causation and derives propositions expected under each and under a transdisciplinary theoretical frame. The authors draw propositions from three theories -- fundamental causes, social stress processes, and social safety net theories -- and tailor hypotheses to the case of alcohol dependence. Analyses of a later wave of the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism reveal a complex interplay of the GABRA2 gene with social structural factors to produce cases meeting DSM/ICD diagnoses. Only modest evidence suggests that genetic influence works through social conditions and experiences. Further, women are largely unaffected in their risk for alcohol dependence by allele status at this candidate gene; family support attenuates genetic influence; and childhood deprivation exacerbates genetic predispositions. These findings highlight the essential intradisciplinary tension in the role of proximal and distal influences in social processes and point to the promise of focusing directly on dynamic, networked sequences that produce different pathways to health and illness.

  3. Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder features in adult mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Kyu Young; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Kim, Se Hyun; Song, Joo Youn; Bang, Yang Weon; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

    2012-04-01

    A significant overlap between childhood mood disorders and many aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been established. High rates of co-occurrence, familial aggregation, and more severe clinical manifestations of the illnesses when they are comorbid suggest that common genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the development of both disorders. Research on the co-occurrence of childhood ADHD and mood disorders in childhood has been conducted. We retrospectively investigated childhood ADHD features in adults with mood disorders. Childhood ADHD features were measured with the Korean version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). The sample consisted of 1305 subjects: 108 subjects were diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, 41 with bipolar disorder type II, 101 with major depressive disorder, and 1055 served as normal controls. We compared total WURS scores as well as scores on 3 factors (impulsivity, inattention, and mood instability and anxiety) among the 4 different diagnostic groups. The 4 groups differed significantly from one another on all scores. The group with bipolar disorder type II obtained the highest total scores on the WURS. The impulsivity and inattention associated with childhood ADHD were more significantly related to bipolar disorder type II than with bipolar disorder type I. The mood instability and anxiety associated with childhood ADHD seem to be significantly related to major depressive disorder in adulthood. In conclusion, multifactorial childhood ADHD features were associated with mood disorders of adulthood.

  4. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  5. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  6. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  7. Childhood Fever: parental beliefs and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, M J; Rosencrantz, A; Kneller, P

    1988-01-01

    Childhood fever is often seen in family-practice. Clinical experience has shown the authors that parental anxiety often initiates early, aggressive treatment of fever with antipyretics. The authors studied parents' beliefs and practices relating to fever control in their children, and who or what their information sources were. The findings indicate that parents are commonly misinformed about the nature of childhood fever and its management, and that physicians need to learn more about conveying information on fever to patients.

  8. Staging of bipolar affective illness [Etapy przebiegu choroby afektywnej dwubiegunowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferensztajn, Ewa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of staging as a description of clinical advancement of illness is prevalent and commonly used in medicine. Regarding bipolar mood disorder (BD a staging model assumes a progression from prodromal (at-risk to more severe and treatment-refractory conditions. Four different staging models of BD have been proposed. The concept of Robert Post’s is based on the phenomenon of kindling and neurosensitization, assuming a role of stressors in triggering the first episode of illness, with subsequent persistent changes in the activity of neurones, greater vulnerability to relapse and worse response to treatment. The concept of Anne Duffy’s is based on the research of high risk bipolar offspring and describes the early development of the illness as successive stages, i.e. non-mood disorders, minor mood disorders and acute episodes of illness, starting in childhood, with an attempt to distinguish subtypes of the disease depending on the parent’s response to prophylactic lithium treatment. The model of Michael Berk’s has been constructed in parallel to the therapeutic algorithms and classifies the stages of illness based on clinical features, prognosis, and response to treatment. It also identifies high risk individuals, highlights need of early intervention and is proposed as a course specifier for BD. The model of Flavio Kapczinski’s is based on a phenomenon of allostatic load and evaluation of the changes of biomarkers and cognitive functions during the episode and between episodes. A significant consequence of introducing the staging model is employing treatment which is adequate to a stage of the illness. The model underlines a necessity of early intervention and defines the first episode of the illness as a critical target of it, in a hope to a possibility of prevention against neuroanatomical, neuropsychological, clinical and functional consequence of the illness.

  9. The childhood immunization schedule and safety: stakeholder concerns, scientific evidence, and future studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Institute of Medicine; Committee on the Assessment of Studies of Health Outcomes Related to the Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule

    2013-01-01

    "The Childhood Immunization Schedule and Safety: Stakeholder Concerns, Scientific Evidence, and Future Studies reviews scientific findings and stakeholders concerns related to the safety of the recommended childhood immunization schedule...

  10. [Gustave Flaubert's illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaut, H; Gastaut, Y

    1982-01-01

    All those interested in Gustave Flaubert's illness, during his lifetime as well as after his death, have agreed that he had epilepsy. The one important exception is Jean-Paul Sartre, who, in the 2800 pages of his "Idiot de la famille" claimed that Flaubert was a hysteric with very moderate intelligence who somatized his neurosis in the form of seizures. These, in Sartre's views, were moreover probably hysterical, but possibly epileptic resulting from the existence of a psychogenic epilepsy bred from the neurosis. The basis for this neurosis could have originated at the time of Gustave's birth, as this occurred between those of two brothers who both died young, and as his mother had wished for a daughter. Further development of the neurosis might have taken place during a temporary phase of learning difficulties, exaggerated and exploited by his father to make his youngest son the idiot of a family in which the eldest son was the dauphin. Destroyed in this way, Gustave would have sought refuge in passivity and could have developed a hatred for his father and for his elder brother, who he would have liked to kill before killing himself. But, unable to carry out his wishes and desiring both to die and to survive, Gustave, adolescent, might have chosen the pathway of "false deaths", as exemplified by the seizures. Modern epileptology data enables not only to confirm the epileptic etiology and to discount the hysterical nature of the fits, but also: 1. to establish precise details of the site and nature of the cerebral lesions responsible for the attacks: neonatal atrophy or vascular malformation of the occipitotemporal cortex of the left hemisphere, the only lesion capable of provoking: a) the phosphenes marking the onset of the seizures; b) the intellectual manifestations (forced thoughts or flight of ideas), affective features (panic terror), and psychosensory (ecmnesic hallucinations) or psychomotor (confusional automatism) symptoms accompanying some attacks; c) the

  11. Out-of-pocket costs and other determinants of access to healthcare for children with febrile illnesses: a case-control study in rural Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle Castellani

    Full Text Available To study private costs and other determinants of access to healthcare for childhood fevers in rural Tanzania.A case-control study was conducted in Tanzania to establish factors that determine access to a health facility in acute febrile illnesses in children less than 5 years of age. Carers of eligible children were interviewed in the community; cases were represented by patients who went to a facility and controls by those who did not. A Household Wealth Index was estimated using principal components analysis. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to understand the factors which influenced attendance of healthcare facility including severity of the illness and household wealth/socio-demographic indicators. To complement the data on costs from community interviews, a hospital-based study obtained details of private expenditures for hospitalised children under the age of 5.Severe febrile illness is strongly associated with health facility attendance (OR: 35.76, 95%CI: 3.68-347.43, p = 0.002 compared with less severe febrile illness. Overall, the private costs of an illness for patients who went to a hospital were six times larger than private costs of controls ($5.68 vs. $0.90, p<0.0001. Household wealth was not significantly correlated with total costs incurred. The separate hospital based cost study indicated that private costs were three times greater for admissions at the mission versus public hospital: $13.68 mission vs. $4.47 public hospital (difference $ 9.21 (95% CI: 7.89 -10.52, p<0.0001. In both locations, approximately 50% of the cost was determined by the duration of admission, with each day in hospital increasing private costs by about 12% (95% CI: 5% - 21%.The more severely ill a child, the higher the probability of attending hospital. We did not find association between household wealth and attending a health facility; nor was there an association between household wealth and private cost.

  12. Using Repellent Products to Protect against Mosquito-Borne Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Share Using Repellent Products to Protect against Mosquito-Borne Illnesses More Information CDC-Avoid Mosquito Bites ... safety precautions . Top of Page Finding EPA-Registered Mosquito Adulticides and Larvicides The National Pesticide Information Center's ...

  13. Living with a chronic illness - dealing with feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... art class, play an instrument, or listen to music. Call or spend time with a friend. Finding ... Larsen PD, ed. Lubkin's Chronic Illness: Impact and Intervention . 9th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning; ...

  14. Half of Opioid Prescriptions Go to People with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167031.html Half of Opioid Prescriptions Go to People With Mental Illness Those ... disorders receive a troubling percentage of the nation's opioid prescriptions, a new study finds. Of the 115 ...

  15. Characterization of premorbid functioning during childhood in patients with deficit vs. non-deficit schizophrenia and in their healthy siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Paola; Mucci, Armida; Piegari, Giuseppe; Nobile, Maria; Pini, Stefano; Rossi, Alessandro; Vita, Antonio; Galderisi, Silvana; Maj, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Impaired premorbid adjustment has been reported in patients with schizophrenia, generally in association with unfavorable aspects of the illness (e.g., poor outcome and severe negative symptoms). Several studies attempted to define the domains of premorbid dysfunction associated with negative symptoms and poor outcome; however, most of them assessed broadly defined negative symptoms. The present study was aimed to characterize premorbid functioning in a group of patients with deficit schizophrenia (DS), characterized by the presence of at least two primary and persistent negative symptoms (PPNS), and one of patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia who did not meet criteria for DS (NDS). The presence of emotional/behavioral problems during childhood was investigated using the Childhood Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in both patient groups and in their respective healthy siblings. The Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) was also used to assess premorbid functioning during childhood in the two patient groups. PPNS were also treated as a continuous variable and correlated with the indices of premorbid functioning regardless the DS/NDS categorization. DS patients, as compared to NDS, showed higher scores on the CBCL subscale "Withdrawn". Both DS and NDS patients showed, as compared to their healthy siblings, a greater impairment on almost all CBCL subscales. PAS findings revealed that DS patients had poorer premorbid adjustment than NDS. No significant correlation between premorbid functioning and PPNS was observed. These findings support the hypothesis that DS has a different developmental trajectory with respect to NDS, and that premorbid adjustment is one of the essential aspects of its characterization.

  16. Avaliação da aplicação da estratégia da Atenção Integrada às Doenças Prevalentes da Infância (AIDPI por Agentes Comunitários de Saúde Evaluation of the Integrated Management Childhood Illness (IMCI strategy application by Community Health Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Arruda Vidal

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a utilização da estratégia da Atenção Integrada às Doenças Prevalentes da Infância por Agentes Comunitários de Saúde. MÉTODOS: estudo do tipo avaliativo realizado nas cidades de Recife e Olinda, Nordeste do Brasil. Foram aplicados 195 questionários estruturados durante as visitas domiciliares realizadas por 106 agentes comunitários de saúde às crianças menores de cinco anos, no período de outubro a novembro de 2002. RESULTADOS: observou-se que 91,7% dos menores de dois meses foram avaliados corretamente quanto aos sinais de perigo e 83,3% quanto aos sinais de alerta. A avaliação das seções sobre "alimentação", "crescimento" e "vacina" demonstrou que o método foi bem aplicado em 96,9%, 99% e 99% dos casos, respectivamente. Em 73,1% das visitas às crianças na faixa etária entre dois meses e cinco anos, os agentes de saúde seguiram corretamente a padronização para verificação dos sinais de perigo e em 80,8% para os sinais de alerta. CONCLUSÕES: verificou-se que os agentes comunitários foram capazes de apreender o conteúdo e aplicar corretamente a estratégia. O "Manual de condutas" demonstrou ser um adequado instrumento à correta abordagem dos problemas de saúde dos menores de cinco anos na comunidade.OBJECTIVES: to assess the strategy for Integrated Management Childhood Illness by Community Health Agents. METHODS: assessment study accomplished in the cities of Recife and Olinda, Northeast Brazil. One hundred and ninety five structured questionnaires were applied by 106 community health agents during home visits to children under five years old in the period of October to November, 2002. RESULTS: 91,7% of the children under two months old were correctly assessed for signs of danger and 83,3% for signs of alert. The assessment of conditions such as "nutrition", "growth" and "vaccination" indicated that the method was well performed in 96,9%, 99% and 99% of the cases, respectively. In 73,1% of

  17. Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI: an innovative vision for child health care Atenção integrada às doenças prevalentes da infância (AIDPI: uma visão inovadora para os cuidados da saúde da criança

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehuda Benguigui

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI strategy developed by the World Health Organization (WHO, Panamerican Health Organization (PAHO and the United Nation Children's Fund (UNICEF, joint experiences of previous frequent diseases programs in children, with prevention and health promotion activities. In this new approach the family, the community and health workers have a leading role in health condition of the child. The strategy aims a reduction in Infant Mortality Rate, specially in those regions and countries in which it is high. Pneumonia, diarrhea, malnutrition and other preventable diseases are the main causes of deaths in this settings. Health workers can early recognized danger signs of severe diseases, as well as they can evaluate and treat the most frequent health problems. By enhancing prevention and health promotion activities, as better conditions of life, giving an holistic vision of the child and his family, and not only looking for the symptom that motivate the consultation.A estratégia de Atenção Integrada às Doenças Prevalentes da Infância (AIDPI, desenvolvida pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS, Organização Panamericana da Saúde (OPAS e Fundo das Nações Unidas para à Infância (UNICEF, incorpora as experiências prévias de programas para tratar as principais doenças infantis, acrescentando aspectos preventivos e de promoção à saúde. Nesta nova visão, outorga papéis fundamentais à família, à comunidade e ao trabalhador de saúde que desenvolve o seu trabalho no primeiro nível de atenção. A estratégia visa principalmente diminuir as taxas de mortalidade infantil em países e regiões onde elas ainda são muito elevadas, com cifras acima de 40 por 1.000 nascidos vivos, situações em que as pneumonias, diarréias, desnutrição e outras doenças evitáveis são as principais causas de óbito. Pretende também mudar o perfil da demanda ambulatorial dando ênfase a atividades

  18. Evaluación de una atención integrada contra la desnutrición infantil en áreas urbanas de Nayarit, México Evaluation of integrated management of childhood illness against malnutrition in urban areas of Nayarit, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando López-Flores

