Jepsen, A. A.; Chawes, B. L. K.; Carson, C. G.;
We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association.......We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association....
Langan, S M
Eczema is a major public health problem affecting children worldwide. Few studies have directly assessed triggers for disease flares. This paper presents evidence from a published systematic review and a prospective cohort study looking at flare factors in eczema. This systematic review suggested that foodstuffs in selected groups, dust exposure, unfamiliar pets, seasonal variation, stress, and irritants may be important in eczema flares. We performed a prospective cohort study that focused on environmental factors and identified associations between exposure to nylon clothing, dust, unfamiliar pets, sweating, shampoo, and eczema flares. Results from this study also demonstrated some new key findings. First, the effect of shampoo was found to increase in cold weather, and second, combinations of environmental factors were associated with disease exacerbation, supporting a multiple component disease model. This information is likely to be useful to families and may lead to the ability to reduce disease flares in the future. PMID:20054505
Bisgaard, Hans; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Hinge, Rikke;
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of eczema suggests the role of environmental factors triggering a genetic predisposition. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of environmental exposures in early life and genetic predisposition on the development of eczema before age 3 years. METHODS...... assessments included filaggrin loss-of-function mutation; parent's atopic disease; sex; social status; previous deliveries; third trimester complications and exposures; anthropometrics at birth; month of birth; duration solely breast-fed; introduction of egg, cow's milk, and fish; time spent in day care; cat...... and dog at home; feather pillow; nicotine in infant's hair; and temperature and humidity in bedroom. RESULTS: Eczema developed in 43.5% of the infants. Filaggrin mutation (odds ratio [OR], 3.20; 95% CI, 1.46-7.02; P = .004), mother's eczema (OR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.70-4.63; P
Jepsen, A A; Chawes, B L; Carson, C G;
BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated a dual effect of breastfeeding with increased risk of eczema and decreased risk of wheezing in early childhood by increasing breastfeeding length. We hypothesize that immune mediators in breast milk could explain such association either through a direct effect...... or as a surrogate marker of maternal immune constitution. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible association between cytokine and chemokine levels in breast milk and development of eczema and recurrent wheeze during early childhood. METHODS: Levels of 19 pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory...... eczema (aHR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68-0.98; P = 0.03). No associations were observed for recurrent wheeze. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Elevated breast milk IL-1β level was associated with decreased risk of early childhood eczema suggesting either a direct protective effect of IL-1β or IL-1b acting as...
Stokholm, Jakob; Sevelsted, Astrid; Anderson, Ulrik D;
Introduction Preeclampsia reflects an unusual increase in systemic inflammation during pregnancy. We studied associations between preeclampsia and asthma, allergy and eczema in Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2000 (COPSAC2000) and in national registries. Methods COPSAC2000...... children from Danish national registries. Children born to mothers with preeclampsia were analyzed regarding risk of asthma, allergy and eczema in the 35-year-period 1977-2012. Results COPSAC2000: 5.6% (23) was diagnosed with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia was associated with increased risk of treatment....... Furthermore, the children had an increased risk of sensitization to both aero- and food-allergens, and increased amount of total-IgE during childhood. Registry-based cohort: 3.7% (62,728) were born to mothers with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia was associated with increased risk of asthma, eczema...
Krafchik, Bernice R
Eczema is a term used to describe a variety of conditions which primarily include atopic dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, both irritant and allergic, scabies, tinea infections and immunodeficiencies. Some physicians use the term solely to describe atopic dermatitis. The article reviews clinical findings, etiology, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, complications and new therapies for atopic dermatitis.
Debra J. Palmer
A “vitamin D hypothesis” has been proposed to explain the increased prevalence of eczema in regions with higher latitude. This review focuses on the current available evidence with regard to the possible effect of vitamin D on the development of atopic eczema. Observational studies have indicated a link between vitamin D status and eczema outcomes, including lower serum vitamin D levels associated with increased incidence and severity of eczema symptoms. Vitamin D is known to have a regulator...
Chawes, Bo L; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Jensen, Pia F;
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between maternal vitamin D dietary intake during pregnancy and risk of asthma and allergy in the offspring. However, prospective clinical studies on vitamin D measured in cord blood and development of clinical end-points are sparse....... OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interdependence of cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)-Vitamin D) level and investigator-diagnosed asthma- and allergy-related conditions during preschool-age. METHODS: Cord blood 25(OH)-Vitamin D level was measured in 257 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies...... on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2000) at-risk mother-child cohort. Troublesome lung symptoms (TROLS), asthma, respiratory infections, allergic rhinitis, and eczema, at age 0-7 yrs were diagnosed exclusively by the COPSAC pediatricians strictly adhering to predefined algorithms. Objective assessments of lung...
Kaarina F. Meintjes
Full Text Available Background: The World Allergy Organization found that 20% – 30%of the world’s population suffers from an allergic disease. Most allergic patients are seen by non-allergy-trained healthcare workers. The public primary healthcare (PHC management of childhood atopic eczema (CAE in the central Gauteng district was the focus of the overall study. The focus of this article is the parents’ experience of CAE and the management thereof. The research question was: What is the experience of parents living with a child with atopic eczema (AE?Objectives: The overall purpose was to develop validated PHC management guidelines for CAE. One of the objectives was to explore and describe the experiences of parents regarding the AE of their children and the management thereof.Method: An embedded single case study design using a qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual strategy was employed. Data was collected through semi-structured individual interviews from a purposively selected sample and field notes. Ten parents were interviewed, after which data saturation occurred. Data were analysed according to Tesch’s steps of descriptive data analysis. Lincoln and Guba’s model was used to ensure trustworthiness.Results: Three main themes were identified. This article focuses on theme one: The physical, emotional and social impact of CAE. Theme two identified the management challenges and theme three indicated recommendations regarding the management of CAE.Conclusion: The facilitation of management of CAE focuses on developing PHC guidelines and addressing management challenges in order to achieve better controlled CAE.
Lee, S. L.; Lam, T. H.; Leung, T. H.; Wong, W. H. S.; Schooling, M.; Leung, G. M.; Lau, Y. L.
Objective. We examined the hypothesis that foetal exposure to maternal passive smoking is associated with childhood asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema. Methods. The study was a population-based cross-sectional survey of Hong Kong Chinese children aged ≤14 years carried out in 2005 to 2006. Results. Foetal exposure to maternal passive smoking was significantly associated with wheeze ever (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.58–2.67), current wheeze (OR 2.06; 95% CI 1.48–2.86), allergic rhinitis ever (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.09–1.37), and eczema ever (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.38–1.87). Foetal exposure to maternal active smoking was significantly associated with asthma ever (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.14–3.84), wheeze ever (OR 2.46; 95% CI 1.27–4.78), and current wheeze (OR 2.74; 95% CI 1.24–6.01) but not with allergic rhinitis ever (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.70–1.46) or eczema ever (OR 1.38; 95% CI 0.87–2.18). The dose response relationship between wheeze ever and current wheeze with increasing exposure, from no exposure to maternal passive smoking and then to maternal active smoking, further supports causality. Conclusion. There is significant association between foetal exposure to maternal passive smoking and maternal active smoking with childhood asthma and related atopic illnesses. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential causal relationship. PMID:22927783
S. L. Lee
Full Text Available Objective. We examined the hypothesis that foetal exposure to maternal passive smoking is associated with childhood asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema. Methods. The study was a population-based cross-sectional survey of Hong Kong Chinese children aged ≤14 years carried out in 2005 to 2006. Results. Foetal exposure to maternal passive smoking was significantly associated with wheeze ever (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.58–2.67, current wheeze (OR 2.06; 95% CI 1.48–2.86, allergic rhinitis ever (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.09–1.37, and eczema ever (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.38–1.87. Foetal exposure to maternal active smoking was significantly associated with asthma ever (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.14–3.84, wheeze ever (OR 2.46; 95% CI 1.27–4.78, and current wheeze (OR 2.74; 95% CI 1.24–6.01 but not with allergic rhinitis ever (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.70–1.46 or eczema ever (OR 1.38; 95% CI 0.87–2.18. The dose response relationship between wheeze ever and current wheeze with increasing exposure, from no exposure to maternal passive smoking and then to maternal active smoking, further supports causality. Conclusion. There is significant association between foetal exposure to maternal passive smoking and maternal active smoking with childhood asthma and related atopic illnesses. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential causal relationship.
Hon, Kam L; Leung, Alexander K C
Atopic eczema or dermatitis (AD) is a chronically relapsing dermatosis associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance and impaired quality of life. AD affects 10 to 20% of school-aged children. The prevalence has increased two to three folds over the past three decades in industrialized countries and there is evidence to suggest that this prevalence is increasing. AD is frustrating to both patients and caregivers and can impose considerable financial impact on the families. The pruritus and sleep disturbance can be intractable and the disease has important physical and psychological implications. Filaggrin (filament-aggregating protein) has an important function in epidermal differentiation and barrier function. Null mutations within the filaggrin gene cause ichthyosis vulgaris and are major risk factors for developing AD. The affected skin of atopic individuals is deficient in natural moisturizing factors (derived from deiminated filaggrin peptides filaggrin) or ceramides (a family of lipid molecules, composed of sphingosine and a fatty acid, found in high concentrations within the cell membrane of cells in the stratum corneum). Avoidance of triggering factors, optimal skin care and topical corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy for AD. There are two important dermatologic facets to its management, namely, preventive and therapeutic measures. Preventive measures refer to the frequent and proper application of skin moisturizers. When these preventive measures fail to control the disease exacerbation, therapeutic measures such as topical/systemic corticosteroids, antibiotics and immunomodulating agents may be required to control the skin inflammation. Proper moisturizer therapy can reduce the frequency of flares and the demand of topical corticosteroids or topical calcineurin inhibitors. Regular topical application of a moisturizer is the key in the management of patients with AD. Moisturizer therapy of childhood-onset AD is significantly complicated by the
Kam Lun Hon
Full Text Available Due to increasing worldwide water pollution, fish might be a source of excessive zinc, mercury, arsenic or manganese intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate if fish atopy/sensitization and fish consumption behavior are associated with eczema severity and blood levels of the 4 heavy metals.One-hundred and nineteen patients with eczema and 43 patients with miscellaneous non-eczema skin diseases were studied. There were no differences in average weekly fish consumption and blood levels of the 4 heavy metals between eczema and non-eczema groups.Blood levels of these metals were generally within the upper limits of local reference ranges in all these patients. In eczema patients, freshwater fish consumption behavior in days-per-week was correlated with blood arsenic and mercury levels (rho=0.17, p<0.01 for both metals, but not with zinc or manganese. Levels of arsenic and mercury were also correlated with days of seawater fish consumption per week (arsenic: 0.38, mercury: 0.24, p <0.05.Fish sensitization was present in 25% of patients with eczema. Nevertheless, there was no difference in terms of fish consumption behavior, eczema severity, quality of life, and heavy metal levels between eczema patients with or without fish sensitization. We conclude that without exceeding local normal reference ranges, blood arsenic and mercury levels correlated with fish consumption behavior. There is no evidence to suggest that fish sensitization is associated with more severe eczema (bad for eczema, or that patients have milder eczema with more days of fish consumption (good for eczema.
Full Text Available This paper shows how consciousness-based holistic medicine can be used in the case of asthma, allergy, and eczema. We have many fine drugs to relieve patients from the worst of these symptoms, where many children and adults suffer health problems related to hyper-reactivity of the immune system. Many symptoms remain throughout life because the drugs do not cure the allergy and allergy today is the sixth leading cause of chronic illness. The etiology of the immune disturbances is mostly unknown from a biomedical perspective. Consciousness-based holistic medicine could therefore be used to treat these diseases if the patient is willing to confront hidden existential pain, is motivated to work hard, and is dedicated to improve quality of life, quality of working life, and personal relationships. Improving quality of life is not always an easy job for the patient, but it can be done with coaching from the physician. An increased physical health is often observed after only a few sessions with a physician skilled in using holistic medical tools and able to coach the patient successfully through a few weeks of dedicated homework. Children with allergy and asthma can also be helped if their parents are able to do work on personal development, to improve the general quality of life in the family and their relationship with the child.
Silverberg, Jonathan I; Lee-Wong, Mary; Silverberg, Nanette B
The prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in US children with eczema is unknown. Furthermore, it is unknown whether CAM use in the United States is associated with higher eczema prevalence. We sought to determine the eczema prevalence in association with CAM usage. We analyzed data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey that included a nationally representative sample of 9417 children ages 0 to 17 years. Overall, 46.9% (95% confidence interval, 45.6%-48.2%) of children in the United States used 1 or more CAM, of which 0.99% (0.28%-1.71%) used CAM specifically to treat their eczema, including herbal therapy (0.46%), vitamins (0.33%), Ayurveda (0.28%), naturopathy (0.24%), homeopathy (0.20%), and traditional healing (0.12%). Several CAMs used for other purposes were associated with increased eczema prevalence, including herbal therapy (survey logistic regression; adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 2.07 [1.40-3.06]), vitamins (1.45 [1.21-1.74]), homeopathic therapy (2.94 [1.43-6.00]), movement techniques (3.66 [1.62-8.30]), and diet (2.24 [1.10-4.58]), particularly vegan diet (2.53 [1.17-5.51]). In conclusion, multiple CAMs are commonly used for the treatment of eczema in US children. However, some CAMs may actually be harmful to the skin and be associated with higher eczema prevalence in the United States. PMID:25207686
Cai, Jiao; Liu, Wei; Hu, Yu; Zou, Zhijun; Shen, Li; Huang, Chen
From April 2011 to April 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China. A total of 13,335 modified ISAAC questionnaires (response rate: 85.3%) were returned by parents or guardians for 4-6 year-old children. Six dampness-related indicators (visible mold spots, visible damp stains, damp bed clothing, water damage, window pane condensation, and moldy odor) were used to evaluate home dampness-related exposures. In the present study, we applied logistic regression model to reveal associations, dose-response relationships, and statistical interaction effects of these dampness-related exposures, with childhood eczema, during lifetime since birth (ever) and in the last 12 months before the questionnaire. The dampness-related indicators were frequently reported in the perinatal and current residences. Prevalences of eczema ever and in the last 12 months were 22.9% and 13.2%, respectively. The dampness-related indicators were robustly associated and dose-response related with increased risk of eczema ever and in the last 12 months in the logistic regression analyses, with adjusted for potential confounders. Specifically, in the perinatal residence, visible mold spots or damp stains could increase 46% (OR, 95% CI: 1.46, 1.29-1.66) odds of childhood eczema (ever); in the current residence, visible mold spots and visible damp stains could increase 34% (1.34, 1.14-1.58) and 38% (1.38, 1.22-1.56) odds of childhood eczema (ever), respectively. Associations were not appreciably different between boys and girls, nor were they different between children with and without parental history of atopy. In conclusion, perinatal and current dampness-related exposures in the residence perhaps are risk factors for childhood eczema. PMID:26708528
Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain;
Background: Evidence suggests that early life infections, presence of older siblings and furred pets in the household affect the risk of developing allergic diseases through altered microbial exposure. Recently, low gut microbial diversity during infancy has also been linked with later developmen......-associated gut microbial changes influence development of allergies later in childhood. The work has recently (July 2015) been accepted for publication in BMC Microbiology...... early childhood, which could contribute to the substantiation of the hygiene hypothesis. However, no associations were found between gut microbiota and atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during early childhood and thus further studies are required to elucidate whether sibling...
Hornstein, O P; Bäurle, G; Kienlein-Kletschka, B
The considerable rate of professional hand eczema in hairdressers, especially in young ones, emphasizes the necessity of practicable methods for early diagnosis of risk and manifestation of eczema. Therefore, we investigated different constitutional parameters of the skin (hyperhidrosis, dyshidrosis and acrocyanosis of the hands, seborrhea, sebostasis, white dermographism) in a prospective study of 210 hairdressers' and 95 bricklayers' apprentices over 3 years. In addition, the alkali resistance and the permeability of the horny layers (by nitrazine yellow) were examined every year in each of the probands. Among other results dyshidrosis and sebostasis proved to be statistically relevant in the development of hand eczema, whereas no statistic causality was seen for acrocyanosis and hyperhidrosis. Risk of eczema could not be diagnosed early by alcali resistance tests. Frequent wet-work and insufficient skin protection were further factors causing eczema, especially in atopic subjects. There was also a statistically relevant correlation between a periumbilical eczema (caused by metallic buttons on jeans), indicating allergy against nickel, and pierced earlobes. The results of this prospective study show that by simple clinical methods serious risks of eczema in hairdressers and bricklayers can be detected already in the first years of work. Several practical recommendations for prevention of occupational eczema in hairdressers are given.
Ait-Khaled, N; Odhiambo, J; Pearce, N; Adjoh, K S; Maesano, I A; Benhabyles, B; Bouhayad, Z; Bahati, E; Camara, L; Catteau, C; El Sony, A; Esamai, F O; Hypolite, I E; Melaku, K; Musa, O A; Ng'ang'a, L; Onadeko, B O; Saad, O; Jerray, M; Kayembe, J M; Koffi, N B; Khaldi, F; Kuaban, C; Voyi, K; M'Boussa, J; Sow, O; Tidjani, O; Zar, H J
Phase I of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood has provided valuable information regarding international prevalence patterns and potential risk factors in the development of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema. However, in Phase I, only six African countries were involved (Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Kenya, South Africa and Ethiopia). Phase III, conducted 5-6 years later, enrolled 22 centres in 16 countries including the majority of the centres involved in Phase I and new centres in Morocco, Tunisia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Togo, Sudan, Cameroon, Gabon, Reunion Island and South Africa. There were considerable variations between the various centres of Africa in the prevalence of the main symptoms of the three conditions: wheeze (4.0-21.5%), allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (7.2-27.3%) and eczema (4.7-23.0%). There was a large variation both between countries and between centres in the same country. Several centres, including Cape Town (20.3%), Polokwane (18.0%), Reunion Island (21.5%), Brazzaville (19.9%), Nairobi (18.0%), Urban Ivory Coast (19.3%) and Conakry (18.6%) showed relatively high asthma symptom prevalences, similar to those in western Europe. There were also a number of centres showing high symptom prevalences for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (Cape Town, Reunion Island, Brazzaville, Eldoret, Urban Ivory Coast, Conakry, Casablanca, Wilays of Algiers, Sousse and Eldoret) and eczema (Brazzaville, Eldoret, Addis Ababa, Urban Ivory Coast, Conakry, Marrakech and Casablanca).
O'Regan, Grainne M
BACKGROUND: Atopic eczema is a common inflammatory skin disease with multifactorial etiology. The genetic basis is incompletely understood; however, loss of function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) are the most significant and widely replicated genetic risk factor reported to date. The first genome-wide association study in atopic eczema recently identified 2 novel genetic variants in association with eczema susceptibility: a single nucleotide polymorphism on chromosome 11q13.5 (rs7927894) and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs877776) within the gene encoding hornerin on chromosome 1q21. OBJECTIVE: To test the association of these 2 novel variants with pediatric eczema and to investigate their interaction with FLG null mutations. METHODS: Case-control study to investigate the association of rs7927894, rs877776 and the 4 most prevalent FLG null mutations with moderate-severe eczema in 511 Irish pediatric cases and 1000 Irish controls. Comprehensive testing for interaction between each of the loci was also performed. RESULTS: The association between rs7927894 and atopic eczema was replicated in this population (P = .0025, chi(2) test; odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.09-1.49). The 4 most common FLG null variants were strongly associated with atopic eczema (P = 1.26 x 10(-50); combined odds ratio, 5.81; 95% CI, 4.51-7.49). Interestingly, the rs7927894 association was independent of the well-established FLG risk alleles and may be multiplicative in its effect. There was no significant association between rs877776 and pediatric eczema in this study. CONCLUSION: Single nucleotide polymorphism rs7927894 appears to mark a genuine eczema susceptibility locus that will require further elucidation through fine mapping and functional analysis.
Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta
Although human brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, it is a non-linear process both structurally and functionally. Here we review studies of brain development in healthy children from the viewpoint of structure and the perfusion of gray and white matter. Gray matter volume increases and then decreases with age, with the developmental time of the peak volume differing among brain regions in the first and second decades of life. On the other hand, white matter volum...
Bakilana, Anne; Moucheraud, Corrina; McConnell, Christin; HASAN, Rifat
Teenage pregnancies have potential negative consequences on the next generation. Children born to adolescent mothers are particularly at risk in terms of health, nutrition, cognitive and socio-emotional development. Evidence shows that the early years – especially the first 1,000 days – are crucially important for lifetime health, learning, and productivity. Particularly for the most vulnerable children and families, early childhood development (ECD) is a high return investment. This polic...
HASAN, Rifat; Moucheraud, Corrina; Bakilana, Anne; Nadeau, Sophie
Teenage pregnancies have potential negative consequences on the next generation. Children born to adolescent mothers are particularly at risk in terms of health, nutrition, cognitive and socio-emotional development. Evidence shows that the early years – especially the first 1,000 days – are crucially important for lifetime health, learning, and productivity. Particularly for the most vulnerable children and families, early childhood development (ECD) is a high return investment. This polic...
Ibler, K.S.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Flyvholm, M.-A.;
/materials/methods. A survey of 3181 healthcare workers was performed. Data were analysed with logistic regression. Data on sick leave and notification to the authorities were obtained. Results. The response rate was 71% (2274 of 3181). The 1-year prevalence of hand eczema was 21%, and was positively associated with atopic...
Mortz, C G; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Andersen, Klaus Ejner
and participate in a clinical examination including patch testing (TRUE(®) Test). RESULTS: The incidence of hand eczema was 8.8/1000 person-years. The one-year period prevalence of hand eczema in the young adults was 14.3% (127/891) and the point prevalence 7.1% (63/891) with significantly higher prevalence......-30 years old adults and it was highly associated with childhood hand eczema and atopic dermatitis together with wet work and taking care of small children in adulthood. There was no association to smoking, education level or nickel allergy in childhood. This article is protected by copyright. All rights...
Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta
Although human brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, it is a non-linear process both structurally and functionally. Here we review studies of brain development in healthy children from the viewpoint of structure and the perfusion of gray and white matter. Gray matter volume increases and then decreases with age, with the developmental time of the peak volume differing among brain regions in the first and second decades of life. On the other hand, white matter volume increase is mostly linear during those periods. As regards fractional anisotropy, most regions show an exponential trajectory with aging. In addition, cerebral blood flow and gray matter volume are proportional at similar developmental ages. Moreover, we show that several lifestyle choices, such as sleeping habits and breakfast staple, affect gray matter volume in healthy children. There are a number of uninvestigated important issues that require future study. PMID:23166579
... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Eek! It's Eczema! KidsHealth > For Kids > Eek! It's Eczema! Print A A A Text Size What's ... Without Eczema Your skin is red and sore. It may even look scaly. You itch like crazy. ...
Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Linneberg, Allan;
. This study aimed to review the epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population. Literature was examined using Pubmed-Medline, Biosis, Science Citation Index, and dermatology text books. On the basis of studies performed between 1964 and 2007, the point prevalence of hand eczema was around 4%, the 1......-year prevalence nearly 10%, whereas the lifetime prevalence reached 15%. Based on seven studies, the median incidence rate of hand eczema was 5.5 cases/1000 person-years (women = 9.6 and men = 4.0). A high incidence rate was associated with female sex, contact allergy, atopic dermatitis, and wet work...... eczema. Moderate to severe extension of hand eczema was the strongest risk factor for persistence of hand eczema. Other risk factors included early onset of hand eczema and childhood eczema. The aetiology of hand eczema is multifactorial and includes environmental as well as genetic factors. Future...
Background: Atopic disease is an increasing problem. Eczema affects 10-20% of young children, and 33-37% of children with eczema are food allergic. Among other factors, nitric oxide (NO) is thought to play a role in eczema and food allergy. Following the atopic march, pproximately 80% of children with atopic eczema will become sensitized to aeroallergens and develop asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. Skin prick test is used for investigating sensitization and is considered a safe method. Howeve...
... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) A parent's guide for infants and babies A ... scaling, red, slightly elevated lesions typical of atopic dermatitis (eczema). Overview Eczema, formally known as atopic dermatitis, ...
Diepgen, T L; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandao, F M;
of the disease is rarely evidence based, and a classification system for different subdiagnoses of hand eczema is not agreed upon. Randomized controlled trials investigating the treatment of hand eczema are called for. For this, as well as for clinical purposes, a generally accepted classification system...... A classification system for hand eczema is proposed. Conclusions It is suggested that this classification be used in clinical work and in clinical trials....
Kumar, Rajesh; Caruso, Deanna M.; Arguelles, Lester; Kim, Jennifer S; Schroeder, Angela; Rowland, Brooke; Meyer, Katie E.; Schwarz, Kristin E.; Birne, Jennafer S.; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Pongracic, Jacqueline A.; Wang, Xiaobin
The effect of food introduction timing on the development of food allergy remains controversial. We sought to examine whether the presence of childhood eczema changes the relationship between timing of food introduction and food allergy. The analysis includes 960 children recruited as part of a family-based food allergy cohort. Food allergy was determined by objective symptoms developing within 2 hours of ingestion, corroborated by skin prick testing/specific IgE. Physician diagnosis of eczem...
Kam Lun E. Hon
Full Text Available Eczema is a common childhood atopic condition and treatment is with emollients, topical corticosteroids, and avoidance of possible triggers. S. aureus colonization is a common complication. As there is no immediate cure, many parents seek alternative therapies that claim unproven therapeutic efficacy. We report a girl with long history of treatment noncompliance. After practicing a long period of dietary avoidance and supplementation, the grandparents took her to an alternative medicine practitioner. Following cupping therapy and acupuncture, the child developed blistering and oozing over her back the next day, which rapidly evolved to two large irregular-edge deep ulcers. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics and received multidisciplinary supportive intervention. Using search words of “cupping,” “eczema,” and “atopic dermatitis,” only two reports were found on PubMed. Therapeutic efficacy was claimed but not scientifically documented in these reports. Childhood eczema is an eminently treatable atopic disease. Extreme alternative therapy seems not to be efficacious and may even be associated with serious undesirable sequelae. Physicians should be aware of various alternative treatment modalities and be prepared to offer evidence-based advice to the patients with eczema and their families.
Bo L Chawes; Klaus Bønnelykke; Pia F Jensen; Schoos, Ann-Marie M.; Lene Heickendorff; Hans Bisgaard
Background Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between maternal vitamin D dietary intake during pregnancy and risk of asthma and allergy in the offspring. However, prospective clinical studies on vitamin D measured in cord blood and development of clinical end-points are sparse. Objective To investigate the interdependence of cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)-Vitamin D) level and investigator-diagnosed asthma- and allergy-related conditions during preschool-age. Methods...
Full Text Available Smallpox vaccine based on live, replicating vaccinia virus (VACV is associated with several potentially serious and deadly complications. Consequently, a new generation of vaccine based on non-replicating Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA has been under clinical development. MVA seems to induce good immune responses in blood tests, but it is impossible to test its efficacy in vivo in human. One of the serious complications of the replicating vaccine is eczema vaccinatum (EV occurring in individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD, thus excluding them from all preventive vaccination schemes. In this study, we first characterized and compared development of eczema vaccinatum in different mouse strains. Nc/Nga, Balb/c and C57Bl/6J mice were epicutaneously sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA or saline control to induce signs of atopic dermatitis and subsequently trans-dermally (t.d. immunized with VACV strain Western Reserve (WR. Large primary lesions occurred in both mock- and OVA-sensitized Nc/Nga mice, while they remained small in Balb/c and C57Bl/6J mice. Satellite lesions developed in both mock- and OVA-sensitized Nc/Nga and in OVA-sensitized Balb/c mice with the rate 40-50%. Presence of mastocytes and eosinophils was the highest in Nc/Nga mice. Consequently, we have chosen Nc/Nga mice as a model of AD/EV and tested efficacy of MVA and Dryvax vaccinations against a lethal intra-nasal (i.n. challenge with WR, the surrogate of smallpox. Inoculation of MVA intra-muscularly (i.m. or t.d. resulted in no lesions, while inoculation of Dryvax t.d. yielded large primary and many satellite lesions similar to WR. Eighty three and 92% of mice vaccinated with a single dose of MVA i.m. or t.d., respectively, survived a lethal i.n. challenge with WR without any serious illness, while all Dryvax-vaccinated animals survived. This is the first formal prove of protective immunity against a lethal poxvirus challenge induced by vaccination with MVA in an atopic organism.
Agner, T; Aalto-Korte, K; Andersen, K E;
BACKGROUND: Classification of hand eczema (HE) is mandatory in epidemiological and clinical studies, and also important in clinical work. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to test a recently proposed classification system of HE in clinical practice in a prospective multicentre study. METHODS: Patients were......%) could not be classified. 38% had one additional diagnosis and 26% had two or more additional diagnoses. Eczema on feet was found in 30% of the patients, statistically significantly more frequently associated with hyperkeratotic and vesicular endogenous eczema. CONCLUSION: We find that the classification...
Knowledge of the history and development of early childhood development in Uganda is paramount if we are to know how far we have come and where we are going. This article explores the introduction of early childhood development in Ugandan policy and government interventions from 1960 to 2011. Data was obtained from a review of available early…
... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) A parent's guide to condition and treatment information ... and inflamed areas of skin typical of atopic dermatitis (eczema) on a person with darker skin. Overview ...
... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) Information for adults A A A This image displays extensive atopic dermatitis (eczema); note the skin is dry and scaly, ...
Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain;
older siblings was associated with increased relative abundance of several bacterial taxa at both 9 and 18 months of age. Compared to the effect of having siblings, presence of household furred pets and early life infections had less pronounced effects on the gut microbiota. Gut microbiota...... hygiene hypothesis. However, no associations were found between gut microbiota and atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during early childhood and thus further studies are required to elucidate whether sibling-associated gut microbial changes influence development of allergies later in......Evidence suggests that early life infections, presence of older siblings and furred pets in the household affect the risk of developing allergic diseases through altered microbial exposure. Recently, low gut microbial diversity during infancy has also been linked with later development of allergies...
Alfonso M. Cepeda
Full Text Available Background: Diet might influence the risk of allergic diseases. Evidence from developing countries with high prevalence of childhood asthma is scant. Methods: Information on wheeze, rhinitis, and eczema was collected from 3209 children aged 6–7 years in 2005, who were taking part in the International Study on Asthma and Allergy in Children (ISAAC in Colombia. Intake frequency of twelve food groups was assessed. Associations between each food group and current wheeze, rhino-conjunctivitis, and eczema were investigated with multiple logistic regressions, adjusting for potential confounders. Simes’ procedure was used to test for multiple comparisons. Results: 14.9% of children reported wheeze in the last 12 months, 16% rhino-conjunctivitis, and 22% eczema. Eczema was negatively associated with consumption of fresh fruits and pulses three or more times per week (adjusted Odds ratio (aOR: 0.64; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 0.49 to 0.83; p value = 0.004; and aOR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.80; p value < 0.001, respectively. Current wheeze was negatively associated with intake of potatoes (aOR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.31 to 0.62, p value = 0.005, whilst this outcome was positively associated with consumption of fast food (aOR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.32 to 2.35, p value = 0.001. These associations remained statistically significant after controlling for multiple comparisons. Conclusions: A traditional diet might have a protective effect against eczema and wheeze in Colombian children, whilst intake of fast foods increases this risk.
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Full Text Available Eczema, the commonest disorders afflicting the hands, is also the commonest occupational skin disease (OSD. In the dermatology outpatient departments, only the severe cases are diagnosed since patients rarely report with early hand dermatitis. Mild forms are picked up only during occupational screening. Hand eczema (HE can evolve into a chronic condition with persistent disease even after avoiding contact with the incriminated allergen / irritant. The important risk factors for hand eczema are atopy (especially the presence of dermatitis, wet work, and contact allergy. The higher prevalence in women as compared to men in most studies is related to environmental factors and is mainly applicable to younger women in their twenties. Preventive measures play a very important role in therapy as they enable the affected individuals to retain their employment and livelihood. This article reviews established preventive and therapeutic options and newer drugs like alitretinoin in hand eczema with a mention on the etiology and morphology. Identifying the etiological factors is of paramount importance as avoiding or minimizing these factors play an important role in treatment.
Petersen, A. H.; Johansen, J D; Hald, M
and eczema in other body locations during the follow-up period were risk factors of a poor prognosis. The same factors, as well as being a woman, were associated with occupational consequences and low health-related quality of life. Of those with persistent hand eczema only 40% had visited a dermatologist...... eczema. It should be questioned if more aggressive therapy and closer medical follow-up would be beneficial....
Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Benet, M.; Saeys, Y.; Pinart, M.; Basagana, X.; Smit, H. A.; Siroux, V.; Just, J.; Momas, I.; Ranciere, F.; Keil, T.; Hohmann, C.; Lau, S.; Wahn, U.; Heinrich, J.; Tischer, C. G.; Fantini, M. P.; Lenzi, J.; Porta, D.; Koppelman, G. H.; Postma, D. S.; Berdel, D.; Koletzko, S.; Kerkhof, M.; Gehring, U.; Wickman, M.; Melen, E.; Hallberg, J.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Eller, E.; Kull, I.; Carlsen, K. C. Lodrup; Carlsen, K. -H.; Lambrecht, B. N.; Kogevinas, M.; Sunyer, J.; Kauffmann, F.; Bousquet, J.; Anto, J. M.
BackgroundAsthma, rhinitis and eczema often co-occur in children, but their interrelationships at the population level have been poorly addressed. We assessed co-occurrence of childhood asthma, rhinitis and eczema using unsupervised statistical techniques. MethodsWe included 17209 children at 4years
Oliveira, Íris M.; Taveira, Maria do Céu; Porfeli, Erik J.
Childhood is a central period for career and social-emotional development. However, the literature covering childhood career development and the role of emotions in careers is scarce. In this article, we advocate for the consideration of emotions in childhood career development. Emotional aspects of children's career exploration, key-figures and…
The most common diseases encountered by health professionals are those associated with skin disorders. There are thousands of skin diseases, accurate diagnosis of which is critical to appropriate management and patient outcomes. Diseases of the skin are the most common group of occupational health problems that lead to absence from work in the general population. Eczema describes a variety of inflammatory skin disorders; it is a chronic, widespread, non-infective inflammatory condition that causes severe pruritus, erythema and scaling. The condition can impact at any age; generally it occurs during infancy or early childhood. The cause of atopic eczema is complex and not fully understood. This article describes the pathophysiology associated with eczema focusing upon atopic eczema. Signs and symptoms are described; methods of diagnosis and treatment options are outlined. The most up-to-date clinical evidence is used to inform the community nurse. The active involvement of the informed patient in their therapy is critical to success and this is advocated. The role of the nurse is central to enhancing health and wellbeing of people with atopic eczema. PMID:21727789
Background There is a concern that allergic disease in childhood is higher than expected in Cuba. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for eczema of infants aged 12–15 months living in Havana. Methods We used a cross-sectional epidemiological study design. Data on eczema symptoms and a wide range of lifestyle factors were collected by researcher administered questionnaires. Results Data were collected on 1956 children (96% response rate), of whom 672 (34%) were reported as having had eczema. Independent risk factors for eczema included young maternal age (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.98 per additional year of age; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-0.99), child’s weight (OR 1.13 per additional kg; 95% CI: 1.03-1.25), insect sting allergy (OR 2.11; 95% CI: 1.33-3.35), rodents in the home (OR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.10-1.76), attendance at childcare facilities (OR 1.34: 95% CI: 1.05-1.70) and self-reported mould in the home (OR 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07-1.41). Infant exposure to paracetamol was associated with an increased risk of eczema even after adjustment for wheeze (OR 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03-1.46). Conclusion Despite a very different culture and environment, the consistency of these findings with those from more economically developed countries suggests potential causal associations. The association with paracetamol, even after adjustment for wheeze, suggests that intervention studies are required in young infants, to ascertain if this commonly used anti-pyretic medication increases allergic disease. PMID:24666750
Jacob, Sharon E; Goldenberg, Alina; Nedorost, Susan;
Flexural eczema and atopic dermatitis are frequently synonymized. As respiratory atopy is rarely tested for and found in these patients, systematically equating a flexural distribution of dermatitis with atopic dermatitis may too frequently result in misclassified diagnoses and potentially missed...
Ebbehøj, Niels E; Agner, Tove; Zimerson, Erik;
significant improvement, all cases of hand eczema cleared and 16 workers with rhinitis also improved. Positive patch tests to carpet extracts were found significantly more frequent in the worker cohort than in a control group comprising 47 dermatitis patients (p<0.001). Only few workers reacted with a....... RESULTS: In total, 32 out of 80 workers (40%) developed symptoms; 27 reported eczema, 20 rhinitis and 4 urticaria. Eczema was located on the hands and/or lower arms in 18 workers, on the face in 10 workers and on legs/trunk in 12 workers. After intervention in the office, 22 workers with eczema reported...
Full Text Available Patrick Olivieri,1 Bruce Solitar,2,* Michel Dubois3,*1NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Rheumatology, 3Department of Pain Management, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Fibromyalgia is a disease process without an obvious etiology. While some evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood contribute to its development, specific evidence has been equivocal.Methods: A total of 36 patients with fibromyalgia from the greater New York area were recruited and surveyed using the Centers for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, and questions from the section on adverse childhood experiences were administered. The results were compared to those obtained from over 400,000 people surveyed by the Centers for Disease control each year, and were monitored for statistically significant differences.Results: A statistically significant difference was noted among the control group, suggesting that individuals reported growing up with someone who was depressed when the respondents were between the ages of 0 and 18 years old. Moreover, respondents reported that they were hit by their parents in some way, were insulted or cursed at by their parents, and had been forced to have sex with someone at least 5 years older than them or with an adult. No correlation was found with the following variables and the development of fibromyalgia: growing up with divorced or separated parents; growing up with someone sentenced to serve time in jail; or having parents that abused each other. Additionally, statistically significant differences were found for the following categories: lack of emotional support; life dissatisfaction; fair or poor health; physical, mental or emotional disability; and being divorced or not married.Discussion: Using this well-validated survey, it became clear that at least six specific adverse childhood
Duncan, G J; Brooks-Gunn, J; Klebanov, P K
We consider 3 questions regarding the effects of economic deprivation on child development. First, how are developmental outcomes in childhood affected by poverty and such poverty correlates as single parenthood, ethnicity, and maternal education? Second, what are the developmental consequences of the duration and timing of family economic deprivation? And, third, what is the comparative influence of economic deprivation at the family and neighborhood level? We investigate these issues with longitudinal data from the Infant Health and Development Program. We find that family income and poverty status are powerful correlates of the cognitive development and behavior of children, even after accounting for other differences--in particular family structure and maternal schooling--between low- and high-income families. While the duration of poverty matters, its timing in early childhood does not. Age-5 IQs are found to be higher in neighborhoods with greater concentrations of affluent neighbors, while the prevalence of low-income neighbors appears to increase the incidence of externalizing behavior problems. PMID:7516849
... of eczema and its effect on the skin's appearance may contribute to a greater risk of mental health disorders, such as anxiety and depression, Silverberg said. Controlling flare-ups of eczema symptoms ...
Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Thomsen, Simon Francis;
BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases, for example, eczema, asthma, and hay fever, are among the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Knowledge on health service use among children with atopic disease is limited. This study aimed to investigate the total use and costs of health services for children...... with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever in a Danish general population. METHODS: We conducted a health survey with four complete birth cohorts from the City of Copenhagen. Individual questionnaire data on eczema, asthma, and hay fever for children aged 3, 6, 11, and 15 years were linked to register.......77 [1.29-2.26]), current asthma symptoms (2.53 [2.08-2.98]), and current hay fever symptoms (1.21 [0.74-1.67]), compared with children without these symptoms. We also found increased use of prescribed medication and most subtypes of health services. Current asthma symptoms and current eczema symptoms...
Mendez, Robert; Grissom, Maureen
The incidence of childhood obesity in the United States is estimated at 17%, or 12 million children ages 2 to 19 years. Obesity is a multifactorial condition with syndromic and nonsyndromic variants. Genetic, social, ethnic, endocrinologic, and behavioral issues are all potential etiologic factors. Preventive efforts should begin with monitoring from birth and include breastfeeding until age 6 months, avoiding juices, and promoting fruit and vegetable consumption and adequate exercise. Childhood obesity is diagnosed based on body mass index; a child is considered overweight at the 85th to 95th percentiles and obese at or above the 95th percentile. After obesity is diagnosed, testing should include blood pressure levels, fasting lipid profile, diabetes screening, and liver function tests. The physician should obtain a detailed history of the physical activity level and food intake and assess possible complications of obesity, including depression and hypertension, annually. Lifestyle interventions with family involvement are the mainstay of management, with pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery considered for adolescents only if intensive lifestyle modifications have failed and in the presence of comorbidities. Intervention by multiple disciplines (ie, medicine, nutrition, psychology) is recommended, and family physicians are encouraged to become more involved in encouraging physical activity and improved nutrition for children.
Mommers, M.; Thijs, C.; Stelma, F.F.; Penders, J.; Reimerink, J.; Ree, R. van; Koopmans, M.
To investigate if infections in pregnancy and very early in life present a risk for wheezing, eczema, or atopic sensitization in later infancy. A total of 2319 children enrolled before birth in the KOALA Birth Cohort Study were followed during their first 2 yr of life using repeated questionnaires.
Musgrove, K; Morgan, J K
A 15-17 year follow-up study was conducted on ninety-nine patients who had suffered from infantile eczema. The persistance of the eczema and the occurrence of related conditions were noted. The persistence of eczema was shown to be greater in those patients with a positive family history of eczema and in those who had developed asthma or hay-fever. An attempt was made to see if the persistence of eczema was affected by the position of the child in the family, and some factors provoking relapses were noted. The patients were also questioned with regard to their achievements in academic examinations, and to their social, artistic and sporting activities. The results showed a success rate in examinations not significantly higher than average. It was not possible to show if there is a particular type of atopic personality. There was no constant characteristic in social or artistic patterns. The group as a whole were normal at the milestones of early development, i.e. walking, talking and reading, and also normal with regard to weight and height. PMID:974022
Agner, Tove; Andersen, Klaus E; Brandao, Francisco M;
Background and Objectives: Hand eczema is a chronic disease with negative impact on quality of life (QoL). In this study, QoL in hand eczema patients is assessed and related to age, sex, severity, and diagnostic subgroups. Methods: A total of 416 patients with hand eczema from 10 European patch...... test clinics participated in the study. Data on QoL were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Severity was assessed by a scoring system (Hand Eczema Severity Index, HECSI) as well as frequency of eruptions and sick leave due to hand eczema...