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la cobertura de la Atención Integrada a las Enfermedades Prevalentes de la Infancia y estimar la prevalencia de desmedro en niños de 6 a 36 meses de edad en dos localidades urbanas de Nayarit, México, para analizar su asociación. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, descriptivo y analítico, realizado en agosto de 2002 en dos áreas urbanas de Nayarit, México. Se aplicó en el domicilio un cuestionario estructurado para recabar datos socioeconómicos y sobre antropometría, atención a la salud del niño y la madre, y morbilidad. Se compararon grupos con pruebas de Ji² o exacta de Fisher. Las asociaciones fueron analizadas utilizando modelos de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: La cobertura de la Atención Integrada a las Enfermedades Prevalentes de la Infancia fue de 97% en vacunación, 66.9% en suplementación con vitamina A, 91.5% en desparasitación intestinal con albendazol, 50% en vigilancia nutricia, 25.5% en capacitación materna, 24.4% en atención a la salud de la madre y 2.5% global. Se encontró una prevalencia de desmedro de 4.9%, la cual estuvo asociada significativamente a esquemas incompletos, tanto de vitamina A como de albendazol. CONCLUSIONES: Los componentes de la Atención Integrada a las Enfermedades Prevalentes de la Infancia muestran coberturas acordes con su factibilidad y tiempo de implantación. Los hallazgos de la asociación de la atención integrada de la salud infantil con el desmedro destacan la importancia de reunir mayor evidencia sobre su efecto en el estado nutricio, con el fin de contribuir en el mejoramiento y prevención de la desnutrición infantil.OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between coverage of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI strategy and the prevalence of stunting in children 6 to 36 months of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two urban areas of Nayarit, Mexico, in August 2002. Anthropometry, health care for

  19. Effects of a community intervention on HIV prevention behaviors among men who experienced childhood sexual or physical abuse in four African settings: findings from NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Daniels

    Full Text Available There is increased focus on HIV prevention with African men who report experiencing childhood sexual (CSA or physical abuse (CPA.To better understand the effects of a community-based intervention (Project Accept HPTN 043 on HIV prevention behaviors among men who report CSA or CPA experiences.Project Accept compared a community-based voluntary mobile counseling and testing (CBVCT intervention with standard VCT. The intervention employed individual HIV risk reduction planning with motivational interviewing in 34 African communities (16 communities at 2 sites in South Africa, 10 in Tanzania, and 8 in Zimbabwe. Communities were randomized unblinded in matched pairs to CBVCT or SVCT, delivered over 36 months. The post-intervention assessment was conducted using a single, cross-sectional random survey of 18-32 year-old community members (total N = 43,292. We analyzed the effect of the intervention on men with reported CSA or CPA across the African sites. Men were identified with a survey question asking about having experienced CSA or CPA across the lifespan. The effect of intervention on considered outcomes of the preventive behavior was statistically evaluated using the logistic regression models.Across the sites, the rates of CSA or CPA among men indicated that African men reflected the global prevalence (20% with a range of 13-24%. The statistically significant effect of the intervention among these men was seen in their increased effort to receive their HIV test results (OR 2.71; CI: (1.08, 6.82; P: 0.034. The intervention effect on the other designated HIV prevention behaviors was less pronounced.The effect of the intervention on these men showed increased motivation to receive their HIV test results. However, more research is needed to understand the effects of community-based interventions on this group, and such interventions need to integrate other keys predictors of HIV including trauma, coping strategies, and intimate partner violence.

  20. Mental Illness And Brain Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedrick Jeffrey D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals.

  1. Childeren growing up with chronic pain: Psychiatric comorbidity, quality of life & familial illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knook, L.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chronic pain is common in childhood and often co-occurs with psychiatric disorders. It frequently influences daily activities, undermines the child’s confidence in one's health, and affects general well-being. Parents of children with chronic pain often suffer from chronic illness

  2. What can we learn? Adult outcomes in children of seriously mentally ill mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Kathleen LeClear

    2008-05-01

    Information is lacking about the experiences, needs of, and interventions for children of seriously mentally ill mothers. Quantitative and qualitative methods of inquiry were used to retrospectively explore the characteristics and needs of adult children of seriously mentally ill mothers. The sample (N = 40) was recruited by referral and media advertisements. Childhood variables related to attachment, family environment, and parenting were compared to adult well-being outcomes of depression, quality of life, sense of coherence, and self-esteem. Participants also responded to the question "What other question should have been included in this study about your experience as the child of a seriously mentally ill mother?" and, additionally, spontaneously added their own clarifications of their answers to the survey questions. It was apparent that the childhoods of participants were disruptive and often painful. Over half of the sample reported having their own diagnosis of depression in adulthood. Despite these factors, most members of the study sample were functioning well in adulthood, most often as a result of their own initiative. A high rate of depression in adulthood and participants' own descriptions of their painful memories and experiences of childhood identifies that more can and should be done to assist children of mentally ill mothers to cope with their environments. Interventions at various times in childhood are described.

  3. Childhood Short Stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Ray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood short stature comprises Varity of endocrinal, systemic, Skeletal & genetic disorders of pediatrics and is not just confined for endocrinal disorder only. A systemic approach often reduces the need for test which is often expensive &unnecessary. Use growth chart & asses bone age during evaluation. Short & heavy child are generally due to Endocrine causes, Short & thin are due to systemic disease, Short with normal velocity are may be due to Constitutional delay in growth &puberty or Familial short stature, differentiation can be done by Bone Age. In Girls Turner syndrome has to be kept in mind. Purpose of evaluation to find out the child who does not need treatment, who cannot be treated & the child who can be benefited from treatment.

  4. Childhood poverty and recruitment of adult emotion regulatory neurocircuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberzon, Israel; Ma, Sean T; Okada, Go; Ho, S Shaun; Swain, James E; Evans, Gary W

    2015-11-01

    One in five American children grows up in poverty. Childhood poverty has far-reaching adverse impacts on cognitive, social and emotional development. Altered development of neurocircuits, subserving emotion regulation, is one possible pathway for childhood poverty's ill effects. Children exposed to poverty were followed into young adulthood and then studied using functional brain imaging with an implicit emotion regulation task focused. Implicit emotion regulation involved attention shifting and appraisal components. Early poverty reduced left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex recruitment in the context of emotional regulation. Furthermore, this emotion regulation associated brain activation mediated the effects of poverty on adult task performance. Moreover, childhood poverty also predicted enhanced insula and reduced hippocampal activation, following exposure to acute stress. These results demonstrate that childhood poverty can alter adult emotion regulation neurocircuitry, revealing specific brain mechanisms that may underlie long-term effects of social inequalities on health. The role of poverty-related emotion regulatory neurocircuitry appears to be particularly salient during stressful conditions.

  5. Gaius Caligula's mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidwell, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The strange behavior of emperor Gaius has been the subject of debate for many historians. Some charge him with madness and attribute it to his illness in A.D. 37, whereas others believe it occurred later, or else had nothing to do with his sickness.We have no real evidence to reconstruct his mental state. Therefore speculations about madness are fruitless, as they can't be proven. Also, his madness belongs to a discourse which originates mainly from the senatorial narrative that sought to discredit him through any means possible. Thus, his acts should be seen from other angles, and the search for "mad Caligula" abandoned.

  6. Attributing illness to food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.; Morris, J. G.

    2005-01-01

    Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other...... of a risk-based approach to improving food safety....... source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored...

  7. The First Steps to Learning with a Child Who Has a Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    This article shares the author's experience in dealing with her child who has a mental illness. The author hopes that other teachers and school administrators would find her experience helpful when dealing with mentally ill children. The author describes the first steps to learning with a child with a mental illness.

  8. Rock Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  9. Finding Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ It took 14 years--and just two min-utes-for an adopted Chinese girl to find her biological family. July 21 this year marked the first anniversary of Haley Butler's finding of her biological parents in Maanshan in east China's Anhui Province.

  10. Peptic ulcer and childhood adversities experienced by working-aged people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Markku PT Sumanen; Markku J Koskenvuo; Lauri H Sillanm.ki; Kari J Mattila

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between self-reported peptic ulcer and childhood adversities.METHODS: The Health and Social Support Study (HeSSup) population consisted of a stratified random sample drawn from the Finnish Population Register in four age groups: 20-24, 30-34, 40-44 and 50-54. The survey was carried out by postal questionnaire during 1998, with a response rate of 40.0%. A follow-up questionnaire was sent during 2003 to all those who responded to the first.Altogether 19 626 individuals returned the follow-up questionnaire; a response rate of 75.8%. The subjects were asked whether a doctor had told them that they have or have had peptic ulcer. The analyses covered those who responded affirmatively to both the baseline and the follow-up enquiries ( n = 718). Those not reporting a peptic ulcer in either of the two questionnaires ( n = 17 677) were taken as controls. The subjects were further requested (through six questions) to think about their childhood adversities.RESULTS: The most common adversities mentioned were long-lasting financial difficulties in the family,serious conflicts in the family, and a family member seriously or chronically ill. All the adversities reported,except parental divorce, were more common among peptic ulcer patients than among controls ( Pvaried values between < 0.001 and 0.003). Age- and sexadjusted odds ratios (OR) of childhood adversities in the multivariate logistic analysis for self-reported peptic ulcer varied between 1.45 and 2.01. Adjusting for smoking, heavy drinking, stress and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use had no further influence (ORsbetween 1.22 and 1.73).CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that childhood adversities maintain a connection with and have a predictive role in the development of peptic ulcer.

  11. Association of adverse childhood experiences with shaking and smothering behaviors among Japanese caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isumi, Aya; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-07-01

    Shaking and smothering in response to infant crying are life-threatening child abuse. Parental childhood abuse history is known to be one of the most robust risk factors for abusing their offspring. In addition to childhood abuse history, other adverse childhood exposures (ACEs) need to be considered due to co-occurrence. However, few studies have investigated the impact of ACEs on caregivers shaking and smothering their infant. This study aims to investigate the association of ACEs with shaking and smothering among caregivers of infants in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to caregivers participating in a four-month health checkup between September 2013 and August 2014 in Chiba City, Japan, to assess their ACEs (parental death, parental divorce, mentally ill parents, witness of intimate partner violence, physical abuse, neglect, psychological abuse and economic hardship), and shaking and smothering toward their infants (N=4297). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the cumulative and individual impacts of ACEs on shaking and smothering. Analyses were conducted in 2015. A total of 28.3% reported having experienced at least one ACE during their childhood. We found that only witness of IPV had a significant association with shaking of infant (OR=1.93, 95% CI: 1.03-3.61). The total number of ACEs was not associated with either shaking or smothering. Our findings suggest that shaking and smothering in response to crying can occur regardless of ACEs. Population-based strategies that target all caregivers to prevent shaking and smothering of infants are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Childhood adversities and laboratory pain perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieritz K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Karoline Pieritz, Winfried Rief, Frank EuteneuerDivision of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, GermanyAbstract: Childhood adversity has frequently been related to a wide range of psychosomatic complaints in adulthood. The present study examined the relationship between different forms of childhood adversity and laboratory measures of pain. Heat pain tolerance and perceived heat pain intensity were measured in a community-based sample of 62 women (aged 20–64 years. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, which assesses five forms of childhood adversity: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. Somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, and pain catastrophizing were assessed as potential mediators. Bivariate analyses indicated that emotional abuse but no other forms of childhood adversity were significantly related to decreased heat pain tolerance (r=-0.27; P<0.05. Accordingly, multiple regression analyses revealed that only emotional abuse was a significant predictor of heat pain tolerance (β=-0.62; P=0.034 when entering all CTQ subscales simultaneously. Although emotional abuse was also related to somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, and pain catastrophizing, none of these variables mediated the relationship between childhood adversity and laboratory pain (P>0.1. No significant associations were found between any forms of childhood adversity and heat pain intensity. Our findings indicate that the severity of emotional childhood abuse is associated with decreased pain tolerance, an affective component of pain, but not with heat pain intensity, which has been described as a sensory component of pain.Keywords: childhood adversity, emotional abuse, pain tolerance, pain intensity, somatic symptoms

  13. ILL Annual report 97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    In 1997 the reactor operated for the planned 225 days and more than 750 experiments were carried out. Among the experimental highlights are 2 contrasting examples of the new types of experiments now possible using the new high-intensity diffractometer D2O: stroboscopic measurements of kinetic processes and rapid texture measurements of structural materials. Some early results from the new high-resolution gamma spectrometer in the study of nuclear structure are also presented. Another new facility is just coming into service: the 2{pi} image-plate detector LADI, optimised for Laue measurements on biological crystals. The contrast between biological experiments and for example those on superconductivity or neutron {beta}-decay, illustrates very well the range of scientific questions addressed through the use of ILL`s neutron beams. 30 brief accounts of research work achieved during this year are given, they are classified under 9 topics: polymers and colloids, chemistry and structure, biology, materials science, liquids and glasses, magnetism, strongly correlated electron systems, quantum systems, nuclear and fundamental physics. The scheduled new developments are described and a list of the publications is also given

  14. Multiple childcare arrangements and health outcomes in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jen-Hao

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the associations between multiple childcare arrangements and young children's health problems. This study used three waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, collected from a nationally representative sample of children when they were 9 months old, 2 years old, and 4 years old (N = 7,150). 'Multiple childcare arrangements' was defined and measured by the number of non-parental childcare arrangements that occurred on a regular basis. During each wave of the data collection, the mother reported the number of regular childcare arrangements by three types: relative care, non-relative care, and center-based care. These numbers were summed to calculate the total number of arrangements. The mother also reported the incidence of ear infections, gastrointestinal illnesses, asthma diagnosis, and unintentional injuries of the child. Random effects and fixed effects regression models were used to estimate the association between the number of childcare arrangements and measures of early childhood health problems. Increases in the total number of childcare arrangements were associated with an elevated risk of ear infections, gastrointestinal illnesses, and diagnosed asthma in children. Further analysis indicates that increases in both the number of center-based care and non-relative care (but not relative care) arrangements can lead to a greater chance of health problems in young children. Multiple childcare arrangements are associated with communicable illness and diagnosed asthma in early childhood and appear to be a risk factor for health problems in early childhood.

  15. Early nutritional depletion in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, M M; Wiley, J S; Holbrook, P R

    1981-08-01

    Nutritional status was evaluated in 50 medical admissions to a pediatric ICU. All patients were evaluated within 48 h of admission; none had chronic organ failure or malignancies. Nutritional assessment included weight/50th percentile weight for length, length/50th percentile length for age, triceps skinfold thickness, and midarm muscle circumference. Acute protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) occurred in 16% of all children. Chronic PEM also occurred in 16%. The nutrient stores of fat and somatic protein were deficient in 18 and 20% of all children. Acute PEM and deficient somatic protein stores were more frequent in children less than 2 years (p less than 0.05). These findings indicate that malnutrition and nutrient store deficiencies are common early in the course of critical illnesses in children, especially in those less than 2 years of age. However, the findings do not indicate if the severity of illness was the cause or effect of poor nutritional status.

  16. Alagille Syndrome: A Case Report Highlighting Dysmorphic Facies, Chronic Illness, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winthrop, Zachary A.; Salman, Rabia; Majeed, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Alagille syndrome is a rare multisystem disorder affecting the liver, heart, vertebrae, eyes, and face. Alagille syndrome shares multiple phenotypic variants of other congenital or chronic childhood illnesses such as DiGeorge syndrome, Down syndrome, spina bifida, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and cystic fibrosis. All of these chronic illnesses have well-established links to psychiatric conditions. There are few community resources for Alagille patients, as it is an extremely rare condition. Despite the overlap with other chronic childhood illnesses, the psychiatric manifestations of Alagille syndrome have not been previously discussed in literature. The current study is a case report of a twelve-year-old female hospitalized in our pediatric psychiatric hospital for suicidal ideation with intent and plan. The patient had major depressive disorder, anxiety, other specified feeding and eating disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder. PMID:28018696

  17. Alagille Syndrome: A Case Report Highlighting Dysmorphic Facies, Chronic Illness, and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Bresnahan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alagille syndrome is a rare multisystem disorder affecting the liver, heart, vertebrae, eyes, and face. Alagille syndrome shares multiple phenotypic variants of other congenital or chronic childhood illnesses such as DiGeorge syndrome, Down syndrome, spina bifida, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and cystic fibrosis. All of these chronic illnesses have well-established links to psychiatric conditions. There are few community resources for Alagille patients, as it is an extremely rare condition. Despite the overlap with other chronic childhood illnesses, the psychiatric manifestations of Alagille syndrome have not been previously discussed in literature. The current study is a case report of a twelve-year-old female hospitalized in our pediatric psychiatric hospital for suicidal ideation with intent and plan. The patient had major depressive disorder, anxiety, other specified feeding and eating disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder.

  18. The nature of the association between childhood ADHD and the development of bipolar disorder: a review of prospective high-risk studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Anne

    2012-12-01

    The author reviewed prospective longitudinal studies of the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder to inform our understanding of the nature of the association between childhood ADHD and the risk of developing bipolar disorder in adolescence and young adulthood. A literature review of published prospective cohort studies of the offspring of bipolar parents since 1985 was undertaken using a comprehensive search strategy in several electronic databases. The author provides a qualitative synthesis of results focusing on ADHD and the association with bipolar disorder in prospectively assessed high-risk offspring. These results are discussed in light of findings from other prospective epidemiological and clinical cohort studies. From the reviewed high-risk studies, evidence suggests that the clinical diagnosis of childhood ADHD is not a reliable predictor of the development of bipolar disorder. However, the author found evidence that symptoms of inattention may be part of a mixed clinical presentation during the early stages of evolving bipolar disorder in high-risk offspring, appearing alongside anxiety and depressive symptoms. The author also found preliminary evidence that childhood ADHD may form part of a neurodevelopmental phenotype in offspring at risk for developing a subtype of bipolar disorder unresponsive to lithium stabilization. While childhood ADHD does not appear to be part of the typical developmental illness trajectory of bipolar disorder, subjective problems with attention can form part of the early course, while neurodevelopmental abnormalities may be antecedents in a subgroup of high-risk children.

  19. Childhood trauma exposure and toxic stress: what the PNP needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Trauma exposure in childhood is a major public health problem that can result in lifelong mental and physical health consequences. Pediatric nurse practitioners must improve their skills in the identification of trauma exposure in children and their interventions with these children. This continuing education article will describe childhood trauma exposure (adverse childhood experiences) and toxic stress and their effects on the developing brain and body. Adverse childhood experiences include a unique set of trauma exposures. The adverse childhood experiences or trauma discussed in this continuing education offering will include childhood exposure to emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, domestic violence, household substance abuse, household mental illness, parental separation or divorce, and a criminal household member. Thorough and efficient methods of screening for trauma exposure will be discussed. Appropriate intervention after identification of trauma exposure will be explored.

  20. Illness Beliefs Predict Mortality in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedhara, Kavita; Dawe, Karen; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Wetherell, Mark A.; Cullum, Nicky; Dayan, Colin; Drake, Nicola; Price, Patricia; Tarlton, John; Weinman, John; Day, Andrew; Campbell, Rona; Reps, Jenna; Soria, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients’ illness beliefs have been associated with glycaemic control in diabetes and survival in other conditions. Objective We examined whether illness beliefs independently predicted survival in patients with diabetes and foot ulceration. Methods Patients (n = 169) were recruited between 2002 and 2007. Data on illness beliefs were collected at baseline. Data on survival were extracted on 1st November 2011. Number of days survived reflected the number of days from date of recruitment to 1st November 2011. Results Cox regressions examined the predictors of time to death and identified ischemia and identity beliefs (beliefs regarding symptoms associated with foot ulceration) as significant predictors of time to death. Conclusions Our data indicate that illness beliefs have a significant independent effect on survival in patients with diabetes and foot ulceration. These findings suggest that illness beliefs could improve our understanding of mortality risk in this patient group and could also be the basis for future therapeutic interventions to improve survival. PMID:27096609

  1. [Setting the course early: relevance of childhood and adolescence for health in later life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, T

    2010-05-01

    The article examines the importance of childhood and adolescence for health in later life against the background of the population-aging process and the debate on the social challenges expected to result from this process. In this context, it describes the findings of life course epidemiology, which suggest (among other things) that there is a connection between early organic damage and the risk of illness in middle and old age, that risks and resources accumulate throughout a person's lifespan, and that living conditions and opportunities in life influence the development of health. The article also describes the health situation of children and adolescents based on the data available in Germany, in order to draw attention to existing problems and to identify possible ways of preventing them and taking action.

  2. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  3. The stigma of mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Kordosi A; Saridi M; Souliotis K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:The stigma of mental illness is not a modern phenomenon, but it can now be approached scientifically. The stigma, because of the mental illness which characterizes a person, can be explained by the natural propensity of man to deliver biased and stereotyped estimates to phenomena he cannot explain, accept or face. Methodology:This study is an attempt to describe the concept of stigma and the impact of the stigma of mental illness in the personal and social life of the...

  4. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  5. Attitudes toward patient expertise in chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, S E; Ternulf Nyhlin, K; Paterson, B L

    2000-08-01

    Although it has become an accepted standard to acknowledge the patient as a full partner in health care decisions, replacing traditional authoritative relationships with those based on an emancipatory model, the experiences of persons living with chronic illness confirm that this paradigm shift is not yet apparent in many health care relationships. In this paper, the authors present a qualitative secondary analysis of combined data sets from their research into chronic illness experience with two quite different chronic diseases - Type I Diabetes (a socially legitimized chronic disease) and Environmental Sensitivities (a disease which is currently treated with considerable scepticism). Comparing the experiences of individuals with diseases that are quite differently socially constructed, it becomes possible to detect common underlying health professional values and attitudes that powerfully influence the experience of living with and negotiating health care for a chronic illness. In the discussion of findings from this study, the authors examine the implications of the spiral of behaviors that fuels mutual alienation in chronic illness care relationships if professionals are unable to value patient expertise.

  6. Protein requirement in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2016-05-01

    How much protein do critically ill patients require? For the many decades that nutritional support has been used there was a broad consensus that critically ill patients need much more protein than required for normal health. Now, however, some clinical investigators recommend limiting all macronutrient provision during the early phase of critical illness. How did these conflicting recommendations emerge? Which of them is correct? This review explains the longstanding recommendation for generous protein provision in critical illness, analyzes the clinical trials now being claimed to refute it, and concludes with suggestions for clinical investigation and practice.

  7. Attributing illness to food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.; Morris, J. G.

    2005-01-01

    Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other s...... of a risk-based approach to improving food safety.......Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other...... source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored...

  8. [Nutrition in critical illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ökrös, Ilona

    2014-12-21

    Critically ill patients are often unable to eat by themselves over a long period of time, sometimes for weeks. In the acute phase, serious protein-energy malnutrition may develop with progressive muscle weakness, which may result in assisted respiration of longer duration as well as longer stay in intensive care unit and hospital. In view of the metabolic processes, energy and protein intake targets should be defined and the performance of metabolism should be monitored. Enteral nutrition is primarily recommended. However, parenteral supplementation is often necessary because of the disrupted tolerance levels of the gastrointestinal system. Apparently, an early parenteral supplementation started within a week would be of no benefit. Some experts believe that muscle loss can be reduced by increased target levels of protein. Further studies are needed on the effect of immune system feeding, fatty acids and micronutrients.

  9. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Internet Use during Childhood and the Ecological Techno-Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie; Puplampu, Korbla P.

    2008-01-01

    Research findings suggest both positive and negative developmental consequences of Internet use during childhood (e.g., playing video games have been associated with enhanced visual skills as well as increased aggression). Several studies have concluded that environmental factors mediate the developmental impact of childhood online behaviour. From…

  11. Thrombo-prophylaxis in acutely ill medical and critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Saigal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombo-prophylaxis has been shown to reduce the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE and mortality in surgical patients. The purpose of this review is to find out the evidence-based clinical practice criteria of deep vein thrombosis (DVT prophylaxis in acutely ill medical and critically ill patients. English-language randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis were included if they provided clinical outcomes and evaluated therapy with low-dose heparin or related agents compared with placebo, no treatment, or other active prophylaxis in the critically ill and medically ill population. For the same, we searched MEDLINE, PUBMED, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. In acutely ill medical patients on the basis of meta-analysis by Lederle et al. (40 trials and LIFENOX study, heparin prophylaxis had no significant effect on mortality. The prophylaxis may have reduced PE in acutely ill medical patients, but led to more bleeding events, thus resulting in no net benefit. In critically ill patients, results of meta-analysis by Alhazzani et al. and PROTECT Trial indicate that any heparin prophylaxis compared with placebo reduces the rate of DVT and PE, but not symptomatic DVT. Major bleeding risk and mortality rates were similar. On the basis of MAGELLAN trial and EINSTEIN program, rivaroxaban offers a single-drug approach to the short-term and continued treatment of venous thrombosis. Aspirin has been used as antiplatelet agent, but when the data from two trials the ASPIRE and WARFASA study were pooled, there was a 32% reduction in the rate of recurrence of venous thrombo-embolism and a 34% reduction in the rate of major vascular events.

  12. Emotional scars : impact of childhood trauma on depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Jacqueline Gerarda Francisca Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of childhood trauma and childhood life-events on the development and course of depressive and anxiety disorders, and to identify risk factors contributing to these associations. In brief, our findings indicate that childhood trauma is an important

  13. The role of childhood neglect and childhood poverty in predicting mental health, academic achievement and crime in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally

    2011-12-01

    This study examines the roles of childhood neglect and childhood poverty (family and neighborhood) in predicting Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), academic achievement, and crime in young adulthood. Using existing data from a prospective cohort design study, 1,005 children with documented histories of neglect (N = 507) and matched controls (N = 497) were interviewed in young adulthood (mean age 29). Official criminal histories were also used to assess outcomes. Data were analyzed using logistic and ordinary least squares regressions and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to control for neighborhood clustering. Results from HLM revealed that childhood neglect and childhood family poverty uniquely predicted PTSD and adult arrest, MDD was predicted only by childhood family poverty, and a significant interaction between childhood family poverty and childhood neighborhood poverty predicted academic achievement for the control group only. Childhood neglect, childhood family poverty, and childhood neighborhood poverty each contribute to poor outcomes later in life. While interventions should be developed for neglected children to prevent negative outcomes, the current findings suggest that it is also important to consider the ecological context in which these children are growing up.

  14. More childhood onset bipolar disorder in the United States than Canada or Europe: Implications for treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert M; Altshuler, Lori L; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L; Frye, Mark A; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E; Leverich, Gabriele S; Nolen, Willem A

    2017-03-01

    Evidence of a high or increasing incidence of childhood onset bipolar disorder in the United States (US) has been viewed skeptically. Here we review evidence that childhood onsets of bipolar disorder are more common in the US than in Europe, treatment delays are longer, and illness course is more adverse and difficult. Epidemiological data and studies of offspring at high risk also support these findings. In our cohort of outpatients with bipolar disorder, two of the major vulnerability factors for early onset - genetics and environmental adversity in childhood - were also greater in the US than in Europe. An increased familial loading for multiple psychiatric disorders was apparent in 4 generations of the family members of the patients from the US, and that familial burden was linked to early onset bipolar disorder. Since both early onset and treatment delay are risk factors for a poor outcome in adulthood, new clinical, research, and public health initiatives are needed to begin to address and ameliorate this ongoing and potentially devastating clinical situation.