Ibler, K.S.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Agner, T.
Background. Hand eczema is common in healthcare workers, owing to intensive exposure to wet work and skin irritants. Targeted interventions and vocational guidance based on documented exposures and risk factors are needed. Objectives. The aims of the study were to investigate the relationship bet...
The training of early childhood development and education (ECDE) teachers in Kenya remains a priority in recognition of the vital role well-trained professionals play in the quality of early childhood experiences for children ages 0+ to 5+. This article provides a detailed overview of the current structure and training of ECDE professionals,…
Reunamo, Jyrki; Suomela, Liisa
In the Finnish early childhood education and care (ECEC) curriculum, there is no specific content for education for sustainable development (ESD). Thus, it is not possible to get direct guidelines on how to conduct ESD in ECEC from the curriculum. We seek to look at the preferences of Finnish early childhood educators through the model of extended…
Hertzman, Clyde; Clinton, Jean; Lynk, Andrew
A child's early experiences and environments have a significant, measurable effect on later life trajectories of health and well-being. Each child's own world, especially parents and other caregivers, literally sculpts the brain and impacts stress pathways. Effective early childhood interventions exist that can improve adult and societal outcomes. In this statement, the Canadian Paediatric Society calls on federal and provincial/territorial governments to measure and monitor the developmental progress of children in Canada, which can vary widely among communities and demographic groups. The statement explores the objectives for collecting quality information about early child development, its determinants and long-term outcomes. It also examines four approaches to collecting population-based, person-specific and longitudinal data, both in young children and later in life. A key outcome of monitoring development is timely intervention. Linking individual data to the home and community levels is a critical step, so that communities and governments can monitor and take actions that support early child development. PMID:23204908
Mooney, Emma; Rademaker, Marius; Dailey, Rebecca; Daniel, Ben S; Drummond, Catherine; Fischer, Gayle; Foster, Rachael; Grills, Claire; Halbert, Anne; Hill, Sarah; King, Emma; Leins, Elizabeth; Morgan, Vanessa; Phillips, Roderic J; Relic, John; Rodrigues, Michelle; Scardamaglia, Laura; Smith, Saxon; Su, John; Wargon, Orli; Orchard, David
Atopic eczema is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting about 30% of Australian and New Zealand children. Severe eczema costs over AUD 6000/year per child in direct medical, hospital and treatment costs as well as time off work for caregivers and untold distress for the family unit. In addition, it has a negative impact on a child's sleep, education, development and self-esteem. The treatment of atopic eczema is complex and multifaceted but a core component of therapy is to manage the inflammation with topical corticosteroids (TCS). Despite this, TCS are often underutilised by many parents due to corticosteroid phobia and unfounded concerns about their adverse effects. This has led to extended and unnecessary exacerbations of eczema for children. Contrary to popular perceptions, (TCS) use in paediatric eczema does not cause atrophy, hypopigmentation, hypertrichosis, osteoporosis, purpura or telangiectasia when used appropriately as per guidelines. In rare cases, prolonged and excessive use of potent TCS has contributed to striae, short-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis alteration and ophthalmological disease. TCS use can also exacerbate periorificial rosacea. TCS are very effective treatments for eczema. When they are used to treat active eczema and stopped once the active inflammation has resolved, adverse effects are minimal. TCS should be the cornerstone treatment of atopic eczema in children. PMID:25752907
Ljubica Marjanovič Umek
Full Text Available Storytelling is an important aspect of child's language competence, which largely depends on her/his understanding and expression of a decontextualised content and develops rapidly in the period between the second and sixth year of life. The purpose of this study was to examine age differences in children's storytelling in the period between the third and sixth year of age. In addition, we considered the effect of gender on storytelling of children of different ages. The sample included 156 children aged from 3 to 6 years, who were divided into 3 age groups, namely children, aged 3, 4 and 5 years. Child's storytelling competence was assessed with the Little Glove Storytelling Test. Children's stories told by a standard set of illustrations, were analyzed in terms of criteria, designed to assess the developmental level of the stories. The criteria refer to the words, included in the story, the grammatical structure and the content of the story. The obtained results suggested that several important changes in the development of storytelling occur within the period of early childhood. The 5-years-old children told longer stories with a more complex grammatical structure and a coherent content as the 3-years-old children. Children's achievements on the individual criteria for assessing the developmental level of the stories progressed relatively steadily through all three age groups. The results also showed that gender had no significant effect on the storytelling of children of different ages.
Gomez, Rebecca E.
This article details the findings from a qualitative study that explored the ways individuals who work with early childhood education (ECE) practitioners in professional development settings influenced those practitioners' understandings of early childhood policy and early childhood systems. Defined as individuals who work in the professional…
Full Text Available Abstract Eczema is a chronic relapsing atopic dermatitis (AD associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance and poor quality of life of the patient. Treatment of eczema includes use of emollient, topical and systemic antimicrobial agents, corticosteroid or immunomodulating agents. Many patients also seek alternative treatments such as dietary avoidance, supplementation or both. This article reviews the basic pathophysiology of eczema and clinical trials involving Chinese medicine in the treatment of eczema. Research reports on Chinese herbal medicine for eczema were retrieved from PubMed and the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews for this review. Only a few RCTs demonstrated the efficacy (or lack of efficacy of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating atopic eczema. Further larger scale trials are warranted.
Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D; Sommerlund, Mette;
Background. Classification of hand eczema has traditionally been based both on aetiology and clinical appearance. For 20% of cases, the aetiology is unknown. Objectives. To suggest a classification based on well-defined aetiology as well as on predefined clinical patterns and on the dynamics of h......, atopic hand eczema and aetiologically unclassifiable hand eczema. Six different clinical patterns are described and illustrated. Suggestions for general treatment principles are given. Conclusion. Operational guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hand eczema are described....
Stensballe, Lone Graff; Simonsen, Jacob; Jensen, Signe Marie;
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that mother's use of antibiotics in pregnancy could influence asthma and eczema in early life. STUDY DESIGN: Subjects were included from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood cohort of children born of mothers with asthma (N = 411). Severe...... National Birth Cohort confirmed increased risk of asthma hospitalization (hazard ratio 1.17 [1.00-1.36]), and inhaled corticosteroids (1.18 [1.10-1.27]) in the children if mothers used antibiotics any time during pregnancy. In the subgroup of mothers using antibiotics for nonrespiratory infection...... asthma exacerbations and eczema were diagnosed by research unit physicians. Replication was sought in children from the Danish National Birth Cohort (N = 30 675). Asthma outcomes were hospitalization and use of inhaled corticosteroids. Eczema was defined by an algorithm developed from cases of clinically...
Darsow, Ulf; Forer, Ingeborg; Ring, Johannes
Aeroallergens are relevant eliciting factors of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma but also of atopic eczema. The use of allergen-specific immunotherapy as in respiratory atopic diseases is controversial in patients with atopic eczema, but refined diagnostic methods to characterize subgroups of patients with relevant allergies and the results of smaller controlled studies give rise to new approaches in this field. This article reviews the theoretical problems and practical results associated with allergen-specific immunotherapy in atopic eczema. PMID:21461718
Background: Eczema is one of the most common diseases in the population, affecting individuals of all ages. The impact on physical and psychosocial wellbeing is important. This thesis describes some aspects of this complex of problems. The overall aim was to investigate the experience of living with eczema. Subjects: Adult individuals with self-reported eczema. Methods: In Study I, a questionnaire was sent to 1111 adult individuals, half of whom had school medical records fr...
Chan, Carmen W. H.; Wong, Rosa S.; Law, Patrick T. W.; Wong, Cho Lee; Tsui, Stephen K. W.; Tang, Winnie P. Y.; Sit, Janet W. H.
Eczema is a common skin condition that impairs children’s daily life activities and quality of life. Previous research shows that gut microbiome composition plays an important role in the development of eczema. The present review summarizes evidence on environmental factors related to altered gut microbiota in children with eczema. We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews through October 2015. The search strategy focused on articles published in peer-reviewed, English-language journals with no publication year limit. Only original studies and review articles that reported environmental factors on gut microbiome specific to eczema were included in this review. We selected six studies (total 1990 participants) for full review and identified that the composition of gut microbiota specific to eczema could be influenced by the following environmental factors: length of gestation, mode of delivery, type of feeding, method of treatment, number of older siblings, and other lifestyle factors. There has been inconsistent empirical evidence as to the modulatory effects of gut microbiota on immunological functions in children with eczema. Further research on the environmental-host-microbial interaction is needed to develop a strong base of knowledge for the development and implementation of prevention strategies and policies for eczema. PMID:27438825
Chan, Carmen W H; Wong, Rosa S; Law, Patrick T W; Wong, Cho Lee; Tsui, Stephen K W; Tang, Winnie P Y; Sit, Janet W H
Eczema is a common skin condition that impairs children's daily life activities and quality of life. Previous research shows that gut microbiome composition plays an important role in the development of eczema. The present review summarizes evidence on environmental factors related to altered gut microbiota in children with eczema. We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews through October 2015. The search strategy focused on articles published in peer-reviewed, English-language journals with no publication year limit. Only original studies and review articles that reported environmental factors on gut microbiome specific to eczema were included in this review. We selected six studies (total 1990 participants) for full review and identified that the composition of gut microbiota specific to eczema could be influenced by the following environmental factors: length of gestation, mode of delivery, type of feeding, method of treatment, number of older siblings, and other lifestyle factors. There has been inconsistent empirical evidence as to the modulatory effects of gut microbiota on immunological functions in children with eczema. Further research on the environmental-host-microbial interaction is needed to develop a strong base of knowledge for the development and implementation of prevention strategies and policies for eczema. PMID:27438825
Kalinina Ayuso, V.
This thesis aimed to gain new insights regarding the course and prognosis of uveitis in childhood, the pathogenesis of JIA-uveitis and the treatment of uveitis in children. The role of baseline prognostic factors in JIA-uveitis was studied by a retrospective analysis of 117 affected eyes of 65 patie
Smit Henriette A
Full Text Available Abstract Background People with higher socio-economic status (SES are generally in better health. Less is known about when these socio-economic health differences set in during childhood and how they develop over time. The goal of this study was to prospectively study the development of socio-economic health differences in the Netherlands, and to investigate possible explanations for socio-economic variation in childhood health. Methods Data from the Dutch Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA birth cohort study were used for the analyses. The PIAMA study followed 3,963 Dutch children during their first eight years of life. Common childhood health problems (i.e. eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and obesity were assessed annually using questionnaires. Maternal educational level was used to indicate SES. Possible explanatory lifestyle determinants (breastfeeding, smoking during pregnancy, smoking during the first three months, and day-care centre attendance and biological determinants (maternal age at birth, birthweight, and older siblings were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results This study shows that socio-economic differences in a broad range of health problems are already present early in life, and persist during childhood. Children from families with low socio-economic backgrounds experience more asthma symptoms (odds ratio (OR 1.27; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.08-1.49, poorer general health (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.16-1.60, more frequent respiratory infections (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.35-1.83, more overweight (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.16-1.73, and more obesity (OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.80-4.41. The most important contributors to the observed childhood socio-economic health disparities are socio-economic differences in maternal age at birth, breastfeeding, and day-care centre attendance. Conclusions Socio-economic health disparities already occur very early in life. Socio
Smit, L A M; Lenters, V; Høyer, B B;
components (PCs) explaining 70% of the variance were included in multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: In a meta-analysis that included both populations, the PC2 score, reflecting exposure to DiNP, was negatively associated with current eczema (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.96). Other associations were......BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal or early-life exposures to environmental contaminants may contribute to an increased risk of asthma and allergies in children. We aimed to the explore associations of prenatal exposures to a large set of environmental chemical contaminants.......41-0.99). In Greenlandic children, a negative association of PC4 (organochlorines) with ever eczema (OR 0.78, 0.61-0.99) was found. CONCLUSIONS: We found limited evidence to support a link between prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and childhood asthma and eczema....
Ebbehøj, Niels E; Agner, Tove; Zimerson, Erik;
. RESULTS: In total, 32 out of 80 workers (40%) developed symptoms; 27 reported eczema, 20 rhinitis and 4 urticaria. Eczema was located on the hands and/or lower arms in 18 workers, on the face in 10 workers and on legs/trunk in 12 workers. After intervention in the office, 22 workers with eczema reported...... exposure could not be identified, although chemicals from the glued carpets are suspected. The study is an example of a work place investigation, and illustrates the diversity of symptoms and exposures involved in "Sick Building" cases....
Sakharuk, N A
Among the factors, contributing to the development of candidiasis in the oral cavity, eczema and psoriasis have great value. The most common type of agent which causes oral candidiasis is fungi C. albicans, but the role of non-albicans species is also sufficient. In order to identify candidiasis, candidiasis carriage and species identification of the causative agent, using clinical and laboratory methods have been examined 222 persons with psoriasis, 110 - with eczema and 93 persons became the control group. Among patients with skin diseases (psoriasis, eczema) incidence of oral candidiasis was significantly higher compared with the control group (pcandidiasis in all investigated groups after C. albicans were C. krusei and C. parapsilosis.
Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Agner, Tove
mutations in almost 50% of patients with moderate/severe atopic dermatitis, and lipid disturbances, mainly expressed as insufficient ceramides. In this review, with an emphasis on human studies, we consider the latest research on ceramides, on ceramides in different types of eczema and following various...... types of treatment. We also consider the genetic influence on stratum corneum lipids. The review is an update on research indexed in PubMed following the discovery of the filaggrin mutations in atopic dermatitis in 2006, but when newer publications cannot stand alone, we include publications from before...
ZHAO Xiao-mei; LI Dong
以推拿疗法联合西药治疗20例小儿湿疹患者,并以西药治疗18例作对照.两组有效率分别为100%和90.0%,疗效有差异(P＜0.01).%Twenty cases of infantile eczema were treated by combination of Tuina therapy and Western medications, and 18 cases were treated by Western medications. The therapeutic effective rate was respectively 100% and 90.0% in the two groups, with a difference between them (P＜ 0.01).
Calzado, Leticia; Ortiz-de Frutos, Francisco J; del Prado Sánchez-Caminero, María; Galera, Carmen María; Valverde, Ricardo; Vanaclocha, Francisco
Epoxy resins are plastics that are widely used as electrical insulation, in coatings, and as adhesives and paints. They have strong sensitizing power and are one of the main causes of allergic contact eczema, both in the workplace and elsewhere. We present the case of a worker at a plastics/chemical plant, who handled aeronautical components in the process of manufacturing fuselage parts. He consulted his physician because of eczematous lesions on his fingers, hands and forearms which had developed over a two-year period and were clearly related to his work. The standard battery of skin tests was performed, along with the plastics and adhesives series and tests using the products from his workplace. Positivity was shown to epoxy resins (standard battery) and to the products from his workplace, which included different fiberglass and carbon fiber sheets impregnated with epoxy resins and epoxy adhesives.
Observation on the Effect of Freeing Lung and Relieving Asthma and Ex_pelling Wind and Removing Toxicity Regimen on Childhood Asthma with Eczema During Chronic Persistent Period%宣肺平喘、祛风解毒法治疗小儿哮喘慢性持续期伴湿疹的疗效观察
目的：对宣肺平喘、祛风解毒法治疗小儿哮喘慢性持续期伴湿疹的疗效进行分析°方法资料随机选自2011年1月—2012年12月该院收治的哮喘合并湿疹患儿68例，采用数字分析法，将其平均分为两组，研究组和对照组，每组34例°给予对照组患儿吸入治疗+抗组胺药+外用激素治疗，给予研究组患儿吸入治疗+中药治疗，并对两组临床资料进行回顾性分析°结果对照组采用吸入治疗+抗组胺药+外用激素治疗，研究组采用吸入治疗+中药治疗；经治疗，研究组总有效率为94.12%，对照组总有效率为79.41%，研究组总有效率明显优于对照组总有效率，组间比较差异显著，差异有统计学意义(P<0.05﹚°结论给予哮喘合并湿疹患儿吸入治疗+中药治疗的效果较为显著，不仅能够有效的抑制患儿并发症的发生，而且还能够缓解患儿由于西医治疗而带来的疼痛，进而提高患儿的生活质量以及治疗的有效率，值得在临床中推广和应用°%Objective To analyze the effect of freeing lung and relieving asthma and expelling wind and removing toxicity regimen on childhood asthma with eczema during chronic persistent period. Methods The data of 68 children with asthma and eczema ad_mitted to our hospital from January 2011 to December 2012 were randomly selected. And the children were equally divided into two groups, the study group and the control group, with 34 children in each according to the digital analysis method. Children in the control group were treated by inhalation therapy, antihistamine drug and hormone for external use, and the children in the study group were treated by inhalation therapy and traditional Chinese medicine. And the clinical data of the two groups were ana_lyzed retrospectively. Results The control group were treated by inhalation therapy, antihistamine drug and hormone for external use, and the study group were treated by
Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt;
with asthma through early childhood (0-6 years) when analyzed as any sensitization (odds ratio [OR] range, 0.78-1.29; P ≥ .48). However, at 13 years of age, any sensitization was associated with asthma (OR range, 4.02-5.94; all P contrast, any sensitization was associated with eczema at ½, 1...
Edwards, Nicole Megan
This article is intended to provide early childhood providers with a concise overview of emerging emotional development in young children (birth-5), the important role of primary caregivers, and the link between parenting, emotional development, and behavior. Specific suggestions that have been shared with urban Head Start mothers are offered,…
Byington, Teresa A.; Tannock, Michelle T.
An online survey of early childhood education (ECE) trainers was conducted to assess their professional development needs and determine any differences between new and experienced trainers. Trainers identified teaching techniques and resources commonly used. The survey information is guiding the development of ECE trainer criteria in a…
Roseline Ekanem Duke
Full Text Available The key informant methodology for case finding for childhood cataract was utilized in a rural population in Nigeria to identify suitable children who would benefit surgically from intervene for cataract and restore vision such children. It was however noticed that some parents who had children with cataract did not bring their children to the primary health center for examination and recommendation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the benefits of using the theatre for development approach in childhood cataract case finding. The delay in identification and referral of children with cataract at an appropriate age for surgical intervention and optical rehabilitation is the main cause of poor vision following surgery for the condition as amblyopia results. Therefore early presentation, identification, referral and surgical intervention as well as appropriate optical rehabilitation is the key to successful surgical outcome of childhood cataract and good visual prognosis. The theater for development (TfD approach methodology was implemented in a community in Akpabuyo local government are of Cross River state, Nigeria as a means to enhance community participation, health promotion and education and to complement the key informant methodology in case finding for childhood cataract. Three children with cataracts were referred by the community following the TfD intervention, for cataract surgery and uptake of follow up care after surgery. The TfD approach appears to be a useful method for encouraging community participation in the case finding of childhood cataract.
Full Text Available This study is an early pace in the research development of entrepreneurship learning model for early childhood. This study aims to explore how learning entrepreneurship that has been done in the early childhood; to know whether parents, teachers, and principals support the entrepreneurship learning; and what kind of values of entrepreneurship can be developed for early childhood. The results of this research are useful to create early childhood entrepreneurial learning design. The research conducts in the form of interviews, observation, and documentation. The result shows that the school which has been developing entrepreneurship has no clear guidance of learning to develop the spirit of entrepreneurship; all teachers and principals in the research agree that entrepreneurship learning developed from an early age. However, there are 90.79% of parents agreed that from an early age has begun to develop the spirit of entrepreneurship and 9.21% said they did not agree; and the values of entrepreneurship that are able to be developed since they are in early age are self-confidence, honesty, independence, responsibility, creative, never give up/hard work, caring for the environment, teamwork, discipline, and respect.
Jiying Ling; PhD.MS.RN.Vicki Hines-Martin; PhD.CNS.RN.FAAN Hong Ji; MSN
United States is experiencing significant growth in its foreign -born population , especially Chinese American population comprising of 1.2% of the U.S.population.Many healthcare providers are challenged in their efforts to provide culturally competent healthcare to this population. To provide culturally competent healthcare ,healthcare providers should understand variations in cultural at-tributes that impact health. One group in which cultural variation holds great influence is that of children. Culture influences a child's be-havior,development and health. This article provides a cross -cultural,comparative examination of important cultural influences on child behaviors development and health in China and the U. S.Using the findings about these two populations ,interventions for childhood obesity cross culturally are addressed through the analysis of a U. S.based Children's Obesity Program. The author suggests that uniquely different approaches to childhood obesity intervention research are needed based upon the cultural differences identified within this paper.
... 2 • 3 • 4 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Vitiligo Ringworm Molluscum Contagiosum Hygiene Basics Tips for Taking Care of Your Skin Stress Hives (Urticaria) Body Image and Self-Esteem Food Allergies Contact Us Print Resources Send to ...
... children but adults can have it too. As children who have atopic dermatitis grow older, this problem may get better or go away. But sometimes the skin may stay dry and get irritated easily. Treatments may include ...
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2011
The Council of Australian Governments released the National Early Childhood Development Strategy, Investing in the Early Years in July 2009 (COAG 2009). One of the key reform priorities in the strategy is to build better information and a solid evidence base, and establishing national outcome measures for early childhood development has been…
Strickland, Susan J.
Reviews literature on effects of music on the brain in childhood development. Areas include: (1) early synaptic growth; (2) nature versus nurture; (3) background music; (4) musical practice; (5) music learning and cognitive skills; (6) transfer of music learning; (7) musical instrument practice; (8) children and music; and (9) transfer effects.…
Butte, Nancy F; Christiansen, Edmund; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
/d of walking at 2.5 mph. DISCUSSION: Halting the development or progression of childhood obesity, as observed in these Hispanic children and adolescents, by counteracting its total energy costs will require a sizable decrease in energy intake and/or reciprocal increase in physical activity....
This report presents an analysis of the early childhood development (ECD) programs and policies which affect young children in Mauritius. It is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the systems approach for better education results (SABER)-ECD framework and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition, and social and child protection policies and interventi...
Thomas, Laura A.; De Bellis, Michael D.; Graham, Reiko; Labar, Kevin S.
The ability to interpret emotions in facial expressions is crucial for social functioning across the lifespan. Facial expression recognition develops rapidly during infancy and improves with age during the preschool years. However, the developmental trajectory from late childhood to adulthood is less clear. We tested older children, adolescents…
Condon, Kathryn; Dahlstrom, Mark
The paper describes the Early Childhood Handicapped Program of Kenosha (WI). The program focuses on receptive and expressive language, fine and gross motor skills, self-help skills, cognitive skills, perceptual skills, and social/emotional skills development. For admission into the program, children must exhibit significant delays in two or more…
Ramirez, Amelie G.; Chalela, Patricia; Gallion, Kipling J.; Green, Lawrence W.; Ottoson, Judith
U.S. childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, with one third of children overweight or obese. Latino children have some of the highest obesity rates, a concern because they are part of the youngest and fastest-growing U.S. minority group. Unfortunately, scarce research data on Latinos hinders the development and implementation of…
Stead, Graham B.; Schultheiss, Donna E. Palladino
The purpose of this study was to provide evidence of the construct and concurrent validity of the Childhood Career Development Scale's (CCDS) scores among South African primary school children. Using a sample of 808 children in grades four through seven, evidence for the CCDS's construct validity was provided using confirmatory factor analysis,…
Chatzi, Leda; Garcia, Raquel; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Basterrechea, Mikel; Begiristain, Haizea; Iñiguez, Carmen; Vioque, Jesus; Kogevinas, Manolis; Sunyer, Jordi
Maternal diet during pregnancy might influence the development of childhood allergic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence during pregnancy on wheeze and eczema in the first year of life in two population-based mother-child cohorts in Spain and Greece. We studied 1771 mother-newborn pairs from the Spanish multi-centre 'INMA' (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) study (Gipuzkoa, Sabadell and Valencia) and 745 pairs from the 'RHEA' study in Crete, Greece. The symptoms of wheeze and eczema were based on the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed by FFQ and MD adherence was evaluated through an a priori score. Multivariate log-binomial regression models were used to adjust for several confounders in each cohort and summary estimates were obtained by a meta-analysis. MD adherence was not associated with the risk of wheeze and eczema in any cohort, and similar results were identified in the meta-analysis approach. High meat intake (relative risk (RR) 1·22, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·49) and 'processed' meat intake (RR 1·18, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·37) during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of wheeze in the first year of life, while a high intake of dairy products was significantly associated with a decreased risk of infantile wheeze (RR 0·83, 95 % CI 0·72, 0·96). The results of the present study show that high meat intake during pregnancy may increase the risk of wheeze in the first year of life, while a high intake of dairy products may decrease it.
Gupta, Nidhi; Goel, Kashish; Shah, Priyali; Misra, Anoop
Rapidly changing dietary practices and a sedentary lifestyle have led to increasing prevalence of childhood obesity (5-19 yr) in developing countries recently: 41.8% in Mexico, 22.1% in Brazil, 22.0% in India, and 19.3% in Argentina. Moreover, secular trends indicate increasing prevalence rates in these countries: 4.1 to 13.9% in Brazil during 1974-1997, 12.2 to 15.6% in Thailand during 1991-1993, and 9.8 to 11.7% in India during 2006-2009. Important determinants of childhood obesity include high socioeconomic status, residence in metropolitan cities, female gender, unawareness and false beliefs about nutrition, marketing by transnational food companies, increasing academic stress, and poor facilities for physical activity. Childhood obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the early-onset metabolic syndrome, subclinical inflammation, dyslipidemia, coronary artery diseases, and adulthood obesity. Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity through parental initiative and social support interventions are the most important strategies in managing childhood obesity. Also, high-risk screening and effective health educational programs are urgently needed in developing countries. PMID:22240243
Porfeli, Erik J.; Lee, Bora
In this article, the authors offer a general perspective of vocational identity development as central to child and adolescent career development. A review of the pertinent literatures suggests that identity development is the product of three development strands--career exploration, commitment, and reconsideration--that appear to begin during…
Being in the early development stage, early childhood education （ECE） in China turns out to be very promising in the near future. The number of ECE institutions is increasing rapidly. However, there is still deficiency in the administration of China＇ s domestic ECE institutions. This paper first analyze the present development of deomestic ECE institutions. Then suggestions are drawn for domestic institutions by applying theory of marketing management.
Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao
Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.
The results of a small group of children studied through ages six through eleven suggest that latency is no longer an accurate term to describe middle childhood and preadolescence. This longitudinal research suggests a more nonlinear process than has previously been documented in psychoanalytic research and supports a dynamic systems approach to development. Self structures break down and remain in an ongoing state of non-linear development. Without stable structural organization, sexual and aggressive thoughts and feelings are less contained and less differentiated throughout this period of development. Gender role identity is in a continuous state of fluidity during middle childhood. While both boys and girls experience gender role fluidity, the meaning of male and female gender identifications and the expression of sexual and aggressive feelings differ for boys and girls. PMID:26027138
Mortz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus E; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease in childhood and an important risk factor for the later development of other atopic diseases. Many publications on childhood AD use questionnaires based on information obtained in adulthood, which introduce the possibility of recall bias. In a prospective...... cohort study, recall bias was evaluated in 1,501 unselected schoolchildren (mean age 14 years) evaluated for the first time in 1995 with a standardized questionnaire combined with a clinical examination and repeated in 2010. The lifetime prevalence of AD was 34.1% including data obtained both during...... school age and 15 years later, compared with 23.6% including data only from adulthood. The most important factors for remembering having had AD in childhood were: (i) long duration of dermatitis in childhood; (ii) adult hand eczema; and (iii) concomitant atopic disease. Recall bias for childhood AD...
Strohmer, Janina; Mischo, Christoph
Early childhood teachers should have extensive knowledge about language and language development, because these facets of professional knowledge are considered as important requirements for fostering language development in early childhood education settings. It is assumed that early childhood teachers acquire this knowledge during pre-service…
Duncan, Greg J.; And Others
This study used longitudinal data from the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP) to examine three issues regarding effects of economic deprivation on child development: (1) the effects on children's developmental outcomes of poverty and such poverty correlates as single parenthood, ethnicity, and maternal education; (2) the developmental…
Bialek, Anna Katarzyna
The present study looked at prospective memory development between 7-15 years of age (N=57). Past research has draw no coherent picture of prospective memory development due to variations in prospective memory tasks employed, motivation not being suppressed, time-based and event-based memory not being distinguished and time delay between intention formation and intention execution not being controlled. The present study aimed to overcome these issues and draw a more coherent picture of prospe...
The article deals with the development of human nature in children from 4 to 12 years of age. The concept of human nature is described by Oerter (Oerter, 1991, 1994; Oerter, Oerter, Agostiani, Kim, in Wibowo, 1996) in his theory of development of implicit anthropology. Two procedures were applied in the research: an interview on adulthood and a social dilemma story, which was followed by a guided interview. The distribution of the developmental stages of the concept of human nature in childre...
Full Text Available To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10, carbon monoxide (CO, sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ozone (O3, and hydrocarbons, was measured at air quality monitoring stations in the towns where the subjects lived. Multilevel analyses were applied to assess the association between air pollution and childhood neurobehavioral development during pregnancy and when the children were 0 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and 13 to 18 months old. At 18 months, poor subclinical neurodevelopment in early childhood is associated with the average SO2 exposure of prenatal, during all trimesters of pregnancy and at postnatal ages up to 12 months (first trimester β = −0.083, se = 0.030; second and third trimester β = −0.114, se = 0.045; from birth to 12 months of age β = −0.091, se = 0.034. Furthermore, adverse gross motor below average scores at six months of age were associated with increased average non-methane hydrocarbon, (NMHC levels during the second and third trimesters (β = −8.742, se = 3.512. Low-level SO2 exposure prenatally and up to twelve months postnatal could cause adverse neurobehavioral effects at 18 months of age. Maternal NMHC exposure during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy would be also associated with poor gross motor development in their children at 6 months of age.
Gupta, Nidhi; Shah, Priyali; Nayyar, Sugandha; Misra, Anoop
Rapidly changing dietary practices accompanied by an increasingly sedentary lifestyle predispose to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including childhood obesity. Over the last 5 y, reports from several developing countries indicate prevalence rates of obesity (inclusive of overweight) >15 % in children and adolescents aged 5-19 y; Mexico 41.8 %, Brazil 22.1 %, India 22.0 % and Argentina 19.3 %. Moreover, secular trends also indicate an alarming increase in obesity in developing countries; in Brazil from 4.1 % to 13.9 % between 1974 and 1997; in China from 6.4 % to 7.7 % between 1991 and 1997; and in India from 4.9 % to 6.6 % between 2003-04 to 2005-06. Other contributory factors to childhood obesity include: high socio-economic status, residence in metropolitan cities and female gender. Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, thus increasing the risk for conditions like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease later in life. Interestingly, prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 35.2 % among overweight Chinese adolescents. Presence of central obesity (high waist-to-hip circumference ratio) along with hypertriglyceridemia and family history of T2DM increase the odds of T2DM by 112.1 in young Asian Indians (educational programs for children should be immediately initiated in developing countries, following the successful model program in India (project 'MARG'). PMID:23334584
Full Text Available The article deals with the development of human nature in children from 4 to 12 years of age. The concept of human nature is described by Oerter (Oerter, 1991, 1994; Oerter, Oerter, Agostiani, Kim, in Wibowo, 1996 in his theory of development of implicit anthropology. Two procedures were applied in the research: an interview on adulthood and a social dilemma story, which was followed by a guided interview. The distribution of the developmental stages of the concept of human nature in children of different age is presented, along with the frequency of higher-stage answers that progressively rises with subject's age. The frequency of the answers on the first, the second and the third developmental stage is compared between sexes. Higher level of conceptualisation of human nature in girls was found when compared with boys. The intering in personality, social and action theory are explained.
Zulfiqar A. Bhutta
Full Text Available An expert panel exercise was conducted to assess feasibility and potential effectiveness of 10 emerging health interventions against childhood diarrhoea. Twelve international experts were invited to take part in a CHNRI priority setting process. This group used 12 different criteria relevant to successful development and implementation of the emerging interventions, nine of which were retained in the final analysis. They showed most collective optimism towards developing household or community-level water treatment, followed by sustainable, affordable latrine options; those two emerging interventions were followed by antibiotic therapy of Cryptosporidium diarrhoea, and oral or transcutaneous enteric vaccine development.
Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O;
BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index...... was used for severity assessment. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was found on the hands in 24 patients with HE and four controls (P aureus was found to be related to increased severity of the eczema (P aureus types on the hands...
Kam Lun Hon
Full Text Available Eczema is a common childhood atopic condition and treatment is with emollients, topical corticosteroids and avoidance of possible triggers. S. aurues colonization is a common complication. During exacerbation, intensification of treatment is needed to relieve the child from the miserable symptoms of pruritus and sleep disturbance. Systemic antibiotics against S. aureus may be required.We report an infant with eczema who presented with a generalised rash, cardiac arrest and septic shock. Kwashiorkor-like protein energy malnutrition was noted presumably due to deviated dietary practice. Childhood eczema is an eminently treatable atopic disease. Extreme alternative therapy seems not to be efficacious and may even be associated with grave sequelae.
Ali H Ziyab
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immune specific genes as well as genes regulating the formation of skin barrier are major determinants for eczema manifestation. There is a debate as to whether allergic sensitization and filaggrin gene (FLG variants lead to eczema or FLG variants and eczema increase the risk of allergic sensitization. To investigate the time-order between eczema and allergic sensitization with respect to FLG variants, data from a large prospective study covering infancy to late adolescence were analyzed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Repeated measurements of eczema and allergic sensitization (documented by skin prick tests at ages 1, 2, 4, 10, and 18 years were ascertained in the Isle of Wight birth cohort (n = 1,456. Three transition periods were analyzed: age 1-or-2 to 4, 4 to 10, and 10 to 18 years. FLG variants were genotyped in 1,150 participants. Over the three transition periods, in temporal sequence analyses of initially eczema-free participants, the combined effect of FLG variants and allergic sensitization showed a 2.92-fold (95% CI: 1.47-5.77 increased risk ratio (RR of eczema in subsequent examinations. This overall risk was more pronounced at a younger age (transition period 1-or-2 to 4, RR = 6.47, 95% CI: 1.96-21.33. In contrast, FLG variants in combination with eczema showed a weaker, but significant, risk ratio for subsequent allergic sensitization only up to 10 years of age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking the time order into account, this prospective study demonstrates for the first time, that a combination of FLG variants and allergic sensitization increased the risk of eczema in subsequent years. Also FLG variants interacted with eczema and increased the risk of subsequent allergic sensitization, which, was limited to the younger age. Hence, early restoration of defective skin barrier could prevent allergic sensitization and subsequently reduce the risk of eczema development.
Kam Lun Hon; Siu Ying Nip; Cheung, K L
Eczema is a common childhood atopic condition and treatment is with emollients, topical corticosteroids and avoidance of possible triggers. S. aurues colonization is a common complication. During exacerbation, intensification of treatment is needed to relieve the child from the miserable symptoms of pruritus and sleep disturbance. Systemic antibiotics against S. aureus may be required.We report an infant with eczema who presented with a generalised ...
Shah, Lokesh; Mainelis, Gediminas; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Shalat, Stuart L
While the association of eczema with asthma is well recognized, little research has focused on the potential role of inhalable exposures and eczema. While indoor air quality is important in the development of respiratory disease as children in the U.S. spend the majority of their time indoors, relatively little research has focused on correlated non-respiratory conditions. This study examined the relationship between particulate matter (PM) exposures in preschool age children and major correlates of asthma, such as wheeze and eczema. Air sampling was carried out using a robotic (PIPER) child-sampling surrogate. This study enrolled 128 participants, 57 male and 71 female children. Ages ranged from 3 to 58 months with the mean age of 29.3 months. A comparison of subjects with and without eczema showed a difference in the natural log (ln) of PM collected from the PIPER air sampling (p = 0.049). PIPER's sampling observed an association between the ln PM concentrations and eczema, but not an association with wheezing history in pre-school children. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the role of the microenvironment in mediating atopic dermatitis, which is one of the predictors of persistent asthma. Our findings also support the use of PIPER in its ability to model and sample the microenvironment of young children. PMID:26907317
Full Text Available While the association of eczema with asthma is well recognized, little research has focused on the potential role of inhalable exposures and eczema. While indoor air quality is important in the development of respiratory disease as children in the U.S. spend the majority of their time indoors, relatively little research has focused on correlated non-respiratory conditions. This study examined the relationship between particulate matter (PM exposures in preschool age children and major correlates of asthma, such as wheeze and eczema. Air sampling was carried out using a robotic (PIPER child-sampling surrogate. This study enrolled 128 participants, 57 male and 71 female children. Ages ranged from 3 to 58 months with the mean age of 29.3 months. A comparison of subjects with and without eczema showed a difference in the natural log (ln of PM collected from the PIPER air sampling (p = 0.049. PIPER’s sampling observed an association between the ln PM concentrations and eczema, but not an association with wheezing history in pre-school children. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the role of the microenvironment in mediating atopic dermatitis, which is one of the predictors of persistent asthma. Our findings also support the use of PIPER in its ability to model and sample the microenvironment of young children.
Alexander, Nancy P.
Describes the America Tomorrow Leadership Information Service (ATLIS) and how this information can benefit early childhood professionals. Discusses the future of telecommunications in the early childhood profession and includes a glossary of telecommunications terms. (HTH)
Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.
The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…
Hald, M; Agner, T; Blands, J;
to identify factors associated with severe disease and a poor prognosis. METHODS: Study participants were 799 patients with HE from nine dermatological clinics in Denmark. Severity assessment of the HE was done at baseline and at the 6-month follow-up using the Hand Eczema Severity Index (HECSI...
Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom
Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028
Clemmensen, Kim K B; Randbøll, Ingelise; Ryborg, Malene F;
. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate exposures related to cleaning and the effect of an evidence-based educational intervention on the prevention of hand eczema among hospital cleaners. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: The intervention consisted of a 1 hr course in hand protective behaviour....... All full-time cleaners working at Bispebjerg Hospital in January 2013 were invited to participate. The outcome measures were self-reported skin behaviour, exposures, knowledge of skin protection and hand eczema severity index (HECSI). RESULTS: One hundred and five cleaners were invited to participate......BACKGROUND: Skin disorders accounted for one third of all recognised occupational diseases in Denmark in 2010. Wet work is a risk factor for the development of occupational hand eczema. The consequences of occupational hand eczema include sick leave, loss of job and impaired quality of life...
Poplack, David G; Fordis, Michael; Landier, Wendy; Bhatia, Smita; Hudson, Melissa M; Horowitz, Marc E
Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk of long-term adverse effects and late effects of the disease and/or its treatment. In response to national recommendations to improve evidence-based follow-up care, a web-based support system for clinical decision making, the Passport for Care (PFC), was developed for use at the point of care to produce screening recommendations individualized to the survivor. To date, the PFC has been implemented in over half of the nearly 200 clinics affiliated with the Children's Oncology Group across the USA. Most clinician users report that the PFC has been integrated into clinic workflows, and that it fosters improved conversations with survivors about the potential late effects a survivor might experience and about the screening and/or behavioural interventions recommended to improve health status. Furthermore, clinicians using the PFC have indicated that they adhered more closely to follow-up care guidelines. Perspectives on the challenges encountered and lessons learned during the development and deployment of the PFC are reviewed and contrasted with other nationwide approaches to the provision of guidance on survivor follow-up care; furthermore, the implications for the care of childhood cancer survivors are discussed.
Gustavo F. Wandalsen
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to study risk factors related to atopic eczema (AE in school children of São Paulo. METHODS: 1972 parents or guardians of 6-7 years old children in the Southern Central area of São Paulo answered to a written questionnaire (standardized questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood plus a complementary questionnaire regarding family history of asthma and allergies, and exposure to environmental allergens. AE was defined by the presence of an itchy rash in the last year. Risk factors were analyzed through logical regression. RESULTS: the following factors were significantly associated with AE: history of maternal (OR: 4.1; 95%CI: 2.4 to 7.1 and paternal eczema (OR: 2.6; 95%CI: 1.4 to 5.0, dust in the child's bedroom (OR: 1.6; 95%CI: 1.1 to 2.4, lower maternal education (OR: 1.7; 95%CI: 1.1 to 2.7, rhinitis fever (OR: 1.7; 95%CI: 1.1 to 2.9 and wheezing in the last year (OR: 1.9; 95%CI: 1.2 to 2.8. CONCLUSIONS: our data suggest that AE has a specific pattern of inheritance. The presence of dust in the child's bedroom was the single environmental risk factor found. Diagnose of other allergic diseases, as well as the presence of recent symptoms were strongly associated with AE in children.OBJETIVOS: identificar fatores de risco relacionados ao eczema atópico (EA em escolares do município de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: 1972 pais de escolares de 6-7 anos da região centro-sul de São Paulo responderam a questionários escritos (questionário padrão do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood e questionário complementar sobre história familiar de doenças alérgicas e exposição ambiental a potenciais fontes de alérgenos e irritantes. A presença de manchas na pele com coceira nos últimos 12 meses, definiu os escolares com EA. Os fatores de risco foram analisados por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: as variáveis significantemente associadas ao EA foram: história materna (OR: 4,1; IC95
Berger, A; Jones, L; Rothbart, M K; Posner, M I
Children enjoy playing games. We can take advantage of this in the designs of computerized tasks that will engage their interest. These designs also serve to advance the study of chronometric measures, such as manual and saccadic reaction times and event related potentials, with young children. The goals of our method development are (1) to allow for comparable tasks across a wide variety of ages, (2) to make possible comparisons of child performance with data gathered in adult cognitive studies, and (3) to help to support inferences about the development of underlying mechanisms. We have designed a battery of computerized tasks in order to study the development of attention functions of alertness, orienting, and executive control during childhood. Our purpose is to describe each of these tasks in detail and present the results that have been obtained so far. The battery was tested using a sample of 5-year-old children as subjects.
Scott, Larissa K.