  15. Adverse childhood experiences and higher-level functional limitations among older Japanese people: results from the JAGES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Airi; Fujiwara, Takeo; Murayama, Hiroshi; Tani, Yukako; Kondo, Katsunori

    2017-05-19

    A life-course perspective is essential in understanding the determinants of higher-level functional limitations. We examine the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on higher-level functional limitations in older people. Data were from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study 2013, a population-based cohort of independent people aged 65 years or older across Japan (n = 19,220). ACEs before the age of 18 were assessed in terms of seven adversities: parental death, parental divorce, parental mental illness, family violence, physical abuse, psychological neglect, and psychological abuse. Associations between the cumulative number of ACEs and higher-level functional limitations were investigated by multivariate Poisson regression with robust error variances, adjusted for age, gender, childhood disadvantage, adult socio-demographics, adult health behaviours, and health status. Of the older people, 36.3% reported at least one ACE. Older people who had experienced two or more ACEs showed significantly greater higher-level functional limitations than those with no ACE in a crude model (prevalence ratio, PR = 1.61, 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.51-1.71). After adjusting the covariates, this association remained (PR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.12-1.27). ACEs showed robust independent effects on higher-level functional limitations among older Japanese without disabilities, even after adjusting for potential covariates in childhood and adulthood. The current findings may help in understanding the impact of the latent effects of ACEs on functional limitations in older people.

  16. Finding Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Discovering her birth parents was an exciting adventure for a 15-year-old girl It took 14 years-and just two minutes-for an adopted Chinese girl to find her biological family.July 21 this year marked the first

  17. Childhood adversity, attachment and personality styles as predictors of anxiety among elderly caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigerson, H G; Shear, M K; Bierhals, A J; Zonarich, D L; Reynolds, C F

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which childhood adversity, attachment and personality styles influenced the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder among aged caregivers for terminally ill spouses. We also sought to determine how childhood adversity and attachment/personality styles jointly influenced the likelihood of developing an anxiety disorder among aged caregivers. Data were derived from semistructured interviews with 50 spouses (aged 60 and above) of terminally ill patients. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) record provided retrospective, behaviorally based information on childhood adversity. Measures of attachment and personality styles were obtained from self-report questionnaires, and the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-III-R (SCID) was used to determine diagnoses for anxiety disorders. Logistic regression models estimated the effects of childhood adversity, attachment/personality disturbances, and the interaction between the two on the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder. Results indicated that childhood adversity and paranoid, histrionic and self-defeating styles all directly increase the odds of having an anxiety disorder as an elderly spousal caregiver. In addition, childhood adversity in conjunction with borderline, antisocial and excessively dependent styles increased the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder. The results indicate the need to investigate further the interaction between childhood experiences and current attachment/personality styles in their effects on the development of anxiety disorders.

  18. Osteoporosis in Children with Chronic Illnesses: Diagnosis, Monitoring, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Monica; Bachrach, Laura K

    2017-08-01

    Osteoporosis is an under-recognized complication of chronic illness in childhood. This review will summarize recent literature addressing the risk factors, evaluation, and treatment for early bone fragility. Criteria for the diagnosis of pediatric osteoporosis include the presence of low trauma vertebral fractures alone or the combination of low bone mineral density and several long bone fractures. Monitoring for bone health may include screening for vertebral fractures that are common but often asymptomatic. Pharmacologic agents should be offered to those with fragility fractures especially when spontaneous recovery is unlikely. Controversies persist about the optimal bisphosphonate agent, dose, and duration. Newer osteoporosis drugs have not yet been adequately tested in pediatrics, though clinical trials are underway. The prevalence of osteoporosis is increased in children with chronic illness. To reduce the frequency of fragility fractures requires increased attention to risk factors, early intervention, and additional research to optimize therapy and potentially prevent their occurrence.

  19. Imaging findings of Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Young Jin; Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In-One; Park, Ji Eun; Kim, Yu Jin

    2017-01-01

    Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is a rare, aggressive vascular tumor that typically occurs during infancy or early childhood. Though several case reports have discussed the imaging findings of KHE, larger comprehensive studies are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the imaging findings of KHE in children. A total of twelve cases of pathologically proven KHE were collected by searching our institution's pathology database for children diagnosed between January 2004 and April 2016 (6 male, 6 female; median age: 3 months; age range 7days - 18 years). CT (n=7) and MRI (n=9) findings were retrospectively evaluated. The location, morphology, enhancement, and growth pattern were analyzed. KHEs involved various locations: superficial or deep soft tissue of the extremities (n=4); abdomen (n=3; 2 cases, pancreas; 1 case, small bowel), neck and mediastinum (n=1); chest wall, diaphragm, and pericardium (n=1); abdominal wall (n=1); and head (IAC, CP angle) (n=2). Eight of 10 cases (80%) with CT/MR findings were locally invasive and involved two or more adjacent organs. Three cases presented as well-defined solid masses, and seven were associated with infiltrative lesions of the surrounding areas with (n=4) or without definite solid regions (n=3). In nine patients with MRI, all KHEs were heterogeneous and hyperintense to muscles on T2-weighted images (T2WI), while four KHEs consisted of some regions that were nearly isointense to muscle. Eight of the 10 cases with imaging exhibited heterogeneous intense enhancement, while only one demonstrated mild enhancement. Signal voids (n=2), engorged vessels (n=1), calcification (n=3), hemorrhage (n=1), or bone changes (n=4) were infrequently observed. Four patients (33%) had Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon, and recurrence was observed in two cases. KHEs occurred in various locations, affected mostly infants, and generally exhibited intense heterogeneous enhancement. In more than half of the included cases, KHEs were

  20. Media portrayal of mental illness and its treatments: what effect does it have on people with mental illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews dominant media portrayals of mental illness, the mentally ill and mental health interventions, and examines what social, emotional and treatment-related effects these may have. Studies consistently show that both entertainment and news media provide overwhelmingly dramatic and distorted images of mental illness that emphasise dangerousness, criminality and unpredictability. They also model negative reactions to the mentally ill, including fear, rejection, derision and ridicule. The consequences of negative media images for people who have a mental illness are profound. They impair self-esteem, help-seeking behaviours, medication adherence and overall recovery. Mental health advocates blame the media for promoting stigma and discrimination toward people with a mental illness. However, the media may also be an important ally in challenging public prejudices, initiating public debate, and projecting positive, human interest stories about people who live with mental illness. Media lobbying and press liaison should take on a central role for mental health professionals, not only as a way of speaking out for patients who may not be able to speak out for themselves, but as a means of improving public education and awareness. Also, given the consistency of research findings in this field, it may now be time to shift attention away from further cataloguing of media representations of mental illness to the more challenging prospect of how to use the media to improve the life chances and recovery possibilities for the one in four people living with mental disorders.

  1. Preeclampsia (PE is a complex illness of the human gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gil Urbano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is a complex illness of the human gestation. It is responsible for a high perinatal morbimortality.It is the illness of the multiple theories; in one environmentaland genetic factors are associated to explain it. To find genes candidates to be associated with PE, two methodology types are used: association and binding studies. In this paper we presented the foundation of both studies that explain the main genes candidates to involve in the genesis of this illness,like that ones that code for the methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase, lipoprotein lipase and endothelial nitric oxidesintase, Leiden‘s V factor, angiotensinogen, HLA-G, alphatumoral necrosis factor.

  2. Mental illness stigma and disclosure in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Kosyluk, Kristin A; Markowitz, Fred; Brown, Robyn Lewis; Conlon, Bridget; Rees, Jo; Rosenberg, Jessica; Ellefson, Sarah; Al-Khouja, Maya

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mental illness identity, shame, secrecy, public stigma, and disclosure amongst college students. Participants included 1393 college students from five postsecondary institutions. Structural equation modeling was used to examine two path models predicting disclosure and desire to join a program aiding with disclosure. Variables found to be significant in predicting disclosure included mental illness identity and public stigma. In turn, desire for disclosure predicted desire to join a program aiding in disclosure. Gender and race/ethnic differences were observed, with men and Whites more likely to want to disclose a mental illness or join a program aiding with disclosure compared with women and non-Whites, respectively. These findings suggest that some college students may find programs aiding in disclosure useful in assisting them to achieve their desire to be "out" with their mental illness.

  3. Aspects of spirituality concerning illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Rene; Tiesinga, Lucas J.; Jochemasen, Henk; Post, Doeke

    2007-01-01

    The spiritual dimension of illness, health and care may be seen as a unique aspect in addition to the physical, mental and social dimension. This contribution describes experiences of patients, nurses and hospital chaplains in relation to the spiritual aspects of being ill. Qualitative research was

  4. Water Recreation and Illness Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Background: The health endpoint of prior studies of water recreation has been the occurrence gastrointestinal (GI) of illness. The use of this dichotomous health outcome fails to take into account the range of symptom severity among those with GI illness, as well as thos...

  5. Aspects of spirituality concerning illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Rene; Tiesinga, Lucas J.; Jochemasen, Henk; Post, Doeke

    2007-01-01

    The spiritual dimension of illness, health and care may be seen as a unique aspect in addition to the physical, mental and social dimension. This contribution describes experiences of patients, nurses and hospital chaplains in relation to the spiritual aspects of being ill. Qualitative research was

  6. Staging of unipolar affective illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Ferensztajn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a concept of staging of unipolar affective illness (recurrent depression is presented. In respective subchapters, three most important aspects of this issue have been discussed: 1 staging of unipolar affective illness; 2 staging of treatment-resistant depression; and 3 conversion of unipolar into bipolar affective illness. The evidence for so called neuroprogression of the illness, accumulated in recent years, has allowed for a classification of staging based on a concept of allostasis and allostatic load. In the course of illness, changes in neuroendocrine system (mainly hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, immunological system, mechanisms of oxidative stress, neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors as well as structural and functional changes of the brain occur. In their paper of 2007, Fava and Tossani elaborated a concept of staging of unipolar affective illness presenting a continuum model of five consecutive stages with specific clinical features. In the present paper, a concept of treatment-resistant depression and staging of treatment resistance is presented in the context of several models. An important determinant of treatment-resistant depression is so called subthreshold bipolarity which is connected with worse efficacy of antidepressant drugs. In the course of illness, there is a possibility of changing diagnosis from recurrent depression into bipolar affective illness. The studies on this issue show that frequency of such diagnostic conversion is 1,5% of depressed patients per year.

  7. Living a normal life in an extraordinary way: A systematic review investigating experiences of families of young people's transition into adulthood when affected by a genetic and chronic childhood condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldboth, Veronika; Patch, Christine; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy; Metcalfe, Alison

    2016-10-01

    The transition into adulthood is a developmental stage within the life cycle. A chronic childhood condition can disrupt this transition and create major challenges for both the young person and his or her family. Little is known about families' experiences when living with a rare genetic disease. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review was to understand experiences of families living with a chronic childhood disease during transition into adulthood by integrating evidence. A systematic review using an integrative approach to data inclusion and analysis comprising qualitative, quantitative and other methodological studies about a range of genetic and chronic childhood diseases was undertaken to identify relevant information. Databases searched were PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and AMED, using the search terms (1) family, caregivers, young adult, adolescent; (2) adolescent development, transitional programs, transition to adult care; (3) muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, cystic fibrosis, haemophilia and sickle cell disease. Study findings were critically appraised and analyzed using critical interpretive synthesis. A total of 8116 citations were retrieved. 33 studies remained following the removal of duplicates, papers unrelated to genetic childhood conditions and families' experiences of the transition into adulthood. Findings provided three perspectives: (1) the young person's perspective on how to "live a normal life in an extraordinary way" and "manage a chronic and life threatening disease"; (2) the parent perspective on the "complexity of being a parent of a chronically ill child" and "concerns about the child's future" and (3) the sibling perspective on "concerns about the siblings future". As a consequence of the genetic childhood condition, during the ill family members' transition into adulthood all family members were at risk for psychosocial difficulties as they mutually influenced each other. Previous research focused

  8. Thinking positively about chronic illness: An exploration of optimism, illness perceptions and well-being in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Catherine S; Burn, David J; Hindle, John; Samuel, Mike; Wilson, Ken; Brown, Richard G

    2014-05-01

    Holding positive beliefs about illness and having an optimistic outlook have been associated with increased well-being across a range of health conditions. However, research has indicated that being very optimistic may not actually be beneficial, and holding a realistic attitude is more adaptive in some forms of chronic illness, for example, Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to explore the nature of relationships between illness perceptions, optimism and well-being: specifically, whether a linear or non-linear relationship best described the data. Additionally, the proposed moderating effect of optimism on the relationship between illness perceptions and well-being was tested. A total of 109 participants with idiopathic PD completed questionnaire measures of illness perception, optimism, mood and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Multiple regression analyses were used to explore relationships between illness perceptions, optimism, mood and HRQoL. The potential curvilinear effects of illness perceptions and optimism were modelled using squared variables and linear and quadratic curve estimation. Holding positive illness perceptions predicted better well-being. Some evidence for a non-linear relationship between optimism and mood was found. Optimism had a significant moderating effect on the relationship between specific illness perceptions and outcome. Optimism appears to provide protection against some negative perceptions of illness and was associated with better mood and HRQoL. The findings indicate that specific illness perceptions may be beneficial targets for therapy. Therapeutic interventions should focus on enhancing positive perceptions of PD but potentially more importantly general optimistic attitude to maximize well-being. What is already known on this subject? Positive illness perceptions and high optimism are associated with better well-being in a range of conditions, both chronic and acute. Preliminary studies suggest that in chronic

  9. Illness perceptions: impact on self-management and control in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Ad A; Klok, Ted; Moss-Morris, Rona; Brand, Paul L P

    2010-06-01

    Outcome in asthma is determined not only by pulmonary function or other biomedical characteristics. An important determinant of asthma outcome is illness perceptions: patients' subjective beliefs and emotional responses to their illness. Illness perceptions influence patients' coping and self-management behavior, and thereby outcome. We review recent studies on associations between illness perceptions and outcome in patients with asthma, with a range of respondents and caregivers, with varying degree of asthma severity, and in different settings of medical care. Most studies pertain to substantial numbers of patients, and have been performed in different countries, adding to the external validity of the findings. All studies report substantial effects of illness perceptions on various categories of outcome: illness perceptions reflecting personal control over the illness are associated with a positive outcome, that is, asthma control. Findings point at the importance and clinical relevance of addressing patients' illness perceptions, and suggest that this may improve outcome in asthma care. Well conducted intervention studies on this topic are called for in order to improve outcomes and quality of life in asthma patients. Illness perceptions influence the way in which patients with asthma cope and their self-management of the illness. Illness perceptions can be assessed quite easily and directly, they inform healthcare providers about the psychosocial responses of patients towards their asthma, they are responsive to change in the clinical encounter or via self-management intervention training. Exploring patient's illness perceptions, therefore, is a crucial component of good clinical care.

  10. The Relationship between Age and Illness Duration in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Kidd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating illness, but it is unclear if patient age and illness duration might affect symptoms and functioning of patients. In the current study, participants were categorized into four groups based upon age (under or over age 55 and illness duration (more or less than 10 years. The groups were compared on functioning and symptoms. Findings indicated that those who were older with a longer illness duration had significantly higher levels of mental health functioning than those who were younger with a shorter or longer illness duration and the older group with a shorter illness duration. The results suggest that older patients with an illness duration of over 10 years have significantly higher levels of mental health functioning than the three other groups. For symptoms, the younger/longer illness duration group had significantly worse immune and autonomic domains than the older/longer illness group. In addition, the younger patients with a longer illness duration displayed greater autonomic and immune symptoms in comparison to the older group with a longer illness duration. These findings suggest that both age and illness duration need to be considered when trying to understand the influence of these factors on patients.

  11. Neurocognitive Phenotypes in Severe Childhood Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Brian C; Dupont-Frechette, Jennifer A; Tellock, Perrin P; Maher, Isolde D; Haisley, Lauren D; Holler, Karen A

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the presence of potential neurocognitive phenotypes within a severe childhood psychiatric sample. A medical chart review was conducted for 106 children who received a neuropsychological evaluation during children's psychiatric inpatient program hospitalization. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to identify distinct clinical clusters based on neurocognitive measures. Cluster analysis identified four distinct clusters, subsequently labeled neurocognitive phenotypes: "intact cognition" (27%), "global dysfunction" (20%), "organization/planning" (21%), and "inhibition-memory" (32%). Significant differences were identified in history of legal involvement and antipsychotic medications at hospital admission. Differences between none-minimal and moderate-high neurocognitive dysfunction were identified in age, amount of diagnoses and antipsychotic medications at admission, and hospital length of stay. Current findings provide preliminary evidence of underlying neurocognitive phenotypes within severe childhood psychiatric disorders. Findings highlight the importance of neuropsychological evaluation in the treatment of childhood psychiatric disorders.

  12. Implementação da estratégia Atenção Integrada às Doenças Prevalentes na Infância no Nordeste, Brasil Investigación sobre uso de medicamentos por ancianos jubilados, Belo Horizonte,MG Implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses strategy in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Joaquim Freitas do Amaral

    2008-08-01

    ás, residentes en Belo Horizonte (sudeste de Brasil, en 2003. Los ancianos fueron entrevistados por farmacéuticos, utilizando cuestionario padronizado. Fueron estimadas la prevalencia de uso y la media de medicamentos usados en los últimos 15 días anteriores a la entrevista, las cuales fueron estratificadas de acuerdo con el género según variables sociodemográficas y de salud. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de uso de medicamentos fue de 90,1%, significativamente más alto entre las mujeres (93,4% de que entre los hombres (84,3%. Mujeres utilizaron en media 4,6±3,2 productos y hombres 3,3±2,6 (pOBJECTIVE: The majority of child deaths are avoidable. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses strategy, developed by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund, aims to reduce child mortality by means of actions to improve performance of health professionals, the health system organization, and family and community practices. The article aimed to describe factors associated with the implementation of this strategy in three states of Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Ecological study conducted in 443 municipalities in the states of Northeastern Brazil Ceará, Paraíba and Pernambuco, in 2006. The distribution of economic, geographic, environmental, nutritional, health service organization, and child mortality independent variables were compared between municipalities with and without the strategy. These factors were assessed by means of a hierarchical model, where Poisson regression was used to calculate the prevalence ratios, after adjustment of confounding factors. RESULTS: A total of 54% of the municipalities studied had the strategy: in the state of Ceará, 65 had it and 43 did not have it; in the state of Paraíba, 27 had it and 21 did not have it; and in the state of Pernambuco, 147 had it and 140 did not have it. After controlling for confounding factors, the following variables were found to be significantly associated with the absence of the

  13. Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, William E.; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is a common childhood experience that affects children at all income levels and racial/ethnic groups. Being a bully victim has long-term adverse consequences on physical and mental health and financial functioning, but bullies themselves display few ill effects. Here, we show that victims suffer from greater increases in low-grade systemic inflammation from childhood to young adulthood than are seen in others. In contrast, bullies showed lower increases in inflammation into adulthood...

  14. Childhood dyspraxia predicts adult-onset nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Mittal, Vijay; Kline, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Several neurological variables have been investigated as premorbid biomarkers of vulnerability for schizophrenia and other related disorders. The current study examined whether childhood dyspraxia predicted later adult nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorders. From a standardized neurological...... showed higher scores on the dyspraxia scale predict nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorders relative to other psychiatric disorders and no mental illness outcomes, even after controlling for genetic risk, χ2 (4, 244) = 18.61, p childhood (reflecting...

  15. Childhood sarcoidosis: Louisiana experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedalia, Abraham; Khan, Tahir A; Shetty, Avinash K; Dimitriades, Victoria R; Espinoza, Luis R

    2016-07-01

    A retrospective chart review was conducted to detect patients with sarcoidosis seen by pediatric rheumatology service from the period of 1992 to 2013 at Children's hospital of New Orleans. Twenty-seven patients were identified. The average duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 5 (range 1-120) months. Five patients had onset before the age of 5 years and were diagnosed with early-onset sarcoidosis. The most common manifestations at presentation were constitutional symptoms (62 %) followed by ocular (38 %). During the course of illness, 19/27 (70 %) had multiorgan involvement. Common manifestations included uveitis/iritis (77 %), fever (50 %), hilar adenopathy (42 %), arthritis (31 %), peripheral lympadenopathy (31 %), hepatosplenomegaly (31 %), parenchymal lung disease (27 %), and skin rash (19 %). Unusual manifestations included granulomatous bone marrow disease (3 cases), hypertension (2), abdominal aortic aneurysm (large vessel vasculitis; 1), granulomatous hepatitis (1), nephrocalcinosis (1), membranous nephropathy (1), refractory granulomatous interstitial nephritis with recurrence in transplanted kidney (1), CNS involvement (2), parotid gland enlargement (1), and sensorineural hearing loss (1). Biopsy specimen was obtained in 21/27 (77 %) patients, and demonstration of noncaseating granuloma associated with negative stains for mycobacteria and fungi was seen in 18 patients. Elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme level was seen in 74 % of patients. Treatment with oral prednisone was initiated in symptomatic patients with significant clinical improvement. Low-dose methotrexate (MTX) 10-15 mg/m(2)/week orally, as steroid-sparing agent, was administered in 14 patients. Other immunomodulators included cyclophosphamide (2 patients), etanercept (2), infliximab (2), mycophenolate mofetil (1), and tacrolimus (1). Childhood sarcoidosis is prevalent in Louisiana. Most of the affected children present with a multisystem disease associated with

  16. Factors associated with physical activity among adolescent and young adult survivors of early childhood cancer: A report from the childhood cancer survivor study (CCSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Katie A; Mertens, Ann C; Whitton, John A; Wilson, Carmen L; Ness, Kirsten K; Gilleland Marchak, Jordan; Leisenring, Wendy; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Krull, Kevin R

    2017-08-14

    To evaluate concurrent and longitudinal associations between psychosocial functioning and physical activity in adolescent and young adult survivors of early childhood cancer. Adolescent survivors of early childhood cancer (diagnosed before age four) participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study completed the Coping Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE; n = 303; mean age at survey: 17.6 years). A subset of these survivors (n = 248) completed a follow-up survey an average of 6.0 years later (range: 4-10). Logistic regression identified associations between psychosocial functioning in adolescence and physical activity levels in adolescence and young adulthood. Survivors reported low physical activity as adolescents (46.1% scored below CHIP-AE cut-point) and young adults (40.8% below Centers for Disease Control guidelines). Poor physical activity during adolescence was associated with female sex (OR = 2.06, 95% CI, 1.18-3.68), parents with less than a college education (OR = 1.91, 95% CI, 1.11-3.32), previous treatment with cranial radiation (OR = 3.35, 95% CI, 1.69-6.88), TV time (OR = 1.77, 95% CI, 1.00-3.14), and limitations of activity due to health or mobility restrictions (OR = 8.28, 95% CI, 2.87-30.34). Poor diet (OR = 1.84, 95% CI, 1.05-3.26) and low self-esteem (OR = 1.80, 95% CI, 0.99-3.31) during adolescence were associated with lower odds of meeting Centers for Disease Control physical activity guidelines in young adulthood. These findings provide targets for future interventional studies to improve physical activity in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Undiagnosed asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease in childhood. To study the actual prevalence and impact of undiagnosed childhood asthma in daily life (i.e. quality of life, participation in physical and school activities) we performed a survey in schoolchildren (aged 7-10 years) in the southern part of

  18. Childhood Roots of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Norman F.; Lubensky, Amy W.

    1976-01-01

    Earlier project reports compared childhood social behavior of nonmigratory schizophrenics and normal classmates by analyzing teachers' comments in school records. This article expands the sample to include migratory schizophrenics and analyzes childhood intellectual functioning. Behavioral differences indicated emotional immaturity and social…

  19. Childhood asymmetrical labium majus enlargement sonographic and MR imaging appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokli, Ami; Neuman, Jeremy; Lukse, Ruby; Koshy, June [Staten Island University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Kong, Fanyi [Staten Island University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Childhood asymmetrical labium majus enlargement (CALME) has been described sparsely in recent surgery, pathology, pediatric and gynecology literature; however, no comprehensive description from a radiology perspective has been developed. The purpose of this case series is to describe the imaging findings of CALME and to review the current understanding of this recently described clinical entity with regard to clinical presentation, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and treatment options. This is a retrospective analysis of 3 girls, ages 5-7 years, who presented for imaging evaluation with subsequent pathologically proven CALME. Each child's clinical history, length of symptoms, imaging appearance and pathological findings were reviewed. All three girls presented with unilateral enlargement of the labium majus (two right-side, one left-side) with no history of trauma or other inciting cause. Two girls had painless labial enlargement that was recognized for weeks, and one had similar symptoms for 1 year prior to presentation. One girl was evaluated initially with sonography, and all three children underwent MR imaging. Sonographic evaluation showed asymmetrical labial enlargement without a definable mass. In each girl, the MR imaging findings were characterized by relatively ill-defined T1-weighted hypointense signal, T2-weighted hypo- to isointense signal with interspersed hyperintense septae, and heterogeneous patchy and feathery strands of enhancement on post-contrast imaging. Biopsy from each child showed benign fibrous tissue with intervening mature fibroadipose tissue, vessels and nerves without findings of inflammation or neoplasia. The MR imaging appearance of CALME is consistent. Recognition and appreciation of this unique pediatric entity by the radiologist may be essential for appropriate diagnosis and can help to guide therapy. Current preferred treatment approach is conservative. (orig.)

  20. Enduring psychobiological effects of childhood adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Ulrike

    2013-09-01

    This mini-review refers to recent findings on psychobiological long-term consequences of childhood trauma and adverse living conditions. The continuum of trauma-provoked aftermath reaches from healthy adaptation with high resilience, to severe maladjustment with co-occurring psychiatric and physical pathologies in children, adolescents and adults. There is increasing evidence of a strong interconnectivity between genetic dispositions, epigenetic processes, stress-related hormonal systems and immune parameters in all forms of (mal)-adjustment to adverse living conditions. Unfavorable constellations of these dispositions and systems, such as low cortisol levels and elevated markers of inflammation in maltreated children, seem to promote the (co)-occurrence of psychiatric and physical pathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder, obesity, or diabetes. Although findings from prospective study designs support a deepened understanding of causal relations between adverse living conditions, including traumatic experiences, during childhood and its psychobiological effects, so far, little is known about the temporal coincidence of stress-sensitive developmental stages during childhood and adolescence and trauma consequences. Taken together, childhood adversity is a severe risk factor for the onset of psychobiological (mal)-adjustment, which has to be explained under consideration of diverse physiological systems and developmental stages of childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role conflict, uncertainty in illness, and illness-related communication avoidance: College students facing familial chronic illness

    OpenAIRE

    Suchak, Meghana

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the current study was on examining possible differences in college students' adjustment based on residency status (i.e., international Asian vs. domestic students) and illness status (i.e., having a family member with a chronic illness vs. not having a family member with a chronic illness). The study also examined the associations between overall college student adjustment and the family and illness-related factors of role conflict, uncertainty in illness, and illness-related com...

  2. Cadherin-related family member 3, a childhood asthma susceptibility gene product, mediates rhinovirus C binding and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Yury A; Watters, Kelly; Ashraf, Shamaila; Griggs, Theodor F; Devries, Mark K; Jackson, Daniel J; Palmenberg, Ann C; Gern, James E

    2015-04-28

    Members of rhinovirus C (RV-C) species are more likely to cause wheezing illnesses and asthma exacerbations compared with other rhinoviruses. The cellular receptor for these viruses was heretofore unknown. We report here that expression of human cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3) enables the cells normally unsusceptible to RV-C infection to support both virus binding and replication. A coding single nucleotide polymorphism (rs6967330, C529Y) was previously linked to greater cell-surface expression of CDHR3 protein, and an increased risk of wheezing illnesses and hospitalizations for childhood asthma. Compared with wild-type CDHR3, cells transfected with the CDHR3-Y529 variant had about 10-fold increases in RV-C binding and progeny yields. We developed a transduced HeLa cell line (HeLa-E8) stably expressing CDHR3-Y529 that supports RV-C propagation in vitro. Modeling of CDHR3 structure identified potential binding sites that could impact the virus surface in regions that are highly conserved among all RV-C types. Our findings identify that the asthma susceptibility gene product CDHR3 mediates RV-C entry into host cells, and suggest that rs6967330 mutation could be a risk factor for RV-C wheezing illnesses.