This article examines elementary music curricula. It presents an overview of research on childhood mental development; the importance of the early experiences of children on childhood development; the impact of environmental factors on language development; children's acquisition of music ability; enhancing elementary music curriculum; and…
Hsieh, Vivian Chia-Rong; Liu, Chin-Chen; Hsiao, Yu-Chen; Wu, Trong-Neng
Purpose Despite links between maternal and child health status, evidence on the association between gum infection in pregnant mothers and childhood allergies is scarce. We aim to evaluate the risk of developing allergy in children born to periodontal mothers in a nationwide study. Methods We conducted a 9-year population-based, retrospective cohort study using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance database. A study cohort of 42,217 newborns born to mothers with periodontal disease during pregnancy was identified in 2001 and matched with 42,334 babies born to mothers without any infection (control) by mother’s age at delivery and baby sex. With a follow-up period from 2001 to 2010, we observed the incidence of allergic rhinitis (AR), allergic conjunctivitis (AC), and eczema in these children. Cox proportional hazards regression models were performed with premature deaths as competing risk for the estimation of allergic disease risks. Results Nine-year cumulative incidences were the highest among children born to periodontal mothers; they reached 46.8%, 24.2%, and 40.4% (vs. 39.5%, 18.3% and 34.8% in control) for AR, AC, and eczema, respectively. Our results showed moderately increased risks for the allergies in children born to periodontal mothers relative to their matched non-inflammatory control (adjusted HRs: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.15–1.20; 1.27, 1.24–1.31; 1.14, 1.12–1.17, respectively). Because the impact of food consumption and living environment cannot be considered using insurance data, we attempted to control it by adjusting for parental income and mother’s residential area. Conclusions Overall cumulative incidence and risks of children born to periodontal mothers for AR, AC, and eczema are significantly higher than those born to non-inflammatory mothers. Gum infection in women during pregnancy is an independent risk factor for allergic diseases in children, thus its intergenerational consequences should be considered in gestational care. PMID:27224053
Woodhead, Martin; Ames, Patricia; Vennam, Uma; Abebe, Workneh; Streuli, Natalia
Part of the "Studies in Early Transitions" series, this Working Paper draws on interviews and observations carried out as part of "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam based at the University of Oxford's Department of International Development. This paper focuses on the challenges of…
Dyshidrotic eczema, also known as dyshidrotic dermatitis or pompholyx, is characterized by pruritic, small tense vesicles mainly on the palmoplantar region and lateral and ventral surfaces of the fingers. While its etiology appears to be related to sweating, as dyshidrotic eczema often occurs in an individual with hyperhidrosis, and the spring allergy season, histologic examination shows an eczematous reaction around the sweat ducts which is not associated with abnormalities of the sweat ducts. More recently, the nomenclature of 'acute and recurrent vesicular hand dermatitis' has been proposed to reflect clinical features of dyshidrotic eczema. Although the exact etiology of dyshidrotic eczema remains unknown, given the presence of metal allergy in patients with dyshidrotic eczema and the improvement of the symptoms by removing metal allergen, metal allergy is regarded as one of the important potential etiologic factors for dyshidrotic eczema. PMID:27584966
Kirouac, Samantha; McBride, Dawn Lorraine
This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on the brain and how trauma impacts brain development, structures, and functioning. A basic exploration of childhood trauma is outlined in this project, as it is essential in making associations and connections to brain development. Childhood trauma is processed in the…
In early childhood education, opportunities for developing children's thinking skills are unlimited. One of the most effective teaching strategies for this purpose is open-ended questioning. The study presented here aimed to explore the degree to which Greek early childhood teachers promote the development of thinking skills in their pupils.…
Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.
Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…
Talan, Teri N.; Bloom, Paula J.; Kelton, Robyn E.
While there is consensus among policymakers and practitioners about the importance of strong leadership in early childhood education, there is scant research on effective models of leadership development for administrators of early childhood programs, particularly those working in the child care sector. This is cause for concern because the…
Schultheiss, Donna E. Palladino
This article reviews the current status and a future agenda for childhood career development theory, research, and practice. The fragmented nature of the current state of the literature is noted, and a call is made for a reexamination and reconsideration of the childhood developmental pathways of life's work. It is suggested that the study of…
Leung, Theresa N H; Hon, K L
Eczema or atopic dermatitis is a common childhood atopic disease associated with chronicity and impaired quality of life. As there is no cure for the disease, treatment relies on topical and systemic anti-allergic or immunomodulating therapies. Topical corticosteroid, macrolide immunosuppressants, and oral immunomodulating drugs for recalcitrant disease have been the mainstay of therapy. Management of atopic dermatitis must consider the individual symptomatic variability of the disease. Basic therapy is focused on patient/family education, hydrating topical treatment, and avoidance of specific and non-specific provocative factors. Anti-inflammatory treatment based on topical glucocorticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors is used for exacerbation management and more recently in selective cases for proactive therapy. Systemic immunosuppressive treatment is an option for severe refractory cases. Microbial colonisation and superinfection may induce disease exacerbation and justify additional antimicrobial treatment. Adjuvant therapy includes ultraviolet (UV) irradiation preferably with UVA1 or narrowband UVB. Dietary recommendations should be specific and given only when food allergy is confirmed. Allergen-specific immunotherapy against aeroallergens may be useful in selected cases. Parallel use of traditional and proprietary topical and herbal medicine has also been popular in China and many cities in Asia. Complementary and alternative medicine may have a place but evidence-based data are lacking. PMID:25904389
Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain;
Evidence suggests that early life infections, presence of older siblings and furred pets in the household affect the risk of developing allergic diseases through altered microbial exposure. Recently, low gut microbial diversity during infancy has also been linked with later development of allergies....... Bacterial compositions and diversity indices were determined in fecal samples collected from 114 infants in the SKOT I cohort at age 9 and 18 months by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These were compared to the presence of older siblings, furred pets and early life infections and the cumulative prevalence of...... diagnosed asthmatic bronchitis and self-reported eczema at 3 years of age. The number of older siblings correlated positively with bacterial diversity (p = 0.030), diversity of the phyla Firmicutes (p = 0.013) and Bacteroidetes (p = 0.004) and bacterial richness (p = 0.006) at 18 months. Further, having...
MARÍA ISABEL TATTO-CANO
Full Text Available Objetivo. La medición del asma, la rinitis y el eczema ha sido motivo de controversia metodológica por la falta de uniformidad en los diagnósticos operacionales. Con el fin de probar la aplicabilidad de una metodología estandarizada para comparaciones en tiempo y espacio se determinó la prevalencia del asma y de otras enfermedades alérgicas en una muestra aleatoria de escolares (n= 6 238 de 6 a 8 años y de 11 a 14 años residentes de Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. Material y métodos. Se aplicó la metodología propuesta por el International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC para determinar la prevalencia y severidad del asma, la rinitis y el eczema. La información de prevalencia tanto actual como acumulada para dichos padecimientos se obtuvo a través de un cuestionario estandarizado contestado por los padres de los niños. Resultados. La prevalencia acumulada de asma por diagnóstico médico y sibilancia fue de 5.8% (5.2-6.4 y 21.8% (20.7-22.9 respectivamente; la prevalencia de sibilancia en los últimos 12 meses fue de 8.9% en el grupo de 6 a 8 años contra 6.6% en el de 11 a 14 años, pObjective. The measurement of asthma, rhinitis and eczema have been subject of controversy due to lack of a standardized methodology. To test the applicability of a standardized methodology for comparisons of time and space we determined the prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases in a random sample of schoolchildren (n= 6 238 from 6 to 8 and 11 to 14 years of age living in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Material and methods. The methodology proposed by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC to determine prevalence and severity of asthma, rhinitis and eczema was applied. Current and accumulated information on prevalence was obtained by means of a standardized questionnaire answered by the childrens parents. Results. The accumulated prevalence of asthma by medical diagnosis and wheezing was 5.8% (5
Agnew-Blais, Jessica C.; Buka, Stephen L.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Seidman, Larry J.
Individuals who develop schizophrenia in adulthood exhibit, on average, deficits in childhood cognition relative to healthy controls. However, it remains unclear when in childhood such deficits emerge and whether they are stable across childhood or change (increase or decrease) across development. Importantly, whether the trajectory of childhood cognition differs among youth who later develop affective psychoses (AP) vs schizophrenia as adults remains unresolved. Subjects in the Collaborative...
Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon
Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...
Upham, John W.; Lee, Peter T.; Holt, Barbara J.; Heaton, Tricia; Prescott, Susan L.; Sharp, Mary J.; Peter D Sly; Holt, Patrick G
Increasing evidence indicates that the capacity to induce protective Th1 immune responses is impaired in early childhood, an observation that can be partially attributed to deficiencies in antigen-presenting-cell function. Synthesis of interleukin 12 (IL-12), a key Th1-trophic cytokine, is markedly reduced in the neonatal period, though there is a paucity of knowledge concerning the ontogeny of IL-12-synthetic capacity throughout the childhood years. Hence, we examined the production of bioac...
Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.
Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children’s math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hours) of training on math and science or on an alternative topic. Educators’ provision of math and science learning opportunities were documented, as were the fall-to-spring math and scienc...
Sørensen, Jennifer A; Clemmensen, Kim K; Nixon, Rosemary L;
BACKGROUND: Numerous risk factors have been suggested for hand eczema. This systematic review evaluates the association between tobacco smoking and hand eczema. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature systematically on the association between smoking and hand eczema. METHODS: The PubMed and EMBASE...... databases were searched up to 27 January 2015 for articles on the association between tobacco smoking and hand eczema, including human studies in English and German only. Experimental studies, studies on tobacco allergy, case reports, reviews and studies on second-hand smoking were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty...... articles were included. Among studies in occupational settings, three of seven found a statistically significant positive association between tobacco smoking and hand eczema prevalence rate, as did four of eight population-based studies. The association was stronger for studies in occupational settings...
Full Text Available The correlation between physical activity and sedentary life style was investigated as a determinant of the body mass index in children and adolescents in Banjaluka region. The study involved 1204 children and adolescents, 6-17 years old, 578 boys, 626 girls. BMI was calculated from their height and weight using standard formula. Each child, together with their parents answered the questions considering their level of involvement in physical versus sedentary activities. Physical activity was defined as involvement in sports activities, while sedentary life style was defined as time spent on computer, games, video, and TV. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 12.2% and 6.1% in our study group. Increased physical activity showed strong positive correlation with normal, lower BMI in boys (p<0,05, and girls (p<0.001. Sedentary lifestyle, prolonged TV watching was strongly associated with increased BMI only in girls (p<0.05. However, computer use for 2 hours/day was strongly associated with increased BMI (p<0.05 only in boys, although computer use for more than 3 hours/day was associated with lower BMI in boys. Physical activity and sedentary lifestyle are significant determinants of BMI and risk factors in developing overweight and obesity in childhood, as shown in our study.
For a "social environmental protection" as one of the most urgent problems in infantile psychohygiene, the following conclusions should be taken into consideration: 1. In particular during the first years of life the development of the child is, within certain limits, sensitive to influences from the environment and therefore it can be fostered or disturbed from the outside. Congenital, prenatal, perinatal and postnatal injuries to the brain and sensory organs must be given great attention psychohygienically. 2. The social influences exercised on the child by persons of his environment, their availability, their emotional relationships and the development of a durable link predominate psychohygienically. In addition, the material security of young families and their type of accommodation (e.g. granting of loans to help set up a home) must be considered. 3. The possibilities of exercising a positive educational influence on a mentally and psychically sound development of the child as a person and member of society are greatest at the beginning of life and diminish during childhood. The effectiveness of negative educational and social interference factors is also subject to this rule from which again the necessity of adopting psychohygienic measures for the young child is derived. 4. The phenomenon of increasingly imbalanced behaviour of older children and juveniles which cause concern today, are as a rule symptoms of a chiefly environmentally determined disturbance upsetting the personality, which often originates in early childhood. Psychohygienic measures must be concentrated on this. 5. The inadequate care of young children accounting for one third of the population, a phenomenon which can be read in the statistical records and which has risen sharply during the last few years, makes it possible to forecast a further increase in developmental and behavioral disturbances of both an intellectual and psychological nature as well as in infantile and juvenile
Full Text Available Occupational hand eczema due to acrylates present in the workplace is a disease frequently reported among dentists, printers, and fiberglass workers. Acrylate monomers are used in the production of a great variety of polymers, including nail cosmetics. Our case report demonstrates a rare clinical presentations of allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails. Our patient was working as a manicurist and the diagnostic analyses revealed sensitation to some of the (meth acrylate compounds of her new nail cosmetics. Sculptured artificial acrylic and UV-hardened nails s are widely used in developed countries and they are gaining more and more popularity. We expect an increase in the number of cases of contact allergic dermatitis among manicurists and customers.
Pozuelos, Joan P.; Paz-Alonso, Pedro M.; Castillo, Alejandro; Fuentes, Luis J.; Rueda, M. Rosario
In the present study, we investigated developmental trajectories of alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks and their interactions over childhood. Two cross-sectional experiments were conducted with different samples of 6-to 12-year-old children using modified versions of the attention network task (ANT). In Experiment 1 (N = 106),…
Chatzipanteli, Athanasia; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios
The aim of the present study is to provide information and suggest ways to improve and evaluate metacognition in early childhood. Metacognition is important to learning and knowledge transfer and preparing students to become lifelong learners is a main aim of schooling. The engagement of young students in metacognitive thinking is considered…
Bartik, Timothy J.
Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…
Brink, Ester Corné
Many studies have been performed on creativity and the measurement of creativity. However, little is known about the relationship between gender differences and creativity, particularly in South Afnca. The current study aimed to investigate the difference in creativity between boys and girls, as well as the development of creativity in late middle childhood, in the South African context. From the random sample of 1000 primary school children in late middle childhood (grade 4 to...
Full Text Available Abstract A cross sectional study was designed to estimate the prevalence of summer eczema (a chronic, recurrent seasonal dermatitis in exported Icelandic horses and the influence of environmental and genetic factors on the development of the disease. Among 330 horses, which had been exported to Germany, Denmark and Sweden, 114 (34.5% were found to have clinical signs of summer eczema. The prevalence was highest 2 years after export and the exposure to the biting midges Culicoides spp., was found to be the main risk factor for developing the disease. Genetic influence on the sensitivity for the disease was not established. It was concluded that exported Icelandic horses are predisposed for summer dermatitis and the fact that they are not introduced to the antigens of the biting midges early in live, due to it's absence in Iceland, is likely to explain the high prevalence of the disease after export.
Mutlu, Hayrettin; Bilgiç, Vedat; Erten, Sebahattin; Aras, Şükrü; Tayfur, Muhittin
This study aimed to delineate the relationship between childhood traumas and adulthood obesity. A total of 314 individuals (157 obese and 157 nonobese) were recruited in the study. After obtaining anthropometric and sociodemographic variables, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was administered to the participants. Overall scores of CTQ were determined to be 42.6 ± 10.5 (higher trauma) in obese group and 37.2 ± 6.6 (lower trauma) in nonobese group (P childhood traumatic experience were found to be 68.8% for obese people and 38.8% for nonobese people. In conclusion, an increased risk for adulthood obesity development was significantly associated with childhood traumatic experience. PMID:27399037
Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Due, P;
WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: The risk of childhood obesity is influenced by a number of pre- and post-natal factors. The risk of childhood obesity is correlated with body weight during infancy, which might be related to the psychomotor development of the child. The previous literature...... on motor milestones and childhood overweight is limited and results are inconsistent. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: Weight status in early life and timing of achievement of gross motor milestones (the ability to sit and walk) are largely independent of each other. Timing of achievement of motor milestones in early...... life does not predict overweight or increased BMI later in childhood. BACKGROUND: Overweight may hinder achievement of gross motor milestones and delayed achievement of milestones may increase the risk of later overweight for reasons involving physical activity and the building of lean body mass...
Roseline Ekanem Duke
The key informant methodology for case finding for childhood cataract was utilized in a rural population in Nigeria to identify suitable children who would benefit surgically from intervene for cataract and restore vision such children. It was however noticed that some parents who had children with cataract did not bring their children to the primary health center for examination and recommendation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the benefits of using the theatre for developmen...
El-Heis, S; Crozier, SR; Robinson, SM; Harvey, NC; Cooper, C; Inskip, HM; Godfrey, KM
Background Evidence that atopic eczema partly originates in utero is increasing, with some studies linking the risk of developing the condition with aspects of maternal diet during pregnancy. Nicotinamide, a naturally occurring nutrient that is maintained through the dietary intakes of vitamin B3 and tryptophan has been used in the treatment of some skin conditions including atopic eczema. Objective To examine the relation of maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related tryptophan metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. Methods Within the UK Southampton Women Survey, infantile atopic eczema at ages 6 and 12 months was ascertained (modified UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). Maternal serum levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, tryptophan, nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide were measured in late pregnancy by mass spectrometry, n=497 and related to the odds ratio of infantile atopic eczema. Results Maternal nicotinamide and related metabolite concentrations were not associated with offspring atopic eczema at age 6 months. Higher concentrations of nicotinamide and anthranilic acid were, however, associated with a lower risk of eczema at age 12 months (odds ratios 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.91 /SD change, p=0.007 and 0.63, 0.48-0.83, p=0.001, respectively). The associations were robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Conclusion and clinical relevance This is the first study linking maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. The findings point to potentially modifiable maternal influences on this complex and highly prevalent condition. PMID:27517618
Yap, Gaik Chin
Background: The gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of interaction between the host immune system and microorganisms. Studies have suggested that selective microbial targets may influence the development of the allergic diseases. But the difference in functional gene composition remains unknown. We aim to assess the structural and functional gene composition of stool microbiota of infants with eczema and their matched (for age, gender, mode of delivery, feeding) controls at the age of 1 month. Methods: Twelve children with eczema and their controls were selected from the placebo arm of a birth cohort of at-risk infants participating in a randomized double-blind trial on the protective effects of supplemental probiotics in early life on allergic outcomes. The four were caesarean delivery followed by formula feeding (eczema = 2 and healthy control = 2) and the eight were vaginal delivery followed by partial breast feeding mixed with formula feeding (eczema = 4 and healthy control = 4). Bacterial genomic DNA were extracted from fecal samples and prepared for Illumina Miseq and Hiseq sequencing. Data analysis such as sequence quality check, contigs assembly and gene annotation were carried out for the DNA sequences obtained from Miseq and Hiseq sequencing. Results: Phylogenetic analysis of metagenomic sequences revealed that four phyla dominated both microbial communities: Proteobacteria (54% and 63% for healthy and eczema communities, respectively), Firmicutes (26% and 18%), Actinobacteria (13% and 8%), Bacteroidetes (7% and 8%). Comparative metagenomic analysis showed that immune-regulatory TCAAGCTTGA motifs were significantly enriched in healthy communities, many of which were encoded by Bifidobacterium (38% of the total motifs in the healthy communities). Draft genomes of five Bifidobacterium species (B. longum, B. bifidum, B. breve, B. dentium, and B. pseudocatenulatum ) were recovered from metagenomic datasets. The B. longum BFN-121- 2 genome encoded more
Allegri, F; Palminteri, G
The Authors study the fundamental role of individual predisposition in professional eczema. They remark the relation between medicine and dermatology and, particularly, the possible interference of immediate hypersensibility. PMID:14979135
He Kuanqi; Zhu Hanting
@@ The author treated 2 cases of chronic and intractable eczema,who were once treated by western drugs without good results,with Chinese medicine and obtained satisfactory therapeutic effects.Now it is reported as follows.
Devlin, J; David, T J
Children treated with dietary restriction for food intolerance may require calcium supplementation, particularly if cows' milk and milk substitutes are not tolerated. We report two children with atopic eczema who reacted adversely to a number of calcium supplement formulations.
Ruzicka, Thomas; Willers, Christoph; Wigger-Alberti, Walter
This double-blind controlled phase II study was conducted to compare a newly developed formulation of mometasone furoate with a water content of 33% (Monovo (R) Cream) and with a smooth consistency versus the commercially available fatty cream of mometasone furoate (Ecural (R) Fettcreme) in terms of efficacy, cosmetic properties, and patients' acceptance. In 20 patients with mild to moderate atopic eczema, the preparations were tested intraindividually in a randomized mode and in two comparab...
Hand eczema is a well-known problem in occupations that involve largely manual work, in combination with long periods of wet exposure and skin contact with chemicals. Hairdressing involves dermal exposure to a number of skin damaging substances. Hair cosmetic products such as hair dyes, permanent wave solutions and bleaches can cause contact allergy and extensive wet work can cause irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). In this thesis the occurrence of hand eczema was studied i...
Lee, Gun Hong; Kim, Yun Mi; Lee, Sung Yul; Lee, Jong Suk; Park, Young Lip; Whang, Kyu Uang
Eczema herpeticum is the dissemination of herpes simplex virus in the setting of a preexisting skin disease. Hailey-Hailey disease [familial benign chronic pemphigus] is a blistering dermatosis that is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and it usually presents itself around the third or fourth decades. Coexistence of eczema herpeticum and Hailey-Hailey disease is an infrequent occurrence. Four such cases have been reported in the English and German medical literature. We report here on ...
McBride, Brent A.; Groves, Melissa; Barbour, Nancy; Horm, Diane; Stremmel, Andrew; Lash, Martha; Bersani, Carol; Ratekin, Cynthia; Moran, James; Elicker, James; Toussaint, Susan
Research Findings: University-based child development laboratory programs have a long and rich history of supporting teaching, research, and outreach activities in the child development/early childhood education fields. Although these programs were originally developed in order to conduct research on children and families to inform policy and…
Wade, KA; Garry, M; Nash, RA; Harper, DN
When people receive descriptions or doctored photos of events that never happened, they often come to remember those events. But if people receive both a description and a doctored photo, does the order in which they receive the information matter? We asked people to consider a description and a doctored photograph of a childhood hot air balloon ride, and we varied which medium they saw first. People who saw a description first reported more false images and memories than did people who saw a...
Schuttelaar, M L A; Kerkhof, M; Jonkman, M F; Koppelman, G H; Brunekreef, B; de Jongste, J C; Wijga, A; McLean, W H I; Postma, D S
BACKGROUND: Filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations contribute to the development of eczema and asthma, but their contribution to sensitization and hay fever remains unclear. METHODS: FLG mutations R501X, 2282del4 and R2447X were genotyped in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth coho
Ige, Akindele Matthew
Early childhood is a critical period of rapid physical, cognitive, and psycho-social development of a child. The quality of care and education which a child receives at this crucial age will determine to a great extent the level of his/her physical and cognitive development in the future. In Nigeria, Early Childhood Care, Development and Education…
Schady, Norbert Rüdiger; Behrman, Jere R.; Araujo, María Caridad; Azuero, Rodrigo; Bernal, Raquel; Bravo, David; López Bóo, Florencia; Macours, Karen; Marshall, Daniela; Paxson, Christina H.; Vakis, Renos
Research from the United States shows that gaps in early cognitive and noncognitive abilities appear early in the life cycle. Little is known about this important question for developing countries. This paper provides new evidence of sharp differences in cognitive development by socioeconomic status in early childhood for five Latin American countries. To help with comparability, the paper...
Panpum, Watchara; Soonthornrojana, Wimonrat; Nakunsong, Thatsanee
The objectives of this research were to develop the play experience model and to study the effect of usage in play experience model for enhancing the early childhood's desirable qualification. There were 3 phases of research: 1) the document and context in experience management were studied, 2) the play experience model was developed, and 3) the…
Zaslow, Martha; Tout, Kathryn; Halle, Tamara; Whittaker, Jessica Vick; Lavelle, Bridget
This review incorporates findings from research on four "targets" of early childhood professional development: 1) strengthening human or social capital; 2) strengthening practices at institutions or organizations providing professional development; 3) strengthening early educator practices related to specific child outcomes; and, 4) strengthening…
Willers, Saskia M.; Wijga, Alet H.; Brunekreef, Bert; Kerkhof, Marjan; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Hoekstra, Maarten O.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriette A.
Rationale Maternal diet during pregnancy has the potential to affect airway development and to promote T-helper-2-cell responses during fetal life. This might increase the risk of developing childhood asthma or allergy. Objectives: We investigated the influence of maternal food consumption during pr
Gustafsson-Wright, Emily; Gardiner, Sophie
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, or Global Goals) and their associated targets set out by the United Nations in 2015 explicitly seek to address some of the largest challenges facing children around the world. Early Childhood Development (ECD) interventions have been found to improve adult health and education levels, reduce crime, and…
Schneider, Alessandra; Ramires, Vera Regina; Paiva, Maria da Graca Gomes; Almeida, Leila
This paper presents the pioneering experience of the Programa Primeira Infancia Melhor (the Better Early Childhood Development Program), also known as "PIM" that has been developed since 2003 in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PIM's goal is to "provide guidance to families, based on their own culture and experiences, to allow them to…
Hansen, Cory Cooper; Zambo, Debby
Children enter the world with simple emotions and gradually add complex feelings to their repertoire of skills. As children grow and develop, they learn to label their emotions and regulate them in socially appropriate ways. Literature is one way early childhood educators can foster healthy emotional development. This article explains how emotions…
Lee, Kyunghwa; Johnson, Amy S.
In this article we argue that early childhood educators, under the influence of last century's grand universal theories of child development, have not been attentive enough to the centrality of culture in children's development. We discuss how the exploration of contemporary developmental perspectives is critical to the field and illustrate…
Ujwala Priya Charan
Full Text Available Background: Hand eczema is a common disease seen in dermatological practice comprising of a spectrum ranging from mild disease to a severe distressing and chronic course with a negative impact on the quality of life. Aim: To assess the impact of hand eczema severity on quality of life. Materials and Methods: Patients with hand eczema were enrolled in a prospective study. Disease severity was assessed by hand eczema severity index (HECSI score and quality of life by dermatology life quality index (DLQI questionnaire. Results: Forty-six patients participated of which 22 (47.8% were males and 24 (52.2% females. The commonest age group affected among men and women was 50-59 years (31.8% and 40-49 years (41.7% respectively. History of atopy was found in 23.9% and 63% had persistent disease. In 28 (60.9%, the trigger was washing soaps and detergents of which 21 (87.5% were housewives. Of those employed, 27.7% reported loss of work days. The mean HECSI score was 14.46 (S.D = 20.98 and mean DLQI score was 9.54 (S.D = 5.62. Gender, age, occupation and duration of disease did not significantly affect the quality of life or disease severity. Increased episodes of eczema (>4 episodes/year showed a statistically significant correlation with DLQI (P value = 0.021. There was no significant correlation between HECSI score and DLQI in this study. Conclusion: Majority of the patients with hand eczema had a significant impairment of their quality of life. The impairment of quality of life in this study was mainly dependent on increased frequency of the eruptions and not on hand eczema severity.
Korsholm, Lars; Kjær, Per; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte;
LBP. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was carried out between 1997 and 2005, collecting interview data from children at age 10, 13, and 16. The children were sampled to be representative of Danish school children. LBP was defined as having had reported pain in the lower back within the past month......Background: It is generally acknowledged that low back pain (LBP) is a common condition already in childhood. However, not many studies have looked at the way LBP tracks over age and how common it is until early adulthood. The purposes of this presentation is to show how early LBP predicts later....... The prevalence estimates are presented as percentages and the trend over time is tested by logistic regression. The risks from various patterns of LBP reporting over time are presented with odds ratios (ORs). Results: Of the 771 children sampled, 62%, 57%, and 58% participated in the three back surveys...
Viviane de Bona
Full Text Available The research that led to this study aimed to understand the meaning attributed to childhood in a world fulfilled by information technologies, especially the digital ones. The article proposes the analysis of social representations shared by children 200 teachers from public schools in Recife-PE, in order to understand the social meaning of the word child, propagated and used as reference system to guide people in their relationships with this group of people. The data collection instruments used was tests of free association. W ith the support of Trideux software and the Content Analysis, the analyzes of associations were done. The results show some aspects that seem to perpetuate themselves in relation to definition of a child, such as playing, going to school and have good feelings. In relation to technology is evidenced playful dimension of these resources and training.
Full Text Available Mycosis fungoides (MF is the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma . Because of its great variety of clinical features and nonspecific histological findings (especially in early stages has been named the "great imitator "and can induce many wrong diagnosis [2,3]. Mycosis fungoides (MF, is an epidermotropic lymphoma included as an indolent form in the recent WHO/EORTC classification. From a clinical point of view, the classic disease progression usually is slow and takes over years or even decades, and characterized by the evolution from patches to more infiltrated plaques and eventually to tumours or erythroderma. However, the analysis of the MF disease course has been greatly impaired by the rarity of the disease, thus data about the time course of disease progression and pattern of relapse during time are not well known [4,5]. Therefore very often Mycosis fungoides is misdiagnosed as chronic eczema . MF can also mimic: vitiligo , alopecia-Areata , ecchymosis .
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: There is a growing body of evidence suggesting the role of childhood abuse in the etiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD. Studies found that complex traumatization related to BPD include emotional/physical/sexual abuse and neglect. This study examines self-reported experiences of childhood traumatization in Hungarian inpatients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder and reveal which etiological factors are most strongly associated with the development of BPD. Methods: Traumatic childhood experiences of 80 borderline inpatients, 73 depressed inpatients and 51 healthy controls were assessed with the Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire and the Sexual Abuse Scale of Early Trauma Inventory. Results: Adverse childhood experiences (neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, witnessing trauma were more prevalent among borderline patients than among depressed and healthy controls. Borderline patients reported severe sexual abuse, characterized by incest, penetration and repetitive abuse. Sexually abused borderline patients experienced more physical and emotional abuse than borderlines who were not sexually abused. The strongest predictors of borderline diagnosis were sexual abuse, intrafamilial physical abuse and neglect by the caretakers. Conclusions: Overall, our results suggest that a reported childhood history of abuse and neglect are both common and highly discriminating for borderline patients in Hungary as well.
Ajslev, Teresa A; Ängquist, Lars; Silventoinen, Karri;
OBJECTIVE: The obesity epidemic may have developed as a response to the obesogenic environment among the genetically predisposed. This investigation examined whether the intergenerational resemblances in childhood overweight changed across the development of the obesity epidemic in groups of chil......: Parent-child resemblance in childhood overweight showed small changes during the development of the obesity epidemic, suggesting that the obesogenic environment inducing the epidemic in Denmark influenced children irrespective of their familial predisposition.......OBJECTIVE: The obesity epidemic may have developed as a response to the obesogenic environment among the genetically predisposed. This investigation examined whether the intergenerational resemblances in childhood overweight changed across the development of the obesity epidemic in groups...... their parents at ages 7 and 13 years. The available number of parent-child pairs ranged from 17,926 through 42,184. The odds ratios of childhood overweight (BMI z-score >90th percentile) were calculated using logistic regression by parental BMI groups (BMI > or ≤90th percentile) and child birth year intervals...
Petersen, Jindong Ding; Heitmann, B. L.; Kyle, R.;
identified from the Danish Twin Registry. The twins gave an interview and a physical examination in 2006. The Childhood Family Relationship Questionnaire (CFRQ) was used to assess life events Results: Before age 17, 20.8% of the participants had been separated from mother, 26.1% had been separated from...... separation from mother and paternal death was related to less discordance. However, none of these differences were significant. Conclusion: The present study did not demonstrate independent effects of major life events during childhood and development of obesity in adulthood....
Van Steenberg, Vicki
This qualitative Case Study explored the integrative process of pre-service teachers' disposition development for cultural reciprocity and responsiveness. Over the course of ten months, pre-service teachers completed two Early Childhood Special Education practica in diverse urban communities. The pre-service teachers were placed in public…
Segretin, M. Soledad; Hermida, M. Julia; Prats, Lucía M.; Fracchia, Carolina S.; Ruetti, Eliana; Lipina, Sebastián J.
For at least eight decades, researchers have analyzed the association between childhood poverty and cognitive development in different societies worldwide, but few of such studies have been carried out in Latin America. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the empirical studies that have analyzed the associations between…
The role of early childhood educator and caregiver is ever widening to include increasing responsibility for social and emotional development. The dramatic rise of violence among school children in recent years underscores the importance of teaching young children how to manage conflicts and resolve interpersonal differences prosocially. This…
Mutindi, Koech Zipporah; Chepngeno, Kabwos Rebecca; Jeruto, Beatrice
Childhood education is crucial in the life of a child because it lays the foundation of intellectual and physical development. Concerns have been raised over the state of the ECDE programmes with regard to the negative teacher attitudes towards selection and use of instructional resources due to low remuneration, lack of time and demotivation. The…
Temple, Judy A.; Rolnick, Arthur J.
This article presents a review of "Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development" by Timothy J. Bartik. Timothy Bartik's timely book contributes to an important conversation about the role of government in promoting investments in children in the years before traditional public schooling typically begins. Until…
This research article attempts to determine strategies that can be used to support children's cognitive and social-emotional development in early childhood care and education programs. By synthesizing empirical evidence about pedagogical techniques that promote children's competencies, the article aims to identify those characteristics of programs…
Voigt, Babett; Mahy, Caitlin E. V.; Ellis, Judi; Schnitzspahn, Katharina; Krause, Ivonne; Altgassen, Mareike; Kliegel, Matthias
This large-scale study examined the development of time-based prospective memory (PM) across childhood and the roles that working memory updating and time monitoring play in driving age effects in PM performance. One hundred and ninety-seven children aged 5 to 14 years completed a time-based PM task where working memory updating load was…
Goldberg, Daniel B.
The application of theory in this article expanded on Chickering and Reisser's ([Chickering, A. W., 1993]) 7-vectors framework by considering the effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the normal experience of student development in higher education. The article includes an overview of the prevalence and effects of CSA and a case study of a…
Examines the link between music and language development in early childhood. Investigates three aspects in developmental processes: (1) early sound perception; (2) premusical and prelinguistic vocalization; and (3) the emergence of singing and speech. Discusses linguistic and musical environmental stimulation such as baby talk and lullabies.…
Tyler, Kathleen P.
Interest in child development as a knowledge base for early childhood education programs flourished in the 1970s as a result of the theories and philosophies of Jean Piaget and other cognitive developmentalists. During subsequent decades in America, reform movements emphasizing accountability and achievement became a political and social…
Describes the conceptualization, development, and implementation procedures for a performance-monitoring system, "Changing, Learning, and Growing (CLG)," designed to evaluate the progress of young children with and without disabilities, in an inclusive early childhood education program. Provides an overview and rationale for performance monitoring…
Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Frye, Mark A.; Suppes, Trisha; McElroy, Susan L.; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph W.; Grunze, Heinz; Rowe, Mike
Objective: A role for childhood adversity in the development of numerous medical conditions in adults has been described in the general population, but has not been examined in patients with bipolar disorder who have multiple medical comorbidities which contribute to their premature mortality. Metho
McNeill, B. C.; Gillon, G. T.; Dodd, B.
Background: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is associated with phonological awareness, reading, and spelling deficits. Comparing literacy skills in CAS with other developmental speech disorders is critical for understanding the complexity of the disorder. Aims: This study compared the phonological awareness and reading development of children…
Hodgson, Sarah; Papatheodorou, Theodora; James, Mary
The article aims to discuss preliminary findings from a participatory monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework, used in a community-based early childhood development (ECD) programme in KwaZulu-Natal South Africa, and their implications for leadership and management. The purposes of the M&E were for LETCEE, the implementing organization,…
Walsh, Christine A.; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Trocme, Nico; Jamieson, Ellen; Boyle, Michael H.
Objective: This study presents evaluative data on the Childhood Experiences of Violence Questionnaire (CEVQ), a brief, self-report measure of youth victimization. Methods: Literature reviews, expert consultations and qualitative interviews informed the development of the CEVQ. Test-retest reliability of the preliminary and final versions of the…
A.L. van den Akker; P. Prinzie; M. Deković; A.D. de Haan; J.J. Asscher; T. Widiger
This study investigated the development of personality extremity (deviation of an average midpoint of all 5 personality dimensions together) across childhood and adolescence, as well as relations between personality extremity and adjustment problems. For 598 children (mean age at Time 1 = 7.5 years)
Boonstra, M B; Christoffers, W A; Coenraads, P J; Schuttelaar, M L A
BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis is a well-known cause of hand eczema, although the influence of contact allergens on different clinical types of hand eczema remains still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To identify most common positive tested allergens among hand eczema patients and to define the relati
Schmitt, Jochen; Spuls, Phyllis; Boers, Maarten; Thomas, Kim; Chalmers, Joanne; Roekevisch, Evelien; Schram, Mandy; Allsopp, Richard; Aoki, Valeria; Apfelbacher, Christian; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Charman, Carolyn; Cohen, Arnon; Dohil, Magdalene; Flohr, Carsten; Furue, Masutaka; Gieler, Uwe; Hooft, Lotty; Humphreys, Rosemary; Ishii, Henrique Akira; Katayama, Ichiro; Kouwenhoven, Willem; Langan, Sinéad; Lewis-Jones, Sue; Merhand, Stephanie; Murota, Hiroyuki; Murrell, Dedee F; Nankervis, Helen; Ohya, Yukihiro; Oranje, Arnold; Otsuka, Hiromi; Paul, Carle; Rosenbluth, Yael; Saeki, Hidehisa; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Stalder, Jean-Francois; Svensson, Ake; Takaoka, Roberto; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Weidinger, Stephan; Wollenberg, Andreas; Williams, Hywel
The use of nonstandardized and inadequately validated outcome measures in atopic eczema trials is a major obstacle to practising evidence-based dermatology. The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative is an international multiprofessional group dedicated to atopic eczema outcomes r
The allergy-associated (atopic) diseases; asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, are the most common chronic diseases in childhood. A large number of environmental and genetic risk factors have been suggested, but still our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and etiologies...... understanding of disease pathogenesis in general, direct future research and help developing relevant and correctly timed preventive measures. It has been suggested that sensitization may occur already in utero and this has led to guidelines recommending allergen avoidance during pregnancy. We studied......E to the fetus. Our results do not support the concept of intrauterine sensitization and thereby the rationale behind allergen avoidance during pregnancy. Furthermore, such recommendations are not supported by randomized clinical trials and should be withdrawn. Elevated levels of non-specific (total) Ig...
Jonathan M Spergel
Full Text Available Jonathan M SpergelDivision of Allergy and Immunology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of MedicineAbstract: Atopic eczema is a common pediatric skin disorder. This review examines the use of pimecrolimus cream in the treatment of acute and chronic stages of the disease. The standard therapy is the treatment of acute flares with topical medications including pimecrolimus. The use of pimecrolimus cream for the first sign and symptoms of atopic eczema reduces the occurrence of flares as defined by the need for topical corticosteroids. The side effects of pimecrolimus cream are mild without any increase of infections or systemic immune suppression.Keywords: pimecrolimus, atopic eczema, long-term management
Perez, Nicholas M; Jennings, Wesley G; Piquero, Alex R; Baglivio, Michael T
Adverse childhood experiences, comprised of forms of maltreatment and certain dysfunctional household environments, can affect the development of a child in a variety of different ways. This multitude of developmental changes may subsequently produce compounding harmful effects on the child's life and increase acutely maladaptive outcomes, including adolescent suicidal behavior. This study uses data collected from 2007 to 2012 for 64,329 Florida Department of Juvenile Justice youth (21.67 % female, 42.88 % African American, and 15.37 % Hispanic) to examine the direct and indirect effects of adverse childhood experiences on suicide attempts. Using a generalized structural equation model, the effects of adverse childhood experience scores are estimated on suicidal behavior through pathways of certain aspects of a child's personality development (aggression and impulsivity), as well as adolescent problem behaviors (school difficulties and substance abuse). The results show that a large proportion of the relationship between childhood adversity and suicide is mediated by the aforementioned individual characteristics, specifically through the youth's maladaptive personality development. These results suggest that, if identified early enough, the developmental issues for these youth could potentially be addressed in order to thwart potential suicidal behavior. PMID:27289554
Baker-Henningham, Helen; Lopez Boo, Florencia
This report reviews the effectiveness of early childhood stimulation interventions in developing countries. The report aims to answer the questions: What works in terms of early stimulation for young children in developing countries? For whom and under what conditions do these programs work and why do they work. The report is divided into several sections. Firstly, a brief discussion of the importance of early stimulation for young children in developing countries is provided. Secondly, the m...
de Haan, A.D.
Current theories and models on child development emphasize that children and their environmennt form a system with bidirectional processes of interactions. Transactional models, which integrate parent and child effects, may be especially successful in describing and explaining the development of problem behaviour in children and adolescence. In line with this perspective, this dissertation examined how aggressive and rule-breaking (externalizing) behaviours develop between childhood and adole...
Pallan, Miranda; Parry, Jayne; Cheng, K. K.; Adab, Peymané
Objective We report the development of a childhood obesity prevention intervention for UK South Asian primary school-aged children, guided by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for complex intervention development and evaluation. Methods We combined information gained from a literature review, stakeholder focus groups, an expert group, review of local resources and mapping to the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO framework) in an intervention development pr...
Giwercman, C.; Lerbaek, A.; Bisgaard, H.;
Hand eczema is a common disease with various risk factors of which atopic dermatitis is known to be one of the most important. Recently, two mutations in the gene coding for filaggrin, a protein important for the skin barrier, have repeatedly been shown to be associated with atopic dermatitis...... mutations. We believe this will increase the possibility of subgrouping this otherwise heterogenic disease and thereby enable a better phenotype-genotype characterization of hand eczema. This could improve the preventive initiatives, secure better information of patients about the prognosis...
Katz, Lilian G., Ed.; Rothenberg, Dianne, Ed.; Preece, Laurel
Early Childhood Research and Practice (ECRP), a peer-reviewed Internet-only journal sponsored by the Early Childhood and Parenting (ECAP) Collaborative at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, covers topics related to the development, care, and education of children from birth to approximately age 8. The journal emphasizes articles…
Katz, Lilian G., Ed.; Rothenberg, Dianne, Ed.
Early Childhood Research & Practice (ECRP), a peer-reviewed, Internet-only journal sponsored by the Early Childhood and Parenting Collaborative (ECAP), covers topics related to the development, care, and education of children from birth to approximately age 8. The journal emphasizes articles reporting on practice-related research and on issues…
Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Escher, J.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, M.K.; Raat, H.; Moll, H.
The influence of childhood nutrition on the development of constipation beyond the period of weaning and breastfeeding is relatively understudied. In addition, eating patterns in childhood can be highly correlated with overweight and sedentary behaviour, which may also have an influence on constipat
Pedro Gil Madrona
Full Text Available In the stage of Early Childhood Education children continue a progressive discovery of their body itself as a source of feelings and sensations, exploring the different possibilities of action and body functions, will constitute the necessary experiences upon which children’s thought is being built. Besides, affective relationships established in situations of psychomotor education, and particularly through game, will be essential for children’s emotional development. In this sense, this article is focused on justifying the necessary presence of Psychomotor education in Early Childhood Education as well as on showing a pedagogical proposal based on an attractive and entertaining motor intervention for children at this stage. This article contains concepts and assumptions about the psychomotor development, movement contents, motor game and the methodological approach where psychomotor storytelling, learning corners, workshops and projects based on action and adventure spaces shine in their own right. Moreover, a didactic design based on programming motor skills at this stage of Early Childhood Education in a funny and lively way also plays a relevant role in this article. We argue that professionals working in the field of Early Childhood psychomotor skills may know and recognize the value of the proposals shown here so that they can teach us to be more critical regarding our professional practice, increasing our concern about the development of motor skills – physical education in Early Childhood Education in its systematic form – which without any doubt will result in children’s higher levels of welfare and health with regards to their own construction of the reality which surrounds them.
Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M.; Paxton, Susan J
Background Evidence-based parenting interventions are important in assisting parents to help their children develop healthy body image and eating patterns. To adequately assess the impact of parenting interventions, valid parent measures are required. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the validity and reliability of two new parent measures, the Parenting Intentions for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Parenting Intentions BEC) and the Knowledge Test for Body image an...
Evan D Peet; Dana C McCoy; Danaei, Goodarz; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pillas, Demetris; Fink, Günther
Background: While recent literature has highlighted the importance of early childhood development for later life outcomes, comparatively little is known regarding the relative importance of early physical and cognitive development in predicting educational attainment cross-culturally. Methods: We used prospective data from three birth cohorts: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1986 (NFBC1986), the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS1970), and the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey of...
Evan D Peet; Dana C McCoy; Goodarz Danaei; Majid Ezzati; Wafaie Fawzi; Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin; Demetris Pillas; Günther Fink
Background While recent literature has highlighted the importance of early childhood development for later life outcomes, comparatively little is known regarding the relative importance of early physical and cognitive development in predicting educational attainment cross-culturally. Methods We used prospective data from three birth cohorts: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1986 (NFBC1986), the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS1970), and the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey of 1...
Full Text Available The article is devoted for detection the psychological preconditions of game activity development at early age and interrelation of game formation with the development of subject actions, informative activity and procedural game.
Hald, M.; Berg, N.D.; Elberling, J.;
second questionnaire. The 1-year period prevalence of hand eczema was estimated to be 14% in the population. Twenty-three per cent rated their hand eczema as moderate to very severe. In total, 67% had consulted their general practitioner and 44% had consulted a dermatologist because of hand eczema......Background Hand eczema is a common disease with a wide severity spectrum. Little information exists concerning the association between the severity of hand eczema and medical consultations. Objectives To describe the self-rated severity of hand eczema in a general population and the relationship to...... seeking medical attention. Methods A questionnaire on self-reported hypersensitivity including two questions on hand eczema was sent to a random sample of 6000 individuals, aged 18-69 years, living in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 4242 individuals (71%) answered the questionnaire. All individuals who...
Lerbaek, A; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Ravn, H;
for hand eczema was investigated. METHODS: A questionnaire on self-reported hand eczema was answered by 5610 and 4128 twin individuals in 1996 and 2005, respectively. Data were analysed in a Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: The crude incidence rate was 8.8 cases per 1000 person-years (95% confidence......BACKGROUND: Population-based studies on the incidence of hand eczema are sparse. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective follow-up study was to determine the incidence rate of hand eczema in a population-based twin cohort. Secondly, the role of genetic factors and other potential risk factors...... interval, [CI] 7.7-9.9). Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) dependent on the co-twin's hand eczema status revealed a significant, doubled risk for monozygotic twin individuals with a co-twin affected by hand eczema, compared with dizygotic twin individuals with a co-twin affected by hand eczema (IRR 2.4, 95% CI...
Amy Sarah Ginsburg
Full Text Available Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death in children worldwide. Each year, pneumonia kills an estimated 935,000 children under five years of age, with most of these deaths occurring in developing countries. The current approach for pneumonia diagnosis in low-resource settings--using the World Health Organization Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI paper-based protocols and relying on a health care provider's ability to manually count respiratory rate--has proven inadequate. Furthermore, hypoxemia--a diagnostic indicator of the presence and severity of pneumonia often associated with an increased risk of death--is not assessed because pulse oximetry is frequently not available in low-resource settings. In an effort to address childhood pneumonia mortality and improve frontline health care providers' ability to diagnose, classify, and manage pneumonia and other childhood illnesses, PATH collaborated with the University of Washington to develop "mPneumonia," an innovative mobile health application using an Android tablet. mPneumonia integrates a digital version of the IMCI algorithm with a software-based breath counter and a pediatric pulse oximeter. We conducted a design-stage usability field test of mPneumonia in Ghana, with the goal of creating a user-friendly diagnostic and management tool for childhood pneumonia and other childhood illnesses that would improve diagnostic accuracy and facilitate adherence by health care providers to established guidelines in low-resource settings. The results of the field test provided valuable information for understanding the usability and acceptability of mPneumonia among health care providers, and identifying approaches to iterate and improve. This critical feedback helped ascertain the common failure modes related to the user interface design, navigation, and accessibility of mPneumonia and the modifications required to improve user experience and create a tool aimed at decreasing
Heydorn, Siri; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus E;
Fragrance allergy and hand eczema are both common among dermatological patients. Fragrance mix (FM) and its constituents have a recognized relevance to exposure to fine fragrances and cosmetic products. Based on extensive chemical analysis and database search, a new selection of fragrances was es...
van Coevorden, AM; Coenraads, PJ; Pas, HH; van der Valk, PGM
Some patients with relapsing foot eczema and a shoe leather allergy, who fail to show positive results with standard series and shoe wear screening tray patch testing, do not respond to the use of hypoallergenic shoe leather. We assume that relevant allergens are present in hypoallergenic shoe leath
Diepgen, Thomas L; Andersen, Klaus E; Chosidow, Oliver;
The guidelines aim to provide advice on the management of hand eczema (HE), using an evidence- and consensus-based approach. The guidelines consider a systematic Cochrane review on interventions for HE, which is based on a systematic search of the published literature (including hand...
Blair, Hannah A; Scott, Lesley J
Chronic hand eczema is a common but frequently disabling skin condition which poses a significant social and economic burden. Although skin protection measures and topical therapies are fundamental in its management, some patients are refractory to first-line therapy with topical corticosteroids and require systemic treatment. Alitretinoin (9-cis-retinoic acid; Toctino(®)) is an endogenous vitamin A derivative with high binding affinity for both retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors. Alitretinoin is the first systemic treatment to be approved in the EU for use in patients with severe chronic hand eczema unresponsive to potent topical corticosteroids. This article updates an earlier review of alitretinoin in this indication, focusing on recently published data. In clinical trials, treatment with alitretinoin 10 or 30 mg once daily for up to 24 weeks improved the severity and extent of severe chronic hand eczema in adults, with significantly more alitretinoin than placebo recipients achieving ratings of 'clear' or 'almost clear' hands on the Physician Global Impression of Change scale. For the most part, data obtained in real-world studies were consistent with those observed in clinical trials. Alitretinoin was generally well tolerated, with most adverse events being reversible, dose-dependent and of mild or moderate severity. Thus, oral alitretinoin is a useful treatment option for patients with severe chronic hand eczema unresponsive to potent topical corticosteroids.
Blair, Hannah A; Scott, Lesley J
Chronic hand eczema is a common but frequently disabling skin condition which poses a significant social and economic burden. Although skin protection measures and topical therapies are fundamental in its management, some patients are refractory to first-line therapy with topical corticosteroids and require systemic treatment. Alitretinoin (9-cis-retinoic acid; Toctino(®)) is an endogenous vitamin A derivative with high binding affinity for both retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors. Alitretinoin is the first systemic treatment to be approved in the EU for use in patients with severe chronic hand eczema unresponsive to potent topical corticosteroids. This article updates an earlier review of alitretinoin in this indication, focusing on recently published data. In clinical trials, treatment with alitretinoin 10 or 30 mg once daily for up to 24 weeks improved the severity and extent of severe chronic hand eczema in adults, with significantly more alitretinoin than placebo recipients achieving ratings of 'clear' or 'almost clear' hands on the Physician Global Impression of Change scale. For the most part, data obtained in real-world studies were consistent with those observed in clinical trials. Alitretinoin was generally well tolerated, with most adverse events being reversible, dose-dependent and of mild or moderate severity. Thus, oral alitretinoin is a useful treatment option for patients with severe chronic hand eczema unresponsive to potent topical corticosteroids. PMID:27438290
Full Text Available Background and Design: The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of skin diseases during childhood.Material and Method: A retrospective descriptive study was planned. Among 18318 patients referred to our dermatology outpatient clinic between September 2004 and November 2009, 1756 child patients between 0-12 years of age were retrospectively analyzed from automation record system. Results: A total of 1756 child patients who referred during the study period were included in the study; 791 patients were male (45.05% and 965 were female (54.95%. The most frequently seen disease group was eczema (26.0%, followed by infectious dermatosis (20.6% and eritematous squamous dermatosis (9.9%. Atopic dermatitis (8.0%, viral dermatosis (11.7% and seborrheic dermatitis (7.1% were the most frequently encountered diseases in eczema, infectious dermatosis and eritematous squamous dermatosis groups, respectively. Conclusion: We found that 56.5% of the diseases determined were composed of eczemas, infectious dermatosis and eritematous squamous dermatosis.
Crouter, Ann C.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Osgood, D. Wayne
The development of gender attitudes in 402 youth (201 firstborn and 201 secondborn siblings) in 201 European American families was examined using data collected on seven occasions across 9 years. Pooling across siblings and using multilevel modeling, we examined gender attitude development from ages 7 to 19. Consistent with an ecological…
Boskey, Elizabeth R.
Many sexuality educators and professionals, even those involved in program development and planning, are not aware of the biological and social factors involved in gender identity development in youth. As such, this topic is often not as well addressed in whole life educational curricula as better understood topics, such as reproductive anatomy,…
Child internalizing and externalizing problems co-vary during development and lead to maladjustment outcomes, such as substance abuse, academic failure, antisocial behaviors and psychopathology. The proposed study aims to examine the co-development process of internalizing and externalizing problems during middle childhood and the potential moderators of this reciprocal relationship. Children and their families recruited in the Study of Early Childhood Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cons...
Full Text Available It is unclear what the contribution of prenatal versus childhood development is for adult cognitive and sensory function and age-related decline in function. We examined hearing, vision and cognitive function in adulthood according to self-reported birth weight (an index of prenatal development and adult height (an index of early childhood development. Subsets (N = 37,505 to 433,390 of the UK Biobank resource were analysed according to visual and hearing acuity, reaction time and fluid IQ. Sensory and cognitive performance was reassessed after ~4 years (N = 2,438 to 17,659. In statistical modelling including age, sex, socioeconomic status, educational level, smoking, maternal smoking and comorbid disease, adult height was positively associated with sensory and cognitive function (partial correlations; pr 0.05 to 0.12, p < 0.001. Within the normal range of birth weight (10th to 90th percentile, there was a positive association between birth weight and sensory and cognitive function (pr 0.06 to 0.14, p < 0.001. Neither adult height nor birth weight was associated with change in sensory or cognitive function. These results suggest that adverse prenatal and childhood experiences are a risk for poorer sensory and cognitive function and earlier development of sensory and cognitive impairment in adulthood. This finding could have significant implications for preventing sensory and cognitive impairment in older age.
Allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy, are most common chronic, noncommunicable diseases in childhood. In the past few decades, the prevalence has increased abruptly worldwide. There are 2 possible explanations for the rising prevalence of allergic diseases worldwide, that an increased disease-awareness of physician, patient, or caregivers, and an abrupt exposure to unknown hazards. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Despite the continuing efforts worldwide, the etiologies and rising prevalence remain unclear. Thus, it is important to identify and control risk factors in the susceptible individual for the best prevention and management. Genetic susceptibility or environments may be a potential background for the development of allergic disease, however they alone cannot explain the rising prevalence worldwide. There is growing evidence that epigenetic change depends on the gene, environment, and their interactions, may induce a long-lasting altered gene expression and the consequent development of allergic diseases. In epigenetic mechanisms, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during critical period (i.e., during pregnancy and early life) are considered as a potential cause of the development of childhood allergic diseases. However, the causal relationship is still unclear. This review aimed to highlight the impact of ETS exposure during the perinatal period on the development of childhood allergic diseases and to propose a future research direction.
Allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy, are most common chronic, noncommunicable diseases in childhood. In the past few decades, the prevalence has increased abruptly worldwide. There are 2 possible explanations for the rising prevalence of allergic diseases worldwide, that an increased disease-awareness of physician, patient, or caregivers, and an abrupt exposure to unknown hazards. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Despite the continuing efforts worldwide, the etiologies and rising prevalence remain unclear. Thus, it is important to identify and control risk factors in the susceptible individual for the best prevention and management. Genetic susceptibility or environments may be a potential background for the development of allergic disease, however they alone cannot explain the rising prevalence worldwide. There is growing evidence that epigenetic change depends on the gene, environment, and their interactions, may induce a long-lasting altered gene expression and the consequent development of allergic diseases. In epigenetic mechanisms, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during critical period (i.e., during pregnancy and early life) are considered as a potential cause of the development of childhood allergic diseases. However, the causal relationship is still unclear. This review aimed to highlight the impact of ETS exposure during the perinatal period on the development of childhood allergic diseases and to propose a future research direction. PMID:27610180
Full Text Available Objective. Childhood cancer survivors can develop physical, emotionaland psychosocial adversities, a secondary malignancy (SM beingone of the most serious among them. Th e aim of our research was tostudy whether the development of SM was related to the psychosocialfunctioning of survivors, especially whether any psychic trauma fromthe first experience would be aggravated by SM. Patients and methods.Seventy – five childhood cancer survivors with SM were matched with75 survivors who did not develop SM, by sex, age, living environment,diagnosis, year of diagnosis and treatment of the first malignancy. They were compared regarding education, employment, marital status and, in the 35 women, childbirth data. Seventeen childhood survivors with an SM had had psychological evaluations at diagnosis of both their first and secondary cancers; the results of the two were compared. Results. Th ere were no differences in the schooling, education, social, marital status or birth specifics between survivors with SM and their controls, nor were there marked differences in measures of social or psychological status. Conclusions. The socioeconomic status of these 75 subjects was not found to be related to the development of SM. Psychological evaluations showed no marked differences between those conducted aft er the first and the secondary malignancies.
In recent years, the topic of child abuse as an issue facing Japanese society has gained considerable attention with regard to the field of medicine and education and also in scenarios that relate to child care. The definition of child abuse includes abusing children verbally or psychologically, and is not limited to abusing children physically such as beating, sexual abuse, or neglect. Recent studies have revealed that emotional trauma during childhood development could be much more difficult to treat than physical abuse. Severe abuse during childhood can cause abnormal brain development and have a negative impact later in life. In this review, I will introduce the mechanisms of brain damage due to child abuse with consideration of how and when child abuse can have an impact on the victims' brains. The information presented is based on a collaborative study with the Psychiatry Department at Harvard University on the relationship between brain functions and the human mind.
Scott, J Anthony G; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Peiris, J.S. Malik; Holtzman, Douglas; Mulhollan, E. Kim
Pneumonia is an illness, usually caused by infection, in which the lungs become inflamed and congested, reducing oxygen exchange and leading to cough and breathlessness. It affects individuals of all ages but occurs most frequently in children and the elderly. Among children, pneumonia is the most common cause of death worldwide. Historically, in developed countries, deaths from pneumonia have been reduced by improvements in living conditions, air quality, and nutrition. In the developing wor...
Howe, M. L.
Adults frequently provide compelling, detailed accounts of early childhood experiences in the courtroom. Judges and jurors are asked to decide guilt or innocence based solely on these decades-old memories using 'common sense' notions about memory. However, these notions are not in agreement with findings from neuroscientific and behavioural studies of memory development. Without expert guidance, judges and jurors may have difficulty in properly adjudicating the weight of memory evidence in ca...
Clark, Nina Annika; Demers, Paul A.; Karr, Catherine J.; Koehoorn, Mieke; Lencar, Cornel; Tamburic, Lillian; Brauer, Michael
Background There is increasing recognition of the importance of early environmental exposures in the development of childhood asthma. Outdoor air pollution is a recognized asthma trigger, but it is unclear whether exposure influences incident disease. We investigated the effect of exposure to ambient air pollution in utero and during the first year of life on risk of subsequent asthma diagnosis in a population-based nested case–control study. Methods We assessed all children born in southwest...
Yawei Cheng; Chenyi Chen; Jean Decety
Empathic arousal is the first ontogenetic building block of empathy to appear during infancy and early childhood. As development progresses, empathic arousal becomes associated with an increasing ability to differentiate between self and other, which is a critical aspect of mature empathetic ability (Decety and Jackson, 2004). This allows for better regulation of contagious distress and understanding others mental states. In the current study, we recorded electroencephalographic event-related...
Early childhood immunizations have been accused to promote atopy development, either directly by the administration of agents which induce a Th2-type immune response or indirectly by the prevention of infections which otherwise would induce a preferential Th1-type immune response, and would thus skew the cytokine balance away from atopy. By contrast, BCG immunization has gained recent interest as an antagonist of exaggerated Th2-type immune response and as a potential atopy preventive tool. ...
The basic elements of autobiographical or episodic memory are established in early childhood, although the exact age at which memories gain episodic status is still under contention. The self-memory system proposed that adults use “lifetime periods” to group episodic memories together into chapters of the life story – an evolving and internalized account of significant life events that are self-defining. Two studies examined at what point in development children or adolescents begin to take a...
Eriksen, Kristin Gregers
With this article, the author intends to outline a legitimising basis for implementing education for sustainable development (ESD) in early childhood education, in juridical, pedagogical and political terms. Starting from our current ecological crisis, the ontological assumptions of modern culture are considered obstructive to possibilities for mitigation. The author affirms a need for constructing new conceptual frameworks in the field of ESD suitable also for the youngest children. The very...
Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.
The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth control efficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development...
The studies reported in this dissertation are part of the national cohort study pre-COOL to evaluate the developmental and educational effects of early childhood education and care (ECEC) provisions in the Netherlands. More specifically, we evaluated the quality of a large representative sample of ECEC provisions and examined the effects of attending ECEC on the development of two-to-three year old children. ECEC quality can be defined by structural and process characteristics that are though...
Singh, Leher; Reznick, J. Steven; Xuehua, Liang
Infants begin to segment novel words from speech by 7.5 months, demonstrating an ability to track, encode and retrieve words in the context of larger units. Although it is presumed that word recognition at this stage is a prerequisite to constructing a vocabulary, the continuity between these stages of development has not yet been empirically…
Bartgis, Jami; Thomas, David G.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.
The goal of this study was to examine the development of attention and response inhibition from ages 5 to 7. Forty children (20 5-year-olds and 20 7-year-olds) completed four counterbalanced phases of a continuous performance task. Phase 1 was designed to measure attention without distraction, Phase 2 was designed to measure attention with…
... services for infants and toddlers must encourage (see 45 CFR 1304.3(a)(5) for a definition of curriculum...) Provides each child with opportunities for success to help develop feelings of competence, self-esteem, and...) (see 45 CFR 1308.19); (iii) Provide an environment of acceptance that supports and respects...
Klein, Susan D.; Simmons, Roberta G.
As part of a larger study of transplantation and chronic disease and the family, 124 children (10-18 years old) who were chronically ill with kidney disease (n=72) or were a year or more post-transplant (n=52) were included in a study focusing on the effects of chronic kidney disease and transplantation on children's psychosocial development. Ss…
Fagel, Selene Sofia Alexandra Agnes
In conclusion, the results of the present studies show how schizotypal symptoms may develop following child psychiatric psychopathology and how these symptoms unfavorably influence a persons’ quality of life. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the complex dynamics of psychopathology and t
Fagel, Selene Sofia Alexandra Agnes
In conclusion, the results of the present studies show how schizotypal symptoms may develop following child psychiatric psychopathology and how these symptoms unfavorably influence a persons’ quality of life. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the complex dynamics of psychopathology and the higher risk for adult schizotypal symptomatology following behavioral problems and psychiatric disorders at child and adolescent age.
Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Petersen, Poul Erik;
protocol and development of two standardised measures. First, to investigate how parental attitudes may impact on their children's oral health-related behaviours and second, to assess how dentists' attitudes may impact on the provision of dental care. SUBJECTS: Core research team, lead methodologists, 44......OBJECTIVE: Long-term aim is to determine optimum interventions to reduce dental caries in children in disadvantaged communities and minimise the effects of exclusion from health care systems, of ethnic diversity, and health inequalities. DESIGN: Generation of initial explanatory models, study...... consortium members from 18 countries. To complete the development of the questionnaire, the initial set of items was administered to parents (n = 23) with children in nursery schools in Dundee, Scotland and sent to the same parents one week later. A standardised measure examining barriers to providing dental...
The present study examined source memory development in a sample of 4 and 6 year children. Patterns of brain electrical (EEG) activity were examined in order to provide a neural basis for the role of prefrontal cortex functioning during source monitoring. Children were taught a series of novel facts from two difference sources (either an experimenter or puppet) and their memory for both item and source information was later tested. Results demonstrated that, after controlling for language,...
Blazevic, Vesna; Malm, Maria; Honkanen, Hanna; Knip, Mikael; Hyöty, Heikki; Vesikari, Timo
The burden of norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis is substantial in young children. Maternal antibodies are thought to protect a child from NoV infection in early infancy but subsequent development of NoV-specific protective immunity in children is still largely unexplored. We have determined NoV-specific antibody seroconversion to GII.4 virus-like particles as an indicator of NoV infection in two children prospectively followed from birth to eight years of age. Blocking activity and affinity maturation of maternal and serum IgG antibodies were evaluated. Our results show that multiple infections occur in children up to eight years of age. The titer, blocking activity and avidity of maternal antibodies determined susceptibility of an infant to NoV infection. NoV GII.4-specific antibodies with high blocking potential and avidity were developed at two to three years of age and were retained throughout the follow-up. Subsequent NoV infections may have contributed to the duration of protective NoV-specific immune responses that lasted for several years. This study adds to current understanding of the duration of passive protection by maternal antibodies and the duration and quality of acquired immunity following primary and subsequent NoV infections in infants and young children, who are the main target group for NoV vaccine development. PMID:26724451
Osler, M; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Nordentoft, M
years were associated with an increased risk of suicide. After adjustment, mental disorder remained significantly associated with suicide risk (hazard ratio 2.49, 95% CI 1.03 to 6.02), whereas the estimates for cognitive function (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.01) and BMI (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.02) were...... (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.01) were associated with the risk of suicide attempt. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that low BMI, low cognitive function, and mental disorder in early adulthood are markers of an increased risk of suicide among men born in Denmark in 1953.......BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the correlation between social circumstances during childhood and adult suicide behaviour in a prospective design. How indicators of impaired childhood development affect the risk of suicide behaviour before the age of 50 years are analysed in this study...
Full Text Available Background: Hand eczema is a common distressing condition aggravated by a number of endogenous and exogenous factors. Various morphological forms of hand eczema have been described, but categorization into one of them is not always possible. Aims: To study the morphological patterns of hand eczema, relationship of atopy with hand eczema, and the implications of contact sensitization with respect to severity and diagnosis of hand eczema. Methods: Hundred consecutive patients of hand eczema attending the contact dermatitis clinic of the institute were recruited over a two year period from 2004-05. Objective assessment was done using hand eczema severity index (HECSI and all the patients were patch tested using Indian standard series. Results: Unspecified type of hand eczema with no definite morphologic picture was seen in 62% followed by pompholyx in 14%. Hand eczema severity was not found to be statistically associated with age, sex, and atopic status of the patient. Positive patch test to one or more allergen was present in 65% of patients. The most common allergens were potassium dichromate (25%, fragrance mix (16%, nickel sulphate (14%, and PPD (13%. There was no significant correlation between patch test positivity and hand eczema severity or atopic status of the patient. Among the morphological patterns pompholyx was strongly associated with an atopic status (P=0.004. Conclusions: Hand eczema was seen twice more commonly in men. Atopic and non-atopic patients of hand eczema had no difference in the severity of disease. Contact sensitivity to different allergens did not correlate with increased eczema severity.
Ross, Lars A; Molholm, Sophie; Blanco, Daniella; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Saint-Amour, Dave; Foxe, John J
Observing a speaker's articulations substantially improves the intelligibility of spoken speech, especially under noisy listening conditions. This multisensory integration of speech inputs is crucial to effective communication. Appropriate development of this ability has major implications for children in classroom and social settings, and deficits in it have been linked to a number of neurodevelopmental disorders, especially autism. It is clear from structural imaging studies that there is a prolonged maturational course within regions of the perisylvian cortex that persists into late childhood, and these regions have been firmly established as being crucial to speech and language functions. Given this protracted maturational timeframe, we reasoned that multisensory speech processing might well show a similarly protracted developmental course. Previous work in adults has shown that audiovisual enhancement in word recognition is most apparent within a restricted range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Here, we investigated when these properties emerge during childhood by testing multisensory speech recognition abilities in typically developing children aged between 5 and 14 years, and comparing them with those of adults. By parametrically varying SNRs, we found that children benefited significantly less from observing visual articulations, displaying considerably less audiovisual enhancement. The findings suggest that improvement in the ability to recognize speech-in-noise and in audiovisual integration during speech perception continues quite late into the childhood years. The implication is that a considerable amount of multisensory learning remains to be achieved during the later schooling years, and that explicit efforts to accommodate this learning may well be warranted. PMID:21615556
Radesky, Jenny S; Christakis, Dimitri A
The authors review trends in adoption of new digital technologies (eg, mobile and interactive media) by families with young children (ages 0-8 years), continued use of television and video games, and the evidence for learning from digital versus hands-on play. The authors also discuss continued concerns about health and developmental/behavioral risks of excessive media use for child cognitive, language, literacy, and social-emotional development. This evidence is then applied to clinical care in terms of the screening questions providers can use, tools available to providers and parents, and changes in anticipatory guidance.
Radesky, Jenny S; Christakis, Dimitri A
The authors review trends in adoption of new digital technologies (eg, mobile and interactive media) by families with young children (ages 0-8 years), continued use of television and video games, and the evidence for learning from digital versus hands-on play. The authors also discuss continued concerns about health and developmental/behavioral risks of excessive media use for child cognitive, language, literacy, and social-emotional development. This evidence is then applied to clinical care in terms of the screening questions providers can use, tools available to providers and parents, and changes in anticipatory guidance. PMID:27565361
Silventoinen, Karri; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Latvala, Antti; Kaprio, Jaakko; Yokoyama, Yoshie
Length and weight in infancy are associated with neurodevelopment, but less is known about growth in other anthropometric measures. In this study we analyzed how the development in length, weight, head circumference, and chest circumference over infancy is associated with motor development in early childhood, using a twin study design. Information on physical development over infancy and the age at achievement of eight developmental milestones over early childhood was collected for 370 Japanese twin pairs. Linear mixed models were used to analyze how physical development is associated with motor development between individual twins, as well as within twin pairs, adjusting the results for shared maternal and postnatal environmental factors. Delayed motor development was associated with smaller body size over infancy, and we also found some suggestive evidence that it was associated with catch-up growth as well. When studying the associations within twin pairs discordant for motor development, similar associations were found. However, chest circumference showed the most robust association within discordant twin pairs. Smaller body size and rapid catch-up growth are associated with delayed motor development. When studying these associations within twin pairs and thus adjusting the results for gestational age as well as many other maternal and postnatal environmental factors, chest circumference showed the most robust association. Chest circumference, rarely used in developed countries, can offer additional information on prenatal conditions relevant for further motor development not achieved by more traditional anthropometric measures.
The Working Group of Indigenous Minorities in Southern Africa (WIMSA) has been working to improve conditions for San communities since 1996. San communities in Namibia have an extremely high dropout rate compared to all other populations in the country, and one of WIMSA's most important areas of focus is education. Early Childhood Development…
Full Text Available Human adults tend to avoid risk. In behavioral economic studies, risk aversion is manifest as a preference for sure gains over uncertain gains. However, children tend to be less averse to risk than adults. Given that many of the brain regions supporting decision making under risk do not reach maturity until late adolescence or beyond it is possible that mature risk-averse behavior may emerge from the development of decision-making circuitry. To explore this hypothesis, we tested 6- to 8-year-old children, 14- to 16-year-old adolescents, and young adults in a risky-decision task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data acquisition. We found a number of decision-related brain regions to increase in activation with age during decision making, including areas associated with contextual memory retrieval and the incorporation of prior outcomes into the current decision-making strategy, e.g. insula, hippocampus and amygdala. Further, children who were more risk averse showed increased activation during decision making in vmPFC and ventral striatum. Our findings indicate that the emergence of adult levels of risk aversion co-occurs with the recruitment of regions supporting decision making under risk, including the integration of prior outcomes into current decision-making behavior. This pattern of results suggests that individual differences in the development of risk aversion may reflect differences in the maturation of these neural processes.
Slattery, John; MacFabe, Derrick F.; Frye, Richard E.
Recent studies have highlighted the fact that the enteric microbiome, the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human digestive tract, has a significant effect on health and disease. Methods for manipulating the enteric microbiome, particularly through probiotics and microbial ecosystem transplantation, have undergone some study in clinical trials. We review some of the evidence for microbiome alteration in relation to childhood disease and discuss the clinical trials that have examined the manipulation of the microbiome in an effort to prevent or treat childhood disease with a primary focus on probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics (ie, probiotics + prebiotics). Studies show that alterations in the microbiome may be a consequence of events occurring during infancy and/or childhood such as prematurity, C-sections, and nosocomial infections. In addition, certain childhood diseases have been associated with microbiome alterations, namely necrotizing enterocolitis, infantile colic, asthma, atopic disease, gastrointestinal disease, diabetes, malnutrition, mood/anxiety disorders, and autism spectrum disorders. Treatment studies suggest that probiotics are potentially protective against the development of some of these diseases. Timing and duration of treatment, the optimal probiotic strain(s), and factors that may alter the composition and function of the microbiome are still in need of further research. Other treatments such as prebiotics, fecal microbial transplantation, and antibiotics have limited evidence. Future translational work, in vitro models, long-term and follow-up studies, and guidelines for the composition and viability of probiotic and microbial therapies need to be developed. Overall, there is promising evidence that manipulating the microbiome with probiotics early in life can help prevent or reduce the severity of some childhood diseases, but further research is needed to elucidate biological mechanisms and determine optimal treatments. PMID
Bundscherer, F; Deeg, K H
In 150 girls from the newborn period up to the 18. year the size of the uterus was measured by sonography. In all children the length, width, depth and volume of the uterus as well as its shape and other signs of development were determined. In the newborn period and in the following first months of life an estrogen stimulated uterus with the shape of a drop could be shown. The size of the uterus decreased till the end of the first year. The length of the uterus in the neonatal period was 4.0 +/- 0.5 cm, the volume was 3.6 +/- 1.9 cm3. In the following rest phase up to the age of 8 years the length of the uterus was 2.8 +/- 0.4 cm and the volume was 1.2 +/- 0.4 cm3. The shape of the uterus in this age group was tubular. One to two years before secondary pubertal signs could be shown, sonography already demonstrated the beginning of pubertal uterus growth. In the postpubertal period the uterus had the typical pear shape with a corpus/cervix-relation of 2:1. In the postpubertal period the length was 6.8 +/- 1 cm with a volume of 33 +/- 22 cm3. The knowledge of the normal developmental dates of the uterus in children is essential for the diagnosis of malformations and tumours of the pelvis, but also for the diagnosis of distorted puberty such as pubertas praecox, pubertas tarda, amenorrhea and growth retardation. PMID:3043206
and poor socio-economic conditions were major risk factors identified for development of bladder stones. (author)
Full Text Available To evaluate whether a Japanese lifestyle during childhood could protect against the future development of obesity-associated metabolic diseases by comparing native Japanese with Japanese-Americans in whom genetic factors are the same.Study subjects were 516 native Japanese and 781 Japanese-Americans who underwent medical examinations between 2007 and 2010. Japanese-Americans were divided into 444 first-generation immigrants (JA-1, who were born in Japan, and 337 second- or later-generation descendants (JA-2, who were born in the United States. The JA-2 group was then divided into the kibei subgroup (N = 79, who had moved to Japan before the age of 18 years and later returned to the United States, and the non-kibei subgroup (N = 258, who had never lived in Japan.The JA-2 group had the highest percentages of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes compared with native Japanese and JA-1. Furthermore, among JA-2, the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in the kibei subgroup was significantly lower than that in the non-kibei subgroup. The prevalence of diabetes in the kibei subgroup also tended to be lower than in the non-kibei subgroup.The prevalence of obesity and metabolic diseases differed with residence in Japan during childhood among Japanese-Americans. These findings indicate the possibility that Japanese lifestyle during childhood could reduce the future risks for obesity-associated metabolic diseases.
Sandilands, Aileen; Terron-Kwiatkowski, Ana; Hull, Peter R; O'Regan, Gráinne M; Clayton, Timothy H; Watson, Rosemarie M; Carrick, Thomas; Evans, Alan T; Liao, Haihui; Zhao, Yiwei; Campbell, Linda E; Schmuth, Matthias; Gruber, Robert; Janecke, Andreas R; Elias, Peter M; van Steensel, Maurice A M; Nagtzaam, Ivo; van Geel, Michel; Steijlen, Peter M; Munro, Colin S; Bradley, Daniel G; Palmer, Colin N A; Smith, Frances J D; McLean, W H Irwin; Irvine, Alan D
We recently reported two common filaggrin (FLG) null mutations that cause ichthyosis vulgaris and predispose to eczema and secondary allergic diseases. We show here that these common European mutations are ancestral variants carried on conserved haplotypes. To facilitate comprehensive analysis of other populations, we report a strategy for full sequencing of this large, highly repetitive gene, and we describe 15 variants, including seven that are prevalent. All the variants are either nonsense or frameshift mutations that, in representative cases, resulted in loss of filaggrin production in the epidermis. In an Irish case-control study, the five most common European mutations showed a strong association with moderate-to-severe childhood eczema (chi2 test: P = 2.12 x 10(-51); Fisher's exact test: heterozygote odds ratio (OR) = 7.44 (95% confidence interval (c.i.) = 4.9-11.3), and homozygote OR = 151 (95% c.i. = 20-1,136)). We found three additional rare null mutations in this case series, suggesting that the genetic architecture of filaggrin-related atopic dermatitis consists of both prevalent and rare risk alleles.
Mollerup, Annette; Veien, Niels Kren; Johansen, Jeanne Duus
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hand eczema has a one-year prevalence of approximately 10 % in the general Danish population. Often the disease becomes chronic with numerous implications for the individual's daily life, occupation and quality of life. However, no guidelines of selfmanagement recommendations...... Healthy Skin Clinic' or to the control group. Block-wise randomisation according to setting and gender is carried out. The intervention offers a tool for self-monitoring; basic and specific individual counselling; the possibility of asynchronous communication with the intervention team; and an electronic...... patient dialogue forum. Primary outcome variable is objective assessment of the hand eczema severity performed at baseline prior to randomisation, and repeated at six months follow-up. Secondary outcome variables are dermatology related life quality and perceived global burden of disease. DISCUSSION...
TATTO-CANO MARÍA ISABEL
Full Text Available Objetivo. La medición del asma, la rinitis y el eczema ha sido motivo de controversia metodológica por la falta de uniformidad en los diagnósticos operacionales. Con el fin de probar la aplicabilidad de una metodología estandarizada para comparaciones en tiempo y espacio se determinó la prevalencia del asma y de otras enfermedades alérgicas en una muestra aleatoria de escolares (n= 6 238 de 6 a 8 años y de 11 a 14 años residentes de Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. Material y métodos. Se aplicó la metodología propuesta por el International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC para determinar la prevalencia y severidad del asma, la rinitis y el eczema. La información de prevalencia tanto actual como acumulada para dichos padecimientos se obtuvo a través de un cuestionario estandarizado contestado por los padres de los niños. Resultados. La prevalencia acumulada de asma por diagnóstico médico y sibilancia fue de 5.8% (5.2-6.4 y 21.8% (20.7-22.9 respectivamente; la prevalencia de sibilancia en los últimos 12 meses fue de 8.9% en el grupo de 6 a 8 años contra 6.6% en el de 11 a 14 años, p< 0.001. La prevalencia de diagnóstico médico de rinitis fue de 4.9% (4.3-5.5. Con relación a los síntomas típicos de rinitis, en los últimos 12 meses la prevalencia fue de 9.6% (6 a 8 años y de 10.1% (11 a 14 años. La prevalencia de eczema por diagnóstico médico fue de 4.1% (3.6-4.6. La prevalencia de síntomas de eczema en los últimos 12 meses fue de 10.1% (6 a 8 años y de 10.6% (11 a 14 años. Los síntomas severos de asma fueron significativamente más prevalentes en el grupo de 6 a 8 años y en los meses de otoño. Conclusiones. La prevalencia de asma tanto por diagnóstico médico como por síntomas resulta relativamente baja en relación con otros estudios realizados con la misma metodología. Se analizan las bondades del uso de una metodología estandarizada.
Spergel, Jonathan M.
Jonathan M SpergelDivision of Allergy and Immunology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of MedicineAbstract: Atopic eczema is a common pediatric skin disorder. This review examines the use of pimecrolimus cream in the treatment of acute and chronic stages of the disease. The standard therapy is the treatment of acute flares with topical medications including pimecrolimus. The use of pimecrolimus cream for the first si...
Wollenberg, Andreas; Ehmann, Laura Maximiliane
Atopic eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a frequent, highly pruritic, chronic skin disease, which is typically running in flares. The traditional treatment mainly consists of the reactive application of topical anti-inflammatory agents such as topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors. The short term benefit of this approach is well known, but long term remission between flares is difficult to achieve. Therefore, innovative long-term treatment strategies targeting f...
Denitza Zheleva; Razvigor Darlenski
Occupational hand eczema due to acrylates present in the workplace is a disease frequently reported among dentists, printers, and fiberglass workers. Acrylate monomers are used in the production of a great variety of polymers, including nail cosmetics. Our case report demonstrates a rare clinical presentations of allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails. Our patient was working as a manicurist and the diagnostic analyses revealed sensitation to some of the (meth) acrylate compounds of h...
Brar Kamal; Shenoi S; Balachandran C; Mehta Vandana
BACKGROUND : Forefoot eczema (FE) is characterized by dry fissured dermatitis of the plantar surface of the feet. AIM : To study the clinical profile of FE and the possible etiological factors. METHODS : Forty-two patients with FE were included in the study. A detailed history was recorded and examination done. Fungal scrapings and patch test with Indian Standard Series (ISS) were performed in all patients. RESULTS : The most common site affected was the plantar surface of the great toe in...
Bisgaard, Hans; Simpson, Angela; Palmer, Colin N A;
= 0.005), with a further increase in risk related to cat exposure at birth amongst children with FLG mutation (HR 11.11, 95% CI 3.79-32.60, p dog exposure was moderately protective (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.24-1.01, p = 0.05), but not related to FLG genotype. In Manchester (n = 503) an independent...... of the interaction with dog ownership (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.16-2.20, p = 0.43). Mite-allergen had no effects in either cohort. The observed effects were independent of sensitisation. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated a significant interaction between FLG loss-of-function main mutations (501x and 2282del4) and cat...... ownership at birth on the development of early-life eczema in two independent birth cohorts. Our data suggest that cat but not dog ownership substantially increases the risk of eczema within the first year of life in children with FLG loss-of-function variants, but not amongst those without. FLG...
Wu, Tiejian; Dixon, Wallace E; Dalton, William T; Tudiver, Fred; Liu, Xuefeng
The interplay between child characteristics and parenting is increasingly implicated as crucial to child health outcomes. This study assessed the joint effects of children's temperamental characteristics and maternal sensitivity on children's weight status. Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were utilized. Infant temperament, assessed at child's age of 6 months by maternal report, was categorized into three types: easy, average, and difficult. Maternal sensitivity, assessed at child's age of 6 months by observing maternal behaviors during mother-child semi-structured interaction, was categorized into two groups: sensitive and insensitive. Children's height and weight were measured longitudinally from age 2 years to Grade 6, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. BMI percentile was obtained based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's BMI charts. Children, who had a BMI ≥ the 85th percentile, were defined as overweight-or-obese. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. The proportions of children overweight-or-obese increased with age, 15.58% at 2 years old to 34.34% by Grade 6. The joint effects of children's temperament and maternal sensitivity on a child's body mass status depended on the child's age. For instance, children with difficult temperament and insensitive mothers had significantly higher risks for being overweight-or-obese during the school age phase but not during early childhood. Specific combinations of child temperament and maternal sensitivity were associated with the development of obesity during childhood. Findings may hold implications for childhood obesity prevention/intervention programs targeting parents.
Majorana, Alessandra; Bardellini, Elena; Amadori, Francesca; Conti, Giulio; Polimeni, Antonella
As most of the etiologic factors of malocclusion are of genetic origin and thus cannot be prevented, environmental causative factors have become the focus for correction. Early interception of oral habits may be an important step in order to prevent occlusal disturbances in children. The identification of an abnormal habit and the assessment of its potential immediate and long-term effects on the dentition and potentially on the craniofacial complex should be made at an early stage. This paper focuses on the most common oral habits influencing dentofacial growth in childhood and management of these habits in the developing dentition.
Cragg, Lucy; Nation, Kate
Performance on the task-switching paradigm is greatly affected by the amount of conflict between tasks. Compared to adults, children appear to be particularly influenced by this conflict, suggesting that the ability to resolve interference between tasks improves with age. We used the task-switching paradigm to investigate how this ability develops in mid-childhood. Experiment 1 compared 5- to 8-year-olds’ and 9- to 11-year-olds’ ability to switch between decisions about the colour of an objec...
Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L
Concerns about the increasing rates of obesity in developing countries have led many policy makers to question the impacts of maternal and early child nutrition on risk of later obesity. The purposes of the review are to summarise the studies on the associations between nutrition during pregnancy and infant feeding practices with later obesity from childhood through adulthood and to identify potential ways for preventing obesity in developing countries. As few studies were identified in developing countries, key studies in developed countries were included in the review. Poor prenatal dietary intakes of energy, protein and micronutrients were shown to be associated with increased risk of adult obesity in offspring. Female offspring seem to be more vulnerable than male offspring when their mothers receive insufficient energy during pregnancy. By influencing birthweight, optimal prenatal nutrition might reduce the risk of obesity in adults. While normal birthweights (2500-3999 g) were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) as adults, they generally were associated with higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass compared with low birthweights (obesity in adults. Breastfeeding and timely introduction of complementary foods were shown to protect against obesity later in life in observational studies. High-protein intake during early childhood however was associated with higher body fat mass and obesity in adulthood. In developed countries, increased weight gain during the first 2 years of life was associated with a higher BMI in adulthood. However, recent studies in developing countries showed that higher BMI was more related to greater lean body mass than fat mass. It appears that increased length at 2 years of age was positively associated with height, weight and fat-free mass, and was only weakly associated with fat mass. The protective associations between breastfeeding and obesity may differ in developing countries compared to developed countries because many
In Aotearoa New Zealand, many early childhood teachers gain their teaching qualification via distance study while working in an early childhood centre. Early childhood teachers work in a team environment, and it is important to understand more about how distance students negotiate changes in their workplace practice as their professional knowledge…
Cheng, Yawei; Chen, Chenyi; Decety, Jean
Empathic arousal is the first ontogenetic building block of empathy to appear during infancy and early childhood. As development progresses, empathic arousal becomes associated with an increasing ability to differentiate between self and other, which is a critical aspect of mature empathetic ability (Decety and Jackson, 2004). This allows for better regulation of contagious distress and understanding others mental states. In the current study, we recorded electroencephalographic event-related potentials and mu suppression induced by short visual animations that depicted painful situations in 57 typically developing children aged between 3 and 9 years as well as 15 young adults. Results indicate that the difference wave of an early automatic component (N200), indexing empathic arousal, showed an age-related decrease in amplitude. In contrast, the difference wave of late-positive potentials (LPP), associated with cognitive appraisal, showed an age-related gain. Only early LPP was detected in children, whereas both early and late LPP were observed in adults. Furthermore, as compared with adults, children showed stronger mu suppression when viewing both painful and non-painful stimuli. These findings provide neurophysiological support for the development of empathy during childhood, as indicated by a gradual decrease in emotional arousal and an increase in cognitive appraisal with age. PMID:25261920
Full Text Available Empathic arousal is the first ontogenetic building block of empathy to appear during infancy and early childhood. As development progresses, empathic arousal becomes associated with an increasing ability to differentiate between self and other, which is a critical aspect of mature empathetic ability (Decety and Jackson, 2004. This allows for better regulation of contagious distress and understanding others mental states. In the current study, we recorded electroencephalographic event-related potentials and mu suppression induced by short visual animations that depicted painful situations in 57 typically developing children aged between 3 and 9 years as well as 15 young adults. Results indicate that the difference wave of an early automatic component (N200, indexing empathic arousal, showed an age-related decrease in amplitude. In contrast, the difference wave of late-positive potentials (LPP, associated with cognitive appraisal, showed an age-related gain. Only early LPP was detected in children, whereas both early and late LPP were observed in adults. Furthermore, as compared with adults, children showed stronger mu suppression when viewing both painful and non-painful stimuli. These findings provide neurophysiological support for the development of empathy during childhood, as indicated by a gradual decrease in emotional arousal and an increase in cognitive appraisal with age.
Full Text Available The way children portray emotions in their drawings of human and nonhuman topics is assumed to reflect their artistic, emotional, and cognitive development. This study was designed to investigate the development of expressive drawings during childhood and into adolescence, using a large age range (5–15 years and sample size (N=480, so as to provide a precise and comprehensive view of age-related changes in children’s ability to produce expressive drawings. More specifically, we focused on children’s developing ability to use the techniques of literal and metaphorical expression, either alone or in combination. We also examined the effects of sex, topics (house, tree, or person, and the depicted emotion (happiness or sadness on the use of each expressive technique. The main findings were that there is a developmental shift between childhood (5–10 years and adolescence (11–15 years in the use of expressive techniques, from simple (literal to more complex forms of expression (metaphorical.
Abramson, H A
This second paper on the reassociation of dreams confirms 1. the value of reassociating a key dream (The Beetle Bug Dream) and 2. the use of lysergic acid diethyl amide (LSD) as an adjunct to psychoanalytic therapy. The patient (Joyce) was a young mother whose very severe eczema and asthma were accompanied by an incapacitating depression. The following summary of the three interviews indicate briefly the psychodynamic materials developed which helped Joyce uncover her confused sexual identifications and fear of lesbianism. In Interview 96 the initial Beetle Bug Dream was studied cautiously. On analysis the tentacles of the Beetle Bugs symbolically represented the hands of a man mauling a girl's skin. A sexual approach by a man is considered an attack. "Bugs get under the skin. If Jack (my husband) touches my skin, that spot itches." A second Beetle Bug is described. The special aspect of this unique Bug is that it was not threatening. This Bug is discussed in terms of the transference: the silent analyst and a father who responded to her childhood travail by silence are compared. Reassociation of the Beetle Bug Dream without LSD took place one year later. The session (Interview 235) lasted about 45 minutes and the verbatim recording occupied 12 typewritten pages. Free association led to the realization that the patient was programmed in part to identify with her father--a silent, passive individual. It was apparent that a psychological struggle for femininity, induced by the confused identification led to a threat of penetration by the sting of the Beetle Bug and, where a man was involved, penetration by the penis. Interview 236 (three days later) was conducted under LSD 25. The Beetle Bug Dream again formed the basis of this interview, which lasted four hours and occupied 46 pages of typewritten, verbatim material. A new feeling of independence from maternal influence is felt. "It used to be if I just thought of her, I could start scratching." The relationship
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Loss-of-function variants in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG are major determinants of eczema. We hypothesized that weakening of the physical barrier in FLG-deficient individuals may potentiate the effect of environmental exposures. Therefore, we investigated whether there is an interaction between FLG loss-of-function mutations with environmental exposures (pets and dust mites in relation to the development of eczema. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data obtained in early life in a high-risk birth cohort in Denmark and replicated the findings in an unselected birth cohort in the United Kingdom. Primary outcome was age of onset of eczema; environmental exposures included pet ownership and mite and pet allergen levels. In Copenhagen (n = 379, FLG mutation increased the risk of eczema during the first year of life (hazard ratio [HR] 2.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-4.00, p = 0.005, with a further increase in risk related to cat exposure at birth amongst children with FLG mutation (HR 11.11, 95% CI 3.79-32.60, p < 0.0001; dog exposure was moderately protective (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.24-1.01, p = 0.05, but not related to FLG genotype. In Manchester (n = 503 an independent and significant association of the development of eczema by age 12 mo with FLG genotype was confirmed (HR 1.95, 95% CI 1.13-3.36, p = 0.02. In addition, the risk increased because of the interaction of cat ownership at birth and FLG genotype (HR 3.82, 95% CI 1.35-10.81, p = 0.01, with no significant effect of the interaction with dog ownership (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.16-2.20, p = 0.43. Mite-allergen had no effects in either cohort. The observed effects were independent of sensitisation. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated a significant interaction between FLG loss-of-function main mutations (501x and 2282del4 and cat ownership at birth on the development of early-life eczema in two independent birth cohorts. Our data suggest that cat but not dog ownership substantially
Rush, Elaine; Cairncross, Carolyn; Williams, Margaret Hinepo; Tseng, Marilyn; Coppinger, Tara; McLennan, Steph; Latimer, Kasha
Prevention of childhood obesity is a global priority. The school setting offers access to large numbers of children and the ability to provide supportive environments for quality physical activity and nutrition. This article describes Project Energize, a through-school physical activity and nutrition programme that celebrated its 10-year anniversary in 2015 so that it might serve as a model for similar practices, initiatives and policies elsewhere. The programme was envisaged and financed by the Waikato District Health Board of New Zealand in 2004 and delivered by Sport Waikato to 124 primary schools as a randomised controlled trial from 2005 to 2006. The programme has since expanded to include all 242 primary schools in the Waikato region and 70 schools in other regions, including 53,000 children. Ongoing evaluation and development of Project Energize has shown it to be sustainable (ongoing for >10 years), both effective (lower obesity, higher physical fitness) and cost effective (one health related cost quality adjusted life year between $18,000 and $30,000) and efficient ($45/child/year) as a childhood 'health' programme. The programme's unique community-based approach is inclusive of all children, serving a population that is 42% Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. While the original nine healthy eating and seven quality physical activity goals have not changed, the delivery and assessment processes has been refined and the health service adapted over the 10 years of the programme existence, as well as adapted over time to other settings including early childhood education and schools in Cork in Ireland. Evaluation and research associated with the programme delivery and outcomes are ongoing. The dissemination of findings to politicians and collaboration with other service providers are both regarded as priorities. PMID:26809555
Grüber, C; Nilsson, L; Björkstén, B
Concerns about allergic side-effects of vaccines and about a possible promotion of allergic diseases contribute to incomplete vaccination rates in childhood. This article reviews the current understanding of these issues. There is evidence that pertussis and diphtheria/tetanus antigens elicit immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody formation as part of the immune response. In murine models, pertussis toxin is an effective adjuvant for IgE formation against simultaneously administered antigens. In children, however, sensitization to unrelated antigens or development of allergic diseases do not seem to be augmented. In contrast, bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and measles vaccination have been proposed as suppressors of allergy because of their T helper 1 (Th1)-fostering properties. In the murine system, BCG inhibits allergic sensitization and airway hyper-reactivity. Some epidemiological studies in humans suggest an inhibitory effect of tuberculosis on allergy. BCG vaccination in children, however, has no or merely a marginal suppressive effect on atopy. Other vaccine components such as egg proteins, gelatin, and antibiotics are a potential hazard to children with severe clinical reactions to these allergens. These rare children should be vaccinated under special precautions. In conclusion, vaccination programs do not explain the increasing prevalence of allergic diseases, but individual children may uncommonly develop an allergic reaction to a vaccine. The risks of not vaccinating children, however, far outweigh the risk for allergy. Therefore, childhood vaccination remains an essential part of child health programs and should not be withheld, even from children predisposed for allergy.
Chronaki, Georgia; Hadwin, Julie A; Garner, Matthew; Maurage, Pierre; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S
Sensitivity to facial and vocal emotion is fundamental to children's social competence. Previous research has focused on children's facial emotion recognition, and few studies have investigated non-linguistic vocal emotion processing in childhood. We compared facial and vocal emotion recognition and processing biases in 4- to 11-year-olds and adults. Eighty-eight 4- to 11-year-olds and 21 adults participated. Participants viewed/listened to faces and voices (angry, happy, and sad) at three intensity levels (50%, 75%, and 100%). Non-linguistic tones were used. For each modality, participants completed an emotion identification task. Accuracy and bias for each emotion and modality were compared across 4- to 5-, 6- to 9- and 10- to 11-year-olds and adults. The results showed that children's emotion recognition improved with age; preschoolers were less accurate than other groups. Facial emotion recognition reached adult levels by 11 years, whereas vocal emotion recognition continued to develop in late childhood. Response bias decreased with age. For both modalities, sadness recognition was delayed across development relative to anger and happiness. The results demonstrate that developmental trajectories of emotion processing differ as a function of emotion type and stimulus modality. In addition, vocal emotion processing showed a more protracted developmental trajectory, compared to facial emotion processing. The results have important implications for programmes aiming to improve children's socio-emotional competence.
The teaching of science in the early childhood classrooms has slowly been decreasing. As the years have passed, the subject of science has been put on the backburner while mathematics and language arts have taken center stage in the educational system. Early childhood teachers need to find ways to integrate science with other subjects in order to ensure children are receiving a well-rounded and full education. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of professional development on teachers' efficacy in teaching science. Volunteer teachers completed the Weisgram and Bigler scale (TWBS) pre and post training, in order to determine their self-efficacy toward teaching science, they also completed pre- and post- concept maps about their knowledge of teaching science, and a demographic questionnaire. Findings indicate the training provided was effective in increasing teachers' knowledge of teaching science. Teachers who had an increase in science teaching knowledge were also found to feel more efficacious about teaching science after completing the training and an academic year of implementing science lessons in their classrooms. There was not a relationship between teacher demographics and their science-teaching efficacy. This means that the demographics of participants in this study were not influential on teachers' efficacy, but professional development workshops enabled teachers to gain more knowledge about teaching as well as increase their efficacy about teaching science.
Levine, Alexander T.
In the Preface to his Structure Of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas S. Kuhn let it be known that his view of scientific development was indebted to the work of pioneering developmental psychologist Jean Piaget. Piaget's model of conceptual development in childhood, on which the child passes through several discontinuous stages, served as the template for Kuhn's reading of the history of a scientific discipline, on which mutually incommensurable periods of normal science are separated by scientific revolutions. The analogy to conceptual change in childhood pervades Kuhn's corpus, serving as the central motif in his well-known essays, A Function for Thought Experiments and Second Thoughts on Paradigms. But it is deeply problematic. For as a careful student of Piaget might note, Piaget, and the developmental psychologists he inspired, relied on the same analogy, but with the order of epistemic dependencies reversed. One begins to worry that Kuhn's use of the analogy, and its subsequent re-use by developmental psychologists, sneaks a vicious circularity into our understanding of important processes. This circularity is grounds for some concern on the part of science educators accustomed to employing such Kuhnian notions as incommensurability and paradigm.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic and environmental risk factors and gene-environment interactions are linked to higher likelihood of developing schizophrenia in accordance with the neurodevelopmental model of disease; little is known about risk factors and early development in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS and very early-onset schizophrenia (VEOS. Methods We present a case-control study of a sample of 21 patients with EOS/VEOS and a control group of 21 patients with migraine, recruited from the Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Neurologic and Psychiatric Science, University of Bari, Italy. The aim was to assess the statistical association between VEOS/EOS and family history for psychiatric disorders, obstetric complications and childhood developmental abnormalities using 2 × 2 tables and a Chi Squared or Fisher test. Results The results show a statistical association between EOS/VEOS and schizophrenia and related disorders (P = 0.02 and personality disorders (P = 0.003 in relatives, and between EOS/VEOS and developmental abnormalities of early relational skills (P = 0.008 and learning (P = 0.04; there is not a statistically relevant difference between cases and controls (P > 0.05 for any obstetric complications (pre, peri and postpartum. Conclusions This study confirms the significant role of familial liability but not of obstetric complications in the pathogenesis of VEOS/EOS; the association between childhood developmental abnormalities and EOS/VEOS supports the neurodevelopmental model of disease.
Tenenbaum-Katan, Janna; Hofemeier, Philipp; Fishler, Rami; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Sznitman, Josue
At the onset of life in utero the respiratory system is simply a liquid-filled duct. With our first breath, alveoli are filled with air and become a significant port of entry for airborne particles. As such, alveolar lining is nearly fully functional at birth, though lung development continues during childhood as structural changes increase alveolar surface area to optimize ventilation. We hypothesize that such fluid dynamical changes potentially affect two phenomena occurring within alveoli: (i) flow patterns in airspaces at distinct stages of both in- and ex-utero life and (ii) fate of inhaled particles ex-utero. To investigate these phenomena, we combine experimental and numerical approaches where (i) microfluidic in vitro devices mimic liquid flows across the epithelium of fetal airspaces, and (ii) computational simulations are employed to examine particle transport and deposition in the deep alveolated regions of infants' lungs. Our approaches capture anatomically-inspired geometries based on morphometrical data, as well as physiological flows, including the convective-diffusive nature of submicron particle transport in alveolar regions.Overall, we investigate respiratory flows in alveolar regions of developing lungs, from early embryonic stages to late childhood
Magnusson, L L; Wennborg, H; Bonde, J P; Olsen, J
Objectives To examine whether prenatal occupational exposures, especially to organic solvents, are associated with atopic diseases in childhood. Methods The study comprised children born in Odense or Aalborg, Denmark between 1984 and 1987. Occupational job titles were derived from questionnaires filled out by the mothers when attending midwife centres. Assessment of organic solvent exposures was based on job titles selected by occupational specialists. A follow up questionnaire to the parents provided data on medical diagnoses as well as wheezing symptoms for 7844 children aged 14–18. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the cumulative risk for wheezing (early wheezing not diagnosed as asthma), asthma, hay fever, and atopic eczema during childhood by means of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Explorative analyses by maternal job titles in pregnancy showed elevated odds ratios concerning different atopic diseases for occupational groups such as “bakers, pastry cooks, and confectionary makers”, “dental assistants”, “electrical and electronic assemblers”, “sewers and embroiders”, and “bookbinders and related workers”. An excess risk ratio for hay fever (OR 2.8, CI 1.1 to 7.5) was found following maternal gestational exposure to organic solvents. Furthermore, a slightly raised odds ratio for asthma was observed in children of shift workers (OR 1.2, CI 1.0 to 1.5). Conclusion The data suggest links between certain maternal occupations during pregnancy and atopic diseases, which merits further scrutiny. However, no consistent pattern was seen across the different atopic diseases. PMID:16757508
Mollerup, A; Johansen, J D; Thing, Lone Friis
Chronic hand eczema is a common disease which may impact quality of life and have occupational and social consequences. Self-management is pivotal, both in handling acute eruptions and avoiding relapses. However, little is known about how people with hand eczema self-manage and integrate their di...
Politiek, Klaziena; Oosterhaven, Jart A F; Vermeulen, Karin M; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A
The individual burden of disease in hand eczema patients is considerable. However, little is known about the socio-economic impact of this disease. The aims of this review were to evaluate the literature on cost-of-illness in hand eczema, and to compose a checklist for future use. The literature was retrieved from the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to October 2015. Quality evaluation was based on seven relevant items in cost-of-illness studies. Cost data (direct and indirect) were extracted and converted into euros (2014 price level) by use of the Dutch Consumer Price Index. Six articles were included. The mean annual total cost per patient ranged from €1712 to €9792 (direct cost per patient, €521 to €3829; and indirect cost per patient, €100 to €6846). Occupational hand eczema patients showed indirect costs up to 70% of total costs, mainly because of absenteeism. A large diversity in hand eczema severity was found between studies. The socio-economic burden of hand eczema is considerable, especially for more severe and/or occupational hand eczema. Absenteeism from paid work leads to a high total cost-of-illness, although disregard of presenteeism often leads to underestimation of indirect costs. Differences in included cost components, the occupational status of patients and hand eczema severity make international comparison difficult. A checklist was added to standardize the approach to cost-of-illness studies in hand eczema. PMID:27218305
Mollerup, Annette; Harboe, Gitte; Johansen, Jeanne D
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study reports the findings from a user evaluation of a counselling programme for hand eczema patients in which face-to-face encounters were supplemented with user access to a new website. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients treated for hand eczema in two different settin...
Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus;
Atopic dermatitis, hand eczema and contact sensitization are prevalent disorders, and may, in many cases, be secondary to skin barrier abnormality. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported generalized xerosis, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema and contact sensit...
Gioti, A.; Nystedt, B.; Li, W.; Xu, J.; Andersson, A.; Averette, A.F.; Munch, K.; Wang, X.; Kappauf, C.; Kingsbury, J.M.; Kraak, B.; Walker, L.A.; Johansson, H.J.; Holm, T.; Lehtio, J.; Stajich, J.E.; Mieczkowski, P.; Kahmann, R.; Kennell, J.C.; Cardenas, M.E.; Lundeberg, J.; Saunders, C.W.; Boekhout, T.; Dawson, T.L.; Munro, C.A.; de Groot, P.W.; Butler, G.; Heitman, J.; Scheynius, A.
Malassezia commensal yeasts are associated with a number of skin disorders, such as atopic eczema/dermatitis and dandruff, and they also can cause systemic infections. Here we describe the 7.67-Mbp genome of Malassezia sympodialis, a species associated with atopic eczema, and contrast its genome rep
Gioti, Anastasia; Nystedt, Bjorn; Li, Wenjun; Xu, Jun; Andersson, Anna; Averette, Anna F.; Muench, Karin; Wang, Xuying; Kappauf, Catharine; Kingsbury, Joanne M.; Kraak, Bart; Walker, Louise A.; Johansson, Henrik J.; Holm, Tina; Lehtio, Janne; Stajich, Jason E.; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Kahmann, Regine; Kennell, John C.; Cardenas, Maria E.; Lundeberg, Joakim; Saunders, Charles W.; Boekhout, Teun; Dawson, Thomas L.; Munro, Carol A.; de Groot, Piet W. J.; Butler, Geraldine; Heitman, Joseph; Scheynius, Annika
Malassezia commensal yeasts are associated with a number of skin disorders, such as atopic eczema/dermatitis and dandruff, and they also can cause systemic infections. Here we describe the 7.67-Mbp genome of Malassezia sympodialis, a species associated with atopic eczema, and contrast its genome rep
Tupker, Ron A; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Zanen, Pieter; Schuttelaar, Marielouise
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of iontophoresis combined with local psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy in chronic foot eczema. A randomized, observer-blinded, multi-centre study was conducted in 48 patients with chronic moderate-to-severe foot eczema randomized to one of
Robinson, Sally; Yardy, Katie; Carter, Victoria
This narrative review explains the development of excess weight gain in babies and children. It takes a life course approach which includes genetics, pre-conception, pregnancy, infancy and childhood. The paper focuses on feeding behaviours, physical activity, parental influences and the wider social and environmental context. Risk factors which can cumulatively lead to excess childhood weight gain include: under- or overweight during pregnancy; the presence of diabetes during pregnancy; low or high birth weight; having obese parents; early weaning; prolonged formula feeding; rapid weight gain in the first year; disinhibited eating patterns and the consistent availability of energy dense food at home; feeding practices which are not responsive to the child's cues; insufficient sleep among preschool children; sedentary parents; low parental education; living in poor socio-economic circumstances; absence, or perceived absence, of safe play areas; parents who lack time or confidence to authoritatively parent; environments where there is poor access to affordable lower energy dense foods; and parents who do not accept that excess weight is a health problem. Recommendations for health professionals are made.
Robinson, S M; Godfrey, K M
The number of overweight children is increasing rapidly, and there is an urgent need to identify the risk factors for obesity, with a view to preventing further increases in prevalence. Experimental studies in animals and preliminary observations in humans suggest that early experience may influence later risk of obesity, but we do not yet understand the extent to which early influences affect individual vulnerability to risk factors acting later in life. In the developed world, few studies have examined whether current variations in maternal diet have long-term effects on children's body composition. Rapid postnatal growth is associated with greater adiposity, but the role of variations in infant diet and the mechanisms involved are not understood, and there may be interactive effects of early diet and growth rate on body composition. Familial concordance in obesity prevalence suggests that the shared food environment is of key importance. Early life may be a time when dietary practices are established that will continue throughout childhood. Further research is needed to gain insight into the evolution of dietary habits in childhood and to determine how these practices influence obesity risk. PMID:19079279
Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS; defined as onset by age 12 years) is rare, difficult to diagnose, and represents a severe and chronic phenotype of the adult-onset illness. A study of childhood-onset psychoses has been ongoing at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) since 1990, where children with COS and severe atypical psychoses (provisionally labeled “multidimensionally impaired” or MDI by the NIMH team) are studied prospectively along with all first-degree relatives. COS subjects have robust cortical gray matter (GM) loss during adolescence, which appears to be an exaggeration of the normal cortical GM developmental pattern and eventually mimics the pattern seen in adult-onset cases as the children become young adults. These cortical GM changes in COS are diagnostically specific and seemingly unrelated to the effects of medications. Furthermore, the cortical GM loss is also shared by healthy full siblings of COS probands suggesting a genetic influence on the abnormal brain development. PMID:17906336
Monique K. LeBourgeois
Full Text Available Sleep has beneficial effects on brain function and learning, which are reflected in plastic changes in the cortex. Early childhood is a time of rapid maturation in fundamental skills—e.g., language, cognitive control, working memory—that are predictive of future functioning. Little is currently known about the interactions between sleep and brain maturation during this developmental period. We propose coherent electroencephalogram (EEG activity during sleep may provide unique insight into maturational processes of functional brain connectivity. Longitudinal sleep EEG assessments were performed in eight healthy subjects at ages 2, 3 and 5 years. Sleep EEG coherence increased across development in a region- and frequency-specific manner. Moreover, although connectivity primarily decreased intra-hemispherically across a night of sleep, an inter-hemispheric overnight increase occurred in the frequency range of slow waves (0.8–2 Hz, theta (4.8–7.8 Hz and sleep spindles (10–14 Hz, with connectivity changes of up to 20% across a night of sleep. These findings indicate sleep EEG coherence reflects processes of brain maturation—i.e., programmed unfolding of neuronal networks—and moreover, sleep-related alterations of brain connectivity during the sensitive maturational window of early childhood.
Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.; Droomers, Mariel
Background: People with higher socio-economic status (SES) are generally in better health. Less is known about when these socio-economic health differences set in during childhood and how they develop over time. The goal of this study was to prospectively study the development of socio-economic heal
Diepgen, Thomas L; Andersen, Klaus E; Chosidow, Oliver;
The guidelines aim to provide advice on the management of hand eczema (HE), using an evidence- and consensus-based approach. The guidelines consider a systematic Cochrane review on interventions for HE, which is based on a systematic search of the published literature (including hand-searching). In...... treatments. Topical corticosteroids are recommended as first line treatment in the management of HE, however continuous long-term treatment beyond six weeks only when necessary and under careful me-dical supervision. Alitretinoin is recommended as a second line treatment (relative to topical corticosteroids...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Atopic eczema is a common and distressing disease. This study aims to review PubMed indexed research statistics on atopic eczema over a-10 year period to investigate the clinical relevance and research interest about this disease. Methods PubMed (a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine was searched for the terms “atopic dermatitis” and “eczema”, with limits activated (Humans, Clinical Trial, Meta-Analysis, Randomized Controlled Trial, English, published in the last 10 years, and editorials, letters, practice guidelines, reviews, and animal studies excluded. Journal impact factor (IF is in accordance with Journal Citation Report (JCR 2009, a product of Thomson ISI (Institute for Scientific Information. Results A total of 890 articles were retrieved. Taking out publications that were irrelevant and those without an impact factor, 729 articles were obtained. These articles were grouped into dermatology (n = 337, mean IF: 3.01, allergy/immunology (n = 215, mean IF: 4.89, pediatrics (n = 118, mean IF: 2.53 and miscellaneous subject categories (n = 142, mean IF: 5.10. The impact factors were highest in the miscellaneous category (p = 0.0001, which includes such prestigious journals as the New England journal of Medicine (n = 1, IF: 47.05, the Lancet (n = 4, IF: 30.76 and BMJ (n = 6, IF: 13.66. There was no publication in any family medicine or general practice journal. The British Journal of Dermatology (n = 78, Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (n = 49 and Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (n = 46 had the highest number of publications on the subject. Atopic eczema ranked higher in impact factors in allergy/immunology although more publications appeared in the dermatology category. Conclusions Atopic eczema is a multidisciplinary disease. Its clinical relevance and research interests are definitely beyond that of a mere cutaneous disease. Investigators may
Petrou, Stavros; Kupek, Emil
The importance of reducing childhood undernutrition has been enshrined in the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the relationship between alternative indicators of poverty and childhood undernutrition in developing countries within the context of a multi-national cohort study (Young Lives). Approximately 2000 children in each of four countries - Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam - had their heights measured and were weighed when they were aged between 6 and 17 months (survey one) and again between 4.5 and 5.5 years (survey two). The anthropometric outcomes of stunted, underweight and wasted were calculated using World Health Organization 2006 reference standards. Maximum-likelihood probit estimation was employed to model the relationship within each country and survey between alternative measures of living standards (principally a wealth index developed using principal components analysis) and each anthropometric outcome. An extensive set of covariates was incorporated into the models to remove as much individual heterogeneity as possible. The fully adjusted models revealed a negative and statistically significant coefficient on wealth for all outcomes in all countries, with the exception of the outcome of wasted in India (Andhra Pradesh) and Vietnam (survey one) and the outcome of underweight in Vietnam (surveys one and two). In survey one, the partial effects of wealth on the probabilities of stunting, being underweight and wasting was to reduce them by between 1.4 and 5.1 percentage points, 1.0 and 6.4 percentage points, and 0.3 and 4.5 percentage points, respectively, with each unit (10%) increase in wealth. The partial effects of wealth on the probabilities of anthropometric outcomes were larger in the survey two models. In both surveys, children residing in the lowest wealth quintile households had significantly increased probabilities of being stunted in all four study countries and of being underweight in
Rasmussen, F; Lambrechtsen, J; Siersted, H C;
Intense physical activity in children may either improve fitness and protect against asthma, or may trigger symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether physical fitness in childhood has an impact on the development of asthma. In this prospective, community-based study, 757 (84...... in the subjects at follow-up. During the 10-yr study period, 51 (6.7%) of the previously asymptomatic children developed asthma. These subjects had a lower mean physical fitness in 1985 than their peers: (3.63 versus 3.89 W x kg(-1); p=0.02) in boys and (3.17 versus 3.33 W x kg(-1); p=0.02) in girls. A weak...
Segretin, M Soledad; Hermida, M Julia; Prats, Lucía M; Fracchia, Carolina S; Ruetti, Eliana; Lipina, Sebastián J
For at least eight decades, researchers have analyzed the association between childhood poverty and cognitive development in different societies worldwide, but few of such studies have been carried out in Latin America. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the empirical studies that have analyzed the associations between poverty and cognitive development in children under 18 years of age from Latin American and Caribbean countries between 2000 and 2015. This analysis takes into consideration the country where the work was conducted, the experimental and analytical design, sample size and composition, cognitive and poverty paradigms implemented, levels of analysis, and the inclusion of mediation analyses. Through these, we identify common patterns in the negative impact of poverty that have been repeatedly verified in the literature in other continents; we also call attention to a set of issues regarding sample, design, paradigms, impact, and mediation analyses that should be considered in future studies in the region. PMID:27254824
Full Text Available
Early Childhood Education (ECE as an academic discipline has gained an academic legitimacy in Fin-
land in 2005. In accordance with internationally established practice, Early Childhood Education as an academic
field and a field of research has been set to cover the period from birth to eight years of age. The focus of ECE re-
search is to analyse and define the development and upbringing of young children, including such themes as
learning and teaching and the complex connection between child development to the growth environment. In re-
cent years in Finland, the internal paradigmatic discussions within academic ECE have been both enlightened and
critical. The emergence of an academic Early Childhood Education paradigm has been apparent in the discus-
sions of early pedagogy, professional growth, leadership, management and quality and as a definer of pedagogy
to support children’s learning. The challenge of academic Early Childhood Education is to introduce into the dis-
cussion ontological and epistemological issues of early childhood and thereby activate teachers and other
Bergman Nutley, Sissela; Darki, Fahimeh; Klingberg, Torkel
Practicing a musical instrument is associated with cognitive benefits and structural brain changes in correlational and interventional trials; however, the effect of musical training on cognition during childhood is still unclear. In this longitudinal study of child development we analyzed the association between musical practice and performance on reasoning, processing speed and working memory (WM) during development. Subjects (n = 352) between the ages of 6 and 25 years participated in neuropsychological assessments and neuroimaging investigations (n = 64) on two or three occasions, 2 years apart. Mixed model regression showed that musical practice had an overall positive association with WM capacity (visuo-spatial WM, F = 4.59, p = 0.033, verbal WM, F = 9.69, p = 0.002), processing speed, (F = 4.91, p = 0.027) and reasoning (Raven's progressive matrices, F = 28.34, p effect of parental education and other after school activities. Music players also had larger gray matter volume in the temporo-occipital and insular cortex (p = 0.008), areas previously reported to be related to musical notation reading. The change in WM between the time points was proportional to the weekly hours spent on music practice for both WM tests (VSWM, β = 0.351, p = 0.003, verbal WM, β = 0.261, p = 0.006) but this was not significant for reasoning ability (β = 0.021, p = 0.090). These effects remained when controlling for parental education and other after school activities. In conclusion, these results indicate that music practice positively affects WM development and support the importance of practice for the development of WM during childhood and adolescence. PMID:24431997
Sissela eBergman Nutley
Full Text Available Practicing a musical instrument is associated with cognitive benefits and structural brain changes in correlational and interventional trials; however the effect of musical training on cognition during childhood is still unclear. In this longitudinal study of child development we analyzed the association between musical practice and performance on reasoning, processing speed and working memory (WM during development. Subjects (n = 352 between the ages of 6 and 25 years participated in neuropsychological assessments and neuroimaging investigations (n = 64 on two or three occasions, two years apart. Mixed model regression showed that musical practice had an overall positive association with WM capacity (visuo-spatial WM, F = 4.59, p = 0.033, Verbal WM, F = 9.69, p = 0.002, processing speed, (F = 4.91, p = 0.027 and reasoning (Raven's progressive matrices, F = 28.34, p < 0.001 across all three time points, after correcting for the effect of parental education and other after school activities Music players also had larger gray matter volume in the temporo-occipital and insular cortex (p = 0.008, areas previously reported to be related to musical notation reading. The change in WM between the time points was proportional to the weekly hours spent on music practice for both WM tests (VSWM, β = 0.351, p = 0.003, Verbal WM, β = 0.261, p = 0.006 but this was not significant for reasoning ability (β = 0.021, p = 0.090. These effects remained when controlling for parental education and other afterschool activites. In conclusion, these results indicates that music practice positively affects WM development and support the importance of practice for the development of WM during childhood and adolescence.
Ibler, Kristina Sophie; Agner, Tove; Hansen, Jane L.;
strategies are needed to reduce occupational hand eczema. METHODS/DESIGN: We describe the design of a randomised clinical trial to investigate the effects of classification of hand eczema plus individual counselling versus no intervention. The trial includes health-care workers with hand eczema identified...... from a self-administered questionnaire delivered to 3181 health-care workers in three Danish hospitals. The questionnaire identifies the prevalence of hand eczema, knowledge of skin-protection, and exposures that can lead to hand eczema. At entry, all participants are assessed regarding: disease...
Benjamin J Balas
Full Text Available Faces are complex stimuli that can be described via intuitive facial features like the eyes, nose, and mouth, configural features like the distances between facial landmarks, and features that correspond to computations performed in the early visual system (e.g. oriented edges. With regard to this latter category of descriptors, adult face recognition relies disproportionately on information in specific spatial frequency and orientation bands: Many recognition tasks are performed more accurately when adults have access to mid-range spatial frequencies (8-16 cycles/face and horizontal orientations (Dakin & Watt, 2009. In the current study, we examined how this information bias develops in middle childhood. We recruited children between the ages of 5-10 years old to participate in a simple categorization task that required them to label images according to whether they depicted a face or a house. Critically, children were presented with face and house images comprised either of primarily horizontal orientation energy, primarily vertical orientation energy, or both horizontal and vertical orientation energy. We predicted that any bias favoring horizontal information over vertical should be more evident in faces than in houses, and also that older children would be more likely to show such a bias than younger children. We designed our categorization task to be sufficiently easy that children would perform at near-ceiling accuracy levels, but with variation in response times that would reflect how they rely on different orientations as a function of age and object category. We found that horizontal bias for face detection (but not house detection correlated significantly with age, suggesting an emergent category-specific bias for horizontal orientation energy that develops during middle childhood. These results thus suggest that the tuning of high-level recognition to specific low-level visual features takes take place over several years of visual
Skoet, Rikke; Olsen, Jorn; Mathiesen, Bent; Iversen, Lars; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Agner, Tove
Occupational hand eczema (OHE) is the most frequently recognized work-related disease in Denmark and the annual cost to society is high. Understanding of the epidemiology of OHE is essential to be able to give appropriate recommendations for its prevention. The study comprised 758 persons, 490 females and 268 males with recognized OHE in the period October 2001 to November 2002. Data were obtained prospectively from the National Board of Industrial Industry Registry and from a self-administered questionnaire (response rate, 82%). The most frequently recognized diagnosis was irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), mainly caused by wet occupations. The proportion of occupational ICD was equal for males and females, 59.7% and 63.1%, respectively. The estimated rates of OHE were high for bakers, hairdressers and dental surgery assistants, and a high proportion of apprentices were found among hairdressers. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis was low (16.4%) compared to previous studies among hand eczema patients. The prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in the study population was substantially higher among males than females, and the most frequent causes among males were allergy to chromium (leather exposure), rubber additives (gloves) and nickel due to exposure from work tools and metalworking industry. PMID:15500664
Helena Lara Rohlf
Full Text Available An observational measure of anger regulation in middle childhood was developed that facilitated the in situ assessment of five maladaptive regulation strategies in response to an anger-eliciting task. 599 children aged 6-10 years (M = 8.12, SD = 0.92 participated in the study. Construct validity of the measure was examined through correlations with parent- and self-reports of anger regulation and anger reactivity. Criterion validity was established through links with teacher-rated aggression and social rejection measured by parent-, teacher-, and self-reports. The observational measure correlated significantly with parent- and self-reports of anger reactivity, whereas it was unrelated to parent- and self-reports of anger regulation. It also made a unique contribution to predicting aggression and social rejection.
Rohlf, Helena L; Krahé, Barbara
An observational measure of anger regulation in middle childhood was developed that facilitated the in situ assessment of five maladaptive regulation strategies in response to an anger-eliciting task. 599 children aged 6-10 years (M = 8.12, SD = 0.92) participated in the study. Construct validity of the measure was examined through correlations with parent- and self-reports of anger regulation and anger reactivity. Criterion validity was established through links with teacher-rated aggression and social rejection measured by parent-, teacher-, and self-reports. The observational measure correlated significantly with parent- and self-reports of anger reactivity, whereas it was unrelated to parent- and self-reports of anger regulation. It also made a unique contribution to predicting aggression and social rejection. PMID:25964767
Full Text Available Cytarabine is an effective drug in the treatment of haematological malignancies. The therapy is associated with various complications. Frequencies of dermatological side-effects range from 2–72% and occur most commonly after high-dose regimens. Although most cutaneous reactions are mild and resolve spontaneously within several days, they may result in an increased risk of infection and alterations in comfort. In some cases, severe life-threatening reactions have been reported. Here we describe the case of a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia, who developed severe exceptional skin toxicity in terms of auricular oedema and palmar dyshidrotic eczema after the application of low-dose cytarabine. Re-administration of the drug resulted in reduced skin toxicity during further cycles of chemotherapy. Negative epicutaneous patch-testing supported the existence of cytarabine-provoked toxicity.
Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; [...
Background Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim of...
Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W.
BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim o...
Not every axillary dermatitis is caused by an allergy against corresponding cosmetics (deodorants or anti-perspirants). This is shown in a 24-year-old man with an acute contact dermatitis in the left axilla. Sensitization probably developed against mercury salts due to the regular use of thermometers which were kept in a disinfecting solution containing phenylmercuric borate. The patient was in two hospitals for a check up before heart surgery and temperature was regularly measured in the left axilla. In both clincis phenylmercuric borate was used for desinfection of the thermometers. The sensitivity was proofed by positive patch tests.
Knol, Linda L.; Myers, Harriet H.; Black, Sheila; Robinson, Darlene; Awololo, Yawah; Clark, Debra; Parker, Carson L.; Douglas, Joy W.; Higginbotham, John C.
Background: Effective childhood obesity prevention programs for preschool children are limited in number and focus on changes in the child care environment rather than the home environment. Purpose: The purpose of this project was to develop and test the feasibility of a home environment obesity prevention program that incorporates mindful eating…
Kim, Jung In
As English becomes an international language in the world, there is a growing interest in developing English skills from early childhood. In Korea, the demand for English as a foreign language education for young children has increased considerably in the past decade. However, little is still known about the professional knowledge of an early…
Jung, Youngok; Zuniga, Stephen; Howes, Carollee; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Parrish, Deborah; Quick, Heather; Manship, Karen; Hauser, Alison
Noting the lack of research on how early childhood education (ECE) programmes within family literacy programmes influence Latino children's early language and literacy development, this study examined key features of ECE programmes, specifically teacher-child interactions and child engagement in language and literacy activities and how these…
Ottley, Jennifer R.; Coogle, Christan G.; Rahn, Naomi L.; Spear, Caitlin F.
The goal of this study was to build the capacity of early childhood teachers to implement evidence-based strategies. We investigated the efficacy of professional development with bug-in-ear peer coaching in improving teachers' use of communication strategies, the teachers' maintenance of strategies post intervention, and the social validity of the…
US Department of Health and Human Services, 2016
The purpose of this policy statement is to support early childhood programs and States by providing recommendations that promote the development and learning of young children, birth to age five, who are dual language learners (DLLs). The statement also provides support to tribal communities in their language revitalization efforts within tribal…
Feiring, Candice; Lewis, Michael
Examines gender differences in social network (SN) development from early to middle childhood and the relation of network characteristics to school competence through mothers' reports of the SNs of 38 sons and 37 daughters. For girls, SN characteristics correspond to teacher ratings of social competence in school. (SLD)
Boylan, Khrista; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Szatmari, Peter
Oppositional defiant disorder in childhood is a predictor of later mood disorders. This study assessed whether groups of children can be identified by their course of co-occurring oppositional and depressive symptoms in childhood using group based trajectory modeling. Participants were a cohort of 932 4 or 5 year old offspring of women…
Evan D Peet
Full Text Available While recent literature has highlighted the importance of early childhood development for later life outcomes, comparatively little is known regarding the relative importance of early physical and cognitive development in predicting educational attainment cross-culturally.We used prospective data from three birth cohorts: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1986 (NFBC1986, the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS1970, and the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey of 1983 (CLHNS to assess the association of height-for-age z-score (HAZ and cognitive development measured prior to age 8 with schooling attainment. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate baseline and adjusted associations.Both physical and cognitive development were highly predictive of adult educational attainment conditional on parental characteristics. The largest positive associations between physical development and schooling were found in the CLHNS (β = 0.53, 95%-CI: [0.32, 0.74] with substantially smaller associations in the BCS1970 (β = 0.10, 95% CI [0.04, 0.16] and the NFBC1986 (β = 0.06, 95% CI [-0.05, 0.16]. Strong associations between cognitive development and educational attainment were found for all three cohorts (NFBC1986: β = 0.22, 95%-CI: [0.12, 0.31], BCS1970: β = 0.58, 95%-CI: [0.52, 0.64], CLHNS: β = 1.08, 95%-CI: [0.88, 1.27]. Models jointly estimating educational associations of physical and cognitive development demonstrated weaker associations for physical development and minimal changes for cognitive development.The results indicate that although physical and cognitive early development are both important predictors of educational attainment, cognitive development appears to play a particularly important role. The large degree of heterogeneity in the observed effect sizes suggest that the importance of early life physical growth and cognitive development is highly dependent on socioeconomic and institutional contexts.