  3. Youth blogging and serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesby, Linda; Salamonsen, Anita

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, a growing number of young people who experience illness tend to blog about it. In this paper, we question whether and how illness blogs illustrate the intercommunicative aspect of blogging by bringing forth both the literary concept of the implied reader and the sociological concepts of empowerment and agency in the analysis. We argue that young people blogging about serious illness demonstrate the inherent intercommunicative potential of blogging. We also argue that youth blogging about serious illness may represent a fruitful strategy for ill young people to create meaning, stay front-stage in youth communities and build self-esteem and confidence out of chaos. Furthermore, we argue that these blogs may contribute rather unique experience-based knowledge and reflections about existential issues to other young blog readers, who may otherwise not get access to this aspect of life. Youth blogging about serious illness thereby reflects a patient group so far not very visible and through the genre youth stand out as more competent when it comes to illness and healthcare issues than what is often presumed.

  4. Central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disorders of childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamate Mahesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Childhood Central Nervous System (CNS inflammatory demyelinating disorders (CIDD are being diagnosed more commonly now. There is ambiguity in the use of different terms in relation to CIDD. Recently, consensus definitions have been proposed so that there is uniformity in studies across the world. The prevalence of these disorders and the spectrum varies from place to place. This study was undertaken to study the clinico-radiological profile and outcome of children with CIDD using the recent consensus definition. Study design: Prospective descriptive study. Materials and Methods: All patients admitted in pediatric ward and pediatric intensive care with neurological symptoms and signs suggestive of CNS inflammatory demyelinating disorders from July 2007−August 2008 were enrolled. The details of clinical presentation, neuroimaging findings, laboratory results, treatment, and outcome were noted and analyzed. Results: Fifteen patients (11 with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and 4 with clinically isolated syndrome were diagnosed with CIDD. Clinical presentation was quite varied. Eight patients recovered completely; 4 cases were left with sequelae and 3 patients expired. There were no cases of multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica. Conclusions: CNS inflammatory demyelinating disorders are common illnesses in developing countries because of recurrent infections. Even the spectrum of CIDD is different. Neuroimaging in the form of magnetic resonance imaging is essential for diagnosis.

  5. Legal Aspects with Regard to Mentally Ill Offenders in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaleen Swanepoel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this note is to discuss legal aspects with regard to mentally ill offenders with specific reference to the defence raised as a result of mental illness. In order to fully understand this defence it is important to provide a clinical background on what forensic psychiatry is. It is also necessary to define certain clinical concepts such as the concept of mental illness, and the criteria for the classification of mental illnesses. This then leads to a discussion of the defence of mental illness. A conclusion is drawn at the end, with a summary of the findings.

  6. Creativity, self creation, and the treatment of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, A

    2006-06-01

    This paper examines how an understanding of systematic findings about creative processes involved in art, literature, and science can be applied to the effective treatment of mental illness. These findings and applications are illustrated by particular reference to the work of the poet Sylvia Plath and the treatment of a patient who aspired to become a writer.

  7. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety.

  8. Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... disease is the most common illness caused by parvovirus B19 infection. Learn More Parvovirus B19 infection can ...

  9. [Non thyroidal illnesses (NTIS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, F; Goichot, B; Brue, T

    2010-09-01

    Abnormalities in the circulating levels of thyroid hormones, without evidence of coexisting thyroid or pituitary gland disease can be observed in all general diseases. These nonthyroidal illnesses (NTIS) are the result of complex mechanisms that combine the effect of some drugs, cytokines, nutritional and endocrine factors at all levels of the thyrotropic axis, from the hypothalamus to the cellular transporters and nuclear receptors of thyroid hormones. The patterns of NTIS depend on the underlying disease and its severity. Thirtyfive years after the initial description, the pathophysiological significance of these anomalies remains controversial. One of the dilemma of NTIS is whether the hormone responses represent an adaptive and normal, physiologic response to conserve energy and protect against hypercatabolism in case of aggression, or whether it is a maladaptive response contributing to a worsening of the disease. This debate is not just a theoretical question, because in the first case the process must be respected, in the other case a vigorous treatment to restore circulating thyroid hormone levels is justified. There have been very few clinical studies designed to address whether the substitution with thyroid hormone is advantageous, and there is at current time no permissive evidence for the use of thyroid hormone replacement in patients with NTIS. But the clinical context, the choice of the molecule or of the dose and the way of administration were not necessarily the most relevant. Theoretically, stimulation of thyreotrope axis used a continuous infusion of TRH seems to provide clinical benefit. With the expectation that randomized clinical trials will provide demonstration of NTIS treatment efficiency, the question might remain unanswered for several more years.

  10. Ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Doran M; Iddins, Carol J; Sugarman, Stephen L

    2014-02-01

    Although the spectrum of information related to diagnosis and management of radiation injuries and illnesses is vast and as radiation contamination incidents are rare, most emergency practitioners have had little to no practical experience with such cases. Exposures to ionizing radiation and internal contamination with radioactive materials can cause significant tissue damage and conditions. Emergency practitioners unaware of ionizing radiation as the cause of a condition may miss the diagnosis of radiation-induced injury or illness. This article reviews the pertinent terms, physics, radiobiology, and medical management of radiation injuries and illnesses that may confront the emergency practitioner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cluster Analysis of Childhood Temperament Data on Adoptees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Ralph; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results concur with the Thomas-Chess findings in identifying three main temperament groups: difficult, easy, and slow to warm up. Membership in the difficult group predicted later childhood behavior disorder in both sexes. (Author)

  12. School Uniforms and Discourses on Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine, Ann

    2003-01-01

    This ethnographic study examined the introduction of school uniforms in the public schools of one California city. Findings indicated that the uniform issue intersected with issues such as student safety and violence, family stress, egalitarianism, competitive dressing, and a power struggle over shaping the childhood environment. It was concluded…

  13. Aristotle's Conception of Childhood and the Poliscraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Examines Aristotle's conception of childhood in relation to the creation of the ideal community. According to Aristotle, children are incompletely developed, so the goal of education should be to help children outgrow their original, animal-like natures so that they will find happiness as adults in rational behavior. (AM)

  14. Survival From Childhood Hematological Malignancies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Friederike; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to diverse findings as to the role of family factors for childhood cancer survival even within Europe, we explored a nationwide, register-based cohort of Danish children with hematological malignancies. METHODS: All children born between 1973 and 2006 and diagnosed with a hematolo...

  15. Bullying Prevention Strategies in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem that affects the young children's well being. Early childhood educators find it difficult to manage bullying in the classroom. Preschool is the first environment outside of the home setting where children encounter difficulties when they socially interact with their peers. Based on the principles of protecting and…

  16. Public stigma towards mental illness in the Greek culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzouvara, V; Papadopoulos, C

    2014-12-01

    Mental illness stigma negatively affects the lives of individuals with mental health disorders. Studies have indicated that the type and degree of stigma significantly varies across cultures. This study aimed to add to this body of knowledge by examining the prevalence and the type of mental illness stigma among individuals who identified themselves as Greek. It also examined the influence of a range of potential within-culture stigma moderating factors, including levels of previous experience with mental illness and mental illness knowledge. A cross-sectional quantitative design was employed, and 111 participants living in England and Greece were sampled through the snowball sampling technique. Stigma prevalence was measured using the 'Community Attitudes to Mental Illness' questionnaire. The findings revealed that participants showed a high degree of sympathy for people with mental illness but also considered them to be inferior and of a lower social class, and needing strict societal control. Higher stigma was significantly associated with being educated in England (instead of Greece), higher religiosity, lower knowledge levels and lower levels personal experience of mental illness. Targeted antistigma campaigns specifically tailored for the Greek culture are required in order to help reduce stigmatizing attitudes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Components of implicit stigma against mental illness among Chinese students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Wang

    Full Text Available Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT. We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted.

  18. Osteoporosis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierucci, Francesco; Saggese, Giuseppe; Cimaz, Rolando

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight recent findings in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric osteoporosis. Several genes are involved in bone mass acquisition, and various monogenic bone disorders characterized by reduced bone mineral density and increased bone fragility have been recently described. Moreover, many chronic diseases and/or their treatment have been associated with impaired bone mass acquisition. Pediatric osteoporosis should be adequately suspected and properly diagnosed in children at risk of fractures. Particularly, detection of vertebral fracture allows the diagnosis regardless of densitometric evaluation. Dual X-ray absorptiometry remains the most widely used densitometric technique in childhood, but interpretation of results should be made with caution because of different confounding factors. Bisphosphonates represent one of the main medical treatments of pediatric osteoporosis, and many different protocols have been proposed. Bisphosphonates administration should be characterized by a first phase, followed by a period of maintenance. Optimal route of administration, duration of therapy, and long-term safety of bisphosphonates treatment require further investigation. Careful monitoring of children at risk of fractures is essential to pose early diagnosis of osteoporosis. In children with persistent risk factors and reduced probability of spontaneous recovery, medical treatment with bisphosphonates should be considered.

  19. Completed suicide in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervic, Kanita; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A

    2008-06-01

    Suicide in children and young adolescents up to 14 years of age has increased in many countries, warranting research and clinical awareness. International reported suicide rates per 100,000 in this young population vary between 3.1 and 0 (mean rate worldwide, approximately 0.6/100.000; male-female ratio, 2:1). Suicide occurs only in vulnerable children; this vulnerability begins with parental mood disorder and impulsive aggression, and family history of suicide. Childhood affective and disruptive disorders and abuse are the most often reported psychiatric risk factors. Suicide becomes increasingly common after puberty, most probably because of pubertal onset of depression and substance abuse, which substantially aggravate suicide risk. Biologic findings are scarce; however, serotonergic dysfunction is assumed. The most common precipitants are school and family problems and may include actual/anticipated transitions in these environments. Suicides in children and young adolescents up to 14 years of age often follow a brief period of stress. Cognitive immaturity/misjudgment, age-related impulsivity, and availability of suicide methods play an important role. Psychologic autopsy studies that focus on suicides in this age group are needed.

  20. A neuroimaging study in childhood autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. I. Mullick

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood autism is now widely viewed as being of developmental neurological origin. Abnormality in neuroimaging is reported in autism.Objectives: To delineate the proportion of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and electro encephalography (EEG abnormality among the children with Autism and to assess any association of MRI and EEG changes with co morbid mental illness.Methods: It was a cross sectional descriptive study done at a child and adolescent consultation centre, Dhaka. The study was Carried out from January 2009 to December 2009. Both boys and girls were included in the study. A total of 42 children with childhood autism aged between two and 12 years partici­pated in this study. Diagnosis of autism was based on ICD-10(DCR criteria. Results: Abnormalities were found to be 35.7% in MRI and 42.9% in EEG. EEG abnormalities were found in the form of defuse slow waves activities, generalized faster activities, epileptogenic discharge and mixed discharge. The abnormalities in MRI was found in the form of diffuse cortical atrophic changes, focal cortical atrophy in frontal and temporal cortex with widening of major sulci, prominent ventricles, periventricular degeneration and abnormal basal ganglia. EEG changes were significantly associated with increased number of co-morbid illness (mental retardation, epilepsy and others. Conclusion: A number of abnom1alities that observed in the present study indicative of relations between structural and physiological dysfunctions and childhood autism. Further exploratory and in-depth researches are certainly required in this field. Intervention of autism needs to address co morbidities for better outcome.

  1. Improving Communication About Serious Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-07

    Critical Illness; Chronic Disease; Terminal Care; Palliative Care; Communication; Advance Care Planning; Neoplasm Metastasis; Lung Neoplasms; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive; Heart Failure; End Stage Liver Disease; Kidney Failure, Chronic

  2. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  3. Living with Mentally Ill Parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Buldukoglu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review seeks to identify and analyze qualitative studies that examined experiences of children whose parents have a mental illness. This study reported that children whose parents have a mental illness had some common experiences. These experiences may have negative effects on children’s coping skills, resilience to tough living conditions and ability to maintain their mental health. In spite of these negative conditions, some of these children have much more self-confidence, resilience and independence because of inner development and early maturation. Some effective intervention programs are needed to promote information to children and other family members about mental illness, coping behaviors. Availability of such psychiatric services and nation-wide programs with professionals to deal with these problems should be organized properly to increase quality of life of these children. Furthermore, qualitative researches that explore the experiences of children whose parents with mental illness should also be conducted in our country.

  4. Attitudes toward people with mental illness among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi Poreddi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, people with mental illness frequently encounter stigma, prejudice, and discrimination by public and health care professionals. Research related to medical students′ attitudes toward people with mental illness is limited from India. Aim: The aim was to assess and compare the attitudes toward people with mental illness among medical students′. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was carried out among medical students, who were exposed (n = 115 and not exposed (n = 61 to psychiatry training using self-reporting questionnaire. Results: Our findings showed improvement in students′ attitudes after exposure to psychiatry in benevolent (t = 2.510, P < 0.013 and stigmatization (t = 2.656, P < 0.009 domains. Further, gender, residence, and contact with mental illness were the factors that found to be influencing students′ attitudes toward mental illness. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that psychiatric education proved to be effective in changing the attitudes of medical students toward mental illness to a certain extent. However, there is an urgent need to review the current curriculum to prepare undergraduate medical students to provide holistic care to the people with mental health problems.

  5. Feeding practices for infants and young children during and after common illness. Evidence from South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Global evidence shows that children's growth deteriorates rapidly during/after illness if foods and feeding practices do not meet the additional nutrient requirements associated with illness/convalescence. To inform policies and programmes, we conducted a review of the literature published from 1990 to 2014 to document how children 0–23 months old are fed during/after common childhood illnesses. The review indicates that infant and young child feeding (IYCF) during common childhood illnesses is far from optimal. When sick, most children continue to be breastfed, but few are breastfed more frequently, as recommended. Restriction/withdrawal of complementary foods during illness is frequent because of children's anorexia (perceived/real), poor awareness of caregivers' about the feeding needs of sick children, traditional beliefs/behaviours and/or suboptimal counselling and support by health workers. As a result, many children are fed lower quantities of complementary foods and/or are fed less frequently when they are sick. Mothers/caregivers often turn to family/community elders and traditional/non‐qualified practitioners to seek advice on how to feed their sick children. Thus, traditional beliefs and behaviours guide the use of ‘special’ feeding practices, foods and diets for sick children. A significant proportion of mothers/caregivers turn to the primary health care system for support but receive little or no advice. Building the knowledge, skills and capacity of community health workers and primary health care practitioners to provide mothers/caregivers with accurate and timely information, counselling and support on IYCF during and after common childhood illnesses, combined with large‐scale communication programmes to address traditional beliefs and norms that may be harmful, is an urgent priority to reduce the high burden of child stunting in South Asia. PMID:26840205

  6. The Ubiquity of Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Claudia; Fleischer, Soraya; Rui, Taniele

    2016-01-01

    This is a review of five different books dealing with some aspect of what might be termed a "chronic illness" - Alzheimer's disease, lupus, addiction, erectile dysfunction, and leprosy. The array of different subjects examined in these books points to the negotiable limits of this hugely open category. What exactly constitutes an "illness"? Why not use a less biomedical term instead: "disturbance", "problem", or simply "condition"? And how are we to understand "chronic" - simply as the flipside of "acute" or "curable"?

  7. Childhood Trauma and Coping through the Science of Physics: An Attachment Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucabeche, Viviana; Haney, Jolynn; Quinn, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Trauma can be defined as stressful life events that disrupt and/or delay successful transition during childhood developmental stages (Roberts, 2000). In this exploratory study, transitional stressors are defined as: childhood physical, sexual, or emotional abuse; loss of a caregiver or significant relative due to death or abandonment; exposure to physical violence by non-family members (e.g., bullying); or illness resulting in permanent physical disability. Trauma may produce disorganized attachments in childhood, which may lead to emotional and to social impairment in adulthood (Siegel, 1999). Consequently, traumatized individuals, who suffer from disorganized attachments, may seek to engage in activities which are emotionally predictable. An examination of the personal childhood histories from a sample of Nobel Prize winners in the field of physics provides support for the hypothesis that the study of physics may serve as an effective coping method for individuals who have experienced childhood trauma.

  8. Sex differences in the effect of childhood trauma on the clinical expression of early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Myriam; Montalvo, Itziar; Creus, Marta; Cabezas, Ángel; Solé, Montse; Algora, Maria José; Moreno, Irene; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Labad, Javier

    2016-07-01

    Childhood trauma, a risk factor of psychosis, is associated the clinical expression of the illness (greater severity of psychotic symptoms; poorer cognitive performance). We aimed to explore whether there are sex differences in this relationship. We studied 79 individuals with a psychotic disorder (PD) with <3years of illness and 59 healthy subjects (HS). All participants were administered the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) to assess cognition. Depressive, positive and negative psychotic symptoms, and global functioning were also assessed. History of childhood trauma was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Patients reported a greater history of childhood trauma on all CTQ domains (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, and physical and emotional neglect). A poorer cognitive performance was also observed in PD when compared to HS. No sex differences were found in the CTQ scores. In the relationship between childhood trauma and psychopathological symptoms, significant correlations were found between CTQ scores and positive and negative psychotic symptoms, depressive symptoms and poorer functionality, but only in women. Childhood trauma was associated with poorer social cognition in both men and women. Of all CTQ dimensions, emotional neglect and physical neglect were more clearly associated with a more severe psychopathological and cognitive profile. Our results suggest that childhood trauma, particularly emotional and physical neglect, is associated with the clinical expression of psychosis and that there are sex differences in this relationship.

  9. Psychology and theology meet: illness appraisal and spiritual coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, Donia R; Borg, Josette; Muscat, Charlene; Sturgeon, Cassandra

    2012-10-01

    This descriptive exploratory study explored illness appraisal and spiritual coping of three groups of individuals with life-threatening illness. These were hospice clients with cancer (Ca; n = 10), clients with first myocardial infarction (MI; n = 6), and parents of children with cystic fibrosis (CF; n = 16). Qualitative data were collected by audiotaped face-to-face interviews (parents) and focus groups (MI and Ca). Similarities in illness appraisal and spiritual coping were found across the three groups except appreciation of crafts, which was found only in clients with Ca and causal meaning of parents (CF). Overall, illness was appraised negatively and positively, whereas spiritual coping incorporated existential and religious coping. These findings confirm the psychological theory (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) and theological theory (Otto, 1950), which guided this study. Recommendations were proposed to integrate spirituality and religiosity in the curricula, clinical practice and to conduct cross-cultural comparative longitudinal research.

  10. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sun or any situation that involves extreme heat. Young children and the elderly are most at risk, but anyone can be affected. Here you will find information about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the legs and stomach area. ...

  11. Dependency in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumei Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By necessity, critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs have a high level of dependency, which is linked to a variety of negative feelings, such as powerlessness. However, the term dependency is not well defined in the critically ill patients. The concept of “dependency” in critically ill patients was analyzed using a meta-synthesis approach. An inductive process described by Deborah Finfgeld-Connett was used to analyze the data. Overarching themes emerged that reflected critically ill patients’ experience and meaning of being in dependency were (a antecedents: dependency in critically ill patients was a powerless and vulnerable state, triggered by a life-threatening crisis; (b attributes: the characteristic of losing “self” was featured by dehumanization and disembodiment, which can be alleviated by a “self”-restoring process; and (c outcomes: living with dependency and coping with dependency. The conceptual model explicated here may provide a framework for understanding dependency in critically ill patients.

  12. Dependency in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumei Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By necessity, critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs have a high level of dependency, which is linked to a variety of negative feelings, such as powerlessness. However, the term dependency is not well defined in the critically ill patients. The concept of “dependency” in critically ill patients was analyzed using a meta-synthesis approach. An inductive process described by Deborah Finfgeld-Connett was used to analyze the data. Overarching themes emerged that reflected critically ill patients’ experience and meaning of being in dependency were (a antecedents: dependency in critically ill patients was a powerless and vulnerable state, triggered by a life-threatening crisis; (b attributes: the characteristic of losing “self” was featured by dehumanization and disembodiment, which can be alleviated by a “self”-restoring process; and (c outcomes: living with dependency and coping with dependency. The conceptual model explicated here may provide a framework for understanding dependency in critically ill patients.

  13. Childhood maltreatment and the medical morbidity in bipolar disorder: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosang, Georgina M; Fisher, Helen L; Uher, Rudolf; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Maughan, Barbara; McGuffin, Peter; Farmer, Anne E

    2017-09-07

    Childhood maltreatment (abuse and neglect) can have long-term deleterious consequences, including increased risk for medical and psychiatric illnesses, such as bipolar disorder in adulthood. Emerging evidence suggests that a history of childhood maltreatment is linked to the comorbidity between medical illnesses and mood disorders. However, existing studies on bipolar disorder have not yet explored the specific influence of child neglect and have not included comparisons with individuals without mood disorders (controls). This study aimed to extend the existing literature by examining the differential influence of child abuse and child neglect on medical morbidity in a sample of bipolar cases and controls. The study included 72 participants with bipolar disorder and 354 psychiatrically healthy controls (average age of both groups was 48 years), who completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and were interviewed regarding various medical disorders. A history of any type of childhood maltreatment was significantly associated with a diagnosis of any medical illness (adjusted OR = 6.28, 95% confidence intervals 1.70-23.12, p = 0.006) and an increased number of medical illnesses (adjusted OR = 3.77, 95% confidence intervals 1.34-10.57, p = 0.012) among adults with bipolar disorder. Exposure to child abuse was more strongly associated with medical disorders than child neglect. No association between childhood maltreatment and medical morbidity was detected among controls. To summarise, individuals with bipolar disorder who reported experiencing maltreatment during childhood, especially abuse, were at increased risk of suffering from medical illnesses and warrant greater clinical attention.

  14. Childhood adverse life events and parental psychopathology as risk factors for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergink, V; Larsen, J T; Hillegers, M H J; Dahl, S K; Stevens, H; Mortensen, P B; Petersen, L; Munk-Olsen, T

    2016-10-25

    Childhood adverse events are risk factors for later bipolar disorder. We quantified the risks for a later diagnosis of bipolar disorder after exposure to adverse life events in children with and without parental psychopathology. This register-based population cohort study included all persons born in Denmark from 1980 to 1998 (980 554 persons). Adversities before age 15 years were: familial disruption; parental somatic illness; any parental psychopathology; parental labour market exclusion; parental imprisonment; placement in out-of-home care; and parental natural and unnatural death. We calculated risk estimates of each of these eight life events as single exposure and risk estimates for exposure to multiple life events. Main outcome variable was a diagnosis of bipolar disorder after the age of 15 years, analysed with Cox proportional hazard regression. Single exposure to most of the investigated adversities were associated with increased risk for bipolar disorder, exceptions were parental somatic illness and parental natural death. By far the strongest risk factor for bipolar disorder in our study was any mental disorder in the parent (hazard ratio 3.53; 95% confidence interval 2.73-4.53) and the additional effects of life events on bipolar risk were limited. An effect of early adverse life events on bipolar risk later in life was mainly observed in children without parental psychopathology. Our findings do not exclude early-life events as possible risk factors, but challenge the concept of adversities as important independent determinants of bipolar disorder in genetically vulnerable individuals.

  15. Playing with Moon Sand: A Narrative Inquiry into a Teacher's Experiences Teaching Alongside a Student with a Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Beth; Murphy, M. Shaun

    2016-01-01

    This paper inquires into the experiences of an early childhood educator named Claire who taught a young girl with a chronic illness at East Willows Elementary School, a western Canadian elementary school. Using narrative inquiry as the methodology, Claire's experiences in her curriculum making alongside Madeline a young girl with Turner syndrome…

  16. Mind's response to the body's betrayal: Gestalt/Existential therapy for clients with chronic or life-threatening illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imes, Suzanne A; Clance, Pauline Rose; Gailis, Andra T; Atkeson, Ellen

    2002-11-01

    In the literature on chronic or life-threatening illness, there is an overriding emphasis on clients' psychological coping styles and how they relate to psychological functioning. By contrast, in our approach, we look at the subjective mind/body experiences that clients have of their illness and how their lives are impacted by their illness. As psychotherapists, we address their existential distress, pain, body experience, thoughts, and feelings, as well as their efforts to cope or find meaning in their illness. We summarize Gestalt/Existential therapy for chronic illness, illustrate the approach with three case-vignettes, and stress the importance of attending to each client's unique responses to illness.

  17. Child Poverty and the Promise of Human Capacity: Childhood as a Foundation for Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Paul H

    2016-04-01

    The effect of child poverty and related early life experiences on adult health outcomes and patterns of aging has become a central focus of child health research and advocacy. In this article a critical review of this proliferating literature and its relevance to child health programs and policy are presented. This literature review focused on evidence of the influence of child poverty on the major contributors to adult morbidity and mortality in the United States, the mechanisms by which these associations operate, and the implications for reforming child health programs and policies. Strong and varied evidence base documents the effect of child poverty and related early life experiences and exposures on the major threats to adult health and healthy aging. Studies using a variety of methodologies, including longitudinal and cross-sectional strategies, have reported significant findings regarding cardiovascular disorders, obesity and diabetes, certain cancers, mental health conditions, osteoporosis and fractures, and possibly dementia. These relationships can operate through alterations in fetal and infant development, stress reactivity and inflammation, the development of adverse health behaviors, the conveyance of child chronic illness into adulthood, and inadequate access to effective interventions in childhood. Although the reviewed studies document meaningful relationships between child poverty and adult outcomes, they also reveal that poverty, experiences, and behaviors in adulthood make important contributions to adult health and aging. There is strong evidence that poverty in childhood contributes significantly to adult health. Changes in the content, financing, and advocacy of current child health programs will be required to address the childhood influences on adult health and disease. Policy reforms that reduce child poverty and mitigate its developmental effects must be integrated into broader initiatives and advocacy that also attend to the health and

  18. Annual Research Review: Enduring neurobiological effects of childhood abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teicher, Martin H; Samson, Jacqueline A

    2016-03-01

    Childhood maltreatment is the most important preventable cause of psychopathology accounting for about 45% of the population attributable risk for childhood onset psychiatric disorders. A key breakthrough has been the discovery that maltreatment alters trajectories of brain development. This review aims to synthesize neuroimaging findings in children who experienced caregiver neglect as well as from studies in children, adolescents and adults who experienced physical, sexual and emotional abuse. In doing so, we provide preliminary answers to questions regarding the importance of type and timing of exposure, gender differences, reversibility and the relationship between brain changes and psychopathology. We also discuss whether these changes represent adaptive modifications or stress-induced damage. Parental verbal abuse, witnessing domestic violence and sexual abuse appear to specifically target brain regions (auditory, visual and somatosensory cortex) and pathways that process and convey the aversive experience. Maltreatment is associated with reliable morphological alterations in anterior cingulate, dorsal lateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex, corpus callosum and adult hippocampus, and with enhanced amygdala response to emotional faces and diminished striatal response to anticipated rewards. Evidence is emerging that these regions and interconnecting pathways have sensitive exposure periods when they are most vulnerable. Early deprivation and later abuse may have opposite effects on amygdala volume. Structural and functional abnormalities initially attributed to psychiatric illness may be a more direct consequence of abuse. Childhood maltreatment exerts a prepotent influence on brain development and has been an unrecognized confound in almost all psychiatric neuroimaging studies. These brain changes may be best understood as adaptive responses to facilitate survival and reproduction in the face of adversity. Their relationship to psychopathology is complex

  19. [Trauma and psychosis--part 1. On the association of early childhood maltreatment in clinical populations with psychotic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive literature stresses a high percentage of severe childhood maltreatment in the history of many psychotically ill patients treated in mental health services. Early childhood abuse seems to be associated among other things with a more severe clinical state, a more chronic course of illness and a more unfavourable psychosocial adaptation. In order not to jump to unwarranted causal conclusions, several conceptual und methodological problems have to be clarified before. From a conceptual perspective psychotic disorders diagnosed according to conventional criteria define only a minor subgroup within a much broader psychosis continuum in general population. Early childhood abuse has to be differentiated according to type, severity, timing, and context. The rates of early childhood abuse are high in general population. The methods of measurement of psychotic symptoms on the one side, of early trauma on the other side have to be critically evaluated. There is an empirically well founded association of childhood maltreatment and psychological and psychosomatic morbidity during adult years in general. In order to establish a potential conditional link also to psychotic disorders, clinical populations have to be compared to adequate control groups at least. A systematic literature search shows a very small number of studies including control groups at all. These studies underline that early childhood abuse may be significantly associated to the risk of psychosis indeed. The conditional role of early childhood abuse, however, has to be investigated only within a multifactorial biopsychosocial model of psychotic illness.