Peet, Evan D.; Danaei, Goodarz; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pillas, Demetris
Background While recent literature has highlighted the importance of early childhood development for later life outcomes, comparatively little is known regarding the relative importance of early physical and cognitive development in predicting educational attainment cross-culturally. Methods We used prospective data from three birth cohorts: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1986 (NFBC1986), the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS1970), and the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey of 1983 (CLHNS) to assess the association of height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and cognitive development measured prior to age 8 with schooling attainment. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate baseline and adjusted associations. Results Both physical and cognitive development were highly predictive of adult educational attainment conditional on parental characteristics. The largest positive associations between physical development and schooling were found in the CLHNS (β = 0.53, 95%-CI: [0.32, 0.74]) with substantially smaller associations in the BCS1970 (β = 0.10, 95% CI [0.04, 0.16]) and the NFBC1986 (β = 0.06, 95% CI [-0.05, 0.16]). Strong associations between cognitive development and educational attainment were found for all three cohorts (NFBC1986: β = 0.22, 95%-CI: [0.12, 0.31], BCS1970: β = 0.58, 95%-CI: [0.52, 0.64], CLHNS: β = 1.08, 95%-CI: [0.88, 1.27]). Models jointly estimating educational associations of physical and cognitive development demonstrated weaker associations for physical development and minimal changes for cognitive development. Conclusion The results indicate that although physical and cognitive early development are both important predictors of educational attainment, cognitive development appears to play a particularly important role. The large degree of heterogeneity in the observed effect sizes suggest that the importance of early life physical growth and cognitive development is highly dependent on socioeconomic and
Expanding Early Childhood Care and Education: How Much Does It Cost? A Proposal for a Methodology to Estimate the Costs of Early Childhood Care and Education at Macro-Level, Applied to Arab States. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 46
van Ravens, Jan; Aggio, Carlos
While the critical importance of early childhood care and education (ECCE) is undisputed, few developing countries are presently pursuing strong national policies to expand it. Thus, Goal One of the Education for All (EFA) agenda--"Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and…
Full Text Available This review examines the current evidence for a possible connection between nutritional intake (including micronutrients and whole diet and neurocognitive development in childhood. Earlier studies which have investigated the association between nutrition and cognitive development have focused on individual micronutrients, including omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, folic acid, choline, iron, iodine and zinc, and single aspects of diet. The research evidence from observational studies suggests that micronutrients may play an important role in the cognitive development of children. However, the results of intervention trials utilising single micronutrients are inconclusive. More generally, there is evidence that malnutrition can impair cognitive development, whilst breastfeeding appears to be beneficial for cognition. Eating breakfast is also beneficial for cognition. In contrast, there is currently inconclusive evidence regarding the association between obesity and cognition. Since individuals consume combinations of foods, more recently researchers have become interested in the cognitive impact of diet as a composite measure. Only a few studies to date have investigated the associations between dietary patterns and cognitive development. In future research, more well designed intervention trials are needed, with special consideration given to the interactive effects of nutrients.
This paper critiques a number of pre-academic and readiness tasks commonly found in tests and curricula used in early childhood education in North America and Europe and frequently adopted in developing countries. Some of the tasks discussed are: putting pegs in a pegboard, reproducing bead patterns, and completing picture puzzles. Evidence is presented to challenge a number of commonly held assumptions associated with these tasks: a) that the `generic skills' acquired when children learn these tasks are prerequisite to learning higher level skills, b) that the skills acquired will generalize to the performance of more functional activities, c) that handicapped children should be taught skills corresponding to their mental age level, and d) that handicapped children in developing countries should be tested and taught skills that are frequently found in the tests and curricula of normal functioning children in North America and Europe. Although much of the evidence cited has been available for some time, it has not generally influenced testing and teaching practices in developing countries. The tragic result is that very limited economic and manpower resources are often wasted on the use of ineffective methods. The final section of the paper describes recently developed methods of conducting ecological inventories for designing ecologically valid tests and curricula of functional skills in developing countries.
Mhairi A Gibson
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evolutionary life history theory predicts that, in the absence of contraception, any enhancement of maternal condition can increase human fertility. Energetic trade-offs are likely to be resolved in favour of maximizing reproductive success rather than health or longevity. Here we find support for the hypothesis that development initiatives designed to improve maternal and child welfare may also incur costs associated with increased family sizes if they do not include a family planning component. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Demographic and anthropometric data were collected in a rural Ethiopian community benefiting from a recent labour-saving development technology that reduces women's energetic expenditure (n = 1,976 households. Using logistic hazards models and general linear modelling techniques, we found that whilst infant mortality has declined, the birth rate has increased, causing greater scarcity of resources within households. CONCLUSIONS: This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a link between a technological development intervention and an increase in both birth rate and childhood malnutrition. Women's nutritional status was not improved by the energy-saving technology, because energy was diverted into higher birth rates. We argue that the contribution of biological processes to increased birth rates in areas of the developing world without access to modern contraception has been overlooked. This highlights the continued need for development programmes to be multisectoral, including access to and promotion of contraception.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between anxiety and depression, and eczema is well known in the literature, but factors underlying this association remain unclear. Low levels of omega-3 fatty acids and female gender have been found to be associated with both depression and eczema. Somatization and health anxiety are known to be associated with anxiety and depression, further, somatization symptoms and health anxiety have also been found in several dermatological conditions. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid supplement, female gender, somatization and health anxiety are possible contributing factors in the association between anxiety and depression, and eczema. The aim of the study is to examine the relevance of proposed contributing factors for the association between anxiety and depression, and eczema, including, omega-3 fatty acid supplement, female gender, health anxiety and somatization. Methods Anxiety and depression was measured in the general population (n = 15715 employing the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Information on eczema, female gender, omega-3 fatty acid supplement, health anxiety and somatization was obtained by self-report. Results Somatization and health anxiety accounted for more than half of the association between anxiety/depression, and eczema, while the other factors examined were of minor relevance for the association of interest. Conclusions We found no support for female gender and omega-3 fatty acid supplement as contributing factors in the association between anxiety/depression, and eczema. Somatization and health anxiety accounted for about half of the association between anxiety/depression, and eczema, somatization contributed most. The association between anxiety/depression, and eczema was insignificant after adjustment for somatization and health anxiety. Biological mechanisms underlying the mediating effect of somatization are yet to be revealed.
Hald, M; Agner, T; Blands, J;
months (IQR 1-8). In a logistic regression model, the odds ratio of a poor prognosis increased by a factor of 1.11 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.21] per month of patient delay and by 1.05 (95% CI 1.00-1.10) per month of healthcare delay. CONCLUSIONS: A poorer prognosis of hand eczema......: Study participants were 333 patients with hand eczema from nine dermatological clinics in Denmark. Severity of hand eczema was assessed by the patients at baseline and at the 6-month follow up using a self-administered photographic guide. Additional information was obtained by self...
Dias, Jéssica David; Mekaro, Marcelo Shinyu; Cheng Lu, Jennifer Kaon; Otsuka, Joice Lee; Fonseca, Luciana Mara Monti; Zem-Mascarenhas, Silvia Helena
ABSTRACT Objectives: to develop and assess a serious game on healthy eating and physical activity to promote health and tackle childhood obesity. Method: a descriptive, applied and methodological study.For the development of the game, the following steps were taken: conceptualization, pre-production with the development of the game documentation, prototyping, production and assessment of thecomputer and health experts. Results: a prototype has been developed up to beta version. The game was positively assessed both in terms of gameplay and mechanics, and in relation to the content presented, standing out as a powerful strategy for health promotion. The information from the assessment phase contributed to the settings in the software in order to make it available in the future for the target population of this research. The greatest advantage of the proposed game is the fact that it is an open educational resource. Conclusions: the expert assessments showed that the game has great educational potential and it is considered suitable for future application to the target audience.The serious game can become a technological teaching resource available for use in schools and health facilities, and can also be reused for the production of other educational games by accessing its source code. PMID:27533268
Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Sleiman, Patrick M A;
RATIONALE: An asthma predisposition locus on chromosome 17q12-q21 has recently been replicated in different ethnic groups. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the asthma and atopy phenotypes in early childhood that associate with the 17q12-21 locus. METHODS: The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs...... endpoints were based on diary cards and clinic visits every 6 months and at acute symptoms from birth. Lung function, bronchial responsiveness, and sensitization were tested longitudinally from early infancy. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: rs7216389 was significantly associated with the development......: Variation at the chromosome 17q12-q21 locus was associated with approximately twofold increased risk of recurrent wheeze, asthma, asthma exacerbations, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness from early infancy to school age but without conferring risk of eczema, rhinitis, or allergic sensitization...
Berendt, Elizabeth Ann
The empirical literature regarding the descriptive links between childhood sexual abuse and adult development is reviewed from an Eriksonian perspective. The problems with studying the developmental effects of childhood sexual abuse are discussed. These include the following problems: the lack of differentiation between sexual abuse cases,…
Mages, Wendy K.
This article documents the implementation of a professional development workshop on the Reggio Emilia approach in early childhood art education. It describes how early childhood educators participated in a collaborative collage experience and how a similar art activity can be engaging for young children. It also highlights philosophies,…
Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.
Patalay, Praveetha; Fink, Elian; Fonagy, Peter; Deighton, Jessica
This study explores children's externalising symptom development pathways between 8 and 11 years of age (three time points across 2 years) and examines their sociodemographic correlates and associations with change in academic attainment. Externalising symptoms were assessed for 5485 children across three consecutive years (M age = 8.7 years, SD = 0.30 at time 1). National standardised test scores served as an index of academic attainment. Using latent class growth analysis, six distinct trajectories of externalising symptom development were identified. Children who showed increasing externalising symptomatology across the three time points were more likely to be male or have special educational needs. These derived trajectories differentially predicted children's subsequent academic attainment (controlling for earlier attainment). Children with increasing externalising symptomatology were significantly more likely to demonstrate negative change in academic achievement compared with children with consistently low externalising problems. The study helps to clarify the longitudinal association between externalising symptom development and academic attainment, and highlights the importance of early intervention for children with increasing externalising symptoms across middle childhood. PMID:26260353
Tenenbaum-Katan, Janna; Hofemeier, Philipp; Sznitman, Josué; Janna Tenenbaum-Katan Team
Inhalation therapy is the cornerstone of early-childhood respiratory treatments, as well as a rising potential for systemic drug delivery and pulmonary vaccination. As such, indispensable understanding of respiratory flow phenomena, coupled with particle transport at the deep regions of children's lungs is necessary to attain efficient targeting of aerosol therapy. However, fundamental research of pulmonary transport is overwhelmingly focused on adults. In our study, we have developed an anatomically-inspired computational model of representing pulmonary acinar regions at several age points during a child's development. Our numerical simulations examine respiratory flows and particle deposition maps within the acinar model, accounting for varying age dependant anatomical considerations and ventilation patterns. Resulting deposition maps of aerosols alter with age, such findings might suggest that medication protocols of inhalation therapy in young children should be considered to be accordingly amended with the child's development. Additionally to understanding basic scientific concepts of age effects on aerosol deposition, our research can potentially contribute practical guidelines to therapy protocols, and its' necessary modifications with age. We acknowledge the support of the ISF and the Israeli ministry of Science.
van der Gulden Joost W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Workers in wet work occupations have a risk for developing hand eczema. Prevention strategies exist, but compliance to the proposed recommendations is poor. Therefore, a multifaceted implementation strategy (MIS is developed to implement these recommendations to reduce hand eczema among health care workers performing wet work. Methods/Design This study is a randomised controlled trial in three university hospitals in the Netherlands. Randomisation to the control or intervention group is performed at department level. The control group receives a leaflet containing the recommendations only. The intervention group receives the MIS which consists of five parts: 1 within a department, a participatory working group is formed to identify problems with the implementation of the recommendations, to find solutions for it and implement these solutions; 2 role models will help their colleagues in performing the desired behaviour; 3 education to all workers will enhance knowledge about (the prevention of hand eczema; 4 reminders will be placed at the department reminding workers to use the recommendations; 5 workers receive the same leaflet as the control group containing the recommendations. Data are collected by questionnaires at baseline and after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is self-reported hand eczema. The most important secondary outcome measures are symptoms of hand eczema; actual use of the recommendations; sick leave; work productivity; and health care costs. Analyses will be performed according to the intention to treat principle. Cost-effectiveness of the MIS will be evaluated from both the societal and the employer's perspective. Discussion The prevention of hand eczema is important for the hospital environment. If the MIS has proven to be effective, a major improvement in the health of health care workers can be obtained. Results are expected in 2014. Trial registration number NTR2812
Frewen, Paul A.; Evans, Barrie; Goodman, Jason; Halliday, Aaron; Boylan, James; Moran, Greg; Reiss, Jeffrey; Schore, Allan; Ruth A. Lanius
Background: Current psychometric measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to assess the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs, including the relationship of abusers to abused persons, the emotional availability of caregivers, and the respondent’s own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment.Objective: To evaluate a computerized approach to measuring the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment ...
Full Text Available Increased plasma histamine levels were associated with significantly lowered diamine and type B monoamine oxidase activities in platelet-rich plasma of atopic eczema (AE patients. The diamine oxidase has almost normal cofactor levels (pyridoxal phosphate and Cu2+ but the cofactor levels for type B monoamine oxidase (flavin adenine dinucleotide and Fe2+ are lowered. The biogenic amines putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, tyramine and serotonin in the sera, as well as dopamine and epinephrine in EDTA-plasma were found to be normal. It is unlikely, therefore, that these amines are responsible for the decreased activities of monoamine and diamine oxidase in these patients. The most likely causative factors for the inhibition of the diamine oxidase are nicotine, alcohol, food additives and other environmental chemicals, or perhaps a genetic defect of the diamine oxidase.
The area of the functioning of the voice is a fundamental element of human communication apart from language, speaking, hearing and perceiving. Detailed knowledge of normal vocal development is a prerequisite for the diagnosis and therapy of vocal dysfunctions among children and adolescents by means of methods suitable for their age and their stages of development. In an overview, the landmarks of physiological development with normal value ranges relevant to practice are presented--from the newborn baby's first cry up to the age of young adults. The effects of various degrees of vocal activity on the part of children and adolescents on the parameters of vocal capacity and quality are taken into account, as well as the relationship between physical and vocal development. Furthermore, an overview of diagnostic methods suitable for this age group is given. Specialists for ENT and for Phoniatrics and Pediatric Audiology should be able to assess suitability for increased vocal activity and to care for vocal development during the vulnerable phase of the voice change. Manifold socio-cultural and pedagogical influences are already possible in early childhood and throughout the phase of the "voice in growth". They should be taken advantage of prophylactically--also with regard to the learning of physiological vocal behavior as a prerequisite for dealing with possible subsequent strain in vocally intensive professions. In the following second part of this publication, the fundamentals described here are applied to diagnostics and therapy of vocal dysfunctions in this age group by means of methods suitable for this stage of development. PMID:18080235
Dachyshyn Darcey M.
Full Text Available This paper is based on qualitative research undertaken in West Nile Uganda and Coastal Kenya as part of a broader development project. A wide range of stakeholders, including government officials, parents, and early childhood practitioners were involved in sharing their perspectives of what life is like for young children (birth to age 8 in their homes, communities, and institutions. Data gathered were then brought back to community members to solicit action plans. The author brings to the data her reflections and lived experience as a mzungu (white person brought to the region under the guise of development work and the ethical issues that ensued. It was clear that minority world discourses and conceptions of what constitutes a good life for children had permeated the value systems and goals of many adults in this majority world context. However, when challenged to think deeply about the systemic issues affecting their children, participants began to see the importance of finding ways to meld indigenous values, beliefs, and practices with the globalization agenda.
Theresa A. McElroy
Full Text Available Research from numerous fields of science has documented the critical importance of nurturing environments in shaping young children's future health and development. We studied the environments of early childhood (birth to 3 years during postconflict, postdisplacement transition in northern Uganda. The aim was to better understand perceived needs and risks in order to recommend targeted policy and interventions. Methods. Applied ethnography (interview, focus group discussion, case study, observational methods, document review in 3 sites over 1 year. Results. Transition was a prolonged and deeply challenging phase for families. Young children were exposed to a myriad of risk factors. Participants recognized risks as potential barriers to positive long-term life outcomes for children and society but circumstances generally rendered them unable to make substantive changes. Conclusions. Support structures were inadequate to protect the health and development of children during the transitional period placing infants and young children at risk. Specific policy and practice guidelines are required that focus on protecting hard-to-reach, vulnerable, children during what can be prolonged and extremely difficult periods of transition.
Pelletier, David; Neuman, Michelle J
The importance of early childhood development (ECD) is scientifically established and is increasingly recognized by governments and international organizations. However, progress in protecting and improving ECD is constrained by multisectoral influences on ECD, the multiple sectors and venues for delivering services, the lack of a common fiscal and policy space, and weak or fragmented data and monitoring systems. This paper describes two tools and strategies to strengthen multisectoral, system-wide policy environments for ECD. One is the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER)-ECD framework for tracking progress toward an integrated ECD system. Developed by the World Bank, SABER-ECD assists governments and their partners to take stock of their existing ECD policies and programs, analyze strengths and areas for improvement using common metrics, and learn from international examples. The other tool is an Agenda-Setting and Commitments framework, based on research in global health and nutrition that can guide national-level actors in their advocacy and strategic efforts to strengthen the integrated ECD system. These represent practical and research-based tools to translate scientific evidence concerning ECD into effective and large-scale actions. PMID:24152149
Oberlander, Tim F
Finely tuning levels of the key neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) during early life is essential for brain development and setting pathways for health and disorder across the early life span. Given the central role of 5-HT in brain development, regulation of mood, stress reactivity, and risk for psychiatric disorders, alterations in 5-HT signaling early in life have critical implications for behavior and mental health in childhood and adolescence. This article reviews the developmental consequences of two key influences that alter fetal 5-HT signaling: (1) in utero exposure to 5-HT reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, and (2) genetic variations in the 5-HT transporter gene (SLC6A4). The consequences of altered prenatal 5-HT signaling vary greatly, and developmental outcomes depend on an ongoing interplay between biological (genetic/epigenetic variations), experiential (prenatal drug or maternal mood exposure), and contextual (postnatal social environment) variables. Emerging evidence suggests both exposure to 5-HT reuptake inhibitors and genetic variations that affect 5-HT signaling may increase sensitivity to negative social contexts for some individuals, whereas for others, they may confer sensitivity to positive life circumstances. In this sense, factors that change central 5-HT levels may function less like influences that predict "vulnerability," but rather act like "plasticity factors." Understanding the impact of early changes in serotonergic programming offers critical insights that might explain patterns of individual differences in developmental risk and resilience. PMID:22794534
Full Text Available Regulation of thoughts and behavior requires attention, particularly when there is conflict between alternative responses or when errors are to be prevented or corrected. Conflict monitoring and error processing are functions of the executive attention network, a neurocognitive system that greatly matures during childhood. In this study, we examined the development of brain mechanisms underlying conflict and error processing with event-related potentials (ERPs, and explored the relationship between brain function and individual differences in the ability to self-regulate behavior. Three groups of children aged 4 to 6, 7 to 9, and 10 to 13 years, and a group of adults performed a child-friendly version of the flanker task while ERPs were registered. Marked developmental changes were observed in both conflict processing and brain reactions to errors. After controlling by age, higher self-regulation skills are associated with smaller amplitude of the conflict effect but greater amplitude of the error-related negativity. Additionally, we found that electrophysiological measures of conflict and error monitoring predict individual differences in impulsivity and the capacity to delay gratification. These findings inform of brain mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive control and self-regulation.
The atherosclerotic process leading to cardiovascular disease begins early in life and is influenced over time by several risk factors. Investigating determinants that contribute to an unfavourable cardiometabolic profile in childhood and adolescence is important for specifying time windows suitable
Full Text Available In China, great differences in economy, social characteristics and hygiene exist between developing and developed regions. A comparative study of infectious diarrhea between two regions was needed. Three groups of diarrheal patients were collected: children ≤5 year-olds from Beijing (developed region and Henan Province (developing region, and adults over 18 year-olds from Beijing. A questionnaire was used to survey and feces samples were examined for 16 enteropathogens. We enrolled 1422 children and 1047 adults from developed region and 755 children from developing region. Virus positive rates were 32.98% for children and 23.67% for adults in developed region. The most prevalent pathogen for children was rotavirus whereas for adults was norovirus. Bacterial isolation rates were 13.92% for children from developed region, while 29.14% for children from the developing regions. For the greatest difference, Shigella accounted for 50.79% and was the dominant pathogen in the developing region, whereas in the developed region it was only 1.45%. There was no significant relationship between the local levels of development with diarrheogenic Escherichia coli (DEC categories. But it was seen the notable differences between the population with different age: enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC and enteroaggregative E.coli (EAggEC were the primary classes of DEC in children from both regions, whereas it was enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC in adults. The symptoms of Shigella and Salmonella infection, such as bloody stools, white blood cells (WBC and red blood cells (RBC positivity and fever were similar in children, which may lead to the misidentification. Yersinia enterocolitica and shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC infections were firstly reported in Beijing. There was a large difference in etiology of bacterial diarrhea between children in developing and developed regions of China.
Meer, E.W. van der; Gulden, J.W.J. van der; Dongen, D. van; Boot, C.R.; Anema, J.R.
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based recommendations are available for the prevention of hand eczema among healthcare workers. However, the implementation of these recommendations is not always successful. OBJECTIVES: To identify barriers and facilitators in the implementation of recommendations for the preve
Katalin Merza; Gábor Papp; Ildikó Kuritárné Szabó
Background and Objectives: There is a growing body of evidence suggesting the role of childhood abuse in the etiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Studies found that complex traumatization related to BPD include emotional/physical/sexual abuse and neglect. This study examines self-reported experiences of childhood traumatization in Hungarian inpatients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder and reveal which etiological factors are most strongly associated with the de...
Khush Funer Murtaza
Full Text Available Among all levels of education, Early Childhood Education and Development (ECEd is considered to be the most critical level for social (relationship to others, emotional (self-image and security, cognitive (thinking and reasoning and physical development of children. Therefore, the teachers of early years need to play a significant role in the teaching and learning process through providing a friendly environment in their schools. The study employed a case study approach. Information was gathered through a combination of methods, which included classroom observations, field notes, document analysis, focus group and semi structured interviews. The focus group participants and the interviewees were selected from a variety of stakeholders, which included parents, students, teachers and head teachers from public sector to get a comprehensive and representative analysis. Informal conversations with different stakeholders and self reflections contributed to clarify different aspects of the issues and findings. In this study I explored teachers’ role in developing child friendly environment in ECE classrooms. Thus, two female ECE classroom teachers from a public secondary school in Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan were the primary participants of the study and they taught in early setup. The study revealed that institutional support and monitoring teachers’ personal propensity to learning for improving pupils’ learning, the prior ECED learning experiences and pedagogical content knowledge play an important role in engaging teachers in developing their thinking and teaching practice. The contribution of this thesis is that institutional and socio cultural influences are local, and derive from the Pakistani context, so have a particular significance for designing teacher development programs.
Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne D;
with a non-exposed control site. Nickel-reducing measures led to complete symptom relief in all cases. In cases of a positive nickel patch test reaction and hand eczema, patients should perform the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test on metallic items at home and at work. The acid wipe sampling technique is useful...... for the diagnosis of occupational hand eczema following screening with the inexpensive DMG test...
Background: Eczema is an important condition as it affects 20% of children in the UK and is associated with significant morbidity for children and their families. Although some progress in understanding factors associated with the occurrence of eczema has been made, very little is known about factors associated with disease worsening. Most textbooks and review articles quote long lists of exacerbating factors but with very little scientific data to support them. Before I could begin to study ...
Ibler, Kristina Sophie; Agner, Tove; Hansen, Jane L.;
from a self-administered questionnaire delivered to 3181 health-care workers in three Danish hospitals. The questionnaire identifies the prevalence of hand eczema, knowledge of skin-protection, and exposures that can lead to hand eczema. At entry, all participants are assessed regarding: disease...... severity (Hand Eczema Severity Index); self-evaluated disease severity; number of eruptions; quality of life; skin protective behaviour, and knowledge of skin protection. The patients are centrally randomised to intervention versus no intervention 1:1 stratified for hospital, profession, and severity score......BACKGROUND: Hand eczema is the most frequently recognized occupational disease in Denmark with an incidence of approximately 0.32 per 1000 person-years. Consequences of hand eczema include chronic severe eczema, prolonged sick leave, unemployment, and impaired quality of life. New preventive...
Cohen, Ruth; Chetley, Andrew
This Spanish-language publication reflects the philosophy and support of the Bernard van Leer Foundation for early childhood care and development. It highlights different approaches to early childhood care and development and explains why the foundation believes that investing in early childhood is one of the best ways of building a brighter,…
Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Harkema-Schouten, Petra; Bernstein, David
Objective: We conducted a comprehensive assessment of the reliability and validity of the Interview for Traumatic Events in Childhood (ITEC, Lobbestael, Arntz, Kremers, & Sieswerda, 2006), a retrospective, semi-structured interview for childhood maltreatment. The ITEC aims to yield dimensional scores for severity of experiences of different…
Davison Kirsten K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ineffective family interventions for the prevention of childhood obesity have, in part, been attributed to the challenges of reaching and engaging parents. With a particular focus on parent engagement, this study utilized community-based participatory research to develop and pilot test a family-centered intervention for low-income families with preschool-aged children enrolled in Head Start. Methods During year 1 (2009–2010, parents played an active and equal role with the research team in planning and conducting a community assessment and using the results to design a family-centered childhood obesity intervention. During year 2 (2010–2011, parents played a leading role in implementing the intervention and worked with the research team to evaluate its results using a pre-post cohort design. Intervention components included: (1 revisions to letters sent home to families reporting child body mass index (BMI; (2 a communication campaign to raise parents’ awareness of their child’s weight status; (3 the integration of nutrition counseling into Head Start family engagement activities; and (4 a 6-week parent-led program to strengthen parents’ communication skills, conflict resolution, resource-related empowerment for healthy lifestyles, social networks, and media literacy. A total of 423 children ages 2–5 years, from five Head Start centers in upstate New York, and their families were exposed to the intervention and 154 families participated in its evaluation. Child outcome measures included BMI z-score, accelerometer-assessed physical activity, and dietary intake assessed using 24-hour recall. Parent outcomes included food-, physical activity- and media-related parenting practices and attitudes. Results Compared with pre intervention, children at post intervention exhibited significant improvements in their rate of obesity, light physical activity, daily TV viewing, and dietary intake (energy and macronutrient intake
Leeuwis, Franca H; Koot, Hans M; Creemers, Daan H M; van Lier, Pol A C
Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development of internalizing problems in children. It furthermore examined the possible mediating role of self-esteem discrepancies in the longitudinal link between experiences of peer victimization and internalizing problems development. Children (N = 330, M(age) = 11.2 year; 52.5 % female) were followed over grades five (age 11 years) and six (age 12 years). Self-report measures were used annually to test for victimization and internalizing problems. Implicit self-esteem was assessed using an implicit association test, while explicit self-esteem was assessed via self-reports. Self-esteem discrepancies represented the difference between implicit and explicit self-esteem. Results showed that victimization was associated with increases in damaged self-esteem (higher levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem. Additionally, damaged self-esteem at age 11 years predicted an increase in internalizing problems in children over ages 11 to 12 years. Furthermore, damaged self-esteem mediated the relationship between age 11 years victimization and the development of internalizing problems. No impact of fragile self-esteem (lower levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem) on internalizing problems was found. The results thus underscore that, as found in adolescent and adult samples, damaged self-esteem is a predictor of increases in childhood internalizing problems. Moreover, damaged self-esteem might explain why children who are victimized develop internalizing problems. Implications are discussed.
The family physician is one of the few individuals from whom families receive feedback about their children's development; this makes early identification of potential delays an important responsibility. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends formal developmental screening for all children at the 9-, 18-, and 24- and/or 30-month well-child visits as well as developmental surveillance at every office visit through age 5 years. A formal screening measure is recommended, taking into account administration time and cost, characteristics of the patient population (eg, availability of screening tool in numerous languages), and psychometrics (eg, reliability, sensitivity, specificity). In the case of abnormal screening results, family physicians must determine the need for further medical evaluation (eg, by a developmental pediatric subspecialist or a pediatric neurology, genetics, or physiatry subspecialist) and/or further developmental evaluation (eg, by a physical therapy [PT], occupational therapy [OT], speech/language pathology, psychology, or audiology subspecialist). Knowledge of early intervention and early childhood programs is necessary for directing parents to evaluation and treatment sources. In treating patients with developmental delays, family physicians must possess knowledge regarding traditional modalities (eg, speech/language therapy, OT, PT) as well as newer treatments with less research support (eg, gluten-free/casein-free diet, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, neurodevelopmental treatment) that families may consider.
Peterson, Candida C; O'Reilly, Karin; Wellman, Henry M
This study had two primary aims. First, we compared deaf and hearing children during middle and late childhood on (a) cognitive understanding of basic and advanced theory of mind (ToM) and (b) social dimensions of peer group relations, including popularity, isolation, leadership, and the disposition to interact positively with peers. Second, using correlational analyses, we examined ToM's connections with these social variables to see whether and how ToM impacts children's social lives. A total of 57 children (36 deaf children of hearing parents and 21 hearing children) 6 to 14years of age completed a 6-step developmental ToM Scale, and their teachers reported on the social variables. Hearing children outperformed deaf children on ToM and all teacher-rated variables. For deaf children, popularity correlated positively, and social isolation correlated negatively, with ToM even after controlling for age, gender, and language ability. For hearing children, the only ToM link was a weak correlation with leadership. Possible reasons for the differences between deaf and hearing groups are discussed, together with the likelihood of bidirectional causal links and implications for deaf children's social development in school.
Peterson, Candida C; O'Reilly, Karin; Wellman, Henry M
This study had two primary aims. First, we compared deaf and hearing children during middle and late childhood on (a) cognitive understanding of basic and advanced theory of mind (ToM) and (b) social dimensions of peer group relations, including popularity, isolation, leadership, and the disposition to interact positively with peers. Second, using correlational analyses, we examined ToM's connections with these social variables to see whether and how ToM impacts children's social lives. A total of 57 children (36 deaf children of hearing parents and 21 hearing children) 6 to 14years of age completed a 6-step developmental ToM Scale, and their teachers reported on the social variables. Hearing children outperformed deaf children on ToM and all teacher-rated variables. For deaf children, popularity correlated positively, and social isolation correlated negatively, with ToM even after controlling for age, gender, and language ability. For hearing children, the only ToM link was a weak correlation with leadership. Possible reasons for the differences between deaf and hearing groups are discussed, together with the likelihood of bidirectional causal links and implications for deaf children's social development in school. PMID:26774683
María del Mar Sánchez-Joya
Full Text Available Introduction: The last decades have brought great advances in the understanding of child neurodevelopment and knowledge of cognitive processes that occur in the brain from an early age. As a result and thanks to the large number of standardized and scientifically guaranteed neuropsychological tests that are available today, we can assess and diagnose with high specificity, deficits or delays in the acquisition of cognitive functions. Besides, it allows knowing the strengths or normality points of children with various pathologies. Objective: To present the concepts and a neuropsychological assessment protocol for mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation. Development: First, the authors present a general model of neuropsychological assessment in childhood. Second, he concept, classification and aetiology of mental retardation is revised and it is proposed a neuropsychological profile. Finally, the paradigms of pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation are shown. Conclusion: Based on standardized and validated test for child neuropsychological assessment, children cognitive disorders can be accurately identified to plan each child's cognitive stimulation, and thus optimize the results of the therapy.
Full Text Available Mental wellbeing, conceptualised as positive affect, life satisfaction and realisation of needs that contribute to psychological growth, captures more than the absence of mental ill health. Several nations now aim to monitor and improve mental wellbeing. Whilst many studies document associations between adverse childhood experiences and mental disorders in adulthood, possible links between childhood experiences and adult mental wellbeing have so far received less attention.Using data from 1976 men and women in the MRC National Survey for Health and Development, we investigated prospective associations between childhood socioeconomic and psychosocial environments and the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, designed to capture both hedonic and eudaimonic facets of wellbeing, at age 60-64.Whilst there was no evidence that childhood socioeconomic circumstances were related to later wellbeing independently of other childhood experiences, elements of childrearing and parenting, parental health and adjustment, and childhood illness were related. More advantaged socioeconomic position was associated with greater wellbeing but this did not explain the links between these childhood exposures and adult wellbeing, suggesting alternative explanatory pathways should be considered.Childhood illness and family psychosocial environment are associated with mental wellbeing in early older age, with effects sizes that are larger or comparable to socioeconomic circumstances in adulthood. Initiatives to improve the nation's mental wellbeing that include programmes targeted to supporting families and children may additionally have benefits that continue into older age.
Gyland, Linn Øysæd
WHO classify obesity as one of the greatest public health challenges of the 21st century. In Norway 17% of the children aged 6-11 years are overweight or obese. This is of major concern, because childhood obesity is strongly associated with risk factors as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this master thesis is to describe the systematic development of an intervention program, FRISKUS, to be used in the municipalities to improve lifestyle habits among overweight children,...
@@ Eczema is a kind of very common dermatopathy. The cases with a long course of illness and hard to be cured are termed as stubborn eczema. We have obtained good results in its treatment since 1995 with the Chu Shi Tang (除湿汤Dampness-Clearing Decoction) for oral intake and the Fu Fang Ku Shen Xi Ye (复方苦参洗液) for topical application. The following is a clinical report for treating 56 patients with stubborn eczema.
Borys, J-M; Le Bodo, Y; Jebb, S A; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C; Richard, D; De Henauw, S; Moreno, L A; Romon, M; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S; Swinburn, B
Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for communities to implement effective and sustainable strategies to prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes EPODE methodology and its objective of preventing childhood obesity. At a central level, a coordination team, using social marketing and organizational techniques, trains and coaches a local project manager nominated in each EPODE community by the local authorities. The local project manager is also provided with tools to mobilize local stakeholders through a local steering committee and local networks. The added value of the methodology is to mobilize stakeholders at all levels across the public and the private sectors. Its critical components include political commitment, sustainable resources, support services and a strong scientific input--drawing on the evidence-base--together with evaluation of the programme. Since 2004, EPODE methodology has been implemented in more than 500 communities in six countries. Community-based interventions are integral to childhood obesity prevention. EPODE provides a valuable model to address this challenge. PMID:22106871
Bianco, Federica; Lecce, Serena; Banerjee, Robin
Despite 30years of productive research on theory of mind (ToM), we still know relatively little about variables that influence ToM development during middle childhood. Recent experimental studies have shown that conversations about the mind affect ToM abilities, but they have not explored the mechanisms underlying this developmental effect. In the current study, we examined two potential mechanisms through which conversations about mental states are likely to influence ToM: an increased frequency of references to mental states when explaining behavior and an increased accuracy of mental-state attributions. To this aim, we conducted a training study in which 101 children were assigned to either an intervention condition or a control condition. The conversation-based intervention was made up of four sessions scheduled over 2weeks. Children completed a battery of assessments before and after the intervention as well as 2months later. The groups were equivalent at Time 1 (T1) for age, family affluence, vocabulary, and executive functions. The ToM group showed an improvement in ToM skills (as evaluated on both the practiced tasks and a transfer task). Mediation analyses demonstrated that the accuracy of mental-state attributions, but not the mere frequency of mental-state references, mediated the positive effect of conversations about the mind on ToM development. Our results indicate that conversational experience can enhance mental-state reasoning not by simply drawing children's attention to mental states but rather by scaffolding a mature understanding of social situations. PMID:26723472
Bolijn, R; Gubbels, J S; Sleddens, E F C; Kremers, S P J; Thijs, C
Reduced nighttime sleep is a risk factor for childhood overweight, but the association between daytime sleep and overweight is unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate daytime sleep duration as an independent risk factor for childhood overweight. Data from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study on daytime and nighttime sleep at 2 years (N = 2322), and body mass index (BMI) around 2, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 years were used. Multivariable general estimating equation regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of sleep duration with BMI (linear) and overweight (logistic). No associations between daytime sleep and BMI or overweight were found, whereas longer nighttime sleep was associated with lower BMI and lower risk of overweight persisting up to age 9. Daytime sleep duration is probably less relevant for prevention of childhood overweight.
Pamela S. Gaskin
Full Text Available Previous reviews of nutritional status in children under 5 years describe the Caribbean grouped with Latin America. This paper focuses specifically on the Caribbean and the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration that have bearing on childhood development. The results indicate that CARICOM countries have made progress in terms of child health as assessed by gross health indicators. Yet, the millennium generation experiences coexistence of undernutrition and overweight in early childhood. The associations of GNI with markers such as poverty indices are somewhat inconsistent with traditional findings and highlight a need to reassess the causes of infant mortality and low birth weight. However, a lack of systematic local data has hampered progress on an individual country basis. Interventions that deal more pointedly with country specific needs are required including those targeting obesity if the MDGs are to be attained by all member states.
The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in childhood in the last decades could be linked to concomitant dietary changes, especially with the modified and lower consumption of fruit, vegetables and minerals. The consumption of these foods by pregnant women and children in the first years of life seems to be associated with a reduced risk of asthma and related symptoms. Foods that can prevent the development of wheezing through their antioxidant effects contain vitamin C and selenium; blood levels of these elements correlate negatively with the risk of wheezing. Intake of vitamin E during pregnancy also appears to be correlated with a reduced risk of wheezing for the unborn child. Similarly, low intake of zinc and carotenoids by pregnant women is associated with an increased risk of wheezing and asthma in childhood. Fiber also has anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects against allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. The consumption of fat influences the development of the airways. Populations in Western countries have increased their consumption of n-6 PUFAs and, in parallel, reduced n-3 PUFAs. This has led to decreased production of PGE2, which is believed to have a protective effect against inflammation of the airways. Conflicting hypotheses also concern vitamin D; both an excess and a deficiency of vitamin D, in fact, have been associated with an increased risk of asthma. Further studies on the role of these substances are necessary before any conclusions can be drawn on a clinical level. Astratto La crescente prevalenza negli ultimi decenni delle malattie allergiche in età pediatrica potrebbe essere legata a concomitanti cambiamenti nella dieta, in particolare alla minore e modificata introduzione di frutta, verdura e minerali. Il consumo di questi alimenti da parte delle donne in gravidanza e dei bambini nei primi anni di vita sembra essere associato ad un ridotto rischio di asma e di sintomi correlati. Gli alimenti che
Peroni Diego G
Full Text Available Abstract The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in childhood in the last decades could be linked to concomitant dietary changes, especially with the modified and lower consumption of fruit, vegetables and minerals. The consumption of these foods by pregnant women and children in the first years of life seems to be associated with a reduced risk of asthma and related symptoms. Foods that can prevent the development of wheezing through their antioxidant effects contain vitamin C and selenium; blood levels of these elements correlate negatively with the risk of wheezing. Intake of vitamin E during pregnancy also appears to be correlated with a reduced risk of wheezing for the unborn child. Similarly, low intake of zinc and carotenoids by pregnant women is associated with an increased risk of wheezing and asthma in childhood. Fiber also has anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects against allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. The consumption of fat influences the development of the airways. Populations in Western countries have increased their consumption of n-6 PUFAs and, in parallel, reduced n-3 PUFAs. This has led to decreased production of PGE2, which is believed to have a protective effect against inflammation of the airways. Conflicting hypotheses also concern vitamin D; both an excess and a deficiency of vitamin D, in fact, have been associated with an increased risk of asthma. Further studies on the role of these substances are necessary before any conclusions can be drawn on a clinical level. Astratto La crescente prevalenza negli ultimi decenni delle malattie allergiche in età pediatrica potrebbe essere legata a concomitanti cambiamenti nella dieta, in particolare alla minore e modificata introduzione di frutta, verdura e minerali. Il consumo di questi alimenti da parte delle donne in gravidanza e dei bambini nei primi anni di vita sembra essere associato ad un ridotto rischio di asma e di sintomi
Salzer, B; Schuch, S; Rupprecht, M; Hornstein, O P
The therapeutic value of regular physical exercise for patients with atopic eczema (AE) and other chronic inflammatory dermatoses has not yet been investigated systematically. At our institution an adjuvant group sports programme for voluntary inpatients has been in place for 3 years. Using a standardized questionnaire we found positive psychological influences of this program on the patients' mood and psychosocial wellbeing. Since most dermatologists, however, regard sweating as detrimental for patients with AE, we studied the impact of regular sports activities on the skin condition of AE-patients otherwise subdued to usual dermatotherapy (yet without corticosteroids) by aid of a standardized symptomscore system. Thirty inpatients with AE participated regularly in the sports programme, another 30 inpatients with AE (the control group) did not. The skin condition improved similarly the two groups over the study period of about 3 weeks. Cutaneous thermoregulation (with one arm in a 41 degrees C water bath as thermic stimulus) was examined in patients with AE before and after the study period. While many AE patients initially showed paradoxical, i.e. decreasing, skin temperature in the contralateral arm, after 3 weeks of physical training most of the participants had normalized consensual, i.e. increased, temperature reaction to the same warmth exposure. The conclusion is drawn that regular sports may be of adjuvant therapeutic value in patients suffering from AE, except in the acute stages of the disease. PMID:7822198
Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Forefoot eczema (FE is characterized by dry fissured dermatitis of the plantar surface of the feet. AIM : To study the clinical profile of FE and the possible etiological factors. METHODS : Forty-two patients with FE were included in the study. A detailed history was recorded and examination done. Fungal scrapings and patch test with Indian Standard Series (ISS were performed in all patients. RESULTS : The most common site affected was the plantar surface of the great toe in 16 (38.09% patients. Hand involvement, with fissuring and soreness of the fingertips and palm, was seen in four patients (9.5%. Seven patients (16.6% had a personal history of atopy whereas family history of atopy was present in six (14.2%. Seven patients (16.6% reported aggravation of itching with plastic, rubber or leather footwear, and 13 (30.9%, with detergents and prolonged contact with water. Negative fungal scrapings in all patients ruled out a dermatophyte infection. Patch testing with ISS was performed in 19 patients and was positive in five. CONCLUSIONS : FE is a distinctive dermatosis of the second and third decade, predominantly in females, with a multifactorial etiology, possible factors being chronic irritation, atopy, footwear and seasonal influence.
Hayes, J. F.; Khandaker, G. M.; Anderson, J.; Mackay, D.; Zammit, S.; Lewis, G; Smith, D J; Osborn, D. P. J.
Background: There are no existing longitudinal studies of inflammatory markers and atopic disorders in childhood and risk of hypomanic symptoms in adulthood. This study examined if childhood: (1) serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP); and (2) asthma and/or eczema are associated with features of hypomania in young adulthood. Method: Participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective general population UK birth cohort, had non-fasting blood s...
Paul A. Frewen
Full Text Available Background : Current psychometric measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to assess the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs, including the relationship of abusers to abused persons, the emotional availability of caregivers, and the respondent's own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment. Objective : To evaluate a computerized approach to measuring the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs. Method : The psychometric properties of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS were evaluated as a retrospective survey of childhood maltreatment history designed to be appropriate for completion by adults. Participants were undergraduates (n=222, an internet sample (n=123, and psychiatric outpatients (n=30. Results : The internal reliability, convergent, and concurrent validity of the CARTS were supported across samples. Paired differences in means and correlations between rated item-descriptiveness to self, mothers, and fathers also accorded with findings of prior attachment and maltreatment research, illustrating the utility of assessing the occurrence and effects of maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. Conclusions : Results preliminarily support a new survey methodology for assessing childhood maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. Further psychometric evaluation of the CARTS is warranted.
Bernstein, David P.; Stein, Judith A.; Newcomb, Michael D.; Walker, Edward; Pogge, David; Ahluvalia, Taruna; Stokes, John; Handelsman, Leonard; Medrano, Martha; Desmond, David; Zule, William
Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of 70 Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) items were used to create a shorter 28-item version and test the measurement invariance of the 25 clinical items across adult substance abusing patients, adolescent psychiatric inpatients, and control populations (n=1,978). Items performed equivalently across…
Agut, M. Pilar Martínez; Ull, M. Angeles; Minguet, Pilar Aznar
This article analyses how the sustainability culture has evolved in the early childhood education setting within the Spanish education system with official documents and the sustainability training received by teachers who intervene in this stage of education since these teachers' degrees have been adapted to the European Higher Education…
Ramiro, Laurie S.; Madrid, Bernadette J.; Brown, David W.
Objective: This study aimed to examine the association among adverse childhood experiences, health-risk behaviors, and chronic disease conditions in adult life. Study population: One thousand and sixty-eight (1,068) males and females aged 35 years and older, and residing in selected urban communities in Metro Manila participated in the…
Terband, H.R.; Maassen, B.A.M.
Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a highly controversial clinical entity, with respect to both clinical signs and underlying neuromotor deficit. In the current paper, we advocate a modeling approach in which a computational neural model of speech acquisition and production is utilized in order to
Liégeois, Frédérique J; Morgan, Angela T
Current models of speech production in adults emphasize the crucial role played by the left perisylvian cortex, primary and pre-motor cortices, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum for normal speech production. Whether similar brain-behaviour relationships and leftward cortical dominance are found in childhood remains unclear. Here we reviewed recent evidence linking motor speech disorders (apraxia of speech and dysarthria) and brain abnormalities in children and adolescents with developmental, progressive, or childhood-acquired conditions. We found no evidence that unilateral damage can result in apraxia of speech, or that left hemisphere lesions are more likely to result in dysarthria than lesion to the right. The few studies reporting on childhood apraxia of speech converged towards morphological, structural, metabolic or epileptic anomalies affecting the basal ganglia, perisylvian and rolandic cortices bilaterally. Persistent dysarthria, similarly, was commonly reported in individuals with syndromes and conditions affecting these same structures bilaterally. In conclusion, for the first time we provide evidence that longterm and severe childhood speech disorders result predominantly from bilateral disruption of the neural networks involved in speech production.
Terband, H.; Maassen, B.
Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a highly controversial clinical entity, with respect to both clinical signs and underlying neuromotor deficit. In the current paper, we advocate a modeling approach in which a computational neural model of speech acquisition and production is utilized in order to
Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Kuznetsova, Valeriya B.
The study examined the contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to childhood personality at three levels of the hierarchical structure, mid-level traits, the Big Five and two higher-order factors, and the moderating role of sex and age in a sample of 3-18-year-olds. The canonical correlation analyses indicated that reinforcement sensitivity and…
Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante
The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children ("N" = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on…
Wood, Eileen; Willoughby, Teena; Specht, Jacqueline; Stern-Cavalcante, Wilma; Child, Carol
Early childhood educators were assigned to one of three instructional conditions to assess the impact of computer workshops on their level of computer anxiety, knowledge, and comfort with technology. Overall, workshops provided gains that could translate into more effective and efficient computer use in the classroom. (Author)
Turja, Leena; Endepohls-Ulpe, Martina; Chatoney, Marjolaine
The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the analysis of the Early Childhood Education (ECE) curriculum in six countries involved in the UPDATE-project, and on that basis, propose a conceptual foundation for technology education in ECE that aims to enhance gender sensitive technology education in the continuum from early years to…
Poon, Kenneth K.; Lim, Ai-Keow
Singapore is a young island nation with a diverse population. Its support for young children at risk has its roots in the 1950s, but early childhood intervention (ECI) programs for young children with disabilities emerged only in the 1980s. ECI programs have proliferated in the subsequent years, offering an increasing range of service delivery…
Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Summers, Jean Ann; Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Palmer, Susan; Peck, Nancy F.; Zheng, Yu Zhu; Kruse, Aryn; Haines, Shana J.; Weigel, Cindy J.
The purpose of this article is to propose performance as a creative instructional strategy to convey complex competencies related to understanding and working effectively with families in early childhood education. Performance derives from performance ethnography, which is a qualitative research methodology. Its application to professional…
H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); R.K. Lenroot (Rhoshel); D.K. Greenstein (Deanna); L. Tran (Lan); R. Pierson (Ronald); J.N. Giedd (Jay)
textabstractIn addition to its well-established role in balance, coordination, and other motor skills, the cerebellum is increasingly recognized as a prominent contributor to a wide array of cognitive and emotional functions. Many of these capacities undergo dramatic changes during childhood and ado
Child Development, 2011
The impact of the Fast Track intervention on externalizing disorders across childhood was examined. Eight hundred-ninety-one early-starting children (69% male; 51% African American) were randomly assigned by matched sets of schools to intervention or control conditions. The 10-year intervention addressed parent behavior-management, child social…
Pascal, Chris; Bertram, Tony
The discipline and practice of participatory, practice-led research has grown rapidly in recent years and it is now widely accepted as making an important and serious contribution to the knowledge base of early childhood. Despite this progress recently we have come to understand that our worldview has needed to shift again in response to the…
The studies reported in this dissertation are part of the national cohort study pre-COOL to evaluate the developmental and educational effects of early childhood education and care (ECEC) provisions in the Netherlands. More specifically, we evaluated the quality of a large representative sample of E
Wang, Lan; Yang, Linlin; Yu, Lulu; Song, Mei; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Han, Keyan; An, Cuixia; Xu, Shunjiang; Wang, Xueyi
This study aimed to investigate the role of early traumatic experiences in development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Chinese elderly people. Seventy six patients and 61 controls were selected and assigned into two study groups, MCI and control, respectively. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) was used for assessment of early trauma, episodic memory and association learning scales for memory evaluation. In addition, event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured using electroencephalography (EEG) to indicate brain electrical activity of subjects during memory/cognitive tests. MCI patients showed higher scores of physical neglect and lower scores of emotional abuse in childhood than control group. Physical neglect score was negatively correlated with scores of MMSE, MoCA, episodic memory, calculation, and the amplitude of CzP300, FzP300 and PzP300, while a positive correlation was seen between the score of physical neglect and the latency of PzN200, FzN200, CzN200, CzP300, FzP300 and PzP300. The score of emotional abuse was weakly correlated with FzP300 amplitude, but not with any other ERP components. Our results suggested that early childhood exposure to physical neglect may lead to impairment in learning and memory, particularly in the associative learning and episodic memory, in old age. PMID:27236588
Wang, Lan; Yang, Linlin; Yu, Lulu; Song, Mei; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Han, Keyan; An, Cuixia; Xu, Shunjiang; Wang, Xueyi
This study aimed to investigate the role of early traumatic experiences in development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Chinese elderly people. Seventy six patients and 61 controls were selected and assigned into two study groups, MCI and control, respectively. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) was used for assessment of early trauma, episodic memory and association learning scales for memory evaluation. In addition, event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured using electroencephalography (EEG) to indicate brain electrical activity of subjects during memory/cognitive tests. MCI patients showed higher scores of physical neglect and lower scores of emotional abuse in childhood than control group. Physical neglect score was negatively correlated with scores of MMSE, MoCA, episodic memory, calculation, and the amplitude of CzP300, FzP300 and PzP300, while a positive correlation was seen between the score of physical neglect and the latency of PzN200, FzN200, CzN200, CzP300, FzP300 and PzP300. The score of emotional abuse was weakly correlated with FzP300 amplitude, but not with any other ERP components. Our results suggested that early childhood exposure to physical neglect may lead to impairment in learning and memory, particularly in the associative learning and episodic memory, in old age.
Verbestel Vera; De Henauw Stefaan; Maes Lea; Haerens Leen; Mårild Staffan; Eiben Gabriele; Lissner Lauren; Moreno Luis A; Frauca Natalia; Barba Gianvincenzo; Kovács Éva; Konstabel Kenn; Tornaritis Michael; Gallois Katharina; Hassel Holger
Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesi...
White, J. W.; Gale, C R; Batty, G D
Purpose: High childhood IQ test scores have been associated with increased alcohol dependency and use in adult life, but the relationship between childhood IQ and illegal drug use in later life is unclear. Methods: Participants were 6713 members of the 1958 National Child Development Survey whose IQ was assessed at 11 years and had their lifetime illegal drug use measured at 42 years of age. Results: In analyses adjusted for a range of covariates, a 1 SD (15-point) increase in IQ scores...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our prior study in Han Chinese women has shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD. Would this relationship be found in our whole data set? METHOD: Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 6017 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 5983 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated by logistic regression. RESULTS: We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new recurrent MD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD (OR 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI [3.19-5.24]. This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.58-3.15, genital (OR 5.24, 95% CI 3.52-8.15 and intercourse (OR 10.65, 95% CI 5.56-23.71. Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes. Recurrent MD patients those with CSA had an increased risk for dysthymia (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.11-2.27 and phobia (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.09-1.80. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempt (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20-1.89 and feelings of worthlessness or guilt (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02-2.02. Intercourse (OR 3.47, 95%CI 1.66-8.22, use of force and threats (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.05-3.82 and how strongly the victims were affected at the time (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.20-1.64 were significantly associated with recurrent MD. CONCLUSIONS: In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with recurrent MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have some specific clinical traits. Some features of CSA were associated with greater likelihood of developing recurrent MD.
... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Stress KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Stress Print A A ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...
Full Text Available Environmental factors during childhood are thought to play a role in the aetiolgy of Crohn's Disease (CD. However the association between age at time of exposure and the subsequent development of CD in South Africa is unknown.A case control study of all consecutive CD patients seen at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease (IBD referral centers in the Western Cape, South Africa between September 2011 and January 2013 was performed. Numerous environmental exposures during 3 age intervals; 0-5, 6-10 and 11-18 years were extracted using an investigator administered questionnaire. An agreement analysis was performed to determine the reliability of questionnaire data for all the relevant variables.This study included 194 CD patients and 213 controls. On multiple logistic regression analysis, a number of childhood environmental exposures during the 3 age interval were significantly associated with the risk of developing CD. During the age interval 6-10 years, never having had consumed unpasteurized milk (OR = 5.84; 95% CI, 2.73-13.53 and never having a donkey, horse, sheep or cow on the property (OR = 2.48; 95% CI, 1.09-5.98 significantly increased the risk of developing future CD. During the age interval 11-18 years, an independent risk-association was identified for; never having consumed unpasteurized milk (OR = 2.60; 95% CI, 1.17-6.10 and second-hand cigarette smoke exposure (OR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.13-3.35.This study demonstrates that both limited microbial exposures and exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is associated with future development of CD.
... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A Text Size What's ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...
In recent decades, childhood obesity has been greatly increasing worldwide. The rapid increase in obesity rates among children is alarming because of the serious consequences for health. Besides demographic and genetic factors, in older children and adults there is considerable evidence that temperament, personality traits, and psychopathology play a role in the etiology of obesity. Yet, in younger children, evidence is scarce. The aim of this dissertation is therefore to investigate the ...
Dahlquist, G G; Blom, L G; Persson, L. A.; Sandström, A I; Wall, S G
OBJECTIVE--To study different nutrients and food additives as risk factors for insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in childhood. DESIGN--Prospective case-control study. Parents of the children being studied were asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding the children's frequency of consumption of various foods. Parents of children with diabetes were asked about the period before onset of the disease. SETTING--Population based study throughout Sweden. SUBJECTS--339 Children aged 0-14 who had r...
Phua, S H; Hyndman, D L; Baird, H J; Auvray, B; McEwan, J C; Lee, M A; Dodds, K G
Pithomycotoxicosis, more commonly known as facial eczema (FE), is a liver disease that occurs predominantly in New Zealand because of its toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum strains. The first reported case was in sheep in 1887. Since the 1930s, a number of studies have been conducted in an attempt to mitigate the problems FE has on the sheep and dairy industries. The research in these studies included work on fungicide and biological control of the saprophytic fungus, use of different pasture plants to inhibit fungal growth, stock management with respect to pasture fungal spore counts and the use of zinc prophylaxis on animals. The finding that there was a genetic basis in FE sensitivity in sheep prompted research for a genetic approach to mitigation in the form of a diagnostic DNA test for susceptibility to the disease. Recently, we have used the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip to develop a genome-enabled prediction approach to screen for FE-tolerant sheep. Our current best genomic prediction for FE is for the Romney breed and has an accuracy of 0.38. This prediction accuracy is not as high as the individual accuracy gained by an artificial challenge test (0.64). However, it has the advantage of being a non-invasive test and can be provided as part of genomic testing for other traits at minimal cost. PMID:24804852
Rugholm, Susi; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W;
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether changes in the birth weight distribution or changes in the association of birth weight with the later risk of childhood overweight have contributed to the development of the obesity epidemic. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A Danish population-based cohort study of 124...... in the distribution of birth weight or by changes in the association between birth weight and the later risk of overweight over time. This implies that, unless the prenatal environment influences the later risk of overweight without increasing birth weight, the environmental influences contributing to the obesity...
Magin, Parker; Heading, Gaynor; Adams, Jon; Pond, Dimity
Quantitative questionnaire-based research has suggested a considerable effect of skin disease on the sexual life of sufferers. In this study, we explored the effects of acne, psoriasis and atopic eczema upon sexual functioning and sexual relationships in the context of a wider exploration of the psychological sequelae of these diseases. We employed a qualitative methodology employing in-depth semi-structured interviews and involving thematic analysis and constant comparison. Participants were patients with currently active acne, psoriasis or atopic eczema. Purposive sampling aimed to obtain a sample reflecting a wide range of participant characteristics including skin disease severity, age, sex, and care by general practitioner or dermatologist. Sixty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted. Acne had adverse effects on participants' self-perceived sexual attractiveness and self-confidence, as did psoriasis and eczema. But psoriasis and eczema also had marked effects on sexual well-being and on capacity for intimacy. These were related to issues of self-esteem and sexual self-image and were often pervasive, resulting in marked behavioural avoidance of intimate situations and continuing effects on sexual well-being even in long-established sexual relationships. Effects of psoriasis and eczema on sexual well-being and sexual relationships were mediated more by appearance and texture of non-genital skin than by involvement of genital skin. We conclude that, while recognising the distressing effects of acne on self-perceived sexual attractiveness, clinicians should be especially aware of the capacity of psoriasis and eczema to profoundly affect patients' psychological and sexual well-being. PMID:20677083
Farber, E M; Nall, L
Psoriasis is a common skin disease in infants, children, and adolescents. A review of the clinical, epidemiologic, genetic, and therapeutic aspects of childhood psoriasis is presented. Population studies indicate that the first signs of psoriatic lesions occur in the pediatric age group, birth to 18 years of age, and that both genetic and environmental factors interact to precipitate the development of psoriasis. Koebner reactions are the result of external or internal triggering factors, such as physical injury to the skin, low humidity, and certain drugs. The most frequently observed variant to psoriasis is the plaque type, followed by guttate psoriasis, and juvenile psoriatic arthritis. Pustular psoriasis and erythrodermic psoriasis are rare forms of the disease, but are seen in children from infancy to adolescence. The scalp is the most frequently affected site of involvement in pediatric psoriasis, followed by the appearance of lesions on the extensor surfaces of the extremities, trunk, and nails. Although not common in adult psoriasis, the face and ears are often involved. Topical medications such as corticosteroids, calcipotriol, coal tar preparations, anthralin formulations, and ultraviolet B are recommended in monotherapy or in combination therapy, whereas psoralen plus ultraviolet A, methotrexate, and retinoids should only be administered in crisis situations. The treatment objectives in childhood psoriasis are to preserve skin surfaces, to afford physical relief from the disease, and to employ treatments that do not endanger the health or future development of the child.
Ibler, K.S.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Thomsen, S.F.;
Objective: To evaluate the effect of a secondary prevention programme with education on skin care and individual counselling versus treatment as usual in healthcare workers with hand eczema. Design: Randomised, observer blinded parallel group superiority clinical trial. Setting: Three hospitals...... and individual counselling based on patch and prick testing and assessment of work and domestic related exposures. The control was treatment as usual. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was clinical severity of disease at five month follow-up measured by scores on the hand eczema severity index...
Bamford, J T; Gibson, R W; Renier, C M
This study was designed to look at the effect of evening primrose oil (linoleic and gamma-linolenic acids) as an oral supplement for patients with atopic eczema. We used a double-blind, blocked crossover design with random assignment of patients to treatment groups. We used Wilcoxon's signed-ranks method of comparing changes during the trial. We observed no significant effect on erythema, scale, excoriation, lichenification, or overall severity in 123 patients with atopic eczema of average severity while they took oral doses of evening primrose oil (2 or 4 gm in children, 6 or 8 gm in adults). PMID:3908514
肯尼亚儿童早期发展取得了不小的进步，表现为入学率有所提高、财政投入增加、教师素质提升以及社会对儿童早期发展重要性和科学性认识有所进步。不过该国儿童早期发展也面临困境，包括：政策和资金支持不足、教师队伍资质较低、儿童早期发展目标不合理和小学教育免费政策的负面作用。%Early childhood development in Kenya has made big progress, including the improvement of enrollment rate of pre-school, increasing financial input, better teachers' quality and the society has better understanding of the importance of early childhood education. But there are still some dilemmas, in-cluding the lack of policies and funds, poor quality of the teach-ers, teaching objectives for early childhood development are un-reasonable and the negative influence of free primary education.
Dunst, Carl J.; Raab, Melinda; Hamby, Deborah W.; Long, Anna Lauren
The results from a content analysis of coursework required and offered at the 58 North Carolina Community Colleges to obtain an Associate in Applied Sciences Degree in early childhood education are described. The analyses were conducted to determine the likelihood that the courses could include content knowledge or practice on 12 infant and child…
Ames, Patricia; Rojas, Vanessa; Portugal, Tamia
This working paper is part of a series on early transitions from "Young Lives," a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. It explores the diverse experiences of 28 children from four contrasting communities in Peru as they start school. These detailed case studies highlight common problems: exclusion…
Streuli, Natalia; Vennam, Uma; Woodhead, Martin
This working paper is part of the Studies in Early Transitions series emerging from "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. It explores recent trends for children growing up in Andhra Pradesh, one of India's most populous states, based on Young Lives survey data collected for a sample…
C Mary Schooling
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In observational studies from western countries childhood emotional adversity is usually associated with adult cardiovascular disease. These findings are open to contextual biases making evidence from other settings valuable. We examined the association of a potential marker of childhood emotional adversity with cardiovascular disease risk factors in a developing country. METHODS: We used multivariable regression in cross-sectional analysis of older (≥50 years men (n = 7,885 and women (n = 20,886 from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (2003-8 to examine the adjusted association of early life (<18 years parental death (none, one or two deaths with blood pressure, fasting glucose, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR and white blood cell count (WBC. We used seated height and delayed 10-word recall to assess content validity of parental death as a measure of childhood emotional adversity. We also examined whether associations varied by sex. RESULTS: Early life parental death was associated with shorter age- and sex-adjusted seated height. It was also associated with lower 10-word recall score adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic position, leg length and lifestyle. Similarly, adjusted early life parental death was not associated with blood pressure, fasting glucose, LDL-cholesterol or HDL-cholesterol but was associated with lower BMI (-0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI -0.62 to -0.19 for 2 compared with no early life parental deaths and triglycerides. Associations varied by sex for WHR and WBC. Among men only, early life parental death was associated with lower WHR (-0.008, 95% CI -0.015 to -0.001 and WBC (-0.35 10(9/L, 95% CI -0.56 to -0.13. CONCLUSIONS: In a non-western population from a developing country, childhood emotional adversity was negatively associated with some cardiovascular risk factors, particularly among men. Our study suggests that some of the observed
Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes
In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...
Messiah, Sarah E; Jiang, Sandy; Kardys, Jack; Hansen, Eric; Nardi, Maria; Forster, Lourdes
Major hindrances to controlling the current childhood obesity epidemic include access to prevention and/or treatment programs that are affordable, provide minimal barriers for participation, and are available to the general public. Moreover, successful childhood obesity prevention efforts will require coordinated partnerships in multiple sectors such as government, health care, school/afterschool, and the community but very few documented sustainable programs currently exist. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on maintaining healthy weight via physical activity and healthy eating have the potential to be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians and other healthcare professionals who have young patients who are overweight/obese. The Miami Dade County Department of Parks, Recreation and Open Spaces in partnership with the University of Miami UHealth Systems have created a “Park Prescription Program (Parks Rx 4HealthTM)” that formally coordinates pediatricians, families, parents, caregivers, and child/adolescents to provide daily obesity-prevention activities. This Parks Rx 4HealthTM program that we describe here allows UHealth pediatricians to seamlessly refer their overweight and obese patients to Fit2PlayTM, an evidence-based, park-based afterschool health and wellness program. Measurable outcomes that include body mass index, blood pressure, fitness, and nutrition knowledge are being collected at baseline and at 3-and 6-mo after referral to document patient progress. Results are then shared with the referring physician so they can follow up with the patient if necessary. Identifying successful models that integrate primary care, public health, and community-based efforts is important to accelerating progress in preventing childhood obesity. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on physical activity and nutrition education could be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians who have
Messiah, Sarah E; Jiang, Sandy; Kardys, Jack; Hansen, Eric; Nardi, Maria; Forster, Lourdes
Major hindrances to controlling the current childhood obesity epidemic include access to prevention and/or treatment programs that are affordable, provide minimal barriers for participation, and are available to the general public. Moreover, successful childhood obesity prevention efforts will require coordinated partnerships in multiple sectors such as government, health care, school/afterschool, and the community but very few documented sustainable programs currently exist. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on maintaining healthy weight via physical activity and healthy eating have the potential to be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians and other healthcare professionals who have young patients who are overweight/obese. The Miami Dade County Department of Parks, Recreation and Open Spaces in partnership with the University of Miami UHealth Systems have created a "Park Prescription Program (Parks Rx 4Health(TM))" that formally coordinates pediatricians, families, parents, caregivers, and child/adolescents to provide daily obesity-prevention activities. This Parks Rx 4Health(TM) program that we describe here allows UHealth pediatricians to seamlessly refer their overweight and obese patients to Fit2Play(TM), an evidence-based, park-based afterschool health and wellness program. Measurable outcomes that include body mass index, blood pressure, fitness, and nutrition knowledge are being collected at baseline and at 3-and 6-mo after referral to document patient progress. Results are then shared with the referring physician so they can follow up with the patient if necessary. Identifying successful models that integrate primary care, public health, and community-based efforts is important to accelerating progress in preventing childhood obesity. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on physical activity and nutrition education could be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians who have
Polanczyk, Guilherme; Caspi, Avshalom; Williams, Benjamin; Price, Thomas S.; Danese, Andrea; Sugden, Karen; Uher, Rudolf; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.
Context A previous study reported a gene × environment interaction in which a haplotype in the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 gene (CRHR1) was associated with protection against adult depressive symptoms in individuals who were maltreated as children (as assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire [CTQ]). Objective To replicate the interaction between childhood maltreatment and a TAT haplotype formed by rs7209436, rs110402, and rs242924 in CRHR1, predicting adult depression. Design Two prospective longitudinal cohort studies. Setting England and New Zealand. Participants Participants in the first sample were women in the E-Risk Study (N= 1116), followed up to age 40 years with 96% retention. Participants in the second sample were men and women in the Dunedin Study (N= 1037), followed up to age 32 years with 96% retention. Main Outcome Measure Research diagnoses of pastyear and recurrent major depressive disorder. Results In the E-Risk Study, the TAT haplotype was associated with a significant protective effect. In this effect, women who reported childhood maltreatment on the CTQ were protected against depression. In the Dunedin Study, which used a different type of measure of maltreatment, this finding was not replicated. Conclusions A haplotype in CRHR1 has been suggested to exert a protective effect against adult depression among research participants who reported maltreatment on the CTQ, a measure that elicits emotional memories. This suggests the hypothesis that CRHR1’s protective effect may relate to its function in the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing experiences. PMID:19736354
Luby, Joan; Belden, Andy; Botteron, Kelly; Marrus, Natasha; Harms, Michael P; Babb, Casey; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Barch, Deanna
IMPORTANCE The study provides novel data to inform the mechanisms by which poverty negatively impacts childhood brain development. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether the income-to-needs ratio experienced in early childhood impacts brain development at school age and to explore the mediators of this effect. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This study was conducted at an academic research unit at the Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis. Data from a prospective longitudinal study of emotion development in preschool children who participated in neuroimaging at school age were used to investigate the effects of poverty on brain development. Children were assessed annually for 3 to 6 years prior to the time of a magnetic resonance imaging scan, during which they were evaluated on psychosocial, behavioral, and other developmental dimensions. Preschoolers included in the study were 3 to 6 years of age and were recruited from primary care and day care sites in the St Louis metropolitan area; they were annually assessed behaviorally for 5 to 10 years. Healthy preschoolers and those with clinical symptoms of depression participated in neuroimaging at school age/early adolescence. EXPOSURE Household poverty as measured by the income-to-needs ratio. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Brain volumes of children's white matter and cortical gray matter, as well as hippocampus and amygdala volumes, obtained using magnetic resonance imaging. Mediators of interest were caregiver support/hostility measured observationally during the preschool period and stressful life events measured prospectively. RESULTS Poverty was associated with smaller white and cortical gray matter and hippocampal and amygdala volumes. The effects of poverty on hippocampal volume were mediated by caregiving support/hostility on the left and right, as well as stressful life events on the left. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The finding that exposure to poverty in early childhood materially impacts brain
Ability to control childhood culture, encouraging parents and method of punishment, life will give signifi-cant impact. Thus pushing people to achieve the healthy development of their mental health, spiritual progress is parti-cularly important, it is about joy and happiness in one's life. Thus, among the psychological knowledge to life, used in children's growth process is necessary. By introducing their predecessors did psychological experiments, analyzes the psychological characteristics of early childhood, and summarizes the educational methods adapted to children's psy-chological development.%自小的控制能力的培养,父母的鼓励和惩罚的方法,将会给人的一生带来重要影响.由此推之,要实现人的健康发展,其心理健康、精神进步尤为重要,这关乎人一生的快乐与幸福.由此可见,将心理学知识应用于生活之中,应用于儿童成长过程是十分必要的.本文通过引介前人所做的心理实验,浅析了幼年时期的心理特征,并总结了适应儿童心理发展的教育方法.
Objective: To study Chinese herbal prescription for treatment of eczema on the basis of the suppressive effect of Chinese herbal medicine with type Ⅳ allergic reaction. Methods: Various formulae composed of Chinese herbal medicines possessing suppressive effect on murine allergic contact dermatitis were formed following the therapeutic principles of traditional Chinese medicine in treating eczema, and their effect on ear swelling, ear flake weight, dermal inflammatory infiltration cell count and plasma level of calcitonin gene related peptide ( CGRP) were examined in mice with dinitrofluorobenzene induced dermatitis. The prescription, Composite Poria Decoction was formulated and made into granule form, which was used to treat 63 cases of eczema (atopic dermatitis was excluded), and compared with 59 cases treated with antihistaminic that was aimed at the type I allergic reaction. Results: Experimental study showed that all the 4 Chinese prescriptions had the effect of anti-type Ⅳ allergic reaction, among them, the formula for cooling blood and removing Heat, Wind and Dampness evil possessed the most potent effect in suppressing murine dermatitis, and it was also able to up-regulate the plasma CGRP concentration. The clinical cure rate of Composite Poria Granule treatment was 47.6%, and that of the control was 22.0%. The difference was significant between the two groups (u=2.9555, P<0.01). Conclusions: Chinese herbal medicine has the effect of anti-type Ⅳ allergic reaction. Composite Poria Granule has good effect in treating eczema.
Diepgen, Thomas L.; Andersen, Klaus E.; Chosidow, Oliver; Coenraads, Peter Jan; Elsner, Peter; English, John; Fartasch, Manige; Gimenez-Arnau, Ana; Nixon, Rosemary; Sasseville, Denis; Agner, Tove
The guidelines aim to provide advice on the management of hand eczema (HE), using an evidence-and consensus-based approach. The guidelines consider a systematic Cochrane review on interventions for HE, which is based on a systematic search of the published literature (including hand-searching). In a
Larsson, M.; Hagerhed-Engman, L.; Sigsgaard, T.;
Aim: To estimate the incidence rates for asthma, rhinitis and eczema symptoms and to investigate the importance of different influential factors for the incidence of these symptoms. Methods: The Dampness in Building and Health study commenced in the year 2000 in Varmland, Sweden with a parental q...
Lerbaek, Anne; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Menné, Torkil;
and the pattern and frequency of sensitization discussed. Persistence when compared with patch test results from 1997-1998 is reported. 270 twin individuals with and without hand eczema underwent patch testing with the TRUE Test((R)) (Mekos Laboratories AS, Hilleroed, Denmark) in 1997-1998 and again in 2005...
Gils, R.F. van; Boot, C.R.L.; Knol, D.L.; Rustemeyer, T.; Mechelen, W. van; Valk, P.G.M. van der; Anema, J.R.
Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of integrated, multidisciplinary care as compared with usual care for patients with moderate to severe, chronic hand eczema after 26 weeks of follow-up. Background. This study was designed as a randomized, controlled trial. Methods. Patients who visited one
Steengaard, Sanne S; Bregnhøj, Anne; Johansen, Jeanne D
of hand eczema of 22.4%. Reaction to hair dye was reported for 24.5%, and 35.5% had left the trade; 36.4% used gloves when shampooing, and 21.3% stated that they cut hair before colouring it. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of the intervention was not visible after 6 years, but an overall improvement in work...
Causadias, Jose M.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Sroufe, L. Alan
The present study examines two childhood markers of self-regulation, ego control and ego resiliency, as promotive factors for the development of global adjustment and as risk factors for the development of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in a high-risk sample. Teachers and observers rated ego control and ego resiliency when…
Ajslev, Teresa A; Ängquist, Lars; Silventoinen, Karri;
.001), whereas the increase in father-daughter correlations were insignificant both at ages 7-7 (0.001/year, p = 0.37) and at ages 13-7 years (0.001/year, p = 0.18). CONCLUSION: During the obesity epidemics development, the intergenerational resemblance with mothers remained stable, whereas the father-child BMI......BACKGROUND: The intergenerational resemblance in body mass index may have increased during the development of the obesity epidemic due to changes in environment and/or expression of genetic predisposition. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates trends in intergenerational correlations of childhood...... of child birth years (1952-1989) separately by sex. Trends in these correlations were examined. Whereas the mother-child correlations reflected the biological relationship, a likely decline in the assignment of non-biological fathers through the registration system across time must be considered when...
Stefanie C. Vuotto
Full Text Available The current study presents preliminary correlational data used to develop a model depicting the psychosocial pathways that lead to the health behaviors of survivors of childhood and young-adult cancer. Data collected from a sample of 18- to 30-year-old cancer survivors (n = 125 was used to examine the relations among interpersonal support and nonsupport, personal agency, avoidance, depressive symptoms and self-efficacy as they related to health behaviors. The outcome measures examined included tobacco and alcohol use, diet, exercise, sunscreen use, medication compliance and follow-up/screening practices. Correlational analyses revealed a number of significant associations among variables. Results are used to inform the development of a health behavior model. Implications for health promotion and survivorship programming are discussed, as well as directions for future research.
Togni, Stefano; Maramaldi, Giada; Di Pierro, Francesco; Biondi, Massimo
Background Boswellic acids (BAs) show anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and asthma. A topical administration route is currently used to deliver active compounds in psoriatic and eczematous patients. In this double-blind study we compare a novel BA formulation (containing Bosexil®, INCI [International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients]: lecithin, Boswellia serrata resin extract) with a placebo formulation. A third arm of the trial received a formulation of Vaccinium myrtillus seed oil, previously demonstrated as an effective local treatment for psoriatic lesions. Methods Patients with psoriasis or erythematous eczema were randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, to Bosexil®, V. myrtillus seed oil, or placebo. In order to evaluate the effects of treatment, the changes of scales and erythema from diagnosis to the end of treatment were scored in psoriatic patients, while changes in itch and erythema were analyzed for erythematous eczema patients. Psoriasis Area Severity Index and Eczema Area and Severity Index scores were also calculated. Results In patients with psoriasis, scales and erythema improved both with Bosexil® and the V. myrtillus seed oil treatment in comparison with placebo. In particular, the treatment with Bosexil® formulation improved scales (70% of cases) and erythema (50% of cases) without any case of worsening. In patients with eczema, the administration of placebo did not result in any improvement in 90% of cases, and in the remaining 10% worsened both itch and erythema. Bosexil® formulation improved both itch (60% of cases) and erythema (60% of cases) without any case of worsening. V. myrtillus seed oil improved itch and erythema in 66.7% and 77.8% of patients, respectively. Conclusion A topical formulation of Bosexil® may be promising for the treatment of psoriasis and erythematous eczema. Long-term studies are recommended to evaluate the adherence to this
Barbu, Stéphanie; Cabanes, Guénaël; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd
Sex differences in human social behaviors and abilities have long been a question of public and scientific interest. Females are usually assumed to be more socially oriented and skillful than males. However, despite an extensive literature, the very existence of sex differences remains a matter of discussion while some studies found no sex differences whereas others reported differences that were either congruent or not with gender stereotypes. Moreover, the magnitude, consistency and stability across time of the differences remain an open question, especially during childhood. As play provides an excellent window into children's social development, we investigated whether and how sex differences change in social play across early childhood. Following a cross-sectional design, 164 children aged from 2 to 6 years old, divided into four age groups, were observed during outdoor free play at nursery school. We showed that sex differences are not stable over time evidencing a developmental gap between girls and boys. Social and structured forms of play emerge systematically earlier in girls than in boys leading to subsequent sex differences in favor of girls at some ages, successively in associative play at 3-4 years, cooperative play at 4-5 years, and social interactions with peers at 5-6 years. Preschool boys also display more solitary play than preschool girls, especially when young. Nevertheless, while boys catch up and girls move on towards more complex play, sex differences in social play patterns are reversed in favor of boys at the following ages, such as in associative play at 4-5 years and cooperative play at 5-6 years. This developmental perspective contributes to resolve apparent discrepancies between single-snapshot studies. A better understanding of the dynamics of sex differences in typical social development should also provide insights into atypical social developments which exhibit sex differences in prevalence, such as autism. PMID:21297987
Yang, Pinchen; Lung, For-Wey; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Hsu, Hsiu-Yi; Chen, Cheng-Chung
As part of an ongoing clinical service program for children with developmental delay in an Asian developing country, we analyzed the cognitive attributes of 362 Taiwanese children (average age 48.5+/-12.9 month-old) with uneven/delayed cognitive development as they were assessed repeatedly with average duration of 39.7+/-22.6 months from preschool through early childhood. The objectives were to determine the stability and related factors in cognitive scores of these 362 children belonging to three diagnostic subgroups: 181 children with non-autistic mental retardation (MR), 95 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 64 children with mixed type developmental language disorder (DLD); and to contribute to the accumulation of data on cognitive outcome in preschool children with developmental delay. Analysis revealed that mean initial cognitive score (IQ1) was 64.9+/-16.9 while mean cognitive measure at follow-up (IQ2) was 72.2+/-19.7. Whole group analysis showed the correlation between IQ1 and IQ2 was moderate (r=0.73, pchildren remained within the same cognitive range for both assessment points, however, it is noted that a substantial minority of children changed IQ ranges drastically from preschool through early childhood. Our results suggest that measurements of cognitive function at preschool age for children with developmental delay were valid in the context of a developing country, and the observed change in cognitive scores during follow-up emphasized the need to interpret the initial results of cognitive tests with caution. PMID:20346615
Full Text Available Sex differences in human social behaviors and abilities have long been a question of public and scientific interest. Females are usually assumed to be more socially oriented and skillful than males. However, despite an extensive literature, the very existence of sex differences remains a matter of discussion while some studies found no sex differences whereas others reported differences that were either congruent or not with gender stereotypes. Moreover, the magnitude, consistency and stability across time of the differences remain an open question, especially during childhood. As play provides an excellent window into children's social development, we investigated whether and how sex differences change in social play across early childhood. Following a cross-sectional design, 164 children aged from 2 to 6 years old, divided into four age groups, were observed during outdoor free play at nursery school. We showed that sex differences are not stable over time evidencing a developmental gap between girls and boys. Social and structured forms of play emerge systematically earlier in girls than in boys leading to subsequent sex differences in favor of girls at some ages, successively in associative play at 3-4 years, cooperative play at 4-5 years, and social interactions with peers at 5-6 years. Preschool boys also display more solitary play than preschool girls, especially when young. Nevertheless, while boys catch up and girls move on towards more complex play, sex differences in social play patterns are reversed in favor of boys at the following ages, such as in associative play at 4-5 years and cooperative play at 5-6 years. This developmental perspective contributes to resolve apparent discrepancies between single-snapshot studies. A better understanding of the dynamics of sex differences in typical social development should also provide insights into atypical social developments which exhibit sex differences in prevalence, such as autism.
Aydın, Ahmet; Koca, Fahrettin; Fıçıcıoğlu, Can; Çam, Halit; Mıkla, Şerare
Management of childhood obesity and its early and late complications are among the most difficult problems confronted by pediatricians and practitioners The purpose of this review is to provide information for the evaluation and treatment of childhood obesity Key nbsp;words: nbsp;Child Obesity Etiology Management Complications
Altuğ, Hicran; Gaga, Eftade O; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Ozden, Ozlem; Ornektekin, Sermin; Brunekreef, Bert; Meliefste, Kees; Hoek, Gerard; Van Doorn, Wim
Health effects of ambient air pollution were studied in three groups of schoolchildren living in areas (suburban, urban and urban-traffic) with different air pollution levels in Eskişehir, Turkey. This study involved 1,880 students aged between 9 and 13 years from 16 public primary schools. This two-season study was conducted from January 2008 through March 2009. Symptoms of asthma, rhinitis and eczema were determined by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire in 2008. Two lung function tests were performed by each child for summer and winter seasons with simultaneous ambient air measurements of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) by passive sampling. Effects of air pollution on impaired lung function and symptoms in schoolchildren were estimated by multivariate logistic regression analyses. Girls with impaired lung function (only for the summer season evaluation) were more observed in suburban and urban areas when compared to urban-traffic area ([odds ratio (OR) = 1.49; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-2.14] and [OR = 1.69 (95 % CI 1.06-2.71)] for suburban vs. urban-traffic and urban vs. urban-traffic, respectively). Significant association between ambient ozone concentrations and impaired lung function (for an increase of 10 μg m(-3)) was found only for girls for the summer season evaluation [OR = 1.11 (95 % CI 1.03-1.19)]. No association was found for boys and for the winter season evaluation. No association was found between any of the measured air pollutants and symptoms of current wheeze, current rhinoconjunctivitis and current itchy rash. The results of this study showed that increasing ozone concentrations may cause a sub-acute impairment in lung function of school aged children. PMID:23591930
J.P. (Hannes van der Walt
Full Text Available This article highlights important dimensions of public theology and shows how the identified dimensions are relevant to the specific situation of informal early childhood development (ECD facilities in a South African urban setting. The article considers the contributions and challenges of informal community-based ECD on the basis of research conducted in the Rustenburg/Phokeng area of the North West province of South Africa. It critically discusses the sociocultural discourses and legislation regulating ECD centres, by focusing on the constraints put on informal ECD service providers. It concludes by considering ways in which urban public theology should act to serve, strengthen and advocate this vitally important, yet informal, sector.
Full Text Available The present article describes the development of a Japanese version of the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ. The influence of social desirability on the Japanese ECBQ was investigated using a cross-sectional sample (N = 318. The effects of gender and developmental changes in temperament were investigated in a longitudinal sample (N = 191. A three-factor structure was found in the instrument, the three factors being Surgency/Extraversion, Negative Affectivity, and Effortful Control. These factors were the same as those found in the original ECBQ. Social desirability showed less influence on the Japanese ECBQ, indicating the instrument was free from culture-based construct bias. This longitudinal study highlighted that Japanese toddlers have quieter, more withdrawn, and more passive temperaments, a finding that supports that of previous research comparing temperament-scale means between Japanese and U.S. children.
Liu, Xin; Arguelles, Lester; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Guoying; Chen, Qi; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Hong, Xiumei; Liu, Rong; Price, Heather E; Pearson, Colleen; Apollon, Stephanie; Cruz, Natalie; Schleimer, Robert; Langman, Craig B.; Pongracic, Jacqueline; Wang, Xiaobin
Background Increasing evidence supports the immunomodulatory effect of vitamin D on allergic diseases. The combined role of prenatal and postnatal vitamin D status in the development of food sensitization (FS) and food allergy remains under-studied. Methods 460 children in the Boston Birth Cohort had plasma 25(OH)D measured at birth and early childhood, and were genotyped for rs2243250 (C-590T) in the IL4 gene. We defined FS as specific IgE ≥0.35kUA/L to any of eight common food allergens; and persistently low vitamin D status as cord blood 25(OH)D <11ng/ml and postnatal 25(OH)D <30ng/ml. Results We observed a moderate correlation between cord blood 25(OH)D at birth and venous blood 25(OH)D measured at 2–3 years (r=0.63), but a weak correlation at <1 year (r=0.28). There was no association between low vitamin D status and FS at any single time point alone. However, in combination, persistence of low vitamin D status at birth and early childhood increased the risk of FS (OR=2.03, 95%CI:1.02–4.04), particularly among children carrying the C allele of rs2243250 (OR=3.23, 95%CI:1.37–7.60). Conclusions Prenatal and early postnatal vitamin D levels, along with individual genetic susceptibility, should be considered in assessing the role of vitamin D in the development of FS and food allergy. PMID:23797532
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracking studies determine the stability and predictability of specific phenomena. This study examined tracking of TV viewing (TV and video game use (VG from middle childhood through early adolescence after adjusting for moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA, percentage of body fat (% BF, and maturity. Methods TV viewing and VG use were measured at ages 5, 8, 11, and 13 (n = 434 via parental- and self-report. MVPA was measured using the Actigraph, % BF using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and maturity via Mirwald predictive equations. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE were used to assess stability and logistic regression was used to predict children "at risk" for maintaining sedentary behaviors. Additional models examined tracking only in overfat children (boys ≥ 25% BF; girls ≥ 32% BF. Data were collected from 1998 to 2007 and analyzed in 2010. Results The adjusted stability coefficients (GEE for TV viewing were 0.35 (95% CI = 0.26, 0.44 for boys, 0.32 (0.23, 0.40 for girls, and 0.45 (0.27, 0.64 for overfat. For VG use, the adjusted stability coefficients were 0.14 (0.05, 0.24 for boys, 0.24 (0.10, 0.38 for girls, and 0.29 (0.08, 0.50 for overfat. The adjusted odds ratios (OR for TV viewing were 3.2 (2.0, 5.2 for boys, 2.9 (1.9, 4.6 for girls, and 6.2 (2.2, 17.2 for overfat. For VG use, the OR were 1.8 (1.1, 3.1 for boys, 3.5 (2.1, 5.8 for girls, and 1.9 (0.6, 6.1 for overfat. Conclusions TV viewing and VG use are moderately stable throughout childhood and predictive of later behavior. TV viewing appears to be more stable in younger children than VG use and more predictive of later behavior. Since habitual patterns of sedentarism in young children tend to continue to adolescence, early intervention strategies, particularly to reduce TV viewing, are warranted.