  20. Was Maurice Ravel's illness a corticobasal degeneration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeck, E

    1996-02-01

    The French composer Maurice Ravel (1875-1937) was struck down at the peak of his career by an aphasia and apraxia that destroyed his artistic realization but preserved his musical sensibility and judgment. He died after craniotomy. Multiple hypotheses have been formulated to explain the exact nature of his illness, probably corticobasal degeneration. However, in the absence of a post-mortem examination, the diagnosis must remain speculative despite the accurate descriptions of the symptoms in numerous biographies, the neuro-psychological notes of Théophile Alajouanine and the operative findings of Clovis Vincent.

  1. Childhood epileptic seizures imitating migraine and encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravljanac Ružica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Paroxismal events can resemble epileptic seizures, however, some epileptic seizures, especially benign occipital childhood epilepsies can imitate migraine, cycling vomiting or encephalitis. Objective. The aim of this study was evaluation of clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG features and outcome in children with benign occipital childhood epilepsies. Methods. Investigation included 18 patients with benign occipital childhood epilepsies hospitalized in the period from 2007 to 2010. The diagnosis was based on clinical and EEG characteristics of seizures, while treatment included acute therapy for seizures and chronic antiepileptic drugs. Prognosis was analyzed in terms of neurological outcome and seizure recurrence rate. Results. Benign occipital childhood epilepsy with early onset was diagnosed in 15 children. Vegetative symptoms, mostly ictal vomiting (13, eye deviation and loss of consciousness (13 dominated in the clinical presentation. The most frequent EEG findings showed occipital epileptic discharges. Benign occipital childhood epilepsy with late onset was diagnosed in three cases. Seizures were manifested by visual hallucinations, headache and secondary generalized convulsions. All three patients were administered chronic antiepileptic drugs and had good outcome. Conclusion. In our patients, clinical manifestations of benign occipital epilepsies had some similarities with clinical features of migraine and encephalitis. It could explain misdiagnosis in some of them. Knowledge about main features and differences between each of these disorders is crucial for making appropriate diagnosis.

  2. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Ajslev

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study, including 21,121 mother-child-dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC. Maternal distress was measured 6 months postpartum by 9 items covering anxiety, depression and stress. Outcome was childhood overweight at 7-years-of age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed and information on maternal age, socioeconomic status, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, parity, smoking during pregnancy, paternal BMI, birth weight, gestational age at birth, sex, breastfeeding and finally infant weight at 5 and 12 month were included in the analyses. RESULTS: We found, that postpartum distress was not associated with childhood risk of overweight, OR 1.00, 95%CI [0.98-1.02]. Neither was anxiety, depression, or stress exposure, separately. There were no significant differences between the genders. Adjustment for potential confounders did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Maternal postpartum distress is apparently not an independent risk factor for childhood overweight at 7-years-of-age. However, we can confirm previous findings of perinatal determinants as high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking during pregnancy being risk factors for childhood overweight.

  3. Childhood Traumatic Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Violence Early Childhood Trauma Medical Trauma Natural Disasters Earthquakes Epidemics Pandemic Flu SARS Fires Residential Fires Wildfires ... Links NCTSN Newsletter NCTSN eBulletin Public Awareness Suicide Prevention Month/World Suicide Day Sept. 11th National Day ...

  4. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and other rarer and more severe genetic and metabolic disorders (eg, Prader-Willi syndrome, Turner syndrome, Cushing syndrome) can cause weight gain ( ...

  5. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid Cancer Cancer Resources Childhood Cancer Statistics Coping With Cancer CureSearch CancerCare App Late Effects ...

  6. (Reconceptualizing Early Childhood Education)?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Second, I must stress the immensely precious and ..... 'useless' subjects such as emotions, sensitivity, .... a range of different sociological fields including early childhood, gender, .... The origins of intelligence in children (M. Cook, Trans.).

  7. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  8. Childhood vitiligo: Treatment paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrinder Jit Kanwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo differs from the adults by showing a higher incidence in females, segmental vitiligo being more common and less frequent association with other systemic autoimmune and endocrine disorders.Childhood vitiligo is often associated with a marked psychosocial and long lasting effect on the self-esteem of the affected children and their parents, hence an adequate treatment is very essential. Treatment of vitiligo is indeed a tough challenge for the dermatologists′ more so in the background of childhood vitiligo. Although multiple therapeutic modalities are available in the therapeutic armamentarium, not all can be used in children. This brief report updates regarding various therapies available in the treatment of childhood vitiligo.

  9. Perinatal and Childhood Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology, risk factors, outcome and prognosis of perinatal and childhood stroke were reviewed at a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda, MD, on Sept 18 and 19, 2000.

  10. Childhood social inequalities influences neural processes in young adult caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Ho, Shaun S; Evans, Gary W; Liberzon, Israel; Swain, James E

    2015-12-01

    Childhood poverty is associated with harsh parenting with a risk of transmission to the next generation. This prospective study examined the relations between childhood poverty and non-parent adults' neural responses to infant cry sounds. While no main effects of poverty were revealed in contrasts of infant cry versus acoustically matched white noise, a gender by childhood poverty interaction emerged. In females, childhood poverty was associated with increased neural activations in the posterior insula, striatum, calcarine sulcus, hippocampus, and fusiform gyrus, while, in males, childhood poverty was associated with reduced levels of neural responses to infant cry in the same regions. Irrespective of gender, neural activation in these regions was associated with higher levels of annoyance with the cry sound and reduced desire to approach the crying infant. The findings suggest gender differences in neural and emotional responses to infant cry sounds among young adults growing up in poverty.

  11. Nutrition in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolo, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    Childhood is the stage in a human’s life associated with growth and development. Growth proceeds rapidly in early life, slows down in middle childhood and accelerates at puberty before linear growth ceases. With increasing age there is also physical and psychomotor maturation, which influences activity, body composition, feeding skills and food choices (Geissler, 2011). Adequate nutrition is essential for growth, health and development of children. Poor nutrition in...

  12. Early childhood aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

  13. The stigma of mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordosi A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The stigma of mental illness is not a modern phenomenon, but it can now be approached scientifically. The stigma, because of the mental illness which characterizes a person, can be explained by the natural propensity of man to deliver biased and stereotyped estimates to phenomena he cannot explain, accept or face. Methodology:This study is an attempt to describe the concept of stigma and the impact of the stigma of mental illness in the personal and social life of the individual. The search for sources of this review was made through books on the topic and articles of the last twenty years, from online internet sources (pubmed, scopus, google scholar. Literature Review:Stigma brought about by illness from mental illness, is a complex process and concept, located in social interaction and the dynamics of social relations. The social stigma borne by mental illness in general, as well as the lack of information, ignorance, stereotypes, myths and prejudices, are the main reasons that characterize, even today, depression as a taboo subject. The stigma of mental illness is indeliblyimprinted in the identity of human suffering. In any case, the impact of stigma is critical for people who are sick. The psychological stress and difficult conditions that shape their daily lives aggravate their already compromised mental health, having a significant impact on the course and outcome of the disease itself. Key strategies to address stigma are protest, education and contact. Conclusions:A significant step in combating the stigma is to raise public awareness on the issues of mental health and their inclusion in society.

  14. The impact of emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies on the relation of illness-related negative emotions to subjective health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademas, Evangelos C; Tsalikou, Calliope; Tallarou, Maria-Christina

    2011-04-01

    In this study we examined whether emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies mediate and/ or moderate the relation of illness-related negative emotions to patients' subjective health. One hundred and thirty-five cardiac patients participated in the study. Illness-focused coping strategies were found to mediate the relation of emotions to physical functioning, whereas emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation to psychological well-being. Moreover, an emotion regulation strategy (i.e. emotion suppression) and two illness-focused coping strategies (instrumental coping and adherence) moderated the two relationships. These findings suggest that both emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies are integral parts of the illness-related negative emotions-health relationship.

  15. Integrated management of childhood illness with the focus on caregivers: an integrative literature review La atención integrada de las enfermedades prevalentes en la infancia y el enfoque en los cuidadores: revisión integradora de la literatura Atenção integrada às doenças prevalentes na infância e o enfoque nos cuidadores: revisão integrativa da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Daniele Paranhos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI strategy addresses the diseases most prevalent in infancy, the reception of the child and family, and the comprehension the problem and effective procedures. The aim was to identify, between 1998 and 2008, publications relating to the IMCI strategy focusing on the caregiver. This study is an Integrative literature review in the Pubmed, Lilacs and Scielo databases. The caregivers knew one or more warning signs for acute respiratory infection, but not for diarrhea. Pneumonia was perceived as a serious childhood disease. Communication skills among health professionals trained in the IMCI strategy were different to those in untrained professionals. The follow-up of the health of the child is higher according to the education level of the caregiver, and according to the medications supplied in the consultation and in the follow-up. Regarding the health of the child it is relevant to focus on the IMCI strategy, favoring experiences that include the family in the care.La estrategia Atención Integrada a las Enfermedades Prevalentes en la Infancia (AIEPI aborda las enfermedades de mayor prevalencia en la infancia, el acogimiento del niño y de la familia, la comprensión del problema y los procedimientos eficaces. El objetivo fue identificar, entre 1998 y 2008, publicaciones relacionadas a la estrategia AIEPI con enfoque en el cuidador. Revisión integradora con evidencias en la literatura, en las bases de datos Pubmed, Lilacs y Scielo. Los cuidadores conocen una o más señales de alarma para infección respiratoria aguda, pero no para diarrea. La neumonía es percibida como una grave enfermedad infantil. Las habilidades comunicativas entre los profesionales de la salud capacitados en la estrategia AIEPI y los no capacitados son diferentes. El seguimiento de la salud del niño es mayor de acuerdo con la escolaridad del cuidador, los medicamentos ofrecidos en la consulta y el retorno. En la salud del

  16. Lung Function in African Infants in the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Impact of Lower Respiratory Tract Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Diane M; Turkovic, Lidija; Willemse, Lauren; Visagie, Ane; Vanker, Aneesa; Stein, Dan J; Sly, Peter D; Hall, Graham L; Zar, Heather J

    2017-01-15

    Lower respiratory tract illness is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. It is unknown whether infants are predisposed to illness because of impaired lung function or whether respiratory illness reduces lung function. To investigate the impact of early life exposures, including lower respiratory tract illness, on lung function during infancy. Infants enrolled in the Drakenstein child health study had lung function at 6 weeks and 1 year. Testing during quiet natural sleep included tidal breathing, exhaled nitric oxide, and multiple breath washout measures. Risk factors for impaired lung health were collected longitudinally. Lower respiratory tract illness surveillance was performed and any episode investigated. Lung function was tested in 648 children at 1 year. One hundred and fifty (29%) infants had a lower respiratory tract illness during the first year of life. Lower respiratory tract illness was independently associated with increased respiratory rate (4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.08; P = 0.02). Repeat episodes further increased respiratory rate (3%; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05; P = 0.004), decreased tidal volume (-1.7 ml; 95% CI, -3.3 to -0.2; P = 0.03), and increased the lung clearance index (0.13 turnovers; 95% CI, 0.04-0.22; P = 0.006) compared with infants without illness. Tobacco smoke exposure, lung function at 6 weeks, infant growth, and prematurity were other independent predictors of lung function at 1 year. Early life lower respiratory tract illness impairs lung function at 1 year, independent of baseline lung function. Preventing early life lower respiratory tract illness is important to optimize lung function and promote respiratory health in childhood.

  17. Illness in the Returned International Traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Christopher A; Fung, Claire

    2016-03-01

    Familiarity with the distribution, mode of transmission, and risk factors for acquisition of illnesses commonly transmitted to travelers to low-income nations can help guide clinicians in their work-up of an ill returned traveler. The 3 most common categories of illness in returned international travelers are gastrointestinal illness, fever, and dermatoses. Diarrhea is the most common illness reported in returned international travelers. Fever is a marker of a potentially significant illness; work-up of the ill febrile returned traveler should be conducted promptly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. La mejora de la educacion infantil desde el analisis del pensamiento practico de sus educadores. [The Improvement of Early Childhood Education from an Analysis of the Practical Thinking of Early Childhood Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argos, Javier

    2000-01-01

    Discusses proposals for the innovation and development of early childhood education practice, based on findings from case studies on the practical knowledge of four experienced female early childhood educators. Argues that improving early childhood education should be based on its reasons and purposes rather than content or method. (JPB)

  19. La mejora de la educacion infantil desde el analisis del pensamiento practico de sus educadores. [The Improvement of Early Childhood Education from an Analysis of the Practical Thinking of Early Childhood Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argos, Javier

    2000-01-01

    Discusses proposals for the innovation and development of early childhood education practice, based on findings from case studies on the practical knowledge of four experienced female early childhood educators. Argues that improving early childhood education should be based on its reasons and purposes rather than content or method. (JPB)

  20. Frederic Chopin--the man, his music and his illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Hans; Wikman, Bertil; Strandvik, Birgitta

    2005-01-01

    Frédéric Chopin's unique position in the history of music relies on a surprisingly limited and special production. However, the artistic level is invariably high and the musical language is both universal and unmistakably personal. A nearly life-long suffering from illness marked his life and influenced his artistry, as composer and pianist. Chopin's struggle with a fateful disease, and his instinctive understanding that he would loose, made imprints on some of his works that carry a sombre intensity, bordering on desperation. The emotional tension of these compositions, that appear already from youth and henceforward, goes far beyond the musical conventions of the time. The nature of Chopin's disease has been subject to numerous speculations. This is not surprising, considering the wide spectrum of symptoms and the dynamics of his illness--or illnesses. Taking into account all reported symptoms and signs since childhood and henceforth, it is postulated that Chopin suffered from cystic fibrosis by heriditariness, possibly superimposed by tuberculosis or atypical mycobacteria. This would explain all his symptoms, and to some extent also the ambivalence of contemporary physicians. By available gene technology it would be possible to investigate, for proof or dismissal, if this hypothesis is true.