The authors have used point-injection of compound Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae Injection to treat 40 cases of chronic eczema and achieved a satisfactory therapeutic effect. The total effective rate was 95%.
Mollerup, Annette; Veien, Niels K; Johansen, Jeanne D
BACKGROUND: Hand eczema is a common disease, and continuous preventive skin protection and skin care must be adopted to prevent a chronic course. Hand eczema is not a uniform disease, and counselling must therefore be individually tailored. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of a nurse......-led counselling programme, the Healthy Skin Clinic, emphasizing the patient's self-management, resources, and risks. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients (n = 306) referred for diagnostic work-up and treatment of hand eczema were randomized and allocated either to the programme or to usual care. The primary outcome...... or burden of disease were found between the two groups. CONCLUSION: A tailored nurse-led programme of skin protection counselling may be recommended as an essential part of hand eczema treatment....
This case describes the implementation of a fraud and corruption control policy initiative within the Victorian Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (the Department) in Australia. The policy initiative was administered and carried out by a small team of fraud control officials, including the author of this article, in the…
Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…
Mayer, Ellen; Kreider, Holly; Vaughan, Peggy
Although parents are often very busy with work and family responsibilities, there are many things they can do to help their school-age children learn and develop. This Spanish-language early childhood digest for parents provides tips obtained from parents of first and second graders in the School Transition Study on creative ways to stay involved…
This paper describes the rural community participation within the context of an integrated early childhood development program initiated by the government of Indonesia in partnership with UNICEF and AusAID in Central Lombok (2008-2010). Based on purposive interviews with relevant stakeholders, as well as an analysis of past documents,…
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC in children and investigate the influence of sociodemographic variables, quality of oral hygiene and child-related aspects. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 593 children aged three to five years. Data were collected through clinical examinations and interviews with parents. Interviews with parents of the children were conducted to acquire information on sociodemographic aspects, breastfeeding, bottle feeding and harmful oral habits. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test and the Poisson regression. The prevalence of ECC was 53.6%. The occurrence of ECC was greater among children with unsatisfactory oral hygiene (PR: 2.95; 95% CI: 2.42-3.60 and those from a family with a lower monthly household income (PR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.24-2.10. In conclusion, unsatisfactory oral hygiene and monthly income exerted an influence on the occurrence of ECC among preschoolers.
Pretend play reflects both the unique mental organization and the developmental challenges of early to middle childhood, with a trajectory that parallels the monumental transformation of the toddler to the school-age child. Despite evidence for various forms of playing throughout the life cycle, the flowering of symbolic play in this phase is specific, essential, and typically transient in terms of its dominance in the life of the child. It reflects the simultaneous emergence, processing, and integration of the remarkable developmental advances occurring during this period, most especially the capacity to symbolize, in the service of the exponentially expanded psychosexual/social/emotional force field implied in the contemporary use of the term oedipus complex. Moreover, it constitutes a particular mental organization and ego state, with idiosyncratic mentation, affect regulation, and relationship to inner and outer experience, that accompanies the child's gradual orientation to consensual reality. Subsequent access to some form of this state varies widely among individuals but is rarely fully comparable. PMID:22080503
Fagel, Selene S A A; Swaab, Hanna; De Sonneville, Leo M J; Van Rijn, Sophie; Pieterse, Jolijn K; Scheepers, Floor; Van Engeland, Herman
It was examined how juvenile psychiatric disorders and adult schizotypal symptoms are associated. 731 patients of the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the University Medical Centre Utrecht, the Netherlands, with mean age of 12.1 years (SD = 4.0) were reassessed at the mean age of 27.9 years (SD = 5.7) for adult schizotypal symptoms using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Revised (Vollema, Schizophr Bull 26(3):565-575, 2000). Differences between 13 juvenile DSM categories and normal controls (n = 80) on adult schizotypal total and factor scores were analyzed, using (M)ANCOVA. Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), deferred diagnosis, sexual and gender identity disorders and depressive disorders had higher SPQ total scores when compared to normal controls (p schizotypal symptoms were found for PDD, ADHD, and deferred diagnosis (p schizotypal symptoms, which was likewise true for sexual and gender identity disorders, depressive disorders, disruptive disorders, and the category of 'Other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention' (p schizotypal symptoms (p disorders in childhood or adolescence are a more general expression of a liability to schizophrenia spectrum pathology in future life. In addition, specific patterns of adult schizotypal symptomatology are associated with different types of juvenile psychiatric disorder.
Full Text Available Stefano Togni,1 Giada Maramaldi,1 Francesco Di Pierro,2 Massimo Biondi3 1Indena S.p.A., Milan, Italy; 2Velleja Research, Milan, Italy; 3Dermatology Unit, ASL Piacenza, Piacenza, Italy Background: Boswellic acids (BAs show anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and asthma. A topical administration route is currently used to deliver active compounds in psoriatic and eczematous patients. In this double-blind study we compare a novel BA formulation (containing Bosexil®, INCI [International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients]: lecithin, Boswellia serrata resin extract with a placebo formulation. A third arm of the trial received a formulation of Vaccinium myrtillus seed oil, previously demonstrated as an effective local treatment for psoriatic lesions. Methods: Patients with psoriasis or erythematous eczema were randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, to Bosexil®, V. myrtillus seed oil, or placebo. In order to evaluate the effects of treatment, the changes of scales and erythema from diagnosis to the end of treatment were scored in psoriatic patients, while changes in itch and erythema were analyzed for erythematous eczema patients. Psoriasis Area Severity Index and Eczema Area and Severity Index scores were also calculated. Results: In patients with psoriasis, scales and erythema improved both with Bosexil® and the V. myrtillus seed oil treatment in comparison with placebo. In particular, the treatment with Bosexil® formulation improved scales (70% of cases and erythema (50% of cases without any case of worsening. In patients with eczema, the administration of placebo did not result in any improvement in 90% of cases, and in the remaining 10% worsened both itch and erythema. Bosexil® formulation improved both itch (60% of cases and erythema (60% of cases without any case of worsening. V. myrtillus seed oil improved itch and erythema in 66.7% and 77.8% of patients
Peris Mumbi Munyaka
Full Text Available Postnatal maturation of immune regulation is largely driven by exposure to microbes. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest source of microbial exposure, as the human gut microbiome contains up to 1014 bacteria, which is ten times the number of cells in the human body. Several studies in recent years have shown differences in the composition of the gut microbiota in children who are exposed to different conditions before, during and early after birth. A number of maternal factors are responsible for the establishment and colonization of gut microbiota in infants, such as the conditions surrounding the prenatal period, time and mode of delivery, diet, mother’s age, BMI, and smoking status, household milieu, socioeconomic status, breastfeeding and antibiotic use, as well as other environmental factors that have profound effects on the microbiota and on immunoregulation during early life. Early exposures impacting the intestinal microbiota are associated with the development of childhood diseases that may persist to adulthood such as asthma, allergic disorders (atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, type 1 diabetes, obesity, and eczema. This overview highlights some of the exposures during the pre and postnatal time periods that are key in the colonization and development of the gastrointestinal microbiota of infants, as well as some of the diseases or disorders that occur due to the pattern of initial gut colonization.
Raabe, Tobias; Beelmann, Andreas
This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5-7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8-10 years). In…
Aronson, Daniel; Clapuyt, Philippe; Czauderna, Piotr; de Ville de Goyet, Jean; Gauthier, Frédéric; MacKinlay, Gordon; Maibach, Rudolf; McHugh, Kieran; Olsen, Øystein E.; Otte, Jean-Bernard; Pariente, Danièle; Plaschkes, Jack; Childs, Margaret; Perilongo, Giorgio
Over the last 15 years, various oncology groups throughout the world have used the PRETEXT system for staging malignant primary liver tumours of childhood. This paper, written by members of the radiology and surgery committees of the International Childhood Liver Tumor Strategy Group (SIOPEL), presents various clarifications and revisions to the original PRETEXT system. PMID:17186233
Tove I. Wigen
Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle diseases including dental caries are partly preventable, and associated with health behavior. Establishing favorable health behavior is one main challenge both in general and dental health services. The purpose of this paper was to focus on cross-disciplinary research that has the potential to prevent development of both dental caries and other lifestyle diseases. More specifically the aim was to study how family characteristics and health behavior in pregnancy and early childhood influence caries development in preschool children.Material and methods: Data from dental examination of 5 year old children in the public dental services was linked to data from MoBa. In total, 1348 children were followed from pregnancy to 5 years of age. The data has provided opportunity to follow longitudinally the development of oral health behavior in early childhood in a large sample, and to study associations between caries development during preschool age and information in the MoBa database.Results: Results from the studies showed that tooth brushing frequency established at 1.5 year of age was stable through preschool age. Caries development in preschool age was related to child and maternal risk behavior in early childhood and to characteristics of risk families.Conclusion: Cross-disciplinary research using MoBa data has given new knowledge on dental caries development in early childhood in Norway. This knowledge can be used in clinical practice both in general and dental health services to improve preventive efforts towards early childhood caries and other lifestyle diseases.
Sonaje Manoj; Dhiman K. S.
Ayurvedic science is being successfully treating skin disorders comprehensively since ancient era to present scenario. Para surgical and Palliative modalities having their own features, to treat the various skin disorders. Vicharchika is commonest clinical entity found in daily routine dermatological practice. Vicharchika is a type of Kshudra Kushta; a chronic skin disorder which analogous with Eczema in modern medical science. As per contemporary science, accessible treatment for eczema con...
Mohapatra, Sonali; Bansal, Deepak; Bhalla, A K; Verma Attri, Savita; Sachdeva, Naresh; Trehan, Amita; Marwaha, R K
Data on metabolic syndrome (MS) in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) from developing countries are lacking. The purpose of this single-center, uncontrolled, observational study was to assess the frequency of MS in our survivors. The survivors of ALL ≤15 years at diagnosis, who had completed therapy ≥2 years earlier, were enrolled. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, waist circumference), biochemistry (glucose, insulin, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], thyroid function tests, C-reactive protein [CRP], magnesium), measurement of blood pressure, and Tanner staging were performed. MS was defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel guidelines (NCEP ATP III) criteria, modified by Cook et al. (Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157:821-827) and Ford et al. (Diabetes Care. 2005;28:878-881). The median age of 76 survivors was 11.9 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 9.6-13.5). Twenty-four (32%) survivors were obese or overweight. The prevalence of insulin resistance (17%), hypertension (7%), hypertriglyceridemia (20%), and low HDL (37%) was comparable to the prevalence in children/adolescents in historical population-based studies from India. The prevalence of MS ranged from 1.3% to 5.2%, as per different defining criteria. Cranial radiotherapy, age at diagnosis, sex, or socioeconomic status were not risk factors for MS. The prevalence of MS in survivors of childhood ALL, at a median duration of 3 years from completion of chemotherapy, was comparable to the reference population. The prevalence of being obese or overweight was, however, greater than historical controls. PMID:26984439
Full Text Available The burns intensive care unit (BICU staff observed an increasing number of pediatric scald burn admissions as a result of increase injuries associated with the scald burns. A retrospective study was conducted to identify scalds demographics, etiologies, and mortality risk factors. This descriptive study comprised a total of 166 patients aged 0-5 years, who were admitted to the BICU of the Reconstructive Plastic Surgery and Burns Unit (RPSBU through the Accident and Emergency (A and E Centre of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH from May 1 st 2009 to April 30 th 2012. Source of information was the BICU Computerized Database System. Data extracted included demographics as well as treatment methods and outcomes. The study population was 166; 92 (55.4% males and 74 (44.6% females. Scalds admissions were 141 (84.9%; 13 (9.2% of them died, 83 (58.9% discharged, and 45 (31.9% transferred-out to another burn ward and pediatric surgery ward in the hospital. Scald patients' demographics included 78 males (55.3% and 63 females (44.7%; mean age was 2.18 years. Mortality risk factors identified were age <3 years (P = 0.044; scalds from hot water (P = 0.033, total burns surface area >30% (P = 0.017, and multiple body parts affected (P = 0.049. The current study showed age, hot water, and Total Burns Surface Area (TBSA as risk factors of early childhood scalds. Education on scalds prevention targeting mothers/caregivers is needed to create awareness of the frequency, severity, and danger associated with pediatric scalds.
Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Obel, Carsten;
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association of eczema, asthma and hay fever with mental health in a general child population and to assess the influence of parental socioeconomic position on these associations. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional health survey of children aged 3, 6.......48); children with current asthma symptoms had higher SDQ scores of emotional problems (0.45, 0.32 to 0.58), conduct problems (0.28, 0.18 to 0.38) and hyperactivity problems (0.52, 0.35 to 0.69); and children with current hay fever symptoms had higher SDQ scores of emotional problems (0.57, 0.42 to 0...... with eczema, asthma or hay fever had more emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems, but not peer problems, compared with children without these diseases. Atopic diseases added equally to the burden of mental health problems independent of socioeconomic position....
Hougaard, Majken G; Menné, Torkil; Søsted, Heidi
understood. The specific inhalation challenge test is considered to be the gold standard for diagnosing occupational asthma and rhinitis. However, this test is not always accessible. Therefore, the diagnosis of occupational allergic asthma caused by persulfate salts is made by combining a clinical history......Occupational allergic contact eczema and asthma caused by bleaching agents is seen in hairdressers. Bleaching agents contain persulfate salts, which are known to induce immediate reactions such as rhinitis, asthma, contact urticaria, and anaphylaxis. The immunologic mechanism is not, however, fully......, a diagnosis of asthma, and a positive skin prick test (SPT). Standardized methods for performing SPT with persulfate salts are warranted. A case of a young hairdresser with occupational asthma and hand eczema caused by persulfate salts is presented, and the procedure for performing the SPT with ammonium...
Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...
Belgrave, Danielle C. M.; Raquel Granell; Angela Simpson; John Guiver; Christopher Bishop; Iain Buchan; A John Henderson; Adnan Custovic
Editors' Summary Background Our immune system protects us from viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens by recognizing specific molecules on the invader's surface and initiating a sequence of events that culminates in the death of the pathogen. Sometimes, however, our immune system responds to harmless materials (allergens such as pollen) and triggers allergic, or atopic, symptoms. Common atopic symptoms include eczema (transient dry itchy patches on the skin), wheeze (high pitched whistling in...
Zhu, Tingting; Zhang, Li; Qu, Yi; Mu, Dezhi
Abstract Background: The influence of maternal infection during pregnancy on allergic disorders in offspring is not well understood. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate current evidence on the association between maternal infection during pregnancy and asthma or eczema in offspring. Methods: We searched databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, and Web of Science) for all relevant studies published before March 2016. Any cohort studies, case–control studies, or cross-sectional studies published in English and focused on the association between maternal infection during pregnancy and the risk of asthma or eczema in offspring were included. Random-effects models were used for combined analyses. Results: A total of 10 studies with 299,830 participants were included. Maternal infection was associated with an increased risk for asthma (odds ratio [OR]: 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24–1.92; P < 0.01) and eczema (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.13–1.64; P < 0.01). Further analyses showed associations between asthma and several specific maternal infections: fever episode (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.35–2.23), chorioamnionitis (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 0.96–2.11), respiratory infection (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 0.94–2.36), and urogenital infection (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.18–1.64). Conclusion: The results from this meta-analysis and systematic review provide evidence that maternal infection during pregnancy might be related to subsequent asthma and eczema in offspring. However, there was variation of included studies with regard to type of maternal infection, age of children, and methods of exposure ascertainment. Additional studies are needed to further confirm these associations. PMID:27583891
To investigate the relationship of irradiation during infancy and childhood to the subsequent development of carcinoma of the breast, 996 eligible patients were studied at Evanston Hospital, Evanston, Illinois, and Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago. This was a case-control study, with those in the control group being selected from concurrent hospital admissions for nonmalignant surgical conditions. A second group consisting of those with benign biopsy results was also studied. The Mantel-Haenszel method of analysis, controlling for age and race, was used to estimate the approximate relative risk of carcinoma of the breast in the irradiated group compared with that for the nonirradiated group. The type of radiation history included radiotherapy for mastitis or enlarged thymus (nine patients), irradiation of the head and neck (69 patients), diagnostic fluoroscopies (ten patients) and miscellaneous irradiation (52 patients) for bursitis, eczema or keloid. Based upon the data obtained from the results of this study and its analysis, we conclude that there is little evidence of increased risk of carcinoma of the breast after irradiation about the head, neck and chest areas for benign conditions in the population being studied herein. Such a risk, if indeed it exists at all for this population, is estimated to be about 10 per cent
Oviedo, M.A.; Chmiel, J.S.; Curb, J.D.; Kautz, J.A.; Haenszel, W.; Scanlon, E.F.
To investigate the relationship of irradiation during infancy and childhood to the subsequent development of carcinoma of the breast, 996 eligible patients were studied at Evanston Hospital, Evanston, Illinois, and Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago. This was a case-control study, with those in the control group being selected from concurrent hospital admissions for nonmalignant surgical conditions. A second group consisting of those with benign biopsy results was also studied. The Mantel-Haenszel method of analysis, controlling for age and race, was used to estimate the approximate relative risk of carcinoma of the breast in the irradiated group compared with that for the nonirradiated group. The type of radiation history included radiotherapy for mastitis or enlarged thymus (nine patients), irradiation of the head and neck (69 patients), diagnostic fluoroscopies (ten patients) and miscellaneous irradiation (52 patients) for bursitis, eczema or keloid. Based upon the data obtained from the results of this study and its analysis, we conclude that there is little evidence of increased risk of carcinoma of the breast after irradiation about the head, neck and chest areas for benign conditions in the population being studied herein. Such a risk, if indeed it exists at all for this population, is estimated to be about 10 per cent.
Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Thomsen, Simon Francis;
AIM: To determine the prevalence of asthma, atopic eczema and hay fever among children in different age groups and examine the associations with parental socioeconomic position. METHODS: A cross-sectional health survey of four complete birth-cohorts in the municipality of Copenhagen was conducted.......5%). RESULTS: The prevalence of asthma and hay fever increased with increasing age; asthma: from 3.2% among children aged 3 years to 15.4% among children aged 15 years; hay fever: from 3.1% among children aged 3 years to 21.3% among children aged 15 years. The prevalence of atopic eczema did not vary with age...... and ranged between 15.5% and 17.8%. Odds Ratios for children of parents with the lowest vs. the highest educational level were 1.50 (95% CI = 1.17-1.91) for asthma; 1.68 (95% CI = 1.35-2.10) for hay fever; and 0.75 (95% CI = 0.64-0.89) for atopic eczema. Unemployment was significantly associated...
Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T;
. It has been debated whether life-style factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are associated with hand eczema. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to investigate whether self-reported hand eczema was associated with smoking and alcohol consumption in the general population. METHODS...... heavy smokers (OR = 1.38; CI = 0.99-1.92) compared with never-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking was positively associated with hand eczema among adults from the general population in Denmark. Apparently, current light smokers (... smokers (> 15 g daily) but this needs to be reconfirmed. Alcohol consumption was not associated with hand eczema....
Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes
In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show
Causadias, José M.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Sroufe, L. Alan
The present study examines two childhood markers of self-regulation, ego-control and ego-resiliency, as promotive factors for the development of global adjustment and as risk factors for the development of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in a high-risk sample. Teachers and observers rated ego-control and ego-resiliency when participants (n = 136) were in preschool and elementary school. Ratings showed evidence for convergent and discriminant validity and stability over time....
Taylor, Zoe E; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eggum, Natalie D; Sulik, Michael J
The present study explored early personality and environmental predictors of the development of young children's empathy, as well as relations of empathy to prosocial behavior with peers at a later age. How children manage their own emotions and behaviors when under stress--their ego-resiliency--would be expected to affect their responses to others' emotions. Also, socialization experiences, such as the quality of parenting behaviors, have been associated with individual differences in empathy-related responding. We examined whether mothers' emotion socialization practices and children's ego-resiliency at 18 months predicted initial levels and change in empathy across five time points (24, 30, 42, 48, and 54 months; N = 242), and whether empathy in turn predicted prosocial behavior with peers at 72/84 months of age. Ego-resiliency and mothers' expressive encouragement both uniquely predicted the intercept of empathy. Boys' empathy was lower than girls' but improved more with age. Initial levels and growth of empathy positively predicted later prosocial behavior. Children's ego-resiliency predicted the slope of empathy at near significance (p = .054). We also found that the intercept of empathy mediated the relation between ego-resiliency and prosocial behavior as well as the relation between mothers' expressive encouragement and prosocial behavior. These findings suggest that both parenting and personality characteristics are relevant to the development of empathy during early childhood and might contribute to children's later prosocial behavior with peers. PMID:24098930
Full Text Available Policymaking in many instances does not follow proper diagnosis of a problem using evidence to justify why particular decisions have been taken. This article describes findings of a diagnostic review of existing challenges facing early childhood development (ECD in South Africa. The review is part of the government’s attempt to use information to drive policy in strategic areas. It is part of the role that the Presidency is seeking to play in ensuring government programmes are evaluated to ensure that money that is spent is spent on programmes that have an impact and that there is value for money. This article summarises the key findings of the diagnostic review that was conducted of policy, services and coordination.The results reveal that a broader definition of ECD programmes is needed to cover all aspects of children’s development, growth and health, from conception to the foundation phase of schooling. Many elements of comprehensive ECD support and services are already in place and some are performing well. However, there are important gaps. Key ECD strategies for the future are identified. The diagnostic evaluation used a variety of methods, including desktop analysis, interviews and data analysis. Issues emerged around how to link the evaluation with other processes in the involved departments. A particular challenge was how to handle the transition to implementation of the findings, as responsibility shifted from the steering committee to the departments. The process worked well despite past challenges with coordination across government.
Taylor, Zoe E; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eggum, Natalie D; Sulik, Michael J
The present study explored early personality and environmental predictors of the development of young children's empathy, as well as relations of empathy to prosocial behavior with peers at a later age. How children manage their own emotions and behaviors when under stress--their ego-resiliency--would be expected to affect their responses to others' emotions. Also, socialization experiences, such as the quality of parenting behaviors, have been associated with individual differences in empathy-related responding. We examined whether mothers' emotion socialization practices and children's ego-resiliency at 18 months predicted initial levels and change in empathy across five time points (24, 30, 42, 48, and 54 months; N = 242), and whether empathy in turn predicted prosocial behavior with peers at 72/84 months of age. Ego-resiliency and mothers' expressive encouragement both uniquely predicted the intercept of empathy. Boys' empathy was lower than girls' but improved more with age. Initial levels and growth of empathy positively predicted later prosocial behavior. Children's ego-resiliency predicted the slope of empathy at near significance (p = .054). We also found that the intercept of empathy mediated the relation between ego-resiliency and prosocial behavior as well as the relation between mothers' expressive encouragement and prosocial behavior. These findings suggest that both parenting and personality characteristics are relevant to the development of empathy during early childhood and might contribute to children's later prosocial behavior with peers.
Early childhood represents a critical period for the formation of cognitive and non-cognitive skills. These skills influence academic achievements of students and lead to diverse social and economic outcomes. It is widely recognized how investment in early childhood, and especially in helping disadvantaged children and families, has a high social rate of return. This paper reviews the literature on the theme, focusing on Italy. Data show how Italy is characterized by profound North-South disp...
Kim S Thomas
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies and anecdotal reports suggest a possible link between household use of hard water and atopic eczema. We sought to test whether installation of an ion-exchange water softener in the home can improve eczema in children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was an observer-blind randomised trial involving 336 children (aged 6 months to 16 years with moderate/severe atopic eczema. All lived in hard water areas (≥200 mg/l calcium carbonate. Participants were randomised to either installation of an ion-exchange water softener plus usual eczema care, or usual eczema care alone. The primary outcome was change in eczema severity (Six Area Six Sign Atopic Dermatitis Score, SASSAD at 12 weeks, measured by research nurses who were blinded to treatment allocation. Analysis was based on the intent-to-treat population. Eczema severity improved for both groups during the trial. The mean change in SASSAD at 12 weeks was -5.0 (20% improvement for the water softener group and -5.7 (22% improvement for the usual care group (mean difference 0.66, 95% confidence interval -1.37 to 2.69, p = 0.53. No between-group differences were noted in the use of topical corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Water softeners provided no additional benefit to usual care in this study population. Small but statistically significant differences were found in some secondary outcomes as reported by parents, but it is likely that such improvements were the result of response bias, since participants were aware of their treatment allocation. A detailed report for this trial is also available at http://www.hta.ac.uk. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN71423189 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Frommer, Eva A.
Originally written for students at St. Thomas' Hospital in London, this guide to child development offers an overview of child development for parents, teachers, and all adults concerned with raising children. Many of the book's ideas come from direct work with children and draw on Rudolf Steiner's approach to child development. The book's…
Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with m...
Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Sarri, Katerina; Koutra, Katerina; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda
Early-life nutrition is critical for optimal brain development; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of diet as a whole in early childhood on neurological development with inconsistent results. The present analysis is a cross-sectional study nested within an ongoing prospective birth cohort, the Rhea study, and aims to examine the association of dietary patterns with cognitive and psychomotor development in 804 preschool (mean age 4·2 years) children. Parents completed a validated FFQ, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Child cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed by the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with the MSCA scales. After adjustment for a large number of confounding factors, the 'Snacky' pattern (potatoes and other starchy roots, salty snacks, sugar products and eggs) was negatively associated with the scales of verbal ability (β=-1·31; 95 % CI -2·47, -0·16), general cognitive ability (β=-1·13; 95 % CI -2·25, -0·02) and cognitive functions of the posterior cortex (β=-1·20; 95 % CI -2·34, -0·07). Further adjustment for maternal intelligence, folic acid supplementation and alcohol use during pregnancy attenuated the observed associations, but effect estimates remained at the same direction. The 'Western' and the 'Mediterranean' patterns were not associated with child neurodevelopmental scales. The present findings suggest that poorer food choices at preschool age characterised by foods high in fat, salt and sugar are associated with reduced scores in verbal and cognitive ability. PMID:26887648
Snyder, James J; Schrepferman, Lynn P; Bullard, Lisha; McEachern, Amber D; Patterson, Gerald R
Two longitudinal studies were used to examine the occurrence and consequences of peer deviancy training during childhood and the relative role of early covert antisocial behavior in risk for antisocial behavior in early adolescence. Peer deviancy training was apparent in a sample of at-risk first grade children, and it showed persistence and increased prevalence across the school year. Peer deviancy training, peer rejection, and unskilled parenting made additive contributions to the development of antisocial behavior during kindergarten and first grade and to antisocial behavior in fourth grade. Skilled parenting partially mitigated the association of peer deviancy training with antisocial behavior for boys. The appearance and growth of covert antisocial behavior was a predictor of fourth grade antisocial for boys and girls, more so than aggressive and overt antisocial behavior. Peer deviancy training and early covert antisocial behavior were key pathways to girls' antisocial behavior in fourth grade, and they complemented the roles of peer rejection and overt antisocial behavior for boys. The relationships of parenting and peer processes to trajectories of antisocial behavior were similar for boys and girls; but boys showed higher levels of antisocial behavior, were more involved in peer deviancy training, and were more likely to experience peer rejection.
Kato, Yasuhiro [National Hiroshima Hospital, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Ohno, Norioki; Horikawa, Yoko; Nishimura, Shin-ichiro; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Shimose, Shoji [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine
A 24-year-old Japanese man with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, which occurred during childhood, developed malignant fibrous histiocytoma of his left knee. His past history revealed that he had undergone leukemic blast cell invasion of the left knee and subsequent radiation therapy 9 years ago. The total radiation doses for the upper part of the left tibia and the lower part of the left femur were 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. Neither distant metastasis nor a relapse of leukemia occurred. A curative resection of the left femur with a noninvasive margin was performed. Adjuvant chemotherapy including high-dose methotrexate was given successfully before and after surgery; this was followed by relapse-free survival for 3 years. The nature of postirradiation malignant fibrous histiocytoma is highly aggressive. When a patient complains of persistent symptoms in a previously irradiated field, the possibility of this tumor must be taken into account. The importance of early diagnosis cannot be over-emphasized. (author)
Drake, Kelly L.; Ginsburg, Golda S.
It is now widely accepted that anxiety disorders run in families, and current etiological models have proposed both genetic and environmental pathways to anxiety development. In this paper, the familial role in the development, treatment, and prevention of anxiety disorders in children is reviewed. We focus on three anxiety disorders in youth,…
Banse, Rainer; Gawronski, Bertram; Rebetez, Christine; Gutt, Helene; Morton, J. Bruce
The development of spontaneous gender stereotyping in children was investigated using the newly developed Action Interference Paradigm (AIP). This task consists of assigning gender-stereotypical toys as quickly as possible to boys and girls in either a stereotype-congruent or a stereotype-incongruent manner. A pilot study with 38 children (mean…
Population attributable risks from serum IgE and dust miteallergen concentrations and environmental chemicals for eczema are unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine serum IgE and allergen concentrations and environmental chemicals for eczema in adults and to calculate population attributable risks in a national and population-based setting. Data retrieved from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006, was analyzed. Information on demographics and self-reported ever eczema was obtained by household interview. Bloods and urines (sub-sample) were also collected during the interview. Adults aged 20-85 were included. Statistical analyses were using chi-square test, t test, survey-weighted logistic regression modeling, and population attributable risk (PAR) estimation. Of all the included American adults (n = 4979), 310 (6.2%) reported ever eczema. Moreover, more eczema cases were observed in female adults but fewer cases in people born in Mexico. There were no significant associations observed between commonly known biomarkers (including vitamin D) and eczema or between dust mite allergens and eczema. Serum D. Farinae (PAR 1.0%), D. Pteronyssinus (PAR 1.1%), cat (PAR 1.8%), dog (PAR 1.6%), and muse (PAR 3.2%) IgE antibodies were associated with eczema. Adults with ever eczema were found to have higher levels of urinary trimethylarsine oxide concentrations (PAR 7.0%) but not other speciated arsenic concentrations. There were no clear associations between other environmental chemicals including heavy metals, phthalates, phenols, parabens, pesticides, nitrate, perchlorate, polycyclic hydrocarbons and eczema as well. Elimination of environmental risks might help delay or stop eczema up to 7% in the adult population. PMID:26233738
Vámosi, M; Heitmann, B L; Kyvik, K O
disorders. In addition, depression in adolescence tended to be related to adult obesity but among young girls only. Learning difficulties and scholastic proficiencies below average were also risk factors. The current literature suggests that specific psychosocial factors in childhood may act as determinants......The prevalence of obesity is on a global-wide increase, but still the aetiology of adult obesity is poorly understood. It has been shown that overweight children suffer from adverse psychological events, but less is known about the potential effects of adverse psychological factors among normal...... weight children for later development of obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review current literature on associations between psychological factors in childhood and development of obesity in adulthood. A systematic search was conducted in three electronic databases MEDLINE...
Yenny Otálora Sevilla
Full Text Available A meaningful educational space is a learning environment that promotes and strengthens the development of social and cognitive competencies in children. This article offers conceptual and methodological elements from Educational Psychology that facilitates the design of significant educational spaces for the development of child competencies, both in and out of school. On the one hand, the learning environment is defined as a dynamic and complex space of construction of knowledge. On the other it takes into account some considerations about child development which help set five criteria to characterize learning environments as meaningful educational spaces: They are structured, intensive, extensive, generative and interactive situations. Each of these criteria is illustrated through learning environments designed by educators in Colombia, based on the use of cultural practices inherent their communities of origin. Cultural practices were found to be relevant to the development of their children’s competencies.
Trudeau, N; Poulin-Dubois, D; Joanette, Y
The present longitudinal case study was designed to investigate the possibility that a traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurring during the second year of life, while significant lexical and grammatical competencies are emerging, could have an impact on subsequent language development. Thus, the language development of a very young girl (BL) who suffered a TBI at the age of 17 months was monitored for 6 months following the injury. Different procedures were used to measure her lexical and grammatical development: monthly parental checklists, free-play sessions and word-learning tasks. BL's results were compared with two control groups (n = 5 and 9) matched for age and gender. Overall, the results are consistent with the classical view of acquired language disorders in children: despite an initial decrease in the use of her premorbid vocabulary, BL showed no durable significant impairment on any measure of lexical or grammatical development. PMID:10912253
Full Text Available Context: The confluence theory of intelligence by Zajonc and Markus emphasizes that individual intellectual difference of children manifests itself in the context of family configuration. Instead of assuming its generalizability, careful scientific work is required before applying the model to South Asian cultures where, predominantly, an extended family type exists. Aims: To assess the role of extended family configuration on the child′s intellectual development in a South Asian setting. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 4-5-year-old preschool children residing in Karachi, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and forty-two child and mother dyads were assessed through a validated cognitive psychometric tool and through a structured questionnaire. Children who were registered at the main Mother and Child Health Centres (MCH of the Aga Khan Health Services, Pakistan (AKHSP Karachi and who were born between July 1st 1993-June 30th 1994 with traceable birth records at the maternity homes, were considered for this study. Statistical Analysis: Multivariate linear regression models were used to identify the individual effect of family configuration on the intellectual scores. Results: Family configuration variables such as number of co-residents ( P < 0.05 and the number of siblings ( P < 0.01 in the house were significantly correlated with the psychometric score. Even after controlling for gender, socio-economic status, birth order and birth intervals, significant differentials were observed in favor of an extended family system on a child′s intellectual development. Conclusion: The findings suggest the positive role of co-residents of an extended family environment on the intellectual development in early childhood.
Beverly D Bradley
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Planning for the reliable and cost-effective supply of a health service commodity such as medical oxygen requires an understanding of the dynamic need or 'demand' for the commodity over time. In developing country health systems, however, collecting longitudinal clinical data for forecasting purposes is very difficult. Furthermore, approaches to estimating demand for supplies based on annual averages can underestimate demand some of the time by missing temporal variability. METHODS: A discrete event simulation model was developed to estimate variable demand for a health service commodity using the important example of medical oxygen for childhood pneumonia. The model is based on five key factors affecting oxygen demand: annual pneumonia admission rate, hypoxaemia prevalence, degree of seasonality, treatment duration, and oxygen flow rate. These parameters were varied over a wide range of values to generate simulation results for different settings. Total oxygen volume, peak patient load, and hours spent above average-based demand estimates were computed for both low and high seasons. FINDINGS: Oxygen demand estimates based on annual average values of demand factors can often severely underestimate actual demand. For scenarios with high hypoxaemia prevalence and degree of seasonality, demand can exceed average levels up to 68% of the time. Even for typical scenarios, demand may exceed three times the average level for several hours per day. Peak patient load is sensitive to hypoxaemia prevalence, whereas time spent at such peak loads is strongly influenced by degree of seasonality. CONCLUSION: A theoretical study is presented whereby a simulation approach to estimating oxygen demand is used to better capture temporal variability compared to standard average-based approaches. This approach provides better grounds for health service planning, including decision-making around technologies for oxygen delivery. Beyond oxygen, this approach
Episodic memory is a critical component of human cognition. Episodic memory involves recollection of the contextual details surrounding an event, the capacity for mental time travel of past and future events, and is characterized by the subjective awareness that an event has been personally experienced. It is fundamental to our understanding of this complex memory system to examine how episodic memory emerges during the course of development. The present investigation explored the development...
Engel, Stephanie M.; Wetmur, James; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Chenbo; Barr, Dana Boyd; Canfield, Richard L.; Wolff, Mary S.
Background: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides has been shown to negatively affect child neurobehavioral development. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of organophosphates. Objective: We examined the relationship between biomarkers of organophosphate exposure, PON1, and cognitive development at ages 12 and 24 months and 6–9 years. Methods: The Mount Sinai Children’s Environmental Health Study enrolled a multiethnic prenatal population in New York City between...
Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren
Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar Wittner Bynner...
Unremitting Impulsive Aggression in a Child with Childhood Onset Schizophrenia and Pervasive Development Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified: The Role of Stimulants, Atypical Antipsychotics and Mood Stabilizers
Taşkıran, Sarper; Coffey, Barbara J.
Advanced Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unremitting Impulsive Aggression in a Child with Childhood Onset Schizophrenia and Pervasive Development Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified: The Role of Stimulants, Atypical Antipsychotics and Mood Stabilizers Presenter: Sarper Taskiran, MD1 Discussant: Barbara J. Coffey, MD, MS2 Chief Complaint and Presenting Problem C. is a 7 ½-year-old, right-handed, elementary school student in a special education class, who carries a...
Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa M.; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age and sex-stratified population survey of Olmsted County, MN residents (n=610), we developed a sexual abuse severity score (SASS). The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with self-reported trauma, somatization, and alcohol use. Characteristics included: age of first sexual abuse, more than one perpetrator, degree of coercion, sever...
Kirisci, Levent; Tarter, Ralph; Ridenour, Ty; Zhai, Zu Wei; Fishbein, Diana; Reynolds, Maureen; Vanyukov, Michael
Age at the time of first alcohol and cannabis use was investigated in relation to a measure of transmissible (intergenerational) risk for addiction in childhood and development of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and cannabis use disorder (CUD). It was hypothesized that age at the time of first experience with either substance mediates the association between transmissible risk and subsequent diagnosis of both disorders. The Transmissible Liability Index (TLI; (Vanyukov et al., 2009) was administer...
Murray, Jaclyn; Roca Casas, Enric
This study explores how South African Early Childhood Development (ECD) Practitioners and families meet the needs of the increasing number of children from diverse cultural backgrounds in their care. Research participants were identified through ten ECD centres located in two urban communities in the Eastern and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa. The values and attitudes held by Practitioners and families vis-à-vis cultural diversity was investigated, along with the knowledge and strateg...
US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...
Kelly, A M Clare; Di Martino, Adriana; Uddin, Lucina Q; Shehzad, Zarrar; Gee, Dylan G; Reiss, Philip T; Margulies, Daniel S; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P
Human cerebral development is remarkably protracted. Although microstructural processes of neuronal maturation remain accessible only to morphometric post-mortem studies, neuroimaging tools permit the examination of macrostructural aspects of brain development. The analysis of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) offers novel possibilities for the investigation of cerebral development. Using seed-based FC methods, we examined the development of 5 functionally distinct cingulate-based intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) in children (n = 14, 10.6 +/- 1.5 years), adolescents (n = 12, 15.4 +/- 1.2) and young adults (n=14, 22.4 +/- 1.2). Children demonstrated a more diffuse pattern of correlation with voxels proximal to the seed region of interest (ROI) ("local FC"), whereas adults exhibited more focal patterns of FC, as well as a greater number of significantly correlated voxels at long distances from the seed ROI. Adolescents exhibited intermediate patterns of FC. Consistent with evidence for different maturational time courses, ICNs associated with social and emotional functions exhibited the greatest developmental effects. Our findings demonstrate the utility of FC for the study of developing functional organization. Moreover, given that ICNs are thought to have an anatomical basis in neuronal connectivity, measures of FC may provide a quantitative index of brain maturation in healthy subjects and those with neurodevelopmental disorders.
Molgaard-Hansen, Lene; Skou, Anne-Sofie; Juul, Anders;
More than 60% of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) become long-term survivors. Most are cured using chemotherapy without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We report on pubertal development and compare self-reported parenthood among AML survivors and their siblings.......More than 60% of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) become long-term survivors. Most are cured using chemotherapy without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We report on pubertal development and compare self-reported parenthood among AML survivors and their siblings....
Werner, Nicole E.; Crick, Nicki R.
This study examined the unique roles of peer rejection and affiliation with aggressive peers in the development of relational and physical aggression in a sample of 979 2nd through 4th grade children. Information about target children and their best friends' aggression and peer rejection was gathered via peer-nominations when the majority of…
Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige
Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents…
Full Text Available Many studies show that parental education and child's gender are the factors that influence child's language development. The purpose of the longitudinal study was to examine the effect of parental education and child's gender on language competence of children aged 3 to 4 years. The sample included 80 randomly chosen children, 39 girls and 41 boys, who were included in one of 13 preschool institutions from different regions of Slovenia. The average age of the children was 3;1 years at the first assessment and 4;1 years at the second assessment, one year later. The characteristics of child'slanguage development were assessed by 3 assessors in 3 different social contexts, in test situation by a trained examiner, in child's home environment by his mother and in the preschool institution by his preschool teacher. Results show a positive effect of mother's educational level on some of the measures of child's language development, e.g. achievements on Language development scale; developmental level of storytelling, mother's estimation of child's language competence, while the father's educational level had no significant effect on any of the obtained measures. Child's gender had only a small effect on his achievements on language expression subscale at the age of 3 and 4 as well as on the preschool teacher's estimations of child's language competence at 4 years of age.
Curran, Eileen A.; Cryan, John F.; Kenny, Louise C.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Khashan, Ali S.
The association between mode of delivery [specifically birth by Cesarean section (CS)] and induction of labor (IOL) psychological development at age 7 was assessed [including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and behavioral difficulties]. The Millennium cohort study, a nationally representative UK…
Kilinc, Sultan; Kelley, Michael F.; Millinger, Jenny; Adams, Korbi
Every culture has developed some version of performance art. Children especially appreciate performance; their innate openness, forgiveness, and self-love make them delightful performers and audience members. Every time they engage with performance art, children are learning about storytelling, history, sociability, artistry, and physicality.…
Collado, Fatima Y.
This paper asserts the importance of allowing children to use their own perceptions in developing their imagination and drawing skills. It discusses why children draw, and how teachers can foster creativity, create appropriate activities, and evaluate the child's progress. Children draw to symbolically explore their worlds, and that by the age of…